Science.gov

Sample records for pre-germinated brown rice

  1. Palatable and bio-functional wheat/rice products developed from pre-germinated brown rice of super-hard cultivar EM10.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    It became possible to produce high-quality and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles by blending, pre-germinated and cooked brown rice of a super-hard cultivar with wheat flour. Super-hard rice (SHR) is not suitable for table rice because of its low palatability. Nevertheless, it was found to be suitable as a blending material for bread-making or noodle-making due to its hard texture and high content of resistant starch. We developed a novel rapid germination method to improve the quality and to save the time needed for germination. By blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR (30% w/w on a dry basis) as a rice gel with wheat flour (70% w/w on a dry basis), the bread became very soft and any hardening after bread-making was markedly retarded. Similarly, blending pre-germinated and cooked SHR as cooked a rice gel with wheat flour gave high-quality noodles with a similar texture to that of durum semolina noodles. The resistant starch of the SHR-blended bread and noodles was also markedly increased. White waxy rice (9%) soaked and cooked with the pre-germinated brown rice of SHR (21%) produced a rice gel that was very useful as a material for bread-making and noodle-making by blending with wheat flour (70%) to prepare soft, tasty and bio-functional wheat/rice bread and wheat/rice noodles.

  2. Effect of pre-germinated brown rice intake on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Usuki, Seigo; Ito, Yukihiko; Morikawa, Keiko; Kise, Mitsuo; Ariga, Toshio; Rivner, Michael; Yu, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Background To study the effects of a pre-germinated brown rice diet (PR) on diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods The effects of a PR diet on diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats were evaluated and compared with those fed brown rice (BR) or white rice (WR) diets with respect to the following parameters: blood-glucose level, motor-nerve conduction velocity (NCV), sciatic-nerve Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and serum homocysteine-thiolactonase (HTase) activity. Results Compared with diabetic rats fed BR or WR diets, those fed a PR diet demonstrated significantly lower blood-glucose levels (p < 0.001), improved NCV (1.2- and 1.3-fold higher, respectively), and increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity (1.6- and 1.7-fold higher, respectively). The PR diet was also able to normalize decreased serum homocysteine levels normally seen in diabetic rats. The increased Na+/K+-ATPase activity observed in rats fed PR diets was associated with elevations in HTase activity (r = 0.913, p < 0.001). The in vitro effect of the total lipid extract from PR bran (TLp) on the Na+/K+-ATPase and HTase activity was also examined. Incubation of homocysteine thiolactone (HT) with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro resulted in generation of HT-modified LDL, which possessed high potency to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the sciatic nerve membrane. The inhibitory effect of HT-modified LDL on Na+/K+-ATPase activity disappeared when TLp was added to the incubation mixture. Furthermore, TLp directly activated the HTase associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Conclusion PR treatment shows efficacy for protecting diabetic deterioration and for improving physiological parameters of diabetic neuropathy in rats, as compared with a BR or WR diet. This effect may be induced by a mechanism whereby PR intake mitigates diabetic neuropathy by one or more factors in the total lipid fraction. The active lipid fraction is able to protect the Na+/K+-ATPase of the

  3. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice on blood glucose and lipid levels in free-living patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Kise, Mitsuo; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ito, Yukihiko; Yang, Mei-Due; Aoto, Hiromichi; Yoshihara, Rie; Yokoyama, Jyunichi; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2008-04-01

    White rice (WR) is made by polishing brown rice (BR) and has lost various nutrients; however, most people prefer it to BR, maybe because of the hardness of BR. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) improves the problem of BR. It is made by soaking BR kernels in water to germinate and becomes softer than BR. In this study we compared the effects of WR and PGBR on blood glucose and lipid concentrations in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes patients. Six men and 5 women with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 6 wk on WR or PGBR diet separated by a 2 wk washout interval in a crossover design. Each subject was instructed to consume 3 packs of cooked WR or PGBR (180 g/pack) daily in each intervention phase. Blood samples were collected 4 times (in study weeks 0, 6, 8 and 14) for biochemical examination. Blood concentrations of fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were favorably improved on the PGBR diet (p<0.01), but not on the WR diet. The present results suggest that diets including PGBR may be useful to control blood glucose level.

  4. Protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice diet on low levels of Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Lu, Hongzhi; Tian, Su; Yin, Jie; Chen, Qing; Ma, Li; Cui, Shijie; Niu, Yujie

    2010-03-30

    Lead (Pb) is a known neurotoxicant in humans and experimental animals. Numerous studies have provided evidence that humans, especially young children, and animals chronically intoxicated with low levels of Pb show learning and memory impairments. Unfortunately, Pb-poisoning cases continue to occur in many countries. Because the current treatment options are very limited, there is a need for alternative methods to attenuate Pb toxicity. In this study, the weaning (postnatal day 21, PND21) rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group (AIN-93G diet, de-ionized water), the lead acetate (PbAC) group (AIN-93G diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water), the lead acetate+WR group (white rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+WR), the lead acetate+BR group (brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+BR) and the lead acetate+PR group (pre-germinated brown rice diet, 2g/L PbAC in de-ionized water; PbAC+PR). The animals received the different diets until PND60, and then the experiments were terminated. The protective effects of pre-germinated brown rice (PR) on Pb-induced learning and memory impairment in weaning rats were assessed by the Morris water maze and one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The anti-oxidative effects of feeding a PR diet to Pb-exposed rats were evaluated. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined by flow cytometry. The levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate were determined by HPLC. Our data showed that feeding a PR diet decreased the accumulation of lead and decreased Pb-induced learning and memory deficits in developing rats. The mechanisms might be related to the anti-oxidative effects and large amount of GABA in PR. Our study provides a regimen to reduce Pb-induced toxicity, especially future learning and memory deficits in the developing brain.

  5. Recovery effect of pre-germinated brown rice on the alteration of sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor expression in rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Roboon, J; Nudmamud-Thanoi, S; Thanoi, S

    2017-02-01

    Depression and antidepressant drugs induce adverse effects in male reproduction. Therefore, it is important to investigate alternative treatment for depression without adverse effects on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) on sperm quality, testicular structure and androgen receptor (AR) expression in rat model of depression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups including control (distilled water only), depression induced by forced swimming test (FST), FST + fluoxetine (antidepressant drug), FST + GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) (standard) and FST + PGBR. When compared with the control, sperm motility showed a significant decrease in FST + fluoxetine group. Sperm morphology also decreased significantly in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups. The morphological changes of seminiferous tubules showed significant increases in depression and FST + fluoxetine groups, while AR expression showed significant decreases in depression, FST + fluoxetine and FST + GABA groups. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in all sperm quality parameters, testicular structure and AR expression in FST + PGBR group. These findings reflect the recovery effects of PGBR treatment on sperm quality, morphological changes of seminiferous tubules and AR expression in stress-induced rats. Therefore, PGBR may potentially develop for the treatment for depression without adverse effect on male reproduction.

  6. Effects of pre-germinated brown rice treatment high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Hui-Li; Hao, Chi-Long; Chen, Fu-Chih; Chen, Chun-Yun; Chen, Jia-Hao; Shen, Kuo-Ping

    2017-05-01

    To investigate using pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) to treat metabolic syndrome, we fed one group of mice standard-regular-diet (SRD) for 20 weeks and another group of mice high-fat-diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. We subdivided them into HFD group and HFD + PGBR group whose dietary carbohydrate was replaced with PGBR for 4 weeks. The HFD group gained more weight, had higher blood pressure, heart rate, blood glucose and lipids, liver levels of TG, feces TG and bile acid, lower adipose levels of adipocytokine, lower skeletal muscle IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, PI3 K, Akt/PKB, GLUT-1, GLUT-4, GCK and PPAR-γ; higher liver SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α, and higher adipose SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, and lower adipose PPAR-α and adiponectin. The HFD + PGBR group had clearly improved blood pressure, biochemical parameters and above proteins expressions. PGBR successful treatment of metabolic syndrome was achieved through improvements in glucose and lipid synthesis and metabolism.

  7. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Jia-Hao; Chen, Fu-Chih; Lin, Hui-Li

    2016-07-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) can ameliorate hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism is not clear. We focus the mechanisms of PGBR prevented hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old mice were divided into: standard-regular diet (SRD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD with PGBR (HFD + PGBR) groups for 16 weeks. The HFD group has higher concentrations of TG, TC, HDL and Non-HDL in the blood, and a higher atherosclerosis index (AI). The TG levels in the liver, and TG, bile acid levels in the feces were enhanced; and the total adipocytokines level in adipose tissue was reduced. The HFD group had higher protein expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, LDLR, and CYP7α1 in the liver. Moreover, the greater expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS and the less expressions of PPAR-α and adiponectin were in adipose tissue. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR regulated the levels of TG, TC, HDL, Non-HDL, AI and adipocytokines. PGBR increased more cholesterol and bile acid exhaust in feces. The SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α proteins in the liver; and the SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, PPAR-α and adiponectin proteins in adipose tissue were reversed by PGBR. Taken together, PGBR can improve lipid synthesis and metabolism, and we suggest PGBR is a recommendable food for controlling hyperlipidemia.

  8. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Jia-Hao; Chen, Fu-Chih; Lin, Hui-Li

    2016-01-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) can ameliorate hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism is not clear. We focus the mechanisms of PGBR prevented hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old mice were divided into: standard-regular diet (SRD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD with PGBR (HFD + PGBR) groups for 16 weeks. The HFD group has higher concentrations of TG, TC, HDL and Non-HDL in the blood, and a higher atherosclerosis index (AI). The TG levels in the liver, and TG, bile acid levels in the feces were enhanced; and the total adipocytokines level in adipose tissue was reduced. The HFD group had higher protein expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, LDLR, and CYP7α1 in the liver. Moreover, the greater expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS and the less expressions of PPAR-α and adiponectin were in adipose tissue. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR regulated the levels of TG, TC, HDL, Non-HDL, AI and adipocytokines. PGBR increased more cholesterol and bile acid exhaust in feces. The SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α proteins in the liver; and the SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, PPAR-α and adiponectin proteins in adipose tissue were reversed by PGBR. Taken together, PGBR can improve lipid synthesis and metabolism, and we suggest PGBR is a recommendable food for controlling hyperlipidemia. PMID:27499577

  9. Pre-germinated brown rice prevents high-fat diet induced hyperglycemia through elevated insulin secretion and glucose metabolism pathway in C57BL/6J strain mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Wu, Bin-Nan; Lin, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect and mechanism of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) prevented hyperglycemia in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat-diet (HFD). Normal six-week-old mice were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 was fed standard-regular-diet (SRD) and group 2 was fed HFD for 16 weeks. In group 3, the mice were fed a HFD with its carbohydrate replaced with PGBR for 16 weeks. Comparing the SRD and HFD groups, we found the HFD group had higher blood pressure, higher concentrations of blood glucose and HbA1c. The HFD group had less protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and glucokinase (GCK) and greater expression of glucogen synthase kinase (GSK) in skeletal muscle. The HFD group also had less expression of IR, serine/threonine kinase PI3K-linked protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), GCK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in liver. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR could reverse the disorders of blood pressure, blood glucose, HbA1c and increase insulin concentration. PGBR increased the IR, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 proteins, and ameliorated AMPK, GCK, GSK and PPARγ proteins. Together, PGBR prevented HFD-induced hyperglycemia through improving insulin levels, insulin receptor, glucose transporters and enhancing glucose metabolism. PMID:25834303

  10. High hydrostatic pressure treatments enhance volatile components of pre-germinated brown rice revealed by aromatic fingerprinting based on HS-SPME/GC-MS and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Mei, Jun; Yu, Wenjuan; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    Germination favors to significantly enhance functional components and health attributes of whole-grain brown rice (BR), but the production of germinated BR (GBR) compromises the typical rice flavor perception due to soaking process. Simultaneously, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is considered as an effective processing technique to enhance micronutrients utilization efficiency of GBR and improve products flavor, but no information about the effects of HHP treatments on volatile fingerprinting of GBR has been reported. Therefore, the objective of this work was to apply HHP to improve the flavor and odor of GBR grains by exploring HHP-induced changes in aroma compounds. GBR grains were obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h, and subsequently subjected to HHP treatments at pressures 100, 300 and 500MPa for 15min, using 0.1MPa as control. Headspace solid-phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was used to characterize process-induced shifts of volatile organic compounds fingerprinting, followed by multivariate analysis. Our results confirmed the significant reduction of total volatile fractions derived from germination process. Contrarily, the following HHP treatments greatly enhanced the flavor components of GBR, particularly characteristic odorants including aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. Principal component analysis further indicated the different influence of germination and high pressure on the changes in volatile components. Partial least square-discrimination analysis suggested that 4-vinylguaiacol was closely linked to germination, whereas E,E-2,4-decadienal, E-2-hexenal, E,E-2,4-heptadienal and benzyl alcohol could be considered as volatile biomarkers of high pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A simplified genomic DNA extraction protocol for pre-germination genotyping in rice.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y B; Zhao, F L; Chen, H D; Li, H; Ni, D H; Wei, P C; Sheng, W; Teng, J T; Zhang, A M; Xue, J P

    2015-06-11

    Genotyping is a critical step for molecular marker-assisted selection in rice. Rice genomic DNA samples for genotyping are typically isolated from living tissues such as seedlings. This requires the germination of all candidate seeds and extraction of DNA from the seedlings. Currently, an ideal individual is selected from a very large number of plants, which is time- and labor-consuming, requiring several transplantations of materials and sampling processes. In this study, we developed a simplified genomic DNA extraction protocol in rice by using amylase to treat half-seeds. The yields of genomic DNA from a half-seed of Indica and Japonica rice were greater than 203.8 ± 32.5 and 143.2 ± 25.5 ng, respectively, and the 260/280 nm absorbance ratio was 1.75-2.10. The DNA was confirmed to be sufficient for polymerase chain reaction amplification and can be used in a marker-assisted selection program.

  12. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  13. Iron absorption from brown rice/brown rice-based meal and milled rice/milled rice-based meal.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Sagum, Rosario S; Briones, Dave P; Encabo, Rosario R; Juliano, Bienvenido O

    2009-12-01

    Milled rice is the staple food among Filipinos and is mostly consumed three times a day. Rice as a source of iron could therefore have an important role in the existing 37% prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia in the country. Previous iron absorption studies in Filipinos from rice and rice-based meals were carried out on milled rice but no research was done on brown rice of the same variety. This leads to the hypothesis that brown rice may be better than milled rice in terms of iron content. To determine iron absorption from brown rice and brown rice-based meal, and from milled rice and milled rice-based meal of the same variety. The rice variety used in the study was F(2) seeds of PSB Rc72H. Iron absorption from brown/milled rice and brown/milled rice-based meals was determined in 12 healthy human subjects from the incorporation of radioisotopes of iron into erythrocytes 14 days after administration of the labeled rice/rice-based meals. The above samples were also analyzed for nutrient content, including dietary fiber, and iron. The iron content of brown rice was significantly higher (1.1 +/- 0.1 mg/100 g) than that of milled rice (0.6 +/- 0.1 mg/100 g). Brown rice has significantly greater amounts of total dietary fiber (5.4 +/- 0.4%) than milled rice (1.7 +/- 0.2%; P < 0.05). Both tannic acid and phytic acid contents in brown rice (56.9 +/- 3.2 mg/100 g and 290.1 +/- 18.0 mg/100 g, respectively) were significantly higher than those of milled rice (21.3 +/- 2.3 mg/100 g and 84.0 +/- 12.4 mg/100 g, respectively; P<0.05). The amount of iron absorbed from brown rice (0.13 +/- 0.02 mg) did not differ significantly from that from milled rice (0.14 +/- 0.02 mg). However, the amount from brown rice-based meal (0.36 +/- 0.04 mg) differed significantly from that from brown rice (P<0.05) as well as that from milled rice-based meal (0.35 +/- 0.03 mg) from that from milled rice (P<0.05). Moreover, brown rice-based meal did not differ significantly from milled rice-based meal

  14. Water absorption properties of ultrasonic treated brown rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the effect of ultrasonic treated on brown rice, it is important to research the water absorption processing of brown rice before and after ultrasonic treatment. The objective of this study was investigate and modeling water absorption characteristics of brown rice using Peleg’s equatio...

  15. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    PubMed

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  16. Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Brian P; Taylor, Vivien F; Karagas, Margaret R; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L

    2012-05-01

    Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area. We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An "organic" toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

  17. Arsenic, Organic Foods, and Brown Rice Syrup

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Vivien F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. Objective: We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. Methods: We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area. Discussion: We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An “organic” toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. Conclusions: There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual’s diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food. PMID:22336149

  18. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  19. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  20. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

  1. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

  2. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

  3. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

  4. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which...

  5. Germinated brown rice and its bio-functional compounds.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Hwa; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-04-01

    Brown rice (BR) contains bran layers and embryo, where a variety of nutritional and biofunctional components, such as dietary fibers, γ-oryzanol, vitamins, and minerals, exist. However, BR is consumed less than white rice because it has an inferior eating texture when cooked. Germination is one of the techniques used to improve the texture of the cooked BR. In addition, it induces numerous changes in the composition and chemical structure of the bioactive components. Moreover, many studies reported that the germination could induce the formation of new bioactive compounds, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR) is increasing in many Asian countries because of its improved eating quality and potential health-promoting functions. However, there is still a lack of studies on the compositional and functional changes of the bioactive components during germination. This review contains recent research findings, especially on the bioactive components in GBR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomics of interaction between the brown planthopper and rice.

    PubMed

    Jing, Shengli; Zhao, Yan; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2017-02-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) form a model system for dissection of the mechanism of interaction between insect pest and crop. In this review, we focus on the genomics of BPH-rice interaction. On the side of rice, a number of BPH-resistance genes have been identified genetically. Thirteen of these genes have been cloned which shed a light on the molecular basis of the interaction. On the aspect of BPH, a lot of salivary proteins have been identified using transcriptome and proteome techniques. The genetic loci of virulence were mapped in BPH genome based on the linkage map. The understanding of interaction between BPH and rice will provide novel insights into efficient control of this pest. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A transgressive brown rice mediates favourable glycaemic and insulin responses.

    PubMed

    Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Aik, Chuah Khun; Heen, Tan Choon; Subramaniam, Satiapoorany; Bhuiyan, Atiqur R; Fasahat, Parviz; Zain, Abdullah M; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2011-08-30

    We evaluated glycaemic response of a brown rice variant (BR) developed by cross-breeding. Subjects (n = 9) consumed 50 g carbohydrate equivalents of BR, white rice (WR) and the polished brown rice (PR) in comparison to 50 g glucose reference (GLU) in a cross-over design. Plasma glucose and insulin at 0, 15, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min were measured and incremental area under the curve (IAUC) and indices for glucose (GI) and insulin (II) calculated. BR compared to PR or WR produced the lowest postprandial glycaemia (GI: 51 vs 79 vs 86) and insulinaemia (II: 39 vs 63 vs 68) irrespective of amylose content (19 vs 23 vs 26.5%). Only BR was significantly different from GLU for both plasma glucose (P = 0.012) and insulin (P = 0.013) as well as IAUC(glu) (P = 0.045) and IAUC(ins) (P = 0.031). Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses correlated positively (r = 0.550, P < 0.001). Linear trends for IAUC(glu) and IAUC(ins) indicated a greater secretion of insulin tied in with a greater glycaemic response for WR (r(2) = 0.848), moderate for PR (r(2) = 0.302) and weakest for BR (r(2) = 0.122). The brown rice variant had the lowest GI and II values but these advantages were lost with polishing. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Antioxidant activity of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice (in vivo and in vitro) and the effects on lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2013-11-15

    Antioxidant activity of different rice extract and the effect on the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemia rabbits were investigated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) has the highest antioxidant activity compared to white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). All rice grains increased the activity of SOD and GPx. However, vitamin E levels increased only in the groups that received the BR and GBR diets. The reduction of lipid peroxidation levels and activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and aspartate transaminase, AST) were only significantly observed in the GBR group. In conclusion, GBR supplementation has the greatest impact on increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and vitamin E level and on reducing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemia rabbit, thereby preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, GBR diet can also reduce the level of hepatic enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro gastric digestion of cooked white and brown rice using a dynamic rat stomach model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Peng; Deng, Renpan; Wu, Xuee; Wang, Yong; Dong, Zhizhong; Dhital, Sushil; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-12-15

    The changes in physical, rheological and enzyme-digestive behaviours of cooked white and brown rice, with similar amylose content, were investigated using a dynamic in vitro rat stomach (DIVRS) model and a static soaking method. The brown rice had a higher resistance on disintegration and lower gastric emptying rate with 53% of the brown rice particles retained in the stomach at the end compared to 32% for the white rice. Furthermore, the release rate of maltose from the starch hydrolysis was higher in the white rice throughout the digestion suggesting the lower glycemic potency of the brown rice. These differences could be contributed from the rigid bran layer in the brown rice which would inhibit the moisture absorption into rice kernels, limit textural degradation, and generate higher gastric digesta viscosity leading to lower mixing and mass transfer efficiency. This study suggests that the structural difference could affect physiochemical properties during gastric digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Germinated brown rice as a value added rice product: A review.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swati Bhauso; Khan, Md Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered whole food because only the outermost layer i.e. the hull of the rice kernel is removed which causes least damage to its nutritional value. Brown rice can be soaked in water at 30 °C for specified hours for germination to get GBR. Soaking for 3 h and sprouting for 21 h has been found to be optimum for getting the highest gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in GBR, which is the main reason behind the popularity of GBR. The intake of GBR instead of white rice ameliorates the hyperglycemia, boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, inhibits development of cancer cells and assists the treatment of anxiety disorders. Germination process could be used as enzymatic modification of starch that affects pasting properties of GBR flour. GBR would improve the bread quality when substituted for wheat flour. It is concluded that GBR has potential to become innovative rice by preserving all nutrients in the rice grain for human consumption in order to create the highest value from rice.

  11. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  12. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of processed brown rice products.

    PubMed

    Gong, Er Sheng; Luo, Shunjing; Li, Tong; Liu, Chengmei; Zhang, Guowen; Chen, Jun; Zeng, Zicong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-10-01

    The phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of free, soluble-conjugated, and bound fractions of brown rice and its processed products (textured rice, cooked rice and rice noodle) were studied. Nineteen phenolic acids were identified. Trans-ferulic acid was the most abundant monomeric phenolic acid with trans-trans-8-O-4' diferulic acid being most abundant diferulic acid. Processing increased the content of free phenolic acids, but decreased the content of soluble-conjugated phenolic acids. The content of bound phenolic acids was increased by improved extrusion cooking technology and cooking, but not affected by rice noodle extrusion. The total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of free and soluble-conjugated fractions were decreased after processing, whereas those of bound fraction were increased by improved extrusion cooking technology and cooking, but not affected by rice noodle extrusion. Results indicated that whole foods designed for reducing chronic disease risk need to consider the effects of processing on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of whole grains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement Effect of Dewaxed Brown Rice on Constipation in Antibiotic-treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Saika, Toshiyuki; Nishiyama, Naoki; Nisizawa, Takashi; Kohchi, Chie; Uenobe, Maya; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    A decrease in gastrointestinal motility causing weakened lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling along with a decline in the number of enteric bacteria is known to be a cause of constipation due to the administration of antibiotics. A new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed, resulting in quick-cooking and tasty product, contains 100-times more LPS than polished white rice. In this study, the improvement effect on constipation due to intake of dewaxed brown rice was examined. Dewaxed brown rice was prepared at Toyo Rice from brown rice. Mice were given powdered feed to which powdered rice containing 0-50% of dewaxed brown rice was added. Antibiotics were administered for 10 or 27 days in drinking water containing vancomycin, metronidazole and neomycin. LPS, used as a control, was freely provided in drinking water. The defecation frequency, stool weight per hour and body weight were determined on the last day. Although the 10-day administration of antibiotics reduced the stool weight per hour to half, the dewaxed brown rice and LPS groups showed a trend towards improvement at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. The body weight significantly decreased after the 27-day administration of antibiotics but was improved in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group at a level comparable to the group receiving no antibiotics. Though the defecation frequency and wet and dry stool weights per hour were reduced by as much as 50% in the group receiving antibiotics, a significant improvement in constipation was observed in the 50% dewaxed brown rice group. As the improvement effect of dewaxed brown rice on body weight loss and constipation caused by the long-term administration of antibiotics has been confirmed in animal experimentation, the introduction of dewaxed brown rice as a staple food to patients under long-term antibiotic treatment may improve constipation. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr

  14. Genetic Variation and Association Mapping of Protein Concentration in Brown Rice Using a Diverse Rice Germplasm Collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protein is the second most abundant constituent in the rice grain next to starch. Association analysis for protein concentration in brown rice was performed using a “Mini-Core” collection, which represents the germplasm diversity found in the USDA world rice collection. Protein concentration was det...

  15. Dewaxed Brown Rice Contains a Significant Amount of Lipopolysaccharide Pointing to Macrophage Activation via TLRs.

    PubMed

    Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Saika, Toshiyuki; Nisizawa, Takashi; Kohchi, Chie; Uenobe, Maya; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    Oral ingestion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to be effective in diseases' prevention. Brown rice contains large amounts of LPS not actively consumed because of bad taste. Recently, a new type of brown rice with its wax layer removed has been produced. In this report, we measured the LPS content of this dewaxed rice and evaluated the function of innate immune activation on macrophages. Dewaxed brown rice and polished rice were prepared using the Saika-style rice polishing process. LPS content extracted using hot water from this sample was evaluated by the Limulus reaction and the activation of macrophage RAW246.7 cells was evaluated by nitric oxide (NO) production. In addition, toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2-, 4- and 9-induced human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells were used for the confirmation of the activated pathway. Mean LPS content in the 15 types of dewaxed brown rice was found to be 6.4±2.6 μg/g, while that of brown rice was 10.9±4.3 μg/g. The extract of dewaxed brown rice induced significant amounts of NO by RAW246.7 cells, while production was reduced to 1/6 by adding polymyxin B. The macrophage activating effect of dewaxed brown rice was 79- and 51-times higher than that of polished rice in TLR4- and 2-induced HEK 293 cells. LPS content in dewaxed brown rice was found to be able to activate macrophages. This rice activated macrophages mainly via the TLR4 and, to a lesser extent, TLR2 pathways. It is suggested that dewaxed brown rice can be considered effective in allergy and cancer prevention. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers.

  17. Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study (CAPS) on brown and undermilled Indian rice varieties in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and undermilled rice among urban south Indians. Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and nonslum residences in Chennai participated (n = 82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (undermilled). Thus, 9 rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of 3 days. A 7-point hedonic scale was used to rate consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data, and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste, and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed a willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice, if affordable, after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Though most consumers preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or undermilled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults.

  18. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  19. Antidiabetic properties of germinated brown rice: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR) for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  20. Effect of ultrasonic treatment of brown rice at different temperatures on cooking properties and quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research aimed at developing quick cooking brown rice by investigating the effect of ultrasonic treatment at different temperatures on cooking time and quality. The medium grain brown rice was ultrasonically treated in water at temperatures of 25°C, 40°C and 55°C for 30 min and then dried by ai...

  1. Toxic and micronutrient elements in organic, brown and polished rice in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Jucelaine; Pozebon, Dirce; de Fraga, Marcus Vinicius Barcellos; Dressler, Valderi Luiz; de Moraes, Diogo Pompéu

    2014-01-01

    Concentration levels of As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl, Sn, Sb Co, Cu, Mn, Se, Zn, Cr, Ni and Mo in different types of rice cultivated in irrigated fields in Brazil were evaluated. Arsenic, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn and Cu were found in higher concentrations in brown rice samples, suggesting the prevalence of these elements in the bran. Meanwhile, lower concentrations of Pb, Mo, Cr, Se and Co were found in parboiled rice. Organic rice did not differ of cultivated conventionally rice. Thallium, Hg and Sb were not detected in any rice sample whose limits of detection were 0.7 μg kg(-1), 2.5 μg kg(-1) and 8 μg kg(-1), respectively. The concentrations of the investigated elements were compared with those reported for polished rice and brown rice from other countries, unveiling concentrations in general at the same level for rice produced at non-contaminated sites.

  2. Effect of flour-blasting of brown rice on reduction of cooking time and resulting texture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long grain non-parboiled, long grain parboiled, and American basmati-type brown rice were bombarded with parboiled rice flour sufficient to create microperforations in the water-resistant outer coat of the seed. These microperforations in the treated rice significantly increased the rate of hydratio...

  3. Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Rosell, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of germination time on physicochemical characteristics of brown rice flour and its effect on gluten free bread qualities have been investigated. Germination was carried out at 28 °C and 100 % RH for 12, 24 and 48 h; brown rice and soaked brown rice was also analyzed. Significant changes on hydration and pasting properties of brown rice flour were found during germination. The starch degradation by enzyme activity could be evidenced with the decrease in viscosity and water binding capacity (WBC). No significant effect in specific volume, humidity and water activity of the gluten free bread was found as germination time increase, but a significant softness of the crumb was obtained. However, at 48 h of germination, the intense action of α amylase could result in excessive liquefaction and dextrinisation, causing inferior bread quality. Overall, germinated rice flour showed appropriate functionality for being used as raw ingredient in gluten free breadmaking.

  4. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  5. Efficacy of methoprene for multi-year protection of stored wheat, brown rice, rough rice and corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hard red winter wheat, brown rice, rough rice, and corn were treated with the insect growth regulator (IGR) at rates of 1.25 and 2.5 ppm, held for 24 months at ambient conditions at the floor of a grain bin, and sampled every two months. Bioassays were done by exposing 10 mixed-sex adults of Rhyzope...

  6. Impact of browning reactions and bran pigments on color of parboiled rice.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, Lieve; Brijs, Kristof; Mohamed, Rasty; Verhelst, Neelke; Delcour, Jan A

    2006-12-27

    Rice color changes from white to amber during parboiling (soaking and steaming). Color parameters indicated that, during soaking, yellow bran pigments leached out in the water. The levels of the Maillard precursors (i.e., reducing sugars (RS) and free alpha-amino nitrogen (FAN)) depended on soaking temperature and time: leaching of RS was compensated by enzymic formation for long soaking times (>60 min), while proteolytic activity was too low to compensate for FAN leaching. Rice soaking under nitrogen, oxygen, or ambient conditions and determination of polyphenol oxidase activity allowed us to conclude that the effect of enzymic color changes on the soaked rice color was rather small. Color measurements of brown and milled mildly, intermediately, and severely parboiled rice samples showed that both brown and milled rice samples were darker and more red and yellow after parboiling and that the effect depended on the severity of parboiling conditions. Furthermore, steaming affected the rice color more and in a way opposite to that observed in soaking. The changes in RS and the loss of FAN during parboiling suggested that Maillard type reactions occur during brown rice steaming. Analyses of furosine levels confirmed Maillard browning of outer bran layers and endosperm during steaming. The level of this Maillard indicator increased with the severity of parboiling conditions in both brown and milled parboiled rice. Measurements of the levels of bran pigments indicated that bran pigments diffuse into the endosperm during parboiling and contribute to the parboiled rice color.

  7. A Mixed-Methods Study on Acceptability, Tolerability, and Substitution of Brown Rice for White Rice to Lower Blood Glucose Levels among Nigerian Adults.

    PubMed

    Adebamowo, Sally N; Eseyin, Olabimpe; Yilme, Susan; Adeyemi, David; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Adebamowo, Clement A

    2017-01-01

    Whole-grain products such as brown rice have been associated with lower risk of metabolic disorders including diabetes. We examined the acceptability and tolerability of substituting brown rice for white rice and the feasibility of introducing brown rice into the diet through a long-term trial to lower the risk of type 2 diabetes. Fifty-one adults residing in Abuja, Nigeria, participated in this study. Using purposeful sampling for focus group discussions (FGDs), participants were enrolled based on their age (19-25 vs. 40-60 years) and body mass index (BMI) (normal weight vs. overweight/obese). Participants tasted four meals with different constitution of brown and white rice (25:75%, 50:50%, 75:25%, and 100% brown rice). Twelve FGDs were conducted, six before and six after the food tasting. Two-hour postprandial blood glucose was measured after consumption of each rice meal. The mean age of the participants was 39 (±14) years, their mean BMI was 25.6 (±5.2) and about half of them were male. Most of the participants (61%) reported that rice was their main source of carbohydrate and 67% consumed rice at least five times/week. Before the food tasting, participants considered white polished rice superior to brown rice with regard to quality, taste, and nutritional value. After the food tasting, most of the participants (49%) indicated a preference for the 100% brown rice, 19% preferred the 25% brown rice, 18% preferred the 50% brown rice, and 7% preferred the 75% brown rice meals. Factors that may affect the acceptability of brown rice include its appearance, longer cooking time, cost, limited availability, and poor appreciation of its nutritional value. In general, 2-h postprandial glucose levels were lower, after consumption of meals with higher proportion of brown rice. This study provides valuable insight into the acceptability of brown rice as a substitute for white rice in Nigeria. If confirmed in larger studies, these results highlight the importance of

  8. Quality controlling of brown rice by ultrasound treatment and its effect on isolated starch.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-June; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-02-10

    Ultrasonic treatment (UT) was applied to brown rice at two different conditions: mild (25 °C, 30 min) and harsh (50 °C, 60 min) after soaking for several times (2, 3, 5, and 8h). After UT, starch was isolated from the brown rice grains, and the physicochemical properties of the starch, as well as the textural and nutritional properties of the grains, were compared. After UT, the cooked brown rice grains was softer in proportion to soaking time, and the hardness of brown rice soaked for 8h and then ultrasound treated at harsh condition was similar to that of cooked milled rice. Untreated brown rice grain has much more thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin contents than milled rice (0.546 vs. 0.069, 0.054 vs. 0.018, and 4.56 vs. 1.21 mg/100g, respectively), and the thiamin and niacin contents in brown rice treated even at the most harsh condition were still higher than those in milled rice (0.193 vs. 0.069, and 1.6 vs. 1.21 mg/100g, respectively). The isolated starch from brown rice grains treated at the harsh condition exhibited a lower pasting temperature and higher breakdown in pasting properties than that treated at the mild condition. The crystalline structure of starch became more homogeneous by UT at both conditions with longer soaking times. Both of the melting enthalpy and relative crystallinity of starch significantly decreased by UT, however A-type crystal form was maintained.

  9. Fine Mapping Identifies a New QTL for Brown Rice Rate in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Ren, Deyong; Rao, Yuchun; Huang, Lichao; Leng, Yujia; Hu, Jiang; Lu, Mei; Zhang, Guangheng; Zhu, Li; Gao, Zhenyu; Dong, Guojun; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zeng, Dali

    2016-12-01

    High yield and quality determine the commercial potential of rice variety. Brown rice rate (BRR) is a key factor ensuring grain yield and quality in rice. So far, there were few reports about the genes that directly controlled the BRR in rice. Therefore, dissecting the genetic mechanism of the BRR genes can facilitate improving effective rice supply or edible grain yield. A double haploid population derived from the cross between Taichung Native 1 (TN1) (an indica variety) and Chunjiang 06 (CJ06) (a japonica variety) was used to investigate the genetic basis of grain milling and appearance traits affecting the BRR. By using a constructed molecular linkage map, four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the BRR were detected on chromosomes 1, 8, 9, and 10, respectively. In addition, three QTLs for appearance traits, including grain weight and grain length/width ratio, were detected on chromosomes 6, 9 and 10, respectively. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) were established at the qBRR-10 locus. Finally, the qBRR-10 was narrowed to a 39.5 kb region on chromosome 10. In this region, two candidate genes, LOC_Os10g32124 and LOC_Os10g32190, showed significantly differential expression in TN1 and CSSL1-2 compared with CJ06. Histocytological analysis suggested that cell size and hull thickness may be important factors for the BRR. In the study, the qBRR-10 affected the BRR and was finally located to a region between two markers, P13 and P14. Two candidate genes were selected based on the expression difference between two parents, which facilitated the further cloning of the qBRR-10 gene and largely contributed to improve the grain yield and quality in rice.

  10. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (p<0.05) at 80°C. However, heat treatment had more effect on wheat dough compared to brown rice batter.

  11. An improved process for high nutrition of germinated brown rice production: Low-pressure plasma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua Han; Chang, Hung Chia; Chen, Yu Kuo; Hung, Chien Lun; Lin, Su Yi; Chen, Yi Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Brown rice was exposed to low-pressure plasma ranging from 1 to 3kV for 10min. Treatment of brown rice in low-pressure plasma increases the germination percentage, seedling length, and water uptake in laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 3-kV plasma exposure for 10min yielded the best results. In germinating brown rice, α-amylase activity was significantly higher in treated groups than in controls. The higher enzyme activity in plasma-treated brown rice likely triggers the rapid germination and earlier vigor of the seedlings. Low-pressure plasma also increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels from ∼19 to ∼28mg/100g. In addition, a marked increase in the antioxidant activity of brown rice was observed with plasma treatments compared to controls. The main finding of this study indicates that low-pressure plasma is effective at enhancing the growth and GABA accumulation of germinated brown rice, which can supply high nutrition to consumer.

  12. Impact of germination on the structures and in vitro digestibility of starch from waxy brown rice.

    PubMed

    You, Su-Yeon; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Han, Hye Min; Jun, Wujin; Hong, Young-Shick; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro digestibility as well as the molecular and crystalline structures of waxy rice starches isolated from brown rice, germinated brown rice (GBR), ultrasonicated GBR, and heat-moisture treated GBR were investigated. The germinated brown rice starch (GBRS) had a lower average molecular weight and a higher proportion of DP 6-12 in amylopectin than brown rice starch (BRS). The relative crystallinity, intensity ratio of the band at 1,047 cm(-1) and 1,022 cm(-1), gelatinization temperature and pasting temperature of waxy rice starch were reduced by germination. However, the ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS increased the relative crystallinity and gelatinization temperature. The digestibility of starch from brown waxy rice was increased by germination. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents were 50.5%, 42.4%, and 7.1% in BRS, and 69.0%, 27.9% and 3.1% in GBRS, respectively. The ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS reduced RDS content and increased RS content in raw and gelatinized starches. The decrease in starch digestibility of cooked GBR was more pronounced after heat-moisture treatment than after ultrasonication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement in shelf life of rough and brown rice using infrared radiation heating

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of IR heating and tempering treatments on storage stability of rough and brown rice. Samples of freshly harvested medium grain rice variety M206 with initial moisture content of 25.03±0.21% (d.b.) were used. They were dried using infrared (IR...

  14. Speciation And Localization Of Arsenic In White And Brown Rice Grains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the...

  15. Speciation And Localization Of Arsenic In White And Brown Rice Grains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the...

  16. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of brown rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Gong, Er Sheng; Luo, Shun Jing; Li, Tong; Liu, Cheng Mei; Zhang, Guo Wen; Chen, Jun; Zeng, Zi Cong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-07-15

    The phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of eight varieties of brown rice (BR) are reported. The total phenolic contents of BR ranged from 72.45 to 120.13mg of gallic acid equiv./100g. The phenolics from bound fraction contributed 40.6-50.2% of the total phenolic content. The total flavonoid contents of BR ranged from 75.90 to 112.03mg catechin equiv./100g. The flavonoids from the bound fraction contributed 26.9-48.2% of total flavonoids. Trans-ferulic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in BR. Total trans-ferulic acid content ranged from 161.42 to 374.81μg/100g. The percentage of trans-ferulic acid in bound fraction ranged from 96.4% to 99.2%. Only α- and γ-tocopherols and -tocotrienols were detected in BR with α-tocopherol and γ-tocotrienol being the predominant. The total peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) of BR ranged from 18.29 to 40.33mg vitamin C equiv./100g. The bound fraction contributed 67.2-77.2% of total PSC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in cooked rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Ree Kim, Mee; Baek, Min; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-05-01

    The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in a sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice generated by gamma irradiation was evaluated in the present study. When the sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice were irradiated at room temperature, the browning reaction was dramatically increased during the post-irradiation period. In the case of irradiation at below the freezing point, the browning by irradiation was retarded during not only irradiation but also a post-irradiation period. The changes of the sugar profile, such as a sugar loss or reducing power of the irradiated sugar-glycine solution and the electron spin resonance signal intensity of the irradiated cooked rice were also decreased with lower irradiation temperature. The present results may suggest that the production of free radicals and a radiolysis product is inhibited during gamma irradiation in the frozen state and it may prevent the browning reaction generated by gamma irradiation from occurring.

  18. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  19. Effect of ferrous sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed iron concentration and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Ying, Feng; Yang, Xiaoe; Wu, Chunyong; Wang, Yuyan

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of germination and iron fortification on iron concentration and bioavailability of brown rice. Iron fortification during germination process with 0.05-2 g/L ferrous sulfate increased the iron concentration in germinated brown rice from 1.1 to 15.6 times than those in raw brown rice. Based on the recommended dietary allowance of iron, maximum germination rate and γ-aminobutyric acid, we recommend the brown rice fortified with 0.25 g/L FeSO(4) as a suitable fortification level to use in germination process. Iron fortification during the germination process has a positive effect on iron concentration and bioavailability. A significant difference was observed among the cultivars in respect to the capacity for iron accumulation and bioavailability. Germination alone could improve in vitro iron solubility, but had no effect on iron bioavailability in Caco-2 cell, the additional fortification process should be combined to get high amount of bioavailable iron from the brown rice.

  20. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  1. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Toshiya; Nagano, Aya; Mori, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Hideki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172) was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer. PMID:27409632

  2. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Toshiya; Nagano, Aya; Mori, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Hideki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-07-11

    Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172) was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer.

  3. Consumption of brown rice: a potential pathway for arsenic exposure in rural Bengal.

    PubMed

    Halder, Dipti; Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Biswas, Ashis; Mandal, Ujjal; Nriagu, Jerome; Mazumdar, Debendra Nath Guha; Chatterjee, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2012-04-03

    This study assesses the arsenic (As) accumulation in different varieties of rice grain, that people in rural Bengal mostly prefer for daily consumption, to estimate the potential risk of dietary As exposure through rice intake. The rice samples have been classified according to their average length (L) and L to breadth (B) ratio into four categories, such as short-bold (SB), medium-slender (MS), long-slender (LS), and extra-long slender (ELS). The brown colored rice samples fall into the SB, MS, or LS categories; while all Indian Basmati (white colored) are classified as ELS. The study indicates that the average accumulation of As in rice grain increases with a decrease of grain size (ELS: 0.04; LS: 0.10; MS: 0.16; and SB: 0.33 mg kg(-1)), however people living in the rural villages mostly prefer brown colored SB type of rice because of its lower cost. For the participants consuming SB type of brown rice, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) in 29% of the cases exceeds the previous WHO recommended provisional tolerable daily intake value (2.1 μg day(-1) kg(-1) BW), and in more than 90% of cases, the As content in the drinking water equivalent to the inorganic As intake from rice consumption (C(W,eqv)) exceeds the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg L(-1). This study further demonstrates that participants in age groups 18-30 and 51-65 yrs are the most vulnerable to the potential health threat of dietary As exposure compared to participants of age group 31-50 yrs, because of higher amounts of brown rice consumption patterns and lower BMI.

  4. [Determination of mineral elements in brown rice of near-isogenic lines population for Japonica rice by ICP-AES].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ya-wen; Wang, Lu-xiang; Sun, Zheng-hai; Yang, Shu-ming; Du, Juan; Li, Qi-wan; Pu, Xiao-ying; Du, Wei; Xiao, Feng-hui

    2008-12-01

    In the present paper, the contents of 17 mineral elements (S, Mo, Ni, Fe, Cr, Na, Al, Cu, P, Sn, Zn, B, Mn, Mg, Ca, Sr and K) in brown rice of 264 plant lines in near-isogenic lines (NILs) population and parents for Japonica rice were determined by ICP-AES technique. The method proved to be simple, rapid, highly sensitive and accurate, and can be used to determine many elements at the same time. Its recovery ratio obtained by standard addition method ranged between 92.3% and 110.27%, and its RSD was lower than 6%. The analytical results showed that NILs for various mineral elements based on the BC5F5 population consisting of 261 lines were developed from a cross between NIL (BC4F5) and Towada. To our knowledge, this is the first report on that near-isogenic lines NIL(BC4F5) with the important value for high mineral elements associated with cold tolerance at booting stage have been bred. The results of the determination show that the brown rice is rich in eleven elements such as P, K, Mg, S, Ca, Zn, Mn, Na, Fe, Cu and Al necessary to human health. There is smaller variation of 5 macroelements (11.15%-16.45%) but larger variation of 12 microelements (16.57%-94.96%) in brown rice from populations. There is significant correlation among 95 from 136 pairs in 17 elements, moreover, especially the correlation (0.531**-0.921**) among 15 pairs of six micro-elements (Mo, Ni, Al, Sn, Cr and Sr) associated with the active components of functional rice is relatively higher than that of 10 pairs (0.175**-0.867**) of 5 macroelements (P, K, Ca, Mg and S), revealing the importance of microelements to catalysing and synthesizing the active components of functional rice. The above results provided reliable data and theory bases for gene location and cloning of controlling elements contents in brown rice, and further revealed the molecular and physiological mechanism of the relation between mineral elements in brown rice and cold tolerance at booting stage in japonica rice from Yunnan

  5. Effects of extrusion conditions on the extrusion responses and the quality of brown rice pasta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of extrusion temperature and screw speed on the extrusion system parameters and the qualities of brown rice pasta. The die pressure and motor torque value reached a maximum at 90°C but decreased when the screw speed increased from 80 to 120rpm. The extrusion temperature and screw speed also significantly affected the cooking quality and textural properties of brown rice pasta. The pasta produced at an extrusion temperature of 120°C and screw speed of 120rpm had the best quality with a cooking loss, hardness and adhesiveness of 6.7%, 2387.2g and -7.0g⋅s, respectively, similar to those of pasta made from gluten-free flour. The results indicated that brown rice can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with improved nutrition.

  6. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Tablet-based two-dimensional measurement for estimating the embryo area of brown rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chaitavon, Kosom; Chanhorm, Sataporn; Pongsoon, Prasit; Prasertsak, Anchalee

    2014-10-01

    The embryo or germ of a rice seed is growing to the shoot and the root parts of a seedling. In the early stage, the germinated embryo directly receives food from the endosperm. How healthy of the seedling can be physically predicted by measuring the areas of the embryo and endosperm. In this work, we show for the first time how the embryo and endosperm areas of a brown rice can be spatially measured. Our key design is based on the utilization of a tablet equipped with our lens module for capturing the rice seed image under white light illumination. Our Windows-based program is developed to analyze and separate the image of the whole brown rice into the embryo and endosperm parts within 2 seconds per seed. Our tablet-based system is just 30×30×6 cm3 with 1 kilogram in weight, capable to easily carry to perform in the field.

