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Sample records for pre-germinated brown rice

  1. Effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Usuki, Seigo; Ito, Yukihiko; Morikawa, Keiko; Kise, Mitsuo; Ariga, Toshio; Rivner, Michael; Yu, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Background To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR) on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR) or white rice (WR) diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV), sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase) activity. Results Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p < 0.001), improved NCV (1.2- and 1.3-fold higher, respectively), and increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively). The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p < 0.001). The in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp) on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT) with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Conclusion PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the

  2. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on blood glucose and lipid levels in free-living patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Kise, Mitsuo; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ito, Yukihiko; Yang, Mei-Due; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2008-04-01

    White rice (WR) is made by polishing brown rice (BR) and has lost various nutrients; however, most people prefer it to BR, maybe because of the hardness of BR. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) improves the problem of BR. It is made by soaking BR kernels in water to germinate and becomes softer than BR. In this study we compared the effects of WR and PGBR on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes patients. Six men and 5 women with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 6 wk on WR or PGBR diet separated by a 2 wk washout interval in a crossover design. Each subject was instructed to consume 3 packs of cooked WR or PGBR (180 g/pack) daily in each intervention phase. Blood samples were collected 4 times (in study weeks 0, 6, 8 and 14) for biochemical examination. Blood concentrations of fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were favorably improved on the PGBR diet (p<0.01), but not on the WR diet. The present results suggest that diets including PGBR may be useful to control blood glucose level.

  3. Protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice diet on low levels of Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hongzhi; Tian, Su; Yin, Jie; Chen, Qing; Ma, Li; Cui, Shijie; Niu, Yujie

    2010-03-30

    Lead (Pb) is a known neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals. Numerous studies have provided evidence that humans, especially young children, and animals chronically intoxicated with low levels of Pb show learning and memory impairments. Unfortunately, Pb-poisoning cases continue to occur in many countries. Because the current treatment options are very limited, there is a need for alternative methods to attenuate Pb toxicity. In this study, the weaning (postnatal day 21, PND21) rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (AIN-93G diet, de-ionized water), the lead acetate (PbAC) group (AIN-93G diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water), the lead acetate+WR group (white rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+WR), the lead acetate+BR group (brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+BR) and the lead acetate+PR group (pre-germinated brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+PR). The animals received the different diets until PND60, and then the experiments were terminated. The protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) on Pb-induced learning and memory impairment in weaning rats were assessed by the Morris water maze and one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The anti-oxidative effects of feeding a PR diet to Pb-exposed rats were evaluated. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were determined by HPLC. Our data showed that feeding a PR diet decreased the accumulation of lead and decreased Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rats. The mechanisms might be related to the anti-oxidative effects and large amount of GABA in PR. Our study provides a regimen to reduce Pb-induced toxicity, especially future learning and memory deficits in the developing brain.

  4. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Jia-Hao; Chen, Fu-Chih; Lin, Hui-Li

    2016-01-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) can ameliorate hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism is not clear. We focus the mechanisms of PGBR prevented hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old mice were divided into: standard-regular diet (SRD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD with PGBR (HFD + PGBR) groups for 16 weeks. The HFD group has higher concentrations of TG, TC, HDL and Non-HDL in the blood, and a higher atherosclerosis index (AI). The TG levels in the liver, and TG, bile acid levels in the feces were enhanced; and the total adipocytokines level in adipose tissue was reduced. The HFD group had higher protein expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, LDLR, and CYP7α1 in the liver. Moreover, the greater expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS and the less expressions of PPAR-α and adiponectin were in adipose tissue. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR regulated the levels of TG, TC, HDL, Non-HDL, AI and adipocytokines. PGBR increased more cholesterol and bile acid exhaust in feces. The SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α proteins in the liver; and the SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, PPAR-α and adiponectin proteins in adipose tissue were reversed by PGBR. Taken together, PGBR can improve lipid synthesis and metabolism, and we suggest PGBR is a recommendable food for controlling hyperlipidemia. PMID:27499577

  5. Recovery effect of pre-germinated brown rice on the alteration of sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor expression in rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Roboon, J; Nudmamud-Thanoi, S; Thanoi, S

    2017-02-01

    Depression and antidepressant drugs induce adverse effects in male reproduction. Therefore, it is important to investigate alternative treatment for depression without adverse effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor (AR) expression in rat model of depression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups including control (distilled water only), depression induced by forced swimming test (FST), FST + fluoxetine (antidepressant drug), FST + GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) (standard) and FST + PGBR. When compared with the control, sperm motility showed a significant decrease in FST + fluoxetine group. Sperm morphology also decreased significantly in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups. The morphological changes of seminiferous tubules showed significant increases in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups, while AR expression showed significant decreases in depression, FST + fluoxetine and FST + GABA groups. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in all sperm quality parameters, testicular structure and AR expression in FST + PGBR group. These findings reflect the recovery effects of PGBR treatment on sperm quality, morphological changes of seminiferous tubules and AR expression in stress-induced rats. Therefore, PGBR may potentially develop for the treatment for depression without adverse effect on male reproduction.

  6. Pre-germinated brown rice prevents high-fat diet induced hyperglycemia through elevated insulin secretion and glucose metabolism pathway in C57BL/6J strain mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Wu, Bin-Nan; Lin, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect and mechanism of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) prevented hyperglycemia in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat-diet (HFD). Normal six-week-old mice were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 was fed standard-regular-diet (SRD) and group 2 was fed HFD for 16 weeks. In group 3, the mice were fed a HFD with its carbohydrate replaced with PGBR for 16 weeks. Comparing the SRD and HFD groups, we found the HFD group had higher blood pressure, higher concentrations of blood glucose and HbA1c. The HFD group had less protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and glucokinase (GCK) and greater expression of glucogen synthase kinase (GSK) in skeletal muscle. The HFD group also had less expression of IR, serine/threonine kinase PI3K-linked protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), GCK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in liver. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR could reverse the disorders of blood pressure, blood glucose, HbA1c and increase insulin concentration. PGBR increased the IR, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 proteins, and ameliorated AMPK, GCK, GSK and PPARγ proteins. Together, PGBR prevented HFD-induced hyperglycemia through improving insulin levels, insulin receptor, glucose transporters and enhancing glucose metabolism. PMID:25834303

  7. A simplified genomic DNA extraction protocol for pre-germination genotyping in rice.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y B; Zhao, F L; Chen, H D; Li, H; Ni, D H; Wei, P C; Sheng, W; Teng, J T; Zhang, A M; Xue, J P

    2015-06-11

    Genotyping is a critical step for molecular marker-assisted selection in rice. Rice genomic DNA samples for genotyping are typically isolated from living tissues such as seedlings. This requires the germination of all candidate seeds and extraction of DNA from the seedlings. Currently, an ideal individual is selected from a very large number of plants, which is time- and labor-consuming, requiring several transplantations of materials and sampling processes. In this study, we developed a simplified genomic DNA extraction protocol in rice by using amylase to treat half-seeds. The yields of genomic DNA from a half-seed of Indica and Japonica rice were greater than 203.8 ± 32.5 and 143.2 ± 25.5 ng, respectively, and the 260/280 nm absorbance ratio was 1.75-2.10. The DNA was confirmed to be sufficient for polymerase chain reaction amplification and can be used in a marker-assisted selection program.

  8. Water absorption properties of ultrasonic treated brown rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the effect of ultrasonic treated on brown rice, it is important to research the water absorption processing of brown rice before and after ultrasonic treatment. The objective of this study was investigate and modeling water absorption characteristics of brown rice using Peleg’s equatio...

  9. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  10. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  11. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  12. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  13. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  14. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  15. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  16. Germinated brown rice as a value added rice product: A review.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swati Bhauso; Khan, Md Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered whole food because only the outermost layer i.e. the hull of the rice kernel is removed which causes least damage to its nutritional value. Brown rice can be soaked in water at 30 °C for specified hours for germination to get GBR. Soaking for 3 h and sprouting for 21 h has been found to be optimum for getting the highest gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in GBR, which is the main reason behind the popularity of GBR. The intake of GBR instead of white rice ameliorates the hyperglycemia, boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, inhibits development of cancer cells and assists the treatment of anxiety disorders. Germination process could be used as enzymatic modification of starch that affects pasting properties of GBR flour. GBR would improve the bread quality when substituted for wheat flour. It is concluded that GBR has potential to become innovative rice by preserving all nutrients in the rice grain for human consumption in order to create the highest value from rice.

  17. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  18. Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers.

  19. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  20. Effect of ultrasonic treatment of brown rice at different temperatures on cooking properties and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research aimed at developing quick cooking brown rice by investigating the effect of ultrasonic treatment at different temperatures on cooking time and quality. The medium grain brown rice was ultrasonically treated in water at temperatures of 25°C, 40°C and 55°C for 30 min and then dried by ai...

  1. Toxic and micronutrient elements in organic, brown and polished rice in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Jucelaine; Pozebon, Dirce; de Fraga, Marcus Vinicius Barcellos; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; de Moraes, Diogo Pompéu

    2014-01-01

    Concentration levels of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, Sn, Sb Co, Cu, Mn, Se, Zn, Cr, Ni and Mo in different types of rice cultivated in irrigated fields in Brazil were evaluated. Arsenic, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cu were found in higher concentrations in brown rice samples, suggesting the prevalence of these elements in the bran. Meanwhile, lower concentrations of Pb, Mo, Cr, Se and Co were found in parboiled rice. Organic rice did not differ of cultivated conventionally rice. Thallium, Hg and Sb were not detected in any rice sample whose limits of detection were 0.7 μg kg(-1), 2.5 μg kg(-1) and 8 μg kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of the investigated elements were compared with those reported for polished rice and brown rice from other countries, unveiling concentrations in general at the same level for rice produced at non-contaminated sites.

  2. Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Rosell, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of germination time on physicochemical characteristics of brown rice flour and its effect on gluten free bread qualities have been investigated. Germination was carried out at 28 °C and 100 % RH for 12, 24 and 48 h; brown rice and soaked brown rice was also analyzed. Significant changes on hydration and pasting properties of brown rice flour were found during germination. The starch degradation by enzyme activity could be evidenced with the decrease in viscosity and water binding capacity (WBC). No significant effect in specific volume, humidity and water activity of the gluten free bread was found as germination time increase, but a significant softness of the crumb was obtained. However, at 48 h of germination, the intense action of α amylase could result in excessive liquefaction and dextrinisation, causing inferior bread quality. Overall, germinated rice flour showed appropriate functionality for being used as raw ingredient in gluten free breadmaking.

  3. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  4. Efficacy of methoprene for multi-year protection of stored wheat, brown rice, rough rice and corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard red winter wheat, brown rice, rough rice, and corn were treated with the insect growth regulator (IGR) at rates of 1.25 and 2.5 ppm, held for 24 months at ambient conditions at the floor of a grain bin, and sampled every two months. Bioassays were done by exposing 10 mixed-sex adults of Rhyzope...

  5. Impact of browning reactions and bran pigments on color of parboiled rice.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, Lieve; Brijs, Kristof; Mohamed, Rasty; Verhelst, Neelke; Delcour, Jan A

    2006-12-27

    Rice color changes from white to amber during parboiling (soaking and steaming). Color parameters indicated that, during soaking, yellow bran pigments leached out in the water. The levels of the Maillard precursors (i.e., reducing sugars (RS) and free alpha-amino nitrogen (FAN)) depended on soaking temperature and time: leaching of RS was compensated by enzymic formation for long soaking times (>60 min), while proteolytic activity was too low to compensate for FAN leaching. Rice soaking under nitrogen, oxygen, or ambient conditions and determination of polyphenol oxidase activity allowed us to conclude that the effect of enzymic color changes on the soaked rice color was rather small. Color measurements of brown and milled mildly, intermediately, and severely parboiled rice samples showed that both brown and milled rice samples were darker and more red and yellow after parboiling and that the effect depended on the severity of parboiling conditions. Furthermore, steaming affected the rice color more and in a way opposite to that observed in soaking. The changes in RS and the loss of FAN during parboiling suggested that Maillard type reactions occur during brown rice steaming. Analyses of furosine levels confirmed Maillard browning of outer bran layers and endosperm during steaming. The level of this Maillard indicator increased with the severity of parboiling conditions in both brown and milled parboiled rice. Measurements of the levels of bran pigments indicated that bran pigments diffuse into the endosperm during parboiling and contribute to the parboiled rice color.

  6. Quality controlling of brown rice by ultrasound treatment and its effect on isolated starch.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-June; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-02-10

    Ultrasonic treatment (UT) was applied to brown rice at two different conditions: mild (25 °C, 30 min) and harsh (50 °C, 60 min) after soaking for several times (2, 3, 5, and 8h). After UT, starch was isolated from the brown rice grains, and the physicochemical properties of the starch, as well as the textural and nutritional properties of the grains, were compared. After UT, the cooked brown rice grains was softer in proportion to soaking time, and the hardness of brown rice soaked for 8h and then ultrasound treated at harsh condition was similar to that of cooked milled rice. Untreated brown rice grain has much more thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin contents than milled rice (0.546 vs. 0.069, 0.054 vs. 0.018, and 4.56 vs. 1.21 mg/100g, respectively), and the thiamin and niacin contents in brown rice treated even at the most harsh condition were still higher than those in milled rice (0.193 vs. 0.069, and 1.6 vs. 1.21 mg/100g, respectively). The isolated starch from brown rice grains treated at the harsh condition exhibited a lower pasting temperature and higher breakdown in pasting properties than that treated at the mild condition. The crystalline structure of starch became more homogeneous by UT at both conditions with longer soaking times. Both of the melting enthalpy and relative crystallinity of starch significantly decreased by UT, however A-type crystal form was maintained.

  7. An improved process for high nutrition of germinated brown rice production: Low-pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua Han; Chang, Hung Chia; Chen, Yu Kuo; Hung, Chien Lun; Lin, Su Yi; Chen, Yi Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Brown rice was exposed to low-pressure plasma ranging from 1 to 3kV for 10min. Treatment of brown rice in low-pressure plasma increases the germination percentage, seedling length, and water uptake in laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 3-kV plasma exposure for 10min yielded the best results. In germinating brown rice, α-amylase activity was significantly higher in treated groups than in controls. The higher enzyme activity in plasma-treated brown rice likely triggers the rapid germination and earlier vigor of the seedlings. Low-pressure plasma also increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels from ∼19 to ∼28mg/100g. In addition, a marked increase in the antioxidant activity of brown rice was observed with plasma treatments compared to controls. The main finding of this study indicates that low-pressure plasma is effective at enhancing the growth and GABA accumulation of germinated brown rice, which can supply high nutrition to consumer.

  8. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (p<0.05) at 80°C. However, heat treatment had more effect on wheat dough compared to brown rice batter.

  9. Impact of germination on the structures and in vitro digestibility of starch from waxy brown rice.

    PubMed

    You, Su-Yeon; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Han, Hye Min; Jun, Wujin; Hong, Young-Shick; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro digestibility as well as the molecular and crystalline structures of waxy rice starches isolated from brown rice, germinated brown rice (GBR), ultrasonicated GBR, and heat-moisture treated GBR were investigated. The germinated brown rice starch (GBRS) had a lower average molecular weight and a higher proportion of DP 6-12 in amylopectin than brown rice starch (BRS). The relative crystallinity, intensity ratio of the band at 1,047 cm(-1) and 1,022 cm(-1), gelatinization temperature and pasting temperature of waxy rice starch were reduced by germination. However, the ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS increased the relative crystallinity and gelatinization temperature. The digestibility of starch from brown waxy rice was increased by germination. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents were 50.5%, 42.4%, and 7.1% in BRS, and 69.0%, 27.9% and 3.1% in GBRS, respectively. The ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS reduced RDS content and increased RS content in raw and gelatinized starches. The decrease in starch digestibility of cooked GBR was more pronounced after heat-moisture treatment than after ultrasonication.

  10. Speciation And Localization Of Arsenic In White And Brown Rice Grains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the...

  11. Improvement in shelf life of rough and brown rice using infrared radiation heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IR heating and tempering treatments on storage stability of rough and brown rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium grain rice variety M206 with initial moisture content of 25.03±0.21% (d.b.) were used. They were dried using infrared (IR...

  12. Effect of ferrous sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed iron concentration and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Ying, Feng; Yang, Xiaoe; Wu, Chunyong; Wang, Yuyan

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of germination and iron fortification on iron concentration and bioavailability of brown rice. Iron fortification during germination process with 0.05-2 g/L ferrous sulfate increased the iron concentration in germinated brown rice from 1.1 to 15.6 times than those in raw brown rice. Based on the recommended dietary allowance of iron, maximum germination rate and γ-aminobutyric acid, we recommend the brown rice fortified with 0.25 g/L FeSO(4) as a suitable fortification level to use in germination process. Iron fortification during the germination process has a positive effect on iron concentration and bioavailability. A significant difference was observed among the cultivars in respect to the capacity for iron accumulation and bioavailability. Germination alone could improve in vitro iron solubility, but had no effect on iron bioavailability in Caco-2 cell, the additional fortification process should be combined to get high amount of bioavailable iron from the brown rice.

  13. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  14. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  15. Effects of extrusion conditions on the extrusion responses and the quality of brown rice pasta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of extrusion temperature and screw speed on the extrusion system parameters and the qualities of brown rice pasta. The die pressure and motor torque value reached a maximum at 90°C but decreased when the screw speed increased from 80 to 120rpm. The extrusion temperature and screw speed also significantly affected the cooking quality and textural properties of brown rice pasta. The pasta produced at an extrusion temperature of 120°C and screw speed of 120rpm had the best quality with a cooking loss, hardness and adhesiveness of 6.7%, 2387.2g and -7.0g⋅s, respectively, similar to those of pasta made from gluten-free flour. The results indicated that brown rice can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with improved nutrition.

  16. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. Development of NIRS models to predict protein and amylose content of brown rice and proximate compositions of rice bran.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Torit Baran; Sharma, Srigopal; Chattopadhyay, Krishnendu

    2016-01-15

    With the escalating persuasion of economic and nutritional importance of rice grain protein and nutritional components of rice bran (RB), NIRS can be an effective tool for high throughput screening in rice breeding programme. Optimization of NIRS is prerequisite for accurate prediction of grain quality parameters. In the present study, 173 brown rice (BR) and 86 RB samples with a wide range of values were used to compare the calibration models generated by different chemometrics for grain protein (GPC) and amylose content (AC) of BR and proximate compositions (protein, crude oil, moisture, ash and fiber content) of RB. Various modified partial least square (mPLSs) models corresponding with the best mathematical treatments were identified for all components. Another set of 29 genotypes derived from the breeding programme were employed for the external validation of these calibration models. High accuracy of all these calibration and prediction models was ensured through pair t-test and correlation regression analysis between reference and predicted values.

  18. Towards understanding of molecular interactions between rice and the brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2013-05-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is the most notorious pest of rice (Oryza sativa). Studies of rice-BPH interaction have contributed to development of new rice varieties, offering an effective means for long-lasting control of BPH. Here, we review the status of knowledge of the molecular basis of rice-BPH interaction, from the perspective of immunity. The BPH has complicated feeding behaviors on rice, which are mainly related to host resistance. Now, 24 resistance genes have been detected in rice, indicating gene-for-gene relationships with biotypes of the BPH. However, only one BPH resistance gene (Bph14) was identified and characterized using map-based cloning. Bph14 encodes an immune receptor of NB-LRR family, providing a means for studying the molecular mechanisms of rice resistance to BPH. Plant hormones (e.g. salicylic acid and jasmonate/ethylene), Ca(2+), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and OsRac1 play important roles in the immune response of rice to BPH. Signal transduction leads to modifying expression of defense-related genes and defense mechanisms against BPH, including sieve tube sealing, production of secondary metabolites, and induction of proteinase inhibitor. A model for the molecular interactions between rice and the BPH is proposed, although many details remain to be investigated that are valuable for molecular design of BPH-resistant rice varieties.

  19. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability.

  20. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hye; Ahn, Sung-Il; Lim, Chan-Mook; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jiaming; Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Fuyu; Lu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH), has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979) and the susceptible (Fengjin) varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  2. Monitoring fungal growth on brown rice grains using rapid and non-destructive hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Siripatrawan, U; Makino, Y

    2015-04-16

    This research aimed to develop a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate method based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for monitoring spoilage fungal growth on stored brown rice. Brown rice was inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of Aspergillus oryzae and stored at 30 °C and 85% RH. Growth of A. oryzae on rice was monitored using viable colony counts, expressed as colony forming units per gram (CFU/g). The fungal development was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The HSI system was used to acquire reflectance images of the samples covering the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. Unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM) was used to visualize data classification of different levels of fungal infection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to predict fungal growth on rice grains from the HSI reflectance spectra. The HSI spectral signals decreased with increasing colony counts, while conserving similar spectral pattern during the fungal growth. When integrated with SOM, the proposed HSI method could be used to classify rice samples with different levels of fungal infection without sample manipulation. Moreover, HSI was able to rapidly identify infected rice although the samples showed no symptoms of fungal infection. Based on PLS regression, the coefficient of determination was 0.97 and root mean square error of prediction was 0.39 log (CFU/g), demonstrating that the HSI technique was effective for prediction of fungal infection in rice grains. The ability of HSI to detect fungal infection at early stage would help to prevent contaminated rice grains from entering the food chain. This research provides scientific information on the rapid, non-destructive, and effective fungal detection system for rice grains.

  3. Effects of Slag-Based Silicon Fertilizer on Rice Growth and Brown-Spot Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization. PMID:25036893

  4. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    PubMed

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  5. Phloem-exudate proteome analysis of response to insect brown plant-hopper in rice.

    PubMed

    Du, Ba; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Peng, Xinxin; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2015-07-01

    Brown plant-hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH), one of the most devastating agricultural insect pests of rice throughout Asia, ingests nutrients from rice sieve tubes and causes a dramatic yield loss. Planting resistant variety is an efficient and economical way to control this pest. Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance is extremely valuable for molecular design of resistant rice variety. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform analysis of protein expression profiles in the phloem exudates of BPH-resistant and susceptible rice plants following BPH infestation. A total of 238 proteins were identified, most of which were previously described to be present in the phloem of rice and other plants. The expression of genes for selected proteins was confirmed using a laser capture micro-dissection method and RT-PCR. The mRNAs for three proteins, RGAP, TCTP, and TRXH, were further analyzed by using in situ mRNA hybridization and localized in the phloem cells. Our results showed that BPH feeding induced significant changes in the abundance of proteins in phloem sap of rice involved in multiple pathways, including defense signal transduction, redox regulation, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism, as well as cell structural proteins. The results presented provide new insights into rice resistance mechanisms and should facilitate the breeding of novel elite BPH-resistant rice varieties.

  6. Evaluation of the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice based on the K nutritional status of shoots.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takashi; Hotsuki, Tomoe; Fujiwara, Toru; Mimura, Tetsuro; Matsuzaki, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive cesium ((134,137)Cs) concentration in brown rice is correlated with that in the straw/husk. The distribution of (134,137)Cs, resembles that of potassium (K), a homologous element of Cs, in the rice plant body. The relative isotopic abundance of (40)K is 0.0117 %; thus, 1 g K contains 30.4 Bq ⁴⁰K, and the mass of 4,000 Bq (40)K is 0.0154 g, indicating that the K concentration can be calculated from (40)K concentration. We examined if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be estimated from (40)K concentrations in straw, and especially might be predicted from the (40)K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We determined the concentrations of (40)K and radioactive Cs in straw and brown rice, and found a strong correlated-equation (y = 72.922 x(-0.759); r = 0.907) between the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice and the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. The estimated-radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be as much as double, depending on the K nutritional status changing the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We herein propose a nutritional diagnosis that radioactive Cs concentrations in brown rice can be predicted from the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in shoots.

  7. The effect of apparent amylose content and dietary fibre on the glycemic response of different varieties of cooked milled and brown rice.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Encabo, Rosario R; Sagum, Rosario S; Felix, Angelina D R; Juliano, Bienvenido O

    2013-02-01

    Brown rice is a good source of dietary fibre (DF) and contains higher vitamins/minerals than milled rice. The study determined the effect of amylose content (AC) and DF on glucose response (GR) from different varieties of milled and brown rice. Milled and brown rice were used as test foods. They were fed to 9-10 human volunteers containing 50 g available carbohydrate after an overnight fast. GR and the glycemic index (GI) were determined. Results found that Sinandomeng with the lowest AC had a high GI = 75, while PSBRc10 with the highest AC had a low GI = 50. Sinandomeng with a low DF had GI = 75, while its brown rice had GI = 55. Brown rice (IR64) with 23% AC and DF of 2.5 g/100 g had low GI = 51. In conclusion, the GR and GI of the different varieties of cooked milled and brown rice varied depending on its AC and DF contents.

  8. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a

  9. Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analyses.

    PubMed

    Jezussek, Magnus; Juliano, Bienvenido O; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-02-27

    The aroma compounds present in cooked brown rice of the three varieties Improved Malagkit Sungsong (IMS), Basmati 370 (B 370), and Khaskhani (KK), and of the variety Indica (German supermarket sample), were identified on the basis of aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA). A total of 41 odor-active compounds were identified, of which eleven are reported for the first time as rice constituents. 2-Amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic), which was up to now unknown in rice aroma, exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor among the 30 to 39 odor-active compounds detected in all four varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, exhibiting an intense popcorn-like aroma-note, was confirmed as a further key aroma constituent in IMS, B 370, and KK, but was not important in Indica. Differences in the FD factors between the varieties were found for the previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like), which was higher in B 370 than in IMS and KK. In IMS, a yet unknown, spicy smelling component with a very high FD factor could be detected, which contributed with lower FD factors to the overall aromas of B 370 and KK, and was not present in Indica. The latter variety, which was available on the German market, differed most in its overall aroma from the three Asian brown rices.

  10. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  11. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  12. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  13. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  14. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  15. Study on the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during germination by using segmented moisture conditioning method.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yinping; Jia, Fuguo; Han, Yanlong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during the process of germination. The process of water addition in brown rice could be divided into three stages according to different water absorption speeds in soaking process. Water was added with three different speeds in three stages to get the optimal water adding rate in the whole process of germination. Thus, the technology of segmented moisture conditioning which is a method of adding water gradually was put forward. Germinated brown rice was produced by using segmented moisture conditioning method to reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients and was beneficial to the accumulation of gamma aminobutyric acid. The effects of once moisture adding amount in three stages on the gamma aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice and germination rate of brown rice were investigated by using response surface methodology. The optimum process parameters were obtained as follows: once moisture adding amount of stage I with 1.06 %/h, once moisture adding amount of stage II with 1.42 %/h and once moisture adding amount of stage III with 1.31 %/h. The germination rate under the optimum parameters was 91.33 %, which was 7.45 % higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (84.97 %). The content of gamma aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice under the optimum parameters was 29.03 mg/100 g, which was more than two times higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (12.81 mg/100 g). The technology of segmented moisture conditioning has potential applications for studying many other cereals.

  16. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  17. Efficacy of bacillus biocontrol agents for management of sheath blight and narrow brown leaf spot in organic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in the U. S. over the last decade. Growers lack effective tools to manage sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS), caused by Cercospora janseana, two major diseases affecting organic rice production. An experi...

  18. Production of optically pure D-lactic acid from brown rice using metabolically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Hama, Shinji; Kihara, Maki; Noda, Hideo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of D-lactic acid was performed using brown rice as both a substrate and a nutrient source. An engineered Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain, in which the ʟ-lactate dehydrogenase gene was disrupted, produced 97.7 g/L D-lactic acid from 20% (w/v) brown rice without any nutrient supplementation. However, a significant amount of glucose remained unconsumed and the yield of lactic acid was as low as 0.75 (g/g-glucose contained in brown rice). Interestingly, the glucose consumption was significantly improved by adapting L. plantarum cells to the low-pH condition during the early stage of SSF (8-17 h). As a result, 117.1 g/L D-lactic acid was produced with a high yield of 0.93 and an optical purity of 99.6% after 144 h of fermentation. SSF experiments were repeatedly performed for ten times and D-lactic acid was stably produced using recycled cells (118.4-129.8 g/L). On average, D-lactic acid was produced with a volumetric productivity of 2.18 g/L/h over 48 h.

  19. Development and characterization of a emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  20. Analysis of benzobicyclon and its metabolite in brown rice and rice straw after field application using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Im, So Jeong; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Young-Jun; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-02-01

    This study was carried out to develop an extraction as well as an analytical method for detecting benzobicyclon and its amino-substituted metabolite (1315P-570) in brown rice and rice straw using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The parent as well as the metabolite in rice and rice straw were extracted and analysed under the same conditions. A correlation coefficient (R(2)) of >0.994 was obtained for matrix-matched calibration curves constructed in various concentration ranges. Recoveries at two fortification levels were satisfactory and ranged between 75.4% and 118.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<13%. Under storage conditions (-20°C), the analyte and its metabolite were stable for up to 92days. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) were lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.1mg/kg) set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration for brown rice. Field trials with recommended or double the recommended dose revealed that the herbicide could safely be applied to rice and rice straw, as no residues were detected in the harvested samples. The sensitivity of the developed method was sufficient to ensure reliable determination of benzobicyclon and its metabolite in rice grain and rice straw.

  1. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-07-29

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice.

  2. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae) using some phenolic antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Y.M.; Abdel-Fattah, G.M.; Ismail, A.E.; Rashad, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone). The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS) and disease incidence (DI) on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains. PMID:24031243

  3. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    PubMed Central

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  4. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    PubMed

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  5. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Caceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Rosell, Cristina M; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-15

    The effect of germination conditions on the nutritional benefits of germinated brown rice flour (GBR) bread has been determined. The proximate composition, phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, glucose and starch content, as well as the most relevant bioactive compounds (GABA, γ-oryzanol and total phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of breads prepared with GBR at different germination conditions was determined. When comparing different germination times (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h), germination for 48 h provides GBR bread with nutritionally superior quality on the basis of its higher content of protein, lipids and bioactive compounds (GABA and polyphenols), increased antioxidant activity and reduced phytic acid content and glycaemic index, although a slight decrease in in vitro protein digestibility was detected. Overall, germination seems to be a natural and sustainable way to improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free rice breads.

  6. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-12-03

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective.

  7. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective. PMID:26633389

  8. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadifar, F.; Wayayok, A.; Shattri, M.; Shafri, H.

    2014-06-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application.

  9. Assessment on proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytic acid and protein hydrolysis of germinated Ecuatorian brown rice.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana

    2014-09-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.

  10. Adaptability of small brown planthopper to four rice cultivars using life table and population projection method

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Min; Tao, Yun-Li; Chi, Hsin; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the adaptability of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to four rice cultivars including Shengdao13 (SD13), Shengdao14 (SD14), Shengdao15 (SD15), and Zixiangnuo (ZXN) using the age-stage, two-sex life table with a simplified method for recording egg production (i.e., every five days vs. daily). The intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the SBPH was the highest (0.1067 d−1) on cultivar SD15, which was similar to the rate on SD14 (0.1029 d−1), but was significantly higher than that occurring on ZXN (0.0897 d−1) and SD13 (0.0802 d−1). The differences of the finite rate of increase (λ) on the four rice cultivars were consistent with the r values. Population projection predicted an explosive population growth of the SBPH occurring in a relatively short time when reared on SD14 and SD15. These findings demonstrated that the SBPH can successfully survive on the four rice cultivars, although there were varying host adaptabilities. PMID:28205522

  11. Video monitoring of brown planthopper predation in rice shows flaws of sentinel methods

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; de Kraker, Joop; Bianchi, Felix J. J. A.; van Telgen, Mario D.; Xiao, Haijun; van der Werf, Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Immobilized preys are routinely used in agro-ecological exposure studies to quantify predation of pests under field conditions, but this method has not been validated. Our purpose was to determine the validity of using immobilized adults of the major rice pest Nilaparvata lugens, brown plant hopper (BPH), as sentinels. We used direct observation by video recording to determine the causal agents of removal of field exposed BPH sentinels with two experiments: 1) we recorded removal events of dead, immobilized BPH; and 2) we compared removal of (i) dead, immobilized BPH, (ii) live, immobilized BPH, and (iii) live, mobile BPH. Long-horned grasshoppers were responsible for most removals of dead, immobilized BPH, in both experiments. Predatory ground beetles removed most of the live, immobilized BPH, whereas frogs were the major predators of live, mobile BPH. Overall, we showed that removal of immobilized sentinel prey is not representative for predation of live, mobile prey, stressing the need for a critical assessment of commonly used sentinel methods. In addition, we found that frogs played the major role in predation of BPH in rice. As current strategies to enhance biocontrol of planthoppers in rice focus on arthropod natural enemies, this finding could have major implications. PMID:28211500

  12. Electrical penetration graphic evidence of pymetrozine toxicity to the rice brown planthopperis by inibition of phloem feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Pymetrozine is a valuable novel insecticide for control of sucking insects including the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious pests on rice. This study was conducted to elucidate action mechanisms of pymetrozine on the feeding behavior of the planthopper. ...

