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Sample records for pre-germinated brown rice

  1. Pre-germinated brown rice reduced both blood glucose concentration and body weight in Vietnamese women with impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Nhung; Le, Thi Hop; Nguyen, Do Huy; Tran, Quang Binh; Nguyen, Thi Lam; Le, Danh Tuyen; Nguyen, Do Van Anh; Vu, Anh Linh; Aoto, Hiromichi; Okuhara, Yasuhide; Ito, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Kise, Mitsuo

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients in Vietnam have a low body mass index (BMI) of around 23 and that the major factor for this is high white rice (WR) intake. Brown rice (BR) is known to be beneficial in the control of blood glucose levels; however, it has the property of unpleasant palatability. Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) is slightly germinated by soaking BR in water as this reduces the hardness of BR and makes it easier to eat. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of a 4-mo PGBR administration on various parameters in Vietnamese women aged 45-65 y with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Sixty subjects were divided into a WR or PGBR group. For the first 2 wk, WR was replaced by 50% PGBR, then for 2 wk by 75% PGBR and from the second month 100%. Before the beginning of the study and at the end of the study, 1) anthropometric measurements, 2) a nutrition survey for 3 nonconsecutive days by the 24 h recall method and 3) blood biochemical examinations were conducted. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose and lipids and the obesity-related measurements and blood pressure were favorably improved only in the PGBR diet group. The present results suggest that replacing WR with PGBR for 4 mo may be useful in controlling body weight as well as blood glucose and lipid levels in Vietnamese women with IGT.

  2. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Jia-Hao; Chen, Fu-Chih; Lin, Hui-Li

    2016-07-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) can ameliorate hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism is not clear. We focus the mechanisms of PGBR prevented hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old mice were divided into: standard-regular diet (SRD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD with PGBR (HFD + PGBR) groups for 16 weeks. The HFD group has higher concentrations of TG, TC, HDL and Non-HDL in the blood, and a higher atherosclerosis index (AI). The TG levels in the liver, and TG, bile acid levels in the feces were enhanced; and the total adipocytokines level in adipose tissue was reduced. The HFD group had higher protein expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, LDLR, and CYP7α1 in the liver. Moreover, the greater expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS and the less expressions of PPAR-α and adiponectin were in adipose tissue. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR regulated the levels of TG, TC, HDL, Non-HDL, AI and adipocytokines. PGBR increased more cholesterol and bile acid exhaust in feces. The SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α proteins in the liver; and the SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, PPAR-α and adiponectin proteins in adipose tissue were reversed by PGBR. Taken together, PGBR can improve lipid synthesis and metabolism, and we suggest PGBR is a recommendable food for controlling hyperlipidemia. PMID:27499577

  3. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Jia-Hao; Chen, Fu-Chih; Lin, Hui-Li

    2016-01-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) can ameliorate hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism is not clear. We focus the mechanisms of PGBR prevented hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old mice were divided into: standard-regular diet (SRD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD with PGBR (HFD + PGBR) groups for 16 weeks. The HFD group has higher concentrations of TG, TC, HDL and Non-HDL in the blood, and a higher atherosclerosis index (AI). The TG levels in the liver, and TG, bile acid levels in the feces were enhanced; and the total adipocytokines level in adipose tissue was reduced. The HFD group had higher protein expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, LDLR, and CYP7α1 in the liver. Moreover, the greater expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS and the less expressions of PPAR-α and adiponectin were in adipose tissue. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR regulated the levels of TG, TC, HDL, Non-HDL, AI and adipocytokines. PGBR increased more cholesterol and bile acid exhaust in feces. The SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α proteins in the liver; and the SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, PPAR-α and adiponectin proteins in adipose tissue were reversed by PGBR. Taken together, PGBR can improve lipid synthesis and metabolism, and we suggest PGBR is a recommendable food for controlling hyperlipidemia. PMID:27499577

  4. A simplified genomic DNA extraction protocol for pre-germination genotyping in rice.

    PubMed

    Duan, Y B; Zhao, F L; Chen, H D; Li, H; Ni, D H; Wei, P C; Sheng, W; Teng, J T; Zhang, A M; Xue, J P

    2015-06-11

    Genotyping is a critical step for molecular marker-assisted selection in rice. Rice genomic DNA samples for genotyping are typically isolated from living tissues such as seedlings. This requires the germination of all candidate seeds and extraction of DNA from the seedlings. Currently, an ideal individual is selected from a very large number of plants, which is time- and labor-consuming, requiring several transplantations of materials and sampling processes. In this study, we developed a simplified genomic DNA extraction protocol in rice by using amylase to treat half-seeds. The yields of genomic DNA from a half-seed of Indica and Japonica rice were greater than 203.8 ± 32.5 and 143.2 ± 25.5 ng, respectively, and the 260/280 nm absorbance ratio was 1.75-2.10. The DNA was confirmed to be sufficient for polymerase chain reaction amplification and can be used in a marker-assisted selection program.