  8. Effect of puffing on physical and antioxidant properties of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Maqbool

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of puffing process on the physical, antioxidant properties and mineral composition of brown rice. Bulk density significantly varied (P<0.05) among the puffing stages and was lowest in expanded rice. From Hunter colour analysis, the lowest L(∗) value and highest a(∗) and b(∗) values were observed for parboiled rice (P<0.05). A-type of diffraction pattern, observed in raw rice was altered by puffing process and led to the formation of B- and V-type patterns. Raman spectrum showed the intense peaks in raw rice and the intensity of those peaks was decreased during the puffing process. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a highly porous structure of expanded rice kernel. Significant decrease in the antioxidant properties was observed upon puffing process as compared to raw rice samples. Hence the present study demonstrates that the puffing process leads to the significant changes in the properties of brown rice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of brown rice, white rice, and brown rice with legumes on blood glucose and insulin responses in overweight Asian Indians: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Spiegelman, Donna; Sudha, Vasudevan; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Hong, Biling; Praseena, Kallingal; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Wedick, Nicole M; Arumugam, Kokila; Malik, Vasanti; Ramachandran, Sabitha; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Henry, Jeya Kumar; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2014-05-01

    Improving the carbohydrate quality of the diet by replacing the common cereal staple white rice (WR) with brown rice (BR) could have beneficial effects on reducing the risk for diabetes and related complications. Hence we aimed to compare the effects of BR, WR, and BR with legumes (BRL) diets on 24-h glycemic and insulinemic responses among overweight Asian Indians. Fifteen overweight (body mass index, ≥23 kg/m(2)) Asian Indians without diabetes who were 25-45 years old participated in a randomized crossover study. Test meals (nonisocaloric, ad libitum) were identical except for the type of rice and the addition of legumes (50 g/day) and were provided for 5 consecutive days. Glucose profiles were assessed using the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) iPro™2 continuous glucose monitoring device. The mean positive change from baseline glucose concentration was calculated as the daily incremental area under the curve (IAUC) on each test day for 5 days and averaged. Fasting serum insulin was measured prior to and at the end of each test diet. The percentage difference in 5-day average IAUC was 19.8% lower in the BR group than in the WR group (P=0.004). BRL further decreased the glycemic response (22.9% lower compared with WR (P=0.02). The 5-day percentage change in fasting insulin was 57% lower (P=0.0001) for the BR group and 54% lower for the BRL group compared with the 5-day percentage change observed in the WR group. The glycemic and insulinemic responses to the BR and BRL diets were not significantly different. Consumption of BR in place of WR can help reduce 24-h glucose and fasting insulin responses among overweight Asian Indians.

  10. Development of NIRS models to predict protein and amylose content of brown rice and proximate compositions of rice bran.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Torit Baran; Sharma, Srigopal; Chattopadhyay, Krishnendu

    2016-01-15

    With the escalating persuasion of economic and nutritional importance of rice grain protein and nutritional components of rice bran (RB), NIRS can be an effective tool for high throughput screening in rice breeding programme. Optimization of NIRS is prerequisite for accurate prediction of grain quality parameters. In the present study, 173 brown rice (BR) and 86 RB samples with a wide range of values were used to compare the calibration models generated by different chemometrics for grain protein (GPC) and amylose content (AC) of BR and proximate compositions (protein, crude oil, moisture, ash and fiber content) of RB. Various modified partial least square (mPLSs) models corresponding with the best mathematical treatments were identified for all components. Another set of 29 genotypes derived from the breeding programme were employed for the external validation of these calibration models. High accuracy of all these calibration and prediction models was ensured through pair t-test and correlation regression analysis between reference and predicted values.

  11. Towards understanding of molecular interactions between rice and the brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2013-05-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is the most notorious pest of rice (Oryza sativa). Studies of rice-BPH interaction have contributed to development of new rice varieties, offering an effective means for long-lasting control of BPH. Here, we review the status of knowledge of the molecular basis of rice-BPH interaction, from the perspective of immunity. The BPH has complicated feeding behaviors on rice, which are mainly related to host resistance. Now, 24 resistance genes have been detected in rice, indicating gene-for-gene relationships with biotypes of the BPH. However, only one BPH resistance gene (Bph14) was identified and characterized using map-based cloning. Bph14 encodes an immune receptor of NB-LRR family, providing a means for studying the molecular mechanisms of rice resistance to BPH. Plant hormones (e.g. salicylic acid and jasmonate/ethylene), Ca(2+), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and OsRac1 play important roles in the immune response of rice to BPH. Signal transduction leads to modifying expression of defense-related genes and defense mechanisms against BPH, including sieve tube sealing, production of secondary metabolites, and induction of proteinase inhibitor. A model for the molecular interactions between rice and the BPH is proposed, although many details remain to be investigated that are valuable for molecular design of BPH-resistant rice varieties.

  12. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India.

    PubMed

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Ramanathan, V; Vincent, Jeffrey R

    2006-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate changes due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  13. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hye; Ahn, Sung-Il; Lim, Chan-Mook; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product.

  15. Influence of grain activation conditions on functional characteristics of brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arashdeep; Sharma, Savita; Singh, Baljit

    2017-09-01

    Grain activation is a natural processing technique that can be used to produce modified flours without chemical modification. Functional characteristics of brown rice flour as influenced by grain activation time and temperatures were investigated. Germination temperatures at 25 ℃, 30 ℃ and 35 ℃ and time for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h significantly influenced the functional properties of flour with modification of starch, protein and high enzymatic activity. Significant decrease in the bulk density, water absorption and swelling power of brown rice flour was observed in comparison to non-germinated flour. Gel consistency and oil absorption capacity of brown rice flour increased as the grain activation time and temperature were increased. Native flour had lowest emulsion and foaming properties, while increase in grain activation time and temperature enhanced the emulsifying and foaming properties of flour. Paste clarity of native flour was 54% which was reduced to 25.17%; however, increase in germination time and temperature increased the % synersis values of germinated flour. Native flour had least gelation concentration of 12% which increased to 25% after 48 h of germination at 35 ℃. Overall, germination can be used as a natural way to modify the functional properties of brown rice flours for their utilization in variety food products.

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two rice varieties in response to rice stripe virus and small brown planthoppers during early interaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Li; Zhao, Jiaming; Li, Zhiqiang; Sun, Fuyu; Lu, Xiaochun

    2013-01-01

    Rice stripe, a virus disease, transmitted by a small brown planthopper (SBPH), has greatly reduced production of japonica rice in East Asia, especially in China. Although we have made great progress in mapping resistance genes, little is known about the mechanism of resistance. By de novo transcriptome assembling, we gained sufficient transcript data to analyze changes in gene expression of early interaction in response to SBPH and RSV infection in rice. Respectively 648 and 937 DEGs were detected from the disease-resistant (Liaonong 979) and the susceptible (Fengjin) varieties, most of which were up-regulated. We found 37 genes related to insect resistance, which mainly included genes for jasmonate-induced protein, TIFY protein, lipoxygenase, as well as trypsin inhibitor genes and transcription factor genes. In the interaction process between RSV and rice, 87 genes were thought to be related to RSV resistance; these primarily included 12 peroxidase biosynthesis genes, 12 LRR receptor-like protein kinase genes, 6 genes coding pathogenesis-related proteins, 4 glycine-rich cell wall structural protein genes, 2 xyloglucan hydrolase genes and a cellulose synthase. The results indicate that the rice-pathogen interaction happened both in disease-resistant and susceptible varieties, and some genes related to JA biosynthesis played key roles in the interaction between SBPHs and rice. When rice was infected by RSV a hypersensitive reaction (HR) in the disease-resistant variety was suppressed, which resulted from an increase in peroxidase expression and down-regulation of LRR receptor-like protein kinase and pathogenesis-related proteins, while, the changes of peroxidase biosynthesis, glycine-rich cell wall structural protein, cellulose synthase and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase could lead to the strengthening of physical barriers of rice, which may be an important resistance mechanism to RSV in rice.

  17. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-04

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  18. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Response of Iron Homeostasis to Early Feeding by Small Brown Planthopper in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Yan, Chengqi; Li, Mei; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Meng, Hongyu; Xie, Li; Chen, Jianping

    2017-02-15

    It has been documented that planthopper attacks change iron (Fe) content of rice plants. To investigate whether planthopper attacks change rice Fe homeostasis at the molecular level, the response of rice Fe homeostasis to early feeding by small brown planthopper (SBPH) was examined by transcriptome profiling. Results showed that the concentration of Fe and nicotianamine decreased in resistant rice genotype and increased in susceptible rice genotype after attack by SBPH. Transcriptome profiling showed that 13 and 21 Fe homeostasis-related genes encoded enzymes that were involved in phytosiderophore biosynthesis and that Fe transporters and regulators displayed altered expression in resistant and susceptible rice genotypes, respectively, after attack by SBPH. This revealing response of Fe homeostasis to planthopper attack in rice at the molecular level provided new insight into rice plants' response to planthopper attack and uncovered a novel physiological response of rice to planthopper attack, which extended our knowledge of the early interaction between rice and SBPH.

  20. Monitoring fungal growth on brown rice grains using rapid and non-destructive hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Siripatrawan, U; Makino, Y

    2015-04-16

    This research aimed to develop a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate method based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for monitoring spoilage fungal growth on stored brown rice. Brown rice was inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of Aspergillus oryzae and stored at 30 °C and 85% RH. Growth of A. oryzae on rice was monitored using viable colony counts, expressed as colony forming units per gram (CFU/g). The fungal development was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The HSI system was used to acquire reflectance images of the samples covering the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. Unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM) was used to visualize data classification of different levels of fungal infection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to predict fungal growth on rice grains from the HSI reflectance spectra. The HSI spectral signals decreased with increasing colony counts, while conserving similar spectral pattern during the fungal growth. When integrated with SOM, the proposed HSI method could be used to classify rice samples with different levels of fungal infection without sample manipulation. Moreover, HSI was able to rapidly identify infected rice although the samples showed no symptoms of fungal infection. Based on PLS regression, the coefficient of determination was 0.97 and root mean square error of prediction was 0.39 log (CFU/g), demonstrating that the HSI technique was effective for prediction of fungal infection in rice grains. The ability of HSI to detect fungal infection at early stage would help to prevent contaminated rice grains from entering the food chain. This research provides scientific information on the rapid, non-destructive, and effective fungal detection system for rice grains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Phloem-exudate proteome analysis of response to insect brown plant-hopper in rice.

    PubMed

    Du, Ba; Wei, Zhe; Wang, Zhanqi; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Peng, Xinxin; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2015-07-01

    Brown plant-hopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH), one of the most devastating agricultural insect pests of rice throughout Asia, ingests nutrients from rice sieve tubes and causes a dramatic yield loss. Planting resistant variety is an efficient and economical way to control this pest. Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance is extremely valuable for molecular design of resistant rice variety. Here, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics approach to perform analysis of protein expression profiles in the phloem exudates of BPH-resistant and susceptible rice plants following BPH infestation. A total of 238 proteins were identified, most of which were previously described to be present in the phloem of rice and other plants. The expression of genes for selected proteins was confirmed using a laser capture micro-dissection method and RT-PCR. The mRNAs for three proteins, RGAP, TCTP, and TRXH, were further analyzed by using in situ mRNA hybridization and localized in the phloem cells. Our results showed that BPH feeding induced significant changes in the abundance of proteins in phloem sap of rice involved in multiple pathways, including defense signal transduction, redox regulation, and carbohydrate and protein metabolism, as well as cell structural proteins. The results presented provide new insights into rice resistance mechanisms and should facilitate the breeding of novel elite BPH-resistant rice varieties.

  2. Effects of Slag-Based Silicon Fertilizer on Rice Growth and Brown-Spot Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization. PMID:25036893

  3. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    PubMed

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  4. Evaluation of the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice based on the K nutritional status of shoots.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takashi; Hotsuki, Tomoe; Fujiwara, Toru; Mimura, Tetsuro; Matsuzaki, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive cesium ((134,137)Cs) concentration in brown rice is correlated with that in the straw/husk. The distribution of (134,137)Cs, resembles that of potassium (K), a homologous element of Cs, in the rice plant body. The relative isotopic abundance of (40)K is 0.0117 %; thus, 1 g K contains 30.4 Bq ⁴⁰K, and the mass of 4,000 Bq (40)K is 0.0154 g, indicating that the K concentration can be calculated from (40)K concentration. We examined if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be estimated from (40)K concentrations in straw, and especially might be predicted from the (40)K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We determined the concentrations of (40)K and radioactive Cs in straw and brown rice, and found a strong correlated-equation (y = 72.922 x(-0.759); r = 0.907) between the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice and the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. The estimated-radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be as much as double, depending on the K nutritional status changing the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We herein propose a nutritional diagnosis that radioactive Cs concentrations in brown rice can be predicted from the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in shoots.

  5. Effect of Different Germination Conditions on Antioxidative Properties and Bioactive Compounds of Germinated Brown Rice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, You-Tung; Pao, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Shwu-Tzy; Chang, Chi-Yue

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds of ungerminated brown rice (UBR) and germinated brown rice (GBR). We used two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.), Taiwan Japonica 9 (TJ-9) and Taichung Indica 10 (TCI-10), as the materials in our experiments. The conditions for inducing germination are soaking time in water 24, 48, or 72 h; temperature 26 or 36°C; incubation in light or darkness; and open or closed vessels, in which the antioxidative activities and bioactive compounds of GBR were determined. We found that, in order to maximize antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds, germination should be under higher temperature (36°C), long soaking time (72 h), darkness, and closed vessel. GBR contains much higher levels of antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds than ungerminated brown rice (UBR). We found a strong correlation between antioxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanols, tocopherol, and tocotrienol). Higher temperature (36°C) is also conducive to the production of GABA in GBR. These results are considered very useful research references for the development of future functional foods and additives. PMID:25861637

  6. The effect of apparent amylose content and dietary fibre on the glycemic response of different varieties of cooked milled and brown rice.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Encabo, Rosario R; Sagum, Rosario S; Felix, Angelina D R; Juliano, Bienvenido O

    2013-02-01

    Brown rice is a good source of dietary fibre (DF) and contains higher vitamins/minerals than milled rice. The study determined the effect of amylose content (AC) and DF on glucose response (GR) from different varieties of milled and brown rice. Milled and brown rice were used as test foods. They were fed to 9-10 human volunteers containing 50 g available carbohydrate after an overnight fast. GR and the glycemic index (GI) were determined. Results found that Sinandomeng with the lowest AC had a high GI = 75, while PSBRc10 with the highest AC had a low GI = 50. Sinandomeng with a low DF had GI = 75, while its brown rice had GI = 55. Brown rice (IR64) with 23% AC and DF of 2.5 g/100 g had low GI = 51. In conclusion, the GR and GI of the different varieties of cooked milled and brown rice varied depending on its AC and DF contents.

  7. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a

  8. Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analyses.

    PubMed

    Jezussek, Magnus; Juliano, Bienvenido O; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-02-27

    The aroma compounds present in cooked brown rice of the three varieties Improved Malagkit Sungsong (IMS), Basmati 370 (B 370), and Khaskhani (KK), and of the variety Indica (German supermarket sample), were identified on the basis of aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA). A total of 41 odor-active compounds were identified, of which eleven are reported for the first time as rice constituents. 2-Amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic), which was up to now unknown in rice aroma, exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor among the 30 to 39 odor-active compounds detected in all four varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, exhibiting an intense popcorn-like aroma-note, was confirmed as a further key aroma constituent in IMS, B 370, and KK, but was not important in Indica. Differences in the FD factors between the varieties were found for the previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like), which was higher in B 370 than in IMS and KK. In IMS, a yet unknown, spicy smelling component with a very high FD factor could be detected, which contributed with lower FD factors to the overall aromas of B 370 and KK, and was not present in Indica. The latter variety, which was available on the German market, differed most in its overall aroma from the three Asian brown rices.

  9. Stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid synthesis activity in brown rice by a chitosan/glutamic acid germination solution and calcium/calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Oh, Suk-Heung

    2003-05-31

    Changes in the concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), soluble calcium ions, glutamic acid, and the activity of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) were investigated in non-germinated vs. germinated brown rice. Brown rice was germinated for 72 h by applying each of the following solutions: (1) distilled water, (2) 5 mM lactic acid, (3) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM lactic acid, (4) 5 mM glutamic acid, and (5) 50 ppm chitosan in 5 mM glutamic acid. GABA concentrations were enhanced in all of the germinated brown rice when compared to the non-germinated brown rice. The GABA concentration was highest in the chitosan/glutamic acid that germinated brown rice at 2,011 nmol/g fresh weight, which was 13 times higher than the GABA concentration in the non-germinated brown rice at 154 nmol/g fresh weight. The concentrations of glutamic acid were significantly decreased in all of the germinated rice, regardless of the germination solution. Soluble calcium and GAD were higher in the germinated brown rice with the chitosan/glutamic acid solution when compared to the rice that was germinated in the other solutions. GAD that was partially purified from germinated brown rice was stimulated about 3.6-fold by the addition of calmodulin in the presence of calcium. These data show that the germination of brown rice in a chitosan/glutamic acid solution can significantly increase GABA synthesis activity and the concentration of GABA.

  10. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also...

  11. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also...

  12. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also...

  13. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also...

  14. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also...

  15. Study on the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during germination by using segmented moisture conditioning method.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yinping; Jia, Fuguo; Han, Yanlong; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the optimal moisture adding rate of brown rice during the process of germination. The process of water addition in brown rice could be divided into three stages according to different water absorption speeds in soaking process. Water was added with three different speeds in three stages to get the optimal water adding rate in the whole process of germination. Thus, the technology of segmented moisture conditioning which is a method of adding water gradually was put forward. Germinated brown rice was produced by using segmented moisture conditioning method to reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients and was beneficial to the accumulation of gamma aminobutyric acid. The effects of once moisture adding amount in three stages on the gamma aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice and germination rate of brown rice were investigated by using response surface methodology. The optimum process parameters were obtained as follows: once moisture adding amount of stage I with 1.06 %/h, once moisture adding amount of stage II with 1.42 %/h and once moisture adding amount of stage III with 1.31 %/h. The germination rate under the optimum parameters was 91.33 %, which was 7.45 % higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (84.97 %). The content of gamma aminobutyric acid in germinated brown rice under the optimum parameters was 29.03 mg/100 g, which was more than two times higher than that of germinated brown rice produced by soaking method (12.81 mg/100 g). The technology of segmented moisture conditioning has potential applications for studying many other cereals.

  16. Efficacy of bacillus biocontrol agents for management of sheath blight and narrow brown leaf spot in organic rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in the U. S. over the last decade. Growers lack effective tools to manage sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS), caused by Cercospora janseana, two major diseases affecting organic rice production. An experi...

  17. Antitumor effects of dietary black and brown rice brans in tumor-bearing mice: relationship to composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scope: We investigated the effects of oral feeding of a mouse diet supplemented with 10% (w/w) pigmented black bran from the rice variety Oryza sativa cv. LK1-3-6-12-1-1 and 10% (w/w) nonpigmented brown bran from the commercial rice Oryza sativa cv. Chuchung as an internal control on the growth of t...

  18. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  19. Production of optically pure D-lactic acid from brown rice using metabolically engineered Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Hama, Shinji; Kihara, Maki; Noda, Hideo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-03-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of D-lactic acid was performed using brown rice as both a substrate and a nutrient source. An engineered Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain, in which the ʟ-lactate dehydrogenase gene was disrupted, produced 97.7 g/L D-lactic acid from 20% (w/v) brown rice without any nutrient supplementation. However, a significant amount of glucose remained unconsumed and the yield of lactic acid was as low as 0.75 (g/g-glucose contained in brown rice). Interestingly, the glucose consumption was significantly improved by adapting L. plantarum cells to the low-pH condition during the early stage of SSF (8-17 h). As a result, 117.1 g/L D-lactic acid was produced with a high yield of 0.93 and an optical purity of 99.6% after 144 h of fermentation. SSF experiments were repeatedly performed for ten times and D-lactic acid was stably produced using recycled cells (118.4-129.8 g/L). On average, D-lactic acid was produced with a volumetric productivity of 2.18 g/L/h over 48 h.

  20. Characterization of Macrophage-Activating Polysaccharide Isolated from Fermented Brown Rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Young; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2016-12-01

    Brown rice has nutritional benefits due to its abundant nutrients and high dietary fiber content. However, it is often consumed in a fermented form for improved chewy texture and digestibility. In this study, a polysaccharide, FBR-4a, was isolated from fermented brown rice and its chemical composition was analyzed. In addition, its immune-stimulating activity was determined using RAW264.7 cells. FBR-4a is a carbohydrate and consists of nine types of monosaccharides, including galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, mannose, fucose, xylose, glucose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid. FBR-4a increased the gene expression of iNOS and IL-6 and enhanced the production of immune-stimulatory molecules (nitric oxide [NO], IL-6, and TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells. Western blot analysis showed that FBR-4a phosphorylated the mitogen-activated protein kinases, NF-κB and c-Jun (major component of AP-1 transcription factor) in RAW264.7 cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. FBR-4a-induced IL-6 and NO production was completely suppressed by IκBα and JNK inhibition, but not by ERK and p38 inhibition. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-Jun was also suppressed by IκBα and JNK inhibition. These findings suggest that FBR-4a isolated from fermented brown rice has immune potentiation activity on macrophages through IκBα and JNK signaling pathways, which play a central role in IL-6 and NO production.

  1. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  2. Recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Xiao, Cong; He, Yuqing

    2016-12-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most devastating pest of rice. Host-plant resistance is the most desirable and economic strategy in the management of BPH. To date, 29 major BPH resistance genes have been identified from indica cultivars and wild rice species, and more than ten genes have been fine mapped to chromosome regions of less than 200 kb. Four genes (Bph14, Bph26, Bph17 and bph29) have been cloned. The increasing number of fine-mapped and cloned genes provide a solid foundation for development of functional markers for use in breeding. Several BPH resistant introgression lines (ILs), near-isogenic lines (NILs) and pyramided lines (PLs) carrying single or multiple resistance genes were developed by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABC). Here we review recent progress on the genetics and molecular breeding of BPH resistance in rice. Prospect for developing cultivars with durable, broad-spectrum BPH resistance are discussed.

  3. Effect of degree of milling on phenolic profiles and cellular antioxidant activity of whole brown rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Guo, Jinjie; Zhang, Ruifen; Wei, Zhencheng; Deng, Yuanyuan; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Mingwei

    2015-10-15

    The impact of increasing degree of milling (DOM) on free and bound phenolics and flavonoids and on cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) of japonica and indica brown rice was investigated. As the average DOM increased from 0 to 2.67, 7.25 and 9.60%, the average total phenolic content decreased by 21.1, 42.6 and 55.6%, and the average total CAA value decreased by 37.4, 84.0 and 92.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the percentage contributions of bound forms to total phenolics and flavonoids decreased with increasing DOM. The contents of nine phenolic compounds significantly decreased with increasing DOM, including quercetin, ferulic and coumaric acids. Interestingly, as the DOM increased to 9.6%, free ferulic and coumaric acids were undetectable in japonica rice, while neither free nor bound caffeic acid was detectable in indica rice. These findings indicate that DOM should be carefully controlled for acceptable sensory quality and retention of phytochemicals during brown rice milling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Even minimal polishing of an Indian parboiled brown rice variety leads to increased glycemic responses.

    PubMed

    Shobana, Shanmugam; Lakshmipriya, Nagarajan; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Gayathri, Rajagopal; Ruchi, Vaidya; Sudha, Vasudevan; Malleshi, Nagappa G; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Henry, C-J K; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of polishing on the glycemic properties of Indian parboiled brown rice. We evaluated the effect of different degrees of polishing on the glycemic and insulinemic responses of Bapatla (BPT-5204), Indian parboiled Indica rice variety. Brown rice (BR), under milled rice (UMR) and white rice (WR) with 2.3% and 9.7% degree of polishing (DOP), respectively, were prepared and evaluated for the glycemic properties. Incremental Area Under the Curves (IAUC) were estimated for both glycemic index (GI) in 12 healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) and 24 hr glycemic response studies in 13 overweight participants (5 men, 8 women) using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system with ≈2000 kcal/day rice diets. Differences in pre and post meal insulin (Δ) were assessed. The GI of WR (GI=79.6) and UMR (GI=73) were significantly higher than BR (GI=57.6) (p<0.01). Similar results were obtained for 24 hr glycemic responses [IAUC: WR=58.4, UMR=55.5, BR=34.7 mg*5 min/dL, respectively]. The Δ Insulin responses were lower with BR meals compared with UMR and WR (p=0.025; p=0.003). Both UMR and WR had a high GI while BR had a medium GI. This could have influenced the 24 h glycaemic and insulinemic responses of BR which had the lowest responses as compared with UMR and WR, and the latter two had similar higher responses. Thus any degree of polishing leads to higher glycaemic responses.

  5. Physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of wheat-germinated brown rice bread during storage time.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; No, Hong Kyoon; King, Joan M

    2010-08-01

    Selected physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of bread prepared from composite flour (wheat:germinated brown rice:germinated glutinous brown rice flours at 60:30:10 ratio) were evaluated during storage for 0, 3, and 5 d, and compared with wheat bread (0 d, control). During storage, color profiles and water activity (from 0.947 to 0.932) of crumbs of composite flour breads slightly changed, but moisture content drastically decreased along with increasing crumb hardness (from 4.16 N to 10.37 N). Higher retrogradation in bread crumb was observed particularly for 5-d stored bread (DeltaH = 2.24 J/g) compared to that of the fresh composite bread and the control (DeltaH = 0.70 and 0.51 J/g, respectively). Mean (n = 116) overall liking score of the fresh composite flour bread (0 d) was slightly lower than that of the control (7.1 compared with 7.6 based on a 9-point hedonic scale). At least 76% of consumers would purchase the fresh composite flour bread if commercially available. Breads were differentiated by textural (moistness, smoothness, and softness) acceptability with canonical correlation of 0.84 to 0.87. The signal-to-noise ratio values of the 5-d stored breads were lower than the control, due mainly to the non-JAR (not-enough) intensity responses for moistness, smoothness, and softness; the mean drop of liking scores for these attributes ranged from 2.42 to 2.98. Flavor acceptability and overall liking were factors influencing consumers' purchase intent of composite flour breads based on logistic regression analysis. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 40% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 40% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation

  6. Analysis of benzobicyclon and its metabolite in brown rice and rice straw after field application using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Im, So Jeong; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Young-Jun; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-02-01

    This study was carried out to develop an extraction as well as an analytical method for detecting benzobicyclon and its amino-substituted metabolite (1315P-570) in brown rice and rice straw using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The parent as well as the metabolite in rice and rice straw were extracted and analysed under the same conditions. A correlation coefficient (R(2)) of >0.994 was obtained for matrix-matched calibration curves constructed in various concentration ranges. Recoveries at two fortification levels were satisfactory and ranged between 75.4% and 118.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<13%. Under storage conditions (-20°C), the analyte and its metabolite were stable for up to 92days. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) were lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.1mg/kg) set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration for brown rice. Field trials with recommended or double the recommended dose revealed that the herbicide could safely be applied to rice and rice straw, as no residues were detected in the harvested samples. The sensitivity of the developed method was sufficient to ensure reliable determination of benzobicyclon and its metabolite in rice grain and rice straw.

  7. Identification and characterization of Bph14, a gene conferring resistance to brown planthopper in rice

    PubMed Central

    Du, Bo; Zhang, Weilin; Liu, Bingfang; Hu, Jing; Wei, Zhe; Shi, Zhenying; He, Ruifeng; Zhu, Lili; Chen, Rongzhi; Han, Bin; He, Guangcun

    2009-01-01

    Planthoppers are highly destructive pests in crop production worldwide. Brown planthopper (BPH) causes the most serious damage of the rice crop globally among all rice pests. Growing resistant varieties is the most effective and environment-friendly strategy for protecting the crop from BPH. More than 19 BPH-resistance genes have been reported and used to various extents in rice breeding and production. In this study, we cloned Bph14, a gene conferring resistance to BPH at seedling and maturity stages of the rice plant, using a map-base cloning approach. We show that Bph14 encodes a coiled-coil, nucleotide-binding, and leucine-rich repeat (CC-NB-LRR) protein. Sequence comparison indicates that Bph14 carries a unique LRR domain that might function in recognition of the BPH insect invasion and activating the defense response. Bph14 is predominantly expressed in vascular bundles, the site of BPH feeding. Expression of Bph14 activates the salicylic acid signaling pathway and induces callose deposition in phloem cells and trypsin inhibitor production after planthopper infestation, thus reducing the feeding, growth rate, and longevity of the BPH insects. Our work provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of rice defense against insects and facilitates the development of resistant varieties to control this devastating insect. PMID:20018701

  8. Silencing OsSLR1 enhances the resistance of rice to the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Luo, Ting; Wang, Wanwan; Cao, Tiantian; Li, Ran; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-10-01

    DELLA proteins, negative regulators of the gibberellin (GA) pathway, play important roles in plant growth, development and pathogen resistance by regulating multiple phytohormone signals. Yet, whether and how they regulate plant herbivore resistance remain unknown. We found that the expression of the rice DELLA gene OsSLR1 was down-regulated by an infestation of female adults of the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens. On one hand, OsSLR1 positively regulated BPH-induced levels of two mitogen-activated protein kinase and four WRKY transcripts, and of jasmonic acid, ethylene and H2 O2 . On the other hand, silencing OsSLR1 enhanced constitutive levels of defence-related compounds, phenolic acids, lignin and cellulose, as well as the resistance of rice to BPH in the laboratory and in the field. The increased resistance in rice with silencing of OsSLR1 is probably due to impaired JA and ethylene pathways, and, at least in part, to the increased lignin level and mechanical hardness of rice leaf sheaths. Our findings illustrate that OsSLR1, acting as an early negative regulator, plays an important role in regulating the resistance of rice to BPH by activating appropriate defence-related signalling pathways and compounds. Moreover, our data also provide new insights into relationships between plant growth and defence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Time-resolved comparative metabolomes for Koji fermentation with brown-, white-, and giant embryo-rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Eun; Lee, Sunmin; Singh, Digar; Jang, Eun Seok; Shin, Hye Won; Moon, Byoung Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-09-15

    A time-resolved non-targeted metabolomic study towards evaluating the effects of three rice substrate types viz., white rice (WR), giant embryo rice (GER), and brown rice (BR), on Koji fermentation was performed. Notwithstanding the relatively higher proportions of metabolites in unfermented BR (BR 0>WR 0, GER 0), the relative levels of metabolic repertoire in BR Koji were marginally enhanced during 36h fermentation except those for phenolic acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. The WR Koji showed higher levels of lysophospholipids (LysoPC's) and protease-released amino acids (WR 36>GER 36>BR 36). The higher β-glucosidase activity in GER Koji effected the increased levels of sugars and flavonoid aglycons complementing its higher antioxidant activity (GER Koji>BR Koji∼WR Koji). The present study holistically underpins the dynamic metabolomes and enzymatic states during rice Koji fermentation with varying substrate types. The present study finds applications in optimization of commercial Koji production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-07-29

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice.

  11. Serotonin attenuates biotic stress and leads to lesion browning caused by a hypersensitive response to Magnaporthe oryzae penetration in rice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keiko; Fujita, Yoshikatsu; Ashizawa, Taketo; Suzuki, Fumihiko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Hayano-Saito, Yuriko

    2016-01-01

    The hypersensitive response (HR) of plants is one of the earliest responses to prevent pathogen invasion. A brown dot lesion on a leaf is visual evidence of the HR against the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in rice, but tracking the browning process has been difficult. In this study, we induced the HR in rice cultivars harboring the blast resistance gene Pit by inoculation of an incompatible M. oryzae strain, which generated a unique resistance lesion with a brown ring (halo) around the brown fungal penetration site. Inoculation analysis using a plant harboring Pit but lacking an enzyme that catalyzes tryptamine to serotonin showed that high accumulation of the oxidized form of serotonin was the cause of the browning at the halo and penetration site. Our analysis of the halo browning process in the rice leaf revealed that abscisic acid enhanced biosynthesis of serotonin under light conditions, and serotonin changed to the oxidized form via hydrogen peroxide produced by light. The dramatic increase in serotonin, which has a high antioxidant activity, suppressed leaf damage outside the halo, blocked expansion of the browning area and attenuated inhibition of plant growth. These results suggest that serotonin helps to reduce biotic stress in the plant by acting as a scavenger of oxygen radicals to protect uninfected tissues from oxidative damage caused by the HR. The deposition of its oxide at the HR lesion is observed as lesion browning. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effect of selenium enrichment on the quality of germinated brown rice during storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liu, Kunlun; Chen, Fusheng

    2016-09-15

    Changes in the quality of selenized germinated brown rice (Se-GBR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) under controlled temperature storage were investigated. Samples were sealed in air-tight jars (75% RH) and stored at 15, 25, or 35 °C for 9 months. Fatty acid value (FAV), peroxide value (POV), and carbonyl value (CV) were determined every 45d. FAV, POV, and CV gradually increased with the storage period. Samples stored under low-temperature showed lower FAVs, POVs, and CVs than samples stored at higher temperatures. Compared with GBR, Se-GBR showed lower FAVs, POVs and CVs; this indicates Se exerted a positive effect on the preservation of rice quality. Over 100 volatile compounds were identified, and 15 volatile aldehydes were further studied. To determine the distribution pattern of volatile aldehydes, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed. The first two principal components determined from the PCA of volatile aldehydes explained 50.22% of the variance observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the spectral characteristics of the damaged rice under brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiuju; Cheng, Qian

    2010-11-01

    The spectra of healthy leaves and leaves damaged by the rice brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) were measured using a Spectroradiometer with spectral range of 350-1050 nm and resolution of 3 nm. The data was analyzed using the method of red edge methods. In the range of 430-530 nm and 560-730cnm, the band depth and slope were calculated. The damage degrees of rice plants caused by the BPH nymphae with different numbers were measured well by the spectral reflectance. The spectral characteristics of damaged rice under brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugenswere analyzed, and the reflectance was significantly negatively correlated with the number of BPHs. The red edge slope and edge area of the reflectance also significance correlated with the number of nymphae. The estimation models were constructed to estimate the BPHs using the spectral reflectance at the wavelengths of 550 nm and 760 nm and the red edge index. The results showed that accuracy of the estimation models were 66-81% and the spectral reflectance at R755 was efficient for estimating the number of BPHs.

  14. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae) using some phenolic antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Y.M.; Abdel-Fattah, G.M.; Ismail, A.E.; Rashad, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone). The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS) and disease incidence (DI) on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains. PMID:24031243

  15. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    PubMed

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  16. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    PubMed Central

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  17. Variation in mineral elements in grains of 20 brown rice accessions in two environments.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Tong, Chuan; Xu, Feifei; Chen, Yaling; Zhang, Caiya; Bao, Jinsong

    2016-02-01

    Twenty rice accessions were planted in Hainan province, China, for 2 years to investigate the effects of genotype, environment, and their interactions on the Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, and Cu contents in brown rice. Analysis of variance showed that the Ca, Na and K were mainly affected by the genotypic variance, whereas the Fe, Zn and Cu were mainly affected by the environment variance. The genotype × environment interaction effects for Mg, Na, Zn, and Cu were highly significant (P < 0.001), though it only accounted for a small proportion of the total variation (0.5-16.3%). The correlation analyses showed that Mg was significantly positively correlated with K, Fe, and Zn. A total of 9 and 8 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci were identified in 2011 and 2012, respectively, which were strongly associated with for Ca, Cu, K, Na, and Zn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Caceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Rosell, Cristina M; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-15

    The effect of germination conditions on the nutritional benefits of germinated brown rice flour (GBR) bread has been determined. The proximate composition, phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, glucose and starch content, as well as the most relevant bioactive compounds (GABA, γ-oryzanol and total phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of breads prepared with GBR at different germination conditions was determined. When comparing different germination times (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h), germination for 48 h provides GBR bread with nutritionally superior quality on the basis of its higher content of protein, lipids and bioactive compounds (GABA and polyphenols), increased antioxidant activity and reduced phytic acid content and glycaemic index, although a slight decrease in in vitro protein digestibility was detected. Overall, germination seems to be a natural and sustainable way to improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free rice breads.

  19. Genetic mapping of the rice resistance-breaking gene of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Hattori, Makoto; Jairin, Jirapong; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo; Matsumura, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Host plant resistance has been widely used for controlling the major rice pest brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). However, adaptation of the wild BPH population to resistance limits the effective use of resistant rice varieties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted to identify resistance-breaking genes against the anti-feeding mechanism mediated by the rice resistance gene Bph1. QTL analysis in iso-female BPH lines with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers detected a single region on the 10th linkage group responsible for the virulence. The QTL explained from 57 to 84% of the total phenotypic variation. Bulked segregant analysis with next-generation sequencing in F2 progenies identified five SNPs genetically linked to the virulence. These analyses showed that virulence to Bph1 was controlled by a single recessive gene. In contrast to previous studies, the gene-for-gene relationship between the major resistance gene Bph1 and virulence gene of BPH was confirmed. Identified markers are available for map-based cloning of the major gene controlling BPH virulence to rice resistance. PMID:24870048

  20. Higher Fertilizer Inputs Increase Fitness Traits of Brown Planthopper in Rice.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M M; Ahmed, N; Jahan, M; Islam, K S; Nansen, C; Willers, J L; Ali, M P

    2017-07-05

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the primary staple food source for more than half of the world's population. In many developing countries, increased use of fertilizers is a response to increase demand for rice. In this study, we investigated the effects of three principal fertilizer components (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) on the development of potted rice plants and their effects on fitness traits of the brown planthopper (BPH) [Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)], which is a major pest of rice in Bangladesh and elsewhere. Compared to low fertilizer inputs, high fertilizer treatments induced plant growth but also favored BPH development. The BPH had higher survival, developed faster, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m ) was higher on well-fertilized than under-fertilized plants. Among the fertilizer inputs, nitrogen had the strongest effect on the fitness traits of BPH. Furthermore, both the "Plant vigor hypothesis" and the "Plant stress hypothesis" were supported by the results, the former hypothesis more so than the latter. These hypotheses suggest that the most suitable/attractive hosts for insect herbivores are the most vigorous plants. Our findings emphasized that an exclusive focus on yield increases through only enhanced crop fertilization may have unforeseen, indirect, effects on crop susceptibility to pests, such as BPH.

  1. Effect of germination on the structures and physicochemical properties of starches from brown rice, oat, sorghum, and millet.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Baik, Hyun-Wook; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2017-07-22

    Four selected grains (brown rice, oat, sorghum, and millet) were subjected to germinate and changes in granule morphology, molecular structure, crystalline structure, and physicochemical properties of isolated starch were investigated. The germinated starches showed pits and holes on the surface of the starch granules and the particle size distributions shifted slightly to smaller size as the germination time increased. Germination led to decrease in amylose content, while molecular weights of the germinated starches showed no significant changes. The relative crystallinity of all selected grain starches decreased significantly during germination. Compared to the native starches, the germinated starches had lower retrogradation enthalpy. Brown rice and oat starches exhibited marginal increases in peak viscosities, whereas those of sorghum and millet starches decreased significantly during germination. Amylose leaching of brown rice and oat starches decreased after germination, whereas sorghum and millet starches showed an increase in amylose leaching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang) Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W.; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities. PMID:25340370

  3. Fiber-rich diet with brown rice improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Ishikado, Atsushi; Arima, Hisatomi; Nakao, Keiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Nikami, Fumio; Sekine, Osamu; Nemoto, Ken-Ichi; Suwa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Makino, Taketoshi; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    A fiber-rich diet has a cardioprotective effect, but the mechanism for this remains unclear. We hypothesized that a fiber-rich diet with brown rice improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Twenty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a single general hospital in Japan were randomly assigned to a brown rice (n = 14) or white rice (n = 14) diet and were followed for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was changes in endothelial function determined from flow debt repayment by reactive hyperemia using strain-gauge plethysmography in the fasting state. Secondary outcomes were changes in HbA1c, postprandial glucose excursions, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. The area under the curve for glucose after ingesting 250 kcal of assigned rice was compared between baseline (T0) and at the end of the intervention (T1) to estimate glucose excursions in each group. Improvement in endothelial function, assessed by fasting flow debt repayment (20.4% vs. -5.8%, p = 0.004), was significantly greater in the brown rice diet group than the white rice diet group, although the between-group difference in change of fiber intake was small (5.6 g/day vs. -1.2 g/day, p<0.0001). Changes in total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol, and urine 8-isoprostane levels did not differ between the two groups. The high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level tended to improve in the brown rice diet group compared with the white rice diet group (0.01 μg/L vs. -0.04 μg/L, p = 0.063). The area under the curve for glucose was subtly but consistently lower in the brown rice diet group (T0: 21.4 mmol/L*h vs. 24.0 mmol/L*h, p = 0.043, T1: 20.4 mmol/L*h vs. 23.3 mmol/L*h, p = 0.046) without changes in HbA1c. Intervention with a fiber-rich diet with brown rice effectively improved endothelial function, without changes in HbA1c levels, possibly through reducing glucose excursions.

  4. Fiber-rich diet with brown rice improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Ishikado, Atsushi; Arima, Hisatomi; Nakao, Keiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Nikami, Fumio; Sekine, Osamu; Nemoto, Ken-ichi; Suwa, Makoto; Matsumoto, Motonobu; Miura, Katsuyuki; Makino, Taketoshi; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background & Aims A fiber-rich diet has a cardioprotective effect, but the mechanism for this remains unclear. We hypothesized that a fiber-rich diet with brown rice improves endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Twenty-eight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a single general hospital in Japan were randomly assigned to a brown rice (n = 14) or white rice (n = 14) diet and were followed for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was changes in endothelial function determined from flow debt repayment by reactive hyperemia using strain-gauge plethysmography in the fasting state. Secondary outcomes were changes in HbA1c, postprandial glucose excursions, and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. The area under the curve for glucose after ingesting 250 kcal of assigned rice was compared between baseline (T0) and at the end of the intervention (T1) to estimate glucose excursions in each group. Results Improvement in endothelial function, assessed by fasting flow debt repayment (20.4% vs. −5.8%, p = 0.004), was significantly greater in the brown rice diet group than the white rice diet group, although the between-group difference in change of fiber intake was small (5.6 g/day vs. −1.2 g/day, p<0.0001). Changes in total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol, and urine 8-isoprostane levels did not differ between the two groups. The high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level tended to improve in the brown rice diet group compared with the white rice diet group (0.01 μg/L vs. −0.04 μg/L, p = 0.063). The area under the curve for glucose was subtly but consistently lower in the brown rice diet group (T0: 21.4 mmol/L*h vs. 24.0 mmol/L*h, p = 0.043, T1: 20.4 mmol/L*h vs. 23.3 mmol/L*h, p = 0.046) without changes in HbA1c. Conclusions Intervention with a fiber-rich diet with brown rice effectively improved endothelial function, without changes in HbA1c levels, possibly through reducing glucose excursions. PMID:28662074

  5. Process specific differential metabolomes for industrial gochujang types (pepper paste) manufactured using white rice, brown rice, and wheat.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu Kyung; Shin, Gi Ru; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Sunmin; Lee, Sarah; Singh, Digar; Jang, Eun Seok; Shin, Dong Joo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Shin, Hye Won; Moon, Byoung Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-11-01

    The metabolic perplexes for gochujang (GCJ) fermentative bioprocess, a traditional Korean pepper paste, has largely remain equivocal for preparative conditions and raw material (RM) additives exacerbating its commercial standardization. Herein, we outlined a differential non-targeted metabolite profiling for three GCJ (white rice-WR; brown rice-BR; wheat-WT) under varying processing steps (P1 - fermentation; P2 - meju addition; P3 - ripening; and P4 - red pepper addition). We correlated the process specific metabolomes with corresponding physicochemical factors, enzymatic phenotypes, and bioactivities for GCJ-types. The P1 was characterized by a uniform increase in the levels of RM-derived lysoPCs. In contrast, P2 was observed with proportionally higher levels of meju-released isoflavones and soyasaponins in WR-GCJ, followed by BR and WT-GCJ. The P3 involved a cumulative increase in primary metabolites in all GCJ samples except lower organic acid contents in WT-GCJ. The pepper derived flavonoids and alkaloids were selectively increased while P4 in all GCJ-types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-12-03

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective.

  7. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective. PMID:26633389

  8. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadifar, F.; Wayayok, A.; Shattri, M.; Shafri, H.

    2014-06-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application.

  9. Assessment on proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytic acid and protein hydrolysis of germinated Ecuatorian brown rice.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana

    2014-09-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-07-27

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice.

  11. A novel multi-biofunctional protein from brown rice hydrolysed by endo/endo-exoproteases.

    PubMed

    Selamassakul, Orrapun; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2016-06-15

    Brown rice, which is a less allergenic food grain and contains essential amino acids, was hydrolysed by bromelain and PROTEASE FP51® to improve its functionalities and taste for food applications. The hydrolysate prepared by bromelain (eb-RPH) had high protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, low molecular weight peptides, hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) and flavor amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid). The eb-RPH exhibited higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic (ABTS˙(+)) radical-scavenging activities of 76.62% and 52.96%, respectively, and possessed a better foaming capacity (221.76%) and emulsifying capacity (32.34%) than the hydrolysate prepared by PROTEASE FP51® (ep-RPH) did. The eb-RPH gave the desired taste, which is attributed to volatile flavor compounds (benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) and non-volatile flavor compounds, such as monosodium glutamate, 5'-guanosine monophosphate and 5'-inosine monophosphate (0.07, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL(-1), respectively). Brown rice peptides generated by bromelain were novel bioactive peptides with multifunctional properties.