  13. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  14. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP. PMID:26843000

  15. Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyomin

    2013-07-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed.

  16. Characterization of mercury species in brown and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in water-saving paddies.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Feng, Xinbin; Dong, Bin; Shang, Lihai; Yin, Runsheng; Yuan, Xiaobo

    2011-05-01

    In China, total Hg (HgT) and methylmercury (MeHg) were quantified in rice grain grown in three sites using water-saving rice cultivation methods, and in one Hg-contaminated site, where rice was grown under flooded conditions. Polished white rice concentrations of HgT (water-saving: 3.3±1.6 ng/g; flooded: 110±9.2 ng/g) and MeHg (water-saving 1.3±0.56 ng/g; flooded: 12±2.4 ng/g) were positively correlated with root-soil HgT and MeHg contents (HgT: r2=0.97, MeHg: r2=0.87, p<0.05 for both), which suggested a portion of Hg species in rice grain was derived from the soil, and translocation of Hg species from soil to rice grain was independent of irrigation practices and Hg levels, although other factors may be important. Concentrations of HgT and other trace elements were significantly higher in unmilled brown rice (p<0.05), while MeHg content was similar (p>0.20), indicating MeHg infiltrated the endosperm (i.e., white rice) more efficiently than inorganic Hg(II).

  17. Study design and methods for a randomized crossover trial substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India.

    PubMed

    Wedick, Nicole M; Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Malik, Vasanti S; Venkatachalam, Siva Sankari; Parthasarathy, Vijayalaksmi; Vaidya, Ruchi; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Arumugam, Kokila; Jones, Clara; Campos, Hannia; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    India has the second largest number of people with diabetes in the world following China. Evidence indicates that consumption of whole grains can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. This article describes the study design and methods of a trial in progress evaluating the effects of substituting whole grain brown rice for polished (refined) white rice on biomarkers of diabetes risk (glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, inflammation). This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with a crossover design conducted in Chennai, India among overweight but otherwise healthy volunteers aged 25-65 y with a body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2) and habitual rice consumption ≥200 g/day. The feasibility and cultural appropriateness of this type of intervention in the local environment will also be examined. If the intervention is efficacious, the findings can be incorporated into national-level policies which could include the provision of brown rice as an option or replacement for white rice in government institutions and food programs. This relatively simple dietary intervention has the potential to substantially diminish the burden of diabetes in Asia and elsewhere.

  18. Effect of zinc sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed zinc concentration, bioavailability, and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Wang, Yuyan; Lu, Lingli; Wu, Chunyong; Yang, Xiaoe

    2012-02-22

    Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population and, hence, the main source of a vital micronutrient, zinc (Zn). Unfortunately, the bioavailability of Zn from rice is very low not only due to low content but also due to the presence of some antinutrients such as phytic acid. We investigated the effect of germination and Zn fortification treatment on Zn bioavailability of brown rice from three widely grown cultivars using the Caco-2 cell model to find a suitable fortification level for producing germinated brown rice. The results of this study showed that Zn content in brown rice increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the external Zn concentrations increased from 25 to 250 mg/L. In contrast, no significant influence (p > 0.05) on germination percentage of rice was observed when the Zn supply was lower than 150 mg/L. Zn fortification during the germination process has a significant impact on the Zn content and finally Zn bioavailability. These findings may result from the lower molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and higher Zn content in Zn fortified germinated brown rice, leading to more bioavailable Zn. Likewise, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found among cultivars with respect to the capacity for Zn accumulation and Zn bioavailability; these results might be attributed to the difference in the molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and the concentration of Zn among the cultivars evaluated. Based on global intake of Zn among the world population, we recommend germinated brown rice fortified with 100 mg/L ZnSO(4) as a suitable concentration to use in the germination process, which contains high Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability. In the current study, the cultivar Bing91185 fortified with Zn through the germination process contained a high amount as well as bioavailable Zn, which was identified as the most promising cultivar for further evaluation to determine its efficiency as an improved source of Zn for target populations.

  19. Changes in Endosymbiotic Bacteria of Brown Planthoppers During the Process of Adaptation to Different Resistant Rice Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hong-Xing, Xu; Xu-Song, Zheng; Ya-Jun, Yang; Jun-Ce, Tian; Qiang, Fu; Gong-Yin, Ye; Zhong-Xian, Lu

    2015-06-01

    The specific primers of five species of endosymbiotic bacteria were designed to determine their numbers in three virulent populations of brown planthopper, Nilapavata lugens Stål, and to assess changes during adaptation to different resistant varieties using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that Chryseobacterium was the dominant bacteria in all three populations of brown planthopper, followed by Acinetobacter in TN1 population, Arsenophonus and Serratia in Mudgo population, and Arthrobacter and Acinetobacter in ASD7 population. When the TN1 population of brown planthopper was transferred to ASD7 (with resistant gene bph2) rice plants, Chryseobacterium was still the dominant bacteria, but the originally subdominant Acinetobacter declined to a level that was not significantly different from that of other endosymbiotic bacteria. After they were transferred to Mudgo (with resistant gene Bph1), Serratia and Arsenophonus increased significantly and became the dominant bacteria. However, they declined to a level that was not significantly different from that of the three other species after two generations. When ASD7 and Mudgo populations of brown planthopper were transferred to the susceptible variety TN1, the community of endosymbiotic bacteria in the ASD7 population of brown planthopper showed no significant changes. However, the numbers of Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter in the Mudgo population of brown planthopper exhibited a transient increase and returned to their original levels after two generations. After the Mudgo population of brown planthopper was transferred to ASD7 rice plants, the quantity of endosymbiotic bacteria fluctuated, but the bacterial structure did not change significantly. However, after the ASD7 population of brown planthopper was transferred to the Mudgo rice plants, the bacterial structure changed significantly. Serratia and Arsenophonus increased significantly and became dominant. Although Serratia and Arsenophonus decreased

  20. Determination of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice straw, rice husk, brown rice and soil using liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry following extraction with QuEChERS method.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhurui; Zhao, Xiaozhen; Chen, Jiaojiao; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Kankan; Hu, Deyu

    2016-10-01

    A fast and simple analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in soil, rice straw, rice husk and brown rice. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method was used for extraction, and liquid chromatography with tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for quantification. The matrix-matched calibration plots were linear in the range between 25 and 5000 μg/L for soil, rice straw, rice husk and brown rice samples. All determination coefficients (R(2) ) were ≥0.9962. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.5 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries at three fortification levels ranged between 79.5 and 97.9% with relative standard deviations <11%. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of dissipation study samples. For field experiments, the half-lives of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice straw were 11.93 and 5.83 days, respectively. The method was demonstrated to be reliable for the routine monitoring of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Development and evaluation of near-isogenic lines for brown planthopper resistance in rice cv. 9311

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cong; Hu, Jie; Ao, Yi-Ting; Cheng, Ming-Xing; Gao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Qing-Lu; He, Guang-Cun; He, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice in Asia. To date 29 BPH resistance genes have been identified, but only a few genes are being used in breeding due to inefficient markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and little knowledge of the real effects of the genes. In this study we individually transferred 13 genes or QTLs (Bph14, QBph3, QBph4, Bph17, Bph15, Bph20, Bph24, Bph6, Bph3, Bph9, Bph10, Bph18 and Bph21) into cultivar 9311 by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Through positive and negative selection we narrowed the segments from donors containing Bph14, Bph15, Bph6 and Bph9 to 100–400 kb. Whole-genome background selection based on a high resolution SNP array was performed to maximize reconstitution of the recurrent parent genome (RPG 99.2–99.9%). All genes reduced BPH growth and development and showed antibiotic responses in seedlings. Based on genetic effects and amino acid sequences of genes in three clusters we inferred that Bph10 and Bph21 might be identical to Bph26, whereas Bph9 and Bph18 were different. Bph15 might be same with Bph17, but QBph4, Bph20 and Bph24 might be different. We believe that these NILs will be useful in rice BPH resistance research and breeding. PMID:27901104

  2. Modeling of Bacillus cereus growth in brown rice submitted to a combination of ultrasonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-12-01

    The combined effects of ultrasonication and slight acidic electrolyzed water were investigated to improve the microbial safety of brown rice against Bacillus cereus infection and to evaluate the growth kinetics of these bacteria during storage of untreated and treated rice at various temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C). The results indicate that this combination treatment was bactericidal against B. cereus, resulting in an approximately 3.29-log reduction. Although B. cereus can be efficiently reduced by treatment, temperature abuse during storage can allow B. cereus to recover and grow. A primary growth model (Baranyi and Roberts equation) was fitted to the raw growth data from untreated (control) and treated samples to estimate growth rate, lag time, and maximum population density, with a low standard error of the residuals (≤0.140) and high adjusted coefficient of determination (>0.990). The growth curves obtained from the Baranyi and Roberts model indicated that B. cereus grew more slowly on treated brown rice than on untreated brown rice. Secondary models predicting the square root of the maximum growth rate and the natural logarithm of the lag time as a function of temperature were satisfactory (bias factor = 0.993 to 1.013; accuracy factor = 1.290 to 1.352; standard error of prediction = 18.828 to 36.615%). Inactivation results and the model developed and validated in this study provided reliable and valuable growth kinetics information for quantitative microbiological risk assessment studies of B. cereus on brown rice.

  3. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    PubMed

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  4. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products.

  5. [Simultaneous analysis of residual pesticides in fruit, vegetables, brown rice, and oolong tea by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Mikio; Shibata, Sayo; Shiomi, Tetsuo; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Ban, Soichiro; Tomita, Yoko; Semura, Shunsuke; Nakao, Yoshie; Banno, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    According to "The validity evaluation guideline of the testing methodology on the residual pesticides in food" of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, we carried out validity evaluation of a simultaneous analysis method for residual pesticides in various products with the QuEChERS method using a C18 mini column and/or an EnviCarb/PSA mini column for purification. Multi-ingredient simultaneous analysis with high sensitivity in a short time was achieved with LC-MS/MS. Validation was achieved for 269 pesticides among 302 pesticides in eight kinds of fruit, vegetables, and brown rice and 204 pesticides among 233 pesticides in oolong tea. Finally, 151 pesticides in oolong tea and from 234 to 259 pesticides in fruit, vegetables, and brown rice met the values specified in the guideline.

  6. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards... technology used to harvest, process, and test rice; and also rice marketing. To ensure that standards and... standards for agricultural commodities that define commodity quality in the domestic and global...

  7. A nutritious medida (Sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536.

    PubMed

    Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid

    2004-09-01

    The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (P< 0.01) increase in both the energy density and the protein content, having increased 12 folds and 24 folds, respectively. The essential amino acids including lysine and methionine were highly augmented. The resultant medida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.

  8. Silicon induces resistance to the brown spot fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus by preventing the pathogen from hijacking the rice ethylene pathway.

    PubMed

    Van Bockhaven, Jonas; Spíchal, Lukáš; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Asano, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Höfte, Monica; De Vleesschauwer, David

    2015-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the ability of silicon (Si) to mitigate a wide variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism(s). Here, we have investigated the role of hormone defense pathways in Si-induced resistance to the rice brown spot fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus. To delineate the involvement of multiple hormone pathways, a multidisciplinary approach was pursued, combining exogenous hormone applications, pharmacological inhibitor experiments, time-resolved hormone measurements, and bioassays with hormone-deficient and/or -insensitive mutant lines. Contrary to other types of induced resistance, we found Si-induced brown spot resistance to function independently of the classic immune hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Our data also rule out a major role of the abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin pathways, but suggest that Si mounts resistance to C. miyabeanus by preventing the fungus from hijacking the rice ethylene (ET) machinery. Interestingly, rather than suppressing rice ET signaling per se, Si probably interferes with the production and/or action of fungal ET. Together our findings favor a scenario whereby Si induces brown spot resistance by disarming fungal ET and argue that impairment of pathogen virulence factors is a core resistance mechanism underpinning Si-induced plant immunity.

  9. Organ-specific transcriptome response of the small brown planthopper toward rice stripe virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan; Lu, Lixia; Yang, Pengcheng; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes rice stripe disease and is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The alimentary canal and salivary gland of SBPH play important roles in viral replication and transmission. However, little is known about the underlying molecular functions of these two organs in the interaction between RSV and SBPH. In this study, organ-specific transcriptomes of the alimentary canal and salivary gland were analyzed in viruliferous and naïve SBPH. The number of differentially expressed unigenes in the alimentary canal was considerably greater than that in the salivary gland after RSV infection, and only 23 unigenes were co-regulated in the two organs. In the alimentary canal, genes involved in lysosome, digestion and detoxification were activated upon RSV infection, whereas the genes related to DNA replication and repair were suppressed. RSV activated RNA transport and repressed the MAPK, mTOR, Wnt, and TGF-beta signaling pathways in the salivary gland. The overall immune reaction toward RSV was much stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal. RSV activated the pattern recognition molecules and Toll pathway in the salivary gland but inhibited these two reactions in the alimentary canal. The responses from reactive oxygen and the immune-responsive effectors were stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal after RSV infection. These findings provide clues on the roles of the two organs in confronting RSV infection and aid in the understanding of the interaction between RSV and SBPHs.

  10. Effects of the brown rice diet on visceral obesity and endothelial function: the BRAVO study.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Moritake; Kinjo, Rie; Yamakawa, Ken; Tanaka, Hideaki; Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Taira, Shin-Ichiro; Sata, Masataka; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-28

    Brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) produce different glycaemic responses and their consumption may affect the dietary management of obesity. In the present study, the effects of BR and WR on abdominal fat distribution, metabolic parameters and endothelial function were evaluated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome in a randomised cross-over fashion. In study 1, acute postprandial metabolic parameters and flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated dilation (FMD and NMD) of the brachial artery were determined in male volunteers with or without the metabolic syndrome after ingestion of either BR or WR. The increases in glucose and insulin AUC were lower after ingestion of BR than after ingestion of WR (P= 0·041 and P= 0·045, respectively). FMD values were decreased 60 min after ingestion of WR (P= 0·037 v. baseline), but the decrease was protected after ingestion of BR. In study 2, a separate cohort of male volunteers (n 27) with the metabolic syndrome was randomised into two groups with different BR and WR consumption patterns. The values of weight-based parameters were decreased after consumption of BR for 8 weeks, but returned to baseline values after a WR consumption period. Insulin resistance and total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced after consumption of BR. In conclusion, consumption of BR may be beneficial, partly owing to the lowering of glycaemic response, and may protect postprandial endothelial function in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Long-term beneficial effects of BR on metabolic parameters and endothelial function were also observed.

  11. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    PubMed

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage.

  12. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Mussury, Rosilda M; Lima, Andréa A

    2012-03-01

    The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1) Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black) and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2) Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg.L(-1) gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C). The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.

  13. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  14. A new method for evaluation of the resistance to rice kernel cracking based on moisture absorption in brown rice under controlled conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Asako; Tomita, Katsura; Shimizu, Toyohiro

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the effectiveness of a new method to detect differences among rice cultivars in their resistance to kernel cracking. The method induces kernel cracking under laboratory controlled condition by moisture absorption to brown rice. The optimal moisture absorption conditions were determined using two japonica cultivars, ‘Nipponbare’ as a cracking-resistant cultivar and ‘Yamahikari’ as a cracking-susceptible cultivar: 12% initial moisture content of the brown rice, a temperature of 25°C, a duration of 5 h, and only a single absorption treatment. We then evaluated the effectiveness of these conditions using 12 japonica cultivars. The proportion of cracked kernels was significantly correlated with the mean 10-day maximum temperature after heading. In addition, the correlation between the proportions of cracked kernels in the 2 years of the study was higher than that for values obtained using the traditional late harvest method. The new moisture absorption method could stably evaluate the resistance to kernel cracking, and will help breeders to develop future cultivars with less cracking of the kernels. PMID:26719740

  15. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H2O2 and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice. PMID:27258255

  16. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E and γ-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics, and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from six cultivars having different bran colours were investigated. Parboiling rough and brown rice increased the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in whole grain rice but decreased the concentrations of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities found in the soluble fraction. After hydrothermal processing of purple bran rice, the retention of extractable anthocyanins was low, but was high for simple phenolics. For proanthocyanidins found in red bran rice, the extractable oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 4, increased up to 6-fold; while for oligomers with DP⩾4 and polymers, there was a significant decrease that was positively correlated with the DP and the temperature of the processing methods. The presence of hulls helped to retain water-soluble antioxidants during parboiling.

  17. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-05-31

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H₂O₂ and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice.

  18. Proteome Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Mutants Reveals Differentially Induced Proteins during Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Sangha, Jatinder Singh; Yolanda, H. Chen; Kaur, Jatinder; Khan, Wajahatullah; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Alanazi, Mohammed S.; Mills, Aaron; Adalla, Candida B.; Bennett, John; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan; Jahn, Gary C.; Leung, Hei

    2013-01-01

    Although rice resistance plays an important role in controlling the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, not all varieties have the same level of protection against BPH infestation. Understanding the molecular interactions in rice defense response is an important tool to help to reveal unexplained processes that underlie rice resistance to BPH. A proteomics approach was used to explore how wild type IR64 and near-isogenic rice mutants with gain and loss of resistance to BPH respond during infestation. A total of 65 proteins were found markedly altered in wild type IR64 during BPH infestation. Fifty-two proteins associated with 11 functional categories were identified using mass spectrometry. Protein abundance was less altered at 2 and 14 days after infestation (DAI) (T1, T2, respectively), whereas higher protein levels were observed at 28 DAI (T3). This trend diminished at 34 DAI (T4). Comparative analysis of IR64 with mutants showed 22 proteins that may be potentially associated with rice resistance to the brown planthopper (BPH). Ten proteins were altered in susceptible mutant (D1131) whereas abundance of 12 proteins including S-like RNase, Glyoxalase I, EFTu1 and Salt stress root protein “RS1” was differentially changed in resistant mutant (D518). S-like RNase was found in greater quantities in D518 after BPH infestation but remained unchanged in IR64 and decreased in D1131. Taken together, this study shows a noticeable level of protein abundance in the resistant mutant D518 compared to the susceptible mutant D1131 that may be involved in rendering enhanced level of resistance against BPH. PMID:23434671

  19. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Park, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  20. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson's-Like Disease Rats.

    PubMed

    Chompoopong, Supin; Jarungjitaree, Sunit; Punbanlaem, Tideeporn; Rungruang, Thanaporn; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Taechowisan, Thongchai

    2016-09-01

    The effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the motor deficits and the dopaminergic (DA) cell death were investigated in Parkinson's-like disease (PD) rats. Reactive oxidative species generated by chronic subcutaneous injection of rotenone (RT) lead to neuronal apoptosis particularly in the nigrostriatal DA system and produce many features of PD, bradykinesis, postural instability and rigidity. In this study, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), previously reported to inhibit RT-induced DA cell death, was used as the positive control. Results show that pretreatment with GBR as well as 4-PBA significantly enhanced the motor activity after RT injection, and GBR affected significantly in open field test, only in the ambulation but not the mobility duration, and ameliorated the time to orient down (t-turn) and total time to descend the pole (t-total) in pole test as compared to RT group, but significantly lowered both t-turn and t-total only in 4-PBA group. The percentage of apoptotic cells in brain measured by flow cytometry and the inflammatory effect measured by ELISA of TNF-α showed significant increase in RT group as compared to the control (CT) group at P < 0.05. Apoptotic cells in RT group (85.98 %) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase versus CT group (17.50 %), and this effect was attenuated in GBR+RT group by decreasing apoptotic cells (79.32 %), whereas, increased viable cells (17.94 %) versus RT group (10.79 %). GBR in GBR + RT group could decrease TNF-α both in the serum and in brain. In summary, GBR showed a neuroprotective effect in RT-induced PD rats, and it may be useful as a value-added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative disease or PD.

  1. Polyamines in brown rice vinegar function as potent attractants for the spotted wing drosophila.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Higashikubo, Haruka; Ishii, Yuri; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    Vinegar produced by acetic acid bacteria is used as an attractant for fruit flies. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) and brown rice vinegar (BRV) are used as lures to detect Drosophila suzukii (also known as the spotted wing drosophila [SWD], a newly emerging invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits) and to capture Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the attractiveness of BRV and ACV to SWD in laboratory trapping experiments using an upturned microcentrifuge tube with a pipette tip as a trap. We transferred SWD (approximately 20, 7-10 days old) to a glass vial containing a trap baited with BRV or ACV and counted the captured flies. BRV attracted more flies (52.88 ± 9.75%) than ACV (35.78 ± 7.47%) in 6 h. Based on high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that BRV contained greater amounts of putrescine (12.36 ± 0.44 μM) and spermidine (35.08 ± 4.34 μM) than ACV (putrescine, 0.31 ± 0.067 μM; spermidine, not detected). The attractiveness of ACV supplemented with putrescine (12 μM) and spermidine (35 μM) (68.56 ± 4.69%) was significantly higher than that of ACV, indicating that the enhanced attractiveness of BRV to SWD was accomplished by the additive effects of polyamines and other known attractive volatiles, such as acetic acid and acetoin. BRV is expected to be a powerful tool for the efficient management of SWD.

  2. Interactions between Nitrogen and Silicon in Rice and Their Effects on Resistance toward the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoying; Yu, Yaoguang; Baerson, Scott R.; Song, Yuanyuan; Liang, Guohua; Ding, Chaohui; Niu, Jinbo; Pan, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and silicon (Si) are two important nutritional elements required for plant growth, and both impact host plant resistance toward insect herbivores. The interaction between the two elements may therefore play a significant role in determining host plant resistance. We investigated this interaction in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its effect on resistance to the herbivore brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH). Our results indicate that high-level (5.76 mM) N fertilization reduced Si accumulation in rice leaves, and furthermore, this decrease was likely due to decreased expression of Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2. Conversely, reduced N accumulation was observed at high N fertilization levels when Si was exogenously provided, and this was associated with down-regulation of OsAMT1;1 and OsGS1;1, which are involved in ammonium uptake and assimilation, respectively. Under lower N fertilization levels (0.72 and/or 1.44 mM), Si amendment resulted in increased OsNRT1:1, OsGS2, OsFd-GOGAT, OsNADH-GOGAT2, and OsGDH2 expression. Additionally, bioassays revealed that high N fertilization level significantly decreased rice resistance to BPH, and the opposite effect was observed when Si was provided. These results provide additional insight into the antagonistic interaction between Si and N accumulation in rice, and the effects on plant growth and susceptibility to herbivores. PMID:28167952

  3. Enhancing the health-beneficial qualities of whole grain rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various pre- and post-harvest approaches (i.e. pre-germination of whole grains and reduced milling degree) to enhancing the health beneficial compounds of whole grain and milled rice have been reported. A discussion of the results from our pre-harvest efforts is as follows. The majority of rice cons...

  4. Fine mapping and characterization of BPH27, a brown planthopper resistance gene from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    PubMed

    Huang, D; Qiu, Y; Zhang, Y; Huang, F; Meng, J; Wei, S; Li, R; Chen, B

    2013-01-01

    The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) is one of the most serious rice pests worldwide. Growing resistant varieties is the most effective way to manage this insect, and wild rice species are a valuable source of resistance genes for developing resistant cultivars. BPH27 derived from an accession of Guangxi wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff. (Accession no. 2183, hereafter named GX2183), was primarily mapped to a 17-cM region on the long arm of the chromosome four. In this study, fine mapping of BPH27 was conducted using two BC(1)F(2) populations derived from introgression lines of GX2183. Insect resistance was evaluated in the BC(1)F(2) populations with 6,010 individual offsprings, and 346 resistance extremes were obtained and employed for fine mapping of BPH27. High-resolution linkage analysis defined the BPH27 locus to an 86.3-kb region in Nipponbare. Regarding the sequence information of rice cultivars, Nipponbare and 93-11, all predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in the fine-mapping region have been annotated as 11 types of proteins, and three ORFs encode disease-related proteins. Moreover, the average BPH numbers showed significant differences in 96-120 h after release in comparisons between the preliminary near-isogenic lines (pre-NILs, lines harboring resistance genes) and BaiR54. BPH growth and development were inhibited and survival rates were lower in the pre-NIL plants compared with the recurrent parent BaiR54. The pre-NIL exhibited 50.7% reductions in population growth rates (PGR) compared to BaiR54. The new development in fine mapping of BPH27 will facilitate the efforts to clone this important resistant gene and to use it in BPH-resistance rice breeding.

  5. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:22949825

  7. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4-25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81-101% with relative standard deviations of 5-19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0-1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49-5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10-14.88 µg/kg of ZON.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of germinated brown rice against hydrogen peroxide induced cell death in human SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  9. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-12-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP(+)) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation.

  10. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation. PMID:25580402

  11. Comparing Gene Expression Profiles Between Bt and non-Bt Rice in Response to Brown Planthopper Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Ning, Duo; Chen, Yang; Dang, Cong; Han, Nai-Shun; Liu, Yu'e; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH) fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3834 and 3273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR, and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes) that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and early nodulin gene ENOD

  12. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  13. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio.

  14. Characterizing the mode of action of Brevibacillus laterosporus B4 for control of bacterial brown strip of rice caused by A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Nawaz, Zarqa; Cui, Z; Almoneafy, Abdlwareth A; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2014-02-01

    Biological control efficacy of Brevibacillus laterosporus B4 associated with rice rhizosphere was assessed against bacterial brown stripe of rice caused by Acidovorex avenae subsp. avenae. A biochemical bactericide (chitosan) was used as positive control in this experiment. Result of in vitro analysis indicated that B. laterosporus B4 and its culture filtrates (70%; v/v) exhibited low inhibitory effects than chitosan (5 mg/ml). However, culture suspension of B. laterosporus B4 prepared in 1% saline solution presented significant ability to control bacterial brown stripe in vivo. Bacterization of rice seeds for 24 h yielded a greater response (71.9%) for controlling brown stripe in vivo than chitosan (56%). Studies on mechanisms revealed that B. laterosporus B4 suppressed the biofilm formation and severely disrupted cell membrane integrity of A. avenae subsp. avenae, causing the leakage of intracellular substances. In addition, the expression level of virulence-related genes in pathogen recovered from biocontrol-agent-treated plants showed that the genes responsible for biofilm formation, motility, niche adaptation, membrane functionality and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae were down-regulated by B. laterosporus B4 treatment. The biocontrol activity of B. laterosporus B4 was attributed to a substance with protein nature. This protein nature was shown by using ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequent treatment with protease. The results obtained from this study showed the potential effectiveness of B. laterosporus B4 as biocontrol agent in control of bacterial brown stripe of rice.

  15. A salivary EF-hand calcium-binding protein of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens functions as an effector for defense responses in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenfeng; Yu, Haixin; Jian, Yukun; Zeng, Jiamei; Ji, Rui; Chen, Hongdan; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca2+-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice by BPH nymphs whose NlSEF1 was knocked down elicited higher levels of Ca2+ and H2O2 but not jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and SA in rice than did infestation by control nymphs; Consistently, wounding plus the recombination protein NlSEF1 suppressed the production of H2O2 in rice. Bioassays revealed that NlSEF1-knockdown BPH nymphs had a higher mortality rate and lower feeding capacity on rice than control nymphs. These results indicate that the salivary protein in BPH, NlSEF1, functions as an effector and plays important roles in interactions between BPH and rice by mediating the plant’s defense responses. PMID:28098179

  16. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks.

  17. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Kunishige; Kanda, Yusuke; Suzuki Ikeda, Saori; Sakaki, Ryuta; Nonomura, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Shikanai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions. PMID:26670250

  18. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-06-07

    In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Salivary Glands of Two Populations of Rice Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, That Differ in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdan; Ye, Wenfeng; Li, Shaohui; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant–herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH–rice interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH–rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to ‘metabolism,’ ‘digestion and absorption,’ and ‘salivary secretion’ might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for

  20. Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tae-Il; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Park, Dong Ki; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAC) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB). Methods EtOAC extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAC, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay. Results The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAC extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Conclusions Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB. PMID:24075343

  1. Functional characterization of three trehalase genes regulating the chitin metabolism pathway in rice brown planthopper using RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Yang, Mengmeng; Shen, Qida; Liu, Xiaojun; Shi, Zuokun; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective gene-silencing tool, and double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is considered a powerful strategy for gene function studies in insects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of trehalase (TRE) genes (TRE 1-1, TRE 1-2, and TRE-2) isolated from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a typical piercing-sucking insect in rice, and investigate their regulating roles in chitin synthesis by injecting larvae with dsRNA. The results showed that TRE1 and TRE2 had compensatory function, and the expression of each increased when the other was silenced. The total rate of insects with phenotypic deformities ranged from 19.83 to 24.36% after dsTRE injection, whereas the mortality rate ranged from 14.16 to 31.78%. The mRNA levels of genes involved in the chitin metabolism pathway in RNA-Seq and DGEP, namely hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) and chitinase (Cht), decreased significantly at 72 h after single dsTREs injection, whereas two transcripts of chitin synthase (CHS) genes decreased at 72 h after dsTRE1-1 and dsTREs injection. These results demonstrated that TRE silencing could affect the regulation of chitin biosynthesis and degradation, causing moulting deformities. Therefore, expression inhibitors of TREs might be effective tools for the control of planthoppers in rice. PMID:27328657

  2. Effect of organic manure on Cd and As accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in Cd-As-contaminated paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Anwen; Ouyang, Yun; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2017-02-01

    Large areas of paddy fields in mining areas in south China have been contaminated by mixed Cd and As. To test the possibility of using organic manure (OM) as a method of reducing Cd and As accumulation in brown rice and increase the grain yield in such paddy fields, two rice cultivars [Jianyou G2 (JY) and Fengyousimiao (FY)] and three amounts of OM (0, 0.5, 1.5 kg/m(2)) were examined in three Cd-As-contaminated paddy fields (Fogang, Dabaoshan, Fankou) in Guangdong Province. The results show that the application of OM can effectively increase the grain yield and reduce Cd. However, the As concentration was found to increase in brown rice, especially when high levels of OM were used. The addition of OM increased the soil pH and organic matter content in the soils and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in plant tissues. Our results suggest that OM can be used as an amendment to effectively decrease Cd accumulation in brown rice in Cd-contaminated paddy fields. However, it is necessary to consider the negative effects of OM amendments when adding OM to As-contaminated paddy fields.

  3. Whole-genome expression analysis of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in different plant hosts and small brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiufang; Ni, Haiping; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lan, Ying; Ren, Chunmei; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-11-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) can infect a number of gramineous plants and cause severe crop yield losses in southeast Asian countries. The virus is transmitted by small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent circulative manner. The interactions between RBSDV and its different hosts remain unknown. Besides, how the virus adjusts itself to infect different hosts is unclear. In the present study, the relative RNA levels of the thirteen RBSDV genes in rice, maize, wheat, and SBPH were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. P7-1 and P10 genes were predominantly expressed whereas P8 and P7-2 genes were expressed at low levels in plant hosts. Similar to the expression in rice, P7-1 was the most abundantly expressed gene and P8 was expressed at the lowest level in SBPH, indicating that RBSDV adopts the same strategy to infect distinct hosts. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene in both plants and insect suggest that it can be used as the target gene for disease diagnostics. However, the expression levels of some genes varied from host to host. P5-1, P6 and P9-1, the components of the RBSDV viroplasm, are differentially expressed in different hosts. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the quantity of the P9-1 protein was more abundant in SBPH than in plant hosts. These data indicate that the virus may adjust its own gene expression to replicate in different hosts. Analysis of time course of gene expression revealed that P7-1 stands out as the only gene highly expressed at the earliest time point and its expression precedes all others throughout infection from 8 to 24days post-inoculation. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene suggest that it plays a significant role in RBSDV-host interactions.

  4. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties.