  5. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  6. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    PubMed

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter.

  7. Rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter while replacing white rice with brown rice.

    PubMed

    Manickavasagan, Annamalai; Al-Marhubi, Insaaf Mohd; Dev, Satyanarayan

    2014-06-01

    Rice-blackgram batter is a raw material for many traditional convenience foods in Asia. Reformulation of traditional convenience food by replacing white rice with whole rice (brown rice) is a novel method to reduce the consumption of refined grain and increase the intake of whole grain in our diet. In this study, rheological properties of rice-blackgram batter was investigated while replacing white rice with brown rice at five levels (T1--0% replacement (control), T2--25% replacement, T3--50% replacement, T4--75% replacement, and T5--100% replacement). The shear stress versus shear rate plot indicates that the rice-blackgram batter exhibited non-Newtonian fluid behavior (shear thinning property) even after 100% replacement of white rice with brown rice. The rheological characteristics of rice-blackgram batters fitted reasonably well in Cassan (r2 = 0.8521-0.9856) and power law (r2 = 0.8042-0.9823) models. Brown rice replacement at all levels did not affect the flow behavior index, yield stress, consistency coefficient, and apparent viscosity of batter at 25 degrees C. However, at higher temperature, the viscosity was greater for T4 and T5 (no difference between them) than T1, T2, and T3 (no difference between them) batters. Further research is required to determine the sensory attributes and acceptability of the cooked products with brown rice-blended batter. PMID:23751544

  8. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  9. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  10. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  11. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  12. 7 CFR 868.251 - Definition of brown rice for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of brown rice for processing. 868.251... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Terms Defined § 868.251 Definition of brown rice for processing. Rice (Oryza sativa L.)...

  13. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ..., Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice standards were last revised in 1993 (58 FR 68015) and appear... were last revised, numerous changes have occurred in the breeding and production practices of rice;...

  14. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations instead of the commonly consumed WR that is known to promote oxidative stress. This will then provide further reasons why less consumption of WR should be encouraged. We studied the effects of GBR on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats, induced using a high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection, and also evaluated the effects of WR, BR and GBR on catalase and superoxide dismutase genes. As dietary components, BR and GBR improved glycemia and kidney hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, and prevented the deterioration of total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic rats. Similarly, GBR preserved liver enzymes, as well as serum creatinine. There seem to be evidence that upregulation of superoxide dismutase gene may likely be an underlying mechanism for antioxidant effects of BR and GBR. Our results provide insight into the effects of different rice types on antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes. The results also suggest that WR consumption, contrary to BR and GBR, may worsen antioxidant status that may lead to more damage by free radicals. From the data so far, the antioxidant effects of BR and GBR are worth studying further especially on a long term to determine their effects on development of oxidative stress-related problems, which WR consumption predisposes to. PMID:23202932

  15. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA. PMID:20492098

  16. Antioxidant activity of white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice (in vivo and in vitro) and the effects on lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2013-11-15

    Antioxidant activity of different rice extract and the effect on the levels of antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), vitamin E, lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes in hyperlipidaemia rabbits were investigated. Germinated brown rice (GBR) has the highest antioxidant activity compared to white rice (WR) and brown rice (BR). All rice grains increased the activity of SOD and GPx. However, vitamin E levels increased only in the groups that received the BR and GBR diets. The reduction of lipid peroxidation levels and activity of hepatic enzymes (alanine transferase, ALT and aspartate transaminase, AST) were only significantly observed in the GBR group. In conclusion, GBR supplementation has the greatest impact on increasing antioxidant enzyme activity and vitamin E level and on reducing lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolaemia rabbit, thereby preventing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Furthermore, GBR diet can also reduce the level of hepatic enzymes. PMID:23790918