  12. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds accumulated in brown rice grains ripened under high air temperature.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroshi; Iwasawa, Norio; Takai, Toshiyuki; Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Kondo, Motohiko

    2013-12-11

    This study aimed to examine the compounds increasing or decreasing in concentration in brown rice grains ripened under high air temperature during ripening using a heat-tolerant cultivar Fusaotome, a heat-intolerant cultivar Hatsuboshi, and an intermediate cultivar Koshihikari. 6-O-Feruloylsucrose (1), 3',6-di-O-sinapoylsucrose (2), 3'-O-sinapoyl-6-O-feruloylsucrose (3), 3',6-di-O-feruloylsucrose (4), cycloartenyl ferulate (5), and 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (6) were isolated from the extracts of brown rice grains. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-6) were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The mean concentrations of compounds 2, 3, and 6 in the grains ripened under high air temperature were markedly higher than those ripened under normal air temperature. In contrast, the mean concentration of compound 5 in the grains ripened under high air temperature was markedly lower than those ripened under normal air temperature. Thus, compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 constitute potential biomarkers of heat stress in the cultivars used. The mean concentrations of compound 4 in the grains of Fusaotome were the highest in all cultivars. In contrast, the mean concentration of compound 5 in the grains of Fusaotome was the lowest. Therefore, the unique composition of heat-tolerant Fusaotome combines a high concentration of compound 4 with a low concentration of compound 5.

  13. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-08-02

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.

  14. Non-essential element concentrations in brown grain rice: Assessment by advanced data mining techniques.

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Roxana; Hidalgo, Melisa; Piccoli, Analía; Marchevsky, Eduardo; Pellerano, Roberto

    2017-04-20

    The concentrations of 17 non-essential elements (Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Ce, Cr, Hg, La, Li, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, Th, Ti, and Tl) were determined in brown grain rice samples of two varieties: Fortuna and Largo Fino. The samples were collected from the four main producing regions of Corrientes province (Argentina). Quantitative determinations were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), using a validated method. The contents of As, Be, Cd, Ce, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn, Th, and Tl were very low or not detected in most samples. The non-essential element levels detected were in line with studies conducted in rice from different parts of the world. In order to characterize the influence of geographical origin in the samples, the following classification methods were carried out: linear discriminant analysis (LDA), k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF). The best performance was obtained by using RF (96%) and SVM (96%). The results reported here showed the variation in the non-essential element profiles in rice grain depending on the geographical origin.

  15. Adaptability of small brown planthopper to four rice cultivars using life table and population projection method

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao-Min; Tao, Yun-Li; Chi, Hsin; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the adaptability of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to four rice cultivars including Shengdao13 (SD13), Shengdao14 (SD14), Shengdao15 (SD15), and Zixiangnuo (ZXN) using the age-stage, two-sex life table with a simplified method for recording egg production (i.e., every five days vs. daily). The intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the SBPH was the highest (0.1067 d−1) on cultivar SD15, which was similar to the rate on SD14 (0.1029 d−1), but was significantly higher than that occurring on ZXN (0.0897 d−1) and SD13 (0.0802 d−1). The differences of the finite rate of increase (λ) on the four rice cultivars were consistent with the r values. Population projection predicted an explosive population growth of the SBPH occurring in a relatively short time when reared on SD14 and SD15. These findings demonstrated that the SBPH can successfully survive on the four rice cultivars, although there were varying host adaptabilities. PMID:28205522

  16. Adaptability of small brown planthopper to four rice cultivars using life table and population projection method.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiao-Min; Tao, Yun-Li; Chi, Hsin; Wan, Fang-Hao; Chu, Dong

    2017-02-13

    In this study, we evaluated the adaptability of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) to four rice cultivars including Shengdao13 (SD13), Shengdao14 (SD14), Shengdao15 (SD15), and Zixiangnuo (ZXN) using the age-stage, two-sex life table with a simplified method for recording egg production (i.e., every five days vs. daily). The intrinsic rate of increase (r) of the SBPH was the highest (0.1067 d(-1)) on cultivar SD15, which was similar to the rate on SD14 (0.1029 d(-1)), but was significantly higher than that occurring on ZXN (0.0897 d(-1)) and SD13 (0.0802 d(-1)). The differences of the finite rate of increase (λ) on the four rice cultivars were consistent with the r values. Population projection predicted an explosive population growth of the SBPH occurring in a relatively short time when reared on SD14 and SD15. These findings demonstrated that the SBPH can successfully survive on the four rice cultivars, although there were varying host adaptabilities.

  17. Response of Adult Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) to Rice Nutrient Management.

    PubMed

    Rashid, M M; Jahan, M; Islam, K S

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) limitation is well documented for the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), but phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) limitation is poorly studied. We studied the effects of N, P, and K application on chemical composition of rice plants and its consequences on life parameters-adult longevity, fecundity, and egg hatchability of BPH. Life parameters of BPH were regressed as function of plant chemical composition. A completely randomized design with four replicates in a factorial scheme was used considering N, P, and K levels as factors. Nitrogen application increased N and soluble proteins (SP) and decreased silicon (Si) content in the plants resulting in increased adult longevity, fecundity, and egg hatchability of BPH. Phosphorus fertilization increased P content and showed markedly increased fecundity, but not egg hatchability or adult longevity. Significant interaction between N and P was observed for fecundity of BPH. Potassium supplementation increased K content but reduced N, Si, SP, and total free sugars (TFS) content in the plants, but it had no significant effect on life parameters of BPH. The association of BPH life parameters with N, SP, TFS, and P content was significant and positive, but it was negative with the content of Si. Thus, N and P fertilization on rice plants enhanced BPH fitness. In conclusion, judicious nutrient application can be helpful in avoiding generalized infestation of BPH to rice.

  18. Video monitoring of brown planthopper predation in rice shows flaws of sentinel methods

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; de Kraker, Joop; Bianchi, Felix J. J. A.; van Telgen, Mario D.; Xiao, Haijun; van der Werf, Wopke

    2017-01-01

    Immobilized preys are routinely used in agro-ecological exposure studies to quantify predation of pests under field conditions, but this method has not been validated. Our purpose was to determine the validity of using immobilized adults of the major rice pest Nilaparvata lugens, brown plant hopper (BPH), as sentinels. We used direct observation by video recording to determine the causal agents of removal of field exposed BPH sentinels with two experiments: 1) we recorded removal events of dead, immobilized BPH; and 2) we compared removal of (i) dead, immobilized BPH, (ii) live, immobilized BPH, and (iii) live, mobile BPH. Long-horned grasshoppers were responsible for most removals of dead, immobilized BPH, in both experiments. Predatory ground beetles removed most of the live, immobilized BPH, whereas frogs were the major predators of live, mobile BPH. Overall, we showed that removal of immobilized sentinel prey is not representative for predation of live, mobile prey, stressing the need for a critical assessment of commonly used sentinel methods. In addition, we found that frogs played the major role in predation of BPH in rice. As current strategies to enhance biocontrol of planthoppers in rice focus on arthropod natural enemies, this finding could have major implications. PMID:28211500

  19. Video monitoring of brown planthopper predation in rice shows flaws of sentinel methods.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; de Kraker, Joop; Bianchi, Felix J J A; van Telgen, Mario D; Xiao, Haijun; van der Werf, Wopke

    2017-02-17

    Immobilized preys are routinely used in agro-ecological exposure studies to quantify predation of pests under field conditions, but this method has not been validated. Our purpose was to determine the validity of using immobilized adults of the major rice pest Nilaparvata lugens, brown plant hopper (BPH), as sentinels. We used direct observation by video recording to determine the causal agents of removal of field exposed BPH sentinels with two experiments: 1) we recorded removal events of dead, immobilized BPH; and 2) we compared removal of (i) dead, immobilized BPH, (ii) live, immobilized BPH, and (iii) live, mobile BPH. Long-horned grasshoppers were responsible for most removals of dead, immobilized BPH, in both experiments. Predatory ground beetles removed most of the live, immobilized BPH, whereas frogs were the major predators of live, mobile BPH. Overall, we showed that removal of immobilized sentinel prey is not representative for predation of live, mobile prey, stressing the need for a critical assessment of commonly used sentinel methods. In addition, we found that frogs played the major role in predation of BPH in rice. As current strategies to enhance biocontrol of planthoppers in rice focus on arthropod natural enemies, this finding could have major implications.

  20. Electrical penetration graphic evidence of pymetrozine toxicity to the rice brown planthopperis by inibition of phloem feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Pymetrozine is a valuable novel insecticide for control of sucking insects including the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious pests on rice. This study was conducted to elucidate action mechanisms of pymetrozine on the feeding behavior of the planthopper. ...

  1. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  2. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP. PMID:26843000

  3. Effect of soaking and single/two cycle high pressure treatment on water absorption, color, morphology and cooked texture of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Pan, Fang; Ramaswamy, H S; Zhu, Songming; Yu, Liang; Zhang, Qiuting

    2017-05-01

    Water absorption, color, morphology and cooked texture of brown rice were evaluated after selected soaking (30-50 °C, 30 min) and high pressure treatment (HPT) (100-500 MPa; single or two cycle; total holding time 10 min). Water absorption ratio and lightness values of brown rice were increased by soaking and HPT. Hardness and gumminess values of cooked brown rice were reduced while springiness and cohesiveness were elevated by HPT. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that HPT improved the texture of brown rice by disrupting the structure of rice bran layer, which allowed easier water penetration into the rice grain during cooking. Moreover, the two cycle HPT resulted in lighter color and softer texture for cooked brown rice than single cycle HPT primarily caused by the more severe structural disruption of bran layer. Overall, two cycle HPT after soaking could potentially improve the quality of brown rice, taking about the same time as the single cycle HPT. Further, the quality improvements with the two cycle HPT were facilitated at lower pressure levels thereby providing better commercial processing opportunities.

  4. Rice ragged stunt virus-induced apoptosis affects virus transmission from its insect vector, the brown planthopper to the rice plant

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Lao, Shu-Hua; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Ye, Yi-Zhou; Wu, Jian-Xiang; Xu, Hai-Jun; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Most plant viruses that seriously damage agricultural crops are transmitted by insects. However, the mechanisms enabling virus transmission by insect vectors are poorly understood. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most serious rice pests, causing extensive damage to rice plants by sucking the phloem sap and transmitting viruses, including Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of RRSV transmission from its insect vector to the rice plant in vivo using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and RNA interference technology. RRSV induced apoptosis in the salivary gland cells of its insect vector, N. lugens. The RRSV-induced apoptosis was regulated through a caspase-dependent manner, and inhibition of the expression of N. lugens caspase-1 genes significantly interfered with virus transmission. Our findings establish a link between virus-associated apoptosis and virus transmission from the insect vector to the host plant. PMID:26073458

  5. Gene expression and plant hormone levels in two contrasting rice genotypes responding to brown planthopper infestation.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyan; Luo, Chao; Zhou, Zaihui; Wang, Rui; Ling, Fei; Xiao, Langtao; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

    2017-02-28

    The brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is a destructive piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. The plant hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play important roles in plant-pest interactions. Many isolated rice genes that modulate BPH resistance are involved in the metabolism or signaling pathways of SA, JA and ethylene. 'Rathu Heenati' (RH) is a rice cultivar with a high-level, broad-spectrum resistance to all BPH biotypes. Here, RH was used as the research material, while a BPH-susceptible rice cultivar 'Taichung Native 1' (TN1) was the control. A cDNA microarray analysis illuminated the resistance response at the genome level of RH under BPH infestation. The levels of SA and JA in RH and TN1 seedlings after BPH infestation were also determined. The expression pattern clustering indicated that 1467 differential probe sets may be associated with constitutive resistance and 67 with the BPH infestation-responsive resistance of RH. A Venn diagram analysis revealed 192 RH-specific and BPH-inducible probe sets. Finally, 23 BPH resistance-related gene candidates were selected based on the expression pattern clustering and Venn diagram analysis. In RH, the SA content significantly increased and the JA content significantly decreased after BPH infestation, with the former occurring prior to the latter. In RH, the differential genes in the SA pathway were synthesis-related and were up-regulated after BPH infestation. The differential genes in the JA pathway were also up-regulated. They were jasmonate ZIM-domain transcription factors, which are important negative regulators of the JA pathway. Comparatively, genes involved in the ET pathway were less affected by a BPH infestation in RH. DNA sequence analysis revealed that most BPH infestation-inducible genes may be regulated by the genetic background in a trans-acting manner, instead of by their promoters. We profiled the analysis of the global gene expression in RH and TN1 under BPH infestation

  6. Characterization of mercury species in brown and white rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in water-saving paddies.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Feng, Xinbin; Dong, Bin; Shang, Lihai; Yin, Runsheng; Yuan, Xiaobo

    2011-05-01

    In China, total Hg (HgT) and methylmercury (MeHg) were quantified in rice grain grown in three sites using water-saving rice cultivation methods, and in one Hg-contaminated site, where rice was grown under flooded conditions. Polished white rice concentrations of HgT (water-saving: 3.3±1.6 ng/g; flooded: 110±9.2 ng/g) and MeHg (water-saving 1.3±0.56 ng/g; flooded: 12±2.4 ng/g) were positively correlated with root-soil HgT and MeHg contents (HgT: r2=0.97, MeHg: r2=0.87, p<0.05 for both), which suggested a portion of Hg species in rice grain was derived from the soil, and translocation of Hg species from soil to rice grain was independent of irrigation practices and Hg levels, although other factors may be important. Concentrations of HgT and other trace elements were significantly higher in unmilled brown rice (p<0.05), while MeHg content was similar (p>0.20), indicating MeHg infiltrated the endosperm (i.e., white rice) more efficiently than inorganic Hg(II).

  7. Study design and methods for a randomized crossover trial substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India.

    PubMed

    Wedick, Nicole M; Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Malik, Vasanti S; Venkatachalam, Siva Sankari; Parthasarathy, Vijayalaksmi; Vaidya, Ruchi; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Arumugam, Kokila; Jones, Clara; Campos, Hannia; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    India has the second largest number of people with diabetes in the world following China. Evidence indicates that consumption of whole grains can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. This article describes the study design and methods of a trial in progress evaluating the effects of substituting whole grain brown rice for polished (refined) white rice on biomarkers of diabetes risk (glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, inflammation). This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with a crossover design conducted in Chennai, India among overweight but otherwise healthy volunteers aged 25-65 y with a body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2) and habitual rice consumption ≥200 g/day. The feasibility and cultural appropriateness of this type of intervention in the local environment will also be examined. If the intervention is efficacious, the findings can be incorporated into national-level policies which could include the provision of brown rice as an option or replacement for white rice in government institutions and food programs. This relatively simple dietary intervention has the potential to substantially diminish the burden of diabetes in Asia and elsewhere.

  8. Study design and methods for a randomized crossover trial substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India

    PubMed Central

    Wedick, Nicole M.; Vasudevan, Sudha; Spiegelman, Donna; Bai, Ramya; Malik, Vasanti; Venkatachalam, Siva Sankari; Parthasarathy, Vijayalaksmi; Vaidya, Ruchi; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Arumugam, Kokila; Jones, Clara; Campos, Hannia; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B.; Mohan, Anjana Ranjit; Viswanathan, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    India has the second largest number of people with diabetes in the world following China. Evidence indicates that consumption of whole grains can reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. This manuscript describes the study design and methods of a trial in progress evaluating the effects of substituting whole grain brown rice for polished (refined) white rice on biomarkers of diabetes risk (glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, inflammation). This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with a crossover design conducted in Chennai, India among overweight but otherwise healthy volunteers aged 25–65y with a body mass index ≥23kg/m2 and habitual rice consumption ≥200grams/day. The feasibility and cultural appropriateness of this type of intervention in the local environment will also be examined. If the intervention is efficacious, the findings can be incorporated into national-level policies which could include the provision of brown rice as an option or replacement for white rice in government institutions and food programs. This relatively simple dietary intervention has the potential to substantially diminish the burden of diabetes in Asia and elsewhere. PMID:26017321

  9. Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyomin

    2013-07-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed.

  10. Viruliferous rate of small brown planthopper is a good indicator of rice stripe disease epidemics.

    PubMed

    He, Dun-Chun; Zhan, Jiasui; Cheng, Zhao-Bang; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2016-02-22

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), its vector insect (small brown planthopper, SBPH) and climatic conditions in Jiangsu, China were monitored between 2002 and 2012 to determine key biotic and abiotic factors driving epidemics of the disease. Average disease severity, disease incidence and viruliferous rate of SBPH peaked in 2004 and then gradually decreased. Disease severity of RSV was positively correlated with viruliferous rate of the vector but not with the population density of the insect, suggesting that the proportion of vectors infected by the virus rather than the absolute number of vectors plays an important role in RSV epidemics and could be used for disease forecasting. The finding of a positive correlation of disease severity and viruliferous rate among years suggests that local infection is likely the main source of primary inoculum of RSV. Of the two main climatic factors, temperature plays a more important role than rainfall in RSV epidemics.

  11. Viruliferous rate of small brown planthopper is a good indicator of rice stripe disease epidemics

    PubMed Central

    He, Dun-Chun; Zhan, Jiasui; Cheng, Zhao-Bang; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), its vector insect (small brown planthopper, SBPH) and climatic conditions in Jiangsu, China were monitored between 2002 and 2012 to determine key biotic and abiotic factors driving epidemics of the disease. Average disease severity, disease incidence and viruliferous rate of SBPH peaked in 2004 and then gradually decreased. Disease severity of RSV was positively correlated with viruliferous rate of the vector but not with the population density of the insect, suggesting that the proportion of vectors infected by the virus rather than the absolute number of vectors plays an important role in RSV epidemics and could be used for disease forecasting. The finding of a positive correlation of disease severity and viruliferous rate among years suggests that local infection is likely the main source of primary inoculum of RSV. Of the two main climatic factors, temperature plays a more important role than rainfall in RSV epidemics. PMID:26898155

  12. Determination of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice straw, rice husk, brown rice and soil using liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry following extraction with QuEChERS method.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhurui; Zhao, Xiaozhen; Chen, Jiaojiao; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Kankan; Hu, Deyu

    2016-10-01

    A fast and simple analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in soil, rice straw, rice husk and brown rice. QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method was used for extraction, and liquid chromatography with tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was used for quantification. The matrix-matched calibration plots were linear in the range between 25 and 5000 μg/L for soil, rice straw, rice husk and brown rice samples. All determination coefficients (R(2) ) were ≥0.9962. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.5 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries at three fortification levels ranged between 79.5 and 97.9% with relative standard deviations <11%. The developed method was validated and applied for the analysis of dissipation study samples. For field experiments, the half-lives of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice straw were 11.93 and 5.83 days, respectively. The method was demonstrated to be reliable for the routine monitoring of RH-5849 and indoxacarb in rice samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Effect of zinc sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed zinc concentration, bioavailability, and seed germination.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Wang, Yuyan; Lu, Lingli; Wu, Chunyong; Yang, Xiaoe

    2012-02-22

    Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population and, hence, the main source of a vital micronutrient, zinc (Zn). Unfortunately, the bioavailability of Zn from rice is very low not only due to low content but also due to the presence of some antinutrients such as phytic acid. We investigated the effect of germination and Zn fortification treatment on Zn bioavailability of brown rice from three widely grown cultivars using the Caco-2 cell model to find a suitable fortification level for producing germinated brown rice. The results of this study showed that Zn content in brown rice increased significantly (p < 0.05) as the external Zn concentrations increased from 25 to 250 mg/L. In contrast, no significant influence (p > 0.05) on germination percentage of rice was observed when the Zn supply was lower than 150 mg/L. Zn fortification during the germination process has a significant impact on the Zn content and finally Zn bioavailability. These findings may result from the lower molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and higher Zn content in Zn fortified germinated brown rice, leading to more bioavailable Zn. Likewise, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found among cultivars with respect to the capacity for Zn accumulation and Zn bioavailability; these results might be attributed to the difference in the molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and the concentration of Zn among the cultivars evaluated. Based on global intake of Zn among the world population, we recommend germinated brown rice fortified with 100 mg/L ZnSO(4) as a suitable concentration to use in the germination process, which contains high Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability. In the current study, the cultivar Bing91185 fortified with Zn through the germination process contained a high amount as well as bioavailable Zn, which was identified as the most promising cultivar for further evaluation to determine its efficiency as an improved source of Zn for target populations.

  14. Changes in Endosymbiotic Bacteria of Brown Planthoppers During the Process of Adaptation to Different Resistant Rice Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hong-Xing, Xu; Xu-Song, Zheng; Ya-Jun, Yang; Jun-Ce, Tian; Qiang, Fu; Gong-Yin, Ye; Zhong-Xian, Lu

    2015-06-01

    The specific primers of five species of endosymbiotic bacteria were designed to determine their numbers in three virulent populations of brown planthopper, Nilapavata lugens Stål, and to assess changes during adaptation to different resistant varieties using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that Chryseobacterium was the dominant bacteria in all three populations of brown planthopper, followed by Acinetobacter in TN1 population, Arsenophonus and Serratia in Mudgo population, and Arthrobacter and Acinetobacter in ASD7 population. When the TN1 population of brown planthopper was transferred to ASD7 (with resistant gene bph2) rice plants, Chryseobacterium was still the dominant bacteria, but the originally subdominant Acinetobacter declined to a level that was not significantly different from that of other endosymbiotic bacteria. After they were transferred to Mudgo (with resistant gene Bph1), Serratia and Arsenophonus increased significantly and became the dominant bacteria. However, they declined to a level that was not significantly different from that of the three other species after two generations. When ASD7 and Mudgo populations of brown planthopper were transferred to the susceptible variety TN1, the community of endosymbiotic bacteria in the ASD7 population of brown planthopper showed no significant changes. However, the numbers of Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter in the Mudgo population of brown planthopper exhibited a transient increase and returned to their original levels after two generations. After the Mudgo population of brown planthopper was transferred to ASD7 rice plants, the quantity of endosymbiotic bacteria fluctuated, but the bacterial structure did not change significantly. However, after the ASD7 population of brown planthopper was transferred to the Mudgo rice plants, the bacterial structure changed significantly. Serratia and Arsenophonus increased significantly and became dominant. Although Serratia and Arsenophonus decreased

  15. Development and evaluation of near-isogenic lines for brown planthopper resistance in rice cv. 9311

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Cong; Hu, Jie; Ao, Yi-Ting; Cheng, Ming-Xing; Gao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Qing-Lu; He, Guang-Cun; He, Yu-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice in Asia. To date 29 BPH resistance genes have been identified, but only a few genes are being used in breeding due to inefficient markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and little knowledge of the real effects of the genes. In this study we individually transferred 13 genes or QTLs (Bph14, QBph3, QBph4, Bph17, Bph15, Bph20, Bph24, Bph6, Bph3, Bph9, Bph10, Bph18 and Bph21) into cultivar 9311 by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Through positive and negative selection we narrowed the segments from donors containing Bph14, Bph15, Bph6 and Bph9 to 100–400 kb. Whole-genome background selection based on a high resolution SNP array was performed to maximize reconstitution of the recurrent parent genome (RPG 99.2–99.9%). All genes reduced BPH growth and development and showed antibiotic responses in seedlings. Based on genetic effects and amino acid sequences of genes in three clusters we inferred that Bph10 and Bph21 might be identical to Bph26, whereas Bph9 and Bph18 were different. Bph15 might be same with Bph17, but QBph4, Bph20 and Bph24 might be different. We believe that these NILs will be useful in rice BPH resistance research and breeding. PMID:27901104

  16. Bacterial microbiota in small brown planthopper populations with different rice viruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Zhou, Changwei; Chen, Guangyi; Zhou, Yijun

    2017-07-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is an important virus vector, transmitting Rice stripe virus (RSV), and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). Insect symbionts play an essential role in the insect fitness, however, it is still unclear about their contributions to viral transmission by SBPH. Here, we investigated endosymbiont communities in non-viruliferous, RSV-infected, and RBSDV-infected SBPH populations using Illumina 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. In total, 281,803 effective sequences of the 16S rRNA gene were generated from different samples. Sequence analysis revealed the percentages of these bacterial groups in different SBPH populations on several taxonomic levels ranging from phyla to genera. The extremely consistent bacterial diversity and abundance indicated that RSV or RBSDV infection did not affect the composition and abundance of symbionts in SBPH. It was notable that Wolbachia was dominant in all populations. The symbiosis between Wolbachia and SBPH might be potentially studied and utilized to control pest SBPH in the future. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Development and evaluation of near-isogenic lines for brown planthopper resistance in rice cv. 9311.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Cong; Hu, Jie; Ao, Yi-Ting; Cheng, Ming-Xing; Gao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Qing-Lu; He, Guang-Cun; He, Yu-Qing

    2016-11-30

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice in Asia. To date 29 BPH resistance genes have been identified, but only a few genes are being used in breeding due to inefficient markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and little knowledge of the real effects of the genes. In this study we individually transferred 13 genes or QTLs (Bph14, QBph3, QBph4, Bph17, Bph15, Bph20, Bph24, Bph6, Bph3, Bph9, Bph10, Bph18 and Bph21) into cultivar 9311 by marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB). Through positive and negative selection we narrowed the segments from donors containing Bph14, Bph15, Bph6 and Bph9 to 100-400 kb. Whole-genome background selection based on a high resolution SNP array was performed to maximize reconstitution of the recurrent parent genome (RPG 99.2-99.9%). All genes reduced BPH growth and development and showed antibiotic responses in seedlings. Based on genetic effects and amino acid sequences of genes in three clusters we inferred that Bph10 and Bph21 might be identical to Bph26, whereas Bph9 and Bph18 were different. Bph15 might be same with Bph17, but QBph4, Bph20 and Bph24 might be different. We believe that these NILs will be useful in rice BPH resistance research and breeding.

  18. Modeling of Bacillus cereus growth in brown rice submitted to a combination of ultrasonication and slightly acidic electrolyzed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-12-01

    The combined effects of ultrasonication and slight acidic electrolyzed water were investigated to improve the microbial safety of brown rice against Bacillus cereus infection and to evaluate the growth kinetics of these bacteria during storage of untreated and treated rice at various temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C). The results indicate that this combination treatment was bactericidal against B. cereus, resulting in an approximately 3.29-log reduction. Although B. cereus can be efficiently reduced by treatment, temperature abuse during storage can allow B. cereus to recover and grow. A primary growth model (Baranyi and Roberts equation) was fitted to the raw growth data from untreated (control) and treated samples to estimate growth rate, lag time, and maximum population density, with a low standard error of the residuals (≤0.140) and high adjusted coefficient of determination (>0.990). The growth curves obtained from the Baranyi and Roberts model indicated that B. cereus grew more slowly on treated brown rice than on untreated brown rice. Secondary models predicting the square root of the maximum growth rate and the natural logarithm of the lag time as a function of temperature were satisfactory (bias factor = 0.993 to 1.013; accuracy factor = 1.290 to 1.352; standard error of prediction = 18.828 to 36.615%). Inactivation results and the model developed and validated in this study provided reliable and valuable growth kinetics information for quantitative microbiological risk assessment studies of B. cereus on brown rice.

  19. A novel gene IBF1 is required for the inhibition of brown pigment deposition in rice hull furrows.

    PubMed

    Shao, Tian; Qian, Qian; Tang, Ding; Chen, Jun; Li, Ming; Cheng, Zhukuan; Luo, Qiong

    2012-07-01

    The role of flavonoids as the major red, blue, purple and brown pigments in plants has gained these secondary products a great deal of attention over the years. In this study, we characterized a rice inhibitor for brown furrows1 (ibf1) mutant. In the ibf1 mutant, brown pigments specifically accumulate in hull furrows during seed maturation and reach a maximum level in dry seeds. Higher amounts of total flavonoids and anthocyanin in hull may be responsible for the brown pigmentation of ibf1. The IBF1 gene, which encodes a similar kelch repeat-containing F-box protein, was isolated by map-based cloning approach. Real-time RT-PCR and GUS activity assays revealed that IBF1 specifically expressed in reproductive tissues. GFP-IBF1 fusion protein mainly localized in cytoplasm. The expression of some major structural enzymatic genes involved in flavonoids biosynthesis could be up- or down-regulated to some different extent in ibf1 mutant. Our data suggested that IBF1 as a suppressor could inhibit the brown pigmentation of rice hull furrows.

  20. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    PubMed

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  1. [Simultaneous analysis of residual pesticides in fruit, vegetables, brown rice, and oolong tea by LC-MS/MS].

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Mikio; Shibata, Sayo; Shiomi, Tetsuo; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Ban, Soichiro; Tomita, Yoko; Semura, Shunsuke; Nakao, Yoshie; Banno, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    According to "The validity evaluation guideline of the testing methodology on the residual pesticides in food" of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, we carried out validity evaluation of a simultaneous analysis method for residual pesticides in various products with the QuEChERS method using a C18 mini column and/or an EnviCarb/PSA mini column for purification. Multi-ingredient simultaneous analysis with high sensitivity in a short time was achieved with LC-MS/MS. Validation was achieved for 269 pesticides among 302 pesticides in eight kinds of fruit, vegetables, and brown rice and 204 pesticides among 233 pesticides in oolong tea. Finally, 151 pesticides in oolong tea and from 234 to 259 pesticides in fruit, vegetables, and brown rice met the values specified in the guideline.

  2. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards... technology used to harvest, process, and test rice; and also rice marketing. To ensure that standards and..., Beacon Facility, Stop 1404, P.O. Box 419205, Kansas City, MO 64131- 6205; Telephone: (816) 823-4648; Fax...

  3. A nutritious medida (Sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536.

    PubMed

    Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid

    2004-09-01

    The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (P< 0.01) increase in both the energy density and the protein content, having increased 12 folds and 24 folds, respectively. The essential amino acids including lysine and methionine were highly augmented. The resultant medida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.

  4. Silicon induces resistance to the brown spot fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus by preventing the pathogen from hijacking the rice ethylene pathway.

    PubMed

    Van Bockhaven, Jonas; Spíchal, Lukáš; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Asano, Takayuki; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Höfte, Monica; De Vleesschauwer, David

    2015-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the ability of silicon (Si) to mitigate a wide variety of abiotic and biotic stresses, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanism(s). Here, we have investigated the role of hormone defense pathways in Si-induced resistance to the rice brown spot fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus. To delineate the involvement of multiple hormone pathways, a multidisciplinary approach was pursued, combining exogenous hormone applications, pharmacological inhibitor experiments, time-resolved hormone measurements, and bioassays with hormone-deficient and/or -insensitive mutant lines. Contrary to other types of induced resistance, we found Si-induced brown spot resistance to function independently of the classic immune hormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid. Our data also rule out a major role of the abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin pathways, but suggest that Si mounts resistance to C. miyabeanus by preventing the fungus from hijacking the rice ethylene (ET) machinery. Interestingly, rather than suppressing rice ET signaling per se, Si probably interferes with the production and/or action of fungal ET. Together our findings favor a scenario whereby Si induces brown spot resistance by disarming fungal ET and argue that impairment of pathogen virulence factors is a core resistance mechanism underpinning Si-induced plant immunity.

  5. Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Brown Rice and Human Health Risk Assessment near Three Mining Areas in Central China

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Metal mining and waste discharge lead to regional heavy metal contamination and attract major concern because of the potential risk to local residents. Methods This research was conducted to determine lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), and antimony (Sb) concentrations in soil and brown rice samples from three heavy metal mining areas in Hunan Province, central China, and to assess the potential health risks to local inhabitants. Results Local soil contamination was observed, with mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, and As of 0.472, 193.133, 36.793, and 89.029 mg/kg, respectively. Mean concentrations of Cd, Pb, Sb, Mn, and As in brown rice were 0.103, 0.131, 5.175, 6.007, and 0.524 mg/kg, respectively. Daily intakes of Cd, As, Sb, Pb, and Mn through brown rice consumption were estimated to be 0.011, 0.0002, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0003 mg/(kg/day), respectively. The combined hazard index for the five heavy metals was 22.5917, and the total cancer risk was 0.1773. Cd contributed most significantly to cancer risk, accounting for approximately 99.77% of this risk. Conclusions The results show that potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks exist for local inhabitants and that regular monitoring of pollution to protect human health is urgently required.

  6. The effect of pelleting on in situ rumen degradability of compound feed containing brown rice for dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tagawa, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Norio; Iino, Yukihiro; Horiguchi, Ken-Ichi; Takahashi, Toshiyoshi; Watanabe, Maria; Takemura, Kei; Ito, Syuhei; Mikami, Toyoji

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of pelleting on in situ dry matter degradability of pelleted compound feed containing brown rice for dairy cows. Mash feed of the same composition was used as a control and the in situ study was conducted using three non-lactating Holstein steers fitted with a rumen cannula. The feeds contained 32.3% brown rice, 19.4% rapeseed meal, 11.4% wheat bran and 10.6% soybean meal (fresh weight basis). Except for moisture content, the chemical composition of the feed was not affected by pelleting. In situ dry matter disappearance of the feed increased from 0 to 2 h and after 72 h of incubation with pellet processing. Integration of the dry matter disappearance values over time revealed that degradability parameter a (soluble fraction) increased with pellet processing, whereas parameter b (potentially degradable fraction) decreased. Parameter c (fractional rate of degradation) and effective degradability (5% passage rate) were not affected by pellet processing. We concluded that pellet processing promotes rumen degradability at early incubation hours when the pelleted feed contains brown rice. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Effect of germination on chemical, functional and nutritional characteristics of wheat, brown rice and triticale: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sibian, Mandeep S; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2017-10-01

    Germination is accompanied by various metabolic reactions in the seed, which lead to alteration of its chemical composition as compared to raw seed. Among the micromolecules, amino acids play an important role in various growth and metabolic activities in seeds. Results indicated that germination altered seeds' chemical composition, which improved/changed the functional properties investigated such as bulk density, foaming capacity, water holding capacity, oil binding capacity and emulsification properties. Essential amino acids were increased during germination, which contributed in enhancing the nutritional quality of protein in seeds. Germination also improved protein-based quality parameters such as essential amino acid index, biological value, protein efficiency ratio and nutritional index in seeds of brown rice, wheat and triticale. Among the grains, the essential amino acid index of brown rice was reported to be highest after germination. Indispensable/essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, phenylalanine and valine showed a significant increase during germination. As a result, amino acid scoring based on the reference pattern of an FAO Expert Consultation Report (2013) for infants and adults was appreciably improved after germination along with an increase in the essential amino acid indices for brown rice (78.78), wheat (76.55) and triticale (73.99). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Organ-specific transcriptome response of the small brown planthopper toward rice stripe virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wan; Lu, Lixia; Yang, Pengcheng; Cui, Na; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) causes rice stripe disease and is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPH) in a persistent, circulative, and propagative manner. The alimentary canal and salivary gland of SBPH play important roles in viral replication and transmission. However, little is known about the underlying molecular functions of these two organs in the interaction between RSV and SBPH. In this study, organ-specific transcriptomes of the alimentary canal and salivary gland were analyzed in viruliferous and naïve SBPH. The number of differentially expressed unigenes in the alimentary canal was considerably greater than that in the salivary gland after RSV infection, and only 23 unigenes were co-regulated in the two organs. In the alimentary canal, genes involved in lysosome, digestion and detoxification were activated upon RSV infection, whereas the genes related to DNA replication and repair were suppressed. RSV activated RNA transport and repressed the MAPK, mTOR, Wnt, and TGF-beta signaling pathways in the salivary gland. The overall immune reaction toward RSV was much stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal. RSV activated the pattern recognition molecules and Toll pathway in the salivary gland but inhibited these two reactions in the alimentary canal. The responses from reactive oxygen and the immune-responsive effectors were stronger in the salivary gland than in the alimentary canal after RSV infection. These findings provide clues on the roles of the two organs in confronting RSV infection and aid in the understanding of the interaction between RSV and SBPHs.

  9. Dynamic metabolic responses of brown planthoppers towards susceptible and resistant rice plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caixiang; Du, Ba; Hao, Fuhua; Lei, Hehua; Wan, Qianfen; He, Guangcun; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2017-10-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) causes huge economic losses in rice-growing regions, and new strategies for combating BPH are required. To understand how BPHs respond towards BPH-resistant plants, we systematically analysed the metabolic differences between BPHs feeding on the resistant and susceptible plants using NMR and GC-FID/MS. We also measured the expression of some related genes involving glycolysis and biosyntheses of trehalose, amino acids, chitin and fatty acids using real-time PCR. BPH metabonome was dominated by more than 60 metabolites including fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleosides/nucleotides and TCA cycle intermediates. After initial 12 h, BPHs feeding on the resistant plants had lower levels of amino acids, glucose, fatty acids and TCA cycle intermediates than on the susceptible ones. The levels of these metabolites recovered after 24 h feeding. This accompanied with increased level in trehalose, choline metabolites and nucleosides/nucleotides compared with BPH feeding on the susceptible plants. Decreased levels of BPH metabolites at the early feeding probably resulted from less BPH uptakes of sap from resistant plants and recovery of BPH metabolites at the later stage probably resulted from their adaptation to the adverse environment with their increased hopping frequency to ingest more sap together with contributions from yeast-like symbionts in BPHs. Throughout 96 h, BPH feeding on the resistant plants showed significant up-regulation of chitin synthase catalysing biosynthesis of chitin for insect exoskeleton, peritrophic membrane lining gut and tracheae. These findings provided useful metabolic information for understanding the BPH-rice interactions and perhaps for developing new BPH-combating strategies. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of the brown rice diet on visceral obesity and endothelial function: the BRAVO study.

    PubMed

    Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Moritake; Kinjo, Rie; Yamakawa, Ken; Tanaka, Hideaki; Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Taira, Shin-Ichiro; Sata, Masataka; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-28

    Brown rice (BR) and white rice (WR) produce different glycaemic responses and their consumption may affect the dietary management of obesity. In the present study, the effects of BR and WR on abdominal fat distribution, metabolic parameters and endothelial function were evaluated in subjects with the metabolic syndrome in a randomised cross-over fashion. In study 1, acute postprandial metabolic parameters and flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated dilation (FMD and NMD) of the brachial artery were determined in male volunteers with or without the metabolic syndrome after ingestion of either BR or WR. The increases in glucose and insulin AUC were lower after ingestion of BR than after ingestion of WR (P= 0·041 and P= 0·045, respectively). FMD values were decreased 60 min after ingestion of WR (P= 0·037 v. baseline), but the decrease was protected after ingestion of BR. In study 2, a separate cohort of male volunteers (n 27) with the metabolic syndrome was randomised into two groups with different BR and WR consumption patterns. The values of weight-based parameters were decreased after consumption of BR for 8 weeks, but returned to baseline values after a WR consumption period. Insulin resistance and total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were reduced after consumption of BR. In conclusion, consumption of BR may be beneficial, partly owing to the lowering of glycaemic response, and may protect postprandial endothelial function in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Long-term beneficial effects of BR on metabolic parameters and endothelial function were also observed.

  11. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    PubMed

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage.

  12. Intestinal immunostimulatory activity of neutral polysaccharide isolated from traditionally fermented Korean brown rice vinegar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Ho; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2016-12-01

    In this study, diverse intestinal immunostimulatory activities were demonstrated for polysaccharides (KBV-CP) isolated from Korean brown rice vinegar. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that KBV-CP was composed mainly of neutral sugar units, primarily glucose and mannose. In vitro, KBV-CP significantly augmented the productions of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgA-related cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, results of an in vitro co-culture system of intestinal Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophage cells suggested that KBV-CP is not only cytotoxic to Caco-2 cells but also capable of being transported across the small intestinal barrier. Oral administration of KBV-CP every other day for 20 days induced the IgA production by Peyer's patch cells as well as in intestinal fluid and fecal extract. In addition, the production of IgA-related cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-6, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor was triggered.

  13. Phellinus linteus Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Increases Cetuximab Sensitivity of KRAS-Mutated Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Jin; Park, Jeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Jae; Song, Minjung

    2017-08-11

    Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and it has recently become a leading cause of death worldwide. Among colon cancers, the v-ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated form is notorious for its non-druggable features. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor, has been introduced as an antitumor therapy; however, secondary resistance and side effects significantly limit its effective use in these cancers. In this study, we prepared Phellinuslinteus on germinated brown rice (PBR) extracts to increase the sensitivity of KRAS-mutated colon cancers to cetuximab. The combined treatment of PBR extract and cetuximab suppressed SW480 cell viability/proliferation, with the cells exhibiting altered cellular morphology and clonogenic potential. AnnexinV-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide-stained flow cytometry and Western blotting were performed, and PBR extract combined with cetuximab treatment increased apoptosis of the SW480 cells and suppressed their KRAS protein expression. The potential of PBR as a synergistic anticancer agent was further investigated in a tumor-xenografted mouse model. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed with PBR extract and cetuximab co-treatment. In conclusion, PBR increased the sensitivity of KRAS-mutated colon cancer cells to cetuximab, which indicates the potential use of PBR as a medical food against colon cancer.

  14. Phellinus linteus Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Increases Cetuximab Sensitivity of KRAS-Mutated Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jin; Park, Jeong-Bin; Lee, Sang-Jae; Song, Minjung

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer, and it has recently become a leading cause of death worldwide. Among colon cancers, the v-ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated form is notorious for its non-druggable features. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor, has been introduced as an antitumor therapy; however, secondary resistance and side effects significantly limit its effective use in these cancers. In this study, we prepared Phellinuslinteus on germinated brown rice (PBR) extracts to increase the sensitivity of KRAS-mutated colon cancers to cetuximab. The combined treatment of PBR extract and cetuximab suppressed SW480 cell viability/proliferation, with the cells exhibiting altered cellular morphology and clonogenic potential. AnnexinV–fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide–stained flow cytometry and Western blotting were performed, and PBR extract combined with cetuximab treatment increased apoptosis of the SW480 cells and suppressed their KRAS protein expression. The potential of PBR as a synergistic anticancer agent was further investigated in a tumor-xenografted mouse model. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed with PBR extract and cetuximab co-treatment. In conclusion, PBR increased the sensitivity of KRAS-mutated colon cancer cells to cetuximab, which indicates the potential use of PBR as a medical food against colon cancer. PMID:28800074

  15. Germinated brown rice ameliorates obesity in high-fat diet induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, See Meng; Goh, Yong Meng; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Loh, Su Peng

    2016-05-23

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a novel functional food that is high in fiber and bioactive compounds with health-promoting properties. This study aims to evaluate anti-obesity effects of GBR in obese rats fed high-fat diet (HFD). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed HFD for 8 weeks to induce obesity. The rats were then administrated with GBR where the source of dietary carbohydrate of HFD was replaced by either 25 % GBR, 50 % GBR or 100 % GBR for another 8 weeks. Changes in anthropometry, dietary status, biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver and adipose tissue were measured. Rats fed with HFD were showed elevation in body weight gain and in white adipose tissue mass compared with rats consumed commercial diet. The GBR administration in 50 % GBR and 100 % GBR were significantly decreased body weight gains and food intakes as well as improved lipid profiles in obese rats. In addition, the administration of GBR  had reduced adiposity by showing declination in white adipose tissue mass, adipocytes size and leptin level concomitantly with a higher ratio of fat excretion into feces. Micro- and macrovesicular steatosis were evidently attenuated in obese rats fed GBR. These findings demonstrated that GBR exhibited anti-obesity effects through suppression of body weight gain and food intake, improvement of lipid profiles and reduction of leptin level and white adipose tissue mass in obese rats fed HFD.

  16. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  17. A new method for evaluation of the resistance to rice kernel cracking based on moisture absorption in brown rice under controlled conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Asako; Tomita, Katsura; Shimizu, Toyohiro

    2015-01-01

    We developed and evaluated the effectiveness of a new method to detect differences among rice cultivars in their resistance to kernel cracking. The method induces kernel cracking under laboratory controlled condition by moisture absorption to brown rice. The optimal moisture absorption conditions were determined using two japonica cultivars, ‘Nipponbare’ as a cracking-resistant cultivar and ‘Yamahikari’ as a cracking-susceptible cultivar: 12% initial moisture content of the brown rice, a temperature of 25°C, a duration of 5 h, and only a single absorption treatment. We then evaluated the effectiveness of these conditions using 12 japonica cultivars. The proportion of cracked kernels was significantly correlated with the mean 10-day maximum temperature after heading. In addition, the correlation between the proportions of cracked kernels in the 2 years of the study was higher than that for values obtained using the traditional late harvest method. The new moisture absorption method could stably evaluate the resistance to kernel cracking, and will help breeders to develop future cultivars with less cracking of the kernels. PMID:26719740

  18. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Mussury, Rosilda M; Lima, Andréa A

    2012-03-01

    The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1) Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black) and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2) Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg.L(-1) gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C). The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.

  19. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E and γ-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics, and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from six cultivars having different bran colours were investigated. Parboiling rough and brown rice increased the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in whole grain rice but decreased the concentrations of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities found in the soluble fraction. After hydrothermal processing of purple bran rice, the retention of extractable anthocyanins was low, but was high for simple phenolics. For proanthocyanidins found in red bran rice, the extractable oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 4, increased up to 6-fold; while for oligomers with DP⩾4 and polymers, there was a significant decrease that was positively correlated with the DP and the temperature of the processing methods. The presence of hulls helped to retain water-soluble antioxidants during parboiling. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-05-31

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H₂O₂ and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice.

  1. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H2O2 and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice. PMID:27258255

  2. Comparative proteomics and protein profile related to phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in germinated Oryza sativa 'KDML105' and Thai brown rice 'Mali Daeng' for better nutritional value.