  5. Role of GPx4 in human vascular endothelial cells, and the compensatory activity of brown rice on GPx4 ablation condition.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Osamu; Yasuzawa, Toshinori; Sumikawa, Yoshie; Ueta, Takashi; Imai, Hirotaka; Sawabe, Akiyoshi; Ueshima, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathologies of vascular endothelial cells. However, the importance of specific antioxidant enzymes in vascular endothelial cells is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the importance of Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), and the involvement of ferroptosis on cell death induced by GPx4 loss in human vascular endothelial cells. In addition, we examined the compensatory activity of brown rice on GPx4 ablation condition. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were transfected with GPx4 or scramble control siRNA. GPx4 knockdown caused the increase in the levels of lipid oxidation, and induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and extract of brown rice, ameliorated lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and delay of proliferation induced by GPx4 knockdown. Furthermore, ferrostatin-1, inhibitor of ferroptosis, also prevented cytotoxicity and delay of proliferation. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that GPx4 is an essential antioxidant enzyme for protecting lipid peroxidation, and is a regulator of ferroptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, vitamin E rich food, such as brown rice, can compensate for GPx4 loss by protecting cells against lipid peroxidation.

  6. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  7. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-07-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible.

  8. Possible connection between imidacloprid-induced changes in rice gene transcription profiles and susceptibility to the brown plant hopper Nilaparvatalugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yao; Shi, Zhao-Peng; Jiang, Li-Ben; Ge, Lin-Quan; Wu, Jin-Cai; Jahn, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical pesticide, imidacloprid (IMI) has long-lasting effectiveness against Hemiptera. IMI is commonly used to control the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Some chemical pesticides, however, can induce the susceptibility of rice to BPH, which has indirectly led to the resurgence of BPH. The mechanism of the chemical induction of the susceptibility of rice to BPH was not previously understood. Here, a 44 K Agilent Rice Expression Microarray was used to identify changes in gene expression that accompany IMI-induced rice susceptibility to BPH. The results showed that 225 genes were differentially expressed, of which 117 were upregulated, and 108 were downregulated. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes were mainly classified into the eight functional groups: oxidation reduction, regulation of cellular process, response to stress, electron carrier activity, metabolic process, transport, signal transducer, and organismal development. The genes encoding plant lipid transfer protein, lignin peroxidase, and flavonol-3-O-methyltransferenase may be important responses to the IMI-induced susceptibility of rice to BPH. The reliability of the microarray data was verified by performing quantitative real-time PCR and the data provide valuable information for further study of the molecular mechanism of IMI-induced susceptibility of rice. PMID:22544984

  9. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  10. Genome-wide Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Contents of Eight Elements in Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Zarqa; Kakar, Kaleem U; Li, Xiao-bai; Li, Shan; Zhang, Bin; Shou, Hui-xia; Shu, Qing-yao

    2015-09-16

    An association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating the concentrations of eight elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) was performed using USDA mini-core subset cultivated in two different environments. In addition, correlation between the grain elemental concentrations was also studied. A total of 60 marker loci associated with 8 grain elemental concentrations were identified, and these loci were clustered into 37 genomic regions. Twenty new QTLs were found to be associated with important elements such as Zn, Fe, and P, along with others. Fe concentration was associated with the greatest number of markers in two environments. In addition, several important elemental/metal transporter genes were identified in a few mapped regions. Positive correlation was observed within all grain elemental concentrations. In summary, the results provide insight into the genetic basis of rice grain element accumulation and may help in the identification of genes associated with the accumulation of Zn, Fe, and other essential elements in rice.

  11. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    PubMed Central

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution. PMID:26904605

  12. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    PubMed

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  13. Effect of additional of Hoodia Gordonii and seaweed powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of brown rice bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajal, Masturah Ebni; Ghani, Maaruf Abd; Daud, Norlida Mat

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of the nutritional content of food has increased with the emergence of various health products in the market. Cereal bar is one of the beneficial foods among consumer that concern on their healthy food. This study was conducted to develop a brown rice bar that contain active ingredients (H. gordonii and seaweed powder) and to determine the effect on sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties (colour, texture and proximate analysis) of this product. This study consisted of two phases in which the first phase consisted of development of ten formulations including control. All of the formulations were undergo analysis of colour, texture and sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory evaluation, Control (H. gordonii: 0%, seaweed: 0%) and two best formulations that consist of formulation 6 (H. gordonii: 1.6%; seaweed: 2.8%) and formulation 9 (H. gordonii: 2.4%, seaweed: 2.8%) were chosen to undergo the second phase which is proximate analysis. Base on the result, were significant different (p<0.05) on proximate analysis except for the protein and moisture content. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. gordonii is a good source of fiber when adding in a bar.

  14. Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minjung; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) was prepared to suppress melanoma development. CBR extracts were divided into hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water fractions. Among all the fractions, EtOAc fraction showed the best suppressive effect on B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay. It also showed the increased cell death and the changed cellular morphology after CBR treatment. Annexin V-FITC/PI, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to elucidate anticancer activity of CBR. The results showed that CBR induced p53-mediated apoptotic cell death of B16F10. CBR EtOAc treatment increased melanin content and melanogenesis-related proteins of MITF and TRP-1 expressions, which supports its anticancer activity. Its potential as an anticancer agent was further investigated in tumor-xenografted mouse model. In melanoma-xenografted mouse model, melanoma tumor growth was significantly suppressed under CBR EtOAc fraction treatment. HPLC analysis of CBR extract showed peak of adenosine. In conclusion, CBR extracts notably inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through the p53-mediated apoptosis induction and increased melanogenesis. These findings suggest that CBR EtOAc fraction can act as an effective anticancer agent to treat melanoma. PMID:23533475

  15. Identification of a new locus conferring antixenosis to the brown planthopper in rice cultivar Swarnalata (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y F; Cheng, L; Liu, F; Li, R B

    2013-08-29

    The brown planthopper [Nilaparvata lugens (Stål); BPH] has caused severe damage to rice production. The identification of resistance genes and the development of BPH-resistant varieties are economical and effective ways to manage this pest. Using an F2 population from a cross between the Indica cultivars 93-11 and Swarnalata, we mapped the Qbph-8 locus to a 7.3-cM region on chromosome 8 in two tests, flanked by the markers RM339 and RM515. In this population, Qbph-8 explained 7.7 and 6.6% of the phenotypic variance of BPH preference in both tests. In the BPH host choice test, the average number of settled BPHs on the Qbph-8 plants was less than that on the 93-11 plants over the 24- to 120-h observation period. Furthermore, less BPH insects were observed on the BPH6+Qbph-8 plant compared with the BPH6 plant or Qbph-8 plant, indicating a stronger antixenotic effect shown in the gene pyramiding plants. Hence, this locus can be pyramided with other BPH resistance genes and applied to breed-resistant varieties, which possibly can improve the resistance level and durable resistance to the BPH.

  16. A Salivary Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Acts as an Effector That Enables the Brown Planthopper to Feed on Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Rui; Ye, Wenfeng; Chen, Hongdan; Li, Heng; Yu, Haixin; Li, Jiancai

    2017-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests on rice (Oryza sativa) in Asia. After landing on plants, BPH rapidly accesses plant phloem and sucks the phloem sap through unknown mechanisms. We discovered a salivary endo-β-1,4-glucanase (NlEG1) that has endoglucanase activity with a maximal activity at pH 6 at 37°C and is secreted into rice plants by BPH. NlEG1 is highly expressed in the salivary glands and midgut. Silencing NlEG1 decreases the capacity of BPH to reach the phloem and reduces its food intake, mass, survival, and fecundity on rice plants. By contrast, NlEG1 silencing had only a small effect on the survival rate of BPH raised on artificial diet. Moreover, NlEG1 secreted by BPH did not elicit the production of the defense-related signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and jasmonoyl-isoleucine in rice, although wounding plus the application of the recombination protein NlEG1 did slightly enhance the levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine in plants compared with the corresponding controls. These data suggest that NlEG1 enables the BPH’s stylet to reach the phloem by degrading celluloses in plant cell walls, thereby functioning as an effector that overcomes the plant cell wall defense in rice. PMID:28126846

  17. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M

    2014-02-01

    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed.

  18. Aflatoxins contamination in Pakistani brown rice: a comparison of TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Advancement in the field of analytical food-chemistry has explored various experimental techniques for aflatoxins (AFs) quantification. The present study was aimed to compare four different techniques; thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) in brown rice (n = 120) being collected from Karachi, Pakistan. All the four assays provide precised, accurate and comparable results. However, some differences were observed. For instance, TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies offered the advantage of the quantification of individual toxins in contrast to ELISA technique. The contamination ranges of AFB₁/AFB₂ as determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS were 1.18-9.97/0.59-1.52, 0.16-10.54/0.26-1.35 and 0.11-10.88/0.38-1.48 µg/kg, respectively. However, AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected in any tested samples. Furthermore, owing to low-detection limit and sensitivity, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies have identified greater number of contaminated samples in comparison to TLC and ELISA techniques. The overall average results of total AFs as provided by HPLC (3.79 µg/kg) and LC-MS/MS (3.89 µg/kg) were found higher in comparison to TLC (3.68 µg/kg) and ELISA (3.70 µg/kg). On the basis of achieved results, it was concluded that TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques are valuable tool for the quantification of AFs in cereals and grains. Furthermore, HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques offer an added advantage for the detection of AFs in diminutive levels.

  19. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    PubMed

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities.

  20. Systems biology and genome-wide approaches to unveil the molecular players involved in the pre-germinative metabolism: implications on seed technology traits.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Anca; Pagano, Andrea; Leonetti, Paola; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma; Araújo, Susana S

    2016-10-11

    The pre-germinative metabolism is among the most fascinating aspects of seed biology. The early seed germination phase, or pre-germination, is characterized by rapid water uptake (imbibition), which directs a series of dynamic biochemical events. Among those are enzyme activation, DNA damage and repair, and use of reserve storage compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Industrial seedling production and intensive agricultural production systems require seed stocks with high rate of synchronized germination and low dormancy. Consequently, seed dormancy, a quantitative trait related to the activation of the pre-germinative metabolism, is probably the most studied seed trait in model species and crops. Single omics, systems biology, QTLs and GWAS mapping approaches have unveiled a list of molecules and regulatory mechanisms acting at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Most of the identified candidate genes encode for regulatory proteins targeting ROS, phytohormone and primary metabolisms, corroborating the data obtained from simple molecular biology approaches. Emerging evidences show that epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in the regulation of these mentioned processes, constituting a still unexploited strategy to modulate seed traits. The present review will provide an up-date of the current knowledge on seed pre-germinative metabolism, gathering the most relevant results from physiological, genetics, and omics studies conducted in model and crop plants. The effects exerted by the biotic and abiotic stresses and priming are also addressed. The possible implications derived from the modulation of pre-germinative metabolism will be discussed from the point of view of seed quality and technology.

  1. Bph32, a novel gene encoding an unknown SCR domain-containing protein, confers resistance against the brown planthopper in rice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Juansheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Wu, Xianting; Lu, Xianjun; Zeng, Lihua; Lv, Jianqun; Su, Xiangwen; Luo, Hong; Ren, Guangjun

    2016-11-23

    An urgent need exists to identify more brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) resistance genes, which will allow the development of rice varieties with resistance to BPH to counteract the increased incidence of this pest species. Here, using bioinformatics and DNA sequencing approaches, we identified a novel BPH resistance gene, LOC_Os06g03240 (MSU LOCUS ID), from the rice variety Ptb33 in the interval between the markers RM19291 and RM8072 on the short arm of chromosome 6, where a gene for resistance to BPH was mapped by Jirapong Jairin et al. and renamed as "Bph32". This gene encodes a unique short consensus repeat (SCR) domain protein. Sequence comparison revealed that the Bph32 gene shares 100% sequence identity with its allele in Oryza latifolia. The transgenic introgression of Bph32 into a susceptible rice variety significantly improved resistance to BPH. Expression analysis revealed that Bph32 was highly expressed in the leaf sheaths, where BPH primarily settles and feeds, at 2 and 24 h after BPH infestation, suggesting that Bph32 may inhibit feeding in BPH. Western blotting revealed the presence of Pph (Ptb33) and Tph (TN1) proteins using a Penta-His antibody, and both proteins were insoluble. This study provides information regarding a valuable gene for rice defence against insect pests.

  2. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang; Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-09-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production, essential for global food security, is threatened by the brown planthopper (BPH). The breeding of host-resistant crops is an economical and environmentally friendly strategy for pest control, but few resistance gene resources have thus far been cloned. An indica rice introgression line RBPH54, derived from wild rice Oryza rufipogon, has been identified with sustainable resistance to BPH, which is governed by recessive alleles at two loci. In this study, a map-based cloning approach was used to fine-map one resistance gene locus to a 24kb region on the short arm of chromosome 6. Through genetic analysis and transgenic experiments, BPH29, a resistance gene containing a B3 DNA-binding domain, was cloned. The tissue specificity of BPH29 is restricted to vascular tissue, the location of BPH attack. In response to BPH infestation, RBPH54 activates the salicylic acid signalling pathway and suppresses the jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent pathway, similar to plant defence responses to biotrophic pathogens. The cloning and characterization of BPH29 provides insights into molecular mechanisms of plant-insect interactions and should facilitate the breeding of rice host-resistant varieties.

  3. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters of growing Wistar rats. Part I.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of diets with whole rice processed ingredients on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters was studied using an animal model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. The cecum weight, cecal content pH, cecal sIgA content, and β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase activities were determined. Calcium apparent absorption, total bone mineral content and density and right femur parameters (ashes, organic content, calcium and P) were evaluated. The results showed that animals fed with whole grain diets have lower food intake in comparison with the C diet, and decreased cecal content pH (7.06 vs. 6.33) and β-glucosidase activity (1.66 vs. 0.21 μmol p-nitrophenol g(-1) cc h(-1)). Even though calcium apparent absorption was not different among treatments (∼70%), none of the whole grain diets improved calcium related bone parameters over the control fed rats (cellulose as dietary fibre).

  4. Bph32, a novel gene encoding an unknown SCR domain-containing protein, confers resistance against the brown planthopper in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Juansheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Wu, Xianting; Lu, Xianjun; Zeng, Lihua; Lv, Jianqun; Su, Xiangwen; Luo, Hong; Ren, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    An urgent need exists to identify more brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) resistance genes, which will allow the development of rice varieties with resistance to BPH to counteract the increased incidence of this pest species. Here, using bioinformatics and DNA sequencing approaches, we identified a novel BPH resistance gene, LOC_Os06g03240 (MSU LOCUS ID), from the rice variety Ptb33 in the interval between the markers RM19291 and RM8072 on the short arm of chromosome 6, where a gene for resistance to BPH was mapped by Jirapong Jairin et al. and renamed as “Bph32”. This gene encodes a unique short consensus repeat (SCR) domain protein. Sequence comparison revealed that the Bph32 gene shares 100% sequence identity with its allele in Oryza latifolia. The transgenic introgression of Bph32 into a susceptible rice variety significantly improved resistance to BPH. Expression analysis revealed that Bph32 was highly expressed in the leaf sheaths, where BPH primarily settles and feeds, at 2 and 24 h after BPH infestation, suggesting that Bph32 may inhibit feeding in BPH. Western blotting revealed the presence of Pph (Ptb33) and Tph (TN1) proteins using a Penta-His antibody, and both proteins were insoluble. This study provides information regarding a valuable gene for rice defence against insect pests. PMID:27876888

  5. Preventive effects of fermented brown rice and rice bran against N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Satoru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hara, Akira; Hirata, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mori, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Fermented brown rice by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is known to have the potential to prevent chemical carcinogenesis of the colon, liver, esophagus, urinary bladder, stomach and lungs in rodents. The present study examined the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA on N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in hamsters. Five-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into seven groups. Groups 1-5 were subcutaneously injected with BOP (10 mg/kg body weight) four times during week 6 to induce pancreatic tumors, while groups 6 and 7 were injected with saline. Groups 2 and 3 were fed diets containing 5 and 10% FBRA, respectively, during the initiation phase. By contrast, groups 4 and 5 were fed diets containing 5 and 10% FBRA, respectively, during the post-initiation phase. Group 6 received a diet containing 10% FBRA throughout the experiment, and group 7 was kept on the basal diet alone and served as the untreated control. At the termination of the study (week 22), oral intake of 10% FBRA (group 5) during the post-initiation phase was identified to have significantly reduced the multiplicity (number of lesions/animal) of ductal adenocarcinoma [pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (PanIN3); carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma] in comparison with group 1 control hamsters (0.24±0.44 vs. 0.71±0.72; P<0.05). Treatment with 10% FBRA in the post-initiation phase inhibited the progression of normal/precancerous lesions (PanIN1, mild hyperplastic lesions; and PanIN2, papillary hyperplasia) to ductal adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, dietary exposure to 10% FBRA during the initiation (group 3) and post-initiation phases (group 5) significantly reduced the multiplicity of PanIN2 (group 3, 0.55±0.69; group 5, 0.45±0.69; versus group 1, 1.26±1.24; P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). A significant reduction of Ki-67 positivity of PanIN2 in group 5 was also confirmed (group 5, 0.05±0.03; group 1, 0.22±0.12; P<0.01). Using terminal

  6. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources.

  7. [Promotive excretion of causative agents of Yusho by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryze in Yusho patients].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Iida, Takao; Shibata, Satoko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Teruaki

    2011-04-01

    Forty two years have passed since the outbreak of Kanemi rice oil poisoning, namely, Yusho in the western Japan. However, even now the Yusho patients have been still suffering from several objective and subjective symptoms. In order to improve or, if possible, to cure such symptoms, the most important therapeutic treatment is considered to actively excrete the causative agents, that is, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the bodies of the patients and to reduce their body burdens. In rats, chlorophyll and dietary fiber have been shown to promote the fecal excretion of PCDFs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and to reduce their levels in rats. In this study, we have examined whether such kinds of effect are also observed by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) containing 5% spirulina, which is so-called spirulina HI * GENKI, the health food and relatively rich with chlorophyll and dietary fiber, in eighteen Yusho patients. They were divided into two groups, namely group A, ten patients (3 males and 7 females) with the mean age of 67.7 years old and group B, eight patients (4 males and 4 females) with the mean age of 64.1 years old. Among the patients of group A, three patients were especially highly contaminated with PCDFs and we classified them into group A (High). Respective mean concentrations of PCDFs in the blood just before initiating this study were as follows; group A : 145 pg/g lipid, group A (High) : 371 pg/g lipid and group B : 52.1 pg/g lipid. Contamination levels of PCDFs, PCDDs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in group A (High) were 1.7 to 2.6 times higher than those in group A and 2.4 to 7.1 times higher than those in group B. Accordingly, concentrations of dioxins (PCDFs + PCDDs + dioxin-like PCBs) in the blood of groups A, A (High) and B were, respectively, 194, 458 and 85 pg-TEQ/g lipid. Concentrations of PCBs were also the highest in group A (High) : 1399 ng/g lipid, in group A : 748 ng/g lipid

  8. Application of Brown Planthopper Salivary Gland Extract to Rice Plants Induces Systemic Host mRNA Patterns Associated with Nutrient Remobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Adelina; Smith, Charles Michael

    2015-01-01

    Insect saliva plays an important role in modulation of plant-insect interactions. Although this area of research has generated much attention in recent years, mechanisms of how saliva affects plant responses remain poorly understood. To address this void, the present study investigated the impact of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, Stål; hereafter BPH) salivary gland extract (SGE) on rice (Oryza sativa) systemic responses at the mRNA level. Differentially expressed rice mRNAs were generated through suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and classified into six functional groups. Those with the most representatives were from the primary metabolism (28%), signaling-defense (22%) and transcription-translation-regulation group (16%). To validate SSH library results, six genes were further analyzed by One-Step Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR. Five of these genes exhibited up-regulation levels of more than 150% of those in the control group in at least one post-application time point. Results of this study allow assignment of at least two putative roles of BPH saliva: First, application of SGE induces immediate systemic responses at the mRNA level, suggesting that altering of the rice transcriptome at sites distant to hoppers feeding locations may play an important role in BPH-rice interactions. Second, 58% of SGE-responsive up-regulated genes have a secondary function associated with senescence, a process characterized by remobilization of nutrients. This suggests that BPH salivary secretions may reprogram the rice transcriptome for nutritional enhancement. When these findings are translated onto ‘whole plant’ scale, they indicate that BPH saliva may play the ‘wise investment’ role of ‘minimum input today, maximum output tomorrow’. PMID:26641488

  9. Risk assessment of insecticides used in rice on miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter, the important predator of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.).

    PubMed

    Preetha, G; Stanley, J; Suresh, S; Samiyappan, R

    2010-07-01

    The green miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, an important natural enemy of the rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens plays a major role as a predator in suppressing the pest population. The study assessed the impact of certain potential insecticides used in the rice ecosystem on the miridbug predator and brown planthopper through contact toxicity. Eleven insecticides, including neonicotinoids, diamides, azomethine pyridines, carbamates, pyrethroids, organophosphates and cyclodienes were selected to test their toxicities against the nymphs of C. lividipennis and N. lugens. Median lethal concentration (LC(50)) was determined for each insecticide using an insecticide-coated vial (scintillation) residue bioassay, which revealed BPMC as the highly toxic chemical with an LC(50) of 0.003mga.iL(-1) followed by ethofenprox and clothianidin with LC(50) of 0.006mga.iL(-1) at 48 HAT against C. lividipennis and ethofenprox as the highly toxic chemical with an LC(50) of 0.009mga.iL(-1) followed by clothianidin with an LC(50) of 0.211mga.iL(-1) at 48h after treatment (HAT) against N. lugens. Among the insecticides tested, the cyclodiene compound, endosulfan had the lowest acute contact toxicity (LC(50)=66.65mga.iL(-1) at 48 HAT) to C. lividipennis. Among the insecticides tested, endosulfan, chlorpyriphos, acephate and methyl parathion are regarded as safer to C. lividipennis based on selectivity ratio, hazard quotient and probit substitution method of risk assessments.

  10. Simple and rapid determination of free fatty acids in brown rice by FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with a second-derivative treatment.

    PubMed

    Genkawa, Takuma; Ahamed, Tofael; Noguchi, Ryozo; Takigawa, Tomohiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-01-15

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) content in brown rice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in conjunction with second-derivative treatment was proposed. Ground brown rice (10g) was soaked in toluene (20mL) for 30min, and the filtrate of the extract was placed in a 1mm CaF2 liquid cell. The transmittance spectrum of the filtrate was recorded using toluene for the background spectrum. The absorption band due to the CO stretching mode of FFAs was detected at 1710cm(-1), and the Savitzky-Golay second-derivative treatment was performed for band separation. A single linear regression model for FFA was developed using the 1710cm(-1) band in the second-derivative spectra of oleic acid in toluene (0.25-2.50gL(-1)), and the model displayed high prediction accuracy with a determination coefficient of 0.998 and a root mean square error of 0.03gL(-1).

  11. Evaluation of the performance of 57 Japanese participating laboratories by two types of z-scores in proficiency test for the quantification of pesticide residues in brown rice.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2014-11-01

    A proficiency test for the analysis of pesticide residues in brown rice was carried out to support upgrading in analytical skills of participant laboratories. Brown rice containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and isoprothiolane) was used as the test samples. The test samples were distributed to the 57 participants and analyzed by appropriate analytical methods chosen by each participant. It was shown that there was no significant difference among the reported values obtained by different types of analytical method. The analytical results obtained by National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) were 3 % to 10 % greater than those obtained by participants. The results reported by the participant were evaluated by using two types of z-scores, that is, one was the score based on the consensus values calculated from the analytical results of participants, and the other one was the score based on the reference values obtained by NMIJ with high reliability. Acceptable z-scores based on the consensus values and NMIJ reference values were achieved by 87 % to 89 % and 79 % to 94 % of the participants, respectively.

  12. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7531-a) for the determination of trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour was developed at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder after drying and frozen pulverization of fresh brown rice obtained from a Japanese domestic market. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ICP high-resolution mass spectrometry, isotope-dilution ICP-MS, ICP optical emission spectrometry, and graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Property values were provided for six elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd). The concentration range of the property values was from 0.280 mg kg(-1) of As to 31.8 mg kg(-1) of Zn. The combined relative standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, characterization, difference among analytical methods, dry-mass correction factor, and calibration standard. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.1% of Zn to 1.6% of As.

  13. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E homologs and '-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from 6 rice culti...

  14. Development and validation of a PCR-based functional marker system for the brown planthopper resistance gene Bph14 in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Chen, Zhijun; Lang, Xuyong; Du, Bo; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guocai; Hu, Gang; Li, Sanhe; He, Guangcun; You, Aiqing

    2013-09-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most damaging rice pest globally. Resistant varieties are the most effective and environmental strategy for protecting the rice crop from BPH. Functional markers (FMs) designed from polymorphic sites within gene sequences affecting phenotypic variation are highly efficient when used for marker assisted selection (MAS). Bph14 is the first and only cloned insect resistance gene so far in rice. Compared to the sequences of its non-effective alleles there are a number SNP differences. In this study, the method of allele-specific amplification (ASA) was adopted to design a simple, co-dominant, functional marker Bph14P/N for Bph14. Bph14P/N was combined with two specific dominant markers: one, named Bph14P, targets the promoter region of Bph14 and amplifies 566 bp fragments; and the other, Bph14N, targets the LRR region of bph14 and amplifies 345 bp fragments. Specificity and applicability of the functional marker system were verified in two breeding populations and a Chinese mini core collection of Oryza sativa. We recommend the use of this simple, low-cost marker system in routine genotyping for Bph14 in breeding populations.

  15. Effect of replacing corn with brown rice in a total, mixed, ration silage on milk production, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effects of substituting corn grain with brown rice (BR) grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage on milk yield, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen (N) balance. The TMR silages were made from the ensiling of TMR containing (dry matter basis) 50.1% forage in rice silage and corn silage combination, and 49.9% concentrate. The grain portion of the diets contained 31.2% steam-flaked corn, 31.2% steam-flaked BR or an equal mixture of corn and BR. Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat, protein and lactose yields. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The urinary N excretion decreased linearly (P < 0.01) in response to increased levels of BR, with no dietary effect on N intake, N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. Our results indicate that steam-flaked BR is a suitable replacement for steam-flaked corn in dairy cow diets, and that it can be included in rations to a level of at least 31.2% of dry matter without adverse effects on milk production, when cows were fed rice silage and corn silage-based diets.

  16. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  17. Restriction of viral dissemination from the midgut determines incompetence of small brown planthopper as a vector of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Hongyan; Mao, Qianzhuo; Liu, Qifei; Wei, Taiyun

    2012-08-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus, is transmitted by the white-backed planthopper in a persistent-propagative manner. In this study, we found that another planthopper species, the small brown planthopper (SBPH), could acquire SRBSDV but not transmit it. To identify the transmission barrier for SRBSDV in SBPHs, sequential infection by SRBSDV in the organs of SBPHs was studied with immunofluorescence for viral antigens. SRBSDV initially entered the epithelial cells of the midgut, then viroplasms, the sites for viral replication, formed in the midgut of viruliferous SBPHs. Furthermore, SRBSDV spread within the midgut, but failed to disseminate from the midgut into the hemocoel or into the salivary glands. All these results indicated that the inability of SBPH to transmit SRBSDV could be due to the restriction of viral dissemination from the midgut of SBPH, which led to the failure of viral spread to the salivary glands for virus transmission.

  18. Improvement of the antifungal activity of Litsea cubeba vapor by using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against Aspergillus flavus on brown rice snack bars.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn; Danworaphong, Sorasak; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal activity of the volatile Litsea cubeba essential oil and its main components (citral and limonene) on brown rice snack bars by applying He-Ne laser treatment. Different volumes (50-200 μL) of L. cubeba, citral or limonene were absorbed into a filter paper and placed inside an oven (18 L). Ten brown rice snack bars (2 cm wide × 4 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) were put in an oven and heated at 180 °C for 20 min. The shelf-life of the treated snack bars at 30 °C was assessed and sensory testing was carried out to investigate their consumer acceptability. A count of total phenolic content (TPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on the properties of essential oil, citral, and limonene before and after the laser treatment was studied for possible modes of action. It was found that the laser treatment improved the antifungal activity of the examined volatile L. cubeba and citral with Aspergillus flavus inhibition by 80% in comparison with those of the control not treated with the laser. L. cubeba vapor at 100 μL with the laser treatment was found to completely inhibit the growth of natural molds on the snack bars for at least 25 days; however, without essential oil vapor and laser treatment, naturally contaminating mold was observed in 3 days. Results from the sensory tests showed that the panelists were unable to detect flavor and aroma differences between essential oil treatment and the control. Laser treatment caused an increase in TPC of citral oil whereas the TPC in limonene showed a decrease after the laser treatment. These situations could result from the changing peak of the aliphatic hydrocarbons that was revealed by the FTIR spectra.

  19. The Bphi008a gene interacts with the ethylene pathway and transcriptionally regulates MAPK genes in the response of rice to brown planthopper feeding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangbo; Peng, Xinxin; Xu, Henghao; Liu, Caixiang; Du, Bo; Yuan, Hongyu; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2011-06-01

    We examined ways in which the Brown planthopper induced008a (Bphi008a; AY256682) gene of rice (Oryza sativa) enhances the plant's resistance to a specialist herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Measurement of the expression levels of ethylene synthases and of ethylene emissions showed that BPH feeding rapidly initiated the ethylene signaling pathway and up-regulated Bphi008a transcript levels after 6 to 96 h of feeding. In contrast, blocking ethylene transduction (using 1-methylcyclopropene) reduced Bphi008a transcript levels in wild-type plants fed upon by BPH. In vitro kinase assays showed that Bphi008a can be phosphorylated by rice Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase5 (OsMPK5), and yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal proline-rich region of Bphi008a interacts directly with this kinase. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that this interaction occurs in the nucleus. Subsequently, we found that Bphi008a up-regulation and down-regulation were accompanied by different changes in transcription levels of OsMPK5, OsMPK12, OsMPK13, and OsMPK17 in transgenic plants. Immunoblot analysis also showed that the OsMPK5 protein level increased in overexpressing plants and decreased in RNA interference plants after BPH feeding. In transgenic lines, changes in the expression levels of several enzymes that are important components of the defenses against the BPH were also observed. Finally, yeast two-hybrid screening results showed that Bphi008a is able to interact with a b-ZIP transcription factor (OsbZIP60) and a RNA polymerase polypeptide (SDRP).

  20. Role of plant volatiles in resistance of selected rice varieties to brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Saxena, R C; Okech, S H

    1985-12-01

    Rice plant volatiles extracted as steam distillates significantly affected the behavior and biology of the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). In a multichoice test, more females settled and fed on tillers of a susceptible rice variety "Taichung Native 1" (TN1), sprayed with its own extract or acetone than on TN1 tillers sprayed with the extract of the resistant variety "ARC6650" or "Ptb33." In another test,N. lugens females ingested significantly more of a 10% sucrose solution mixed with TN1 steam distillate extract than of plain sucrose solution or that mixed with extracts of resistant varieties. Topical application of the extracts of resistant varieties "Mudgo," "ASD7," "Rathu Heenati," "Babawee," Ptb33, and ARC6650 caused significantly higher mortality of females than did the TN1 extract. Likewise, significantly more first-instar nymphs died when they were caged on susceptible TN1 plants sprayed with the extracts of resistant varieties than on plants sprayed with TN1 extract. The extract of 60-day-old resistant plants was more toxic than the extract of 30-, 45-, or 100-day-old plants. However, toxicity of the extract from susceptible TN1 remained low at all plant growth stages.

  1. A novel, in vivo, indoor method to preserve rice black-streaked dwarf virus in small brown planthopper using wheat seedling as a bridge host.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunmei; Cheng, Zhaobang; Yang, Liu; Miao, Qian; Fan, Yongjian; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) naturally infects Gramineae plants through small brown planthopper (SBPH) as a vector. However, RBSDV cannot be transmitted to the SBPH offspring through transovarian transmission. Wheat plant, an important intermediate host in winter, is essential for the completion of the annual cycle of RBSDV in farm ecosystem. We developed a novel, in vivo, indoor method to preserve RBSDV in SBPH using wheat seedling as a bridge host. The temperature range of 23-27°C was initially selected to rear the insects and plants. Before initiating the scheme cycle, viruliferous SBPH was obtained by feeding the virus-free 1st to 2nd instar nymphs with RBSDV-infected rice plants. Four to six RBSDV-infected SBPH were placed per plant to inoculate wheat seedlings at two-to-four leaf stages. After 48 h of inoculation, the viruliferous SBPH were removed. Five mated, newly emerged virus-free SBPH females were then transferred onto each inoculated plant and allowed to lay eggs for 48 h. The newly hatched SBPH were raised on wheat seedlings until the 2nd instar nymph stage, and then transferred onto healthy rice seedlings for further development until 5th instar nymphs or adults. These newly obtained viruliferous SBPH can be used for inoculating new wheat seedlings in the succeeding maintenance cycles, or for further experiments. We discovered that the incubation period of RBSDV in wheat seedlings synchronized with the gestation period of SBPH eggs at four to six inoculated viruliferous SBPH per plant and lasted for approximately seven days. In addition, this period was optimal for enhancing the SBPH infection ratio because SBPH nymphs can only acquire the virus after they hatch. The RBSDV infection ratio of the SBPHs acquired through this method consistently exceeded 50%.