  17. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  18. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26344967

  19. Functional properties as affected by laboratory-scale parboiling of rough rice and brown rice.

    PubMed

    Patindol, J; Newton, J; Wang, Y-J

    2008-10-01

    Rough rice (RR) is the conventional feedstock for parboiling. The use of brown rice (BR) instead of RR is gaining interest because it results in shorter processing time and lower energy requirement. This study compared the functional properties of milled parboiled rice under different parboiling conditions from RR and BR. Presoaked RR and BR from cultivars Bolivar, Cheniere, Dixiebelle, and Wells were parboiled under mild (20 min, 100 degrees C, 0 kPa) and severe (20 min, 120 degrees C, 98 kPa) laboratory-scale conditions. Head rice yield improved on the RR and BR samples subjected to severe parboiling and was comparable to that of a commercially parboiled sample. Mild parboiling of BR resulted in lower head rice yields. Parboiling generally resulted in decreased head rice whiteness, decreased apparent amylose, increased total lipid, and sparingly changed protein content. Under the same parboiling conditions, the extent of starch gelatinization was higher for BR compared to RR as manifested by some distinct differences in pasting and thermal properties. The cooking characteristics (water uptake ratio, leached materials, and volumetric expansion) and cooked rice texture (hardness and stickiness) of RR and BR subjected to severe parboiling were fairly comparable. Differences in parboiled rice functional properties due to cultivar effect were evident. PMID:19019108

  20. Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Brown Rice from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    ASGHAR, Muhammad Asif; IQBAL, Javed; AHMED, Aftab; KHAN, Mobeen Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas AFB2 was detected in 20 (7.6%) samples. Furthermore, AFG1 and AFG2 were not found in any sample. The contamination range of AFB1 and AFB2 was found 1.07–24.65 μg/kg and 0.52–2.62 μg/kg, respectively. Total AFs were quantified in 250 (95.4%) samples with an average of 3.89 μg/kg and contamination range was noted to be between 1.07–27.27 μg/kg. The overall results indicated that in 12 (4.6%) samples, AFs were not found within detectable limits. Furthermore, in 188 (71.7%) samples, AFs level was found below than maximum tolerated levels (MTL) as recommended by the European Union (4 μg/kg). Moreover, in 61 (23.3%) samples, AFs range was found between 4–20 μg/kg, which were fit for human consumption as per MTL (20 μg/kg) assigned by USA (FDA and FAO) and Pakistan (PSQCA). While only one sample (27.27 μg/kg) exceeded the above mention regulation limits. Conclusion Low level of AFs occurs frequently in brown rice, and can be improved using proper harvesting practices, storage and transportation conditions. The small quantities of AFs warrant performing further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis on regular basis. PMID:25988088

  1. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  2. Antidiabetic properties of germinated brown rice: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR) for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  3. Effect of flour-blasting of brown rice on reduction of cooking time and resulting texture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long grain non-parboiled, long grain parboiled, and American basmati-type brown rice were bombarded with parboiled rice flour sufficient to create microperforations in the water-resistant outer coat of the seed. These microperforations in the treated rice significantly increased the rate of hydratio...

  4. Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Rosell, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of germination time on physicochemical characteristics of brown rice flour and its effect on gluten free bread qualities have been investigated. Germination was carried out at 28 °C and 100 % RH for 12, 24 and 48 h; brown rice and soaked brown rice was also analyzed. Significant changes on hydration and pasting properties of brown rice flour were found during germination. The starch degradation by enzyme activity could be evidenced with the decrease in viscosity and water binding capacity (WBC). No significant effect in specific volume, humidity and water activity of the gluten free bread was found as germination time increase, but a significant softness of the crumb was obtained. However, at 48 h of germination, the intense action of α amylase could result in excessive liquefaction and dextrinisation, causing inferior bread quality. Overall, germinated rice flour showed appropriate functionality for being used as raw ingredient in gluten free breadmaking. PMID:26396405

  5. Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Rosell, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of germination time on physicochemical characteristics of brown rice flour and its effect on gluten free bread qualities have been investigated. Germination was carried out at 28 °C and 100 % RH for 12, 24 and 48 h; brown rice and soaked brown rice was also analyzed. Significant changes on hydration and pasting properties of brown rice flour were found during germination. The starch degradation by enzyme activity could be evidenced with the decrease in viscosity and water binding capacity (WBC). No significant effect in specific volume, humidity and water activity of the gluten free bread was found as germination time increase, but a significant softness of the crumb was obtained. However, at 48 h of germination, the intense action of α amylase could result in excessive liquefaction and dextrinisation, causing inferior bread quality. Overall, germinated rice flour showed appropriate functionality for being used as raw ingredient in gluten free breadmaking.