    PubMed

    Maksup, Sarunyaporn; Pongpakpian, Sarintip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2017-06-24

    Brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) are considered as prime sources of carbohydrate and bioactive compounds for more than half of the populations worldwide. Several studies have reported on the proteomics of BR and GBR; however, the proteomic profiles related to the synthesis of bioactive compounds are less well documented. In the present study, BR and GBR were used in a comparative analysis of the proteomic and bioactive compound profiles for two famous Thai rice varieties: Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML) and Mali Daeng (MD). The proteomes of KDML and MD revealed differences in the expression patterns of proteins after germination. Total phenolic compound content, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity of red rice MD was approximately 2.6-, 2.2- and 9.2-fold higher, respectively, compared to that of the white rice KDML. Moreover, GBR of MD showed higher total anthocyanin content and greater antioxidant activity, which is consistent with the increase expression of several proteins involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and protection against oxidative stress. Red rice MD exhibits higher nutrient values compared to white rice KDML and the appropriate germination of brown rice could represent a method for improving health-related benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Proteome Analysis of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Mutants Reveals Differentially Induced Proteins during Brown Planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Sangha, Jatinder Singh; Yolanda, H. Chen; Kaur, Jatinder; Khan, Wajahatullah; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Alanazi, Mohammed S.; Mills, Aaron; Adalla, Candida B.; Bennett, John; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan; Jahn, Gary C.; Leung, Hei

    2013-01-01

    Although rice resistance plays an important role in controlling the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, not all varieties have the same level of protection against BPH infestation. Understanding the molecular interactions in rice defense response is an important tool to help to reveal unexplained processes that underlie rice resistance to BPH. A proteomics approach was used to explore how wild type IR64 and near-isogenic rice mutants with gain and loss of resistance to BPH respond during infestation. A total of 65 proteins were found markedly altered in wild type IR64 during BPH infestation. Fifty-two proteins associated with 11 functional categories were identified using mass spectrometry. Protein abundance was less altered at 2 and 14 days after infestation (DAI) (T1, T2, respectively), whereas higher protein levels were observed at 28 DAI (T3). This trend diminished at 34 DAI (T4). Comparative analysis of IR64 with mutants showed 22 proteins that may be potentially associated with rice resistance to the brown planthopper (BPH). Ten proteins were altered in susceptible mutant (D1131) whereas abundance of 12 proteins including S-like RNase, Glyoxalase I, EFTu1 and Salt stress root protein “RS1” was differentially changed in resistant mutant (D518). S-like RNase was found in greater quantities in D518 after BPH infestation but remained unchanged in IR64 and decreased in D1131. Taken together, this study shows a noticeable level of protein abundance in the resistant mutant D518 compared to the susceptible mutant D1131 that may be involved in rendering enhanced level of resistance against BPH. PMID:23434671

  4. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Hayashi, M.; Nakajima, K.; Uno, Y.; Sakano, A.; Murakami, M.; Narahara, Y.; Ueno, S.; Fujii, T.

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25°C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  5. Brown rice and its component, γ-oryzanol, attenuate the preference for high-fat diet by decreasing hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Sunagawa, Sumito; Ueda, Rei; Taira, Shin-Ichiro; Ohshiro, Hiroyuki; Ikema, Tomomi; Yamakawa, Ken; Higa, Moritake; Tanaka, Hideaki; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    Brown rice is known to improve glucose intolerance and prevent the onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the effect of brown rice and its major component, γ-oryzanol (Orz), on feeding behavior and fuel homeostasis in mice. When mice were allowed free access to a brown rice-containing chow diet (CD) and a high-fat diet (HFD), they significantly preferred CD to HFD. To reduce hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on an HFD, mice were administered with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone, which caused them to prefer the CD. Notably, oral administration of Orz, a mixture of major bioactive components in brown rice, also improved glucose intolerance and attenuated hypothalamic ER stress in mice fed the HFD. In murine primary neuronal cells, Orz attenuated the tunicamycin-induced ER stress. In luciferase reporter assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Orz suppressed the activation of ER stress-responsive cis-acting elements and unfolded protein response element, suggesting that Orz acts as a chemical chaperone in viable cells. Collectively, the current study is the first demonstration that brown rice and Orz improve glucose metabolism, reduce hypothalamic ER stress, and, consequently, attenuate the preference for dietary fat in mice fed an HFD.

  6. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Park, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  7. Polyamines in brown rice vinegar function as potent attractants for the spotted wing drosophila.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Higashikubo, Haruka; Ishii, Yuri; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    Vinegar produced by acetic acid bacteria is used as an attractant for fruit flies. Apple cider vinegar (ACV) and brown rice vinegar (BRV) are used as lures to detect Drosophila suzukii (also known as the spotted wing drosophila [SWD], a newly emerging invasive pest of soft-skinned fruits) and to capture Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the attractiveness of BRV and ACV to SWD in laboratory trapping experiments using an upturned microcentrifuge tube with a pipette tip as a trap. We transferred SWD (approximately 20, 7-10 days old) to a glass vial containing a trap baited with BRV or ACV and counted the captured flies. BRV attracted more flies (52.88 ± 9.75%) than ACV (35.78 ± 7.47%) in 6 h. Based on high-performance liquid chromatography, we found that BRV contained greater amounts of putrescine (12.36 ± 0.44 μM) and spermidine (35.08 ± 4.34 μM) than ACV (putrescine, 0.31 ± 0.067 μM; spermidine, not detected). The attractiveness of ACV supplemented with putrescine (12 μM) and spermidine (35 μM) (68.56 ± 4.69%) was significantly higher than that of ACV, indicating that the enhanced attractiveness of BRV to SWD was accomplished by the additive effects of polyamines and other known attractive volatiles, such as acetic acid and acetoin. BRV is expected to be a powerful tool for the efficient management of SWD.

  8. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat.

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson's-Like Disease Rats.

    PubMed

    Chompoopong, Supin; Jarungjitaree, Sunit; Punbanlaem, Tideeporn; Rungruang, Thanaporn; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Taechowisan, Thongchai

    2016-09-01

    The effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the motor deficits and the dopaminergic (DA) cell death were investigated in Parkinson's-like disease (PD) rats. Reactive oxidative species generated by chronic subcutaneous injection of rotenone (RT) lead to neuronal apoptosis particularly in the nigrostriatal DA system and produce many features of PD, bradykinesis, postural instability and rigidity. In this study, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), previously reported to inhibit RT-induced DA cell death, was used as the positive control. Results show that pretreatment with GBR as well as 4-PBA significantly enhanced the motor activity after RT injection, and GBR affected significantly in open field test, only in the ambulation but not the mobility duration, and ameliorated the time to orient down (t-turn) and total time to descend the pole (t-total) in pole test as compared to RT group, but significantly lowered both t-turn and t-total only in 4-PBA group. The percentage of apoptotic cells in brain measured by flow cytometry and the inflammatory effect measured by ELISA of TNF-α showed significant increase in RT group as compared to the control (CT) group at P < 0.05. Apoptotic cells in RT group (85.98 %) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase versus CT group (17.50 %), and this effect was attenuated in GBR+RT group by decreasing apoptotic cells (79.32 %), whereas, increased viable cells (17.94 %) versus RT group (10.79 %). GBR in GBR + RT group could decrease TNF-α both in the serum and in brain. In summary, GBR showed a neuroprotective effect in RT-induced PD rats, and it may be useful as a value-added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative disease or PD.

  10. Biocontrol of sheath blight and narrow brown leaf spot in organic rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in Texas over the last decade. Texas organic rice acreage exceeded 16,000 acres in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Production is driven by the increased organic rice market and the unique position of Texas that has the ability to rotate large tracts of fallo...

  11. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to brown planthopper in the indica rice cultivar Col.5 Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lihong; Liu, Yuqiang; Jiang, Ling; Su, Changchao; Wang, Chunming; Zhai, Huqu; Wan, Jianmin

    2007-05-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is one of the most serious insect pests of rice throughout Asia. In this study, we constructed a linkage map to determine the locus for BPH resistance gene, using an F(2) population from a cross between a resistant indica cultivar, 'Col.5 Thailand', and a susceptible cultivar '02428'. Insect resistance was evaluated using 147 F(3) families and the genotype of each F(2) plant was inferred from the phenotype of corresponding F(3) families. Two QTLs was detected on chromosome 2 (explains 29.4% phenotypic variation) and 6 (46.2% variation explained) associated with resistance to BPH in the mapping population. Comparison of the chromosomal locations and reactions to BPH biotypes indicated that the gene on chromosome 6 is different from at least 18 of the 19 previously identified BPH resistance genes. These two genes have large effects on BPH resistance and may be a useful BPH resistance resource for rice breeding programs.

  12. Interactions between Nitrogen and Silicon in Rice and Their Effects on Resistance toward the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoying; Yu, Yaoguang; Baerson, Scott R.; Song, Yuanyuan; Liang, Guohua; Ding, Chaohui; Niu, Jinbo; Pan, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and silicon (Si) are two important nutritional elements required for plant growth, and both impact host plant resistance toward insect herbivores. The interaction between the two elements may therefore play a significant role in determining host plant resistance. We investigated this interaction in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its effect on resistance to the herbivore brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH). Our results indicate that high-level (5.76 mM) N fertilization reduced Si accumulation in rice leaves, and furthermore, this decrease was likely due to decreased expression of Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2. Conversely, reduced N accumulation was observed at high N fertilization levels when Si was exogenously provided, and this was associated with down-regulation of OsAMT1;1 and OsGS1;1, which are involved in ammonium uptake and assimilation, respectively. Under lower N fertilization levels (0.72 and/or 1.44 mM), Si amendment resulted in increased OsNRT1:1, OsGS2, OsFd-GOGAT, OsNADH-GOGAT2, and OsGDH2 expression. Additionally, bioassays revealed that high N fertilization level significantly decreased rice resistance to BPH, and the opposite effect was observed when Si was provided. These results provide additional insight into the antagonistic interaction between Si and N accumulation in rice, and the effects on plant growth and susceptibility to herbivores. PMID:28167952

  13. Interactions between Nitrogen and Silicon in Rice and Their Effects on Resistance toward the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoying; Yu, Yaoguang; Baerson, Scott R; Song, Yuanyuan; Liang, Guohua; Ding, Chaohui; Niu, Jinbo; Pan, Zhiqiang; Zeng, Rensen

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and silicon (Si) are two important nutritional elements required for plant growth, and both impact host plant resistance toward insect herbivores. The interaction between the two elements may therefore play a significant role in determining host plant resistance. We investigated this interaction in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its effect on resistance to the herbivore brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (BPH). Our results indicate that high-level (5.76 mM) N fertilization reduced Si accumulation in rice leaves, and furthermore, this decrease was likely due to decreased expression of Si transporters OsLsi1 and OsLsi2. Conversely, reduced N accumulation was observed at high N fertilization levels when Si was exogenously provided, and this was associated with down-regulation of OsAMT1;1 and OsGS1;1, which are involved in ammonium uptake and assimilation, respectively. Under lower N fertilization levels (0.72 and/or 1.44 mM), Si amendment resulted in increased OsNRT1:1, OsGS2, OsFd-GOGAT, OsNADH-GOGAT2, and OsGDH2 expression. Additionally, bioassays revealed that high N fertilization level significantly decreased rice resistance to BPH, and the opposite effect was observed when Si was provided. These results provide additional insight into the antagonistic interaction between Si and N accumulation in rice, and the effects on plant growth and susceptibility to herbivores.

  14. Enhancing the health-beneficial qualities of whole grain rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various pre- and post-harvest approaches (i.e. pre-germination of whole grains and reduced milling degree) to enhancing the health beneficial compounds of whole grain and milled rice have been reported. A discussion of the results from our pre-harvest efforts is as follows. The majority of rice cons...

  15. Brown Rice and Its Component, γ-Oryzanol, Attenuate the Preference for High-Fat Diet by Decreasing Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Sunagawa, Sumito; Ueda, Rei; Taira, Shin-ichiro; Ohshiro, Hiroyuki; Ikema, Tomomi; Yamakawa, Ken; Higa, Moritake; Tanaka, Hideaki; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Brown rice is known to improve glucose intolerance and prevent the onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the effect of brown rice and its major component, γ-oryzanol (Orz), on feeding behavior and fuel homeostasis in mice. When mice were allowed free access to a brown rice–containing chow diet (CD) and a high-fat diet (HFD), they significantly preferred CD to HFD. To reduce hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on an HFD, mice were administered with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone, which caused them to prefer the CD. Notably, oral administration of Orz, a mixture of major bioactive components in brown rice, also improved glucose intolerance and attenuated hypothalamic ER stress in mice fed the HFD. In murine primary neuronal cells, Orz attenuated the tunicamycin-induced ER stress. In luciferase reporter assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Orz suppressed the activation of ER stress–responsive cis-acting elements and unfolded protein response element, suggesting that Orz acts as a chemical chaperone in viable cells. Collectively, the current study is the first demonstration that brown rice and Orz improve glucose metabolism, reduce hypothalamic ER stress, and, consequently, attenuate the preference for dietary fat in mice fed an HFD. PMID:22826028

  16. Fine mapping and characterization of BPH27, a brown planthopper resistance gene from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.).

    PubMed

    Huang, D; Qiu, Y; Zhang, Y; Huang, F; Meng, J; Wei, S; Li, R; Chen, B

    2013-01-01

    The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) is one of the most serious rice pests worldwide. Growing resistant varieties is the most effective way to manage this insect, and wild rice species are a valuable source of resistance genes for developing resistant cultivars. BPH27 derived from an accession of Guangxi wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff. (Accession no. 2183, hereafter named GX2183), was primarily mapped to a 17-cM region on the long arm of the chromosome four. In this study, fine mapping of BPH27 was conducted using two BC(1)F(2) populations derived from introgression lines of GX2183. Insect resistance was evaluated in the BC(1)F(2) populations with 6,010 individual offsprings, and 346 resistance extremes were obtained and employed for fine mapping of BPH27. High-resolution linkage analysis defined the BPH27 locus to an 86.3-kb region in Nipponbare. Regarding the sequence information of rice cultivars, Nipponbare and 93-11, all predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in the fine-mapping region have been annotated as 11 types of proteins, and three ORFs encode disease-related proteins. Moreover, the average BPH numbers showed significant differences in 96-120 h after release in comparisons between the preliminary near-isogenic lines (pre-NILs, lines harboring resistance genes) and BaiR54. BPH growth and development were inhibited and survival rates were lower in the pre-NIL plants compared with the recurrent parent BaiR54. The pre-NIL exhibited 50.7% reductions in population growth rates (PGR) compared to BaiR54. The new development in fine mapping of BPH27 will facilitate the efforts to clone this important resistant gene and to use it in BPH-resistance rice breeding.

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of two populations of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, that differ in virulence.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Yu, Haixin; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Hongdan; Ye, Wenfeng; Li, Shaohui; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant-herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH-rice interaction. Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH-rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to 'metabolism,' 'digestion and absorption,' and 'salivary secretion' might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for future functional studies on salivary glands and will be useful for elucidating the

  18. The concentration and distribution of essential elements in brown rice associated with the polishing rate: Use of ICP-AES and Micro-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiyama, Shinichi; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2008-08-01

    The concentration and distribution of essential elements in brown rice grains ( Oryza sativa L. var. japonica) associated with the polishing rate was determined. Rice samples were collected in Japan and polished to 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% loss of the total weight of brown rice. Concentrations of eight essential elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and distributions of the elements in a single grain were visualized as elemental distribution maps of a cross section by micro particle induced X-ray emission (Micro-PIXE) analysis. Results of ICP-AES analysis indicated that in rice which polished from 0% to 10% loss of weight, there were three patterns in the P/ B ratio, which is the mean concentration of an element in polished rice divided by that of the element in the brown rice: no change (Cu and Zn), a gradual decrease (P, Mg, Mn and Fe), and a decrease after a constant phase (Ca and K). There was no remarkable change of the P/ B ratio in rice grains which polished from 10% to 20% loss of weight. Micro-PIXE analysis images showed that P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn were present in large amounts in the surface layer (approx. <200 μm thickness) of brown rice. Two sub-layers were mainly recognized in the grain surface layer in the elemental distribution maps of a cross section. The first sub-layer was approximately 130-170 μm thick. The second sub-layer was approximately 20-50 μm thick, and the primary part of the grain (endosperm cells and starch granules) was under it. The images showed Cu and Zn were uniformity distributed in brown rice, and their concentrations of polished rice were not affected by the polishing rate. Although ICP-AES measurements could not provide the detail structure of the surface layer of the rice grains, the trend of concentration of the elements generally agreed with the elemental distribution maps obtained Micro-PIXE analysis.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of germinated brown rice against hydrogen peroxide induced cell death in human SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  20. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC–MS-MS

    PubMed Central

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4–25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81–101% with relative standard deviations of 5–19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0–1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49–5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10–14.88 µg/kg of ZON. PMID:26796964

  2. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains. PMID:28234326

  3. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4-25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81-101% with relative standard deviations of 5-19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0-1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49-5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10-14.88 µg/kg of ZON.

  4. Amino Acid Composition of an Organic Brown Rice Protein Concentrate and Isolate Compared to Soy and Whey Concentrates and Isolates.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Douglas S

    2014-06-30

    A protein concentrate (Oryzatein-80™) and a protein isolate (Oryzatein-90™) from organic whole-grain brown rice were analyzed for their amino acid composition. Two samples from different batches of Oryzatein-90™ and one sample of Oryzatein-80™ were provided by Axiom Foods (Los Angeles, CA, USA). Preparation and analysis was carried out by Covance Laboratories (Madison, WI, USA). After hydrolysis in 6-N hydrochloric acid for 24 h at approximately 110 °C and further chemical stabilization, samples were analyzed by HPLC after pre-injection derivitization. Total amino acid content of both the isolate and the concentrate was approximately 78% by weight with 36% essential amino acids and 18% branched-chain amino acids. These results are similar to the profiles of raw and cooked brown rice except in the case of glutamic acid which was 3% lower in the isolate and concentrate. The amino acid content and profile of the Oryzatein-90™ isolate was similar to published values for soy protein isolate but the total, essential, and branched-chain amino acid content of whey protein isolate was 20%, 39% and 33% greater, respectively, than that of Oryzatein-90™. These results provide a valuable addition to the nutrient database of protein isolates and concentrates from cereal grains.

  5. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-12-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP(+)) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation.

  6. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation. PMID:25580402

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:22949825

  8. Characterizing and estimating rice brown spot disease severity using stepwise regression, principal component regression and partial least-square regression*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhan-yu; Huang, Jing-feng; Shi, Jing-jing; Tao, Rong-xiang; Zhou, Wan; Zhang, Li-li

    2007-01-01

    Detecting plant health conditions plays a key role in farm pest management and crop protection. In this study, measurement of hyperspectral leaf reflectance in rice crop (Oryzasativa L.) was conducted on groups of healthy and infected leaves by the fungus Bipolaris oryzae (Helminthosporium oryzae Breda. de Hann) through the wavelength range from 350 to 2 500 nm. The percentage of leaf surface lesions was estimated and defined as the disease severity. Statistical methods like multiple stepwise regression, principal component analysis and partial least-square regression were utilized to calculate and estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot at the leaf level. Our results revealed that multiple stepwise linear regressions could efficiently estimate disease severity with three wavebands in seven steps. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) for training (n=210) and testing (n=53) dataset were 6.5% and 5.8%, respectively. Principal component analysis showed that the first principal component could explain approximately 80% of the variance of the original hyperspectral reflectance. The regression model with the first two principal components predicted a disease severity with RMSEs of 16.3% and 13.9% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Partial least-square regression with seven extracted factors could most effectively predict disease severity compared with other statistical methods with RMSEs of 4.1% and 2.0% for the training and testing dataset, respectively. Our research demonstrates that it is feasible to estimate the disease severity of rice brown spot using hyperspectral reflectance data at the leaf level. PMID:17910117

  9. Eating glutinous brown rice twice a day for 8 weeks improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T; Nagai, Y; Uehara, Y; Nakamura, Y; Ishii, S; Kato, H; Tanaka, Y

    2017-05-08

    We recently reported that eating glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day improved the whole-day glucose profile and postprandial plasma glucose level compared with eating white rice (WR) or standard brown rice. However, it was unknown whether eating GBR could maintain improvement of glycemic control for a longer period. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of GBR intake for 8 weeks on glycemic control in outpatients with diabetes mellitus. This was an open-label randomized crossover study in outpatients with type 2 diabetes. Among the 18 subjects registered in this study, 2 were excluded from analysis. After a 1-week observation period while eating WR twice a day, the patients were randomly assigned to two groups. One group ate GBR as a staple food twice a day for 8 weeks and then switched to WR for the next 8 weeks, while the other group ate WR first and then switched to GBR. A mixed meal tolerance test was performed at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of dietary intervention to evaluate plasma glucose and serum C-peptide. None of the subjects failed to complete the study because of disliking the taste of GBR. Hemoglobin A1c (7.5-7.2%, P=0.014) and glycoalbumin (20.4-19.4%, P=0.029) both decreased significantly when the patients were eating GBR. Additionally, the 30-min postprandial plasma glucose level (194-172 mg dl(-1), P=0.031) and the incremental area under the concentration vs time curve of serum C-peptide (31.3-22.1 ng min ml(-1), P=0.023) during the mixed meal tolerance test were also decreased significantly by intake of GBR. In contrast, there were no changes of glycemic control during the WR period. We confirmed that GBR was well tolerated for 8 weeks and improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Comparing Gene Expression Profiles Between Bt and non-Bt Rice in Response to Brown Planthopper Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Ning, Duo; Chen, Yang; Dang, Cong; Han, Nai-Shun; Liu, Yu'e; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH) fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3834 and 3273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR, and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes) that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and early nodulin gene ENOD

  11. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  12. Identification and analysis of brown planthopper-responsive microRNAs in resistant and susceptible rice plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Lv, Wentang; Hu, Liang; Rao, Weiwei; Zeng, Ya; Zhu, Lili; He, Yuqing; He, Guangcun

    2017-08-18

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest of rice. The rice gene BPH15 confers resistance to BPH. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a spectrum of development and defense response processes in plants. In this study, we analyzed six miRNA profiles of a BPH15 introgression line (P15) and a susceptible recipient line (PC) at three time points (0 h, 6 h and 48 h) after BPH attack, and identified 464 known miRNAs and 183 potential novel miRNAs. Before the BPH feeding, we identified 23 miRNAs differentially expressed in P15 and PC. We speculated that the resistant plant is in a priming state by the regulation of miRNAs. After the BPH feeding, 104 miRNAs were found to be expressed differentially in P15 (68 in P15-6/P15-0, 36 in P15-48/P15-0), and 80 miRNAs were found expressed differentially in PC (32 in PC-6/PC-0, 48 in PC-48/PC-0), which illustrated that miRNA expression is activated upon attack. These miRNAs regulate different pathways that contribute to the basal defense and specific resistance of rice to the BPH. Our study provides additional data for scientists to further explore the mechanism of plant defense against insect attack and to find a way for efficient insect control.

  13. Marker assisted pyramiding of two brown planthopper resistance genes, Bph3 and Bph27 (t), into elite rice Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Chen, Liangming; Liu, Yuqiang; Dai, Huimin; He, Jun; Kang, Haiyan; Pan, Gen; Huang, Jie; Qiu, Zeyu; Wang, Qi; Hu, Jinlong; Liu, Linglong; Chen, Yezhi; Cheng, Xianian; Jiang, Ling; Wan, Jianmin

    2016-12-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive insect in rice production. Breeding of resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective and environment-friendly strategy for BPH management; however, resistant cultivars are currently hampered by the rapid breakdown of BPH resistance. Thus, there is an urgent need to use more effective BPH resistance genes or pyramiding different resistance genes to develop more durable resistant rice cultivars. Here a dominant BPH resistance gene Bph27(t) were introgressed into a susceptible commercial japonica variety Ningjing3 (NJ3) and indica variety 93-11 using marker-assisted selection (MAS), respectively. Further, Bph27(t) and a durable BPH resistance gene Bph3 was pyramided by intercrossing single-gene introgressed lines through MAS. The introgression of BPH resistance genes significantly improved the BPH resistance and reduced the yield loss caused by BPH. The development of single and two genes pyramided lines in this study provides innovative resources for molecular breeding of durable BPH-resistant rice cultivars and BPH management through resistant cultivars.

  14. Determination of Cadmium in Brown Rice Samples by Fluorescence Spectroscopy Using a Fluoroionophore after Purification of Cadmium by Anion Exchange Resin.

    PubMed

    Hafuka, Akira; Takitani, Akiyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroko; Iwabuchi, Takuya; Takahashi, Masahiro; Okabe, Satoshi; Satoh, Hisashi

    2017-10-09

    Simple analytical methods are needed for determining the cadmium (Cd) content of brown rice samples. In the present study, we developed a new analytical procedure consisting of the digestion of rice using HCl, Cd purification using anion exchange resin, and then determining the Cd content using fluorescence spectroscopy. Digestion with 0.1 M HCl for 10 min at room temperature was sufficient to extract Cd from the ground rice samples. The Cd in the extract was successfully purified in preference to other metals using Dowex 1X8 chloride form resin. Low concentrations of Cd in the eluate could be determined using fluorescence spectroscopy with a fluoroionophore. Overall, the actual limit of quantification value for the Cd content in rice was about 0.1 mg-Cd/kg-rice, which was sufficiently low compared with the regulatory value (0.4 mg-Cd/kg-rice) given by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. We analyzed authentic brown rice samples using our new analytical procedure and the results agreed well with those determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Since the fluoroionophore recognized Zn(2+) and Hg(2+) as well as Cd(2+), a sample containing high concentration of Zn(2+) or Hg(2+) might cause a false positive result.

  15. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio.

  16. A salivary EF-hand calcium-binding protein of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens functions as an effector for defense responses in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Wenfeng; Yu, Haixin; Jian, Yukun; Zeng, Jiamei; Ji, Rui; Chen, Hongdan; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca2+-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice by BPH nymphs whose NlSEF1 was knocked down elicited higher levels of Ca2+ and H2O2 but not jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and SA in rice than did infestation by control nymphs; Consistently, wounding plus the recombination protein NlSEF1 suppressed the production of H2O2 in rice. Bioassays revealed that NlSEF1-knockdown BPH nymphs had a higher mortality rate and lower feeding capacity on rice than control nymphs. These results indicate that the salivary protein in BPH, NlSEF1, functions as an effector and plays important roles in interactions between BPH and rice by mediating the plant’s defense responses. PMID:28098179

  17. A salivary EF-hand calcium-binding protein of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens functions as an effector for defense responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wenfeng; Yu, Haixin; Jian, Yukun; Zeng, Jiamei; Ji, Rui; Chen, Hongdan; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-01-18

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a major pest of rice in Asia, is able to successfully puncture sieve tubes in rice with its piercing stylet and then to ingest phloem sap. How BPH manages to continuously feed on rice remains unclear. Here, we cloned the gene NlSEF1, which is highly expressed in the salivary glands of BPH. The NlSEF1 protein has EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding activity and can be secreted into rice plants when BPH feed. Infestation of rice by BPH nymphs whose NlSEF1 was knocked down elicited higher levels of Ca(2+) and H2O2 but not jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and SA in rice than did infestation by control nymphs; Consistently, wounding plus the recombination protein NlSEF1 suppressed the production of H2O2 in rice. Bioassays revealed that NlSEF1-knockdown BPH nymphs had a higher mortality rate and lower feeding capacity on rice than control nymphs. These results indicate that the salivary protein in BPH, NlSEF1, functions as an effector and plays important roles in interactions between BPH and rice by mediating the plant's defense responses.

  18. Characterizing the mode of action of Brevibacillus laterosporus B4 for control of bacterial brown strip of rice caused by A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Nawaz, Zarqa; Cui, Z; Almoneafy, Abdlwareth A; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2014-02-01

    Biological control efficacy of Brevibacillus laterosporus B4 associated with rice rhizosphere was assessed against bacterial brown stripe of rice caused by Acidovorex avenae subsp. avenae. A biochemical bactericide (chitosan) was used as positive control in this experiment. Result of in vitro analysis indicated that B. laterosporus B4 and its culture filtrates (70%; v/v) exhibited low inhibitory effects than chitosan (5 mg/ml). However, culture suspension of B. laterosporus B4 prepared in 1% saline solution presented significant ability to control bacterial brown stripe in vivo. Bacterization of rice seeds for 24 h yielded a greater response (71.9%) for controlling brown stripe in vivo than chitosan (56%). Studies on mechanisms revealed that B. laterosporus B4 suppressed the biofilm formation and severely disrupted cell membrane integrity of A. avenae subsp. avenae, causing the leakage of intracellular substances. In addition, the expression level of virulence-related genes in pathogen recovered from biocontrol-agent-treated plants showed that the genes responsible for biofilm formation, motility, niche adaptation, membrane functionality and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae were down-regulated by B. laterosporus B4 treatment. The biocontrol activity of B. laterosporus B4 was attributed to a substance with protein nature. This protein nature was shown by using ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequent treatment with protease. The results obtained from this study showed the potential effectiveness of B. laterosporus B4 as biocontrol agent in control of bacterial brown stripe of rice.

  19. Natural food science based novel approach toward prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: recent studies on brown rice and γ-oryzanol.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalences of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are dramatically increasing, and there is a strong need for more effective and safer therapies. However, some of drugs show limited efficacy and considerable adverse effects. Furthermore, artificial energy-dense foods and non-caloric foods may promote overeating and weight gain. In this context, a natural food-based approach may represent a valuable means of tackling the obesity-diabetes syndrome. Although recent studies have shown that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and prevents obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We found that one of the major components of brown rice, γ-oryzanol (Orz), plays an important role in the metabolically beneficial effects of brown rice. Orz acts as a chemical chaperone and decreases high fat diet (HFD)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus, thereby leading to a significant shift in preference from fatty to healthy foods. Orz also decreases HFD-induced ER stress in pancreatic β-cells and improves β-cell function. Notably, Orz directly acts on pancreatic islets and enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This evidence highlights food preference as a promising therapeutic target in obesity-diabetes syndrome and suggests that brown rice and Orz may have potential for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptome analysis of fat bodies from two brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) populations with different virulence levels in rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haixin; Ji, Rui; Ye, Wenfeng; Chen, Hongdan; Lai, Wenxiang; Fu, Qiang; Lou, Yonggen

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious rice insect pests in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. The insect fat body plays essential roles in the life cycles of insects and in plant-insect interactions. However, whether differences in fat body transcriptomes exist between insect populations with different virulence levels and whether the transcriptomic differences are related to insect virulence remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analyses on the fat bodies of two BPH populations with different virulence levels in rice. The populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 33,776 and 32,332 unigenes from the fat bodies of TN1 and M populations, respectively, were generated using Illumina technology. Gene ontology annotations and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism and immunity were significantly active in the fat bodies. In addition, a total of 339 unigenes showed homology to genes of yeast-like symbionts (YLSs) from 12 genera and endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. A comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes generated 7,860 differentially expressed genes. GO annotations and enrichment analysis of KEGG pathways indicated these differentially expressed transcripts might be involved in metabolism and immunity. Finally, 105 differentially expressed genes from YLSs and Wolbachia were identified, genes which might be associated with the formation of different virulent populations. This study was the first to compare the fat-body transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our findings provide a molecular resource for future investigations of fat bodies and will be useful in examining the interactions between the fat body and virulence

  1. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Kunishige; Kanda, Yusuke; Suzuki Ikeda, Saori; Sakaki, Ryuta; Nonomura, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Shikanai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Futoshi

    2015-12-08

    We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body-gelatin sponge-convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions.

  2. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Kunishige; Kanda, Yusuke; Suzuki Ikeda, Saori; Sakaki, Ryuta; Nonomura, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Shikanai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions. PMID:26670250

  3. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks.

  4. Transgenic Bt rice lines producing Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa or Cry1Ca have no detrimental effects on Brown Planthopper and Pond Wolf Spider.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lin; Mannakkara, Amani; Qiu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Hua, Hongxia; Lei, Chaoliang; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Ma, Weihua

    2017-05-16

    Transgenic rice expressing cry genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice) is highly resistant to lepidopteran pests. The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is the main non-target sap-sucking insect pest of Bt transgenic rice. The pond wolf spider (PWS, Pardosa pseudoannulata) is one of the most dominant predators of BPH in rice fields. Consequently, the safety evaluation of Bt rice on BPH and PWS should be conducted before commercialization. In the current study, two experiments were performed to assess the potential ecological effects of Bt rice on BPH and PWS: (1) a tritrophic experiment to evaluate the transmission of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca protein in the food chain; and (2) binding assays of Cry1Ac, Cry2Aa and Cry1Ca to midgut brush border membrane proteins from BPH and PWS. Trace amounts of the three Cry proteins were detected in BPH feeding on Bt rice cultivars, but only Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa proteins could be transferred to PWS through feeding on BPH. In vitro binding of biotinylated Cry proteins and competition assays in midgut protein vesicles showed weak binding, and ligand blot analysis confirmed the binding specificity. Thus, we inferred that the tested Bt rice varieties have negligible effects on BPH and PWS.

  5. Extracts of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice suppress liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Tae Il; Hwang, Seong-Gu; Lim, Beong Ou; Park, Dong Ki

    2003-12-01

    Extracts of Phellinus linteus (EPB), grown on germinated brown rice, protected rats from liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Peroxidation products in the liver were decreased to 10% by EPB. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly decreased to 55% and 39% by CCl4 administration, but EPB blocked this effect, resulting in enzyme activities at control levels. Expression of cytochromeP450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein was significantly decreased to 88% in CCl4-treated rats but remained at control levels when EPB was also administered. EPB did not affect the altered fatty acid composition induced by CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect of EPB may be mediated by EPB's prevention of CCl4-induced CYP2E1 degradation.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Hasnat, Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-06-07

    In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Salivary Glands of Two Populations of Rice Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, That Differ in Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongdan; Ye, Wenfeng; Li, Shaohui; Lou, Yonggen

    2013-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a destructive rice pest in Asia, can quickly overcome rice resistance by evolving new virulent populations. Herbivore saliva plays an important role in plant–herbivore interactions, including in plant defense and herbivore virulence. However, thus far little is known about BPH saliva at the molecular level, especially its role in virulence and BPH–rice interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cDNA amplification in combination with Illumina short-read sequencing technology, we sequenced the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations with different virulence; the populations were derived from rice variety TN1 (TN1 population) and Mudgo (M population). In total, 37,666 and 38,451 unigenes were generated from the salivary glands of these populations, respectively. When combined, a total of 43,312 unigenes were obtained, about 18 times more than the number of expressed sequence tags previously identified from these glands. Gene ontology annotations and KEGG orthology classifications indicated that genes related to metabolism, binding and transport were significantly active in the salivary glands. A total of 352 genes were predicted to encode secretory proteins, and some might play important roles in BPH feeding and BPH–rice interactions. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of the two populations revealed that the genes related to ‘metabolism,’ ‘digestion and absorption,’ and ‘salivary secretion’ might be associated with virulence. Moreover, 67 genes encoding putative secreted proteins were differentially expressed between the two populations, suggesting these genes may contribute to the change in virulence. Conclusions/Significance This study was the first to compare the salivary-gland transcriptomes of two BPH populations having different virulence traits and to find genes that may be related to this difference. Our data provide a rich molecular resource for

  8. The identification of candidate rice genes that confer resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) through representational difference analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Soo; Lee, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Jong-Hee; Song, Min-Young; Song, Song-Yi; Kwak, Do-Yeon; Yeo, Un-Sang; Jeon, Nam-Soo; Park, Soo-Kwon; Yi, Gihwan; Song, You-Chun; Nam, Min-Hee; Ku, Yeon-Chung; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2007-08-01

    The development of rice varieties (Oryza sativa L.) that are resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is an important objective in current breeding programs. In this study, we generated 132 BC(5)F(5) near-isogenic rice lines (NILs) by five backcrosses of Samgangbyeo, a BPH resistant indica variety carrying the Bph1 locus, with Nagdongbyeo, a BPH susceptible japonica variety. To identify genes that confer BPH resistance, we employed representational difference analysis (RDA) to detect transcripts that were exclusively expressed in one of our BPH resistant NIL, SNBC61, during insect feeding. The chromosomal mapping of the RDA clones that we subsequently isolated revealed that they are located in close proximity either to known quantitative trait loci or to an introgressed SSR marker from the BPH resistant donor parent Samgangbyeo. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis further revealed that loci of all RDA clones in SNBC61 correspond to the alleles of Samgangbyeo. Most of the RDA clones were found to be exclusively expressed in SNBC61 and could be assigned to functional groups involved in plant defense. These RDA clones therefore represent candidate defense genes for BPH resistance.

  9. Functional characterization of three trehalase genes regulating the chitin metabolism pathway in rice brown planthopper using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Yang, Mengmeng; Shen, Qida; Liu, Xiaojun; Shi, Zuokun; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

    2016-06-22

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective gene-silencing tool, and double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is considered a powerful strategy for gene function studies in insects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of trehalase (TRE) genes (TRE 1-1, TRE 1-2, and TRE-2) isolated from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a typical piercing-sucking insect in rice, and investigate their regulating roles in chitin synthesis by injecting larvae with dsRNA. The results showed that TRE1 and TRE2 had compensatory function, and the expression of each increased when the other was silenced. The total rate of insects with phenotypic deformities ranged from 19.83 to 24.36% after dsTRE injection, whereas the mortality rate ranged from 14.16 to 31.78%. The mRNA levels of genes involved in the chitin metabolism pathway in RNA-Seq and DGEP, namely hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) and chitinase (Cht), decreased significantly at 72 h after single dsTREs injection, whereas two transcripts of chitin synthase (CHS) genes decreased at 72 h after dsTRE1-1 and dsTREs injection. These results demonstrated that TRE silencing could affect the regulation of chitin biosynthesis and degradation, causing moulting deformities. Therefore, expression inhibitors of TREs might be effective tools for the control of planthoppers in rice.

  10. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Causes Apoptotic Death of Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells via Death Receptor Pathway.

    PubMed

    Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki; Itoh, Mari; Kosaka, Hiroaki; Morita, Kyoji

    2016-04-01

    Mixture of brown rice and rice bran fermented with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, has been reported to reveal anti-carcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Then, to test its potential anti-cancer activity, the aqueous extract was prepared from FBRA powder, and the effect of this extract on human acute lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells was directly examined. The exposure to FBRA extract reduced the cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The reduction of the cell viability was accompanied by the DNA fragmentation, and partially restored by treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor. Further studies showed that FBRA extract induced the cleavage of caspase-8, -9, and -3, and decreased Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, the expression of tBid, DR5, and Fas proteins was enhanced by FBRA extract, and the pretreatment with caspase-8 inhibitor, but not caspase-9 inhibitor, restored the reduction of the cell viability induced by FBRA extract. These findings suggested that FBRA extract could induce the apoptotic death of human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells probably through mainly the death receptor-mediated pathway and supplementarily through the tBid-mediated mitochondrial pathway, proposing the possibility that FBRA was a potential functional food beneficial to patients with hematological cancer.

  11. Identification of an anticancer compound against HT-29 cells from Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tae-Il; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Cho, Jeong-Yong; Park, Dong Ki; Moon, Jae-Hak

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify the anticancer compound against proliferation of human colon cancer cells from ethyl acetate (EtOAC) extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice (PB). Methods EtOAC extract of PB was partitioned with n-hexane, EtOAC, and water-saturated n-butanol. Anticancer compound of n-hexane layer was isolated and identified by HPLC and NMR, respectively. Cytotoxicity against HT-29 cells was tested by SRB assay. Results The n-hexane layer obtained after solvent fractionation of PB EtOAC extracts showed a potent anticancer activity against the HT-29 cell line. Atractylenolide I, a eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone, a major anticancer substance of PB, was isolated from the n-hexane layer by silica gel column chromatography and preparative-HPLC. This structure was elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic data. Atractylenolide I has not been reported in mushrooms or rice as of yet. The isolated compound dose-dependently inhibited the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells. Conclusions Atractylenolide I might contribute to the anticancer effect of PB. PMID:24075343

  12. Functional characterization of three trehalase genes regulating the chitin metabolism pathway in rice brown planthopper using RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Yang, Mengmeng; Shen, Qida; Liu, Xiaojun; Shi, Zuokun; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective gene-silencing tool, and double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is considered a powerful strategy for gene function studies in insects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of trehalase (TRE) genes (TRE 1-1, TRE 1-2, and TRE-2) isolated from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a typical piercing-sucking insect in rice, and investigate their regulating roles in chitin synthesis by injecting larvae with dsRNA. The results showed that TRE1 and TRE2 had compensatory function, and the expression of each increased when the other was silenced. The total rate of insects with phenotypic deformities ranged from 19.83 to 24.36% after dsTRE injection, whereas the mortality rate ranged from 14.16 to 31.78%. The mRNA levels of genes involved in the chitin metabolism pathway in RNA-Seq and DGEP, namely hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) and chitinase (Cht), decreased significantly at 72 h after single dsTREs injection, whereas two transcripts of chitin synthase (CHS) genes decreased at 72 h after dsTRE1-1 and dsTREs injection. These results demonstrated that TRE silencing could affect the regulation of chitin biosynthesis and degradation, causing moulting deformities. Therefore, expression inhibitors of TREs might be effective tools for the control of planthoppers in rice. PMID:27328657

  13. Effect of organic manure on Cd and As accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in Cd-As-contaminated paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Anwen; Ouyang, Yun; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of paddy fields in mining areas in south China have been contaminated by mixed Cd and As. To test the possibility of using organic manure (OM) as a method of reducing Cd and As accumulation in brown rice and increase the grain yield in such paddy fields, two rice cultivars [Jianyou G2 (JY) and Fengyousimiao (FY)] and three amounts of OM (0, 0.5, 1.5 kg/m(2)) were examined in three Cd-As-contaminated paddy fields (Fogang, Dabaoshan, Fankou) in Guangdong Province. The results show that the application of OM can effectively increase the grain yield and reduce Cd. However, the As concentration was found to increase in brown rice, especially when high levels of OM were used. The addition of OM increased the soil pH and organic matter content in the soils and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in plant tissues. Our results suggest that OM can be used as an amendment to effectively decrease Cd accumulation in brown rice in Cd-contaminated paddy fields. However, it is necessary to consider the negative effects of OM amendments when adding OM to As-contaminated paddy fields.

  14. Whole-genome expression analysis of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in different plant hosts and small brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiufang; Ni, Haiping; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lan, Ying; Ren, Chunmei; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-11-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) can infect a number of gramineous plants and cause severe crop yield losses in southeast Asian countries. The virus is transmitted by small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent circulative manner. The interactions between RBSDV and its different hosts remain unknown. Besides, how the virus adjusts itself to infect different hosts is unclear. In the present study, the relative RNA levels of the thirteen RBSDV genes in rice, maize, wheat, and SBPH were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. P7-1 and P10 genes were predominantly expressed whereas P8 and P7-2 genes were expressed at low levels in plant hosts. Similar to the expression in rice, P7-1 was the most abundantly expressed gene and P8 was expressed at the lowest level in SBPH, indicating that RBSDV adopts the same strategy to infect distinct hosts. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene in both plants and insect suggest that it can be used as the target gene for disease diagnostics. However, the expression levels of some genes varied from host to host. P5-1, P6 and P9-1, the components of the RBSDV viroplasm, are differentially expressed in different hosts. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the quantity of the P9-1 protein was more abundant in SBPH than in plant hosts. These data indicate that the virus may adjust its own gene expression to replicate in different hosts. Analysis of time course of gene expression revealed that P7-1 stands out as the only gene highly expressed at the earliest time point and its expression precedes all others throughout infection from 8 to 24days post-inoculation. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene suggest that it plays a significant role in RBSDV-host interactions.

  15. Molecular Breeding of Rice Restorer Lines and Hybrids for Brown Planthopper (BPH) Resistance Using the Bph14 and Bph15 Genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongbo; Ye, Shengtuo; Mou, Tongmin

    2016-12-01

    The development of hybrid rice is a practical approach for increasing rice production. However, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, causes severe yield loss of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and can threaten food security. Therefore, breeding hybrid rice resistant to BPH is the most effective and economical strategy to maintain high and stable production. Fortunately, numerous BPH resistance genes have been identified, and abundant linkage markers are available for molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs. Hence, we pyramided two BPH resistance genes, Bph14 and Bph15, into a susceptive CMS restorer line Huahui938 and its derived hybrids using MAS to improve the BPH resistance of hybrid rice. Three near-isogenic lines (NILs) with pyramided Bph14 and Bph15 were obtained by molecular marker-assisted backcross (MAB) and phenotypic selection. The genomic components of these NILs were detected using the whole-genome SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism) array, RICE6K, suggesting that the recurrent parent genome (RPG) recovery of the NILs was 87.88, 87.70 and 86.62 %, respectively. BPH bioassays showed that the improved NILs and their derived hybrids carrying homozygous Bph14 and Bph15 were resistant to BPH. However, the hybrids with heterozygous Bph14 and Bph15 remained susceptible to BPH. The developed NILs showed no significant differences in major agronomic traits and rice qualities compared with the recurrent parent. Moreover, the improved hybrids derived from the NILs exhibited better agronomic performance and rice quality compared with the controls under natural field conditions. This study demonstrates that it is essential to stack Bph14 and Bph15 into both the maternal and paternal parents for developing BPH-resistant hybrid rice varieties. The SNP array with abundant DNA markers is an efficient tool for analyzing the RPG recovery of progenies and can be used to monitor the donor segments in NILs, thus being extremely important

  16. Modeling growth rate and assessing aflatoxins production by Aspergillus flavus as a function of water activity and temperature on polished and brown rice.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Wael; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohd; Jinap, Selamat; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd; Radu, Son

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to model the radial growth rate and to assess aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus as a function of water activity (a(w) 0.82 to 0.92) and temperature (12 to 42 °C) on polished and brown rice. The growth of the fungi, expressed as colony diameter (mm) was measured daily, and the aflatoxins were analyzed using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. The growth rates were estimated using the primary model of Baranyi, which describes the change in colony radius as a function of time. Total of 2 secondary models were used to describe the combined effects of a(w) and temperature on the growth rates. The models were validated using independent experimental data. Linear Arrhenius-Davey model proved to be the best predictor of A. flavus growth rates on polished and brown rice followed by polynomial model. The estimated optimal growth temperature was around 30 °C. A. flavus growth and aflatoxins were not detected at 0.82 a(w) on polished rice while growth and aflatoxins were detected at this a(w) between 25 and 35 °C on brown rice. The highest amounts of toxins were formed at the highest a(w) values (0.90 to 0.92) at a temperature of 20 °C after 21 d of incubation on both types of rice. Nevertheless, the consistencies of toxin production within a wider range of a(w) values occurred between 25 to 30 °C. Brown rice seems to support A. flavus growth and aflatoxin production more than the polished rice. The developed models can be used to estimate to what extent the change in grain ecosystem conditions affect the storage stability and safety of grains without the need for running long-standing storage study. By monitoring the intergranular relative humidity and temperature at different locations in the storage facility and inputting these data into the models, it is directly possible to assess either the conditions are conductive for the growth of A. flavus or aflatoxin production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Pre-germination temperature and the survivorship and onward growth of Mediterranean fire-following plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanley, Mick E.; Fenner, Michael

    1998-04-01

    The role of heat shock in the induction of seed germination for numerous Mediterranean fire-following plant species is well documented. However, the influence of pre-germination heating of seeds upon seedling survivorship and onward growth has not been studied. The aim of the experiments described here was to investigate how a range of heat treatments affects seedling survivorship and onward growth for six common fire-following Mediterranean plant species ( Anthyllis vulneraria, Cistus creticus, C. salvifolius, Hippocrepis unisiliquosa, Pinus brutia and P. halepensis). In the first experiment, seeds of five species were heated to temperatures ranging between 80°C and 120°C (at 10°C intervals) for 10 min and subsequent seedling growth monitored over 8 weeks. Survivorship for two pine species ( Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia) was reduced after seeds were heated above 90°C. Onward growth for Pinus halepensis and the legume, Anthyllis vulneraria, was negatively affected by increasing pre-germination temperature. Survivorship and growth for both Cistus species was unaffected by heating seeds up to 110°C. The second experiment examined more closely seedling performance of Hippocrepis unisiliquosa seedlings when seeds were heated to temperatures ranging between 50°C and 90°C (at 10°C intervals) for 5, 10, 15 and 20 mins. Increasing pre-germination temperature and the length of time seeds were exposed to heating significantly reduced seedling growth rates in this species. The effect of fire on seedling emergence, growth and survivorship in the field is discussed with reference to the adaptation of the six species to post-fire regeneration and the patterns of seedling regeneration observed in the field.