  2. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar ‘ASD7’ (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)

    PubMed Central

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH. PMID:26719745

  3. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar 'ASD7' (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    PubMed

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-12-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH.

  4. Abscisic Acid-Induced Resistance against the Brown Spot Pathogen Cochliobolus miyabeanus in Rice Involves MAP Kinase-Mediated Repression of Ethylene Signaling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Yang, Yinong; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Höfte, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in an array of plant processes, including the regulation of gene expression during adaptive responses to various environmental cues. Apart from its well-established role in abiotic stress adaptation, emerging evidence indicates that ABA is also prominently involved in the regulation and integration of pathogen defense responses. Here, we demonstrate that exogenously administered ABA enhances basal resistance of rice (Oryza sativa) against the brown spot-causing ascomycete Cochliobolus miyabeanus. Microscopic analysis of early infection events in control and ABA-treated plants revealed that this ABA-inducible resistance (ABA-IR) is based on restriction of fungal progression in the mesophyll. We also show that ABA-IR does not rely on boosted expression of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid -, or callose-dependent resistance mechanisms but, instead, requires a functional Gα-protein. In addition, several lines of evidence are presented suggesting that ABA steers its positive effect on brown spot resistance through antagonistic cross talk with the ethylene (ET) response pathway. Exogenous ethephon application enhances susceptibility, whereas genetic disruption of ET signaling renders plants less vulnerable to C. miyabeanus attack, thereby inducing a level of resistance similar to that observed on ABA-treated wild-type plants. Moreover, ABA treatment alleviates C. miyabeanus-induced activation of the ET reporter gene EBP89, while derepression of pathogen-triggered EBP89 transcription via RNA interference-mediated knockdown of OsMPK5, an ABA-primed mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, compromises ABA-IR. Collectively, these data favor a model whereby exogenous ABA enhances resistance against C. miyabeanus at least in part by suppressing pathogen-induced ET action in an OsMPK5-dependent manner. PMID:20130100

  5. Report of the key comparison CCQM-K108 determination of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shinichi; Kotzeva, Boriana; Kakoulides, Elias; Sxoina, Vasiliki; Fung, W. H.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yau, H. P.; Tsoi, Y. T.; Lee, C. L.; Kong, M. F.; Shin, Richard; Juan, Wang; Sin Yee, Ng; Uribe, Christian; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Silva Dutra, Emily; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Valiente, Liliana; Horvat, Milena; Jacimovic, Radojko; Oduor Okumu, Tom; Kang'Iri, Jacqueline; Owiti Orwa, Tabitha; Chao, Wei; Jingbo, Chao; Taebunpakul, Sutthinun; Yafa, Charun; Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn; Chailap, Benjamat; Pharat, Yanee; Phukphattanachai, Pranee; Turk, Gregory C.; Long, Stephen; Murphy, K. E.; Davis, Clay; Ellisor, Michael; Merrick, Jeffrey; White, Ian; Saxby, David; Linsky, S. M.; Barzev, A.; Botha, A.

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K108 key comparison was organised by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to test the abilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratory. The participants used different measurement methods, though most of them used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for Cd and ICP-MS for total arsenic. Regarding arsenic speciation, all participants used ICP-MS coupled with liquid chromatography (LC). Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, comparability of measurement results for each of total arsenic and cadmium was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs or DIs for the measurement of the measurand at the level of less than 0.5 mg/kg. Regarding arsenic species (inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)), there was, however, a measurement problem still to be solved and that part of CCQM-K108 will be repeated. It is expected that arsenic, cadmium and other metals at mass fractions greater than approximately 0.1 mg/kg in rice flour can be determined by each participant using the same technique(s) employed for this key comparison to achieve similar uncertainties mentioned in the present report. Furthermore, the results of this key comparison can be utilised along with the IAWG core capability approach. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Antioxidative Effects of Germinated Brown Rice-Derived Extracts on H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Md Zamri, Nur Diyana; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of germinated brown rice (GBR) are likely mediated by multiple bioactives. To test this hypothesis, HepG2 cells pretreated with GBR extracts, rich in acylated steryl glycoside (ASG), gamma amino butyric acid GABA), phenolics or oryzanol, were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenging capacities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) generation were evaluated. Results showed that GBR-extracts increased OH• scavenging activities in both cell-free medium and posttreatment culture media, suggesting that the extracts were both direct- and indirect-acting against OH•. The levels of TBARS in the culture medium after treatment were also reduced by all the extracts. In addition, H2O2 produced transcriptional changes in p53, JNK, p38 MAPK, AKT, BAX, and CDK4 that were inclined towards apoptosis, while GBR-extracts showed some transcriptional changes (upregulation of BAX and p53) that suggested an inclination for apoptosis although other changes (upregulation of antioxidant genes, AKT, JNK, and p38 MAPK) suggested that GBR-extracts favored survival of the HepG2 cells. Our findings show that GBR bioactive-rich extracts reduce oxidative stress through improvement in antioxidant capacity, partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and prosurvival genes. PMID:25431609

  7. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42) Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the morphology of Aβ(1-42) were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42) suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further.

  8. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42) Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the morphology of Aβ(1-42) were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42) suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further. PMID:26858770

  9. Germinated brown rice extract inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-adipogenic effect of germinated brown rice methanol extract (GBR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The GBR inhibited adipocyte differentiation was measured by Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner without initiating any cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and adipogenic genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were significantly down-regulated by treatment with GBR when compared to that of untreated control cells. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions were attenuated by GBR in mature adipocytes. These data suggest that GBR exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect through the suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  10. Stereoselective determination of a novel chiral insecticide, sulfoxaflor, in brown rice, cucumber and apple by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zenglong; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Youpu; Liu, Na; Tao, Yan; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-02-01

    An effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the stereoselective determination of a new sulfoximines insecticide, sulfoxaflor, in brown rice, cucumber and apple. Target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile and an aliquot cleaned with Cleanert PestiCarb/PSA (primary and secondary amine) cartridge. Five polysaccharide-based columns were investigated on the separation of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers and the best was achieved on a ChromegaChiral CCA column with n-hexane/ethanol/methanol (90:2:8, v/v/v) as mobile phase by UV detection at 220 nm at 20ºC. The resolutions of the four stereoisomers were 1.85, 1.54 and 3.08, and the elution order was identified by optical rotation and stereoisomers ratio. The mean recoveries of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers ranged from 77.1% to 99.3%, with relative standard deviations less than 8.9% at three concentration levels in all matrices. The limits of detection for all stereoisomers varied from 0.05 mg/kg to 0.07 mg/kg, while the limit of quantification did not exceed 0.22 mg/kg. The method was then successfully applied to determine the sulfoxaflor stereoisomers in authentic samples, confirming that it is convenient and reliable for stereoselective determination of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers in food.

  11. An integrative process model of enzymatic biodiesel production through ethanol fermentation of brown rice followed by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis in a water-containing system.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Daisuke; Koda, Risa; Hama, Shinji; Yamada, Ryosuke; Nakashima, Kazunori; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-02-05

    We attempted to integrate lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis into fermentative bioethanol production. To produce bioethanol, ethanol fermentation from brown rice was conducted using a tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing α-amylase and glucoamylase. The resultant ethanol was distilled and separated into three fractions with different concentrations of water and fusel alcohols. In ethanolysis using the first fraction with 89.3% ethanol, a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (r-FHL) afforded the highest ethyl ester content of 94.0% after 96 h. Owing to a high concentration of water in the bioethanol solutions, r-FHL, which works best in the presence of water when processing ethanolysis, was found to be more suitable for the integrative process than a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. In addition, r-FHL was used for repeated-batch ethanolysis, resulting in an ethyl ester content of more than 80% even after the fifth batch. Fusel alcohols such as 1-butanol and isobutyl alcohol are thought to decrease the lipase activity of r-FHL. Using this process, a high ethyl ester content was obtained by simply mixing bioethanol, plant oil, and lipase with an appropriate adjustment of water concentration. The developed process model, therefore, would contribute to biodiesel production from only biomass-derived feedstocks.

  12. Rice Stripe Tenuivirus Nonstructural Protein 3 Hijacks the 26S Proteasome of the Small Brown Planthopper via Direct Interaction with Regulatory Particle Non-ATPase Subunit 3

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Wu, Jianxiang; Fu, Shuai; Li, Chenyang; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays a vital role in regulating host defenses against pathogens. Previous studies have highlighted different roles for the ubiquitin/26S proteasome in defense during virus infection in both mammals and plants, but their role in the vectors that transmit those viruses is still unclear. In this study, we determined that the 26S proteasome is present in the small brown planthopper (SBPH) (Laodelphgax striatellus) and has components similar to those in plants and mammals. There was an increase in the accumulation of Rice stripe virus (RSV) in the transmitting vector SBPH after disrupting the 26S proteasome, indicating that the SBPH 26S proteasome plays a role in defense against RSV infection by regulating RSV accumulation. Yeast two-hybrid analysis determined that a subunit of the 26S proteasome, named RPN3, could interact with RSV NS3. Transient overexpression of RPN3 had no effect on the RNA silencing suppressor activity of RSV NS3. However, NS3 could inhibit the ability of SBPH rpn3 to complement an rpn3 mutation in yeast. Our findings also indicate that the direct interaction between RPN3 and NS3 was responsible for inhibiting the complementation ability of RPN3. In vivo, we found an accumulation of ubiquitinated protein in SBPH tissues where the RSV titer was high, and silencing of rpn3 resulted in malfunction of the SBPH proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Consequently, viruliferous SBPH in which RPN3 was repressed transmitted the virus more effectively as a result of higher accumulation of RSV. Our results suggest that the RSV NS3 protein is able to hijack the 26S proteasome in SBPH via a direct interaction with the RPN3 subunit to attenuate the host defense response. IMPORTANCE We show, for the first time, that the 26S proteasome components are present in the small brown planthopper and play a role in defense against its vectored plant virus (RSV). In turn, RSV encodes a protein that subverts the SBPH 26S proteasome

  13. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC) grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-(COX-)2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-)induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF-κB proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day) than in DSS-treated mice (P < 0.05 versus DSS). This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs. PMID:23818935

  14. Infection of rice plants by rice black streaked dwarf virus improves an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of rice planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-10-01

    The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae.

  15. [Promotive excretion of causative agents of Yusho by intake of fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryze in patients with Yusho --with regard to PCDFs and PCDDs].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Iida, Takao; Todaka, Takashi; Uenotsuchi, Takeshi; Shibata, Satoko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Teruaki

    2009-05-01

    Forty years have passed since the outbreak of Kanemi rice oil poisoning, namely, Yusho in the western Japan. However, even now the patients with Yusho have been still suffering from several objective and subjective symptoms. In order to improve or, if possible, to cure such symptoms, the most important therapeutic treatment is considered to actively excrete the causative agents, that is, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) from the bodies of the patients and to reduce their body burdens. In rats, chlorophyll and dietary fiber have been shown to promote the fecal excretion of PCDFs and PCDDs and to reduce their levels in rats. In this study, we have examined whether such kinds of effect are also observed by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) containing 5% spirulina, which is so-called spirulina HI*GENKI, the health food and relatively rich with chlorophyll and dietary fiber, in eighteen patients with Yusho. They were divided into two groups, namely group A, ten patients (3 males and 7 females) with the mean age of 67.7 years old and group B, eight patients (4 males and 4 females) with the mean age of 64.1 years old. Respective mean concentrations of the three PCDF congeners, that is, 2,3,4,7,8-PenCDF, 1, 2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF in the blood on lipid weight basis just before initiating this study were as follows; group A: 413, 152 and 45.7 pg/g lipid, and group B: 151, 42.7 and 17.3 pg/g lipid. Contamination levels of these PCDF congeners in group A were 2.6 to 3.6 times higher than those in group B. In respective mean concentrations of PCDFs, PCDDs and PCDFs/DDs in both groups were as follows; group A: 228, 30.9 and 258 pg-TEQ/g lipid, and group B: 82.4, 19.7 and 102 pg-TEQ/g lipid. Contamination levels of PCDFs and PCDDs were around 2 times higher in group A than in group B. Group A took around 7.0 g of spirulina HI*GENKI after each meal and tree times a day for the first one year and

  16. Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause. Methods Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations. Results GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina. Conclusion GBR and its

  17. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  18. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P < 0.05). Bone density increased significantly (P < 0.05) in groups treated with estrogen, GBR, Remifemin®, and gamma oryzanol compared to the ovariectomized nontreated group. Histological sections revealed more osteoblasts in the treated groups when compared with the untreated groups. A polyclonal nuclear antigen reaction showing proliferating new cells was observed in groups treated with estrogen, Remifemin®, GBR, acylated steryl glucosides, and gamma oryzanol. There was a good correlation between bone mass densities estimated using Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P

  19. Germinated brown rice (GBR) reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of beta-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Latifah, Saiful Yazan; Armania, Nurdin; Tze, Tan Hern; Azhar, Yaacob; Nordiana, Abdul Hadi; Norazalina, Saad; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Saidi, Moin; Maznah, Ismail

    2010-03-26

    Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1) positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR), (G2) fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g)/weight of rat (kg)), (G3) fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4) fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5) negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR). GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in all the groups treated with GBR (G2, G3 and G4) compared to the control group (G1). Spearman rank correlation test showed significant positive linear relationship between total beta-catenin and COX-2 score (Spearman's rho = 0.616, p = 0.0001). It is demonstrated that GBR inhibits the development of total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, reduces the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2, and thus can be a promising dietary supplement in prevention of colon cancer.

  20. Effects of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds inclusion in low-fiber diets on post-weaned rabbits' health status, growth performances, carcass characteristics, and meat chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Mabrouki, Sabah; Chalghoumi, Raja; Abdouli, Hedi

    2017-03-01

    Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds (PGFS) on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Fourteen weaned rabbits were fed one of the following diets: (1) low fiber as negative control (NC), (2) low fiber containing 5% PGFS (F5), (3) low fiber containing 10% PGFS (F10), and (4) adequate fiber as positive control (PC). Each rabbit was reared in an individual cage for 7 weeks. Morbidity and sanitary risk indexes were not different (P > 0.05) between the four diets. Only 20% of the rabbits had a detectable caecal Escherichia Coli (E. coli) count (<10(5) cfu/g), and all rabbits did not show Eimeria oocysts in their feces. Compared to NC, PC gave a lower (P < 0.05) weight gain and a higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was associated with a lighter (P < 0.05) chilled carcass weight, and its meat had slightly more moisture and ether extract with less protein. Inclusion of PGFS decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake at the 10% level and, consequently, tended to improve FCR, while no effect was detected on carcass characteristics and meat composition. This study suggested that (1) the low-fiber diet was adequate for both health and growth aspects of post-weaned rabbits, and (2) the inclusion of PGFS was without consequence on rabbits' health status and growth performance.

  1. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Bint; Saeed, Mohammed Ibrahim; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ishaka, Aminu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms. Methods Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and γ-oryzanol (ORZ) at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM) at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST) at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (m)RNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k), complement protein (C3), heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), and interleukin (IL)-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry. Results The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg) upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001). GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg) treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg), EST (0.2 mg/kg), and ORZ (200 mg/kg) (P<0.05). Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg) compared to the OVX untreated group (P<0.05), and there was a slight non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the progesterone levels in the OVX untreated group compared to the sham and other treated groups. There was a significant increase at 8 weeks in the level of FSH (P<0.05) in the treated groups compared to the OVX untreated group. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) between the OVX untreated group and other groups. The sham and GBR phenolics treated group showed ER

  2. Effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosnaini, Rahmah Mastura; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice was studied. Brown rice was polished to 2%, 4% and 6% of polishing degree using embryo rice machine to produce three levels of embryo rice. All rice sample (brown rice, embryo rice 1 (2%), embryo rice 2 (4%), embryo rice 3 (6%) and white rice) were cooked using electric rice cooker. The raw and cooked rice samples were analyzed for antioxidant by total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Polishing degree and cooking treatment showed significant (p≤ 0.05) effects on both antioxidant activities (TPC, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging values) of the raw and cooked rice samples. Results showed that raw brown rice and raw embryo rice 1 were significantly higher than the other type of rice samples for TPC and FRAP values. In DPPH radical scavenging activities, raw brown rice had the highest value while white rice indicated the otherwise. Cooked brown rice demonstrated significantly higher of FRAP values (p≤ 0.05) than embryo rice 1, followed by embryo rice 2, embryo rice 3 and white rice. No significant differences were observed either between TPC values of cooked brown rice and cooked embryo rice 1 or between the DPPH radical scavenging values of cooked embryo rice 2 and cooked embryo rice 3. High positive correlations were determined between TPC, FRAP and DPPH assays (R2 > 0.70) of the samples. In overall, moderate level of antioxidant activities were detected in the raw and cooked rice samples.

  3. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    PubMed

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  4. The Bphi008a Gene Interacts with the Ethylene Pathway and Transcriptionally Regulates MAPK Genes in the Response of Rice to Brown Planthopper Feeding1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangbo; Peng, Xinxin; Xu, Henghao; Liu, Caixiang; Du, Bo; Yuan, Hongyu; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2011-01-01

    We examined ways in which the Brown planthopper induced008a (Bphi008a; AY256682) gene of rice (Oryza sativa) enhances the plant’s resistance to a specialist herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Measurement of the expression levels of ethylene synthases and of ethylene emissions showed that BPH feeding rapidly initiated the ethylene signaling pathway and up-regulated Bphi008a transcript levels after 6 to 96 h of feeding. In contrast, blocking ethylene transduction (using 1-methylcyclopropene) reduced Bphi008a transcript levels in wild-type plants fed upon by BPH. In vitro kinase assays showed that Bphi008a can be phosphorylated by rice Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase5 (OsMPK5), and yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal proline-rich region of Bphi008a interacts directly with this kinase. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that this interaction occurs in the nucleus. Subsequently, we found that Bphi008a up-regulation and down-regulation were accompanied by different changes in transcription levels of OsMPK5, OsMPK12, OsMPK13, and OsMPK17 in transgenic plants. Immunoblot analysis also showed that the OsMPK5 protein level increased in overexpressing plants and decreased in RNA interference plants after BPH feeding. In transgenic lines, changes in the expression levels of several enzymes that are important components of the defenses against the BPH were also observed. Finally, yeast two-hybrid screening results showed that Bphi008a is able to interact with a b-ZIP transcription factor (OsbZIP60) and a RNA polymerase polypeptide (SDRP). PMID:21487048

  5. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  6. Detection of lesser grain borer larvae in internally infested kernels of brown rice and wheat using an electrically conductive roller mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications were made to a small laboratory mill to enable the detection of rice kernels infested by immature, hidden stored-grain insects. The mill, which was originally designed for wheat, monitors the electrical conductance through the grain and detects kernels that are infested with live inse...

  7. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:26842399

  8. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions.

  9. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  10. Brown University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The computing at Brown University was formalized in 1960. Computing history, current university computing, and a description of the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship are discussed. The installation of a broadband communications network (BRUNET) was recently completed. (MLW)

  11. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?

    PubMed

    Miller, J B; Pang, E; Bramall, L

    1992-12-01

    We determined the glycemic (GI) and insulin-index (II) values for 12 rice products, using eight healthy subjects. The products were brown and white versions of three commercial varieties of rice [two varieties with normal amylose content (20%) and the other with 28% amylose], a waxy rice (0-2% amylose), a converted rice, a quick-cooking brown rice, puffed rice cakes, rice pasta, and rice bran. The GI of the rices ranged from 64 +/- 9 to 93 +/- 11, where glucose = 100. The high amylose rice gave a lower GI and II (P < 0.01) than did the normal-amylose and waxy-rice varieties. The converted rice and most other rice products gave a high GI. Insulin indices correlated positively with GI (r = 0.75, P < 0.05), although they were lower than expected. These results indicate that many varieties of rice, whether white, brown, or parboiled, should be classified as high GI foods. Only high-amylose varieties are potentially useful in low-GI diets.

  12. Genotype and environment effects on Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, and y-Oryzanol contents of southern US rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran contains phytochemicals such as E vitamers (i.e., tocopherols and tocotrienols) and the y-oryzanol fraction that reportedly may have positive effects on human health. Brown rice, rice bran, and rice bran extracts are therefore attractive candidates for use in the development of functional ...

  13. Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice inhibits HT-29 human colon carcinoma proliferation through inducing G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis by targeting the β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Lim, Yoong Ho; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat food and drug intoxication, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, pruritis (skin itch), and liver cancer in East Asia. In this study, we investigated anticancer activities of AC grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We found that the inhibitory efficacy of CBR 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract on HT-29 and CT-26 cell proliferation was more effective than ordinary AC EtOH 80% extract. Next, 80% EtOH extract of CBR was further separated into four fractions; hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water. Among them, CBR EtOAc fraction showed the strongest inhibitory activity against HT-29 cell proliferation. Therefore, CBR EtOAc fraction was chosen for further studies. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction induced apoptosis. Induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest on human colon carcinoma cell was observed in CBR EtOAc fraction-treated cells. We found that CBR decreased the level of proteins involved in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. CBR EtOAc fraction inhibited the β-catenin signaling pathway, supporting its suppressive activity on the level of cyclin D1. High performance liquid chromatography analysis data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction contained adenosine. This is the first investigation that CBR has a greater potential as a novel chemopreventive agent than AC against colon cancer. These data suggest that CBR might be useful as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  14. Unmaking Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  15. Upregulation of genes related to bone formation by γ-amino butyric acid and γ-oryzanol in germinated brown rice is via the activation of GABAB-receptors and reduction of serum IL-6 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Imam, Mustapha Umar

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and other bone degenerative diseases are among the most challenging non-communicable diseases to treat. Previous works relate bone loss due to osteoporosis with oxidative stress generated by free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Alternative therapy to hormone replacement has been an area of interest to researchers for almost three decades due to hormone therapy-associated side effects. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), gamma-oryzanol (ORZ), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), and phenolic extracts from germinated brown rice (GBR) on the expression of genes related to bone metabolism, such as bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osteoblast-specific transcription factor osterix (Osx), periostin, osteoblast specific factor (Postn), collagen 1&2 (Col1&2), calcitonin receptor gene (CGRP); body weight measurement and also serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteocalcin, in serum and bone. Rats were treated with GBR, ORZ, GABA, and ASG at (100 and 200 mg/kg); estrogen (0.2 mg/kg), or remifemin (10 and 20 mg/kg), compared to ovariectomized non-treated group as well as non-ovariectomized non-treated (sham) group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the IL-6 and osteocalcin levels at week 2, 4, and 8, while the gene expression in the bone tissue was determined using the Genetic Analysis System (Beckman Coulter Inc., Brea, CA, USA). Results The results indicate that groups treated with GABA (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant upregulation of SPARC, calcitonin receptor, and BMP-2 genes (P < 0.05), while the ORZ-treated group (100 and 200 mg/kg) revealed significant (P < 0.05) upregulation of Osx, Postn, RUNX-2, and Col1&2. Similarly, IL-6 concentration decreased, while osteocalcin levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups as compared to ovariectomized non

  16. Residues of chlorantraniliprole in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Chai, Wei-Gang; Wu, Yin-Liang

    2012-04-01

    The fate of chlorantraniliprole was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of chlorantraniliprole in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. Chlorantraniliprole residues were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up with QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The average recoveries were 76.9-82.4% from soil, 83.6-89.3% from rice straw, 95.2-103.1% from paddy water and 84.9-87.7% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of chlorantraniliprole calculated as a sample concentration (S/N ratio of 3) were 0.012 μg L(-1) for paddy water, 0.15 μg kg(-1) for soil, brown rice and rice straw. The results of the kinetics study of chlorantraniliprole residue showed that chlorantraniliprole degradation in soil, water and rice straw coincided with C=0.01939e(-0.0434t), C=0.01425e(-0.8111t), and C=1.171e(-0.198t), respectively; the half-lives were about 16.0 d, 0.85 d and 3.50 d, respectively. The degradation rate of chlorantraniliprole in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole on brown rice were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 14 d Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI). Therefore, a dosage of 150 mL a.i.hm(-2) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals.

  17. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    PubMed

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2016-07-20

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and <0.005; Mg = 1130 and 265; Mn = 18.2 and 9.6; Se = 0.025 and 0.028; and Zn = 17.0 and 14.4. In brown and white rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg(-1), and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg(-1), dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could

  18. Disease severity of organic rice as affected by host resistance, fertility and tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies were conducted to determine the effect of fertilizer inputs and tillage methods on disease incidence in an organic rice production system. The results of these studies suggest that organically produced rice is more vulnerable to infection of narrow brown leaf spot and brown spot. Thi...

  19. Organic rice disease management using genetic resistance, cover crop and organic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strong market demand for organic rice has driven the continued increase of organic rice production in the US. However, growers still lack effective tools to manage narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS) caused by Cercospora janseana and brown spot caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, two common diseases af...

  20. Metabolomic and functional genomic analyses reveal varietal differences in bioactive compounds of cooked rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence supports that cooked brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains metabolites with biomedical activities, yet little is known about the genetic diversity that is responsible for metabolite variation and differences in health beneficial traits. Metabolites from cooked brown rice of ten div...

  1. Effects of polishing, cooking, and storing on total arsenic and arsenic species concentrations in rice cultivated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Naito, Shigehiro; Matsumoto, Eri; Shindoh, Kumiko; Nishimura, Tsutomu

    2015-02-01

    The effects of polishing, cooking, and storing on total arsenic (As) and As species concentrations in rice were studied adopting typical Japanese conditions. Total and inorganic As levels in three white rice samples polished by removing 10% of bran by weight were reduced to 61-66% and 51-70% of those in brown rice. The As levels in the white rice after three washings with deionized water were reduced to 81-84% and 71-83% of those in raw rice. Rinse-free rice, which requires no washing before cooking because bran remaining on the surface of the rice was removed previously, yielded an effect similar to that of reducing As in rice by washing. Low-volume cooking (water:rice 1.4-2.0:1) rice to dryness did not remove As. The As content of brown rice stored in grain form for one year was stable.

  2. Sterigmatocystin Occurrence in Paddy and Processed Rice Produced in Italy in the Years 2014–2015 and Distribution in Milled Rice Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Romani, Marco; Rastelli, Silvia; Mulazzi, Annalisa; Pietri, Amedeo

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of sterigmatocystin (STC) in paddy and processed rice samples produced in Italy was surveyed. After extraction and purification, STC was analysed using HPLC-MS/MS. STC was detected in all paddy rice samples (n = 49), in the range 0.29–15.85 μg·kg−1. As regards processed rice, a widespread contamination was found in brown and parboiled rice. All the brown rice samples were contaminated between 0.12 and 1.32 μg·kg−1; for parboiled rice, the incidence was 90.9% and the maximum level was 1.09 μg·kg−1. The contamination in white rice was significantly lower (p < 0.01). The STC distribution in different rice fractions, obtained by the de-hulling and polishing processes, was evaluated. After de-hulling, the STC percentage remaining in brown rice was in the range 21.2%–30.8%. The polishing process, from brown to white rice, caused another remarkable decrease of contamination; the STC remaining in white rice was 2.2%–8.3% of the amount found in paddy rice. PMID:28264482

  3. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  4. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran contains several bioactive components that have been linked to the promotion of human health. Brown rice bran contains lipophilic components that include the tocotrienols and gamma-oryzanol. Pigmented or colored rice bran contains different phenolic compounds including anthocyanins (purp...

  5. Glycaemic index of some commercially available rice and rice products in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, D V; Henry, C J K; Lightowler, H J; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic response to nine types of rice (white basmati, brown basmati, white and brown basmati, easy-cook basmati, basmati and wild rice, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice, Thai red rice, Thai glutinous rice) and two types of rice vermicelli (Guilin rice vermicelli, Jiangxi rice vermicelli) commercially available in the United Kingdom were compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomized, repeated-measure, crossover design trial. Fourteen healthy subjects (six males, eight females), mean age 38 (standard deviation 16) years and mean body mass index 21.3 (standard deviation 2.3) kg/m(2), were recruited for the study. Subjects were served portions of the test foods and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 g available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects (-5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. For each type of food, its glycaemic index (GI) was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve as a percentage of each subject's average incremental area under the blood glucose curve for the standard food. The 10 foods exhibited a range of GI values from 37 to 92. The study indicated that rice noodles, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice and white basmati rice were low-GI foods, whilst all of the other foods were medium-GI and high-GI foods. The information presented in this paper may be useful in helping people select low-GI foods from the customary foods consumed by the British and Asian populations.

  6. Acid diffusion into rice boluses is influenced by rice type, variety, and presence of α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mennah-Govela, Yamile A; Bornhorst, Gail M; Singh, R Paul

    2015-02-01

    Breakdown of rice during gastric digestion may be influenced by rice structure, presence of salivary α-amylase, and hydrolysis by gastric acid. During mastication, saliva is mixed with rice, allowing α-amylase to begin starch hydrolysis. This hydrolysis may continue in the gastric environment depending on the rate at which gastric acid penetrates into the rice bolus. The objective of this study was to determine the acid uptake into rice boluses with and without α-amylase in saliva. Two types each of brown and white rice (medium and long grain), were formed into a cylindrical-shaped bolus. Each bolus was sealed on all sides except one to allow one-dimensional mass transfer, and incubated by immersion in simulated gastric juice at 37 °C under static conditions. Acidity of the boluses was measured by titration after 1 to 96 h of incubation. Effective diffusivity of the gastric juice through the bolus was estimated using MATLAB. Average acidity values ranged from 0.04 mg HCl/g dry matter (medium grain white rice, no incubation) to 10.01 mg HCl/g dry matter (long-grain brown rice, 72 h incubation). The rice type, presence of α-amylase, and incubation time all significantly influenced rice bolus acidity (P < 0.001). Effective diffusivity of gastric juice into the bolus was greater in brown rice than in white rice. These results indicate that starch hydrolysis by α-amylase may continue in the stomach before the gastric acid penetrates the rice bolus, and the rate of acid uptake will depend on the type of rice consumed.

  7. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination.

  8. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  9. Changes in physical, cooking, textural properties and crystallinity upon iron fortification of red rice (Jyothi).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shruti; Mr, Asha; A, Jayadep

    2016-02-01

    The present study is an investigation, into one of the varieties of paddy (Jyothi) its fortification with sodium iron EDTA salt, its physical properties, cooking characteristics, color, texture and characterization studies. Fortification was done at two concentrations 1.88 g/kg (T1 corresponding Iron content 0.25 g/Kg) and 3.39 g/kg (T2 corresponding Iron content 0.45 g/Kg). It was found that the iron content increased 2.5 folds after fortification, as compared to control sample. The results revealed that, there was significant difference between the physical properties of rice in the control, fortified brown and milled rice. The cooking parameters for control and fortified brown rice viz. cooking time, volume expansion water uptake were quite close to the control sample. The cooking time for fortified rice was 1-2 min high as compared to control, other parameters remained same. In case of milled rice, the cooking time and volume expansion for control milled rice and fortified was almost same; however the water uptake was higher for fortified milled rice as compared to control milled rice. The texture of fortified brown rice was hard as compared to fortified milled rice, although the taste was found satisfactory. The colour was significantly different in brown and milled rice. X-ray diffraction results revealed the polycrystalline nature of the fortified sample, was somewhat less crystalline as compared to control sample.

  10. Characterization of yellow rice and development of instant flours by hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bustos, F; Delgado, L L; Victorio, M G; Morales, S E

    1997-03-01

    Commercial brown and yellow milled rice submitted to inappropriate storage conditions were characterized and utilized to develop instant flours that were used in the preparation of atoles. The grains were classified as long-thin; the average size was 2.13 x 6.79 mm. The milling yields obtained in laboratory with paddy rice were 70% brown rice and 60% milled rice. Brown rice and yellow milled rice had similar amylose contents, 22.5 and 25.6% respectively. Gel consistency was soft with low gelatinization temperature (63-68 degrees C) for both samples. Field fungi, such as Helminthosporium oryzae, and storage fungi, such as Aspergillus spp, were present in paddy, yellow milled and commercial rice. The fungus Helminthosporium oryzae, Aspergillus spp, and Penicillum spp were not present in instant flours. Instant flours were prepared by soaking the grain in water, and then steaming, drying and milling it. The highest values for water absorption index were obtained from yellow milled instant rice flour. The color of yellow milled instant rice flour varied from white ("L") to pale yellow (lesser values of "b"). The lower viscosity of the instant flours indicates the breakdown of polymers and reveals that unintact starch granules were not present in instant flours. Protein and ash contents of brown and milled rice were unaffected by hydrothermal process, and the lipid content showed only little changes. Sensory analyses carried out on the atoles prepared with instant flours considered them acceptable, specially for products made from milled yellow rice.

  11. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  12. Residues and dynamics of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Li, Cun; Yang, Ting; Huangfu, Weiguo; Wu, Yinliang

    2011-02-01

    The fate of pymetrozine was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method for determination of pymetrozine in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice was developed. Pymetrozine residues were extracted from samples, cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) and then determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The average recovery was 81.2-88.1% from soil, 83.4-88.6% from rice straw, 87.3-94.1% from paddy water and 82.9-85.3% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of pymetrozine calculated as a sample concentration were 0.0003 mg kg(-1) (mg L(-1)) for soil and paddy water, 0.001 mg kg(-1) for brown rice and rice straw. The results of kinetics study of pymetrozine residue showed that pymetrozine degradation in water, soil, and rice straw coincided with C=0.194e(-0.986t), C=0.044e(-0.099t), and C=0.988e(-0.780t), respectively; the half-lives were about 0.70 d, 7.0 d and 0.89 d, respectively. The degradation rate of pymetrozine in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The highest final pymetrozine residues in brown rice were 0.01 mg kg(-1), which was lower than the EU's upper limit of 0.02 mg kg(-1) in rice. Therefore, a dosage of 300-600 g a.i.hm(-2) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals.

  13. Brown recluse spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... However, they have been found in several large cities outside these areas. The brown recluse spider prefers ... other damp, moist areas. Alternative Names Loxosceles reclusa Images Arthropods, basic features Arachnids, basic features Brown recluse ...

  14. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  15. [Effects of phosphorus-containing substances on arsenic uptake by rice].

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han; Hu, Li-Qiong; Zhou, Hang; Long, Shui-Bo

    2014-08-01

    The disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were added into arsenic contaminated soil, then rice pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phosphorus (P)-containing substances on arsenic (As) uptake by rice. The results showed that: DSP and HAP significantly increased soil pH and the contents of available P in soil (P < 0.05), activating soil arsenic. And DSP was stronger than HAP in improving the migration ability of As in soil. DSP and HAP treatments both significantly reduced the contents of total As in root, as well as total As and inorganic As in brown rice. But HAP significantly increased total As contents in stem. DSP and HAP treatments had better reducing effects on inorganic As than on total As in brown rice. And DSP had the same reducing effects as HAP on total As and inorganic As in brown rice. Analysis results showed that the contents of As in rice were affected by the antagonism between P and As and the increase of As bio-availability in soil. The antagonism played the major role in this study and it was clearly exhibited in both root and rice. Lower dosage (< or = 0.12 g x kg(-1)) of DSP and HAP increased total biomass of rice and brown rice yield, but with the increase of P addition, the two kinds of P-containing substances obviously inhibited the growth of rice, and inhibition by HAP was relatively light.

  16. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  17. Thermal characteristics of ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours.

    PubMed

    An, H J; King, J M

    2007-01-01

    Thermal properties of conventionally and ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours at various frequencies and voltages were studied. There was an increase in gelatinization temperature for conventionally heated rice starches since they were pregelatinized and became more rigid due to starch-chain interactions. In addition, there was a decrease in enthalpy (energy needed) for conventionally and ohmically heated starches during gelatinization; thus, the samples required less energy for gelatinization during DSC analysis. Ohmically heated commercial starch showed the greatest decrease in enthalpy probably because of the greatest extent of pregelatinization through ohmic heating. Brown rice flour showed the greatest gelatinization temperature resulting from the delay of starch granule swelling by lipid and protein. Enthalpy of ohmically heated starches at 20 V/cm was the lowest, which was most likely due to the lower voltage resulting in a more complete pregelatinization from a longer heating time required to reach 100 degrees C. Ohmic treatment at 70 V/cm decreased onset gelatinization temperature of white flour; therefore, it produced rice flour that swelled faster, whereas the conventionally heated sample showed a better thermal resistance.

  18. Studies on mineral nutrition and safety of wild rice (Oryza L.).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    Mineral element contents of five wild rice were analyzed, including mineral nutrient elements such as phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se), and the potential toxic elements arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the contents of K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Se in five wild rice materials were much higher than the cultivate variety Zhou 903 in both brown and milled rice. Wild rice also had lower potential toxic element contents of Hg, Pb and Cd compared with Zhou 903 in brown rice and milled rice, respectively. Among five wild rice samples, WR-3 from Uganda had the highest level of P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn and Se, and the lowest contents of Hg, Pb and Cd.

  19. Accumulation of arsenic in tissues of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) and its distribution in fractions of rice grain.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Rahman, M Arifur; Miah, M A M

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accumulation and distribution of arsenic in different fractions of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) collected from arsenic affected area of Bangladesh. The agricultural soil of study area has become highly contaminated with arsenic due to the excessive use of arsenic-rich underground water (0.070+/-0.006 mg l(-1), n=6) for irrigation. Arsenic content in tissues of rice plant and in fractions of rice grain of two widely cultivated rice varieties, namely BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, were determined. Regardless of rice varieties, arsenic content was about 28- and 75-folds higher in root than that of shoot and raw rice grain, respectively. In fractions of parboiled and non-parboiled rice grain of both varieties, the order of arsenic concentrations was; rice hull>bran-polish>brown rice>raw rice>polish rice. Arsenic content was higher in non-parboiled rice grain than that of parboiled rice. Arsenic concentrations in parboiled and non-parboiled brown rice of BRRI dhan28 were 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 were 0.8+/-0.2 and 0.6+/-0.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. However, parboiled and non-parboiled polish rice grain of BRRI dhan28 contained 0.4+/-0.0 and 0.3+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight of arsenic, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 contained 0.43+/-0.01 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Both polish and brown rice are readily cooked for human consumption. The concentration of arsenic found in the present study is much lower than the permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg kg(-1)) according to WHO recommendation. Thus, rice grown in soils of Bangladesh contaminated with arsenic of 14.5+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) could be considered safe for human consumption.

  20. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least 5 servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. PMID:26219234

  1. Ethanol sensitivity of rice and oat coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2002-05-01

    The ability to avoid the ethanol-induced injury was evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles. The growth of the rice and oat coleoptiles was inhibited by ethanol exogenously applied at concentrations greater than 200 and 30 mM, respectively. At 300 mM ethanol, oat coleoptiles were brown and flaccid but rice coleoptiles did not show any visible symptoms of toxicity. The acetaldehyde level in rice and oat coleoptiles was increased by exogenously applied ethanol and the increases were greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At 300 mM ethanol, the acetaldehyde concentrations in the rice and oat coleoptiles were 46 and 87 nmol g-1 FW under aerobic conditions, respectively, and 52 and 124 nmol g-1 FW under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) in the direction of ethanol to acetaldehyde was greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles and ADH protein in oat coleoptiles was more induced by exogenously applied ethanol than that in rice coleoptiles. These results suggest that in vivo conversion rate of ethanol to acetaldehyde by ADH is lower in rice than oat coleoptiles, which may be one of the reasons that ethanol sensitivity of rice is much lower than that of oat coleoptiles. The great ability of rice to avoid the ethanol-induced injuries may contribute its anoxia tolerance when glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation replace the Krebs cycle as the main source of energy under anaerobic conditions.

  2. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems: establishing a minimum data set.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues de Lima, Ana Cláudia; Hoogmoed, Willem; Brussaard, Lijbert

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil's capacity to function, can be assessed by indicators based on physical, chemical, and biological properties. Here we report on the assessment of soil quality in 21 rice (Oryza sativa) fields under three rice production systems (semi-direct, pre-germinated, and conventional) on four soil textural classes in the Camaquã region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of our study were: (i) to identify soil quality indicators that discriminate both management systems and soil textural classes, (ii) to establish a minimum data set of soil quality indicators and (iii) to test whether this minimum data set is correlated with yield. Twenty-nine soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to characterize regional soil quality. Soil quality assessment was based on factor and discriminant analysis. Bulk density, available water, and micronutrients (Cu, Zn, and Mn) were the most powerful soil properties in distinguishing among different soil textural classes. Organic matter, earthworms, micronutrients (Cu and Mn), and mean weight diameter were the most powerful soil properties in assessing differences in soil quality among the rice management systems. Manganese was the property most strongly correlated with yield (adjusted r2 = 0.365, P = 0.001). The merits of sub-dividing samples according to texture and the linkage between soil quality indicators, soil functioning, plant performance, and soil management options are discussed in particular.

  3. Brown recluse spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Furbee, R Brent; Kao, Louise W; Ibrahim, Danyal

    2006-03-01

    Brown recluse spider bite is a common diagnosis in almost every state in America. In fact, cases have been reported in areas where the spider has never been seen. A review of medical literature reveals that most current concepts regarding brown recluse spider envenomation are based on supposition. In this article, we attempt to review critically our present understanding of brown recluse bites with a focus on the published evidence.

  4. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers.

  5. [Phytoexclusion potential studies of Si fertilization modes on rice cadmium].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bo-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ye, Chang-Cheng; Luo, Mei-Mei; Mao, Yi-De

    2014-07-01

    The research used serious situ multi-metal contaminated soils to explore Cd repair potential in rice by adding different kinds of fertilizers, based on the outdoor pot experiment. The experiment was consisted of four treatments including non-used fertilizers (CK), the silicon fertilizer applicated into soil (Tsi), the silicon fertilizer applicated as foliar spray (Ysi) and the silicon fertilizer applicated into soil combined with the foliar spray silicon fertilizer application( Tsi + Ysi). The research examined Cd concentrations in tissues of five key growth periods to reveal cadmium (Cd) migration rules, translocation coefficients, rice biomass and yields. The results showed that, compared to CK, different fertilization methods of Si had significant impacts on decreasing Cd in brown rice and polished rice, but not in rice yields; In addition, Tsi + Ysi had the best effects to decrease Cd in edible grains, which resulted in Cd concentrations of husk, brown rice and polished rice reduced by 62.59%, 58.33% and 65.83%, respectively, and the effects of applying Tsi and Ysi were the second. Therefore, Tsi, Ysi and Tsi + Ysi were confirmed to be potential Cd pollution control technologies to rice.

  6. Changes of fumonisin production in rice grain during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Kobayashi, Hisami; Inoue, Hidehiko; Tohno, Masanori; Tsukiboshi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We assessed fumonisin production during the ensiling of rice grain. Rice grain was harvested at the full-ripe stage and prepared as rough rice, crushed rough rice, brown rice or crushed brown rice. Each material was ensiled under six conditions: (1) no fungus, anaerobic; (2) no fungus, aerobic; (3) water added, anaerobic; (4) water and fumonisin-producing fungus added, anaerobic; (5) water and fumonisin-producing fungus added, aerobic; or (6) fumonisin-producing fungus added to autoclaved material, aerobic. After 40 days of ensilage, we analyzed the silage fermentative quality and fumonisin concentration. The fermentative quality of all materials was good in treatments (3) and (4) (pH < 4), reasonable in treatment (5) (pH = 5∼6) and unacceptable in treatments (1) and (2) (pH > 6.5). The fumonisin concentration was low in all materials in treatments (1) to (4), slightly increased in the three materials other than rough rice in treatment (5), and enormously increased in all materials in treatment (6). The results indicate that the fumonisin-producing fungus does not produce fumonisin in anaerobic conditions. It is important that an anaerobic condition be maintained during ensiling in order to reduce the fumonisin content in rice grain silage.

  7. Spectroscopy of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, R.

    Recent searches for brown dwarfs have succeeded in finding these elusive objects. Massive brown dwarfs (40-70 Jupiter masses) have been found in the Pleiades, orbiting around a nearby star and, very recently, in the field. A review is given of their observed photometric and spectroscopic properties in the optical and near-infrared. The diagnosis of substellar nature based on lithium lines and methane bands is discussed in detail. While lithium has proved useful to test brown dwarfs with effective temperatures hotter than ~1600 K, methane is a substellar indicator at lower temperatures.

  8. The transfer of radioactive cesium and potassium from rice to sake.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Joyo, Midori; Tsukamoto, Kaori; Endo, Michiko; Matsumaru, Katsumi; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Using rice grains contaminated with radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) that was released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in March of 2011, we investigated the behaviors of the radioactive cesium and potassium (total K and (40)K) during sake brewing. Cesiumis a congener of K, and yeast cells have the ability to take up Cs using known K transporters. During rice polishing, the concentrations of radioactive Cs and K in the polished rice grains decreased gradually until a milling ratio (polished rice weight/brown rice weight) of 70% was reached. No significant changes were observed below this milling ratio. Sake was brewed on a small scale using the 70% polished rice. The transfer ratio of radioactive Cs to sake and to the sake cake was significantly different than the ratio of K. Approximately 36% and 23% of radioactive Cs in the polished rice was transferred to the sake and sake cake, respectively; however, 40% was removed by washing and steeping the rice grains. On the other hand, 25% and 40% of K in the polished rice was recovered in the sake and sake cake, respectively, and 35% was removed by washing and steeping the rice grains. From the present results, the concentration of radioactive Cs in sake would be 4 Bq/kg fresh weight, which is well below the regulation values (100 Bq/kg), even using brown rice containing 100 Bq/kg of radioactive Cs.

  9. Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-25

    Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438±23, 287±03, and 283±18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56±05, 92±10, 82±06 and 172±24 μg kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 μg kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice.

  10. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  11. Brown Recluse Spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  12. Brown-Sequard Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... vessel), or infectious or inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis, or multiple sclerosis. × Definition Brown-Sequard syndrome (BSS) ... vessel), or infectious or inflammatory diseases such as tuberculosis, or multiple sclerosis. View Full Definition Treatment Generally ...

  13. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  14. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  15. Exploring African Rice Genetic Diversity for Genetic Stock Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    West African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its progenitor species, O. barthii, are a source of genes for crop improvement especially pest resistance (blast, sheath blight, brown spot, bacterial blight, bacterial leaf streak, green leafhopper) and tolerance to abiotic stress (drought, acid s...

  16. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  17. Immunomodulatory Effects of Nontoxic Glycoprotein Fraction Isolated from Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Yu, A-Reum; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Ha Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2016-05-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of brown rice milling, is a rich source of dietary fiber and protein, and its usage as a functional food is expected to increase. In this study, immunomodulatory effects of glycoprotein obtained from rice bran were studied in normal mice and mouse models of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. We prepared glycoprotein from rice bran by using ammonium precipitation and anion chromatography techniques. Different doses of glycoprotein from rice bran (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days. On day 21, cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally. Glycoprotein from rice bran showed a significant dose-dependent restoration of the spleen index and white blood cell count in the immunocompromised mice. Glycoprotein from rice bran affected the immunomodulatory function by inducing the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, which produce potential T and B cells. Moreover, it prevented cyclophosphamide-induced damage of Th1-type immunomodulatory function through enhanced secretion of Th1-type cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-12). These results indicate that glycoprotein from rice bran significantly recovered cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Based on these data, it was concluded that glycoprotein from rice bran is a potent immunomodulator and can be developed to recover the immunity of immunocompromised individuals.

  18. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  19. Resistance of Rice Varieties to the Stored-Product Insect, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Antunes, Catarina; Mendes, Raquel; Lima, Arlindo; Barros, Graça; Fields, Paul; Da Costa, Luísa Beirão; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Silva, Maria José; Correia, Augusto Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Otilia

    2016-02-01

    Four common Portuguese rice varieties--Thaibonnet, Gladio, Albatros, and Eurosis--were tested for their relative susceptibility to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a common pest of stored rice in Portugal and in tropical countries. Physical (moisture content, hardness, length, and width) and chemical (by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) properties of rice kernels were measured. Insect bioassays measured median developmental time, Dobie's index of susceptibility, percentage of damaged grains and weight loss, and progeny developed. This was done for paddy, brown rice, and polished rice for each variety. There were small, but significant, differences in insect resistance among the varieties. However, it was different for paddy and polished rice. In paddy, these differences were correlated with hull damage, and Eurosis was the most susceptible variety. In polished rice, resistance was correlated with hardness, and Thaibonnet was the most susceptible variety. In general, paddy rice was more resistant to insect attack, followed by polished rice and then brown rice. Paddy kernels selected with undamaged hull were completely resistant to attack. Implications for IPM and breeding for resistant varieties are discussed.

  20. Accumulation of mercury and cadmium in rice from paddy soil near a mercury mine.

    PubMed

    Li, W C; Ouyang, Y; Ye, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Paddy soil and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Wanshan mining area in Guizhou Province, China, have been contaminated by toxic trace metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The present study examined correlations between the types and physicochemical parameters of the soil and the contents of trace metals and the different forms of Hg in rice. The health risks of consuming contaminated rice from the Wanshan mining area were also assessed. Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the chemical behavior of Hg in the soil. The results showed that Hg and Cd were the most abundant trace metals in the Wanshan mining area. The toxic methylmercury (MeHg) content was substantial in brown rice, and the total amounts of total Hg (THg), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Hg, and water-soluble Hg varied in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. An antagonistic interaction between Mn in brown rice, straw, and husk and MeHg in brown rice was also shown. An analysis of calculated dietary intake, target hazard quotients, and hazard indexes showed a potential risk of transferring Hg, MeHg, and Cd to humans when rice from the Wanshan mining area is consumed. Therefore, it must be concluded that consuming contaminated rice near the Wanshan mining area is a potential threat to human health.

  1. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk & leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants.

  2. Effect of steam-cooking and parboiling on phenolics and antioxidant capacities of red and purple rice cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red and purple rice cultivars contain high concentrations of phenolics, such as proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, respectively. We investigated the effect of cooking processes on these antioxidants and antioxidant capacities of pigmented and common light-brown bran rice. The cooking processes incl...

  3. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), via fatty acid synthase gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report d...

  4. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Brown ... picó una reclusa parda! What's a Brown Recluse Spider? The brown recluse spider is one of the ...

  5. [In vitro analysis of the iron availability in fortified rice].

    PubMed

    Romera, G F; Zuleta, A; Sarchi, M I; Sambucetti, M E

    2000-09-01

    Cereals are rich in fiber but also in phytate which is considered the principal inhibitor of mineral availability. On this basis, iron availability of fortified rice, and the inhibitory effect of bran phytate was studied in: white rice fortified with electrolytic iron (ABF) from commercial origin; and mixtures of ABF plus 4.76% and 9.09% of rice bran (ABF2 and ABF3 respectively) to simulate brown rice. Samples were analysed before and after phytic acid hydrolysis with phytase: Dietary fiber and phytic acid were assessed according AOAC; iron availability, expressed as dialisable iron by the in vitro method of Kapsokefalou and Miller modified by Valencia et al.; iron content was assessed by AAS. Results showed that added bran depressed iron availability, 9.65%; 4.04% and 1.82% as expected (ABF, ABF2 and ABF3 respectively). After phytic acid hydrolysis iron availability reached 28.20%; 27.95% and 25.30% for the same samples. These values were not different. After phytic acid hydrolysis, fiber content of ABF2 and ABF3 were lower than before. However multiple regression analysis of the data showed that fiber had not influence on iron availability and that phytic acid would be the principal responsible of it. These results indicate that brown rice should have a higher level of iron fortification than in white rice or be combined with other foods that improve iron availability as meats, vegetables or fruits.

  6. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection. PMID:27185548

  7. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-05-17

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection.

  8. The search for brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of brown dwarfs is summarized and observational findings regarding brown dwarfs are reviewed. The equation of state, the thermal properties, the interior transport properties, the boundary conditions, and the initial conditions are examined. Indirect observations, IR speckle interferometry, IR photometry, and field observations of brown dwarfs are discussed.

  9. Thirty Years After Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.

    Although many school districts and classrooms have desegregated since the 1954 Brown decision, desegregation is neither complete nor uniform. Moreover, racial isolation is growing in some regions and cities, and new forms of separation are arising within desegregated schools. New desegregation strategies and policies are needed, but these will be…

  10. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was…

  11. Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus and rice ragged stunt virus enhances their insect vector acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-07-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV.

  12. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-09-09

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  13. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  14. Rice consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from a pooled analysis of 3 U.S. cohorts1234

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Isao; Wu, Hongyu; Imamura, Fumiaki; Laden, Francine; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Sun, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health concerns have been raised about rice consumption, which may significantly contribute to arsenic exposure. However, little is known regarding whether habitual rice consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective: We examined prospectively the association of white rice and brown rice consumption with CVD risk. Design: We followed a total of 207,556 women and men [73,228 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2010), 92,158 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2011), and 42,170 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2010)] who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess consumption of white rice, brown rice, and other food items. Fatal and nonfatal CVD (coronary artery disease and stroke) was confirmed by medical records or self-reports. Results: During 4,393,130 person-years of follow-up, 12,391 cases of CVD were identified. After adjustment for major CVD risk factors, including demographics, lifestyle, and other dietary intakes, rice consumption was not associated with CVD risk. The multivariable-adjuted HR of developing CVD comparing ≥5 servings/wk with <1 serving/wk was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.14) for white rice, 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) for brown rice, and 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) for total rice. To minimize the potential impact of racial difference in rice consumption, we restricted the analyses to whites only and obtained similar results: the HRs of CVD for ≥5 servings/wk compared with <1 serving/wk were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.22) for white rice and 1.01 (0.78, 1.31) for brown rice. Conclusions: Greater habitual consumption of white rice or brown rice is not associated with CVD risk. These findings suggest that rice consumption may not pose a significant CVD risk among the U.S. population when consumed at current amounts. More prospective studies are needed to explore these associations in other populations. PMID

  15. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  16. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  17. Hypocholesterolemic metabolism of dietary red pericarp glutinous rice rich in phenolic compounds in mice fed a high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Mi; Kim, Eun-Hye; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of red pericarp glutinous rice rich in polyphenols (Jakwangchalbyeo, red rice) on serum and hepatic levels of cholesterol and hepatic protein expression linked to synthesis and degradation of cholesterol in a hypercholesterolemic mice diet as compared with brown rice. MATERIALS/METHODS C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 5 each), which were fed different diets for a period of 12 weeks: American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G diet, AIN-93G diet with 2% cholesterol, brown rice with 2% cholesterol, or red rice with 2% cholesterol. RESULT Consumption of red rice resulted in a significant decrease in serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic levels of triglyceride and total-cholesterol. Expression of acyl-coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2), sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was decreased, while expression of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)/AMPK ratio, cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase (CYP7a1), and sterol 12-α-hydroxylase (CYP8b1) was increased in mice fed red rice. Brown rice had similar effects on cholesterol metabolism, but the effect of red rice was significantly greater than that of brown rice. CONCLUSIONS The current study suggested that red rice had a hypocholesterolemic effect by lowering hepatic cholesterol synthesis through ACAT-2, HMG-CoA reductase, and SREBP-2, and by enhancing hepatic cholesterol degradation through CYP7a1 and CYP8b1 in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. PMID:25489402

  18. Fate of Bacillus cereus and naturally occurring microbiota on milled rice as affected by temperature and relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seonyeong; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-04-01

    We studied the survival and growth patterns of Bacillus cereus, mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), and molds and yeasts (MY) on rough and milled brown and white Korean rice stored at 12 and 21 °C and 43, 68, and 85% relative humidity (RH) for up to 24 wk. The initial populations of MAB present on rough rice, brown rice, and white rice were 7.7, 5.7, and 3.3 log CFU/g, respectively, and remained constant or decreased (P ≤ 0.05) by 0.7-1.8 log CFU/g during storage. The initial populations of B. cereus on the three types of laboratory-inoculated rice were 3.1-3.8 log CFU/g and remained constant (P > 0.05) during storage, regardless of degree of milling, storage temperature, and RH. The initial populations of MY on rough rice, brown rice, and white rice were 6.2, 4.2, and 2.1 log CFU/g, respectively. At 12 °C and 85% RH, the MY increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) only on brown rice; however, at 21 °C and 85% RH, MY increased (P ≤ 0.05) on all types of rice during storage. These observations will be useful when assessing conditions affecting survival of B. cereus and determining environmental conditions necessary to prevent growth of potentially mycotoxigenic molds on various types of milled rice during storage.

  19. Inorganic and Total Arsenic Contents in Rice and Rice-Based Foods Consumed by a Potential Risk Subpopulation: Sportspeople.

    PubMed

    Cano-Lamadrid, M; Munera-Picazo, S; Burgos-Hernández, A; Burló, F; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-04-01

    One of the main routes of exposure to inorganic arsenic (i-As) in humans is food, especially rice and rice-based products. There are certain groups of consumers that could be highly exposed to i-As. Maximum levels of i-As have been issued for infants and young children by the European Union, but perhaps other groups are also at risk. Sportspeople could be one of those groups, due to their specific nutritional requirements, especially its high consumption of cereals, such as rice. Because of the well-known relationship between rice and i-As, the intake of i-As by sportspeople deserved especial attention and was estimated in Spain. This study demonstrated that rice-based products reached a maximum i-As content of 178 μg/kg, with a mean for all studied products of 56 μg/kg; the maximum contents were found in rice cakes (149 μg/kg) and brown rice (111 μg/kg). The estimated daily intake of i-As were 0.16 and 0.18 μg/kg bw (body weight)/d, in sportsmen and sportswomen, respectively. These values were below the BMDL01 , 0.3 to 8.0 μg/kg bw/d; thus, it can be concluded that the sportspeople group is not at a significant risk regarding the intake of i-As. However, further studies are needed to evaluate their whole diet and not only rice-based products. Finally, it is important to claim that companies producing rice products include as much information as possible about the rice used in their products, including rice percentage and geographical origin.

  20. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals.

  1. Dissipation and residue of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Li; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2015-03-01

    The dissipation and residue of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem were studied based on a novel and reliable analytical method for pymetrozine in paddy water, soil, rice straw, brown rice, and rice husk. The pymetrozine residues were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up by Carb-NH2 SPE cartridge and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The dissipation of pymetrozine followed first-order kinetics and its half-lives ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 days in paddy water, 5.1 to 5.7 days in soil, and 2.3 to 2.6 days in rice straw, respectively. At harvest time, the highest final residues of pymetrozine varied in soil among three geographical fields and were below the limit of detection in rice tissues. The recommended dosage was considered to be safe for human beings and animals, and the results were helpful in setting maximum residue limit for pymetrozine in rice.

  2. Arsenic speciation in rice and risk assessment of inorganic arsenic in Taiwan population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Ching-Chang; Huang, Winn-Jung; Huang, Han-Ting; Wu, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Yi-Ting

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the total arsenic content and arsenic speciation in rice to determine the health risks associated with rice consumption in various age-gender subgroups in Taiwan. The average total arsenic levels in white rice and brown rice were 116.6 ± 39.2 and 215.5 ± 63.5 ng/g weight (n = 51 and 13), respectively. The cumulative cancer risk among males was 10.4/100,000. The highest fraction of inorganic/total arsenic content in white rice ranged from 76.9 to 88.2 % and from 81.0 to 96.5 % in brown rice. The current study found different arsenic speciation of rice in southern Taiwan, where the famous blackfoot disease has been reported compared with arsenic speciation from other Taiwan areas. Therefore, rice and other grains should be further monitored in southern Taiwan to evaluate whether arsenic contamination is well controlled in this area.

  3. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-12-08

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10(-4). The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  4. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-01-01

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10−4. The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents. PMID:26670240

  5. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  6. Silencing a sugar transporter gene reduces fecundity, growth and development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, sugar transporter gene 6 (Nlst6) is a facilitative glucose/fructose transporter expressed in midgut that mediates sugar uptake from rice phloem, a major energy source for BPH. In mammals, down regulation of the major sugar transporter gene GLUT or SGL...

  7. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  8. Differential resistance and cross-resistance to three phenylpyrazole insecticides in the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-resistance to two fipronil analogs, butene-fipronil and ethiprole were detected in fipronil-resistant field populations and a resistant laboratorial strain of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, although the two analogs have not been used widely in rice-growing areas in China. The resul...

  9. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Md. Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg) linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg) and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg). The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis), with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg), campesterol (116–242 mg/kg), Δ5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg) were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data), identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods. PMID:22605998

  10. Origins, Evolution, and Fate of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Research related to the origins, evolution and fate of brown dwarfs is presented. The topics include: 1) Imaging surveys for brown dwarfs; 2) Companion detection techniques; 3) Measurements of fundamental properties of brown dwarfs; 4) Classification schemes for ultracool dwarfs; 5) Origins and evolution of brown dwarfs; 6) Ultracool atmospheres and interiors; 7) Time variable phenomena in brown dwarfs; 8) Comparisons between brown dwarfs and planets; 9) Substellar mass functions; and 10) Future facilities.

  11. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Richard W.

    On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the "Brown v Board of Education" decision, it is appropriate to review it as the spark for a new definition of equality in American life. The Brown case was the first significant step in the modern civil rights movement, and, as such, defined the structure and legal reasoning for the push by…

  12. Inhibition of browning in foodstuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    Addition of water-soluble sulfur-containing compounds, thio compounds or potential thio compounds, to a mixture of carbohydrates, and either proteins, peptides, or amino acids can retard or completely eliminate the browning process. Determining factor is dependent upon the concentration of the anti-browning agent in the aqueous media.

  13. A systematic review of the influence of rice characteristics and processing methods on postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses.

    PubMed

    Boers, Hanny M; Seijen Ten Hoorn, Jack; Mela, David J

    2015-10-14

    Rice is an important staple food for more than half of the world's population. Especially in Asian countries, rice is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load (GL). Sustained consumption of higher-GL diets has been implicated in the development of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given that a reduction in postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses is generally seen as a beneficial dietary change, it is useful to determine the variation in the range of postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) responses to rice and the primary intrinsic and processing factors known to affect such responses. Therefore, we identified relevant original research articles on glycaemic response to rice through a systematic search of the literature in Scopus, Medline and SciFinder databases up to July 2014. Based on a glucose reference value of 100, the observed glycaemic index values for rice varieties ranged from 48 to 93, while the insulinaemic index ranged from 39 to 95. There are three main factors that appear to explain most of the variation in glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice: (1) inherent starch characteristics (amylose:amylopectin ratio and rice cultivar); (2) post-harvest processing (particularly parboiling); (3) consumer processing (cooking, storage and reheating). The milling process shows a clear effect when compared at identical cooking times, with brown rice always producing a lower PPG and PPI response than white rice. However, at longer cooking times normally used for the preparation of brown rice, smaller and inconsistent differences are observed between brown and white rice.

  14. Residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in rice field ecosystem in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang P; He, Hong M; Yu, Jian Z; Hu, Xiu Q; Zhu, Ya H; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The fate of carbosulfan (seed treatment dry powder) was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of carbosulfan, carbofuran, and 3-hydroxyl carbofuran in brown rice, rice straw, paddy water, and soil. The target compounds were extracted using acetonitrile or dichloromethane, cleaned up on acidic alumina or florisil solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The average recoveries of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in brown rice, rice straw, paddy water, and soil ranged from 72.71% to 105.07%, with relative standard deviations of 2.00-8.80%. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in the samples (brown rice, rice straw, paddy water and soil) were 0.011, 0.0091, 0.014, 0.010 mg kg(-1), 0.016, 0.019, 0.025, 0.013 mg kg(-1), and 0.031, 0.039, 0.035, 0.036 mg kg(-1), respectively. The trials results showed that the half-lives of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in rice straw were 4.0, 2.6 days, 3.9, 6.0 days, and 5.8, 7.0 days in Zhejiang and Hunan, respectively. Carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran were detected in soils. Carbosulfan and 3-hydroxy carbofuran were almost undetectable in paddy water. Carbofuran was detected in paddy water. The final residues of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in brown rice were lower than 0.05 mg kg(-1), which were lower than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (MRL of carbosulfan) or 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MRL of carbofuran). Therefore, a dosage of 420 g active ingredient per 100 kg seed was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. These would contribute to provide the scientific basis of using this insecticide.