  18. Role of GPx4 in human vascular endothelial cells, and the compensatory activity of brown rice on GPx4 ablation condition.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Osamu; Yasuzawa, Toshinori; Sumikawa, Yoshie; Ueta, Takashi; Imai, Hirotaka; Sawabe, Akiyoshi; Ueshima, Shigeru

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathologies of vascular endothelial cells. However, the importance of specific antioxidant enzymes in vascular endothelial cells is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the importance of Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), and the involvement of ferroptosis on cell death induced by GPx4 loss in human vascular endothelial cells. In addition, we examined the compensatory activity of brown rice on GPx4 ablation condition. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were transfected with GPx4 or scramble control siRNA. GPx4 knockdown caused the increase in the levels of lipid oxidation, and induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and extract of brown rice, ameliorated lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, and delay of proliferation induced by GPx4 knockdown. Furthermore, ferrostatin-1, inhibitor of ferroptosis, also prevented cytotoxicity and delay of proliferation. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that GPx4 is an essential antioxidant enzyme for protecting lipid peroxidation, and is a regulator of ferroptosis in vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, vitamin E rich food, such as brown rice, can compensate for GPx4 loss by protecting cells against lipid peroxidation.

  19. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-07-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible.

  20. Possible connection between imidacloprid-induced changes in rice gene transcription profiles and susceptibility to the brown plant hopper Nilaparvatalugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yao; Shi, Zhao-Peng; Jiang, Li-Ben; Ge, Lin-Quan; Wu, Jin-Cai; Jahn, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    The chemical pesticide, imidacloprid (IMI) has long-lasting effectiveness against Hemiptera. IMI is commonly used to control the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Some chemical pesticides, however, can induce the susceptibility of rice to BPH, which has indirectly led to the resurgence of BPH. The mechanism of the chemical induction of the susceptibility of rice to BPH was not previously understood. Here, a 44 K Agilent Rice Expression Microarray was used to identify changes in gene expression that accompany IMI-induced rice susceptibility to BPH. The results showed that 225 genes were differentially expressed, of which 117 were upregulated, and 108 were downregulated. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes were mainly classified into the eight functional groups: oxidation reduction, regulation of cellular process, response to stress, electron carrier activity, metabolic process, transport, signal transducer, and organismal development. The genes encoding plant lipid transfer protein, lignin peroxidase, and flavonol-3-O-methyltransferenase may be important responses to the IMI-induced susceptibility of rice to BPH. The reliability of the microarray data was verified by performing quantitative real-time PCR and the data provide valuable information for further study of the molecular mechanism of IMI-induced susceptibility of rice. PMID:22544984

  1. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-07-22

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible.

  2. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  3. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    PubMed Central

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution. PMID:26904605

  4. Uptake of silver by brown rice and wheat in soils repeatedly amended with biosolids.

    PubMed

    Wu, Longhua; Yang, Lu; Wang, Zhaoyang; Cheng, Miaomiao; Li, Zhu; Liu, Wuxing; Ma, Tingting; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2017-08-25

    There have been numerous studies simulating the behaviour and fate of silver (Ag) applied to soils in biosolids in recent decades but the results remain to be verified under actual farming conditions. Here, we report a study of the transfer of Ag along the biosolids-soil-crop pathway with repeated biosolid applications over a four-year period to three contrasting soil types under rice-wheat rotation cultivation. A systematic investigation of Ag concentrations in biosolids throughout China shows Ag concentrations ranging from 0.64 to 7.47mgkg(-1) with a mean value of 3.58mgkg(-1) and a median of 3.02mgkg(-1) on a dry weight basis. Silver concentrations were significantly higher in industrial biosolids than in domestic or mixed flow biosolids. Biosolids application enhanced Ag accumulation in whole wheat. Silver concentrations in whole wheat increased to 20.8, 20.5 and 4.87μgkg(-1) after four years of high-metal industrial biosolids application to an acid Typic Ali-Perudic Aragsol, a neutral Typic Hapli-Stagnic Anthrosol, and a calcareous Typic Carbonati-Perudic Ferrosol, respectively. Moreover, the Ag translocation factor also increased in wheat following biosolids application with values of 5.6, 3.1 and 1.4, respectively. However, Ag accumulation in rice was found only in the acid soil with no discernible increase (p>0.05) in the translocation factor. The seasonal redox cycle may contribute to this phenomenon. A seedling incubation experiment confirms the influence of soil water regime on Ag bioavailability with a higher Ag translocation factor during the wheat growing season than the rice growth period. Incorporating a fallow period during the wheat (winter crop) season might be a suitable strategy for repeated biosolids application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome-wide Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Contents of Eight Elements in Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Zarqa; Kakar, Kaleem U; Li, Xiao-bai; Li, Shan; Zhang, Bin; Shou, Hui-xia; Shu, Qing-yao

    2015-09-16

    An association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating the concentrations of eight elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) was performed using USDA mini-core subset cultivated in two different environments. In addition, correlation between the grain elemental concentrations was also studied. A total of 60 marker loci associated with 8 grain elemental concentrations were identified, and these loci were clustered into 37 genomic regions. Twenty new QTLs were found to be associated with important elements such as Zn, Fe, and P, along with others. Fe concentration was associated with the greatest number of markers in two environments. In addition, several important elemental/metal transporter genes were identified in a few mapped regions. Positive correlation was observed within all grain elemental concentrations. In summary, the results provide insight into the genetic basis of rice grain element accumulation and may help in the identification of genes associated with the accumulation of Zn, Fe, and other essential elements in rice.

  6. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  7. Effects of microwaves on the reduction of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus on brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Park, Shin Young; Byun, Kye-Hwan; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are primary pathogen moulds on brown rice and barley. This study investigated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) (2450 MHz, 700 W, 10-50 s) on inactivation of A. flavus and A. parasiticus on brown rice and barley and the quality of these samples. The counts of both strains were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the stepwise increase in MWI treatment time. The log reductions of A. flavus on brown rice and barley were 0.05 and 0.04 after 10 s; 1.06 and 1.05 after 20 s; 1.59 and 1.52 after 30 s; and 3.04 and 2.78 after 40 s. The log reductions of A. parasiticus on brown rice and barley were 0.06 and 0.10 after 10 s; 1.20 and 1.00 after 20 s; 2.04 and 1.61 after 30 s; and 2.89 and 2.90 after 40 s. Moreover, neither strain survived after 50 s of MWI. The Hunter colour 'L' gradually increased with increasing MWI treatment time. However, there were no significant differences in the 'L' of brown rice after 10-40 s of MWI treatment and of barley after 10-30 s of MWI treatment. The Hunter colour 'a' and 'b' gradually increased with increasing microwave time. No significant change was observed in the moisture content of either cereal treated with 10-20 s of MWI. The differences in the sensory quality (colour, appearance, flavour, texture and overall acceptability) after 0-30 s of MWI were not significant. However, values for colour, appearance, texture and overall acceptability were significantly reduced when treated with 40-50 s of MWI. Therefore, with 20 s of MWI at 2450 MHz, 700 W could be effective for > 90% reduction of mould without causing deleterious changes to the colour, moisture content and sensory qualities of these cereals.

  8. Electrical penetration graph evidence that pymetrozine toxicity to the rice brown planthopper is by inhibition of phloem feeding.

    PubMed

    He, Yueping; Chen, Li; Chen, Jianming; Zhang, Juefeng; Chen, Liezhong; Shen, Jinliang; Zhu, Yu Cheng

    2011-04-01

    Pymetrozine is a valuable novel insecticide for control of sucking insects, including the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious pests on rice. This study was conducted to elucidate the action mechanisms of pymetrozine on the feeding behaviour of the planthopper. The activity test showed that pymetrozine primarily functioned as an antifeedant that caused starvation and death in N. lugens, rather than having neurotoxicity. Pymetrozine-treated insects died at a significantly slower speed than insects treated with starvation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG) data indicated that pymetrozine significantly increased the duration of non-probing periods and had a strong inhibition to phloem ingestion. The inhibition was strongly dose dependent, resulting in a complete suppression of the activity in the phloem region when the pymetrozine concentration was increased to 400 mg L(-1) . Starvation caused by inhibition of phloem ingestion might be a major toxicity mechanism of pymetrozine. EPG data also showed that pymetrozine had no significant effect on stylet movement and duration of xylem sap ingestion. The study revealed that pymetrozine disturbed the feeding behaviour of N. lugens mainly by increasing the non-probe period and inhibiting phloem ingestion. The inhibition resulted in a slow death similar to starvation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Effect of additional of Hoodia Gordonii and seaweed powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of brown rice bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajal, Masturah Ebni; Ghani, Maaruf Abd; Daud, Norlida Mat

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of the nutritional content of food has increased with the emergence of various health products in the market. Cereal bar is one of the beneficial foods among consumer that concern on their healthy food. This study was conducted to develop a brown rice bar that contain active ingredients (H. gordonii and seaweed powder) and to determine the effect on sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties (colour, texture and proximate analysis) of this product. This study consisted of two phases in which the first phase consisted of development of ten formulations including control. All of the formulations were undergo analysis of colour, texture and sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory evaluation, Control (H. gordonii: 0%, seaweed: 0%) and two best formulations that consist of formulation 6 (H. gordonii: 1.6%; seaweed: 2.8%) and formulation 9 (H. gordonii: 2.4%, seaweed: 2.8%) were chosen to undergo the second phase which is proximate analysis. Base on the result, were significant different (p<0.05) on proximate analysis except for the protein and moisture content. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. gordonii is a good source of fiber when adding in a bar.

  10. Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Minjung; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) was prepared to suppress melanoma development. CBR extracts were divided into hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water fractions. Among all the fractions, EtOAc fraction showed the best suppressive effect on B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay. It also showed the increased cell death and the changed cellular morphology after CBR treatment. Annexin V-FITC/PI, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to elucidate anticancer activity of CBR. The results showed that CBR induced p53-mediated apoptotic cell death of B16F10. CBR EtOAc treatment increased melanin content and melanogenesis-related proteins of MITF and TRP-1 expressions, which supports its anticancer activity. Its potential as an anticancer agent was further investigated in tumor-xenografted mouse model. In melanoma-xenografted mouse model, melanoma tumor growth was significantly suppressed under CBR EtOAc fraction treatment. HPLC analysis of CBR extract showed peak of adenosine. In conclusion, CBR extracts notably inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through the p53-mediated apoptosis induction and increased melanogenesis. These findings suggest that CBR EtOAc fraction can act as an effective anticancer agent to treat melanoma. PMID:23533475

  11. Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Melanoma Cell Proliferation by Inducing Apoptosis and Cell Differentiation and Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Song, Minjung; Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) was prepared to suppress melanoma development. CBR extracts were divided into hexane, EtOAc, BuOH, and water fractions. Among all the fractions, EtOAc fraction showed the best suppressive effect on B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay. It also showed the increased cell death and the changed cellular morphology after CBR treatment. Annexin V-FITC/PI, flow cytometry, and western blotting were performed to elucidate anticancer activity of CBR. The results showed that CBR induced p53-mediated apoptotic cell death of B16F10. CBR EtOAc treatment increased melanin content and melanogenesis-related proteins of MITF and TRP-1 expressions, which supports its anticancer activity. Its potential as an anticancer agent was further investigated in tumor-xenografted mouse model. In melanoma-xenografted mouse model, melanoma tumor growth was significantly suppressed under CBR EtOAc fraction treatment. HPLC analysis of CBR extract showed peak of adenosine. In conclusion, CBR extracts notably inhibited B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through the p53-mediated apoptosis induction and increased melanogenesis. These findings suggest that CBR EtOAc fraction can act as an effective anticancer agent to treat melanoma.

  12. Identification of a new locus conferring antixenosis to the brown planthopper in rice cultivar Swarnalata (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y F; Cheng, L; Liu, F; Li, R B

    2013-08-29

    The brown planthopper [Nilaparvata lugens (Stål); BPH] has caused severe damage to rice production. The identification of resistance genes and the development of BPH-resistant varieties are economical and effective ways to manage this pest. Using an F2 population from a cross between the Indica cultivars 93-11 and Swarnalata, we mapped the Qbph-8 locus to a 7.3-cM region on chromosome 8 in two tests, flanked by the markers RM339 and RM515. In this population, Qbph-8 explained 7.7 and 6.6% of the phenotypic variance of BPH preference in both tests. In the BPH host choice test, the average number of settled BPHs on the Qbph-8 plants was less than that on the 93-11 plants over the 24- to 120-h observation period. Furthermore, less BPH insects were observed on the BPH6+Qbph-8 plant compared with the BPH6 plant or Qbph-8 plant, indicating a stronger antixenotic effect shown in the gene pyramiding plants. Hence, this locus can be pyramided with other BPH resistance genes and applied to breed-resistant varieties, which possibly can improve the resistance level and durable resistance to the BPH.

  13. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    PubMed

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  14. Genomic and transcriptomic insights into the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene repertoire in the rice pest brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Lao, Shu-Hua; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Hai-Jian; Liu, Cheng-Wen; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Bao, Yan-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) gene family is one of the most abundant eukaryotic gene families that encode detoxification enzymes. In this study, we identified an abundance of P450 gene repertoire through genome- and transcriptome-wide analysis in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens), the most destructive rice pest in Asia. Detailed gene information including the exon-intron organization, size, transcription orientation and distribution in the genome revealed that many P450 loci were closely situated on the same scaffold, indicating frequent occurrence of gene duplications. Insecticide-response expression profiling revealed that imidacloprid significantly increased NlCYP6CS1v2, NLCYP4CE1v2, NlCYP4DE1, NlCYP417A1v2 and NlCYP439A1 expression; while triazophos and deltamethrin notably enhanced NlCYP303A1 expression. Expression analysis at the developmental stage showed the egg-, nymph-, male- and female-specific expression patterns of N. lugens P450 genes. These novel findings will be helpful for clarifying the P450 functions in physiological processes including development, reproduction and insecticide resistance in this insect species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and identification of Se-containing antioxidative peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of Se-enriched brown rice protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kunlun; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Fusheng; Fang, Yong

    2015-11-15

    As a further study of Se-containing proteins (Se-Pro) derived from Se-enriched brown rice (Se-BR), this paper aimed to purify and identify Se-containing antioxidative peptides (Se-antioxi-Peps) from Se-Pro hydrolysates. The total Se content in Se-BR was 6.26μg/g DW, and selenocystine, Se-methylselenocysteine, and selenomethionine were identified as the main organic Se species by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Se-Pro was extracted and hydrolyzed by four types of proteases, and Alcalase was chosen as the optimum enzyme according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH). The hydrolysate with 17.08% DH possessing the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was separated into five fractions (F1 to F5). Fractions F3 to F5, which had high antioxidative activities, were further separated. Sub-fractions F3-3, F4-2, and F5-1 were chosen to evaluate antioxidative activities and analyze Se species. The Se-antioxi-Pep with the sequence SeMet-Pro-Ser was identified by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Stimulates BDNF Gene Transcription in C6 Glioma Cells: Possible Connection with HO-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kyoji; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Kishibuchi, Reina; Itoh, Mari; Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki

    2017-03-04

    Fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, is known to be commercially available dietary fiber-rich food, which is appreciated as prebiotics to improve intestinal microflora, and also shown to contain various biologically active substances including polyphenolic compounds. On the other hand, polyphenolic compounds have been suggested to stimulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in connection with the expression of heme oxidase-1 (HO-1) gene in glial cells, thus resulting in the augmentation of BDNF production in the brain, thereby being anticipated to have a putative effect on the brain function. Then, the effect of FBRA extract on HO-1 and BDNF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in C6 glioma cells was examined, and the extract was shown to stimulate both HO-1 and BDNF gene transcription in the glioma cells. Further studies showed that the stimulatory effect of FBRA extract on BDNF gene transcription was almost completely suppressed by silencing HO-1 gene expression with an HO-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide and also inhibiting HO-1 activity with an inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin, thus suggesting that FBRA might have a potential ability to induce BDNF gene expression through HO-1 activity in glial cells.

  17. Effect of replacing corn with whole-grain paddy rice and brown rice in broiler diets on growth performance and intestinal morphology.

    PubMed

    Sittiya, J; Yamauchi, K; Takata, K

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate replacing corn with whole-grain paddy rice (WPR) and whole-grain brown rice (BR) in broiler chicken diets and its effect on growth performance and histological structures of the intestinal villi. Marshall Chunky male chicks (14 days old) were divided into five groups with four replicates of four chicks each. In the dietary treatments, corn in the basal diet was replaced with WPR and BR. The chickens received five experimental diets consisting of corn, WPR and BR in ratios of 100:0:0 (Control), 50:0:50 (50Corn + 50BR), 50:25:25 (50Corn + 25WPR + 25BR), 25:50:25 (25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR) and 0:50:50 (50WPR + 50BR) respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for 35 day. No significant differences were found in feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency among the treatment groups. The relative weights of the gizzard in the 50Corn + 25WPR + 25BR, 25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR and 50WPR + 50BR groups were significantly higher than that of the Control and 50Corn + 50BR groups (p < 0.05). The gizzard pH of the experimental groups was lower than those of Control (p < 0.05). The ileal crypt of birds on the Control diets was deeper (p < 0.05) than those observed in the experimental birds. Moreover, the ileal villus height: crypt depth ratio increased (p < 0.05) in the 50WPR + 50BR group (p < 0.05) compared with the Control group. No specific changes were observed in the epithelial cells on the duodenal apical surface among the groups except that the villus of the 25Corn + 50WPR + 25BR group had cell clusters. The jejunal and ileal villus apical surface of the experimental groups showed similar morphology to the Control group. These findings suggest that WPR and BR can totally replace corn in broiler diets without negatively affecting growth performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. CCQM-K108.2014: determination of arsenic species and total arsenic in brown rice flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, K.; Narukawa, T.; Hioki, A.; Miyashita, S.; Long, S. E.; Ellisor, M. B.; Peng, S. L.; Dewi, F.; Shin, R.; Kapp, T.; Wai-hong, F.; Hei-shing, C.; Chao, W.; Kaewkhomdee, N.; Taebunpakul, S.; Thiengmanee, U.; Yafa, C.

    2017-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K108.2014 was organised by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to test the abilities of the national metrology institutes (NMIs) or the designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of inorganic arsenic (i-As, sum of the amount of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), and total arsenic (total As) in brown rice flour. This was the follow-up comparison for the CCQM-K108 & CCQM-P147 (Cd, As, inorganic arsenic, and DMAA in brown rice flour). For total As, no strong outliers among the reported values were observed, and the distribution of the results was narrow, within 3% around the median. For i-As and DMAA, the distributions of the results were slightly wider than that for total arsenic, but no strong outliers among the reported values of i-As and DMAA were observed. Two potentially bias sources, an extraction efficiency of As species (the ratio of the sum of i-As and DMAA to total As) and the quality of primary standard of DMAA, were discussed. The extraction efficiency was estimated as the ratio of the sum of i-As and DMAA to total As. In the previous comparison (CCQM-K108 & CCQM-P147), the extraction efficiency was one of the largest bias sources for i-As and DMAA. However, in this study, all the extraction efficiencies estimated from the reported values were close to 100 %. Regarding the quality of the primary standard solutions, no significant difference was observed among the primary standard solution used by the participants. These results suggest the two potential bias sources mentioned above would not have been majors in this study, and then the technical issues in the previous comparison had been overcome. Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, a comparability of measurement was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs and DIs for the measurement of total As at the level of less than 0.7 mg/kg, i-As at the level of less than 0.6 mg/kg, and DMAA at the level

  19. A Salivary Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Acts as an Effector That Enables the Brown Planthopper to Feed on Rice1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Rui; Ye, Wenfeng; Chen, Hongdan; Li, Heng; Yu, Haixin; Li, Jiancai

    2017-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests on rice (Oryza sativa) in Asia. After landing on plants, BPH rapidly accesses plant phloem and sucks the phloem sap through unknown mechanisms. We discovered a salivary endo-β-1,4-glucanase (NlEG1) that has endoglucanase activity with a maximal activity at pH 6 at 37°C and is secreted into rice plants by BPH. NlEG1 is highly expressed in the salivary glands and midgut. Silencing NlEG1 decreases the capacity of BPH to reach the phloem and reduces its food intake, mass, survival, and fecundity on rice plants. By contrast, NlEG1 silencing had only a small effect on the survival rate of BPH raised on artificial diet. Moreover, NlEG1 secreted by BPH did not elicit the production of the defense-related signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and jasmonoyl-isoleucine in rice, although wounding plus the application of the recombination protein NlEG1 did slightly enhance the levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine in plants compared with the corresponding controls. These data suggest that NlEG1 enables the BPH’s stylet to reach the phloem by degrading celluloses in plant cell walls, thereby functioning as an effector that overcomes the plant cell wall defense in rice. PMID:28126846

  20. A Salivary Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase Acts as an Effector That Enables the Brown Planthopper to Feed on Rice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Rui; Ye, Wenfeng; Chen, Hongdan; Zeng, Jiamei; Li, Heng; Yu, Haixin; Li, Jiancai; Lou, Yonggen

    2017-03-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens is one of the most destructive insect pests on rice (Oryza sativa) in Asia. After landing on plants, BPH rapidly accesses plant phloem and sucks the phloem sap through unknown mechanisms. We discovered a salivary endo-β-1,4-glucanase (NlEG1) that has endoglucanase activity with a maximal activity at pH 6 at 37°C and is secreted into rice plants by BPH NlEG1 is highly expressed in the salivary glands and midgut. Silencing NlEG1 decreases the capacity of BPH to reach the phloem and reduces its food intake, mass, survival, and fecundity on rice plants. By contrast, NlEG1 silencing had only a small effect on the survival rate of BPH raised on artificial diet. Moreover, NlEG1 secreted by BPH did not elicit the production of the defense-related signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and jasmonoyl-isoleucine in rice, although wounding plus the application of the recombination protein NlEG1 did slightly enhance the levels of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl-isoleucine in plants compared with the corresponding controls. These data suggest that NlEG1 enables the BPH's stylet to reach the phloem by degrading celluloses in plant cell walls, thereby functioning as an effector that overcomes the plant cell wall defense in rice. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M

    2014-02-01

    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed.

  2. Identification and fine mapping of a new gene, BPH31 conferring resistance to brown planthopper biotype 4 of India to improve rice, Oryza sativa L.

    PubMed

    Prahalada, G D; Shivakumar, N; Lohithaswa, H C; Sidde Gowda, D K; Ramkumar, G; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Ramachandra, C; Hittalmani, Shailaja; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Jena, Kshirod K

    2017-08-31

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the staple food for more than 3.5 billion people, mainly in Asia. Brown planthopper (BPH) is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice that limits rice production. Host-plant resistance is one of the most efficient ways to overcome BPH damage to the rice crop. BPH bioassay studies from 2009 to 2015 conducted in India and at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines, revealed that the cultivar CR2711-76 developed at the National Rice Research Institute (NRRI), Cuttack, India, showed stable and broad-spectrum resistance to several BPH populations of the Philippines and BPH biotype 4 of India. Genetic analysis and fine mapping confirmed the presence of a single dominant gene, BPH31, in CR2711-76 conferring BPH resistance. The BPH31 gene was located on the long arm of chromosome 3 within an interval of 475 kb between the markers PA26 and RM2334. Bioassay analysis of the BPH31 gene in CR2711-76 was carried out against BPH populations of the Philippines. The results from bioassay revealed that CR2711-76 possesses three different mechanisms of resistance: antibiosis, antixenosis, and tolerance. The effectiveness of flanking markers was tested in a segregating population and the InDel type markers PA26 and RM2334 showed high co-segregation with the resistance phenotype. Foreground and background analysis by tightly linked markers as well as using the Infinium 6 K SNP chip respectively were applied for transferring the BPH31 gene into an indica variety, Jaya. The improved BPH31-derived Jaya lines showed strong resistance to BPH biotypes of India and the Philippines. The new BPH31 gene can be used in BPH resistance breeding programs on the Indian subcontinent. The tightly linked DNA markers identified in the study have proved their effectiveness and can be utilized in BPH resistance breeding in rice.

  3. Eating glutinous brown rice for one day improves glycemic control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes assessed by continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Terashima, Yuko; Nagai, Yoshio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Akio; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether intake of non-glutinous brown rice (BR) or glutinous brown rice (GBR) for 1 day had an influence on the daily glucose profile measured by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) when compared with intake of non-glutinous white rice (WR). A total of 37 inpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited for a 3-day randomized triple cross-over trial in which they ate WR, BR, or GBR for 1 day each. One of the three types of rice was eaten at breakfast, lunch, and dinner on the first day, before switching to the other types on the second and third days. Each meal had the same energy content and the same side dishes. The main outcome measures were the blood glucose profile determined by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and the profile of serum C-peptide (CPR) for 3 hours after breakfast. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the palatability of each type of rice. According to the CGM data, the mean 24-hour glucose concentration was lowest with GBR (p<0.01). Serum Cpeptide showed no significant differences among the three diets. Regarding palatability, BR was assigned significantly lower scores than WR and GBR (p<0.05), while there was no difference between WR and GBR. GBR intake suppressed the whole-day glucose profile of patients with T2DM, mainly by reducing postprandial glucose excursion, and GBR was preferred over BR with respect to palatability. GBR may be worth adding to the diet of patients with T2DM.

  4. Nutrigenomic effects of germinated brown rice and its bioactives on hepatic gluconeogenic genes in type 2 diabetic rats and HEPG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah

    2013-03-01

    Chronic sustained hyperglycemia underlies the symptomatology and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dietary components contribute to it. Germinated brown rice (GBR) improves glycemic control but the mechanisms involved are still the subject of debate. We now show one mechanism by which GBR lowers blood glucose. Effects of GBR, brown rice, and white rice (WR) on fasting plasma glucose and selected genes were studied in type 2 diabetic rats. GBR reduced plasma glucose and weight more than metformin, while WR worsened glycemia over 4 weeks of intervention. Through nutrigenomic suppression, GBR downregulated gluconeogenic genes (Fbp1 and Pck1) in a manner similar to, but more potently than, metformin, while WR upregulated the same genes. Bioactives (gamma-amino butyric acid, acylated steryl glycoside, oryzanol, and phenolics) were involved in GBR's downregulation of both genes. Plasma glucose, Fbp1 and Pck1 changes significantly affected the weight of rats (p = 0.0001). The fact that GBR downregulates gluconeogenic genes similar to metformin, but produces better glycemic control in type 2 diabetic rats, suggests other mechanisms are involved in GBR's antihyperglycemic properties. GBR as a staple could potentially provide enhanced glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus better than metformin. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Aflatoxins contamination in Pakistani brown rice: a comparison of TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Advancement in the field of analytical food-chemistry has explored various experimental techniques for aflatoxins (AFs) quantification. The present study was aimed to compare four different techniques; thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) in brown rice (n = 120) being collected from Karachi, Pakistan. All the four assays provide precised, accurate and comparable results. However, some differences were observed. For instance, TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies offered the advantage of the quantification of individual toxins in contrast to ELISA technique. The contamination ranges of AFB₁/AFB₂ as determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS were 1.18-9.97/0.59-1.52, 0.16-10.54/0.26-1.35 and 0.11-10.88/0.38-1.48 µg/kg, respectively. However, AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected in any tested samples. Furthermore, owing to low-detection limit and sensitivity, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies have identified greater number of contaminated samples in comparison to TLC and ELISA techniques. The overall average results of total AFs as provided by HPLC (3.79 µg/kg) and LC-MS/MS (3.89 µg/kg) were found higher in comparison to TLC (3.68 µg/kg) and ELISA (3.70 µg/kg). On the basis of achieved results, it was concluded that TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques are valuable tool for the quantification of AFs in cereals and grains. Furthermore, HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques offer an added advantage for the detection of AFs in diminutive levels.

  6. Rapid and Simultaneous Analysis of 360 Pesticides in Brown Rice, Spinach, Orange, and Potato Using Microbore GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghwa; Kim, Leesun; Shin, Yongho; Lee, Junghak; Lee, Jiho; Kim, Eunhye; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2017-04-26

    A multiresidue method for the simultaneous and rapid analysis of 360 pesticides in representative agricultural produce (brown rice, orange, spinach, and potato) was developed using a modified QuEChERS procedure combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Selected reaction monitoring transition parameters (e.g., collision energy, precursor and product ions) in MS/MS were optimized to achieve the best selectivity and sensitivity for a wide range of GC-amenable pesticides. A short (20 m) microbore (0.18 mm i.d.) column resulted in better signal-to-noise ratio with reduced analysis time than a conventional narrowbore column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d.). The priming injection dramatically increased peak areas by masking effect on a new GC liner. The limit of quantitation was <0.01 mg/kg, and the correlation coefficients (r(2)) of matrix-matched standards were >0.99 within the range of 0.0025-0.1 mg/kg. Acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid without additional buffer salts was used for pesticide extraction, whereas only primary-secondary amine (PSA) was used for dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) cleanup, to achieve good recoveries for most of the target analytes. The recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with relative standard deviations of ≤20% at 0.01 and 0.05 mg/kg spiking levels (n = 6) in all samples, indicating acceptable accuracy and precision of the method. Seventeen real samples from local markets were analyzed by using the optimized method, and 14 pesticides in 11 incurred samples were found at below the maximum residue limits.

  7. Efficacy of soft-electron (low-energy electron) treatment for disinfestation of brown rice containing different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Horigane, Akemi K.; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Toru

    2009-07-01

    Soft electrons (low-energy electrons) have been reported to effectively disinfest grains contaminated with stored-product insects. In this study, brown rice grains infested with different ages of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, were exposed to soft electrons. Soft electrons at an acceleration voltage of 170 kV effectively inactivated eggs, old larvae and pupae of the maize weevil, but could not completely inactivate young larvae. The locations of young larvae in rice grains were specified by magnetic resonance microimaging. Most of the larvae resided at the periphery of the grains while only a few at the center, which were assumed to get out of inactivation. This indicated that soft electrons with low penetration capacity could reach the most of weevil larvae in grains. Combination of soft-electron treatment and short time-low-dose phosphine fumigation achieved high mortality rate of S. zeamais.

  8. Preventive effects of fermented brown rice and rice bran against N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in male hamsters.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Satoru; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hara, Akira; Hirata, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mori, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Fermented brown rice by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is known to have the potential to prevent chemical carcinogenesis of the colon, liver, esophagus, urinary bladder, stomach and lungs in rodents. The present study examined the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA on N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in hamsters. Five-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into seven groups. Groups 1-5 were subcutaneously injected with BOP (10 mg/kg body weight) four times during week 6 to induce pancreatic tumors, while groups 6 and 7 were injected with saline. Groups 2 and 3 were fed diets containing 5 and 10% FBRA, respectively, during the initiation phase. By contrast, groups 4 and 5 were fed diets containing 5 and 10% FBRA, respectively, during the post-initiation phase. Group 6 received a diet containing 10% FBRA throughout the experiment, and group 7 was kept on the basal diet alone and served as the untreated control. At the termination of the study (week 22), oral intake of 10% FBRA (group 5) during the post-initiation phase was identified to have significantly reduced the multiplicity (number of lesions/animal) of ductal adenocarcinoma [pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (PanIN3); carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma] in comparison with group 1 control hamsters (0.24±0.44 vs. 0.71±0.72; P<0.05). Treatment with 10% FBRA in the post-initiation phase inhibited the progression of normal/precancerous lesions (PanIN1, mild hyperplastic lesions; and PanIN2, papillary hyperplasia) to ductal adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, dietary exposure to 10% FBRA during the initiation (group 3) and post-initiation phases (group 5) significantly reduced the multiplicity of PanIN2 (group 3, 0.55±0.69; group 5, 0.45±0.69; versus group 1, 1.26±1.24; P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). A significant reduction of Ki-67 positivity of PanIN2 in group 5 was also confirmed (group 5, 0.05±0.03; group 1, 0.22±0.12; P<0.01). Using terminal

  9. Preventive effects of fermented brown rice and rice bran against N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in male hamsters

    PubMed Central

    KUNO, TOSHIYA; TAKAHASHI, SATORU; TOMITA, HIROYUKI; HISAMATSU, KENJI; HARA, AKIRA; HIRATA, AKIHIRO; KOBAYASHI, HIROSHI; MORI, HIDEKI

    2015-01-01

    Fermented brown rice by Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is known to have the potential to prevent chemical carcinogenesis of the colon, liver, esophagus, urinary bladder, stomach and lungs in rodents. The present study examined the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA on N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP)-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis in hamsters. Five-week-old male Syrian golden hamsters were divided into seven groups. Groups 1–5 were subcutaneously injected with BOP (10 mg/kg body weight) four times during week 6 to induce pancreatic tumors, while groups 6 and 7 were injected with saline. Groups 2 and 3 were fed diets containing 5 and 10% FBRA, respectively, during the initiation phase. By contrast, groups 4 and 5 were fed diets containing 5 and 10% FBRA, respectively, during the post-initiation phase. Group 6 received a diet containing 10% FBRA throughout the experiment, and group 7 was kept on the basal diet alone and served as the untreated control. At the termination of the study (week 22), oral intake of 10% FBRA (group 5) during the post-initiation phase was identified to have significantly reduced the multiplicity (number of lesions/animal) of ductal adenocarcinoma [pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (PanIN3); carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma] in comparison with group 1 control hamsters (0.24±0.44 vs. 0.71±0.72; P<0.05). Treatment with 10% FBRA in the post-initiation phase inhibited the progression of normal/precancerous lesions (PanIN1, mild hyperplastic lesions; and PanIN2, papillary hyperplasia) to ductal adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, dietary exposure to 10% FBRA during the initiation (group 3) and post-initiation phases (group 5) significantly reduced the multiplicity of PanIN2 (group 3, 0.55±0.69; group 5, 0.45±0.69; versus group 1, 1.26±1.24; P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). A significant reduction of Ki-67 positivity of PanIN2 in group 5 was also confirmed (group 5, 0.05±0.03; group 1, 0.22±0.12; P<0.01). Using terminal

  10. Bph32, a novel gene encoding an unknown SCR domain-containing protein, confers resistance against the brown planthopper in rice

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Juansheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Wu, Xianting; Lu, Xianjun; Zeng, Lihua; Lv, Jianqun; Su, Xiangwen; Luo, Hong; Ren, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    An urgent need exists to identify more brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) resistance genes, which will allow the development of rice varieties with resistance to BPH to counteract the increased incidence of this pest species. Here, using bioinformatics and DNA sequencing approaches, we identified a novel BPH resistance gene, LOC_Os06g03240 (MSU LOCUS ID), from the rice variety Ptb33 in the interval between the markers RM19291 and RM8072 on the short arm of chromosome 6, where a gene for resistance to BPH was mapped by Jirapong Jairin et al. and renamed as “Bph32”. This gene encodes a unique short consensus repeat (SCR) domain protein. Sequence comparison revealed that the Bph32 gene shares 100% sequence identity with its allele in Oryza latifolia. The transgenic introgression of Bph32 into a susceptible rice variety significantly improved resistance to BPH. Expression analysis revealed that Bph32 was highly expressed in the leaf sheaths, where BPH primarily settles and feeds, at 2 and 24 h after BPH infestation, suggesting that Bph32 may inhibit feeding in BPH. Western blotting revealed the presence of Pph (Ptb33) and Tph (TN1) proteins using a Penta-His antibody, and both proteins were insoluble. This study provides information regarding a valuable gene for rice defence against insect pests. PMID:27876888

  11. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang; Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-09-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production, essential for global food security, is threatened by the brown planthopper (BPH). The breeding of host-resistant crops is an economical and environmentally friendly strategy for pest control, but few resistance gene resources have thus far been cloned. An indica rice introgression line RBPH54, derived from wild rice Oryza rufipogon, has been identified with sustainable resistance to BPH, which is governed by recessive alleles at two loci. In this study, a map-based cloning approach was used to fine-map one resistance gene locus to a 24kb region on the short arm of chromosome 6. Through genetic analysis and transgenic experiments, BPH29, a resistance gene containing a B3 DNA-binding domain, was cloned. The tissue specificity of BPH29 is restricted to vascular tissue, the location of BPH attack. In response to BPH infestation, RBPH54 activates the salicylic acid signalling pathway and suppresses the jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent pathway, similar to plant defence responses to biotrophic pathogens. The cloning and characterization of BPH29 provides insights into molecular mechanisms of plant-insect interactions and should facilitate the breeding of rice host-resistant varieties. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters of growing Wistar rats. Part I.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of diets with whole rice processed ingredients on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters was studied using an animal model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. The cecum weight, cecal content pH, cecal sIgA content, and β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase activities were determined. Calcium apparent absorption, total bone mineral content and density and right femur parameters (ashes, organic content, calcium and P) were evaluated. The results showed that animals fed with whole grain diets have lower food intake in comparison with the C diet, and decreased cecal content pH (7.06 vs. 6.33) and β-glucosidase activity (1.66 vs. 0.21 μmol p-nitrophenol g(-1) cc h(-1)). Even though calcium apparent absorption was not different among treatments (∼70%), none of the whole grain diets improved calcium related bone parameters over the control fed rats (cellulose as dietary fibre).

  13. Bph32, a novel gene encoding an unknown SCR domain-containing protein, confers resistance against the brown planthopper in rice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Juansheng; Gao, Fangyuan; Wu, Xianting; Lu, Xianjun; Zeng, Lihua; Lv, Jianqun; Su, Xiangwen; Luo, Hong; Ren, Guangjun

    2016-11-23

    An urgent need exists to identify more brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) resistance genes, which will allow the development of rice varieties with resistance to BPH to counteract the increased incidence of this pest species. Here, using bioinformatics and DNA sequencing approaches, we identified a novel BPH resistance gene, LOC_Os06g03240 (MSU LOCUS ID), from the rice variety Ptb33 in the interval between the markers RM19291 and RM8072 on the short arm of chromosome 6, where a gene for resistance to BPH was mapped by Jirapong Jairin et al. and renamed as "Bph32". This gene encodes a unique short consensus repeat (SCR) domain protein. Sequence comparison revealed that the Bph32 gene shares 100% sequence identity with its allele in Oryza latifolia. The transgenic introgression of Bph32 into a susceptible rice variety significantly improved resistance to BPH. Expression analysis revealed that Bph32 was highly expressed in the leaf sheaths, where BPH primarily settles and feeds, at 2 and 24 h after BPH infestation, suggesting that Bph32 may inhibit feeding in BPH. Western blotting revealed the presence of Pph (Ptb33) and Tph (TN1) proteins using a Penta-His antibody, and both proteins were insoluble. This study provides information regarding a valuable gene for rice defence against insect pests.

  14. Proficiency testing with uncertainty evaluation for measuring activities per unit mass of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in brown rice in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, R; Unno, Y; Miura, T; Yunoki, A; Hachinohe, M; Hamamatsu, S; Itadzu, H; Mizui, M

    2017-08-01

    In Japan, we conducted proficiency testing of activity measurement by using high-purity germanium detectors for (134)Cs and (137)Cs in brown rice grains. Among 176 reported results, 86 % (for (134)Cs) and 93 % (for (137)Cs) of the results satisfied |En| ≦ 1. However, 58 reports for (134)Cs and 51 reports for (137)Cs had some failures in their evaluations of uncertainties. The proficiency testing was effective to improve the ability of uncertainty evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of alkaline and bioorganic amendments on cadmium, lead, zinc, and nutrient accumulation in brown rice and grain yield in acidic paddy fields contaminated with a mixture of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2016-12-01

    Paddy soils and rice (Oryza sativa L.) contaminated by mixed heavy metals have given rise to great concern. Field experiments were conducted over two cultivation seasons to study the effects of steel slag (SS), fly ash (FA), limestone (LS), bioorganic fertilizer (BF), and the combination of SS and BF (SSBF) on rice grain yield, Cd, Pb, and Zn and nutrient accumulation in brown rice, bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil as well as soil properties (pH and catalase), at two acidic paddy fields contaminated with mixed heavy metals (Cd, Pb, and Zn). Compared to the controls, SS, LS, and SSBF at both low and high additions significantly elevated soil pH over both cultivation seasons. The high treatments of SS and SSBF markedly increased grain yields, the accumulation of P and Ca in brown rice and soil catalase activities in the first cultivation season. The most striking result was from SS application (4.0 t ha(-1)) that consistently and significantly reduced the soil bioavailability of Cd, Pb, and Zn by 38.5-91.2 % and the concentrations of Cd and Pb in brown rice by 20.9-50.9 % in the two soils over both cultivation seasons. LS addition (4.0 t ha(-1)) also markedly reduced the bioavailable Cd, Pb, and Zn in soil and the Cd concentrations in brown rice. BF remobilized soil Cd and Pb leading to more accumulation of these metals in brown rice. The results showed that steel slag was most effective in the remediation of acidic paddy soils contaminated with mixed heavy metals.

  16. Systems biology and genome-wide approaches to unveil the molecular players involved in the pre-germinative metabolism: implications on seed technology traits.

    PubMed

    Macovei, Anca; Pagano, Andrea; Leonetti, Paola; Carbonera, Daniela; Balestrazzi, Alma; Araújo, Susana S

    2016-10-11

    The pre-germinative metabolism is among the most fascinating aspects of seed biology. The early seed germination phase, or pre-germination, is characterized by rapid water uptake (imbibition), which directs a series of dynamic biochemical events. Among those are enzyme activation, DNA damage and repair, and use of reserve storage compounds, such as lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. Industrial seedling production and intensive agricultural production systems require seed stocks with high rate of synchronized germination and low dormancy. Consequently, seed dormancy, a quantitative trait related to the activation of the pre-germinative metabolism, is probably the most studied seed trait in model species and crops. Single omics, systems biology, QTLs and GWAS mapping approaches have unveiled a list of molecules and regulatory mechanisms acting at transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. Most of the identified candidate genes encode for regulatory proteins targeting ROS, phytohormone and primary metabolisms, corroborating the data obtained from simple molecular biology approaches. Emerging evidences show that epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in the regulation of these mentioned processes, constituting a still unexploited strategy to modulate seed traits. The present review will provide an up-date of the current knowledge on seed pre-germinative metabolism, gathering the most relevant results from physiological, genetics, and omics studies conducted in model and crop plants. The effects exerted by the biotic and abiotic stresses and priming are also addressed. The possible implications derived from the modulation of pre-germinative metabolism will be discussed from the point of view of seed quality and technology.

  17. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. [Promotive excretion of causative agents of Yusho by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryze in Yusho patients].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Iida, Takao; Shibata, Satoko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Teruaki

    2011-04-01

    Forty two years have passed since the outbreak of Kanemi rice oil poisoning, namely, Yusho in the western Japan. However, even now the Yusho patients have been still suffering from several objective and subjective symptoms. In order to improve or, if possible, to cure such symptoms, the most important therapeutic treatment is considered to actively excrete the causative agents, that is, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the bodies of the patients and to reduce their body burdens. In rats, chlorophyll and dietary fiber have been shown to promote the fecal excretion of PCDFs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and to reduce their levels in rats. In this study, we have examined whether such kinds of effect are also observed by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) containing 5% spirulina, which is so-called spirulina HI * GENKI, the health food and relatively rich with chlorophyll and dietary fiber, in eighteen Yusho patients. They were divided into two groups, namely group A, ten patients (3 males and 7 females) with the mean age of 67.7 years old and group B, eight patients (4 males and 4 females) with the mean age of 64.1 years old. Among the patients of group A, three patients were especially highly contaminated with PCDFs and we classified them into group A (High). Respective mean concentrations of PCDFs in the blood just before initiating this study were as follows; group A : 145 pg/g lipid, group A (High) : 371 pg/g lipid and group B : 52.1 pg/g lipid. Contamination levels of PCDFs, PCDDs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in group A (High) were 1.7 to 2.6 times higher than those in group A and 2.4 to 7.1 times higher than those in group B. Accordingly, concentrations of dioxins (PCDFs + PCDDs + dioxin-like PCBs) in the blood of groups A, A (High) and B were, respectively, 194, 458 and 85 pg-TEQ/g lipid. Concentrations of PCBs were also the highest in group A (High) : 1399 ng/g lipid, in group A : 748 ng/g lipid

  19. Application of Brown Planthopper Salivary Gland Extract to Rice Plants Induces Systemic Host mRNA Patterns Associated with Nutrient Remobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Adelina; Smith, Charles Michael

    2015-01-01

    Insect saliva plays an important role in modulation of plant-insect interactions. Although this area of research has generated much attention in recent years, mechanisms of how saliva affects plant responses remain poorly understood. To address this void, the present study investigated the impact of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, Stål; hereafter BPH) salivary gland extract (SGE) on rice (Oryza sativa) systemic responses at the mRNA level. Differentially expressed rice mRNAs were generated through suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and classified into six functional groups. Those with the most representatives were from the primary metabolism (28%), signaling-defense (22%) and transcription-translation-regulation group (16%). To validate SSH library results, six genes were further analyzed by One-Step Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR. Five of these genes exhibited up-regulation levels of more than 150% of those in the control group in at least one post-application time point. Results of this study allow assignment of at least two putative roles of BPH saliva: First, application of SGE induces immediate systemic responses at the mRNA level, suggesting that altering of the rice transcriptome at sites distant to hoppers feeding locations may play an important role in BPH-rice interactions. Second, 58% of SGE-responsive up-regulated genes have a secondary function associated with senescence, a process characterized by remobilization of nutrients. This suggests that BPH salivary secretions may reprogram the rice transcriptome for nutritional enhancement. When these findings are translated onto ‘whole plant’ scale, they indicate that BPH saliva may play the ‘wise investment’ role of ‘minimum input today, maximum output tomorrow’. PMID:26641488

  20. Evaluation of the performance of 57 Japanese participating laboratories by two types of z-scores in proficiency test for the quantification of pesticide residues in brown rice.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2014-11-01

    A proficiency test for the analysis of pesticide residues in brown rice was carried out to support upgrading in analytical skills of participant laboratories. Brown rice containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and isoprothiolane) was used as the test samples. The test samples were distributed to the 57 participants and analyzed by appropriate analytical methods chosen by each participant. It was shown that there was no significant difference among the reported values obtained by different types of analytical method. The analytical results obtained by National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) were 3 % to 10 % greater than those obtained by participants. The results reported by the participant were evaluated by using two types of z-scores, that is, one was the score based on the consensus values calculated from the analytical results of participants, and the other one was the score based on the reference values obtained by NMIJ with high reliability. Acceptable z-scores based on the consensus values and NMIJ reference values were achieved by 87 % to 89 % and 79 % to 94 % of the participants, respectively.