  15. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Ya-jun; Meng, Zhi-yuan; Lu, Chun-liang; Gu, Hao-tian; Zhuang, Yi-qing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there is an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice. To protect consumers from potential health risks, this study can provide references for the safe application of trichlorfon in the rice fields. Results of the field dissipation study showed that the dissipation dynamic equations of trichlorfon were based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations and that the dissipation rates vary among rice plant, brown rice, rice bran, soil, and water. The 2-year field trials conducted in Yangzhou and Xiaogan suggested the interval of each application for trichlorfon on rice to be at least 7 days when 80 % trichlorfon SP was sprayed with a dose ranges between 80 and 160 a.i g/667 m(2). Additionally, the preharvest interval of the last application should be at least 15 days to ensure the amounts of residues below the maximum residue limits of trichlorfon on brown rice (0.1 mg/kg).

  16. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  17. Tailoring Grain Storage Reserves for a Healthier Rice Diet and its Comparative Status with Other Cereals.

    PubMed

    Butardo, Vito M; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2016-01-01

    A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases.

  18. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen. PMID:27436950

  19. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen.

  20. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  1. Improved yield and Zn accumulation for rice grain by Zn fertilization and optimized water management*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significantly increased grain yield and Zn concentrations in both brown rice and polished rice. Grain yield of genotypes (Nipponbare and Jiaxing27), on the average, was increased by 11.4%, and grain Zn concentration by 3.9% when compared with those under a CF regime. Zn fertilization significantly increased Zn density in polished rice, with a more pronounced effect of ZnSO4 being observed as compared with Zn-EDTA, especially under an AWD regime. Decreased phytic acid content and molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn were also noted in rice grains with Zn fertilization. The above results demonstrated that water management of AWD combined with ZnSO4 fertilization was an effective agricultural practice to elevate grain yield and increase Zn accumulation and bioavailability in rice grains. PMID:24711357

  2. Improved yield and Zn accumulation for rice grain by Zn fertilization and optimized water management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significantly increased grain yield and Zn concentrations in both brown rice and polished rice. Grain yield of genotypes (Nipponbare and Jiaxing27), on the average, was increased by 11.4%, and grain Zn concentration by 3.9% when compared with those under a CF regime. Zn fertilization significantly increased Zn density in polished rice, with a more pronounced effect of ZnSO4 being observed as compared with Zn-EDTA, especially under an AWD regime. Decreased phytic acid content and molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn were also noted in rice grains with Zn fertilization. The above results demonstrated that water management of AWD combined with ZnSO4 fertilization was an effective agricultural practice to elevate grain yield and increase Zn accumulation and bioavailability in rice grains.

  3. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling. Four different milling temperatures per milling duration were achieved. Cooked rice texture properties were assessed using a uniaxial compression test and rice flour pasting properties measured using a TA-2000 rheometer. Results of this study showed that exposure of rice to high temperatures during milling significantly decreased cooked rice firmness. An increase in milled rice temperature after milling from 10.0 to 13.3 °C resulted in a 5.4 and 8.1 N decrease in cooked rice firmness. Although not always significant, the increase in milled rice temperature during milling resulted in an increase in cooked rice stickiness. The increase in milling temperature also showed significant increase in rice flour pasting properties. Changes in rice functional characteristics were attributed to the changes occurring to rice chemical constituents due to temperature exposure as indicated by the increase in rice protein hydrophobicity. Proteins are known to affect rice starch water holding capacity and other starch gelatinization properties.

  4. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  5. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  6. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  9. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  10. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  14. Faces of Marshall: Arthur Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Metallurgist Arthur Brown shares how his high school drafting and welding success led him to a NASA ca...

  15. HUBBLE SPIES BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY STELLAR NURSERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    objects. The brown dwarfs are the faintest objects in the image. Surveying the cluster's central region, the Hubble telescope spied brown dwarfs with masses equaling 10 to 80 Jupiters. Researchers think there may be less massive brown dwarfs that are beyond the limits of Hubble's vision. The near-infrared image was taken Jan. 17, 1998. Two near-infrared filters were used to obtain information on the colors of the stars at two wavelengths (1.1 and 1.6 microns). The Trapezium picture is 1 light-year across. This composite image was made from a 'mosaic' of nine separate, but adjoining images. In this false-color image, blue corresponds to warmer, more massive stars, and red to cooler, less massive stars and brown dwarfs, and stars that are heavily obscured by dust. The visible-light data were taken in 1994 and 1995. Credits for near-infrared image: NASA; K.L. Luhman (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.); and G. Schneider, E. Young, G. Rieke, A. Cotera, H. Chen, M. Rieke, R. Thompson (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.) Credits for visible-light picture: NASA, C.R. O'Dell and S.K. Wong (Rice University)

  16. The effect of fertilization on cesium concentration of rice grown in a paddy field in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Kajikawa, Masataka; Nishida, Sho; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Furukawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011, radioactive cesium was released and paddy field in a wide area of Fukushima Prefecture was contaminated. To reduce radioactive Cs uptake by rice, it is important to understand factors that affect Cs uptake in rice. Here we describe our study in 2011 and 2012 to investigate Cs concentration in two rice cultivars, Koshihikari and Hitomebore, the top two cultivars in Fukushima prefecture, grown under different fertilizer conditions in the contaminated paddy field. Our study demonstrated that high nitrogen and low potassium conditions increase Cs concentrations both in straw and brown rice.

  17. Influence of rice black streaked dwarf virus on the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Yang, Ya-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). Non-vector rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), shares the same host rice plants with SBPH in paddy fields. The changes in nutritional composition of rice plants infected by RBSDV and the ecological fitness of BPH feeding on the infected plants were studied under both artificial climate chamber and field conditions. Contents of 16 detected amino acids and soluble sugar in RBSDV infected rice plants were higher than those in the healthy ones. On the diseased plants BPH had significantly higher nymphal survival rates, nymphal duration of the males, weight of the female adults, as well as egg hatchability compared to BPH being fed on healthy plants. However, there was no obvious difference in female nymph duration, longevity and fecundity. Defense enzymes (superoxidase dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and detoxifying enzymes (carboxylesterase, CAE and glutathione S-transferase, GST) in BPH adults fed on diseased plants had markedly higher activities. The results indicate rice plants infected by RBSDV improved the ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, a serious pest but not a transmitter of the RBSDV virus.

  18. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  19. Genotypic differences in arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2012-06-01

    The contents of arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium in milled rice were determined. Among 216 genotypes, the As, Hg, Pb and Cd contents were ranged from 5.06 to 296.45, 2.46 to 65.85, 4.16 to 744.95 and 5.91 to 553.40 ng/g, respectively. Six genotypes with lower contents of toxic metal elements were selected. The averages of As and Pb contents for indica rice were higher than those of japonica rice, while the averages of Hg and Cd contents were in contrast. Compared with white brown rice, the milled rice from black and red brown rice contained lower contents of four elements. Significant negative correlation was found between As content and alkaline spread value. Significant correlations were observed between As and aspartic acid (Asp) content, Hg and Asp or leucine contents, Pb and cysteine or methionine contents. Cd content was significantly negatively correlated with protein and 14 amino acid contents.

  20. Potential risks of copper, zinc, and cadmium pollution due to pig manure application in a soil-rice system under intensive farming: a case study of Nanhu, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiachun; Yu, Xiulin; Zhang, Mingkui; Lu, Shenggao; Wu, Weihong; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal (copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], and cadmium [Cd]) pollution of soils from pig manures in soil-rice ( L.) systems under intensive farming was investigated, taking Nanhu, China, as the case study area. Two hundred pig manures and 154 rice straws, brown rice samples, and corresponding surface soil (0-15 cm) samples were collected in paddy fields from 150 farms in 16 major villages within the study area. The mean Cu and Zn concentrations in pig manures consistently exceeded the related standard. About 44 and 60% of soil samples exceed the Chinese Soil Cu and Cd Environmental Quality Standards, respectively. The concentration of Cu, Zn, and Cd in brown rice did not exceed the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard. There was a significant positive correlation between total Cu and Zn contents in soil and application rate of pig manures. Strong correlation was observed between the extractable Cu, Zn, and Cd in soil and the Cu, Zn, and Cd contents in the brown rice. The spatial distribution maps of Cu and Zn concentrations in brown rice, straw, and extractable soil Cu and Zn concentration also showed similar geographical trends. Further analyses on heavy metals loading flux and accumulation rates from pig manure applied suggested that Cu and Cd contents in soil currently have already exceeded the maximum permissible limit, and Zn, if still at current manure application rates, will reach the ceiling concentration limits in 9 yr. This study assists in understanding the risk of heavy metals accumulating from pig manure applications to agricultural soils.

  1. Relating raw rice color and composition to cooked rice color.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the color of milled rice is economically important. The whiter the rice the more it is preferred by consumers and the more value it has in the market place. Little attention has been given to relating raw rice color to cooked milled rice color and, specifically, to determining the i...

  2. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants.

  3. Brown adipose tissue and thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fenzl, Anna; Kiefer, Florian W

    2014-07-01

    The growing understanding of adipose tissue as an important endocrine organ with multiple metabolic functions has directed the attention to the (patho)physiology of distinct fat depots. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), in contrast to bona fide white fat, can dissipate significant amounts of chemical energy through uncoupled respiration and heat production (thermogenesis). This process is mediated by the major thermogenic factor uncoupling protein-1 and can be activated by certain stimuli, such as cold exposure, adrenergic compounds or genetic alterations. White adipose tissue (WAT) depots, however, also possess the capacity to acquire brown fat characteristics in response to thermogenic stimuli. The induction of a BAT-like cellular and molecular program in WAT has recently been termed "browning" or "beiging". Promotion of BAT activity or the browning of WAT is associated with in vivo cold tolerance, increased energy expenditure, and protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes. These preclinical observations have gained additional significance with the recent discovery that active BAT is present in adult humans and can be detected by 18fluor-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography coupled with computed tomography. As in rodents, human BAT can be activated by cold exposure and is associated with increased energy turnover and lower body fat mass. Despite the tremendous progress in brown fat research in recent years, pharmacological concepts to harness BAT function therapeutically are currently still lacking.

  4. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  5. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  6. Efficacy of Deltamethrin Against Stored-Product Beetles at Short Exposure Intervals or on a Partially Treated Rice Mass.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-06-01

    Stored-product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of three species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were exposed for 1, 4, 8, and 24 h on brown rice treated with the pyrethroid deltamethrin at the label rate of 0.5 ppm, then removed and placed on untreated rice. Adults of these same species plus the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were exposed on treated brown rice mixed with varying amounts of untreated rice to assess progeny production. Immediate and delayed mortality of exposed adults did not exceed 7% for any exposure interval, but progeny production for T. castaneum was generally lower in comparison with that for the other species. Increasing the amount of treated rice decreased progeny production of R. dominica but not for any Sitophilus species. Mixed results were obtained for T. castaneum and T. variabile. Results show that long exposure times and treatment of an entire rice mass may be necessary to give complete control of stored-product beetles.

  7. Growing rice aerobically markedly decreases mercury accumulation by reducing both Hg bioavailability and the production of MeHg.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Bing; Huang, Linan; Meng, Mei; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-01-01

    Rice consumption represents a major route of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for those living in certain areas of inland China. In this study we investigated the effects of water management on bioavailable Hg, MeHg, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, abundance and community composition) in rhizosphere soil, and total Hg (THg) and MeHg in rice plants grown under glasshouse and paddy field conditions. Aerobic conditions greatly decreased the amount of THg and MeHg taken up by rice plants and affected their distribution in different plant tissues. There were positive correlations between bioavailable Hg and THg in brown rice and roots and between numbers of SRB and MeHg in brown rice, roots, and rhizosphere soil. Furthermore, the community composition of SRB was dramatically influenced by the water management regimes. Our results demonstrate that the greatly reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg are due to decreased SRB numbers and proportion of Hg methylators in the rhizosphere under aerobic conditions. These are the main reasons for the reduced Hg and MeHg accumulation in aerobically grown rice. Water management is indicated as an effective measure that can be used to reduce Hg and MeHg uptake by rice plants from Hg-contaminated paddy fields.

  8. African-American Heritage profile - Maikeyza Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Maikeyza Brown is a contract management specialist at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. A native of Washington, D.C., Brown overcame obstacles to receive honors in high school a...

  9. Rice planting systems, global warming and outbreaks of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Hu, G; Cheng, X N; Qi, G J; Wang, F Y; Lu, F; Zhang, X X; Zhai, B P

    2011-04-01

    Brown Planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) is one of the most serious pests of rice in both temperate and tropical regions of East and South Asia and has become especially problematic over the past few years. In order to analyze the effect of the change of rice cropping system on the population dynamics of BPH, field surveys of the occurrence and distribution of BPH were performed and other relevant data, including light trap data and ovary dissection data were collected in nearly 40 Chinese counties encompassing six provinces (or municipalities), including Hainan, Guangxi, Anhui, Shanghai, Fujian and Guangdong from April to October in 2007.The mixed planting areas of single- and double-cropping rice in China include Hubei, South and Central Anhui, North Hunan, and North Jiangxi. In these areas, double-cropping rice has now been greatly reduced and single-cropping rice has been rapidly increasing since 1997. The surveys revealed that when the immigration peak of BPH occurred in June and July, the single-cropping rice was at the tillering to booting stage and fit for BPH, but early rice had already matured and most of late rice had not yet been transplanted. BPH immigrants from southern rice areas prefer to inhabit and breed in single-cropping rice paddies. Moreover, farming activities between early rice and late rice interrupted the continuous growth of BPH populations in double-cropping rice paddies. As a result, in comparison with data collected 30 years ago, the spatiotemporal dynamics and migration patterns of BPH have dramatically changed in the lower-middle reaches of the Yangtze River. In the mixed planting areas, due to their high suitability, the BPH population in single-cropping rice grew so quickly that it caused serious local damage and there was mass emigration of macropterous progeny to the Yangtze River Delta in late August and early September.Global warming may also affect BPH populations, where results suggest steadily warmer autumns have

  10. Degradation kinetics of the insecticide spinetoram in a rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Guo; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Yong; Yang, Ting; Wu, Yin-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The fate of spinetoram was studied in a rice field ecosystem, and an efficient method for the determination of spinetoram (XDE-175-J and XDE-175-L) in soil, rice straw, paddy water, husk and brown rice was developed. Spinetoram residues were extracted from samples with a salting out extraction procedure. The extracts were diluted with 0.10% formic acid in water and analysed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.125-100 μg L(-1) and r>0.999. The average recovery was 82.9-89.0% from soil, 78.5-92.1% from rice straw, 93.6-100.3% from paddy water, 79.1-87.9% from brown rice and 72.7-82.9% from husk. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 10%. These results are all within the accepted range for pesticide residue determination. The field test results showed that spinetoram degradation in paddy water, soil and rice straw coincided with C=0.0132e(-1.9685t), C=0.0308e(-0.1018t) and C=0.8530e(-0.6223t), respectively. The half-lives of spinetoram in paddy water, soil and rice straw were 0.35, 6.8 and 1.1 d, respectively. The final residue level was lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) for spinetoram in rice with a harvest interval of 7d. A dosage of 450 mL ha(-1) was recommended, which can be considered safe for human beings and animals. The results of this study will contribute to establishing the scientific basis of the dosage of spinetoram for agricultural fields.

  11. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  1. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25.

  2. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  3. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity.…

  4. Metabolic evaluation of 'Braeburn' browning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Braeburn’ browning is an internal storage disorder sometimes associated with elevated storage CO2 concentrations. Incidence of the disorder can be reduced using pre-storage diphenylamine (DPA) drenches indicating a relationship between reactive chemical species and disorder occurrence. ‘Braeburn’...

  5. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Lara Marie Pangan; Kang, Mi Young; Yi, Seong Joon; Chung, Soo Im

    2016-01-01

    Background In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities. PMID:27032671

  6. The brown dwarf kinematics project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jackie K.

    2010-10-01

    Brown dwarfs are a recent addition to the plethora of objects studied in Astronomy. With theoretical masses between 13 and 75 MJupiter , they lack sustained stable Hydrogen burning so they never join the stellar main sequence. They have physical properties similar to both planets and low-mass stars so studies of their population inform on both. The distances and kinematics of brown dwarfs provide key statistical constraints on their ages, moving group membership, absolute brightnesses, evolutionary trends, and multiplicity. Yet, until my thesis, fundamental measurements of parallax and proper motion were made for only a relatively small fraction of the known population. To address this deficiency, I initiated the Brown Dwarf Kinematics (BDKP). Over the past four years I have re-imaged the majority of spectroscopically confirmed field brown dwarfs (or ultracool dwarfs---UCDs) and created the largest proper motion catalog for ultracool dwarfs to date. Using new astrometric information I examined population characteristics such as ages calculated from velocity dispersions and correlations between kinematics and colors. Using proper motions, I identified several new wide co-moving companions and investigated binding energy (and hence formation) limitations as well as the frequency of hierarchical companions. Concurrently over the past four years I have been conducting a parallax survey of 84 UCDs including those showing spectral signatures of youth, metal-poor brown dwarfs, and those within 20 pc of the Sun. Using absolute magnitude relations in J,H, and K, I identified overluminous binary candidates and investigated known flux-reversal binaries. Using current evolutionary models, I compared the MK vs J-K color magnitude diagram to model predictions and found that the low-surface gravity dwarfs are significantly red-ward and underluminous of predictions and a handful of late-type T dwarfs may require thicker clouds to account for their scatter.

  7. A three-season field study on the in-situ remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil using lime, two industrial by-products, and a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Yan-Bing, He; Dao-You, Huang; Qi-Hong, Zhu; Shuai, Wang; Shou-Long, Liu; Hai-Bo, He; Han-Hua, Zhu; Chao, Xu

    2017-02-01

    To mitigate the serious problem of Cd-contaminated paddy soil, we investigated the remediation potential of combining in-situ immobilization with a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar. A three-season field experiment compared the soil pH, available Cd and absorption of Cd by three rice cultivars with different Cd accumulation abilities grown in Cd-contaminated paddy soil amended with lime (L), slag (S), and bagasse (B) alone or in combination. The three amendments applied alone and in combination significantly increased soil pH, reduced available Cd and absorption of Cd by rice with no effect on grain yield. Among these, the LS and LSB treatments reduced the brown rice Cd content by 38.3-69.1% and 58.3-70.9%, respectively, during the three seasons. Combined with planting of a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar (Xiang Zaoxian 32) resulted in a Cd content in brown rice that met the contaminant limit (≤0.2mgkg(-1)). However, the grain yield of the low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar was approximately 30% lower than the other two rice cultivars. Applying LS or LSB as amendments combined with planting a low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivar is recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil. The selection and breeding of low-Cd-accumulation rice cultivars with high grain production requires further research.

  8. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health. PMID:27766178

  9. Status in physical properties of coloured rice varieties before and after inducing retro-gradation.

    PubMed

    Itagi, HameedaBanu N; Singh, Vasudeva

    2015-12-01

    Three varieties of paddy in brown, red (non-waxy) and black (waxy) forms were de-husked and milled before and after inducing retro-gradation and their physical properties were studied. Normalized grain weight, porosity of parboiled paddy (PP) and its de-husked rice (DR), were high compared to their respective native. True and bulk density were lowest for black variety, its DR, its raw and parboiled forms compared to other varieties of paddy. Angle of repose increased from raw paddy to PP whereas it decreased from raw DR to parboiled DR. Under similar conditions of milling of DR, raw and parboiled milled rice of black variety was the darkest. Raw husk showed higher EMC compared to husk of parboiled. Hardness followed the pattern: Raw: Paddy (~230-280 N) > DR (~120-260 N) > Milled rice (~110 N); for parboiled: DR (~270-480 N) > PP (~260-425 N) > Parboiled milled rice (~250-340 N). Cooking time was high for DR of parboiled ones and least for waxy raw milled rice. Results of this study will be helpful in understanding the quality of pigmented rice cultivars, design and fabrication of some of the equipments in rice processing industry.

  10. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF.

  11. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function.

    PubMed

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation.

  12. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  13. Agamermis unka (Mermithidae) Parasitism of Nilaparvata lugens in Rice Fields in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Ho Yul; Kaya, Harry K.; Kim, Jeong Boo

    1989-01-01

    The mermithid Agamermis unka, a parasite of the brown planthopper (BPH), was found in many rice paddies in Gyeongnam Province, Korea. Nematode parasitism of adult BPH varied from year to year, reaching as high as 50% in paddies not treated with an insecticide. Parasitism was lower in insecticide-treated paddies. Generally, mermithid parasitism was higher in BPH adults collected from the lower part (19%) compared with adults collected from the upper part (8%) of the rice plant and in brachypterous (57%) compared with macropterous forms (8%). No difference in parasitism between first (54%) and second (57%) generation was observed. PMID:19287605

  14. RNAi-mediated resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf virus in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Bian, Shiquan; Wang, Muyue; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Bingwei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2016-11-30

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Development of resistant varieties by using conventional breeding methods is limited, as germplasm with high level of resistance to RBSDV have not yet been found. One of the most promising methods to confer resistance against RBSDV is the use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology. RBSDV non-structural protein P7-2, encoded by S7-2 gene, is a potential F-box protein and involved in the plant-virus interaction through the ubiquitination pathway. P8, encoded by S8 gene, is the minor core protein that possesses potent active transcriptional repression activity. In this study, we transformed rice calli using a mini-twin T-DNA vector harboring RNAi constructs of the RBSDV genes S7-2 or S8, and obtained plants harboring the target gene constructs and the selectable marker gene, hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT). From the offspring of these transgenic plants, we obtained selectable marker (HPT gene)-free plants. Homozygous T5 transgenic lines which harbored either S7-2-RNAi or S8-RNAi exhibited high level resistance against RBSDV under field infection pressure from indigenous viruliferous small brown planthoppers. Thus, our results showed that RNA interference with the expression of S7-2 or S8 genes seemed an effective way to induce high level resistance in rice against RBSD disease.

  15. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus alters insect vectors' host orientation preferences to enhance spread and increase rice ragged stunt virus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Xu, Donglin; Pu, Lingling; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae), has spread rapidly and caused serious rice losses in eastern and southeastern Asia. With this virus spread, Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV, genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) became more common in southern China, usually in co-infection with the former. SRBSDV and RRSV are transmitted by two different species of planthoppers, white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) and brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens), respectively, in a persistent, circulative, propagative manner. In this study, using a Y-shape olfactometer-based device, we tested the host preference of three types of macropterous WBPH adults for healthy or SRBSDV-infected rice plants. The results showed that virus-free WBPHs significantly preferred infected rice plants to healthy plants, whereas both the viruliferous and nonviruliferous WBPHs preferred healthy plants to infected plants. In additional tests, we found that the BPHs significantly preferred healthy plants when they were virus free, whereas RRSV-carrying BPHs preferred SRBSDV-infected rice plants. From these findings, we propose that plant viruses may alter host selection preference of vectors to enhance their spread and that of insects vectoring another virus to result in co-infection with more than one virus.

  16. A simplified method for simultaneous detection of Rice stripe virus and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in insect vector.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Wang, Xi; Xu, Jianxiang; Ji, Yinghua; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) are transmitted by their common vector small brown planthopper (SBPH) that cause serious crop losses in China. A simple reverse transcription-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection of RSV and RBSDV in single SBPH. Three primers targeted to RSV-RNA4 and RBSDV-S2 segments were designed to amplify respectively 1114-bp and 414-bp fragments in a reaction. The method is reliable, rapid and inexpensive for detecting the two viruses in vector, which could facilitate better forecasting and control of the virus diseases. Using this method, it was found that SBPH could carry RSV and RBSDV simultaneously.

  17. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in rice brans of different color.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna M; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a byproduct of the rice milling process, contains most of the phytochemicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of lipophilic, solvent-extractable (free), and cell wall-bound (bound) phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities from brans of white, light brown, brown, purple, and red colors, and broccoli and blueberry for comparison. The concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants of vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols) and γ-oryzanols were 319.67 to 443.73 and 3861.93 to 5911.12 μg/g bran dry weight (DW), respectively, and were not associated with bran color. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant capacities of ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, and iron-chelating in the free fraction were correlated with the intensity of bran color, while variations of these in the bound fraction were less than those in the free fraction among brans. Compounds in the bound fraction had higher antioxidant capacity of ORAC than DPPH, relative to those in the free fraction. The bound fraction of light-color brans contributed as much to its total ORAC as the free fraction. Total proanthocyanidin concentration was the highest in red rice bran, while total anthocyanin was highest in purple brans. The predominant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-glucoside. Red and purple brans had several fold higher total phenolics and flavonoids as well as ORAC and DPPH, from both free and bound fractions, than freeze-dried blueberry and broccoli. These results indicate that rice brans are natural sources of hydrophilic and lipophilic phytochemicals for use in quality control of various food systems as well as for nutraceutical and functional food application.

  18. Shaping a better rice plant.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan

    2010-06-01

    Two studies describe how regulatory variation at the rice gene OsSPL14 can lead to altered plant morphology and improve grain yield. These studies support the possibility of improving rice yield through changing plant architecture.

  19. Modulation of brown adipocyte activity by milk by-products: Stimulation of brown adipogenesis by buttermilk.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroki; Kida, Ryosuke; Muto, Kengo; Nara, Takayuki Y; Kato, Ken; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipocytes dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1); Ucp1 expression is further upregulated by the stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes. An increase in energy expenditure by activated brown adipocytes potentially contributes to the prevention of or therapeutics for obesity. The present study examined the effects of milk by-products, buttermilk and butter oil, on brown adipogenesis and the function of brown adipocytes. The treatment with buttermilk modulated brown adipogenesis, depending on the product tested; during brown adipogenesis, buttermilk 1 inhibited the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. In contrast, buttermilk 3 and 5 increased the expression of Ucp1 in the absence of isoproterenol (Iso), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, suggesting the stimulation of brown adipogenesis. In addition, the Iso-induced expression of Ucp1 was enhanced by buttermilk 2 and 3. The treatment with buttermilk did not affect the basal or induced expression of Ucp1 by Iso in HB2 brown adipocytes, except for buttermilk 5, which increased the basal expression of Ucp1. Conversely, butter oil did not significantly affect the expression of Ucp1, irrespective of the cell phase of HB2 cells, ie, treatment during brown adipogenesis or of brown adipocytes. The results of the present study indicate that buttermilk is a regulator of brown adipogenesis and suggest its usefulness as a potential food material for antiobesity.

  20. Use of banker plant system for sustainable management of the most important insect pest in rice fields in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xusong; Lu, Yanhui; Zhu, Pingyang; Zhang, Facheng; Tian, Junce; Xu, Hongxing; Chen, Guihua; Nansen, Christian; Lu, Zhongxian

    2017-01-01

    To meet the World’s food demand, there is a growing need for sustainable pest management practices. This study describes the results from complementary laboratory and field studies of a “banker plant system” for sustainable management of the rice brown planthopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) – the economically most important rice pest in Asian rice growing areas. The banker plant system consisted of planting a grass species, Leersia sayanuka, adjacent to rice fields. L. sayanuka is the host plant of a planthopper, Nilaparvata muiri. An egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae, parasitizes eggs of both BPH and N. muiri, and its establishment and persistence are improved through plantings of L. sayanuka and thereby attraction of N. muiri. Laboratory results showed that BPH was unable to complete its life cycle on L. sayanuka, and N. muiri could not complete its life cycle on rice. Thus, planting L. sayanuka did not increase the risk of planthopper damage to rice fields. Field studies showed that BPH densities were significantly lower in rice fields with banker plant system compared to control rice fields without banker plant system. PMID:28367978

  1. Explosibility of Victorian brown coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboenko, F.

    1987-04-01

    The explosibility of Victorian brown coal dusts has been investigated in a wide range of equipment, including the 1.2 dm/sup 3/ Hartmann bomb and the 20 litre spherical bomb. The Hartmann bomb seriously underestimates the severity of brown coal dust explosions and empirical relations between Hartmann bomb and Spherical bomb results cited in the literature are not valid for brown coal. Explosibility increases with decreasing moisture content and particle size and increases with increasing volatile matter content.

  2. Methane potential and biodegradability of rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process.

    PubMed

    Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively.

  3. Effect of rice variety and nutrient management on rice productivity in organic rice system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic rice has been increasing for decades. However, the information on sustainable organic rice production systems is still lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil amendment products, nitrogen rate, and variety on rice grain yield, yield components, ...

  4. Brown dwarfs in young stellar clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.

    1991-01-01

    The present calculations of the early evolution of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (LMSs) yield isochrones spanning 0.01-0.2 solar masses for ages in the 1 to 300 million year range. Since the brown dwarfs remain sharply segregated in T(eff) from LMSs for ages of less than 100 million years, it follows that for coeval populations of known age, a domain exists in the H-R diagram in which only brown dwarfs exist. These theoretical results are compared with recent observations of the Pleiades brown dwarf candidates, using two new sets of color-T(eff) transformations. Both sets yield consistent interpretations.

  5. Selenium addition alters mercury uptake, bioavailability in the rhizosphere and root anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Fu, Shi; Ametkhan, Aray; Ouyang, Yun; Ye, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, especially in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), whereas selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in the human diet. This study aimed to ascertain whether addition of Se can produce rice with enriched Se and lowered Hg content when growing in Hg-contaminated paddy fields and, if so, to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Methods Two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa, japonica and indica) were grown in either hydroponic solutions or soil rhizobags with different Se and Hg treatments. Concentrations of total Hg, MeHg and Se were determined in the roots, shoots and brown rice, together with Hg uptake kinetics and Hg bioavailability in the soil. Root anatonmy was also studied. Key Results The high Se treatment (5 μg g–1) significantly increased brown rice yield by 48 % and total Se content by 2·8-fold, and decreased total Hg and MeHg by 47 and 55 %, respectively, compared with the control treatments. The high Se treatment also markedly reduced ‘water-soluble’ Hg and MeHg concentrations in the rhizosphere soil, decreased the uptake capacity of Hg by roots and enhanced the development of apoplastic barriers in the root endodermis. Conclusions Addition of Se to Hg-contaminated soil can help produce brown rice that is simultaneously enriched in Se and contains less total Hg and MeHg. The lowered accumulation of total Hg and MeHg appears to be the result of reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg in the rhizosphere, suppression of uptake of Hg into the root cells and an enhancement of the development of apoplastic barriers in the endodermis of the roots. PMID:24948669

  6. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  7. Behaviour of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum on rice as affected by degree of milling, temperature, and relative humidity during storage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seonyeong; Jun, Hyejung; Bang, Jihyun; Chung, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the survival and growth patterns of Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum, as well as mycotoxin production, on Korean rice as affected by the degree of milling (rough, brown, and white rice) and storage conditions (21 °C/85% relative humidity [RH], 21 °C/97% RH, and 30 °C/85% RH). When rice was stored at 21 °C/85% RH, the population of A. flavus remained constant and aflatoxin was not produced, regardless of the degree of milling. At 21 °C/97% RH and 30 °C/85% RH, the populations of A. flavus increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and aflatoxins were produced. The highest population of A. flavus and highest amount of aflatoxin B1 were observed on brown rice stored at 21 °C/97% RH. For F. graminearum, when stored at 85% RH, the populations were reduced to less than a detectable level (5 CFU/g of rice) within 120 days and no deoxynivalenol (DON) was produced, regardless of the degree of milling and storage temperature. However, at 21 °C/97% RH, the population of F. graminearum increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and DON was produced on all types of rice. Findings from this study provide insights concerning storage conditions necessary to prevent growth and mycotoxin production by A. flavus and F. graminearum on Korean rice with different degrees of milling.