  1. Comparative chemical screening and genetic analysis reveal tentoxin as a new virulence factor in Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the causal agent of brown spot disease on rice.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Lieselotte; Van Poucke, Christof; Di Mavungu, Diana Jose; Zainudin, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Vleesschauwer, David; Turgeon, B Gillian; De Saeger, Sarah; Höfte, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Brown spot disease, caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, is currently considered to be one of the most important yield reducers of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Despite its agricultural importance, little is known about the virulence mechanisms deployed by the fungus. Therefore, we set out to identify novel virulence factors with a role in disease development. This article reports, for the first time, the production of tentoxin by C. miyabeanus as a virulence factor during brown spot disease and the identification of the non-ribosomal protein synthetase (NRPS) CmNps3, responsible for tentoxin biosynthesis. We compared the chemical compounds produced by C. miyabeanus strains differing in virulence ability using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HRMS). The production of tentoxin by a highly virulent strain was revealed by principal component analysis of the detected ions and confirmed by UHPLC coupled to tandem-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The corresponding NRPS was identified by in silico genome analysis and confirmed by gene deletion. Infection tests with wild-type and Cmnps3 mutants showed that tentoxin acts as a virulence factor and is correlated with chlorosis development during the second phase of infection. Although rice has previously been classified as a tentoxin-insensitive plant species, our data demonstrate that tentoxin production by C. miyabeanus affects symptom development. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Simple and rapid determination of free fatty acids in brown rice by FTIR spectroscopy in conjunction with a second-derivative treatment.

    PubMed

    Genkawa, Takuma; Ahamed, Tofael; Noguchi, Ryozo; Takigawa, Tomohiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2016-01-15

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of free fatty acid (FFA) content in brown rice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in conjunction with second-derivative treatment was proposed. Ground brown rice (10g) was soaked in toluene (20mL) for 30min, and the filtrate of the extract was placed in a 1mm CaF2 liquid cell. The transmittance spectrum of the filtrate was recorded using toluene for the background spectrum. The absorption band due to the CO stretching mode of FFAs was detected at 1710cm(-1), and the Savitzky-Golay second-derivative treatment was performed for band separation. A single linear regression model for FFA was developed using the 1710cm(-1) band in the second-derivative spectra of oleic acid in toluene (0.25-2.50gL(-1)), and the model displayed high prediction accuracy with a determination coefficient of 0.998 and a root mean square error of 0.03gL(-1).

  3. Risk assessment of insecticides used in rice on miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter, the important predator of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.).

    PubMed

    Preetha, G; Stanley, J; Suresh, S; Samiyappan, R

    2010-07-01

    The green miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, an important natural enemy of the rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens plays a major role as a predator in suppressing the pest population. The study assessed the impact of certain potential insecticides used in the rice ecosystem on the miridbug predator and brown planthopper through contact toxicity. Eleven insecticides, including neonicotinoids, diamides, azomethine pyridines, carbamates, pyrethroids, organophosphates and cyclodienes were selected to test their toxicities against the nymphs of C. lividipennis and N. lugens. Median lethal concentration (LC(50)) was determined for each insecticide using an insecticide-coated vial (scintillation) residue bioassay, which revealed BPMC as the highly toxic chemical with an LC(50) of 0.003mga.iL(-1) followed by ethofenprox and clothianidin with LC(50) of 0.006mga.iL(-1) at 48 HAT against C. lividipennis and ethofenprox as the highly toxic chemical with an LC(50) of 0.009mga.iL(-1) followed by clothianidin with an LC(50) of 0.211mga.iL(-1) at 48h after treatment (HAT) against N. lugens. Among the insecticides tested, the cyclodiene compound, endosulfan had the lowest acute contact toxicity (LC(50)=66.65mga.iL(-1) at 48 HAT) to C. lividipennis. Among the insecticides tested, endosulfan, chlorpyriphos, acephate and methyl parathion are regarded as safer to C. lividipennis based on selectivity ratio, hazard quotient and probit substitution method of risk assessments.

  4. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7531-a) for the determination of trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour was developed at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder after drying and frozen pulverization of fresh brown rice obtained from a Japanese domestic market. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ICP high-resolution mass spectrometry, isotope-dilution ICP-MS, ICP optical emission spectrometry, and graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Property values were provided for six elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd). The concentration range of the property values was from 0.280 mg kg(-1) of As to 31.8 mg kg(-1) of Zn. The combined relative standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, characterization, difference among analytical methods, dry-mass correction factor, and calibration standard. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.1% of Zn to 1.6% of As.

  6. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E homologs and '-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from 6 rice culti...

  7. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  8. Development and validation of a PCR-based functional marker system for the brown planthopper resistance gene Bph14 in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Chen, Zhijun; Lang, Xuyong; Du, Bo; Liu, Kai; Yang, Guocai; Hu, Gang; Li, Sanhe; He, Guangcun; You, Aiqing

    2013-09-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most damaging rice pest globally. Resistant varieties are the most effective and environmental strategy for protecting the rice crop from BPH. Functional markers (FMs) designed from polymorphic sites within gene sequences affecting phenotypic variation are highly efficient when used for marker assisted selection (MAS). Bph14 is the first and only cloned insect resistance gene so far in rice. Compared to the sequences of its non-effective alleles there are a number SNP differences. In this study, the method of allele-specific amplification (ASA) was adopted to design a simple, co-dominant, functional marker Bph14P/N for Bph14. Bph14P/N was combined with two specific dominant markers: one, named Bph14P, targets the promoter region of Bph14 and amplifies 566 bp fragments; and the other, Bph14N, targets the LRR region of bph14 and amplifies 345 bp fragments. Specificity and applicability of the functional marker system were verified in two breeding populations and a Chinese mini core collection of Oryza sativa. We recommend the use of this simple, low-cost marker system in routine genotyping for Bph14 in breeding populations.

  9. Effect of replacing corn with brown rice in a total, mixed, ration silage on milk production, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effects of substituting corn grain with brown rice (BR) grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage on milk yield, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen (N) balance. The TMR silages were made from the ensiling of TMR containing (dry matter basis) 50.1% forage in rice silage and corn silage combination, and 49.9% concentrate. The grain portion of the diets contained 31.2% steam-flaked corn, 31.2% steam-flaked BR or an equal mixture of corn and BR. Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat, protein and lactose yields. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The urinary N excretion decreased linearly (P < 0.01) in response to increased levels of BR, with no dietary effect on N intake, N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. Our results indicate that steam-flaked BR is a suitable replacement for steam-flaked corn in dairy cow diets, and that it can be included in rations to a level of at least 31.2% of dry matter without adverse effects on milk production, when cows were fed rice silage and corn silage-based diets.

  10. Identification of the secreted watery saliva proteins of the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) by transcriptome and Shotgun LC-MS/MS approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhou, Hanyu; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; He, Yueping

    2016-06-01

    The rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a major rice insect pest in Asia, is a vascular bundle-feeder that ejects gelling and watery saliva during the feeding process. Although major proteins in the salivary glands of N. lugens have been identified using 2D PAGE, very little is known about the secreted saliva of this insect. In this study, we identified the major proteins in the secreted watery saliva of N. lugens, via collecting from a sucrose diet that adult planthoppers had fed upon through a membrane of stretched parafilm, and using shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis with reference to transcriptome database of salivary glands of N. lugens. A total of 107 proteins were identified in the watery saliva of N. lugens, over 80% of which showed significant similarity to known proteins. When annotated by the Blast2GO suite, 29 proteins had catalytic activity and 24 proteins were binding proteins. The saliva enzymes included oxidoreductases, hydrolases, phosphatases, peptidases (proteases), kinases, transferases, and lyases. Binding proteins in N. lugens watery saliva included ATP-binding, lipophorin, calcium-binding, actin-binding and DNA-, RNA-, and chromatin-binding proteins. Other non-enzymatic proteins, such as ubiquitins, heat shock proteins, ribosomal proteins, and immunoglobulin proteins were also found in N. lugens watery saliva. This is the first study to identify, characterize and list the proteins in watery saliva of N. lugens, which might be involved in planthopper-rice interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K

    2016-09-29

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars.

  12. Transgenic cry1C or cry2A rice has no adverse impacts on the life-table parameters and population dynamics of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Zeng-Bin; Liu, Yu-E; Han, Nai-Shun; Tian, Jun-Ce; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-07-01

    Transgenic rice producing the insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) is protected from damage by lepidopteran insect pests. However, one of the main concerns about Bt rice is the potential impact on non-target herbivores. In the present study, the ecological impacts of two Bt rice lines, T1C-19 expressing Cry1C protein and T2A-1 expressing Cry2A protein, on the non-target herbivore brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), were evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. The purpose was to verify whether these Bt rice lines could affect the performance of BPH at individual and population scales. Laboratory results showed that most of the fitness parameters (development duration, survival rate, fecundity, fertility, amount of honeydew excreted) of BPH were not significantly affected by the two tested Bt rice lines, although the development duration of fourth-instar nymphs fed on T1C-19 was distinctly longer compared with that on T2A-1 and non-Bt rice plants. Five life-table parameters did not significantly differ among rice types. Two-year field trials also revealed no significant difference in population dynamics of BPH among rice types. It is inferred that the tested Bt rice lines are unlikely to affect the population growth of BPH. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Detection of three herbicide, and one metabolite, residues in brown rice and rice straw using various versions of the QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Chung, Hyung Suk; Kim, Sung-Woo; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    A single-run analytical method was developed to analyze the three herbicides azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, and mesotrione and its metabolite (4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNBA)) in brown rice and rice straw using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Samples extracted using various versions of Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe "QuEChERS" (original unbuffered, acetate (AOAC), and citrate (EN) buffered) methods gave poor recoveries of all the tested analytes in both matrices. The extraction efficiency was improved when primary-secondary amine (PSA) sorbent was removed from the purification step, with the best recovery being achieved for EN-QuEChERS, which was subsequently used throughout the study. Overall, a determination coefficients (R(2))⩾0.995 was achieved at matrix-matched calibration curves at various concentration ranges. The recovery rates at three fortification levels (limit of quantification (LOQ), 1/2 maximum residue limit (1/2MRL), and MRL) ranged from 78 to 114.5, with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<18% for all the tested analytes in both matrices. The LOQs for all herbicides were lower than the MRL set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), Republic of Korea. Field trials with the recommended, or double the recommended dose, revealed that the herbicides can safely be applied to rice, as no residues were detected in the harvested samples at 110days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik, was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. MATERIALS/METHODS Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. RESULTS The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (P < 0.05). The hepatic peroxynitrite level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group (P < 0.05). In addition, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) expression in the GBRD group was significantly lower than that in the RCD group. CONCLUSIONS GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti

  15. Restriction of viral dissemination from the midgut determines incompetence of small brown planthopper as a vector of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Hongyan; Mao, Qianzhuo; Liu, Qifei; Wei, Taiyun

    2012-08-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus, is transmitted by the white-backed planthopper in a persistent-propagative manner. In this study, we found that another planthopper species, the small brown planthopper (SBPH), could acquire SRBSDV but not transmit it. To identify the transmission barrier for SRBSDV in SBPHs, sequential infection by SRBSDV in the organs of SBPHs was studied with immunofluorescence for viral antigens. SRBSDV initially entered the epithelial cells of the midgut, then viroplasms, the sites for viral replication, formed in the midgut of viruliferous SBPHs. Furthermore, SRBSDV spread within the midgut, but failed to disseminate from the midgut into the hemocoel or into the salivary glands. All these results indicated that the inability of SBPH to transmit SRBSDV could be due to the restriction of viral dissemination from the midgut of SBPH, which led to the failure of viral spread to the salivary glands for virus transmission.

  16. The Bphi008a gene interacts with the ethylene pathway and transcriptionally regulates MAPK genes in the response of rice to brown planthopper feeding.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangbo; Peng, Xinxin; Xu, Henghao; Liu, Caixiang; Du, Bo; Yuan, Hongyu; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2011-06-01

    We examined ways in which the Brown planthopper induced008a (Bphi008a; AY256682) gene of rice (Oryza sativa) enhances the plant's resistance to a specialist herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Measurement of the expression levels of ethylene synthases and of ethylene emissions showed that BPH feeding rapidly initiated the ethylene signaling pathway and up-regulated Bphi008a transcript levels after 6 to 96 h of feeding. In contrast, blocking ethylene transduction (using 1-methylcyclopropene) reduced Bphi008a transcript levels in wild-type plants fed upon by BPH. In vitro kinase assays showed that Bphi008a can be phosphorylated by rice Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase5 (OsMPK5), and yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal proline-rich region of Bphi008a interacts directly with this kinase. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that this interaction occurs in the nucleus. Subsequently, we found that Bphi008a up-regulation and down-regulation were accompanied by different changes in transcription levels of OsMPK5, OsMPK12, OsMPK13, and OsMPK17 in transgenic plants. Immunoblot analysis also showed that the OsMPK5 protein level increased in overexpressing plants and decreased in RNA interference plants after BPH feeding. In transgenic lines, changes in the expression levels of several enzymes that are important components of the defenses against the BPH were also observed. Finally, yeast two-hybrid screening results showed that Bphi008a is able to interact with a b-ZIP transcription factor (OsbZIP60) and a RNA polymerase polypeptide (SDRP).

  17. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki-Moon

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal content of blood lipids often results in metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. Many agents, including natural sources from traditional food, have been developed to regulate the blood lipid contents. In this study, we examined the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar (RNSpBRV), a Korean traditional pickled soybean food. Since RNSpBRV is made of R. nulubilis seeds (RNS) soaked in brown rice vinegar (BRV), we compared the anti-adipogenic activity between RNS, BRV and solid fraction of RNSpBRV (SF-RNSpBRV), liquid fraction of RNSpBRV (LF-RNSpBRV). For this, the inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was checked by adding methanol extracts of mixed RNS and BRV, LF-RNSpBRV, and SF-RNSpBRV. The addition of each methanol extract up to 1 mg/ml showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and approximately 20% of the lipid droplet formation was suppressed with the methanol extract of BRL or SF-RNSpBRV. The highest suppression (42.1%) was achieved with LF-RNSpBRV. In addition, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 5% RNSpBRV powder led to increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower blood glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol compared to mice fed with a HFD diet only. Interestingly, the size of the epididymis cells gradually decreased in HFD + 1% RNSpBRV- and HFD + 5% RNSpBRV-fed mice if compared those of HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that RNSpBRV has a regulatory role in lipid metabolism that is related to hyperlipidemia. PMID:24353830

  18. Improvement of the antifungal activity of Litsea cubeba vapor by using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against Aspergillus flavus on brown rice snack bars.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn; Danworaphong, Sorasak; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal activity of the volatile Litsea cubeba essential oil and its main components (citral and limonene) on brown rice snack bars by applying He-Ne laser treatment. Different volumes (50-200 μL) of L. cubeba, citral or limonene were absorbed into a filter paper and placed inside an oven (18 L). Ten brown rice snack bars (2 cm wide × 4 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) were put in an oven and heated at 180 °C for 20 min. The shelf-life of the treated snack bars at 30 °C was assessed and sensory testing was carried out to investigate their consumer acceptability. A count of total phenolic content (TPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on the properties of essential oil, citral, and limonene before and after the laser treatment was studied for possible modes of action. It was found that the laser treatment improved the antifungal activity of the examined volatile L. cubeba and citral with Aspergillus flavus inhibition by 80% in comparison with those of the control not treated with the laser. L. cubeba vapor at 100 μL with the laser treatment was found to completely inhibit the growth of natural molds on the snack bars for at least 25 days; however, without essential oil vapor and laser treatment, naturally contaminating mold was observed in 3 days. Results from the sensory tests showed that the panelists were unable to detect flavor and aroma differences between essential oil treatment and the control. Laser treatment caused an increase in TPC of citral oil whereas the TPC in limonene showed a decrease after the laser treatment. These situations could result from the changing peak of the aliphatic hydrocarbons that was revealed by the FTIR spectra.

  19. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    PubMed

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Suppression of the rice heterotrimeric G protein β-subunit gene, RGB1, causes dwarfism and browning of internodes and lamina joint regions.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Yuzuko; Samejima, Chihiro; Takayanagi, Yoshiyuki; Izawa, Yuki; Yoshida, Takahisa; Sawada, Yuka; Fujisawa, Yukiko; Kato, Hisaharu; Iwasaki, Yukimoto

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the function of the heterotrimeric G protein β-subunit (Gβ) gene (RGB1) in rice. RGB1 knock-down lines were generated in the wild type and d1-5, a mutant deficient for the heterotrimeric G protein α-subunit (Gα) gene (RGA1). Both transgenic lines showed browning of the lamina joint regions and nodes that could be attributed to a reduction of RGB1 function, as the abnormality was not observed in d1-5. The RGB1 knock-down lines generated in d1-5 were shorter, suggesting RGB1 to be a positive regulator of cellular proliferation, in addition to RGA1. The number of sterile seeds also increased in both RGB1 knock-down lines. These results suggest that Gβγ and Gα cooperatively function in cellular proliferation and seed fertility. We discuss the potential predominant role of RGB1 in G protein signaling in rice. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Role of plant volatiles in resistance of selected rice varieties to brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Saxena, R C; Okech, S H

    1985-12-01

    Rice plant volatiles extracted as steam distillates significantly affected the behavior and biology of the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). In a multichoice test, more females settled and fed on tillers of a susceptible rice variety "Taichung Native 1" (TN1), sprayed with its own extract or acetone than on TN1 tillers sprayed with the extract of the resistant variety "ARC6650" or "Ptb33." In another test,N. lugens females ingested significantly more of a 10% sucrose solution mixed with TN1 steam distillate extract than of plain sucrose solution or that mixed with extracts of resistant varieties. Topical application of the extracts of resistant varieties "Mudgo," "ASD7," "Rathu Heenati," "Babawee," Ptb33, and ARC6650 caused significantly higher mortality of females than did the TN1 extract. Likewise, significantly more first-instar nymphs died when they were caged on susceptible TN1 plants sprayed with the extracts of resistant varieties than on plants sprayed with TN1 extract. The extract of 60-day-old resistant plants was more toxic than the extract of 30-, 45-, or 100-day-old plants. However, toxicity of the extract from susceptible TN1 remained low at all plant growth stages.

  2. A novel, in vivo, indoor method to preserve rice black-streaked dwarf virus in small brown planthopper using wheat seedling as a bridge host.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunmei; Cheng, Zhaobang; Yang, Liu; Miao, Qian; Fan, Yongjian; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) naturally infects Gramineae plants through small brown planthopper (SBPH) as a vector. However, RBSDV cannot be transmitted to the SBPH offspring through transovarian transmission. Wheat plant, an important intermediate host in winter, is essential for the completion of the annual cycle of RBSDV in farm ecosystem. We developed a novel, in vivo, indoor method to preserve RBSDV in SBPH using wheat seedling as a bridge host. The temperature range of 23-27°C was initially selected to rear the insects and plants. Before initiating the scheme cycle, viruliferous SBPH was obtained by feeding the virus-free 1st to 2nd instar nymphs with RBSDV-infected rice plants. Four to six RBSDV-infected SBPH were placed per plant to inoculate wheat seedlings at two-to-four leaf stages. After 48 h of inoculation, the viruliferous SBPH were removed. Five mated, newly emerged virus-free SBPH females were then transferred onto each inoculated plant and allowed to lay eggs for 48 h. The newly hatched SBPH were raised on wheat seedlings until the 2nd instar nymph stage, and then transferred onto healthy rice seedlings for further development until 5th instar nymphs or adults. These newly obtained viruliferous SBPH can be used for inoculating new wheat seedlings in the succeeding maintenance cycles, or for further experiments. We discovered that the incubation period of RBSDV in wheat seedlings synchronized with the gestation period of SBPH eggs at four to six inoculated viruliferous SBPH per plant and lasted for approximately seven days. In addition, this period was optimal for enhancing the SBPH infection ratio because SBPH nymphs can only acquire the virus after they hatch. The RBSDV infection ratio of the SBPHs acquired through this method consistently exceeded 50%.

  3. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar ‘ASD7’ (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica)

    PubMed Central

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH. PMID:26719745

  4. Genetic basis of multiple resistance to the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in the rice cultivar 'ASD7' (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

    PubMed

    Van Mai, Tan; Fujita, Daisuke; Matsumura, Masaya; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Yasui, Hideshi

    2015-12-01

    The rice cultivar ASD7 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) is resistant to the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and the green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens Distant). Here, we analyzed multiple genetic resistance to BPH and the green rice leafhopper (GRH; Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). Using two independent F2 populations derived from a cross between ASD7 and Taichung 65 (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica), we detected two QTLs (qBPH6 and qBPH12) for resistance to BPH and one QTL (qGRH5) for resistance to GRH. Linkage analysis in BC2F3 populations revealed that qBPH12 controlled resistance to BPH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM28466 and RM7376 in plants homozygous for the ASD7 allele at qBPH6. Plants homozygous for the ASD7 alleles at both QTLs showed a much faster antibiosis response to BPH than plants homozygous at only one of these QTLs. It revealed that epistatic interaction between qBPH6 and qBPH12 is the basis of resistance to BPH in ASD7. In addition, qGRH5 controlled resistance to GRH and co-segregated with SSR markers RM6082 and RM3381. qGRH5 is identical to GRH1. Thus, we clarified the genetic basis of multiple resistance of ASD7 to BPH and GRH.

  5. Isotope-coded derivatization based LC/ESI-MS/MS methods using a pair of novel reagents for quantification of hydroxycinnamic acids and hydroxybenzoic acids in fermented brown rice product.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Takafuji, Kiriko; Tsubuku, Sumi; Horie, Yukiko; Ikegawa, Shigeo; Higashi, Tatsuya

    2017-08-05

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs) are antioxidant phytochemicals found in rice and effective for the prevention of human diseases including cancer. FBRA, which is a functional food manufactured by fermenting brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae, has been demonstrated to have chemopreventive effects against carcinogenesis in various organs. In this study, we developed methods for the relative and absolute quantification of ferulic acid, sinapic acid, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and syringic acid in the FBRA and raw material (RM; unfermented brown rice and rice bran) samples by LC/ESI-MS/MS combined with derivatization using a newly developed reagent, N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(diethylamino)benzamide (ADB) and its deuterium-coded analog, d-ADB. For the relative quantification, the FBRA and RM samples were derivatized with ADB and d-ADB, respectively, then the resulting derivatives were mixed and subjected to LC/ESI-MS/MS; by this method, we found that the fermentation process significantly increased the free HCA and HBA contents. The HCA and HBA contents in the FBRA were also determined, in which the d-ADB-derivatized standards of known amounts were used as the internal standards. The ADB-derivatization enabled the sensitive and specific detection, and the use of d-ADB significantly improved the assay precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Report of the key comparison CCQM-K108 determination of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shinichi; Kotzeva, Boriana; Kakoulides, Elias; Sxoina, Vasiliki; Fung, W. H.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yau, H. P.; Tsoi, Y. T.; Lee, C. L.; Kong, M. F.; Shin, Richard; Juan, Wang; Sin Yee, Ng; Uribe, Christian; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Silva Dutra, Emily; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Valiente, Liliana; Horvat, Milena; Jacimovic, Radojko; Oduor Okumu, Tom; Kang'Iri, Jacqueline; Owiti Orwa, Tabitha; Chao, Wei; Jingbo, Chao; Taebunpakul, Sutthinun; Yafa, Charun; Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn; Chailap, Benjamat; Pharat, Yanee; Phukphattanachai, Pranee; Turk, Gregory C.; Long, Stephen; Murphy, K. E.; Davis, Clay; Ellisor, Michael; Merrick, Jeffrey; White, Ian; Saxby, David; Linsky, S. M.; Barzev, A.; Botha, A.

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K108 key comparison was organised by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to test the abilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratory. The participants used different measurement methods, though most of them used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for Cd and ICP-MS for total arsenic. Regarding arsenic speciation, all participants used ICP-MS coupled with liquid chromatography (LC). Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, comparability of measurement results for each of total arsenic and cadmium was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs or DIs for the measurement of the measurand at the level of less than 0.5 mg/kg. Regarding arsenic species (inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)), there was, however, a measurement problem still to be solved and that part of CCQM-K108 will be repeated. It is expected that arsenic, cadmium and other metals at mass fractions greater than approximately 0.1 mg/kg in rice flour can be determined by each participant using the same technique(s) employed for this key comparison to achieve similar uncertainties mentioned in the present report. Furthermore, the results of this key comparison can be utilised along with the IAWG core capability approach. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Abscisic Acid-Induced Resistance against the Brown Spot Pathogen Cochliobolus miyabeanus in Rice Involves MAP Kinase-Mediated Repression of Ethylene Signaling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Yang, Yinong; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Höfte, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in an array of plant processes, including the regulation of gene expression during adaptive responses to various environmental cues. Apart from its well-established role in abiotic stress adaptation, emerging evidence indicates that ABA is also prominently involved in the regulation and integration of pathogen defense responses. Here, we demonstrate that exogenously administered ABA enhances basal resistance of rice (Oryza sativa) against the brown spot-causing ascomycete Cochliobolus miyabeanus. Microscopic analysis of early infection events in control and ABA-treated plants revealed that this ABA-inducible resistance (ABA-IR) is based on restriction of fungal progression in the mesophyll. We also show that ABA-IR does not rely on boosted expression of salicylic acid-, jasmonic acid -, or callose-dependent resistance mechanisms but, instead, requires a functional Gα-protein. In addition, several lines of evidence are presented suggesting that ABA steers its positive effect on brown spot resistance through antagonistic cross talk with the ethylene (ET) response pathway. Exogenous ethephon application enhances susceptibility, whereas genetic disruption of ET signaling renders plants less vulnerable to C. miyabeanus attack, thereby inducing a level of resistance similar to that observed on ABA-treated wild-type plants. Moreover, ABA treatment alleviates C. miyabeanus-induced activation of the ET reporter gene EBP89, while derepression of pathogen-triggered EBP89 transcription via RNA interference-mediated knockdown of OsMPK5, an ABA-primed mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, compromises ABA-IR. Collectively, these data favor a model whereby exogenous ABA enhances resistance against C. miyabeanus at least in part by suppressing pathogen-induced ET action in an OsMPK5-dependent manner. PMID:20130100

  8. Screening of IR50 x Rathu Heenati F7 RILs and identification of SSR markers linked to brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sanju; M Sheba, Jennifer; Marappan, Maheshwaran; Ponnuswamy, Shanmugasunderam; Seetharaman, Suresh; Pothi, Nagarajan; Subbarayalu, Mohankumar; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Natesan, Senthil

    2010-09-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) is one of the major insect pests of rice. A Sri Lankan indica rice cultivar Rathu Heenati was found to be resistant to all biotypes of the brown planthopper. In the present study, a total of 268 F(7) RILs of IR50 and Rathu Heenati were phenotyped for their level of resistance against BPH by the standard seedbox screening test (SSST) in the greenhouse. A total of 53 SSR primers mapped on the chromosome 3 were used to screen the polymorphism between the parents IR50 and Rathu Heenati, out of which eleven were found to be polymorphic between IR50 and Rathu Heenati. The eleven primers that have shown polymorphism between the IR50 and Rathu Heenati parents were genotyped in a set of five resistant RILs and five susceptible RILs along with the parents for co-segregation analysis. Among the eleven primers, two primers namely RM3180 (18.22 Mb) and RM2453 (20.19 Mb) showed complete co-segregation with resistance. The identification of SSR markers linked with BPH resistant could be used for the maker assisted selection (MAS) program in rice breeding and to map the resistant genes on rice chromosomes for further gene cloning.

  9. Stereoselective determination of a novel chiral insecticide, sulfoxaflor, in brown rice, cucumber and apple by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zenglong; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Youpu; Liu, Na; Tao, Yan; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-02-01

    An effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the stereoselective determination of a new sulfoximines insecticide, sulfoxaflor, in brown rice, cucumber and apple. Target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile and an aliquot cleaned with Cleanert PestiCarb/PSA (primary and secondary amine) cartridge. Five polysaccharide-based columns were investigated on the separation of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers and the best was achieved on a ChromegaChiral CCA column with n-hexane/ethanol/methanol (90:2:8, v/v/v) as mobile phase by UV detection at 220 nm at 20ºC. The resolutions of the four stereoisomers were 1.85, 1.54 and 3.08, and the elution order was identified by optical rotation and stereoisomers ratio. The mean recoveries of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers ranged from 77.1% to 99.3%, with relative standard deviations less than 8.9% at three concentration levels in all matrices. The limits of detection for all stereoisomers varied from 0.05 mg/kg to 0.07 mg/kg, while the limit of quantification did not exceed 0.22 mg/kg. The method was then successfully applied to determine the sulfoxaflor stereoisomers in authentic samples, confirming that it is convenient and reliable for stereoselective determination of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers in food.

  10. An integrative process model of enzymatic biodiesel production through ethanol fermentation of brown rice followed by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis in a water-containing system.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Daisuke; Koda, Risa; Hama, Shinji; Yamada, Ryosuke; Nakashima, Kazunori; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-02-05

    We attempted to integrate lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis into fermentative bioethanol production. To produce bioethanol, ethanol fermentation from brown rice was conducted using a tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing α-amylase and glucoamylase. The resultant ethanol was distilled and separated into three fractions with different concentrations of water and fusel alcohols. In ethanolysis using the first fraction with 89.3% ethanol, a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (r-FHL) afforded the highest ethyl ester content of 94.0% after 96 h. Owing to a high concentration of water in the bioethanol solutions, r-FHL, which works best in the presence of water when processing ethanolysis, was found to be more suitable for the integrative process than a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. In addition, r-FHL was used for repeated-batch ethanolysis, resulting in an ethyl ester content of more than 80% even after the fifth batch. Fusel alcohols such as 1-butanol and isobutyl alcohol are thought to decrease the lipase activity of r-FHL. Using this process, a high ethyl ester content was obtained by simply mixing bioethanol, plant oil, and lipase with an appropriate adjustment of water concentration. The developed process model, therefore, would contribute to biodiesel production from only biomass-derived feedstocks.

  11. Antioxidative Effects of Germinated Brown Rice-Derived Extracts on H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Md Zamri, Nur Diyana; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Abd Ghafar, Siti Aisyah; Ismail, Maznah

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of germinated brown rice (GBR) are likely mediated by multiple bioactives. To test this hypothesis, HepG2 cells pretreated with GBR extracts, rich in acylated steryl glycoside (ASG), gamma amino butyric acid GABA), phenolics or oryzanol, were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and their hydroxyl radical (OH•) scavenging capacities and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) generation were evaluated. Results showed that GBR-extracts increased OH• scavenging activities in both cell-free medium and posttreatment culture media, suggesting that the extracts were both direct- and indirect-acting against OH•. The levels of TBARS in the culture medium after treatment were also reduced by all the extracts. In addition, H2O2 produced transcriptional changes in p53, JNK, p38 MAPK, AKT, BAX, and CDK4 that were inclined towards apoptosis, while GBR-extracts showed some transcriptional changes (upregulation of BAX and p53) that suggested an inclination for apoptosis although other changes (upregulation of antioxidant genes, AKT, JNK, and p38 MAPK) suggested that GBR-extracts favored survival of the HepG2 cells. Our findings show that GBR bioactive-rich extracts reduce oxidative stress through improvement in antioxidant capacity, partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and prosurvival genes. PMID:25431609

  12. Germinated brown rice extract inhibits adipogenesis through the down-regulation of adipogenic genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-adipogenic effect of germinated brown rice methanol extract (GBR) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The GBR inhibited adipocyte differentiation was measured by Oil Red O staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in a dose-dependent manner without initiating any cytotoxicity. The mRNA levels of adipogenic transcription factors such as CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα), proliferator-activated receptorγ (PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and adipogenic genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), were significantly down-regulated by treatment with GBR when compared to that of untreated control cells. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interlukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expressions were attenuated by GBR in mature adipocytes. These data suggest that GBR exhibits an anti-adipogenic effect through the suppression of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

  13. In utero Exposure to Germinated Brown Rice and Its GABA Extract Attenuates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Der-Jiun, Ooi; Ismail, Maznah

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the influence of diet on insulin resistance. Our study provides insight into the effect of germinated brown rice (GBR) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on early environment-driven programming and susceptibility to insulin resistance in rat offspring. Male rat offspring from female Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) alone, HFD + GBR, or HFD + GABA extract throughout pregnancy and lactation were weaned 4 weeks after delivery and followed up for 8 weeks. A biochemical analysis and an assessment of the hepatic expression of insulin signaling genes were performed. The results showed that intrauterine exposure to HFD caused metabolic perturbations in rat offspring which gravitated towards insulin resistance even though the rat offspring did not consume an HFD. GBR and GABA attenuated the HFD-induced changes by underlying regulation of the insulin signaling genes. The results suggest that intake of GBR and GABA during pregnancy and lactation can influence the programming of genes in rat offspring, thereby enhancing insulin sensitivity. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42) Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the morphology of Aβ(1-42) were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42) suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further. PMID:26858770

  15. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42) Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the morphology of Aβ(1-42) were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42) suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further.

  16. Effects of germinated brown rice and its bioactive compounds on the expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene.

    PubMed

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ithnin, Hairuszah; Tubesha, Zaki; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2013-02-06

    Dysregulated metabolism is implicated in obesity and other disease conditions like type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, which are linked to abnormalities of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ has been the focus of much research aimed at managing these diseases. Also, germinated brown rice (GBR) is known to possess antidiabetic, antiobesity and hypocholesterolemic effects. We hypothesized that GBR bioactive compounds may mediate some of the improvements in metabolic indices through PPARγ modulation. Cultured HEP-G2 cells were treated with 50 ppm and 100 ppm of extracts from GBR (GABA, ASG and oryzanol) after determination of cell viabilities using MTT assays. Results showed that all extracts upregulated the expression of the PPARγ. However, combination of all three extracts showed downregulation of the gene, suggesting that, in combination, the effects of these bioactives differ from their individual effects likely mediated through competitive inhibition of the gene. Upregulation of the gene may have therapeutic potential in diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, while its downregulation likely contributes to GBR's antiobesity effects. These potentials are worth studying further.

  17. Rice Stripe Tenuivirus Nonstructural Protein 3 Hijacks the 26S Proteasome of the Small Brown Planthopper via Direct Interaction with Regulatory Particle Non-ATPase Subunit 3

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Wu, Jianxiang; Fu, Shuai; Li, Chenyang; Zhu, Zeng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays a vital role in regulating host defenses against pathogens. Previous studies have highlighted different roles for the ubiquitin/26S proteasome in defense during virus infection in both mammals and plants, but their role in the vectors that transmit those viruses is still unclear. In this study, we determined that the 26S proteasome is present in the small brown planthopper (SBPH) (Laodelphgax striatellus) and has components similar to those in plants and mammals. There was an increase in the accumulation of Rice stripe virus (RSV) in the transmitting vector SBPH after disrupting the 26S proteasome, indicating that the SBPH 26S proteasome plays a role in defense against RSV infection by regulating RSV accumulation. Yeast two-hybrid analysis determined that a subunit of the 26S proteasome, named RPN3, could interact with RSV NS3. Transient overexpression of RPN3 had no effect on the RNA silencing suppressor activity of RSV NS3. However, NS3 could inhibit the ability of SBPH rpn3 to complement an rpn3 mutation in yeast. Our findings also indicate that the direct interaction between RPN3 and NS3 was responsible for inhibiting the complementation ability of RPN3. In vivo, we found an accumulation of ubiquitinated protein in SBPH tissues where the RSV titer was high, and silencing of rpn3 resulted in malfunction of the SBPH proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Consequently, viruliferous SBPH in which RPN3 was repressed transmitted the virus more effectively as a result of higher accumulation of RSV. Our results suggest that the RSV NS3 protein is able to hijack the 26S proteasome in SBPH via a direct interaction with the RPN3 subunit to attenuate the host defense response. IMPORTANCE We show, for the first time, that the 26S proteasome components are present in the small brown planthopper and play a role in defense against its vectored plant virus (RSV). In turn, RSV encodes a protein that subverts the SBPH 26S proteasome

  18. Investigating the influence of selected texture-improved pretreatment techniques on storage stability of wholegrain brown rice: Involvement of processing-induced mineral changes with lipid degradation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Yu, Wenjuan; Li, Yunfei

    2017-09-01

    This work aimed at investigating the effects of emerging texture-improved processing techniques including high hydrostatic pressure (HHP; 150-450MPa/10min), high-intensity ultrasonication (HIU; 17.83W·cm(-2)/30min) and germination (37°C/36h) pretreatments on lipid hydrolysis and oxidation development of wholegrain brown rice (WBR) during storage, in an attempt to ascertain a possible link between lipid degradation and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that HHP and HIU treatments enhanced lipid hydrolysis and oxidation as indicated by the formation of free fatty acids (FFA) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) respectively, whereas an opposite pattern was observed for germination. Storage process rather than after immediate treatments observed an increase in lipid oxidation of HHP and HIU-processed samples, which was related to processing-induced liberation of minerals. Quantitative and qualitative characterization via inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis confirmed the shifts of mineral distribution in WBR grains in response to different pretreatments. The WBR-derived lipase was activated by Ca(2+), and μ-XRF mapping indicated calcium enrichment in pericarp/aleurone layer and its mobilization to embryo during germination process where magnesium and manganese were significantly reduced. Multivariate analysis revealed a close relationship between increased lipid degradation and minerals including magnesium and manganese. This is the first time for reporting the effects of selected texture-improved techniques on lipid stability of WBR grains across storage process as well as validating the involvement of processing-induced mineral release in lipid degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC) grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-(COX-)2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), and NF- κ B in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-)induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF- κ B proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF- α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day) than in DSS-treated mice (P < 0.05 versus DSS). This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF- κ B signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs.

  20. Ethanol Extract of Antrodia camphorata Grown on Germinated Brown Rice Suppresses Inflammatory Responses in Mice with Acute DSS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of Antrodia camphorata (AC) grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) extract was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. CBR suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 from lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)stimulated RAW264.7 cells. CBR inhibited the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-(COX-)2 proteins, and it activated p38-MAPK, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), and NF-κB in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression was reduced in CBR-treated RAW264.7 cells. In concert with in vitro data, CBR suppressed the levels of dextran-sulfate-sodium-(DSS-)induced iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the colon tissue. CBR treatment inhibited activated p38-MAPK, ERK, and NF-κB proteins in the colon tissue of DSS-induced mice. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression was reduced in DSS+CBR-treated mice. The disease activity index and histological scores were significantly lower in CBR-treated mice (500 mg/kg/day) than in DSS-treated mice (P < 0.05 versus DSS). This is the first report of anti-inflammatory activity of CBR in DSS-induced acute colitis. These results suggest that CBR is a promising, potential agent for preventing acute colitis through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling and its upstream signaling molecules, including MAPKs. PMID:23818935

  1. Role of the Genes of Type VI Secretion System in Virulence of Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae Strain RS-2.

    PubMed

    Masum, Md Mahidul Islam; Yang, Yingzi; Li, Bin; Olaitan, Ogunyemi Solabomi; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yang; Fang, Yushi; Qiu, Wen; Wang, Yanli; Sun, Guochang

    2017-09-21

    The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a class of macromolecular machine that is required for the virulence of gram-negative bacteria. However, it is still not clear what the role of T6SS in the virulence of rice bacterial brown stripe pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (Aaa) is. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of T6SS in Aaa strain RS2 virulence using insertional deletion mutation and complementation approaches. This strain produced weak virulence but contains a complete T6SS gene cluster based on a genome-wide analysis. Here we compared the virulence-related phenotypes between the wild-type (RS-2) and 25 T6SS mutants, which were constructed using homologous recombination methods. The mutation of 15 T6SS genes significantly reduced bacterial virulence and the secretion of Hcp protein. Additionally, the complemented 7 mutations ΔpppA, ΔclpB, Δhcp, ΔdotU, ΔicmF, ΔimpJ, and ΔimpM caused similar virulence characteristics as RS-2. Moreover, the mutant ΔpppA, ΔclpB, ΔicmF, ΔimpJ and ΔimpM genes caused by a 38.3~56.4% reduction in biofilm formation while the mutants ΔpppA, ΔclpB, ΔicmF and Δhcp resulted in a 37.5~44.6% reduction in motility. All together, these results demonstrate that T6SS play vital roles in the virulence of strain RS-2, which may be partially attributed to the reductions in Hcp secretion, biofilm formation and motility. However, differences in virulence between strain RS-1 and RS-2 suggest that other factors may also be involved in the virulence of Aaa.

  2. In utero exposure to germinated brown rice and its oryzanol-rich extract attenuated high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in F1 generation of rats.

    PubMed

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2017-01-21

    The development of insulin resistance is multifactorial, with maternal pre- and postnatal nutrition having significant influences. In this regard, high fat diet (HFD) feeding in pregnancy has been shown to increase risks of metabolic diseases. Thus, we investigated the effects of supplementation of HFD with germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma oryzanol-rich extract (OE) on insulin resistance and its epigenetic implications in pregnant rats and their offsprings. Pregnant female Sprague dawley rats were fed with HFD alone, HFD + GBR or HFD + OE (100 or 200 mg/kg/day) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Their offsprings were weaned at 4 weeks post-delivery and were followed up until 8 weeks. Serum levels of adipokines were measured in dams and their offsprings, and global DNA methylation and histone acetylation patterns were estimated from the liver. The dams and offsprings of the GBR and OE groups had lower weight gain, glycemic response, 8-Iso prostaglandin, retinol binding protein 4 and fasting insulin, and elevated adiponectin levels compared with the HFD group. Fasting leptin levels were lower only in the GBR groups. Hepatic global DNA methylation was lower in the GBR groups while hepatic H4 acetylation was lower in both GBR and OE dams. In the offsprings, DNA methylation and H4 acetylation were only lower in the OE group. However, dams and offsprings of the GBR and OE groups had higher hepatic H3 acetylation. GBR and OE can be used as functional ingredients for the amelioration of HFD-induced epigeneticallymediated insulin resistance.

  3. Infection of rice plants by rice black streaked dwarf virus improves an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of rice planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-10-01

    The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae.

  4. [Promotive excretion of causative agents of Yusho by intake of fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryze in patients with Yusho --with regard to PCDFs and PCDDs].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Junya; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Iida, Takao; Todaka, Takashi; Uenotsuchi, Takeshi; Shibata, Satoko; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Iwasaki, Teruaki

    2009-05-01

    Forty years have passed since the outbreak of Kanemi rice oil poisoning, namely, Yusho in the western Japan. However, even now the patients with Yusho have been still suffering from several objective and subjective symptoms. In order to improve or, if possible, to cure such symptoms, the most important therapeutic treatment is considered to actively excrete the causative agents, that is, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) from the bodies of the patients and to reduce their body burdens. In rats, chlorophyll and dietary fiber have been shown to promote the fecal excretion of PCDFs and PCDDs and to reduce their levels in rats. In this study, we have examined whether such kinds of effect are also observed by fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) containing 5% spirulina, which is so-called spirulina HI*GENKI, the health food and relatively rich with chlorophyll and dietary fiber, in eighteen patients with Yusho. They were divided into two groups, namely group A, ten patients (3 males and 7 females) with the mean age of 67.7 years old and group B, eight patients (4 males and 4 females) with the mean age of 64.1 years old. Respective mean concentrations of the three PCDF congeners, that is, 2,3,4,7,8-PenCDF, 1, 2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF in the blood on lipid weight basis just before initiating this study were as follows; group A: 413, 152 and 45.7 pg/g lipid, and group B: 151, 42.7 and 17.3 pg/g lipid. Contamination levels of these PCDF congeners in group A were 2.6 to 3.6 times higher than those in group B. In respective mean concentrations of PCDFs, PCDDs and PCDFs/DDs in both groups were as follows; group A: 228, 30.9 and 258 pg-TEQ/g lipid, and group B: 82.4, 19.7 and 102 pg-TEQ/g lipid. Contamination levels of PCDFs and PCDDs were around 2 times higher in group A than in group B. Group A took around 7.0 g of spirulina HI*GENKI after each meal and tree times a day for the first one year and

  5. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P < 0.05). Bone density increased significantly (P < 0.05) in groups treated with estrogen, GBR, Remifemin®, and gamma oryzanol compared to the ovariectomized nontreated group. Histological sections revealed more osteoblasts in the treated groups when compared with the untreated groups. A polyclonal nuclear antigen reaction showing proliferating new cells was observed in groups treated with estrogen, Remifemin®, GBR, acylated steryl glucosides, and gamma oryzanol. There was a good correlation between bone mass densities estimated using Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P

  6. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  7. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede's principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede's principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P < 0.05). Bone density increased significantly (P < 0.05) in groups treated with estrogen, GBR, Remifemin®, and gamma oryzanol compared to the ovariectomized nontreated group. Histological sections revealed more osteoblasts in the treated groups when compared with the untreated groups. A polyclonal nuclear antigen reaction showing proliferating new cells was observed in groups treated with estrogen, Remifemin®, GBR, acylated steryl glucosides, and gamma oryzanol. There was a good correlation between bone mass densities estimated using Archimede's principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r (2) = 0.737, P = 0.004). Our study shows that GBR

  8. Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause. Methods Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations. Results GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina. Conclusion GBR and its

  9. Proficiency Testing for Quantification of Pesticide Residues in Treated Brown Rice Samples: Comparison of Performance of Japanese Official Multiresidue, Modified QuEChERS, and QuEChERS Methods.