  8. Effect of instant cooked giant embryonic rice on body fat weight and plasma lipid profile in high fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo Im; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Rico, Catherine W; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-06-13

    The comparative effects of instant cooked rice made from giant embryo mutant or ordinary normal rice on body weight and lipid profile in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The animals were given experimental diets for seven weeks: normal control (NC), high fat (HF), and HF supplemented with instant normal white (HF-NW), normal brown (HF-NB), giant embryonic white (HF-GW), or giant embryonic brown (HF-GB) rice. The HF group showed markedly higher body weight, body fat, plasma and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, and atherogenic index relative to NC group. However, instant rice supplementation counteracted this high fat-induced hyperlipidemia through regulation of lipogenesis and adipokine production. The GB rice exhibited greater hypolipidemic and body fat-lowering effects than the GW or NB rice. These findings illustrate that the giant embryo mutant may be useful as functional biomaterial for the development of instant rice with strong preventive action against high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  9. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  10. Understanding reduced inorganic mercury accumulation in rice following selenium application: Selenium application routes, speciation and doses.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenli; Dang, Fei; Evans, Douglas; Zhong, Huan; Xiao, Lin

    2017-02-01

    Selenium (Se) has recently been demonstrated to reduce inorganic mercury (IHg) accumulation in rice plants, while its mechanism is far from clear. Here, we aimed at exploring the potential effects of Se application routes (soil or foliar application with Se), speciation (selenite and selenate), and doses on IHg-Se antagonistic interactions in soil-rice systems. Results of our pot experiments indicated that soil application but not foliar application could evidently reduce tissue IHg concentrations (root: 0-48%, straw: 15-58%, and brown rice: 26-74%), although both application routes resulted in comparable Se accumulation in aboveground tissues. Meanwhile, IHg distribution in root generally increased with amended Se doses in soil, suggesting antagonistic interactions between IHg and Se in root. These results provided initial evidence that IHg-Se interactions in the rhizosphere (i.e., soil or rice root), instead of those in the aboveground tissues, could probably be more responsible for the reduced IHg bioaccumulation following Se application. Furthermore, Se dose rather than Se speciation was found to be more important in controlling IHg accumulation in rice. Our findings regarding the importance of IHg-Se interactions in the rhizosphere, together with the systematic investigation of key factors affecting IHg-Se antagonism and IHg bioaccumulation, advance our understanding of Hg dynamics in soil-rice systems.

  11. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of a Brown Planthopper Resistance Gene BPH26 from Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica Cultivar ADR52

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Yoshioka, Miki; Takahashi, Akira; Wu, Jianzhong; Sentoku, Naoki; Yasui, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is the most serious insect pest of rice in Asia. The indica rice cultivar ADR52 carries two BPH resistance genes, BPH26 (BROWN PLANTHOPPER RESISTANCE 26) and BPH25. Map-based cloning of BPH26 revealed that BPH26 encodes a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site–leucine-rich repeat (CC–NBS–LRR) protein. BPH26 mediated sucking inhibition in the phloem sieve element. BPH26 was identical to BPH2 on the basis of DNA sequence analysis and feeding ability of the BPH2-virulent biotype of BPH. BPH2 was widely incorporated in elite rice cultivars and was well-cultivated in many Asian countries as a favorable gene resource in rice breeding against BPH. However, BPH2 was rendered ineffective by a virulent biotype of BPH in rice fields in Asia. In this study, we suggest that BPH2 can be reused by combining with other BPH resistance genes, such as BPH25, to ensure durable resistance to BPH. PMID:25076167

  12. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  13. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Ryu, Su Noh; Kang, Mi Young

    2016-01-01

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance. PMID:27775654

  14. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  15. Effects of short-term high temperature on grain quality and starch granules of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at post-anthesis stage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Liang; Shi, Peihua; Yang, Baohua; Sun, Ting; Cao, Weixing; Zhu, Yan

    2017-03-01

    High temperature causes negative effects on grain yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, the effects of short-term high temperature (SHT) on grain quality and starch granules were investigated in two rice cultivars Nanjing 41 (NJ41, heat-sensitive) and Wuxiangjing 14 (WJ14, heat-tolerant) at post-anthesis stage (anthesis and early grain-filling stage). The results of rice quality analysis showed that chalky rate and chalkiness increased while brown rice rate, milled rice rate, and head rice rate decreased in two rice cultivars with the increase of high temperature and prolonged duration. Moreover, SHT stress reduced the accumulation of amylose as well as starch accumulation. The starch accumulation and eating quality were more sensitive to SHT than the appearance and milling quality. The starch structure data observed by scanning electron microscope further showed that the starch granules are arranged loosely and more single starch granules appeared after SHT treatment. The extent of change in rice quality and starch traits of WJ14 under SHT was lower than that of NJ41. The effects of SHT at anthesis stage were greater than that at grain-filling stage. Taken together, the results could help further understand the physiological and biochemical processes governing rice quality under high-temperature conditions.

  16. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  17. Rice bran phytonutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bran layer of the whole grain rice contains potential health-beneficial compounds. These include vitamin E homologs (tocopherols, tocotrienols), oryzanol fractions, simple phenolics and poly-phenolics. These are antioxidants that are believed to provide protection against diseases such as cancer...

  18. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  19. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  20. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  1. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  2. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  3. On Browne's Solution for Oblique Procrustes Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Elliot M.

    1974-01-01

    A form of Browne's (1967) solution of finding a least squares fit to a specified factor structure is given which does not involve solution of an eigenvalue problem. It suggests the possible existence of a singularity, and a simple modification of Browne's computational procedure is proposed. (Author/RC)

  4. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  5. HARPERS FERRY, A PLAY ABOUT JOHN BROWN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STAVIS, BARRIE

    THIS PLAY IS A DRAMATIC RENDERING OF JOHN BROWN'S ATTACK ON THE ARMORY AT HARPERS FERRY AND HIS SUBSEQUENT TRIAL FOR TREASON. ALTHOUGH IT ADHERES TO THE FACTS OF HISTORY, THEY ARE NOT TREATED REALISTICALLY. "HARPERS FERRY" PORTRAYS BROWN AS POSSESSING A PURE IDEALISM UNTAINTED IN THE SLIGHTEST DEGREE BY MATERIALISM OR SELF-SEEKING, WHICH…

  6. Anthony H.D. Brown: Conservation Geneticist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This volume of Plant Breeding Reviews is dedicated to Anthony (Tony) H. D. Brown known internationally for his research in conservation and population genetics and plant breeding. Dr. Brown's primary contributions in the area of conservation genetics followed two major themes – optimum sampling str...

  7. Thyroid hormones induce browning of white fat

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Contreras, Cristina; Rial-Pensado, Eva; Fernø, Johan; Nogueiras, Rubén; Diéguez, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The canonical view about the effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on thermogenesis assumes that the hypothalamus acts merely as a modulator of the sympathetic outflow on brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recent data have challenged that vision by demonstrating that THs act on the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) to inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates the thermogenic program in BAT, leading to increased thermogenesis and weight loss. Current data have shown that in addition to activation of brown fat, the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) might also be an important thermogenic mechanism. However, the possible central effects of THs on the browning of white fat remain unclear. Here, we show that 3,3′,5,5′ tetraiodothyroxyne (T4)-induced hyperthyroidism promotes a marked browning of WAT. Of note, central or VMH-specific administration of 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) recapitulates that effect. The specific genetic activation of hypothalamic AMPK in the VMH reversed the central effect of T3 on browning. Finally, we also showed that the expression of browning genes in human WAT correlates with serum T4. Overall, these data indicate that THs induce browning of WAT and that this mechanism is mediated via the central effects of THs on energy balance. PMID:27913573

  8. John Brown and the Abolitionist Ministry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knee, Stuart

    1982-01-01

    John Brown's death did not cause the Civil War; it precipitated the conflict. Many ministers anticipated the war and hurried its outbreak by canonizing a fanatic. By 1859, the abolitionists needed a martyr to infuse new emotion into their cause and seized upon John Brown to fill this role. (Author/GC)

  9. "Brown" and Black-White Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armor, David J.

    2006-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" only presumed to eliminate the "de jure" apartheid that existed in 1954. It was never intended to resolve the "de facto" gap in minority achievement that still faces education policymakers today. Sociologist David J. Armor goes beyond "Brown" to identify a set of definite risk…

  10. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  11. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  12. New Physiological Aspects of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Trayhurn, Paul; Arch, Jonathan R S

    2014-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue is specialised for the generation of heat by non-shivering mechanisms. In rodents, the tissue plays a role in energy balance and the development of obesity, as well as in thermoregulation. Studies using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), together with the identification of uncoupling protein-1, have provided definitive evidence that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans. Brown fat activity is stimulated by cold exposure, declines with age and is inversely proportional to BMI. This has led to renewed interest in the tissue as a therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity. Brown adipose tissue also plays a role in glucose disposal and triglyceride clearance, implicating it in the metabolic syndrome. A potential mechanism for increasing thermogenesis is by the 'browning' of white adipose depots through the recruitment of the recently identified third type of adipocyte - the brite (or beige) fat cell.

  13. Elements in rice on the Swedish market: part 2. Chromium, copper, iron, manganese, platinum, rubidium, selenium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Astrand, C; Sundstrom, B; Baxter, M; Stokes, P; Lewis, J; Grawe, K P

    2008-07-01

    A survey of the levels of some essential and non-essential trace elements in different types of rice available on the Swedish retail market was carried out in 2001-03. The types of rice included long and short grain, brown, white, and parboiled white. The mean levels found were: chromium (Cr) = 0.008 mg kg(-1), copper (Cu) = 1.9 mg kg(-1), iron (Fe) = 4.7 mg kg(-1), manganese (Mn) = 16 mg kg(-1), platinum (Pt) < 0.0003 mg kg(-1), rubidium (Rb) = 3.3 mg kg(-1), selenium (Se) =0.1 mg kg(-1); and zinc (Zn) = 15 mg kg(-1). Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of Pt, Rb, and Se, after acid digestion. All other elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after dry ashing. Intake calculations were performed and it was concluded that rice may contribute considerably to the daily requirements of the essential elements Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn if rice consumption is high. The levels of some elements, e.g. Fe and Mn, were significantly higher in brown compared with white rice.

  14. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  15. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  16. 3D brown adipogenesis to create “Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands”

    PubMed Central

    Unser, Andrea M.; Mooney, Bridget; Corr, David T.; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yubing

    2015-01-01

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in energy balance and treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D “Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands” by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells, and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of the expression of the brown adipocyte-defining marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), as well as other general adipocyte markers. Cells within microstrands were responsive to a β-adrenergic agonist with an increase in gene expression of thermogenic UCP1, indicating that these “Brown-Fat-in-Micrtostrands” are functional. The ability to create “Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands” from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:26496384

  17. The presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in rice and rice products; and evaluation of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Hanif, Usman; Zuber, Muhammad; Jinap, S

    2016-11-01

    In present study aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analysed in 208 samples of rice and products collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector. The results have shown that 35% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 19% and 24% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 19% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 14% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in brown rice samples i.e. 8.91 and 12.4μg/kg, respectively. However, white rice samples have shown the highest mean level of OTA (8.50μg/kg) with highest level of 24.9μg/kg. The high mean dietary exposure 22.2 and 24.2ngkg(-1)bwday(-1) to AFB1 and OTA, respectively poses significant health hazard for local population.

  18. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Du, Linlin; Wang, Lijiao; Wang, Ying; Gao, Cunyi; Lan, Ying; Sun, Feng; Fan, Yongjian; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-07-22

    Rice black-streaked dwarf disease, caused by rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), is transmitted by small brown planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, SBPH) and causes severe yield loss in epidemic years in China and other East Asian countries. Breeding for resistance to RBSDV is a promising strategy to control the disease. We identified Tetep that showed resistance to RBSDV using a field test and artificial inoculation test. An evaluation of the resistance mechanism revealed that Tetep was resistant to RBSDV but not to SBPH. Genetic analysis showed that the resistance of Tetep to RBSDV was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Three new QTLs for RBSDV resistance were identified in this study, i.e., qRBSDV-3, qRBSDV-10 and qRBSDV-11. The LOD scores of qRBSDV-3, qRBSDV-10 and qRBSDV-11 were 4.07, 2.24 and 2.21, accounting for 17.5%, 0.3% and 12.4% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. All the resistance loci identified in this study were associated with virus resistance genes. The alleles for enhancing resistance on chromosomes 3 and 11 originated from Tetep, whereas the other allele on chromosome 10 originated from a susceptible parent. The identified new resistance QTLs in this study are useful resources for efficiently breeding resistant rice cultivars to RBSDV.

  19. Principal Component Analysis of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Colleen; Rodriguez, David

    2017-01-01

    Principal component analysis is a technique for reducing variables and emphasizing patterns in a data set. In this study, the data set consisted of the attributes of 174 brown dwarfs. The PCA was performed on several photometric measurements in near-infrared wavelengths and colors in order to determine if these variables showed a correlation with the physical parameters. This research resulted in two separate models that predict luminosity and temperature. The application of principal component analysis on the near-infrared photometric measurements and colors of brown dwarfs, along with models, provides alternate methods for predicting the luminosity and temperature of brown dwarfs using only photometric measurements.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  1. STS-103 Crew Interviews: Curtis Brown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Commander Curtis L. Brown is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Brown became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is an explanation of the why this required mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope must take place at such an early date, replacement of the gyroscopes, transistors, and computers. Also discussed is Brown's responsibility during any of the planned space walks scheduled for this mission.

  2. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation.

  3. Seed-specific silencing of OsMRP5 reduces seed phytic acid and weight in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xu; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Pang, Wei-Qin; Cui, Hai-Rui; Poirier, Yves; Shu, Qing-Yao

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is poorly digested by humans and monogastric animals and negatively affects human/animal nutrition and the environment. Rice mutants with reduced PA content have been developed but are often associated with reduced seed weight and viability, lacking breeding value. In the present study, a new approach was explored to reduce seed PA while attaining competitive yield. The OsMRP5 gene, of which mutations are known to reduce seed PA as well as seed yield and viability, was down-regulated specifically in rice seeds by using an artificial microRNA driven by the rice seed specific promoter Ole18. Seed PA contents were reduced by 35.8-71.9% in brown rice grains of transgenic plants compared to their respective null plants (non-transgenic plants derived from the same event). No consistent significant differences of plant height or number of tillers per plant were observed, but significantly lower seed weights (up to 17.8% reduction) were detected in all transgenic lines compared to null plants, accompanied by reductions of seed germination and seedling emergence. It was observed that the silencing of the OsMRP5 gene increased the inorganic P (Pi) levels (up to 7.5 times) in amounts more than the reduction of PA-P in brown rice. This indicates a reduction in P content in other cellular compounds, such as lipids and nucleic acids, which may affect overall seed development. Put together, the present study demonstrated that seed specific silencing of OsMRP5 could significantly reduce the PA content and increase Pi levels in seeds; however, it also significantly lowers seed weight in rice. Discussions were made regarding future directions towards producing agronomically competitive and nutritionally valuable low PA rice.

  4. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    PubMed

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  5. Molecular Screening of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice using SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, P K; Arya, Madhuri; Singh, N K; Singh, U S

    2015-03-01

    Rice Blast is the most devastating disease causing major yield losses in every year worldwide. It had been proved that using resistant rice varieties would be the most effective way to control this disease. Molecular screening and genetic diversities of major rice blast resistance genes were determined in 192 rice germplasm accessions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The genetic frequencies of the 10 major rice blast resistance genes varied from 19.79% to 54.69%. Seven accessions IC337593, IC346002, IC346004, IC346813, IC356117, IC356422 and IC383441 had maximum eight blast resistance gene, while FR13B, Hourakani, Kala Rata 1-24, Lemont, Brown Gora, IR87756-20-2-2-3, IC282418, IC356419, PKSLGR-1 and PKSLGR-39 had seven blast resistance genes. Twenty accessions possessed six genes, 36 accessions had five genes, 41 accessions had four genes, 38 accessions had three genes, 26 accessions had two genes, 13 accessions had single R gene and only one accession IC438644 does not possess any one blast resistant gene. Out of 192 accessions only 17 accessions harboured 7 to 8 blast resistance genes.

  6. Cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid stimulates rice defense response to a piercing-sucking insect.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Hai-Chao; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2014-11-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is a destructive, monophagous, piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. Previous studies indicated that jasmonic acid (JA) positively regulates rice defense against chewing insect pests but negatively regulates it against the piercing-sucking insect of BPH. We here demonstrated that overexpression of allene oxide cyclase (AOC) but not OPR3 (cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3, an enzyme adjacent to AOC in the JA synthetic pathway) significantly increased rice resistance to BPH, mainly by reducing the feeding activity and survival rate. Further analysis revealed that plant response to BPH under AOC overexpression was independent of the JA pathway and that significantly higher OPDA levels stimulated rice resistance to BPH. Microarray analysis identified multiple candidate resistance-related genes under AOC overexpression. OPDA treatment stimulated the resistance of radish seedlings to green peach aphid Myzus persicae, another piercing-sucking insect. These results imply that rice resistance to chewing insects and to sucking insects can be enhanced simultaneously through AOC-mediated increases of JA and OPDA and provide direct evidence of the potential application of OPDA in stimulating plant defense responses to piercing-sucking insect pests in agriculture.

  7. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Partha; Douglas, Alex; Price, Adam H; Norton, Gareth J

    2015-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population) and a genome wide association (GWA) study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity). However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed.

  8. A mutation in the rice chalcone isomerase gene causes the golden hull and internode 1 phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hong, Lilan; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Wang, Kejian; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan

    2012-07-01

    The biosynthesis of flavonoids, important secondary plant metabolites, has been investigated extensively, but few mutants of genes in this pathway have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa). The rice gold hull and internode (gh) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown pigmentation in the hull and internode and their phenotype has long been used as a morphological marker trait for breeding and genetic study. Here, we characterized that the gh1 mutant was a mutant of the rice chalcone isomerase gene (OsCHI). The result showed that gh1 had a Dasheng retrotransposon inserted in the 5′ UTR of the OsCHI gene, which resulted in the complete loss of OsCHI expression. gh1 exhibited golden pigmentation in hulls and internodes once the panicles were exposed to light. The total flavonoid content in gh1 hulls was increased threefold compared to wild type. Consistent with the gh1 phenotype, OsCHI transcripts were expressed in most tissues of rice and most abundantly in internodes. It was also expressed at high levels in panicles before heading, distributed mainly in lemmas and paleae, but its expression decreased substantially after the panicles emerged from the sheath. OsCHI encodes a protein functionally and structurally conserved to chalcone isomerases in other species. Our findings demonstrated that the OsCHI gene was indispensable for flux of the flavonoid pathway in rice.

  9. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice.

  10. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  11. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter. 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions).

  12. Brown University Radio Student Telescope (BURST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The Brown University Radio Student Telescope (BURST) is a rooftop low frequency radio interferometer that we hope to potentially use to observe radio transients, non-thermal radio emission from Galactic synchrotron and supernova remnants, and extragalactic radio sources. It was built by a group of Brown undergraduates this past summer. An overview of the design, ultimate installation, challenges in implementation and data acquisition will be covered in the poster.

  13. What Brown saw and you can too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip; Collett, Brian; Bart, Kenneth; Bilderback, David; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-12-01

    A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a "homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's are presented.

  14. How Long? Cosby, Brown and Racial Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Bill Cosby ruffled feathers, raised eyebrows and said a mouthful when, at a Howard University black-tie celebration of the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, he launched into a rift about "the lower economic people" not holding up their end of the bargain in the wake of Brown. "We can't blame White people," Cosby said, for an array…

  15. Polarization of Young Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, Elena; Miles-Páez, Paulo A.; Zapatero-Osorio, Maria Rosa; Goldman, Bertrand; Buenzli, Esther; Henning, Thomas; Pallé, Enric

    2016-08-01

    Linear polarization due to scattering processes can be used as a probe of the existence of atmospheric condensates in ultracool dwarfs. Models predict that the observed linear polarization increases with the degree of oblateness, which is inverse to the surface gravity.We aimed to measure optical linear polarization from a sample of six young brown dwarfs, with spectral types between M6 to L2, and cataloged previously as objects with low gravity using spectroscopy. These targets are believed to have dusty atmospheres as a consequence of their low gravity, therefore linearly polarized light is expected from these objects.Linear polarimetric data were collected in I and R-band using CAFOS at the 2.2m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory.We obtained results of linear polarization in the I-band compatible with non polarization for all the objects, and similar results for the polarization degree in the R-band for all objects with the exception of 2M0422. For this object we find a linear polarization degree of 0.81+-0.18%. 2M0422 is 10 deg to the south of the Taurus star-forming region, thus, we suspect that its polarization is caused by the dust in the cloud in which 2M0422 might be embedded.

  16. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  17. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  18. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  19. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  20. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  1. Enhancement of innate immune system in monocot rice by transferring the dicotyledonous elongation factor Tu receptor EFR.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fen; Wang, Huiqin; Wang, Shanzhi; Jiang, Wendi; Shan, Changlin; Li, Bin; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Shiyong; Sun, Wenxian

    2015-07-01

    The elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) receptor (EFR) in cruciferous plants specifically recognizes the N-terminal acetylated elf18 region of bacterial EF-Tu and thereby activates plant immunity. It has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis EFR confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance in the EFR transgenic solanaceous plants. Here, the transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica cv. Zhonghua 17) and cell cultures with constitutive expression of AtEFR were developed to investigate whether AtEFR senses EF-Tu and thus enhances bacterial resistance in the monocot plants. We demonstrated that the Xanthomonas oryzae-derived elf18 peptide induced oxidative burst and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the AtEFR transgenic rice cells and plants, respectively. Pathogenesis-related genes, such as OsPBZ1, were upregulated dramatically in transgenic rice plant and cell lines in response to elf18 stimulation. Importantly, pretreatment with elf18 triggered strong resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae in the transgenic plants, which was largely dependent on the AtEFR expression level. These plants also exhibited enhanced resistance to rice bacterial brown stripe, but not to rice fungal blast. Collectively, the results indicate that the rice plants with heterologous expression of AtEFR recognize bacterial EF-Tu and exhibit enhanced broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance and that pattern recognition receptor-mediated immunity may be manipulated across the two plant classes, dicots and monocots.

  2. Test Review: Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scales and Brown ADD Diagnostic Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Linda

    1996-01-01

    This article on the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) Scale for Adolescents and the Brown ADD Scale for Adults describes the tests' recommended uses, administration, components, standardization, reliability, and validity. The self-report measures are designed for initial screening, as one part of a comprehensive diagnostic assessment, and for…

  3. [Effects of early growth stage shading on rice flag leaf physiological characters and grain growth at grain-filling stage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-hua; Zhou, Xue-biao; Yang, Lian-qun; Li, Tian; Zhang, Jian-jun

    2009-09-01

    In a pot experiment, rice plants were shaded during the period from transplanting to booting, aimed to study the effects of early growth stage shading on the rice growth at grain-filling stage. Comparing with the control, early growth stage shading decreased the tiller number by 26.72%, but increased the flag leaf area and soluble sugar content by 33.86% and 30.23%, respectively. The filled-grain number per panicle, 1000-grain mass, ultimate brown rice mass, and maximum and average grain-filling rates decreased by 8.65%, 4.81%, 9.74%, 20.22%, and 19.13%, and the effective panicle number and grain yield declined by 25.26% and 39.56%, respectively. The peak time of grain-filling rate (Tm) advanced 1.66 days, while the grain-filling time (T99) prolonged 6.80 days. For shading-tolerance variety, its flag leaf Chl a, Chl b, and Chl (a + b) contents at early and mid grain-filling stages, and the protein N and soluble sugar contents and Chl a/b in its flag leaves at grain-filling stage all increased under early growth stage shading, and the ultimate brown rice mass and 1000-grain mass maintained at the similar levels as the control. Consequently, its grain yield reduction rate was lower than that of shading-sensitive variety.

  4. Chemical characteristics of Victorian brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.J.; Allardice, D.J.; Kiss, L.T.

    1983-08-01

    Extensive deposits of soft brown coal exist in Tertiary age sediments in a number of areas in Victoria and the largest single deposit occurs in the Latrobe Valley, about 150 kilometers east of Melbourne. In this region the coal seams often exceed 150 metres in thickness, with an overburden to coal ratio usually better than 1:2 making the coal ideally suited for large-scale open-cut mining. A recent study (1) has estimated the State's brown coal resources to be almost 200,000 million tonnes with approximately 52,000 million tonnes defined as usable reserves. About 85% of this coal is located in the Latrobe Valley. Since 1920 Latrobe Valley brown coal has been developed for power generation. The State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV) wins coal from two major open cuts at Yallourn and Morwell and operates coal fired power stations which presently consume approximately 35 million tonnes per annum. In addition to power generation, small quantities of brown coal are used for briquette manufacture and char production. Brown coal accounts for about 95% of Victoria's non-renewable energy reserves and it is now recognized that with suitable up-grading, primarily drying, it has the potential to become the basis of the supply of energy in a variety of forms.

  5. MICROLENSING BINARIES WITH CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Sumi, T.; Dominik, M.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing events discovered during the 2004-2011 observation seasons. Based on the low mass ratio criterion of q < 0.2, we found seven candidate events: OGLE-2004-BLG-035, OGLE-2004-BLG-039, OGLE-2007-BLG-006, OGLE-2007-BLG-399/MOA-2007-BLG-334, MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172, MOA-2011-BLG-149, and MOA-201-BLG-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} and 0.019 {+-} 0.002 M {sub Sun} for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches.

  6. RADIAL VELOCITY VARIABILITY OF FIELD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-20

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼2 km s{sup −1}, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  7. The colored Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect.

    PubMed

    Silva, B; Sánchez Muñoz, C; Ballarini, D; González-Tudela, A; de Giorgi, M; Gigli, G; West, K; Pfeiffer, L; Del Valle, E; Sanvitto, D; Laussy, F P

    2016-12-06

    The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is one of the celebrated phenomenologies of modern physics that accommodates equally well classical (interferences of waves) and quantum (correlations between indistinguishable particles) interpretations. The effect was discovered in the late thirties with a basic observation of Hanbury Brown that radio-pulses from two distinct antennas generate signals on the oscilloscope that wiggle similarly to the naked eye. When Hanbury Brown and his mathematician colleague Twiss took the obvious step to propose bringing the effect in the optical range, they met with considerable opposition as single-photon interferences were deemed impossible. The Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect is nowadays universally accepted and, being so fundamental, embodies many subtleties of our understanding of the wave/particle dual nature of light. Thanks to a novel experimental technique, we report here a generalized version of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect to include the frequency of the detected light, or, from the particle point of view, the energy of the detected photons. Our source of light is a polariton condensate, that allows high-resolution filtering of a spectrally broad source with a high degree of coherence. In addition to the known tendencies of indistinguishable photons to arrive together on the detector, we find that photons of different colors present the opposite characteristic of avoiding each others. We postulate that fermions can be similarly brought to exhibit positive (boson-like) correlations by frequency filtering.

  8. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  9. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  10. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  11. GROWTH OF GRAINS IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    We perform coagulation and fragmentation simulations using the new physically motivated model by Garaud et al. to determine growth locally in brown dwarf disks. We show that large grains can grow and that if brown dwarf disks are scaled-down versions of T Tauri disks (in terms of stellar mass, disk mass, and disk radius) growth at an equivalent location with respect to the disk truncation radius can occur to the same size in both disks. We show that similar growth occurs because the collisional timescales in the two disks are comparable. Our model may therefore potentially explain the recent observations of grain growth to millimeter sizes in brown dwarf disks, as seen in T Tauri disks.

  12. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Kripnerová, Michaela; Dvorakova, Jana; Pitule, Pavel; Grundmanova, Martina; Babuska, Vaclav; Mullerova, Dana; Kuncova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT), the brown (BAT), and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT) adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes. PMID:27073398

  13. Brown Fat Fuel Utilization and Thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Kristy L.; Tseng, Yu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat to maintain optimal thermogenesis and to contribute to energy expenditure, in rodents and possibly humans. The energetic processes executed by BAT require a readily available fuel supply, which includes glucose and fatty acids (FAs). FAs become available by cellular uptake, de novo lipogenesis, and from multilocular lipid droplets in brown adipocytes. BAT also possesses a great capacity for glucose uptake and metabolism, and an ability to regulate insulin sensitivity. These properties make BAT an appealing target for the treatment of obesity, diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Recent research has revealed a better understanding of the processes of fuel utilization carried out by brown adipocytes, which is the focus of the current review. PMID:24389130

  14. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  15. Rice scene radiation research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.

  16. Rice in an interdependent world.

    PubMed

    Falck, V T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the outcome of the increasing need and dependence on rice as an essential food, and the potential hazards of this trajectory in an interdependent world, and to propose the need for a supranational system to guide decisions made in areas of mutual dependency among nations. All rice producing countries of the world should be responsible for assuring sufficient quantities and qualities of rice for the world's population. However, there are hazards related to emphasis on rice yields associated with the neglect of overall nutritional needs and also the potential for environmental impact given the need for sustainable development. Scientific measurement and data analyses of interdependent supranational variables are needed to guide policies and practices to insure conditions for life will be favorable for people everywhere.

  17. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

  18. The influence of continuous rice cultivation and different waterlogging periods on morphology, clay mineralogy, Eh, pH and K in paddy soils.

    PubMed

    Bahmanyar, M A

    2007-09-01

    The effect of different rice cultivation periods on the properties of selected soils in alluvial plain were studied in Mazandaran province (north of Iran) in 2004. Soils were sampled form 0, 6, 16, 26 and over 40 years rice cultivation fields. In each treatment three soil profiles and six nearby auger holes were studied. The present study results indicated that continuous rice cultivation have changed soil moisture regime from xeric to aquic, soil color from brown to grayish, surface horizons from mollic to ochric epipedon and soil structure changed from granular or blocky to massive. Therefore, the soil order has changed from Mollisols to Inceptisols. No illuviation and eluviation of clay minerals occurred as a consequence of rice cultivation. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that clay minerals in non-rice cultivated field were illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and chlorite, but in rice field were illite, montmorillonite, kaolinite and chlorite, respectively. In contrast of montmorillonite, the amount of illite and vermiculite have been decreased by increasing periods of rice cultivation. The pH values of the saturated soil surface in six weeks past plantation have shifted toward neutrality. While Eh value of non-paddy soils were about +90 mv, surface horizons of paddy soils at field conditions had Eh value about +40, -12, -84, -122 mv, respectively. The amounts of organic matter and available Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were increased whereas available K was decreased in paddy soils.

  19. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  20. Detection algorithm for multiple rice seeds images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Ying, Y. B.

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of multiple rice seeds images. The rice seeds used for this study involved a hybrid rice seed variety. Images of multiple rice seeds were acquired with a machine vision system for quality inspection of bulk rice seeds, which is designed to inspect rice seeds on a rotating disk with a CCD camera. Combining morphological operations and parallel processing gave improvements in accuracy, and a reduction in computation time. Using image features selected based on classification ability; a highly acceptable defects classification was achieved when the algorithm was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability.

  1. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  2. Genetic and physical fine mapping of the novel brown midrib gene bm6 in maize (Zea mays L.) to a 180 kb region on chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Liu, Hongjun; Ali, Farhad; Scott, M Paul; Ji, Qing; Frei, Ursula Karoline; Lübberstedt, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Brown midrib mutants in maize are known to be associated with reduced lignin content and increased cell wall digestibility, which leads to better forage quality and higher efficiency of cellulosic biomass conversion into ethanol. Four well known brown midrib (bm) mutants, named bm1-4, were identified several decades ago. Additional recessive brown midrib mutants have been identified by allelism tests and designated as bm5 and bm6. In this study, we determined that bm6 increases cell wall digestibility and decreases plant height. bm6 was confirmed onto the short arm of chromosome 2 by a small mapping set with 181 plants from a F(2) segregating population, derived from crossing B73 and a bm6 mutant line. Subsequently, 960 brown midrib individuals were selected from the same but larger F(2) population for genetic and physical mapping. With newly developed markers in the target region, the bm6 gene was assigned to a 180 kb interval flanked by markers SSR_308337 and SSR_488638. In this region, ten gene models are predicted in the maize B73 sequence. Analysis of these ten genes as well as genes in the syntenic rice region revealed that four of them are promising candidate genes for bm6. Our study will facilitate isolation of the underlying gene of bm6 and advance our understanding of brown midrib gene functions.

  3. Simultaneous Detection of Three Bacterial Seed-Borne Diseases in Rice Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, In Jeong; Kang, Mi-Hyung; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Shim, Hyeong Kwon; Shin, Dong Bum; Heu, Suggi

    2016-01-01

    Burkholderia glumae (bacterial grain rot), Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (bacterial leaf blight), and Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial brown stripe) are major seedborne pathogens of rice. Based on the 16S and 23S rDNA sequences for A. avenae subsp. avenae and B. glumae, and transposase A gene sequence for X. oryzae pv. oryzae, three sets of primers had been designed to produce 402 bp for B. glumae, 490 bp for X. oryzae, and 290 bp for A. avenae subsp. avenae with the 63°C as an optimum annealing temperature. Samples collected from naturally infected fields were detected with two bacteria, B. glumae and A. avenae subsp. avenae but X. oryzae pv. oryzae was not detected. This assay can be used to identify pathogens directly from infected seeds, and will be an effective tool for the identification of the three pathogens in rice plants. PMID:27904465

  4. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  5. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  6. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  7. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  8. A peptide probe for targeted brown adipose tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Azhdarinia, Ali; Daquinag, Alexes C; Tseng, Chieh; Ghosh, Sukhen C; Ghosh, Pradip; Amaya-Manzanares, Felipe; Sevick-Muraca, Eva; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-01-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue responsible for thermogenic energy dissipation has been revealed in adult humans and has high clinical importance. Owing to limitations of current methods for brown adipose tissue detection, analysing the abundance and localization of brown adipose tissue in the body has remained challenging. Here we screen a combinatorial peptide library in mice and characterize a peptide (with the sequence CPATAERPC) that selectively binds to the vascular endothelium of brown adipose tissue, but not of intraperitoneal white adipose tissue. We show that in addition to brown adipose tissue, this peptide probe also recognizes the vasculature of brown adipose tissue-like depots of subcutaneous white adipose tissue. Our results indicate that the CPATAERPC peptide localizes to brown adipose tissue even in the absence of sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Finally, we demonstrate that this probe can be used to identify brown adipose tissue depots in mice by whole-body near-infrared fluorescence imaging.

  9. Official portrait of 1987 astronaut candidate Curtis L. Brown, Jr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Official portrait of 1987 astronaut candidate Curtis L. Brown, Jr. Brown, a member of the United States Air Force (USAF) and Astronaut Class 12, wears a navy blue flight suit and holds a space shuttle orbiter model.

  10. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Shen, Libo; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd. In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend. Compared to arsenate, there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted, and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil. In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions. Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha. The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment. Thus, water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice. Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd.

  11. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'

  12. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'

  13. Pullulanase from rice endosperm.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Susumu; Konno, Haruyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) in non-germinating seeds was compared with that in germinating seeds. Moreover, pullulanase from the endosperm of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Hinohikari) seeds was isolated and its properties investigated. The pI value of pullulanase from seeds after 8 days of germination was almost equal to that from non-germinating seeds, which shows that these two enzymes are the same protein. Therefore, the same pullulanase may play roles in both starch synthesis during ripening and starch degradation during germination in rice seeds. The enzyme was isolated by a procedure that included ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-cellulofine column chromatography, preparative isoelectric focusing, and preparative disc gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was homogeneous by SDS/PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 100 000 based on its mobility on SDS/PAGE and 105 000 based on gel filtration with TSKgel super SW 3000, which showed that it was composed of a single unit. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was 4.7. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by beta-cyclodextrin. The enzyme was not activated by thiol reagents such as dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol or glutathione. The enzyme most preferably hydrolyzed pullulan and liberated only maltotriose. The pullulan hydrolysis was strongly inhibited by the substrate at a concentration higher than 0.1%. The degree of inhibition increased with an increase in the concentration of pullulan. However, the enzyme hydrolyzed amylopectin, soluble starch and beta-limit dextrin more rapidly as their concentrations increased. The enzyme exhibited alpha-glucosyltransfer activity and produced an alpha-1,6-linked compound of two maltotriose molecules from pullulan.

  14. Genetic analysis of atypical U.S. red rice phenotypes: indications of prior gene flow in rice fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a troublesome weed problem in rice fields of the southern U.S. Outcrossing between rice and red rice occurs at low rates, resulting in a broad array of plant types. SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic backgrounds of atypical red rice types obtained from rice farms in comparis...

  15. Outcrossing potential between U.S. red rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese indica rice (Oryza sativa) lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice in southern U.S. rice fields remains a widespread, economically challenging problem despite nearly a decade of rice production systems that include true-breeding rice cultivars and indica-derived hybrid rice with resistance to imazethapyr. Both of these herbicide-resistant rice systems hav...

  16. Red rice (Oryza sativa L.) emergence characteristics and influence on rice (O. sativa) yield at different planting dates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated rice yield losses due to red rice infestation vary by cultivar, red rice density, and duration of interference. The competition effects of red rice could be influenced further by emergence characteristics, red rice biotype, and planting time of cultivated rice. We aimed to characterize th...

  17. Effector Mimics and Integrated Decoys, the Never-Ending Arms Race between Rice and Xanthomonas oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga, Paola; Szurek, Boris; Koebnik, Ralf; Kroj, Thomas; Morel, Jean-Benoit

    2017-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by a wide range of pathogens and have therefore evolved an array of mechanisms to defend against them. In response to these defense systems, pathogens have evolved strategies to avoid recognition and suppress plant defenses (Brown and Tellier, 2011). Three recent reports dealing with the resistance of rice to Xanthomonas oryzae have added a new twist to our understanding of this fascinating co-evolutionary arms race (Ji et al., 2016; Read et al., 2016; Triplett et al., 2016). They show that pathogens also develop sophisticated effector mimics to trick recognition.

  18. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-06

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins.

  19. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  20. Use of microscopy to assess bran removal patterns in milled rice.

    PubMed

    Wood, Delilah F; Siebenmorgen, Terry J; Williams, Tina G; Orts, William J; Glenn, Gregory M

    2012-07-18

    During rice milling, the bran and germ are successively removed from the caryopsis (kernel). Because bran and germ contain large quantities of lipid, the amount of lipid remaining on the kernel surface may be used as a method for the assessment of milling quality. Bulk samples of rice pureline varieties and an experimental hybrid were milled for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that brown rice kernels had large contours of linear protuberances and depressions running lengthwise along the kernel surface. The protuberances were abraded successively during milling, but varying amounts of material remained in the depressions. Light microscopy combined with the lipid-specific probes Nile Blue A or Sudan Black B demonstrated that the material in the depressions observed with SEM was lipid. Sections of whole, milled rice kernels, prepared using a modified sectioning technique and stained with Nile Blue A, showed that portions of the embryo remain after milling and that lipid is located on or near the surface of the kernel. Differences in quantity and distribution of residual lipid as milling duration increased were documented photographically to indicate the extent to which the bran and embryo components were removed during milling. This paper provides proof of concept that residual lipid is a robust measure of the degree of milling.

  1. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  2. Volatiles induction in rice stink bug host grasses and rice plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice stink bug (RSB), Oebalus pugnax F., is an important pest of heading rice in the United States. Little is known about plant volatiles production following herbivory by the rice stink bug. RSB feeding induced volatiles production in different RSB host grasses and rice varieties, and may help expl...

  3. Utilization of weedy rice for development of japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Tang, Liang; Ma, Dian Rong; Xu, Zheng Jin; Deng, Hua Feng; Chen, Wen Fu; Yuan, Long Ping

    2011-05-01

    Two representative weedy rice lines, three typical japonica varieties and three typical indica varieties were used for 6 pairs of reciprocal crosses. The morphological traits of twelve F(1) hybrid lines, their parents and four elite cultivars were investigated for heterosis over mid-parent (HM), over parent (HP) and competitive heterosis (CH) analysis. Traits detected in weedy rice lines seemed larger than those in cultivars and excellent heterosis was produced in weedy rice crossing with japonica rice. Although weedy rice kept closer relationships with japonica rice compared to indica rice. But the heterosis of reciprocal crosses between weedy rice and japonica was closed to those of crosses between indica rice and japonica rice. In six of one hundred and eighteen weedy rice lines, the fertility restore gene for BT type cytoplasmic male sterility (BT-CMS) were detected. Weedy rice was very valuable germplasm resources with the abundant polymorphism. Meanwhile, the disadvantage, lodging, shattering and incompact plant type, should be modified by hybridization, backcross and multiple cross with japonica rice. Although it is difficult to use weedy rice directly, weedy rice may be available to breed both male sterile line and restorer line through improvement, developing japonica hybrid rice.

  4. The impact of planting date on management of the rice water weevil in Louisiana rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Early planting of rice to avoid damaging infestations of the rice water weevil has long been suggested as a management tactic. A five-year study was conducted to characterize the influ...

  5. Genetic diversity for rice grain mineral concentrations observed among genetically and geographically giverse rice accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With about half of the world’s people dependent on rice as their main food source, improving the nutritional value of rice could have major impact on human health. While rice in the USA is often artificially fortified, natural enhancement of the rice grain’s nutritional value, i.e. from genetic impr...

  6. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  7. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  8. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  9. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  10. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  13. Genetic Dissection of Sympatric Populations of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), Using DALP-PCR Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Latif, M. A.; Rafii, M. Y.; Mazid, M. S.; Ali, M. E.; Ahmed, F.; Omar, M. Y.; Tan, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Direct amplified length polymorphism (DALP) combines the advantages of a high-resolution fingerprint method and also characterizing the genetic polymorphisms. This molecular method was also found to be useful in brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens species complex for the analysis of genetic polymorphisms. A total of 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. were collected from 6 locations from Malaysia. Two sympatric populations of brown planthopper, N. lugens, one from rice and the other from a weed grass (Leersia hexandra), were collected from each of five locations. N. bakeri was used as an out group. Three oligonucleotide primer pairs, DALP231/DALPR′5, DALP234/DALPR′5, and DALP235/DALPR′5 were applied in this study. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram based on genetic distances for the 11 populations of Nilaparvata spp. revealed that populations belonging to the same species and the same host type clustered together irrespective of their geographical localities of capture. The populations of N. lugens formed into two distinct clusters, one was insects with high esterase activities usually captured from rice and the other was with low esterase activities usually captured from L. hexandra. N. bakeri, an out group, was the most isolated group. Analyses of principal components, molecular variance, and robustness also supported greatly to the findings of cluster analysis. PMID:22593700

  14. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the…

  15. The briquetting of Victorian brown coals

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.J.; Allardice, D.J.; Bates, A.J.; Hutchinson, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the experience gained in 70 years of binderless briquetting of Victorian brown coals. The processing stages of crushing, drying, cooling, pressing, and shipping are described in detail, as are the key process parameters. The product is used for industrial and household fuel, for export, and for production of further upgraded products such as absorbent chars, metallurgical reductants, and smokeless cooking fuels.

  16. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindiola, Tatcho Jr.; Niemann, Yolanda Flores; Rodriguez, Nestor

    This book analyzes how African and Hispanic Americans perceive and interact with one another, highlighting black-brown relations in Houston, Texas, one of the largest cities with a majority ethnic population and one in which Hispanic Americans outnumber African Americans. Using results from several sociological studies, the book examines: how each…

  17. Do You Mean Us, Mr Brown?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This summer Chris Wardley, Chair of Access to Community Education (ACE), a small charity run by and for disabled people in Torbay, wrote to Gordon Brown. She asked him whether his mission to "fulfil the potential and realise the talents of all people" was based solely on economic goals or whether everyone, including disabled people,…

  18. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  19. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  20. Reading Second. Brown Letters on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover

    2009-01-01

    Former President George W. Bush finished his tenure without having won congressional renewal of his No Child Left Behind (NCLB) policy. With President Barack Obama now at the helm, NCLB is up for debate. Brown Center Director Grover "Russ" Whitehurst examines Reading First, a key component of NCLB, that aims to ensure that all children…

  1. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  2. Brown and Lau: Seeking the Common Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Rosa Castro

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes commonalities between "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and "Lau v. Nichols" compliance efforts and outcomes, recommending strategies for the next decade, including reduction of residential segregation, desegregation by socioeconomic status, untracking, funding initiatives, family friendly policies, and…

  3. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2001-01-01

    We obtained the optical and IR spectra of Gliese 229B and identified Cs, I, and CO features - as expected in theoretical models. Our optical IR spectrum showed that most of the refractory metals have condensed out of the atmosphere and the presence of Cs, I and CO shows evidence for disequilibrium chemistry. We reported orbital evidence for Gliese 229B. The HST measured optical magnitudes provide additional evidence for the absence of dust in the atmosphere of this cool object. The luminosity of brown dwarfs depend on their masses and ages and in order to interpret the results of the survey we have carried out an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. Our conclusion is that warm brown dwarfs are rare, as companions in the orbital period range beyond approximately 30 - 50 AU. The Palomer survey poses no constraint for brown dwarfs in planetary orbits similar to those of the outer planets. We have just started a program of imaging nearby stars with the newly commissioned AO system at Palomar and Keck and have already found a brown dwarf candidate.

  4. Doppler Imaging of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, I.; Biller, B.; Schlieder, J.; Deacon, N.; Bonnefoy, M.; Homeier, D.; Allard, F.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Brandner, W.; Goldman, Bertr; Kopytova, T.

    2014-03-01

    Doppler Imaging produces 2D global maps. When applied to cool planets or more massive brown dwarfs, it can map atmospheric features and track global weather patterns. The first substellar map, of the 2pc-distant brown dwarf Luhman 16B (Crossfeld et al. 2014), revealed patchy regions of thin & thick clouds. Here, I investigate the feasibility of future Doppler Imaging of additional objects. Searching the literature, I find that all 3 of P, v sin i, and variability are published for 22 brown dwarfs. At least one datum exists for 333 targets. The sample is very incomplete below ~L5; we need more surveys to find the best targets for Doppler Imaging! I estimate limiting magnitudes for Doppler Imaging with various hi-resolution near-infrared spectrographs. Only a handful of objects - at the M/L and L/T transitions - can be mapped with current tools. Large telescopes such as TMT and GMT will allow Doppler Imaging of many dozens of brown dwarfs and the brightest exoplanets. More targets beyond type L5 likely remain to be found. Future observations will let us probe the global atmospheric dynamics of many diverse objects.

  5. "Brown" and the Failure of Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennimore, Beatrice S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I use perspective gained from 18 years of experience as an urban public school parent between 1978 and 1996 to provide insights into "Brown" at 50. Through description of two public conflicts over special choice programs in the school districts where my family and I lived during those years, I analyze the emergent issues of…

  6. Brown marmorated stink bug detections in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, was first detected in the U.S. in Pennsylvania in 1998. This pest is now well-established in the northeast and has been detected in more than 25 states, including Oregon. These non-native stink bugs look much like many of our native stink b...

  7. Civil Rights Law and the Brown Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jack

    The Brown decision of 1954 was the product of a planned program of litigation begun in the late 1920s and the early 1930s by a group of Black lawyers. Their work would not have succeeded if the ethos of the United States had not been changing simultaneously. The growth of a climate more conducive to civil rights is reflected in the presidential…

  8. Brown v. Board of Education: Looking Back

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This year people celebrate the 50th anniversary of the landmark Supreme Court decision, "Brown v. the Board of Education." A half-century after the Supreme Court found that segregated schools are "inherently unequal," there is much research to support the Court's decision. However, 2004 finds the U.S. educational system becoming more segregated…

  9. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions. With the successful launch of the SIRTF mission in August of 2003, we now await the execution of these observations, which should begin in early 2004. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 and spring of 2003 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT, the 1.5 meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, and Magellan Observatory for several hundred candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348, Taurus, and Chamaeleon star-forming regions. All of these data have been published in three papers in The Astrophysical Journal. We also recently used the MMT to obtain deep near-IR images of IC348 to accompany the SIRTF images and have time in the next month at the IRTF and Keck for spectroscopy of candidate brown dwarfs in IC348 and Taurus. We have submitted proposals for deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in Chamaeleon and Ophiuchus for spring 2004 with Magellan and the AAT. Results from this research have been presented in invited talks at UU Symposium 221 (July 2003) and at the SIRTF Galactic Science Workshop (August 2003). For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approx. 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We expect to submit the paper describing these observations to The Astrophysical Journal by the end of the year

  10. Rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome with transient specific IgE to boiled rice but not to retort-processed rice.

    PubMed

    Yasutomi, Motoko; Kosaka, Takuya; Kawakita, Akiko; Hayashi, Hisako; Okazaki, Shintaro; Murai, Hiroki; Miyagawa, Kazuhiko; Mayumi, Mitsufumi; Ohshima, Yusei

    2014-02-01

    Described herein is the case of an 8-month-old girl with atypical food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome due to rice. She presented with vomiting and poor general activity 2 h after ingestion of boiled rice. Oral food challenge test using high-pressure retort-processed rice was negative, but re-exposure to boiled rice elicited gastrointestinal symptoms. On western blot analysis the patient's serum was found to contain IgE bound to crude protein extracts from rice seed or boiled rice, but not from retort-processed rice. The major protein bands were not detected in the electrophoresed gel of retort-processed rice extracts, suggesting decomposition by high-temperature and high-pressure processing. Oral food challenge for diagnosing rice allergy should be performed with boiled rice to avoid a false negative. Additionally, some patients with rice allergy might be able to ingest retort-processed rice as a substitute for boiled rice.

  11. European brown hare syndrome in free-ranging European brown and mountain hares from Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Frölich, K; Haerer, G; Bacciarini, L; Janovsky, M; Rudolph, M; Giacometti, M

    2001-10-01

    From 1997 to 2000, complete necropsy and histopathologic investigations were performed on 157 free-ranging European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) found dead throughout Switzerland. Organ samples of all these individuals (157 livers and 107 spleens available) were tested for European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV)-antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. Furthermore, 60 additional blood samples were tested for antibodies against EBHSV by ELISA. In addition, liver samples of 87 free-ranging mountain hares (Lepus timidus) hunted in 1996 were tested for EBHSV-antigen. In two European brown hares from southern Switzerland lesions suggestive of changes induced by EBHSV were present, and high titers of EBHSV-antigen were detected in both liver and spleen samples of these animals. Based on negative staining electron microscopy investigations of liver and spleen homogenates, we observed calicivirus in one antigen-positive hare. Low EBHSV-antigen titers were found in three additional European brown hares from central and western Switzerland, but EBHS-lesions were absent. Antibodies against EBHSV were not detected in any of the sera of European brown hares, and EBHSV-antigen was not found in the samples of mountain hares. This is the first report of EBHS in European brown hares from Switzerland.

  12. Elemental bioimaging of tissue level trace metal distributions in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) from a mining area in China.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Priyanka; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Wu, Fengchang; Fu, Zhiyou; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple food and major source of nutrients, but it also bioaccumulates toxic elements. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine tissue-level trace metal spatial distribution in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds from the active Xikuangshan Sb mine area in China. Whole grain quantified elemental bioimages showed the highest concentration of Zn (1755 mg/kg) in the embryo andmicro zones of elevated Sb, As, Pb, Cd as high as 280, 57, 31 and 830 mg/kg, respectively on the husk/bran/endosperm tissues. Bioimages suggest that both Sb and Cd may be competing with Zn for binding sites. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were detected in seeds from upstream and downstream fields indicating the presence of toxic Sb(III). Brown rice is a good source of Zn, but white rice is a safer option if rice is grown in a polluted area.

  13. Impacts of rapeseed dregs on Cd availability in contaminated acid soil and Cd translocation and accumulation in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Tao; Gu, Jiao-Feng; Zou, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Hang; Zeng, Qing-Ru; Liao, Bo-Han

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of rapeseed dregs (RSD, a commonly organic fertilizer in rural China) at application rates of 0, 0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 % on Cd availability in soil and its accumulation in rice plants (Oryza sativa L., Xiangwanxian 12(#), and Weiyou 46(#)) by means of a pot experiment. The results showed that application of RSD resulted in a sharp decrease in the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content. However, the soil TCLP-extractable Cd content in amended soil gradually increased during the rice growing period. Application of RSD significantly increased Cd transport from root to shoot and the amount of Cd accumulated in the aerial part. RSD was an effective organic additive for increasing rice grain yield, but total Cd content in rice grain was also increased. At an application rate of 1.5-3.0 % RSD, the total Cd content in Weiyou 46(#) brown rice was 0.27-0.31 mg kg(-1), which exceeded the standard safe limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and was also higher than that of Xiangwanxian 12(#) (0.04-0.14 mg kg(-1)). Therefore, Weiyou 46(#) had a higher dietary risk than Xiangwanxian 12(#) with RSD application. We do not recommend planting Weiyou 46(#) and applying more than 0.75 % RSD in Cd-contaminated paddy fields.

  14. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF METHYLMERCURY AND OTHER METAL(LOID)S IN MADAGASCAR UNPOLISHED RICE (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Mgutshini, Noma L.; Bizimis, Michael; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Ramanantsoanirina, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The rice ingestion rate in Madagascar is among the highest globally; however studies concerning metal(loid) concentrations in Madagascar rice are lacking. For Madagascar unpolished rice (n=51 landraces), levels of toxic elements (e.g., total mercury, methylmercury, arsenic and cadmium) as well as essential micronutrients (e.g., zinc and selenium) were uniformly low, indicating potentially both positive and negative health effects. Aside from manganese (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.01), no significant differences in concentrations for all trace elements were observed between rice with red bran (n=20) and brown bran (n=31) (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.06–0.91). Compared to all elements in rice, rubidium (i.e., tracer for phloem transport) was most positively correlated with methylmercury (Pearson's r=0.33, p<0.05) and total mercury (r=0.44, p<0.05), while strontium (i.e., tracer for xylem transport) was least correlated with total mercury and methylmercury (r<0.01 for both), suggesting inorganic mercury and methylmercury were possibly more mobile in phloem compared to xylem. PMID:25463705

  15. Retrospective study of methylmercury and other metal(loid)s in Madagascar unpolished rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Mgutshini, Nomathamsanqa L; Bizimis, Michael; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E; Ramanantsoanirina, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The rice ingestion rate in Madagascar is among the highest globally; however studies concerning metal(loid) concentrations in Madagascar rice are lacking. For Madagascar unpolished rice (n = 51 landraces), levels of toxic elements (e.g., total mercury, methylmercury, arsenic and cadmium) as well as essential micronutrients (e.g., zinc and selenium) were uniformly low, indicating potentially both positive and negative health effects. Aside from manganese (Wilcoxon rank sum, p < 0.01), no significant differences in concentrations for all trace elements were observed between rice with red bran (n = 20)and brown bran (n = 31) (Wilcoxon rank sum, p = 0.06-0.91). Compared to all elements in rice,rubidium (i.e., tracer for phloem transport) was most positively correlated with methylmercury (Pearson'sr = 0.33, p < 0.05) and total mercury (r = 0.44, p < 0.05), while strontium (i.e., tracer for xylemtransport) was least correlated with total mercury and methylmercury (r < 0.01 for both), suggesting inorganic mercury and methylmercury were possibly more mobile in phloem compared to xylem.

  16. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  17. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are major criteria for preference among consumers. Small variations in these sensory properties can make rice highly desired or unacceptable to consumers. Human sensory analyses have identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental ana...

  18. Understanding rice heterosis using deep sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is a complex biological phenomenon where the offspring show better performance compared to the inbred parents. Although rice breeders have used heterosis in hybrid rice production for nearly 40 years, the genetic and molecular mechanism underlying the heterosis in rice is still poorly und...

  19. Is ALL Rice Bran Created Equal?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of whole grain rice is increasing in the U.S. This increase is likely due to increased consumer awareness of the importance of whole grains in the diet. Whole grain rice is superior nutritionally compared to milled rice because, except for carbohyrates, it contains more phytochemicals an...

  20. Intricate Transcriptional Networks of Classical Brown and Beige Fat Cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hong; Hur, Wonhee; Lee, Sean Bong

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipocytes are a specialized cell type that is critical for adaptive thermogenesis, energy homeostasis, and metabolism. In response to cold, both classical brown fat and the newly identified "beige" or "brite" cells are activated by β-adrenergic signaling and catabolize stored lipids and carbohydrates to produce heat via UCP1. Once thought to be non-existent in adults, recent studies have discovered active classical brown and beige fat cells in humans, thus reinvigorating interest in brown and beige adipocytes. This review will focus on the newly discovered transcription factors and microRNAs that specify and orchestrate the classical brown and beige fat cell development.

  1. Selection of brown rice (whole-grain) varieties with long shelf Life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have associated consumption of whole grains and whole-grain products with reduced incidence of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Because of the health benefits of eating whole grains, one of the key recommendations in the 2005 USDA dietary guidelines for ...

  2. Delicious, healthy dishes incorporating whole grain wheat, brown rice and buckwheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing problems with poor dietary habits, especially among the aging population. Increased fiber from foods such as whole grains are beneficial in preventing metabolic disease and in promoting health. However, products derived from whol...

  3. Red Yeast Rice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  4. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains.

  5. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: (1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; (2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions and now await the launch of the mission in April 2003. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT and the 1.5-meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory for candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348 and Taurus star-forming regions. Two papers that include these data in new measurements of the mass functions in these regions are near completion and will be submitted for publication to the Astrophysical Journal in January. We have also proposed deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in the IC348, Chamaeleon, and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with the MMT, Magellan, and Gemini North telescopes in early 2003. For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approximately 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC 348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We are in the process of writing a paper that describes these candidate companions and presents the companion detection limits that were achieved with HST. We will attempt followup spectroscopy of the most promising candidate companions to confirm their nature as cool companions rather than background field stars during the commissioning of the facility adaptive optics system for the Gemini North telescope early in 2003. In addition, in SIRTF guaranteed time observations we plan to

  6. Effects of microbial xylanase on digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy and the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in rice coproducts fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, fiber, and GE by weanling pigs and the concentration of DE and ME in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, and broken rice is improved if microbial xylanase is added to the diet. Eighty pigs (13.6 ± 0.8 kg initial BW) were allotted to 10 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 40 pigs. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal and 4 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each of the 4 rice coproducts were formulated. The rice coproducts and corn and soybean meal were the only sources of energy in the diets. Five additional diets that were similar to the initial 5 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units of xylanase (Econase XT-25; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) were also formulated. All diets also contained 1,500 units of microbial phytase (Quantum Blue 5G; AB Vista). The DE and ME and the ATTD of DM, OM, fiber, and GE in diets and ingredients were calculated using the direct method and the difference method, respectively. Results indicated that the concentrations of DE and ME (DM basis) in FFRB and DFRB increased ( < 0.05) if xylanase was used. Broken rice had a greater ( < 0.05) concentration of DE and ME than FFRB and DFRB if no xylanase was added to the diets, but if xylanase was used, no differences in ME among FFRB, brown rice, and broken rice were observed. The ATTD of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in ingredients with xylanase than in ingredients without xylanase and there was a tendency ( = 0.067) for the ATTD of OM to be greater if xylanase was used. The ATTD of NDF in FFRB was greater ( < 0.05) when xylanase was added than if no xylanase was used, whereas the ATTD of NDF in DFRB was not affected by the addition of xylanase. In conclusion, if no xylanase was used, broken rice and brown rice have greater concentrations of DE and ME than FFRB

  7. Rice, indica (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Hiei, Yukoh; Ishida, Yuji; Komari, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Indica varieties, which are generally recalcitrant to tissue culture and transformation, occupy 80 % of rice cultivation area in the world. Therefore, transformation method for indica rice must be improved greatly so that global rice production would take full advantage of cutting-edge biotechnology. An efficient protocol for indica transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is hereby described. Immature embryos collected from plants in a greenhouse are cocultivated with A. tumefaciens after pretreatment with heat and centrifuging. The protocol was successfully tested in many elite indica cultivars such as IR8, IR24, IR58025B, IR64, IR72, Suweon 258, and Nanjing 11, yielding between 5 and 15 of independent transgenic plants per immature embryo. The use of immature embryos is recommended because gene transfer to them could be much more efficient and much less genotype dependent than gene transfer to callus.

  8. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  9. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice.

  10. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  11. [Environmental effects of applying heavy metal-containing municipal sewage sludge on wheat-rice rotation system on different types of soil].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Cheng, Miao-Miao; Li, Rui; Liu, Ling; Wu, Long-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yan; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2012-02-01

    A pot experiment with the yellow soil and limestone soil from Guizhou province, and paddy soil from Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the impacts of applying municipal sewage sludge containing different concentrations of heavy metals on the wheat and rice growth and their Zn and Cd absorption. The risks of the crop heavy metals pollution caused by the application of the same sludge differed with tested soils. On the yellow soil and paddy soil, applying the sludge containing high concentration heavy metals induced higher pollution risks to the crops. Applying the sludge 1.6% in dry mass and containing 1789 mg x kg(-1) of Zn and 8.47 mg x kg(-1) of Cd to yellow soil made the Zn and Cd concentrations in wheat grains reached 109 and 0.08 mg x kg(-1), and after the second time application of the same dosage of this sludge after rice planting, the Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice reached 52.0 and 0.54 mg x kg(-1), respectively. However, applying the sludge to calcareous soil had no pollution risk to the edible parts of wheat and rice. Soil NH4OAc-extractable Zn was the main factor affecting the Zn concentration in wheat grain and brown rice, but soil NH4OAc-extractable Cd had less effect on the Cd concentration in wheat grain and brown nce. Applying the sludge containing high concentration Zn and Cd to the three soils made the concentrations of total Zn and Cd in the soils increased significantly, and after the first time and the second time of the application, the total Zn concentration in the soils all exceeded the 2nd level of the national soil environmental quality standards.

  12. Iron biofortification of myanmar rice.

    PubMed

    Aung, May Sann; Masuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Yamakawa, Takashi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75 and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high-yields or high-qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high-Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II)-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  13. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  14. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  15. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas.

  16. Impacts of seeding rate on interactions between rice and rice water weevils.

    PubMed

    Stout, M J; Harrell, D; Tindall, K V; Bond, J

    2009-10-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, is the most widely distributed and destructive early season insect pest of rice, Oryza sativa L., in the United States. Economic losses result primarily from feeding by the larval stage of this insect on the roots of flooded rice plants. Prior studies suggest that infestations of rice water weevil larvae are more severe at low plant densities. Moreover, because feeding by the rice water weevil reduces rice plant tillering, a process particularly important to yield at low seeding rates, infestations by weevil larvae may have a greater impact on rice yields when rice is seeded at low rates. In total, six experiments were conducted over a 3-yr period in Louisiana and Missouri to investigate the impacts of rice seeding rate on levels of infestations by, and yield losses from, the rice water weevil. An inverse relationship between seeding rate and densities of rice water weevil larvae and pupae on a per area basis was found in two of the six experiments. Furthermore, in two of the three experiments conducted with 'Bengal' (a susceptible cultivar) in Louisiana, percentages of yield loss were significantly higher at lower seeding rates than at higher seeding rates. Overall, these results indicate that rice sown at low rates is more vulnerable to infestation by rice water weevils and more susceptible to yield losses from weevil injury. The significance of these findings in light of recent trends toward the use of lower seeding rates in drill-seeded rice is discussed.

  17. Evolution and infrared spectra of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hubbard, William B.; Marley, Mark S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-consistent models are constructed for the structure, evolution, and observable properties of degenerately cooling objects, or 'brown dwarfs'. Model atmospheres composed of a range of likely gaseous and particulate opacity sources are calculated in order to provide a boundary condition for interior temperature-pressure profiles and to determine the emergent spectra for such objects. The radius derived from the interior models is combined with the emergent fluxes calculated from the atmosphere model to fit the data of McCarthy, Probst, and Low (1985) and to derive the luminosity and mass of VB 8B. The latter is found to be most probably an 0.05 solar mass object with effective temperature in the 1200-1500 K range and an atmosphere which very likely contains particulate absorbers. Key changes in chemical oxidation state and condensation of major constituents during the evolution of brown dwarfs are presented.

  18. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  19. Deterministic remote preparation via the Brown state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Song-Ya; Gao, Cong; Zhang, Pei; Qu, Zhi-Guo

    2017-04-01

    We propose two deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) schemes by using the Brown state as the entangled channel. Firstly, the remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state is considered. It is worth mentioning that the construction of measurement bases plays a key role in our scheme. Then, the remote preparation of an arbitrary three-qubit state is investigated. The proposed schemes can be extended to controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) with unit success probabilities. At variance with the existing CRSP schemes via the Brown state, the derived schemes have no restriction on the coefficients, while the success probabilities can reach 100%. It means the success probabilities are greatly improved. Moreover, we pay attention to the DRSP in noisy environments under two important decoherence models, the amplitude-damping noise and phase-damping noise.

  20. Chemical characteristics of Victorian brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.J.; Allardice, D.J.; Kiss, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical properties of brown coal in Victoria, Australia, are discussed. Of importance is the content of moisture, minerals and inorganics, and organic oxygen compounds. Information on the variation in properties within a seam and between coalfields is presented. A discussion of the effects of the properties of the coal on its utilization is included. This covers carbonate formation during hydrogenation and ash formation during combustion.