    PubMed

    2016-04-30

    To support analytical skill development, testing of proficiency in pesticide residue analysis in brown rice was conducted for 86 participating Japanese laboratories. Brown rice test samples containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and thiamethoxam) were distributed to participants who were free to choose an appropriate analytical method. Reported results were evaluated using a z-score based on the consensus values calculated from the participant analytical results and a z-score based on the high-reliability reference values determined by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). It was found that 80-89 and 82-85% of participants achieved acceptable consensus-value-based and NMIJ-reference-value-based z-scores, respectively. More than 80% of participants reported results obtained using the Japanese official multiresidue method, solid-phase extraction technique with the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (modified QuEChERS) method or QuEChERS method. We show that the concentrations determined by the NMIJ using these three methods combined with isotope-dilution MS having high reliability agreed well and that the method performances were comparable.

  10. Germinated brown rice (GBR) reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of beta-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Latifah, Saiful Yazan; Armania, Nurdin; Tze, Tan Hern; Azhar, Yaacob; Nordiana, Abdul Hadi; Norazalina, Saad; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Saidi, Moin; Maznah, Ismail

    2010-03-26

    Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1) positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR), (G2) fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g)/weight of rat (kg)), (G3) fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4) fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5) negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR). GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in all the groups treated with GBR (G2, G3 and G4) compared to the control group (G1). Spearman rank correlation test showed significant positive linear relationship between total beta-catenin and COX-2 score (Spearman's rho = 0.616, p = 0.0001). It is demonstrated that GBR inhibits the development of total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, reduces the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2, and thus can be a promising dietary supplement in prevention of colon cancer.

  11. Early B-cell Specific Inactivation of ATM Synergizes with Ectopic CyclinD1 Expression to Promote Pre-germinal center B-cell Lymphomas in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Lee, Brian J.; Li, Chen; Dubois, Richard L.; Hobeika, Elias; Bhagat, Govind; Zha, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) kinase is a master regulator of the DNA damage response. ATM is frequently inactivated in human B-cell non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (B-NHL), including ~50% of mantle cell lymphomas (MCLs) characterized by ectopic expression of CyclinD1. Here we report that early and robust deletion of ATM in precursor/progenitor B-cells causes cell-autonomous, clonal mature B cell lymphomas of both pre- and post-germinal center (GC) origins. Unexpectedly naïve B cell specific deletion of ATM is not sufficient to induce lymphomas in mice, highlighting the important tumor suppressor function of ATM in immature B cells. While EμCyclinD1 is not sufficient to induce lymphomas, EμCyclinD1 accelerates the kinetics and increased the incidence of clonal lymphomas in ATM-deficient B-cells and skews the lymphomas towards pre-GC derived small lymphocytic neoplasms sharing morphological features of human MCL. This is in part due to CyclinD1-driven expansion of ATM-deficient naïve B cells with genomic instability, which promotes the deletions of additional tumor suppressor genes (i.g. Trp53, Mll2, Rb1 and Cdkn2a). Together these findings define a synergistic function of ATM and CyclinD1 in pre-germinal center B-cell proliferation and lymphomagenesis and provide a prototypic animal model to study the pathogenesis of human MCL. PMID:25676421

  12. Effects of Transgenic Rice Infected with SRBSDV on Bt expression and the Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Zhou, Xiao-Jun; Lin, Yong-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

    2017-07-24

    The susceptibility of rice lines, T1C-19, T2A-1, and MH63 to SRBSDV infection are similar and the contents of cry protein in T2A-1 and T1C-19 do not change significantly. The survival rates of BPH nymphs feeding on SRBSDV-infected T1C-19, Bt T2A-1, or MH63 rice plants were not significantly different. The developmental stages of female BPH fed on T1C-19 plants infected with SRBSDV were significantly shorter than those fed on uninfected rice, while the males showed no significant difference. The duration of BPH feeding on SRBSDV-infected T2A-1 and MH63 also showed no significant difference in comparison with the respective control groups. Longevities of BPH adults feeding on SRBSDV-infected T1C-19, T2A-1 or MH63 were also not significant. However, the longevity of male adult BPH feeding on un-infected MH63 was significantly reduced in comparison with that of adult males feeding on un-infected T1C-19 and T2A-1 rice. In addition, the different rice lines and the rice plants infected and uninfected with SRBSDV did not significantly affect the sex ratio, female body weight, longevity, fecundity, or egg hatchability of BPH. In general, transgenic Bt rice infected with SRBSDV had little effect on the ecological adaptability of BPH.

  13. Estrogen receptor modulatory effects of germinated brown rice bioactives in the uterus of rats through the regulation of estrogen-induced genes

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Bint; Saeed, Mohammed Ibrahim; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ishaka, Aminu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The expression of genes regulated by estrogen in the uterus was studied in ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and compared to Remifemin or estrogen at different doses to identify the regulation of these genes in the uterus and their molecular mechanisms. Methods Rats were treated orally with GBR bioactives (phenolics), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and γ-oryzanol (ORZ) at 100 and 200 mg/kg, Remifemin (REM) at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, or estrogen (EST) at 0.2 mg/kg. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from the uterus, and messenger (m)RNA expression of selected genes encoding estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), calcium-binding protein (CaBP9k), complement protein (C3), heat shock protein 70 kDa (HSP70), and interleukin (IL)-4 receptor were quantified. Similarly, serum steroid hormone concentration was monitored at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatments. ER-β antibody binding to the uterus sections was also studied using immunohistochemistry. Results The group treated with EST (0.2 mg/kg) upregulated ER-β, C3, and IL-4 receptor genes compared to other groups (P<0.001). GBR phenolics (200 mg/kg) treatment upregulated the ER-β gene almost to the level of the sham non-treated group. The CaBP9k gene showed upregulation in groups treated with ASG (200 mg/kg), EST (0.2 mg/kg), and ORZ (200 mg/kg) (P<0.05). Estrogen levels increased in groups treated with EST, ASG, and ORZ (200 mg/kg) compared to the OVX untreated group (P<0.05), and there was a slight non-significant decrease (P>0.05) in the progesterone levels in the OVX untreated group compared to the sham and other treated groups. There was a significant increase at 8 weeks in the level of FSH (P<0.05) in the treated groups compared to the OVX untreated group. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) between the OVX untreated group and other groups. The sham and GBR phenolics treated group showed ER

  14. Rice Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Post-Menopausal Vietnamese Women.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Bui Thi; Tuyen, Le Danh; Linh, Vu Anh; Anh, Nguyen Do Van; Nga, Tran Thuy; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Yui, Kei; Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether pre-germinated brown rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucosides (PSG) reduces the risk of atherosclerosis in post-menopausal Vietnamese women. A total of 60 post-menopausal Vietnamese women (45-65 y old) with high LDL cholesterol levels (over 140 mg/dL) were randomly divided into PSG (n=30) and placebo (n=30) groups. The subjects in the PSG group were assigned a daily intake of 6 capsules containing 50 mg PSG, and the subjects in the placebo group were assigned a daily intake of 6 capsules containing corn oil for 6 mo. Before baseline and after month 2, month 4, and month 6 of the intervention, we conducted anthropometric measurements, blood biochemical examinations, a nutrition survey, and physical activity, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) measurements. Serum LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced from 163.6±25.3 (mg/dL) to 135.9±26.8 (mg/dL) compared to the placebo group (p<0.001). FMD values of the placebo group were significantly reduced from 6.6±5.1 (%) to 4.7±2.6 (%) compared to the PSG group (p<0.05). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations in the PSG group were significantly reduced from 19.8±11 (pg/mL) to 10.6±5.5 (pg/mL) compared to the placebo group (p<0.05). The findings suggest that PSG may improve LDL cholesterol, TNF-α levels, and FMD values. PSG might be considered in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis in post-menopausal Vietnamese women with high LDL cholesterol.

  15. Effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosnaini, Rahmah Mastura; Abdullah, Aminah

    2016-11-01

    The effect of polishing and cooking on the antioxidant activities of local rice was studied. Brown rice was polished to 2%, 4% and 6% of polishing degree using embryo rice machine to produce three levels of embryo rice. All rice sample (brown rice, embryo rice 1 (2%), embryo rice 2 (4%), embryo rice 3 (6%) and white rice) were cooked using electric rice cooker. The raw and cooked rice samples were analyzed for antioxidant by total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Polishing degree and cooking treatment showed significant (p≤ 0.05) effects on both antioxidant activities (TPC, FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging values) of the raw and cooked rice samples. Results showed that raw brown rice and raw embryo rice 1 were significantly higher than the other type of rice samples for TPC and FRAP values. In DPPH radical scavenging activities, raw brown rice had the highest value while white rice indicated the otherwise. Cooked brown rice demonstrated significantly higher of FRAP values (p≤ 0.05) than embryo rice 1, followed by embryo rice 2, embryo rice 3 and white rice. No significant differences were observed either between TPC values of cooked brown rice and cooked embryo rice 1 or between the DPPH radical scavenging values of cooked embryo rice 2 and cooked embryo rice 3. High positive correlations were determined between TPC, FRAP and DPPH assays (R2 > 0.70) of the samples. In overall, moderate level of antioxidant activities were detected in the raw and cooked rice samples.

  16. Expressing the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc increased flavonoid content in the seed of white pericarp rice and purple pericarp rice.

    PubMed

    Song, Y E; Wang, X; Shen, Z W; Xu, Y; Li, J Y

    2013-11-01

    The colour of red, purple, brown and white occurs in pericarp of rice. Here, the maize anthocyanin regulatory gene Lc under control of the promoter of the rice glutelin gene Gt1 was introduced in the white pericarp rice "Chao2-10" and purple pericarp rice "Qingjiaozidao". The results demonstrated that some transgenic "Chao2-10" rice pericarps became brown, and the total flavonoid contents in the unpolished rice of the two transgenic rices increased significantly compared with their respective controls. Unpolished rice kernel thickness and weight in the two transgenic rices decreased slightly.

  17. Effects of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds inclusion in low-fiber diets on post-weaned rabbits' health status, growth performances, carcass characteristics, and meat chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Mabrouki, Sabah; Chalghoumi, Raja; Abdouli, Hedi

    2017-03-01

    Newly weaned rabbits frequently suffer from digestive disorders particularly when fed low-fiber diets. Fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber and would be suited to moderate such disorders. This study investigated the effect of pre-germinated fenugreek seeds (PGFS) on rabbits' health, digestibility, growth performance, and carcass parameters. Fourteen weaned rabbits were fed one of the following diets: (1) low fiber as negative control (NC), (2) low fiber containing 5% PGFS (F5), (3) low fiber containing 10% PGFS (F10), and (4) adequate fiber as positive control (PC). Each rabbit was reared in an individual cage for 7 weeks. Morbidity and sanitary risk indexes were not different (P > 0.05) between the four diets. Only 20% of the rabbits had a detectable caecal Escherichia Coli (E. coli) count (<10(5) cfu/g), and all rabbits did not show Eimeria oocysts in their feces. Compared to NC, PC gave a lower (P < 0.05) weight gain and a higher (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). It was associated with a lighter (P < 0.05) chilled carcass weight, and its meat had slightly more moisture and ether extract with less protein. Inclusion of PGFS decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake at the 10% level and, consequently, tended to improve FCR, while no effect was detected on carcass characteristics and meat composition. This study suggested that (1) the low-fiber diet was adequate for both health and growth aspects of post-weaned rabbits, and (2) the inclusion of PGFS was without consequence on rabbits' health status and growth performance.

  18. The Bphi008a Gene Interacts with the Ethylene Pathway and Transcriptionally Regulates MAPK Genes in the Response of Rice to Brown Planthopper Feeding1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jing; Zhou, Jiangbo; Peng, Xinxin; Xu, Henghao; Liu, Caixiang; Du, Bo; Yuan, Hongyu; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2011-01-01

    We examined ways in which the Brown planthopper induced008a (Bphi008a; AY256682) gene of rice (Oryza sativa) enhances the plant’s resistance to a specialist herbivore, the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens). Measurement of the expression levels of ethylene synthases and of ethylene emissions showed that BPH feeding rapidly initiated the ethylene signaling pathway and up-regulated Bphi008a transcript levels after 6 to 96 h of feeding. In contrast, blocking ethylene transduction (using 1-methylcyclopropene) reduced Bphi008a transcript levels in wild-type plants fed upon by BPH. In vitro kinase assays showed that Bphi008a can be phosphorylated by rice Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase5 (OsMPK5), and yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the carboxyl-terminal proline-rich region of Bphi008a interacts directly with this kinase. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays showed that this interaction occurs in the nucleus. Subsequently, we found that Bphi008a up-regulation and down-regulation were accompanied by different changes in transcription levels of OsMPK5, OsMPK12, OsMPK13, and OsMPK17 in transgenic plants. Immunoblot analysis also showed that the OsMPK5 protein level increased in overexpressing plants and decreased in RNA interference plants after BPH feeding. In transgenic lines, changes in the expression levels of several enzymes that are important components of the defenses against the BPH were also observed. Finally, yeast two-hybrid screening results showed that Bphi008a is able to interact with a b-ZIP transcription factor (OsbZIP60) and a RNA polymerase polypeptide (SDRP). PMID:21487048

  19. Detection of lesser grain borer larvae in internally infested kernels of brown rice and wheat using an electrically conductive roller mill

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modifications were made to a small laboratory mill to enable the detection of rice kernels infested by immature, hidden stored-grain insects. The mill, which was originally designed for wheat, monitors the electrical conductance through the grain and detects kernels that are infested with live inse...

  20. Assessing green-processing technologies for wet milling freshly hulled and germinated brown rice, leading to naturally fortified plant-based beverages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice milk beverages can well balanced nutrition. With healthier nutrition in consumer’s minds, national. Worldwide consumption/production of plant-based milk beverages are increasing. Much past research and invention was based on enzymatic conversion processes for starch that were uncomplicated be...

  1. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? In the more severely affected cases of Brown ... acquired and congenital cases. In congenital cases, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  2. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  3. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions.

  4. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:26842399

  5. Total and inorganic arsenic in rice and rice bran purchased in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruangwises, Suthep; Saipan, Piyawat; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2012-04-01

    Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic were determined in 180 samples of polished and brown rice of three rice types, namely white, jasmine, and sticky, and 44 samples of rice bran from these three rice types purchased in Thailand. Concentrations (expressed in nanograms per gram) of inorganic arsenic in polished white, jasmine, and sticky rice were 68.3 ± 17.6 (with a range of 45.0 to 106), 68.4 ± 15.6 (41.7 to 101), and 75.9 ± 24.8 (43.5 to 156), respectively, while those in the three brown rice samples were 124 ± 34.4 (74.5 to 193), 120 ± 31.6 (73.1 to 174), and 131 ± 35.6 (78.0 to 188), respectively. Inorganic arsenic concentrations (expressed in nanograms per gram) in rice bran produced from the three rice types were 633 ± 182 (375 to 919), 599 ± 112 (447 to 824), and 673 ± 195 (436 to 1,071), respectively. Rice bran contained concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic approximately seven and nine times higher, respectively, than those found in the corresponding polished rice. The levels of inorganic arsenic in the three rice types of both polished and brown rice were within the only published regulatory limit of 200 ng/g.

  6. Rice: a high or low glycemic index food?

    PubMed

    Miller, J B; Pang, E; Bramall, L

    1992-12-01

    We determined the glycemic (GI) and insulin-index (II) values for 12 rice products, using eight healthy subjects. The products were brown and white versions of three commercial varieties of rice [two varieties with normal amylose content (20%) and the other with 28% amylose], a waxy rice (0-2% amylose), a converted rice, a quick-cooking brown rice, puffed rice cakes, rice pasta, and rice bran. The GI of the rices ranged from 64 +/- 9 to 93 +/- 11, where glucose = 100. The high amylose rice gave a lower GI and II (P < 0.01) than did the normal-amylose and waxy-rice varieties. The converted rice and most other rice products gave a high GI. Insulin indices correlated positively with GI (r = 0.75, P < 0.05), although they were lower than expected. These results indicate that many varieties of rice, whether white, brown, or parboiled, should be classified as high GI foods. Only high-amylose varieties are potentially useful in low-GI diets.

  7. Apple Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

  8. Brown University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CAUSE/EFFECT, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The computing at Brown University was formalized in 1960. Computing history, current university computing, and a description of the Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship are discussed. The installation of a broadband communications network (BRUNET) was recently completed. (MLW)

  9. Genotype and environment effects on Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, and y-Oryzanol contents of southern US rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice bran contains phytochemicals such as E vitamers (i.e., tocopherols and tocotrienols) and the y-oryzanol fraction that reportedly may have positive effects on human health. Brown rice, rice bran, and rice bran extracts are therefore attractive candidates for use in the development of functional ...

  10. Antrodia camphorata grown on germinated brown rice inhibits HT-29 human colon carcinoma proliferation through inducing G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis by targeting the β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Ki; Lim, Yoong Ho; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-08-01

    Antrodia camphorata (AC) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat food and drug intoxication, diarrhea, abdominal pain, hypertension, pruritis (skin itch), and liver cancer in East Asia. In this study, we investigated anticancer activities of AC grown on germinated brown rice (CBR) in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. We found that the inhibitory efficacy of CBR 80% ethanol (EtOH) extract on HT-29 and CT-26 cell proliferation was more effective than ordinary AC EtOH 80% extract. Next, 80% EtOH extract of CBR was further separated into four fractions; hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), butanol (BuOH), and water. Among them, CBR EtOAc fraction showed the strongest inhibitory activity against HT-29 cell proliferation. Therefore, CBR EtOAc fraction was chosen for further studies. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction induced apoptosis. Induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest on human colon carcinoma cell was observed in CBR EtOAc fraction-treated cells. We found that CBR decreased the level of proteins involved in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. CBR EtOAc fraction inhibited the β-catenin signaling pathway, supporting its suppressive activity on the level of cyclin D1. High performance liquid chromatography analysis data indicated that CBR EtOAc fraction contained adenosine. This is the first investigation that CBR has a greater potential as a novel chemopreventive agent than AC against colon cancer. These data suggest that CBR might be useful as a chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer.

  11. Influence of pymetrozine on feeding behaviors of three rice planthoppers and a rice leafhopper using electrical penetration graphs.

    PubMed

    He, Yueping; Zhang, Juefeng; Chen, Jianming; Wu, Quancong; Chen, Li; Chen, Liezhong; Xiao, Pengfei; Zhu, Yu Cheng

    2011-12-01

    Pymetrozine reportedly inhibits feeding of plant sap-sucking insects, such as aphids and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)). By using electrical penetration graph (EPG), this study was conducted to investigate any differential effect of pymetrozine on the feeding behaviors of four major rice sap-sucking insect species, 1) N. lugens, 2) white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera (Horváth)), 3) small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen)), and 4) green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler). On pymetrozine-free TN1 rice plants, white-backed planthopper and small brown planthopper showed a significantly less activity in the phloem phases than brown planthopper or green rice leafhopper while green rice leafhopper engaged in relatively more xylem ingestion than brown planthopper, white-backed planthopper, and small brown planthopper. On the plants treated with 100 mg liter(-1) of pymetrozine, all four insect species showed significant increases, in total duration of nonprobing and significant decreases in the activities in phloem tissue, while all species showed similar feeding behavior during the pathway and xylem phases. This study revealed that, regardless of whether the insects on untreated plants spent more time feeding on phloem than xylem (brown planthopper) or more time on xylem than phloem (green rice leafhopper) or similar times on phloem and xylem (white-backed planthopper and small brown planthopper), their feeding behavior was disturbed by pymetrozine and exhibited similar patterns of sharp decline in activity in the phloem tissue and a significant increase the nonprobing.

  12. Unmaking Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  13. Unmaking Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh…

  14. Residues of chlorantraniliprole in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Ming; Chai, Wei-Gang; Wu, Yin-Liang

    2012-04-01

    The fate of chlorantraniliprole was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of chlorantraniliprole in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice. Chlorantraniliprole residues were extracted from samples with acetonitrile. The extract was cleaned up with QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) method, and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The average recoveries were 76.9-82.4% from soil, 83.6-89.3% from rice straw, 95.2-103.1% from paddy water and 84.9-87.7% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of chlorantraniliprole calculated as a sample concentration (S/N ratio of 3) were 0.012 μg L(-1) for paddy water, 0.15 μg kg(-1) for soil, brown rice and rice straw. The results of the kinetics study of chlorantraniliprole residue showed that chlorantraniliprole degradation in soil, water and rice straw coincided with C=0.01939e(-0.0434t), C=0.01425e(-0.8111t), and C=1.171e(-0.198t), respectively; the half-lives were about 16.0 d, 0.85 d and 3.50 d, respectively. The degradation rate of chlorantraniliprole in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The final residues of chlorantraniliprole on brown rice were lower than maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 14 d Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI). Therefore, a dosage of 150 mL a.i.hm(-2) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals.

  15. Upregulation of genes related to bone formation by γ-amino butyric acid and γ-oryzanol in germinated brown rice is via the activation of GABAB-receptors and reduction of serum IL-6 in rats

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria; Imam, Mustapha Umar

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and other bone degenerative diseases are among the most challenging non-communicable diseases to treat. Previous works relate bone loss due to osteoporosis with oxidative stress generated by free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. Alternative therapy to hormone replacement has been an area of interest to researchers for almost three decades due to hormone therapy-associated side effects. Methods In this study, we investigated the effects of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), gamma-oryzanol (ORZ), acylated steryl glucosides (ASG), and phenolic extracts from germinated brown rice (GBR) on the expression of genes related to bone metabolism, such as bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2), secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2), osteoblast-specific transcription factor osterix (Osx), periostin, osteoblast specific factor (Postn), collagen 1&2 (Col1&2), calcitonin receptor gene (CGRP); body weight measurement and also serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and osteocalcin, in serum and bone. Rats were treated with GBR, ORZ, GABA, and ASG at (100 and 200 mg/kg); estrogen (0.2 mg/kg), or remifemin (10 and 20 mg/kg), compared to ovariectomized non-treated group as well as non-ovariectomized non-treated (sham) group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the IL-6 and osteocalcin levels at week 2, 4, and 8, while the gene expression in the bone tissue was determined using the Genetic Analysis System (Beckman Coulter Inc., Brea, CA, USA). Results The results indicate that groups treated with GABA (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed significant upregulation of SPARC, calcitonin receptor, and BMP-2 genes (P < 0.05), while the ORZ-treated group (100 and 200 mg/kg) revealed significant (P < 0.05) upregulation of Osx, Postn, RUNX-2, and Col1&2. Similarly, IL-6 concentration decreased, while osteocalcin levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated groups as compared to ovariectomized non

  16. Impact of brown rice-specific γ-oryzanol on epigenetic modulation of dopamine D2 receptors in brain striatum in high-fat-diet-induced obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Kaname, Tadashi; Shimizu-Okabe, Chigusa; Takayama, Chitoshi; Tsutsui, Masato; Matsushita, Masayuki; Abe, Keiko; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2017-08-01

    Overeating of dietary fats causes obesity in humans and rodents. Recent studies in humans and rodents have demonstrated that addiction to fats shares a common mechanism with addiction to alcohol, nicotine and narcotics in terms of a dysfunction of brain reward systems. It has been highlighted that a high-fat diet (HFD) attenuates dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) signalling in the striatum, a pivotal regulator of the brain reward system, resulting in hedonic overeating. We previously reported that the brown rice-specific bioactive constituent γ-oryzanol attenuated the preference for an HFD via hypothalamic control. We therefore explored the possibility that γ-oryzanol would modulate functioning of the brain reward system in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice fed an HFD were orally treated with γ-oryzanol, and striatal levels of molecules involved in D2R signalling were evaluated. The impact of γ-oryzanol on DNA methylation of the D2R promoter and subsequent changes in preferences for dietary fat was examined. In addition, the effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a potent inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), on food preference, D2R signalling and the levels of DNMTs in the striatum were investigated. The inhibitory effects of γ-oryzanol on the activity of DNMTs were enzymatically evaluated in vitro. In striatum from mice fed an HFD, the production of D2Rs was decreased via an increase in DNA methylation of the promoter region of the D2R. Oral administration of γ-oryzanol decreased the expression and activity of DNMTs, thereby restoring the level of D2Rs in the striatum. Pharmacological inhibition of DNMTs by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine also ameliorated the preference for dietary fat. Consistent with these findings, enzymatic in vitro assays demonstrated that γ-oryzanol inhibited the activity of DNMTs. We demonstrated that γ-oryzanol ameliorates HFD-induced DNA hypermethylation of the promoter region of D2R in the striatum of mice. Our experimental paradigm highlights

  17. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    PubMed

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg(-1), dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and <0.005; Mg = 1130 and 265; Mn = 18.2 and 9.6; Se = 0.025 and 0.028; and Zn = 17.0 and 14.4. In brown and white rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg(-1), and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg(-1), dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could

  18. Impacts of degree of milling on the appearance and aroma characteristics of raw rice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arzuaga, Mariana; Cho, Sungeun; Billiris, María A; Siebenmorgen, Terry; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-07-01

    Little has been reported about the sensory impact of degree of milling (DOM) on raw, uncooked rice. This study focuses on the effects of DOM, which was measured by surface lipid content (SLC), on appearance and aroma attributes of raw rice, as well as the appearance of cooked rice; greater DOM leads to lesser SLC levels. Milled-rice samples with SLCs of 0.64, 0.59, 0.42 and 0.25%, as well as brown rice (2.27% total lipid content), were evaluated by trained panelists on three appearance- and five aroma-related attributes of raw rice, as well as four appearance-related attributes of the resultant cooked rice. All milled-rice samples, varying in SLC level from 0.64% to 0.25%, differed from brown rice with respect to raw-rice and cooked-rice appearance and aroma attributes. A significant sensory difference among the four raw-rice samples was present only in the degree of whiteness; however, such a difference was absent once the samples were cooked. When cooked, highly milled rice (0.25% SLC) was rated glossier than either lightly milled rice (0.64% SLC) or brown rice. The present study demonstrated that sensory impacts of DOM on raw rice were present between brown rice and milled-rice samples, but not among the milled-rice samples varying in SLC level from 0.64% to 0.25%. The overall findings indicate that consumers may not detect appearance- or aroma-related differences among raw-rice samples ranging in SLC from 0.64% to 0.25%. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Organic rice disease management using genetic resistance, cover crop and organic fertilizer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The strong market demand for organic rice has driven the continued increase of organic rice production in the US. However, growers still lack effective tools to manage narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS) caused by Cercospora janseana and brown spot caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, two common diseases af...

  20. Disease severity of organic rice as affected by host resistance, fertility and tillage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several studies were conducted to determine the effect of fertilizer inputs and tillage methods on disease incidence in an organic rice production system. The results of these studies suggest that organically produced rice is more vulnerable to infection of narrow brown leaf spot and brown spot. Thi...

  1. 7 CFR 868.91 - Fees for certain Federal rice inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for any single factor (per factor): (a) Milling yield (per sample) (Rough or Brown rice) 32.50 (b) All... samples: 2 (a) Milling degree (per set) 111.00 (b) Parboiled light (per sample) 27.20 Faxed and extra... (per factor): (a) Milling yield (per sample) (Rough or Brown rice) 33.50 (b) All other factors (per...

  2. Metabolomic and functional genomic analyses reveal varietal differences in bioactive compounds of cooked rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Emerging evidence supports that cooked brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains metabolites with biomedical activities, yet little is known about the genetic diversity that is responsible for metabolite variation and differences in health beneficial traits. Metabolites from cooked brown rice of ten div...

  3. Effects of polishing, cooking, and storing on total arsenic and arsenic species concentrations in rice cultivated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Naito, Shigehiro; Matsumoto, Eri; Shindoh, Kumiko; Nishimura, Tsutomu

    2015-02-01

    The effects of polishing, cooking, and storing on total arsenic (As) and As species concentrations in rice were studied adopting typical Japanese conditions. Total and inorganic As levels in three white rice samples polished by removing 10% of bran by weight were reduced to 61-66% and 51-70% of those in brown rice. The As levels in the white rice after three washings with deionized water were reduced to 81-84% and 71-83% of those in raw rice. Rinse-free rice, which requires no washing before cooking because bran remaining on the surface of the rice was removed previously, yielded an effect similar to that of reducing As in rice by washing. Low-volume cooking (water:rice 1.4-2.0:1) rice to dryness did not remove As. The As content of brown rice stored in grain form for one year was stable.

  4. Sterigmatocystin Occurrence in Paddy and Processed Rice Produced in Italy in the Years 2014–2015 and Distribution in Milled Rice Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Romani, Marco; Rastelli, Silvia; Mulazzi, Annalisa; Pietri, Amedeo

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of sterigmatocystin (STC) in paddy and processed rice samples produced in Italy was surveyed. After extraction and purification, STC was analysed using HPLC-MS/MS. STC was detected in all paddy rice samples (n = 49), in the range 0.29–15.85 μg·kg−1. As regards processed rice, a widespread contamination was found in brown and parboiled rice. All the brown rice samples were contaminated between 0.12 and 1.32 μg·kg−1; for parboiled rice, the incidence was 90.9% and the maximum level was 1.09 μg·kg−1. The contamination in white rice was significantly lower (p < 0.01). The STC distribution in different rice fractions, obtained by the de-hulling and polishing processes, was evaluated. After de-hulling, the STC percentage remaining in brown rice was in the range 21.2%–30.8%. The polishing process, from brown to white rice, caused another remarkable decrease of contamination; the STC remaining in white rice was 2.2%–8.3% of the amount found in paddy rice. PMID:28264482

  5. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  6. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  7. Brown recluse spider (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin- ...

  8. Nutritional and sensory profile of two Indian rice varieties with different degrees of polishing.

    PubMed

    Shobana, S; Malleshi, N G; Sudha, V; Spiegelman, D; Hong, B; Hu, F B; Willett, W C; Krishnaswamy, K; Mohan, V

    2011-12-01

    Traditional hand-pounded rice has been replaced today with highly polished white rice in the Asian Indian diets. The study aimed to evaluate the nutritional as well as the sensory differences between the brown (0% polish) and the rice milled to different degrees of polish (2.3, 4.4 and 8.0%). Bapatla and Uma (red pigmented) varieties in both raw and parboiled forms were used. The protein, fat, dietary fibre, γ-oryzanol, polyphenols, vitamin E, total antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging abilities of the brown rice decreased while the available carbohydrates increased with polishing. Sensory attributes of the cooked rice samples (whiteness, grain intactness, fluffiness, firmness, stickiness, chewiness and the cooked rice aroma) were evaluated by trained panelists. Scores for branny taste and chewiness decreased with polishing. On the whole, brown rice of both the varieties was readily accepted by the well-informed sensory trained panelists.

  9. 7 CFR 868.91 - Fees for certain Federal rice inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., grade, factor analysis, equal to type, milling yield, or any other quality designation as defined in the...—Unit Rates Service 1 Effective February 16, 2007 Inspection for quality (per lot, sublot, or sample inspection): (a) Rough rice $41.90 (b) Brown rice for processing 36.00 (c) Milled rice 26.00 Factor analysis...

  10. 7 CFR 868.91 - Fees for certain Federal rice inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., grade, factor analysis, equal to type, milling yield, or any other quality designation as defined in the...—Unit Rates Service 1 Effective February 16, 2007 Inspection for quality (per lot, sublot, or sample inspection): (a) Rough rice $41.90 (b) Brown rice for processing 36.00 (c) Milled rice 26.00 Factor analysis...

  11. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice bran contains several bioactive components that have been linked to the promotion of human health. Brown rice bran contains lipophilic components that include the tocotrienols and gamma-oryzanol. Pigmented or colored rice bran contains different phenolic compounds including anthocyanins (purp...

  12. Use of bacillus biocontrol agents for disease management in organic rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in the U. S. over the last decade. Organic rice growers lack effective tools to manage sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and narrow brown leaf spot, caused by Cercospora janseana, two major diseases affecting organic rice production. Thi...

  13. Effect of irrigation and silicon fertilizer on total rice grain arsenic content and yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field tests were conducted for two years with rice grown with different irrigation systems and rates of calcium silicate fertilizer to determine the effects on brown rice arsenic (As) levels and rough rice yields. Irrigation systems were sprinkler irrigation using a center pivot system, intermitten...

  14. Glycaemic index of some commercially available rice and rice products in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Ranawana, D V; Henry, C J K; Lightowler, H J; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic response to nine types of rice (white basmati, brown basmati, white and brown basmati, easy-cook basmati, basmati and wild rice, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice, Thai red rice, Thai glutinous rice) and two types of rice vermicelli (Guilin rice vermicelli, Jiangxi rice vermicelli) commercially available in the United Kingdom were compared against a glucose standard in a non-blind, randomized, repeated-measure, crossover design trial. Fourteen healthy subjects (six males, eight females), mean age 38 (standard deviation 16) years and mean body mass index 21.3 (standard deviation 2.3) kg/m(2), were recruited for the study. Subjects were served portions of the test foods and a standard food (glucose), on separate occasions, each containing 50 g available carbohydrates. Capillary blood glucose was measured from finger-prick samples in fasted subjects (-5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the consumption of each test food. For each type of food, its glycaemic index (GI) was calculated geometrically by expressing the incremental area under the blood glucose curve as a percentage of each subject's average incremental area under the blood glucose curve for the standard food. The 10 foods exhibited a range of GI values from 37 to 92. The study indicated that rice noodles, long-grain rice, easy-cook long-grain rice and white basmati rice were low-GI foods, whilst all of the other foods were medium-GI and high-GI foods. The information presented in this paper may be useful in helping people select low-GI foods from the customary foods consumed by the British and Asian populations.

  15. Acid diffusion into rice boluses is influenced by rice type, variety, and presence of α-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mennah-Govela, Yamile A; Bornhorst, Gail M; Singh, R Paul

    2015-02-01

    Breakdown of rice during gastric digestion may be influenced by rice structure, presence of salivary α-amylase, and hydrolysis by gastric acid. During mastication, saliva is mixed with rice, allowing α-amylase to begin starch hydrolysis. This hydrolysis may continue in the gastric environment depending on the rate at which gastric acid penetrates into the rice bolus. The objective of this study was to determine the acid uptake into rice boluses with and without α-amylase in saliva. Two types each of brown and white rice (medium and long grain), were formed into a cylindrical-shaped bolus. Each bolus was sealed on all sides except one to allow one-dimensional mass transfer, and incubated by immersion in simulated gastric juice at 37 °C under static conditions. Acidity of the boluses was measured by titration after 1 to 96 h of incubation. Effective diffusivity of the gastric juice through the bolus was estimated using MATLAB. Average acidity values ranged from 0.04 mg HCl/g dry matter (medium grain white rice, no incubation) to 10.01 mg HCl/g dry matter (long-grain brown rice, 72 h incubation). The rice type, presence of α-amylase, and incubation time all significantly influenced rice bolus acidity (P < 0.001). Effective diffusivity of gastric juice into the bolus was greater in brown rice than in white rice. These results indicate that starch hydrolysis by α-amylase may continue in the stomach before the gastric acid penetrates the rice bolus, and the rate of acid uptake will depend on the type of rice consumed.

  16. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  17. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination.

  18. Characterization of yellow rice and development of instant flours by hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bustos, F; Delgado, L L; Victorio, M G; Morales, S E

    1997-03-01

    Commercial brown and yellow milled rice submitted to inappropriate storage conditions were characterized and utilized to develop instant flours that were used in the preparation of atoles. The grains were classified as long-thin; the average size was 2.13 x 6.79 mm. The milling yields obtained in laboratory with paddy rice were 70% brown rice and 60% milled rice. Brown rice and yellow milled rice had similar amylose contents, 22.5 and 25.6% respectively. Gel consistency was soft with low gelatinization temperature (63-68 degrees C) for both samples. Field fungi, such as Helminthosporium oryzae, and storage fungi, such as Aspergillus spp, were present in paddy, yellow milled and commercial rice. The fungus Helminthosporium oryzae, Aspergillus spp, and Penicillum spp were not present in instant flours. Instant flours were prepared by soaking the grain in water, and then steaming, drying and milling it. The highest values for water absorption index were obtained from yellow milled instant rice flour. The color of yellow milled instant rice flour varied from white ("L") to pale yellow (lesser values of "b"). The lower viscosity of the instant flours indicates the breakdown of polymers and reveals that unintact starch granules were not present in instant flours. Protein and ash contents of brown and milled rice were unaffected by hydrothermal process, and the lipid content showed only little changes. Sensory analyses carried out on the atoles prepared with instant flours considered them acceptable, specially for products made from milled yellow rice.

  19. Changes in physical, cooking, textural properties and crystallinity upon iron fortification of red rice (Jyothi).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shruti; Mr, Asha; A, Jayadep

    2016-02-01

    The present study is an investigation, into one of the varieties of paddy (Jyothi) its fortification with sodium iron EDTA salt, its physical properties, cooking characteristics, color, texture and characterization studies. Fortification was done at two concentrations 1.88 g/kg (T1 corresponding Iron content 0.25 g/Kg) and 3.39 g/kg (T2 corresponding Iron content 0.45 g/Kg). It was found that the iron content increased 2.5 folds after fortification, as compared to control sample. The results revealed that, there was significant difference between the physical properties of rice in the control, fortified brown and milled rice. The cooking parameters for control and fortified brown rice viz. cooking time, volume expansion water uptake were quite close to the control sample. The cooking time for fortified rice was 1-2 min high as compared to control, other parameters remained same. In case of milled rice, the cooking time and volume expansion for control milled rice and fortified was almost same; however the water uptake was higher for fortified milled rice as compared to control milled rice. The texture of fortified brown rice was hard as compared to fortified milled rice, although the taste was found satisfactory. The colour was significantly different in brown and milled rice. X-ray diffraction results revealed the polycrystalline nature of the fortified sample, was somewhat less crystalline as compared to control sample.

  20. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  1. Residues and dynamics of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Li, Cun; Yang, Ting; Huangfu, Weiguo; Wu, Yinliang

    2011-02-01

    The fate of pymetrozine was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method for determination of pymetrozine in soil, rice straw, paddy water and brown rice was developed. Pymetrozine residues were extracted from samples, cleaned up by solid phase extraction (SPE) and then determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The average recovery was 81.2-88.1% from soil, 83.4-88.6% from rice straw, 87.3-94.1% from paddy water and 82.9-85.3% from brown rice. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 15%. The limits of detection (LODs) of pymetrozine calculated as a sample concentration were 0.0003 mg kg(-1) (mg L(-1)) for soil and paddy water, 0.001 mg kg(-1) for brown rice and rice straw. The results of kinetics study of pymetrozine residue showed that pymetrozine degradation in water, soil, and rice straw coincided with C=0.194e(-0.986t), C=0.044e(-0.099t), and C=0.988e(-0.780t), respectively; the half-lives were about 0.70 d, 7.0 d and 0.89 d, respectively. The degradation rate of pymetrozine in water was the fastest, followed by rice straw. The highest final pymetrozine residues in brown rice were 0.01 mg kg(-1), which was lower than the EU's upper limit of 0.02 mg kg(-1) in rice. Therefore, a dosage of 300-600 g a.i.hm(-2) was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Effects of phosphorus-containing substances on arsenic uptake by rice].

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han; Hu, Li-Qiong; Zhou, Hang; Long, Shui-Bo

    2014-08-01

    The disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were added into arsenic contaminated soil, then rice pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phosphorus (P)-containing substances on arsenic (As) uptake by rice. The results showed that: DSP and HAP significantly increased soil pH and the contents of available P in soil (P < 0.05), activating soil arsenic. And DSP was stronger than HAP in improving the migration ability of As in soil. DSP and HAP treatments both significantly reduced the contents of total As in root, as well as total As and inorganic As in brown rice. But HAP significantly increased total As contents in stem. DSP and HAP treatments had better reducing effects on inorganic As than on total As in brown rice. And DSP had the same reducing effects as HAP on total As and inorganic As in brown rice. Analysis results showed that the contents of As in rice were affected by the antagonism between P and As and the increase of As bio-availability in soil. The antagonism played the major role in this study and it was clearly exhibited in both root and rice. Lower dosage (< or = 0.12 g x kg(-1)) of DSP and HAP increased total biomass of rice and brown rice yield, but with the increase of P addition, the two kinds of P-containing substances obviously inhibited the growth of rice, and inhibition by HAP was relatively light.

  3. Mycotoxin Contamination of Rice in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang Dong; Su, Ping; Shan, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in rice is generally lower than in other cereals such as corn or wheat. However, over 65% of the population in China consumes rice as a staple food. Due to the diversity of the climate across China, the southern region is characterized by high temperatures and humidities, especially in rainy season. Such conditions are optimal for the growth of fungi. The accumulative and transferrable characteristics of fungi mycotoxins pose a great potential threat as confirmed by high incidences of liver cancer in the Yangtze delta region. Major mycotoxins identified in China are aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, as well as fumonisins. The contents of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in rice are varied among different provinces and regions and generally less than 5 μg/kg. Although high incidences of positive aflatoxins samples have widely been detected, few samples were detected as exceeding the national's maximum residue limit (10 μg/kg). Limited information is available on risk assessment of human health hazards of mycotoxins in rice, children should be paid more attention to due to their having the highest mycotoxins exposure level, although the risks are generally at low levels from rice. Mycotoxins are mainly distributed in the outer layer of the paddy rice (also called rough rice, referring to whole rice grain with the hulls), and the AFB1 content in bran is 8.4 times greater than that in brown rice (hulled rice). Further investigation should focus on isolation and identification of mycotoxins-producing fungal strains, especially unknown mycotoxigenic fungal strains determination. Infection resistant rice breeding of mycotoxigenic fungal species may be a fundamental approach to guaranteeing rice safety in China. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Brown Dwarf Comparison

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-17

    NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer will uncover many failed stars, or brown dwarfs, in infrared light. This diagram shows a brown dwarf in relation to Earth, Jupiter, a low-mass star and the sun.

  5. Thermal characteristics of ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours.

    PubMed

    An, H J; King, J M

    2007-01-01

    Thermal properties of conventionally and ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours at various frequencies and voltages were studied. There was an increase in gelatinization temperature for conventionally heated rice starches since they were pregelatinized and became more rigid due to starch-chain interactions. In addition, there was a decrease in enthalpy (energy needed) for conventionally and ohmically heated starches during gelatinization; thus, the samples required less energy for gelatinization during DSC analysis. Ohmically heated commercial starch showed the greatest decrease in enthalpy probably because of the greatest extent of pregelatinization through ohmic heating. Brown rice flour showed the greatest gelatinization temperature resulting from the delay of starch granule swelling by lipid and protein. Enthalpy of ohmically heated starches at 20 V/cm was the lowest, which was most likely due to the lower voltage resulting in a more complete pregelatinization from a longer heating time required to reach 100 degrees C. Ohmic treatment at 70 V/cm decreased onset gelatinization temperature of white flour; therefore, it produced rice flour that swelled faster, whereas the conventionally heated sample showed a better thermal resistance.

  6. Studies on mineral nutrition and safety of wild rice (Oryza L.).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuli; Shi, Chunhai; Wu, Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    Mineral element contents of five wild rice were analyzed, including mineral nutrient elements such as phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se), and the potential toxic elements arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the contents of K, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Se in five wild rice materials were much higher than the cultivate variety Zhou 903 in both brown and milled rice. Wild rice also had lower potential toxic element contents of Hg, Pb and Cd compared with Zhou 903 in brown rice and milled rice, respectively. Among five wild rice samples, WR-3 from Uganda had the highest level of P, K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Zn, Mn and Se, and the lowest contents of Hg, Pb and Cd.

  7. Brown recluse spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 1/2 inches (2.5 to 3.5 centimeters) long. They have a dark brown, violin-shaped mark on their upper body and light brown legs. Their lower body may be dark brown, tan, yellow, or greenish. They also have 3 pairs of ...

  8. Accumulation of arsenic in tissues of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) and its distribution in fractions of rice grain.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Rahman, M Arifur; Miah, M A M

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accumulation and distribution of arsenic in different fractions of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) collected from arsenic affected area of Bangladesh. The agricultural soil of study area has become highly contaminated with arsenic due to the excessive use of arsenic-rich underground water (0.070+/-0.006 mg l(-1), n=6) for irrigation. Arsenic content in tissues of rice plant and in fractions of rice grain of two widely cultivated rice varieties, namely BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, were determined. Regardless of rice varieties, arsenic content was about 28- and 75-folds higher in root than that of shoot and raw rice grain, respectively. In fractions of parboiled and non-parboiled rice grain of both varieties, the order of arsenic concentrations was; rice hull>bran-polish>brown rice>raw rice>polish rice. Arsenic content was higher in non-parboiled rice grain than that of parboiled rice. Arsenic concentrations in parboiled and non-parboiled brown rice of BRRI dhan28 were 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 were 0.8+/-0.2 and 0.6+/-0.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. However, parboiled and non-parboiled polish rice grain of BRRI dhan28 contained 0.4+/-0.0 and 0.3+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight of arsenic, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 contained 0.43+/-0.01 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Both polish and brown rice are readily cooked for human consumption. The concentration of arsenic found in the present study is much lower than the permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg kg(-1)) according to WHO recommendation. Thus, rice grown in soils of Bangladesh contaminated with arsenic of 14.5+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) could be considered safe for human consumption.

  9. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least 5 servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. PMID:26219234

  10. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  11. Ethanol sensitivity of rice and oat coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2002-05-01

    The ability to avoid the ethanol-induced injury was evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) coleoptiles. The growth of the rice and oat coleoptiles was inhibited by ethanol exogenously applied at concentrations greater than 200 and 30 mM, respectively. At 300 mM ethanol, oat coleoptiles were brown and flaccid but rice coleoptiles did not show any visible symptoms of toxicity. The acetaldehyde level in rice and oat coleoptiles was increased by exogenously applied ethanol and the increases were greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At 300 mM ethanol, the acetaldehyde concentrations in the rice and oat coleoptiles were 46 and 87 nmol g-1 FW under aerobic conditions, respectively, and 52 and 124 nmol g-1 FW under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1) in the direction of ethanol to acetaldehyde was greater in oat than in rice coleoptiles and ADH protein in oat coleoptiles was more induced by exogenously applied ethanol than that in rice coleoptiles. These results suggest that in vivo conversion rate of ethanol to acetaldehyde by ADH is lower in rice than oat coleoptiles, which may be one of the reasons that ethanol sensitivity of rice is much lower than that of oat coleoptiles. The great ability of rice to avoid the ethanol-induced injuries may contribute its anoxia tolerance when glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation replace the Krebs cycle as the main source of energy under anaerobic conditions.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of UV-induced phenylamides from rice leaves.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Lin; Yoo, Youngchul; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Bhoo, Seong Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Cho, Man-Ho

    2014-11-06

    Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae). In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus). UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae), blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola) diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  13. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems: establishing a minimum data set.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues de Lima, Ana Cláudia; Hoogmoed, Willem; Brussaard, Lijbert

    2008-01-01

    Soil quality, as a measure of the soil's capacity to function, can be assessed by indicators based on physical, chemical, and biological properties. Here we report on the assessment of soil quality in 21 rice (Oryza sativa) fields under three rice production systems (semi-direct, pre-germinated, and conventional) on four soil textural classes in the Camaquã region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The objectives of our study were: (i) to identify soil quality indicators that discriminate both management systems and soil textural classes, (ii) to establish a minimum data set of soil quality indicators and (iii) to test whether this minimum data set is correlated with yield. Twenty-nine soil biological, chemical, and physical properties were evaluated to characterize regional soil quality. Soil quality assessment was based on factor and discriminant analysis. Bulk density, available water, and micronutrients (Cu, Zn, and Mn) were the most powerful soil properties in distinguishing among different soil textural classes. Organic matter, earthworms, micronutrients (Cu and Mn), and mean weight diameter were the most powerful soil properties in assessing differences in soil quality among the rice management systems. Manganese was the property most strongly correlated with yield (adjusted r2 = 0.365, P = 0.001). The merits of sub-dividing samples according to texture and the linkage between soil quality indicators, soil functioning, plant performance, and soil management options are discussed in particular.

  14. The transfer of stable ¹³³Cs from rice to Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masaki; Joyo, Midori; Tokuoka, Masafumi; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2012-12-01

    Possible contamination by radioactive cesium (Cs), released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant Accident in Japan on March 2011, has been a matter of concern with respect to Japanese sake made from rice grains cultivated in affected fields. In this study, the behavior of stable (133)Cs, which is a useful analogue for predicting the behavior of radioactive Cs, was investigated in the production of sake using rice grains harvested in Japan in 2010. The concentration of stable (133)Cs in the polished rice grains decreased gradually with decreasing milling ratios until a ratio of 70% was reached, and below that point, it did not change significantly. The (133)Cs concentration in the 70% polished rice was approximately 20% of that found in brown rice. The sake was brewed on a small scale using 70% polished rice, and the transfer of (133)Cs from rice to sake was examined. Approximately 30-40% of (133)Cs in the 70% polished rice was removed during the washing and the steeping of the rice grains, and approximately 40% of the (133)Cs in the 70% polished rice was transferred to the sake. If the radioactive Cs species behaves similarly, these results suggest that brown rice containing 100 Bq/kg radioactivity of Cs would generate 70% polished rice grains containing 20 Bq/kg and that the sake brewed from these grains would contain 3-5 Bq/kg. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brown recluse spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Furbee, R Brent; Kao, Louise W; Ibrahim, Danyal

    2006-03-01

    Brown recluse spider bite is a common diagnosis in almost every state in America. In fact, cases have been reported in areas where the spider has never been seen. A review of medical literature reveals that most current concepts regarding brown recluse spider envenomation are based on supposition. In this article, we attempt to review critically our present understanding of brown recluse bites with a focus on the published evidence.

  16. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. [Phytoexclusion potential studies of Si fertilization modes on rice cadmium].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bo-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Xiao-Li; Ye, Chang-Cheng; Luo, Mei-Mei; Mao, Yi-De

    2014-07-01

    The research used serious situ multi-metal contaminated soils to explore Cd repair potential in rice by adding different kinds of fertilizers, based on the outdoor pot experiment. The experiment was consisted of four treatments including non-used fertilizers (CK), the silicon fertilizer applicated into soil (Tsi), the silicon fertilizer applicated as foliar spray (Ysi) and the silicon fertilizer applicated into soil combined with the foliar spray silicon fertilizer application( Tsi + Ysi). The research examined Cd concentrations in tissues of five key growth periods to reveal cadmium (Cd) migration rules, translocation coefficients, rice biomass and yields. The results showed that, compared to CK, different fertilization methods of Si had significant impacts on decreasing Cd in brown rice and polished rice, but not in rice yields; In addition, Tsi + Ysi had the best effects to decrease Cd in edible grains, which resulted in Cd concentrations of husk, brown rice and polished rice reduced by 62.59%, 58.33% and 65.83%, respectively, and the effects of applying Tsi and Ysi were the second. Therefore, Tsi, Ysi and Tsi + Ysi were confirmed to be potential Cd pollution control technologies to rice.

  18. Changes of fumonisin production in rice grain during ensiling.

    PubMed

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Kobayashi, Hisami; Inoue, Hidehiko; Tohno, Masanori; Tsukiboshi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    We assessed fumonisin production during the ensiling of rice grain. Rice grain was harvested at the full-ripe stage and prepared as rough rice, crushed rough rice, brown rice or crushed brown rice. Each material was ensiled under six conditions: (1) no fungus, anaerobic; (2) no fungus, aerobic; (3) water added, anaerobic; (4) water and fumonisin-producing fungus added, anaerobic; (5) water and fumonisin-producing fungus added, aerobic; or (6) fumonisin-producing fungus added to autoclaved material, aerobic. After 40 days of ensilage, we analyzed the silage fermentative quality and fumonisin concentration. The fermentative quality of all materials was good in treatments (3) and (4) (pH < 4), reasonable in treatment (5) (pH = 5∼6) and unacceptable in treatments (1) and (2) (pH > 6.5). The fumonisin concentration was low in all materials in treatments (1) to (4), slightly increased in the three materials other than rough rice in treatment (5), and enormously increased in all materials in treatment (6). The results indicate that the fumonisin-producing fungus does not produce fumonisin in anaerobic conditions. It is important that an anaerobic condition be maintained during ensiling in order to reduce the fumonisin content in rice grain silage.

  19. Differences in antioxidant activity between two rice protein concentrates in an oil-in-water emulsion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two formulations of rice protein concentrates (RPC) derived from brown rice were evaluated for their antioxidant activity in bulk oil and in oil-in-water emulsions. Bulk oils were mixed with RPC and heated to 180°C, and total polar compounds and triacylglycerol polymerization were measured. Minimal ...

  20. The transfer of radioactive cesium and potassium from rice to sake.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Joyo, Midori; Tsukamoto, Kaori; Endo, Michiko; Matsumaru, Katsumi; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Using rice grains contaminated with radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) that was released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in March of 2011, we investigated the behaviors of the radioactive cesium and potassium (total K and (40)K) during sake brewing. Cesiumis a congener of K, and yeast cells have the ability to take up Cs using known K transporters. During rice polishing, the concentrations of radioactive Cs and K in the polished rice grains decreased gradually until a milling ratio (polished rice weight/brown rice weight) of 70% was reached. No significant changes were observed below this milling ratio. Sake was brewed on a small scale using the 70% polished rice. The transfer ratio of radioactive Cs to sake and to the sake cake was significantly different than the ratio of K. Approximately 36% and 23% of radioactive Cs in the polished rice was transferred to the sake and sake cake, respectively; however, 40% was removed by washing and steeping the rice grains. On the other hand, 25% and 40% of K in the polished rice was recovered in the sake and sake cake, respectively, and 35% was removed by washing and steeping the rice grains. From the present results, the concentration of radioactive Cs in sake would be 4 Bq/kg fresh weight, which is well below the regulation values (100 Bq/kg), even using brown rice containing 100 Bq/kg of radioactive Cs.

  1. Effects of two Bt rice lines T2A-1 and T1C-19 on the ecological fitness and detoxification enzymes of Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) from different populations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yajun; He, Jingjing; Dong, Biqin; Xu, Hongxing; Fu, Qiang; Zheng, Xusong; Lin, Yongjun; Lu, Zhongxian

    2013-08-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), exhibits geographic and temporal variations in its virulence and damage characteristics on cultivated rice varieties, so the potential ecological risk of the nontarget effectiveness of Bt rice on different brown planthopper populations should be addressed. The nontarget effects of two Bt rice lines T2A-1 (Cry2A rice) and T1C-19 (Cry1C rice) on six brown planthopper populations with geographical, virulent, and resistant variations were evaluated. Populations differed significantly in relation to brown planthopper nymphal survival, nymphal duration, and female adult weight. T2A-1 and T1C-19 did not affect the ecological fitness parameters of brown planthopper compared with the parental non-Bt rice MH63. Both esterase and glutathione-S-transferase activities differed between brown planthopper populations. Esterase activity of some brown planthopper populations was significantly affected by the rice lines. It is important to take account of these findings in management ofnontarget brown planthopper in Cry2A or Cry1C rice in the future.

  2. Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-25

    Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438±23, 287±03, and 283±18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56±05, 92±10, 82±06 and 172±24 μg kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 μg kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice.

  3. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These... standards, the colors are expressed as light brown (L), medium brown (F), reddish brown (R), and dark brown...

  4. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  5. Spectroscopy of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, R.

    Recent searches for brown dwarfs have succeeded in finding these elusive objects. Massive brown dwarfs (40-70 Jupiter masses) have been found in the Pleiades, orbiting around a nearby star and, very recently, in the field. A review is given of their observed photometric and spectroscopic properties in the optical and near-infrared. The diagnosis of substellar nature based on lithium lines and methane bands is discussed in detail. While lithium has proved useful to test brown dwarfs with effective temperatures hotter than ~1600 K, methane is a substellar indicator at lower temperatures.

  6. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-03-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice.

  7. Immunomodulatory Effects of Nontoxic Glycoprotein Fraction Isolated from Rice Bran.

    PubMed

    Park, Ho-Young; Yu, A-Reum; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Ha Hyung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Choi, Hee-Don

    2016-05-01

    Rice bran, a by-product of brown rice milling, is a rich source of dietary fiber and protein, and its usage as a functional food is expected to increase. In this study, immunomodulatory effects of glycoprotein obtained from rice bran were studied in normal mice and mouse models of cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. We prepared glycoprotein from rice bran by using ammonium precipitation and anion chromatography techniques. Different doses of glycoprotein from rice bran (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) were administered orally for 28 days. On day 21, cyclophosphamide at a dose of 100 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally. Glycoprotein from rice bran showed a significant dose-dependent restoration of the spleen index and white blood cell count in the immunocompromised mice. Glycoprotein from rice bran affected the immunomodulatory function by inducing the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes, which produce potential T and B cells. Moreover, it prevented cyclophosphamide-induced damage of Th1-type immunomodulatory function through enhanced secretion of Th1-type cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-12). These results indicate that glycoprotein from rice bran significantly recovered cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Based on these data, it was concluded that glycoprotein from rice bran is a potent immunomodulator and can be developed to recover the immunity of immunocompromised individuals.

  8. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  9. Exploring African Rice Genetic Diversity for Genetic Stock Development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    West African cultivated rice (Oryza glaberrima) and its progenitor species, O. barthii, are a source of genes for crop improvement especially pest resistance (blast, sheath blight, brown spot, bacterial blight, bacterial leaf streak, green leafhopper) and tolerance to abiotic stress (drought, acid s...

  10. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  11. Brown Recluse Spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  12. Brown spiders and loxoscelism.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Paulo Henrique; da Silveira, Rafael Bertoni; Appel, Márcia Helena; Mangili, Oldemir Carlos; Gremski, Waldemiro; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2004-12-01

    Accidents caused by brown spiders (Loxosceles genus) are classically associated with dermonecrotic lesions and systemic manifestations including intravascular haemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute renal failure. Systemic reactions occur in a minority of cases, but may be severe in some patients and occasionally fatal. The mechanisms by which Loxosceles venom exerts these noxious effects are currently under investigation. The venom contains several toxins, some of which have been well-characterised biochemically and biologically. The purpose of the present review is to describe some insights into loxoscelism obtained over the last ten years. The biology and epidemiology of the brown spider, the histopathology of envenomation and the immunogenicity of Loxosceles venom are reviewed, as are the clinical features, diagnosis and therapy of brown spider bites. The identification and characterisation of some toxins and the mechanism of induction of local and systemic lesions caused by brown spider venom are also discussed. Finally, the biotechnological application of some venom toxins are covered.

  13. Resistance of Rice Varieties to the Stored-Product Insect, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Antunes, Catarina; Mendes, Raquel; Lima, Arlindo; Barros, Graça; Fields, Paul; Da Costa, Luísa Beirão; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Silva, Maria José; Correia, Augusto Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Otilia

    2016-02-01

    Four common Portuguese rice varieties--Thaibonnet, Gladio, Albatros, and Eurosis--were tested for their relative susceptibility to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a common pest of stored rice in Portugal and in tropical countries. Physical (moisture content, hardness, length, and width) and chemical (by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) properties of rice kernels were measured. Insect bioassays measured median developmental time, Dobie's index of susceptibility, percentage of damaged grains and weight loss, and progeny developed. This was done for paddy, brown rice, and polished rice for each variety. There were small, but significant, differences in insect resistance among the varieties. However, it was different for paddy and polished rice. In paddy, these differences were correlated with hull damage, and Eurosis was the most susceptible variety. In polished rice, resistance was correlated with hardness, and Thaibonnet was the most susceptible variety. In general, paddy rice was more resistant to insect attack, followed by polished rice and then brown rice. Paddy kernels selected with undamaged hull were completely resistant to attack. Implications for IPM and breeding for resistant varieties are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of the cancer chemopreventive efficacy of rice bran in genetic mouse models of breast, prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Verschoyle, R D; Greaves, P; Cai, H; Edwards, R E; Steward, W P; Gescher, A J

    2007-01-01

    Brown rice is a staple dietary constituent in Asia, whereas rice consumed in the Western world is generally white, obtained from brown rice by removal of the bran. We tested the hypothesis that rice bran interferes with development of tumours in TAg, TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) or ApcMin mice, genetic models of mammary, prostate and intestinal carcinogenesis, respectively. Mice received rice bran (30%) in AIN-93G diet throughout their post-weaning lifespan. In TAg and TRAMP mice, rice bran did not affect carcinoma development. In TRAMP or wild-type C57Bl6/J mice, dietary rice bran increased kidney weight by 18 and 20%, respectively. Consumption of rice bran reduced numbers of intestinal adenomas in ApcMin mice by 51% (P<0.01), compared to mice on control diet. In parallel, dietary rice bran decreased intestinal haemorrhage in these mice, as reflected by increased haematocrit. At 10% in the diet, rice bran did not significantly retard ApcMin adenoma development. Likewise, low-fibre rice bran (30% in the diet) did not affect intestinal carcinogenesis, suggesting that the fibrous constituents of the bran mediate chemopreventive efficacy. The results suggest that rice bran might be beneficially evaluated as a putative chemopreventive intervention in humans with intestinal polyps. PMID:17211473

  15. Accumulation of mercury and cadmium in rice from paddy soil near a mercury mine.

    PubMed

    Li, W C; Ouyang, Y; Ye, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Paddy soil and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Wanshan mining area in Guizhou Province, China, have been contaminated by toxic trace metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The present study examined correlations between the types and physicochemical parameters of the soil and the contents of trace metals and the different forms of Hg in rice. The health risks of consuming contaminated rice from the Wanshan mining area were also assessed. Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the chemical behavior of Hg in the soil. The results showed that Hg and Cd were the most abundant trace metals in the Wanshan mining area. The toxic methylmercury (MeHg) content was substantial in brown rice, and the total amounts of total Hg (THg), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Hg, and water-soluble Hg varied in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. An antagonistic interaction between Mn in brown rice, straw, and husk and MeHg in brown rice was also shown. An analysis of calculated dietary intake, target hazard quotients, and hazard indexes showed a potential risk of transferring Hg, MeHg, and Cd to humans when rice from the Wanshan mining area is consumed. Therefore, it must be concluded that consuming contaminated rice near the Wanshan mining area is a potential threat to human health. © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Effect of steam-cooking and parboiling on phenolics and antioxidant capacities of red and purple rice cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red and purple rice cultivars contain high concentrations of phenolics, such as proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, respectively. We investigated the effect of cooking processes on these antioxidants and antioxidant capacities of pigmented and common light-brown bran rice. The cooking processes incl...

  17. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  18. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-05-17

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection.

  19. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection. PMID:27185548

  20. [In vitro analysis of the iron availability in fortified rice].

    PubMed

    Romera, G F; Zuleta, A; Sarchi, M I; Sambucetti, M E

    2000-09-01

    Cereals are rich in fiber but also in phytate which is considered the principal inhibitor of mineral availability. On this basis, iron availability of fortified rice, and the inhibitory effect of bran phytate was studied in: white rice fortified with electrolytic iron (ABF) from commercial origin; and mixtures of ABF plus 4.76% and 9.09% of rice bran (ABF2 and ABF3 respectively) to simulate brown rice. Samples were analysed before and after phytic acid hydrolysis with phytase: Dietary fiber and phytic acid were assessed according AOAC; iron availability, expressed as dialisable iron by the in vitro method of Kapsokefalou and Miller modified by Valencia et al.; iron content was assessed by AAS. Results showed that added bran depressed iron availability, 9.65%; 4.04% and 1.82% as expected (ABF, ABF2 and ABF3 respectively). After phytic acid hydrolysis iron availability reached 28.20%; 27.95% and 25.30% for the same samples. These values were not different. After phytic acid hydrolysis, fiber content of ABF2 and ABF3 were lower than before. However multiple regression analysis of the data showed that fiber had not influence on iron availability and that phytic acid would be the principal responsible of it. These results indicate that brown rice should have a higher level of iron fortification than in white rice or be combined with other foods that improve iron availability as meats, vegetables or fruits.

  1. Brown Dwarf Microlensing (Illustration)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    This illustration depicts a newly discovered brown dwarf, an object that weighs in somewhere between our solar system's most massive planet (Jupiter) and the least-massive-known star. This brown dwarf, dubbed OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, interests astronomers because it may fall in the "desert" of brown dwarfs. Scientists have found that, for stars roughly the mass of our sun, less than 1 percent have a brown dwarf orbiting within 3 AU (1 AU is the distance between Earth and the sun). This brown dwarf was discovered when it and its star passed between Earth and a much more distant star in our galaxy. This created a microlensing event, where the gravity of the system amplified the light of the background star over the course of several weeks. This microlensing was observed by ground-based telescopes looking for these uncommon events, and was the first to be seen by two space-based telescopes: NASA's Spitzer and Swift missions. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21076

  2. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), via fatty acid synthase gene expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report d...

  3. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-09-09

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  4. Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus and rice ragged stunt virus enhances their insect vector acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-07-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV.

  5. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-09

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  6. CDR Brown on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-20

    S103-E-5007 (20 December 1999) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, mission commander, retrieves supplies from a mid deck stowage locker onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. He and six other astronauts will spend a great deal of time later in the week performing a variety of service tasks on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As commander of the mission, Brown will remain inside Discovery while several of the other crew members will perform service tasks on HST. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 16:12:27 GMT, Dec. 20, 1999.

  7. Rep. George Brown dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    George E. Brown, ranking Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee, died on July 15 at the age of 79 due to complications following a heart valve replacement last May. He was a strong advocate for science and environmental protection measures, and an independent thinker who sometimes found himself alone or far ahead of other people on issues. A congressman for 34 years who represented first the 29th Congressional District and then the 42nd District in California, Brown served on the science committee since 1965 and was chair from 1991 through 1994.

  8. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  9. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  10. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Brown ... picó una reclusa parda! What's a Brown Recluse Spider? The brown recluse spider is one of the ...

  11. Rice consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from a pooled analysis of 3 U.S. cohorts1234

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Isao; Wu, Hongyu; Imamura, Fumiaki; Laden, Francine; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Sun, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health concerns have been raised about rice consumption, which may significantly contribute to arsenic exposure. However, little is known regarding whether habitual rice consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective: We examined prospectively the association of white rice and brown rice consumption with CVD risk. Design: We followed a total of 207,556 women and men [73,228 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2010), 92,158 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2011), and 42,170 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2010)] who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess consumption of white rice, brown rice, and other food items. Fatal and nonfatal CVD (coronary artery disease and stroke) was confirmed by medical records or self-reports. Results: During 4,393,130 person-years of follow-up, 12,391 cases of CVD were identified. After adjustment for major CVD risk factors, including demographics, lifestyle, and other dietary intakes, rice consumption was not associated with CVD risk. The multivariable-adjuted HR of developing CVD comparing ≥5 servings/wk with <1 serving/wk was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.14) for white rice, 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) for brown rice, and 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) for total rice. To minimize the potential impact of racial difference in rice consumption, we restricted the analyses to whites only and obtained similar results: the HRs of CVD for ≥5 servings/wk compared with <1 serving/wk were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.22) for white rice and 1.01 (0.78, 1.31) for brown rice. Conclusions: Greater habitual consumption of white rice or brown rice is not associated with CVD risk. These findings suggest that rice consumption may not pose a significant CVD risk among the U.S. population when consumed at current amounts. More prospective studies are needed to explore these associations in other populations. PMID

  12. Inorganic and Total Arsenic Contents in Rice and Rice-Based Foods Consumed by a Potential Risk Subpopulation: Sportspeople.

    PubMed

    Cano-Lamadrid, M; Munera-Picazo, S; Burgos-Hernández, A; Burló, F; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2016-04-01

    One of the main routes of exposure to inorganic arsenic (i-As) in humans is food, especially rice and rice-based products. There are certain groups of consumers that could be highly exposed to i-As. Maximum levels of i-As have been issued for infants and young children by the European Union, but perhaps other groups are also at risk. Sportspeople could be one of those groups, due to their specific nutritional requirements, especially its high consumption of cereals, such as rice. Because of the well-known relationship between rice and i-As, the intake of i-As by sportspeople deserved especial attention and was estimated in Spain. This study demonstrated that rice-based products reached a maximum i-As content of 178 μg/kg, with a mean for all studied products of 56 μg/kg; the maximum contents were found in rice cakes (149 μg/kg) and brown rice (111 μg/kg). The estimated daily intake of i-As were 0.16 and 0.18 μg/kg bw (body weight)/d, in sportsmen and sportswomen, respectively. These values were below the BMDL01 , 0.3 to 8.0 μg/kg bw/d; thus, it can be concluded that the sportspeople group is not at a significant risk regarding the intake of i-As. However, further studies are needed to evaluate their whole diet and not only rice-based products. Finally, it is important to claim that companies producing rice products include as much information as possible about the rice used in their products, including rice percentage and geographical origin.

  13. Natural Inhibitors of Maillard Browning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    development for ration and commercial items that deteriorate from Maillard browning effects while in storage. Figure 15: Avocado 96 h after being...MAILLARD BROWNING by Nicole Favreau Farhadi Lauren Pecukonis and Jacqueline LeBlanc December 2013 Final Report...2009- September 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATURAL INHIBITORS OF MAILLARD BROWNING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  14. The Challenge of Teaching "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Cally L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the issues on whether Brown really desegregate school. Study shows that many cases of large number of segregated schools still exist today. This was the complexity of addressing this issue that makes teaching Brown a challenge. The 1954 Supreme Court decision--Brown v. Board of Education was the basis of their study for the…

  15. Thirty Years After Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochschild, Jennifer L.

    Although many school districts and classrooms have desegregated since the 1954 Brown decision, desegregation is neither complete nor uniform. Moreover, racial isolation is growing in some regions and cities, and new forms of separation are arising within desegregated schools. New desegregation strategies and policies are needed, but these will be…

  16. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was…

  17. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was…

  18. Brown on middeck

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-10-30

    STS095-E-5054 (30 Oct. 1998) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown, STS-95 commander, has a handful of vials as he checks a notebook during Flight Day two activity onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera at 10:42:49 GMT, Oct. 30.

  19. Brown enters transfer tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-11-01

    STS095-E-5160 (1 Nov. 1998) --- Astronaut Curtis L. Brown Jr., STS-95 commander, floats through airlock hatchway during Flight Day three activity. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 01:39:20 GMT, Nov. 1.

  20. Large Brown Oval

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This large brown oval, photographed on Mar. 2, 1979 by NASA Voyager 1. Features of this sort are not rare on Jupiter and have an average lifetime of one to two years. Above the feature is the pale orange North Temperate Belt. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00015

  1. Hypocholesterolemic metabolism of dietary red pericarp glutinous rice rich in phenolic compounds in mice fed a high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Mi; Kim, Eun-Hye; Chung, Ill-Min

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of red pericarp glutinous rice rich in polyphenols (Jakwangchalbyeo, red rice) on serum and hepatic levels of cholesterol and hepatic protein expression linked to synthesis and degradation of cholesterol in a hypercholesterolemic mice diet as compared with brown rice. MATERIALS/METHODS C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 5 each), which were fed different diets for a period of 12 weeks: American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G diet, AIN-93G diet with 2% cholesterol, brown rice with 2% cholesterol, or red rice with 2% cholesterol. RESULT Consumption of red rice resulted in a significant decrease in serum level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and hepatic levels of triglyceride and total-cholesterol. Expression of acyl-coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase-2 (ACAT-2), sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase was decreased, while expression of phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)/AMPK ratio, cholesterol 7-α-hydroxylase (CYP7a1), and sterol 12-α-hydroxylase (CYP8b1) was increased in mice fed red rice. Brown rice had similar effects on cholesterol metabolism, but the effect of red rice was significantly greater than that of brown rice. CONCLUSIONS The current study suggested that red rice had a hypocholesterolemic effect by lowering hepatic cholesterol synthesis through ACAT-2, HMG-CoA reductase, and SREBP-2, and by enhancing hepatic cholesterol degradation through CYP7a1 and CYP8b1 in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet. PMID:25489402

  2. Rice bran: a novel functional ingredient.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Saima Hafiz

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human. It is the second leading cereal crop and staple food of half of the world's population. It is grown in at least 114 countries with global production of 645 million tons; share of Asian farmers is about 90% of the total produce. Rice bran, brown outer layer of rice kernel, is mainly composed of pericarp, aleurone, subaleurone layer, and germ. It contains appreciable quantities of nutrients like protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Furthermore, it contains substantial amount of minerals like K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Presence of antioxidants like tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol also brighten prospects of rice bran utilization for humans as functional ingredient to mitigate the life-threatening disorders. Moreover, in the developing countries, budding dilemma of food crisis, arising due to lower crop yields and escalating population, needs to utilize each pent of available resources. To provide enough food to all people, there is the holistic approach of using the by-products generated during food processing and preparations. Rice is being processed in well-established industry, but the major apprehension is the utilization of its by-products; rice bran (5-8%) and polishing (2-3%) that are going as waste. Rice processing or milling produces several streams of materials including milled rice, bran, and husk. In developing countries, rice bran is considered as a by-product of the milling process and commonly used in animal feed or discarded as a waste. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 29.3 million tons annually, whereas the share of Pakistan is worked out to be 0.5 million tons. In present paper, attempt has been made to highlight the significance of these valuable but

  3. Mold counts and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in rice and its by-products from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Sales, Anthony C; Yoshizawa, Takumi

    2005-01-01

    Mold counts and Aspergillus section Flavi populations in rice and its by-products from the Philippines were examined. The average mold counts of rough rice, brown rice, and locally produced polished rice were 4.1 x 10(3), 1.0 x 10(3), and 1.1 x 10(3) CFU/g, respectively. Average Aspergillus section Flavi counts of the same samples were 3.0 x 10(2), 1.1 x 10(2), and 2.6 x 10(2) CFU/g, respectively. Twenty-seven percent of mold isolates from rough rice, polished rice, and brown rice were section Flavi spp., 31% of which were toxigenic. No section Flavi isolates were obtained from imported rice samples from Thailand and Vietnam. Aspergillus section Flavi was also isolated from rice hull, rice bran, and settled dust from rice milling operations. Toxigenic isolates of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were present in at least one sample of each type of rice and rice by-product except settled dust. Aflatoxins produced in vitro by the isolates ranged from <1 microg/kg to 6,227 microg/kg. A. flavus isolates produced only B aflatoxins, whereas A. parasiticus isolates produced both B and G aflatoxins. Although total mold counts of Philippine rice and its by-products are within tolerable limits, the establishment of maximum limits in counts of potentially aflatoxigenic species in foods and feeds is important because the mere presence of toxin producers is considered a possible risk factor. The results of this research illustrate the need for strict monitoring of rice during both storage and marketing, especially in warm and humid seasons when infestation and consequent production of aflatoxins by Aspergillus section Flavi is expected.

  4. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals.

  5. Dissipation and residue of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Li; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2015-03-01

    The dissipation and residue of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem were studied based on a novel and reliable analytical method for pymetrozine in paddy water, soil, rice straw, brown rice, and rice husk. The pymetrozine residues were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up by Carb-NH2 SPE cartridge and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The dissipation of pymetrozine followed first-order kinetics and its half-lives ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 days in paddy water, 5.1 to 5.7 days in soil, and 2.3 to 2.6 days in rice straw, respectively. At harvest time, the highest final residues of pymetrozine varied in soil among three geographical fields and were below the limit of detection in rice tissues. The recommended dosage was considered to be safe for human beings and animals, and the results were helpful in setting maximum residue limit for pymetrozine in rice.

  6. Arsenic speciation in rice and risk assessment of inorganic arsenic in Taiwan population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Ching-Chang; Huang, Winn-Jung; Huang, Han-Ting; Wu, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Yi-Ting

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the total arsenic content and arsenic speciation in rice to determine the health risks associated with rice consumption in various age-gender subgroups in Taiwan. The average total arsenic levels in white rice and brown rice were 116.6 ± 39.2 and 215.5 ± 63.5 ng/g weight (n = 51 and 13), respectively. The cumulative cancer risk among males was 10.4/100,000. The highest fraction of inorganic/total arsenic content in white rice ranged from 76.9 to 88.2 % and from 81.0 to 96.5 % in brown rice. The current study found different arsenic speciation of rice in southern Taiwan, where the famous blackfoot disease has been reported compared with arsenic speciation from other Taiwan areas. Therefore, rice and other grains should be further monitored in southern Taiwan to evaluate whether arsenic contamination is well controlled in this area.

  7. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-01-01

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10−4. The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents. PMID:26670240

  8. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-12-08

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10(-4). The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents.

  9. Brown Dwarf Microlensing Diagram

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    For the first time, two space-based telescopes have teamed up with ground-based observatories to observe a microlensing event, a magnification of the light of a distant star due to the gravitational effects of an unseen object in the foreground. In this case, the cause of the microlensing event was a brown dwarf, dubbed OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, orbiting a star. In terms of mass, brown dwarfs fall somewhere between the size of the largest planets and the smallest stars. Curiously, scientists have found that, for stars roughly the mass of our sun, less than 1 percent have a brown dwarf orbiting within 3 AU (1 AU is the distance between Earth and the sun). This newly discovered brown dwarf may fall in that distance range. This microlensing event was observed by ground-based telescopes looking for these uncommon events, and subsequently seen by NASA's Spitzer and Swift space telescopes. As the diagram shows, Spitzer and Swift offer additional vantage points for viewing this chance alignment. While Swift orbits close to Earth, and saw (blue diamonds) essentially the same change in light that the ground-based telescopes measured (grey markers), Spitzer's location much farther away from Earth gave it a very different perspective on the event (red circles). In particular, Spitzer's vantage point resulted in a time lag in the microlensing event it observed, compared to what was seen by Swift and the ground-based telescope. This offset allowed astronomers to determine the distance to OGLE-2015-BLG-1319 as well as its mass: around 30-65 times that of Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21077

  10. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  11. Burkholderia glumae: next major pathogen of rice?

    PubMed

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Melanson, Rebecca A; Rush, Milton C

    2011-05-01

    Burkholderia glumae causes bacterial panicle blight of rice, which is an increasingly important disease problem in global rice production. Toxoflavin and lipase are known to be major virulence factors of this pathogen, and their production is dependent on the TofI/TofR quorum-sensing system, which is mediated by N-octanoyl homoserine lactone. Flagellar biogenesis and a type III secretion system are also required for full virulence of B. glumae. Bacterial panicle blight is thought to be caused by seed-borne B. glumae; however, its disease cycle is not fully understood. In spite of its economic importance, neither effective control measures for bacterial panicle blight nor rice varieties showing complete resistance to the disease are currently available. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying B. glumae virulence and of the rice defence mechanisms against the pathogen would lead to the development of better methods of disease control for bacterial panicle blight. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Burkholderiales; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderia. Gram-negative, capsulated, motile, lophotrichous flagella, pectolytic. Aborted seed, empty grains as a result of failure of grain filling, brown spots on panicles, seedling rot. Seed sterilization, planting partially resistant lines (no completely resistant line is available). KNOWN VIRULENCE FACTORS: Toxoflavin, lipase, type III effectors. © 2010 LSU AGCENTER. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2010 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  12. Brown recluse spider bites.

    PubMed

    Forks, T P

    2000-01-01

    Brown recluse spider bites are a serious medical problem in the southeastern United States. Although most bites are asymptomatic, envenomation can result in a constellation of systemic symptoms referred to as loxoscelism. Patients can also develop necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). These ulcers are often difficult to heal and can require skin grafting or amputation of the bitten appendage. A search of the literature was performed using the search words "spider envenomation," "brown recluse spider bites," and "arachnid envenomation." Most brown recluse spider bites are asymptomatic. All bites should be thoroughly cleansed and tetanus status updated as needed. Patients who develop systemic symptoms require hospitalization. Surgical excision of skin lesions is indicated only for lesions that have stabilized and are no longer enlarging. Steroids are indicated in bites that are associated with severe skin lesions, loxoscelism, and in small children. Dapsone should be used only in adult patients who experience necrotic arachnidism and who have been screened for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Topical nitroglycerin can be of value in decreasing the enlargement of necrotic skin ulcers.

  13. Apelin Enhances Brown Adipogenesis and Browning of White Adipocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Than, Aung; He, Hui Ling; Chua, Si Hui; Xu, Dan; Sun, Lei; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Chen, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue expends energy in the form of heat via the mitochondrial uncoupling protein UCP1. Recent studies showed that brown adipose tissue is present in adult humans and may be exploited for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetes actions. Apelin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that plays important roles in energy metabolism. Here, we report that apelin-APJ signaling promotes brown adipocyte differentiation by increasing the expressions of brown adipogenic and thermogenic transcriptional factors via the PI3K/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. It is also found that apelin relieves the TNFα inhibition on brown adipogenesis. In addition, apelin increases the basal activity of brown adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased PGC1α and UCP1 expressions, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxygen consumption. Finally, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that apelin is able to increase the brown-like characteristics in white adipocytes. This study, for the first time, reveals the brown adipogenic and browning effects of apelin and suggests a potential therapeutic route to combat obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:25931124

  14. Rice Production and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briers, Gary; Lee, Jasper S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for use in secondary programs of agricultural education in geographical areas in which rice is produced. Six units and 13 problem areas are organized into teaching plans that cover the broad nature of rice production. The six units are: (1) determining the importance and history of rice production; (2) determining…

  15. Transgenic Cry1Ab Rice Does Not Impact Ecological Fitness and Predation of a Generalist Spider

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Li, Kai; Chen, Mao; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Shelton, Anthony M.; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Background The commercial release of rice genetically engineered to express a Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for control of Lepidoptera in China is a subject of debate. One major point of the debate has focused on the ecological safety of Bt rice on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of insect pests. Methodology/Principal Findings A tritrophic bioassay was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on fitness parameters of a predaceous ground spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg et Strand)) that had fed on Bt rice-fed brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) nymphs. Survival, development time and fecundity of this spider were not different when they were fed with Bt rice-fed or non-Bt rice-fed prey. Furthermore, ELISA and PCR gut assays, as well as a functional response trial, indicated that predation by P. pseudoannulata was not significantly different in Bt rice or non-Bt rice fields. Conclusions/Significance The transgenic Cry1Ab rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the survival, developmental time and fecundity of P. pseudoannulata in the laboratory or on predation under field conditions. This suggests that this important predator would not be harmed if transgenic Cry1Ab rice were commercialized. PMID:22511982

  16. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Md. Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg) linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg) and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg). The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis), with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg), campesterol (116–242 mg/kg), Δ5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg) were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data), identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods. PMID:22605998

  17. A systematic review of the influence of rice characteristics and processing methods on postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses.

    PubMed

    Boers, Hanny M; Seijen Ten Hoorn, Jack; Mela, David J

    2015-10-14

    Rice is an important staple food for more than half of the world's population. Especially in Asian countries, rice is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load (GL). Sustained consumption of higher-GL diets has been implicated in the development of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given that a reduction in postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses is generally seen as a beneficial dietary change, it is useful to determine the variation in the range of postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) responses to rice and the primary intrinsic and processing factors known to affect such responses. Therefore, we identified relevant original research articles on glycaemic response to rice through a systematic search of the literature in Scopus, Medline and SciFinder databases up to July 2014. Based on a glucose reference value of 100, the observed glycaemic index values for rice varieties ranged from 48 to 93, while the insulinaemic index ranged from 39 to 95. There are three main factors that appear to explain most of the variation in glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice: (1) inherent starch characteristics (amylose:amylopectin ratio and rice cultivar); (2) post-harvest processing (particularly parboiling); (3) consumer processing (cooking, storage and reheating). The milling process shows a clear effect when compared at identical cooking times, with brown rice always producing a lower PPG and PPI response than white rice. However, at longer cooking times normally used for the preparation of brown rice, smaller and inconsistent differences are observed between brown and white rice.

  18. Inheritance Mode and Realized Heritability of Resistance to Imidacloprid in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...

  19. Silencing a sugar transporter gene reduces fecundity, growth and development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, sugar transporter gene 6 (Nlst6) is a facilitative glucose/fructose transporter expressed in midgut that mediates sugar uptake from rice phloem, a major energy source for BPH. In mammals, down regulation of the major sugar transporter gene GLUT or SGL...

  20. Differential resistance and cross-resistance to three phenylpyrazole insecticides in the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cross-resistance to two fipronil analogs, butene-fipronil and ethiprole were detected in fipronil-resistant field populations and a resistant laboratorial strain of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, although the two analogs have not been used widely in rice-growing areas in China. The resul...

  1. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  2. Residues of carbosulfan and its metabolites carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in rice field ecosystem in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang P; He, Hong M; Yu, Jian Z; Hu, Xiu Q; Zhu, Ya H; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The fate of carbosulfan (seed treatment dry powder) was studied in rice field ecosystem, and a simple and reliable analytical method was developed for determination of carbosulfan, carbofuran, and 3-hydroxyl carbofuran in brown rice, rice straw, paddy water, and soil. The target compounds were extracted using acetonitrile or dichloromethane, cleaned up on acidic alumina or florisil solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge, and analyzed by gas chromatography. The average recoveries of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in brown rice, rice straw, paddy water, and soil ranged from 72.71% to 105.07%, with relative standard deviations of 2.00-8.80%. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in the samples (brown rice, rice straw, paddy water and soil) were 0.011, 0.0091, 0.014, 0.010 mg kg(-1), 0.016, 0.019, 0.025, 0.013 mg kg(-1), and 0.031, 0.039, 0.035, 0.036 mg kg(-1), respectively. The trials results showed that the half-lives of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in rice straw were 4.0, 2.6 days, 3.9, 6.0 days, and 5.8, 7.0 days in Zhejiang and Hunan, respectively. Carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran were detected in soils. Carbosulfan and 3-hydroxy carbofuran were almost undetectable in paddy water. Carbofuran was detected in paddy water. The final residues of carbosulfan, carbofuran and 3-hydroxy carbofuran in brown rice were lower than 0.05 mg kg(-1), which were lower than 0.5 mg kg(-1) (MRL of carbosulfan) or 0.1 mg kg(-1) (MRL of carbofuran). Therefore, a dosage of 420 g active ingredient per 100 kg seed was recommended, which could be considered as safe to human beings and animals. These would contribute to provide the scientific basis of using this insecticide.

  3. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Ya-jun; Meng, Zhi-yuan; Lu, Chun-liang; Gu, Hao-tian; Zhuang, Yi-qing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there is an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice. To protect consumers from potential health risks, this study can provide references for the safe application of trichlorfon in the rice fields. Results of the field dissipation study showed that the dissipation dynamic equations of trichlorfon were based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations and that the dissipation rates vary among rice plant, brown rice, rice bran, soil, and water. The 2-year field trials conducted in Yangzhou and Xiaogan suggested the interval of each application for trichlorfon on rice to be at least 7 days when 80 % trichlorfon SP was sprayed with a dose ranges between 80 and 160 a.i g/667 m(2). Additionally, the preharvest interval of the last application should be at least 15 days to ensure the amounts of residues below the maximum residue limits of trichlorfon on brown rice (0.1 mg/kg).

  4. Tailoring Grain Storage Reserves for a Healthier Rice Diet and its Comparative Status with Other Cereals.

    PubMed

    Butardo, Vito M; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2016-01-01

    A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases.

  5. Variation in arsenic bioavailability in rice genotypes using swine model: An animal study.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Duan, Luchun; Islam, M R; Kuchel, Tim; Naidu, Ravi

    2017-12-01

    An in vivo assay using swine was used to measure the absolute bioavailability (AB) of As from cooked rice of twelve genotypes commonly grown in Bangladesh. An assessment of both total As in rice and its bioavailability is crucial for estimating human exposure following dietary intake by the local community. Average As concentrations in each rice genotype ranged from 108±4μg/kg to 580±6μg/kg. Arsenic speciation shows that most of the rice genotype contains 73 to 100% inorganic As. Swine were administered with As orally and via intravenous method, i.e. injection and fed certain common Bangladeshi rice genotypes (cooked). Swine blood As levels were measured to calculate As bioavailability from rice. Pilot studies shows that for As(III) and As(V), 90.8±12.4% and 85.0±19.2% of the administered oral dose was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract whereas organic As was poorly absorbed resulting in low bioavailability values 20.2±2.6% (MMA) to 31.2±3.4% (DMA), respectively. These studies demonstrates that rice genotypic characters influenced As bioavailability in rice grown in As-contaminated areas and the bioavailability varied between 25% and 94%. Arsenic in salt tolerant rice genotypes Binadhan-10 and BRRI dhan47 as well as brown rice genotypes Kheali Boro and Local Boro has lower bioavailability (<50%) compared to other rice genotypes. The most commonly cultivated and consumed variety (BRRI dhan28) has As bioavailability of 70%, which poses a significant risk to consumers. Calculation of maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) for humans due to consumption of rice based on bioavailability data was higher than those calculated based on inorganic and organic As concentration in rice genotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Richard W.

    On the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the "Brown v Board of Education" decision, it is appropriate to review it as the spark for a new definition of equality in American life. The Brown case was the first significant step in the modern civil rights movement, and, as such, defined the structure and legal reasoning for the push by…

  7. Inhibition of browning in foodstuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    Addition of water-soluble sulfur-containing compounds, thio compounds or potential thio compounds, to a mixture of carbohydrates, and either proteins, peptides, or amino acids can retard or completely eliminate the browning process. Determining factor is dependent upon the concentration of the anti-browning agent in the aqueous media.

  8. Origins, Evolution, and Fate of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Research related to the origins, evolution and fate of brown dwarfs is presented. The topics include: 1) Imaging surveys for brown dwarfs; 2) Companion detection techniques; 3) Measurements of fundamental properties of brown dwarfs; 4) Classification schemes for ultracool dwarfs; 5) Origins and evolution of brown dwarfs; 6) Ultracool atmospheres and interiors; 7) Time variable phenomena in brown dwarfs; 8) Comparisons between brown dwarfs and planets; 9) Substellar mass functions; and 10) Future facilities.

  9. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling. Four different milling temperatures per milling duration were achieved. Cooked rice texture properties were assessed using a uniaxial compression test and rice flour pasting properties measured using a TA-2000 rheometer. Results of this study showed that exposure of rice to high temperatures during milling significantly decreased cooked rice firmness. An increase in milled rice temperature after milling from 10.0 to 13.3 °C resulted in a 5.4 and 8.1 N decrease in cooked rice firmness. Although not always significant, the increase in milled rice temperature during milling resulted in an increase in cooked rice stickiness. The increase in milling temperature also showed significant increase in rice flour pasting properties. Changes in rice functional characteristics were attributed to the changes occurring to rice chemical constituents due to temperature exposure as indicated by the increase in rice protein hydrophobicity. Proteins are known to affect rice starch water holding capacity and other starch gelatinization properties.

  10. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen. PMID:27436950

  11. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen.

  12. Improved yield and Zn accumulation for rice grain by Zn fertilization and optimized water management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-yan; Wei, Yan-yan; Dong, Lan-xue; Lu, Ling-li; Feng, Ying; Zhang, Jie; Pan, Feng-shan; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency and water scarcity are major challenges in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under an intensive rice production system. This study aims to investigate the impact of water-saving management and different Zn fertilization source (ZnSO4 and Zn-EDTA) regimes on grain yield and Zn accumulation in rice grain. Different water managements, continuous flooding (CF), and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) were applied during the rice growing season. Compared with CF, the AWD regime significantly increased grain yield and Zn concentrations in both brown rice and polished rice. Grain yield of genotypes (Nipponbare and Jiaxing27), on the average, was increased by 11.4%, and grain Zn concentration by 3.9% when compared with those under a CF regime. Zn fertilization significantly increased Zn density in polished rice, with a more pronounced effect of ZnSO4 being observed as compared with Zn-EDTA, especially under an AWD regime. Decreased phytic acid content and molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn were also noted in rice grains with Zn fertilization. The above results demonstrated that water management of AWD combined with ZnSO4 fertilization was an effective agricultural practice to elevate grain yield and increase Zn accumulation and bioavailability in rice grains.