  6. Speciation and Localization of Arsenic in White and Brown Rice Grains

    SciTech Connect

    Meharg, Andrew A.; Lombi, Enzo; Williams, Paul N.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhu, Yongguan; Islam, Rafiql

    2008-06-30

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the endosperm. In brown rice As was found to be preferentially localized at the surface, in the region corresponding to the pericarp and aleurone layer. Copper, iron, manganese, and zinc localization followed that of arsenic in brown rice, while the location for cadmium and nickel was distinctly different, showing relatively even distribution throughout the endosperm. The localization of As in the outer grain of brown rice was confirmed by laser ablation ICP?MS. Arsenic speciation of all grains using spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) and bulk extraction followed by anion exchange HPLC?ICP?MS revealed the presence of mainly inorganic As and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). However, the two techniques indicated different proportions of inorganic:organic As species. A wider survey of whole grain speciation of white (n = 39) and brown (n = 45) rice samples from numerous sources (field collected, supermarket survey, and pot trials) showed that brown rice had a higher proportion of inorganic arsenic present than white rice. Furthermore, the percentage of DMA present in the grain increased along with total grain arsenic.

  7. Efficacy of methoprene for multi-year protection of stored wheat, brown rice, rough rice and corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard red winter wheat, brown rice, rough rice, and corn were treated with the insect growth regulator (IGR) at rates of 1.25 and 2.5 ppm, held for 24 months at ambient conditions at the floor of a grain bin, and sampled every two months. Bioassays were done by exposing 10 mixed-sex adults of Rhyzope...

  8. Impact of browning reactions and bran pigments on color of parboiled rice.

    PubMed

    Lamberts, Lieve; Brijs, Kristof; Mohamed, Rasty; Verhelst, Neelke; Delcour, Jan A

    2006-12-27

    Rice color changes from white to amber during parboiling (soaking and steaming). Color parameters indicated that, during soaking, yellow bran pigments leached out in the water. The levels of the Maillard precursors (i.e., reducing sugars (RS) and free alpha-amino nitrogen (FAN)) depended on soaking temperature and time: leaching of RS was compensated by enzymic formation for long soaking times (>60 min), while proteolytic activity was too low to compensate for FAN leaching. Rice soaking under nitrogen, oxygen, or ambient conditions and determination of polyphenol oxidase activity allowed us to conclude that the effect of enzymic color changes on the soaked rice color was rather small. Color measurements of brown and milled mildly, intermediately, and severely parboiled rice samples showed that both brown and milled rice samples were darker and more red and yellow after parboiling and that the effect depended on the severity of parboiling conditions. Furthermore, steaming affected the rice color more and in a way opposite to that observed in soaking. The changes in RS and the loss of FAN during parboiling suggested that Maillard type reactions occur during brown rice steaming. Analyses of furosine levels confirmed Maillard browning of outer bran layers and endosperm during steaming. The level of this Maillard indicator increased with the severity of parboiling conditions in both brown and milled parboiled rice. Measurements of the levels of bran pigments indicated that bran pigments diffuse into the endosperm during parboiling and contribute to the parboiled rice color. PMID:17177522

  9. Quality controlling of brown rice by ultrasound treatment and its effect on isolated starch.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-June; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-02-10

    Ultrasonic treatment (UT) was applied to brown rice at two different conditions: mild (25 °C, 30 min) and harsh (50 °C, 60 min) after soaking for several times (2, 3, 5, and 8h). After UT, starch was isolated from the brown rice grains, and the physicochemical properties of the starch, as well as the textural and nutritional properties of the grains, were compared. After UT, the cooked brown rice grains was softer in proportion to soaking time, and the hardness of brown rice soaked for 8h and then ultrasound treated at harsh condition was similar to that of cooked milled rice. Untreated brown rice grain has much more thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin contents than milled rice (0.546 vs. 0.069, 0.054 vs. 0.018, and 4.56 vs. 1.21 mg/100g, respectively), and the thiamin and niacin contents in brown rice treated even at the most harsh condition were still higher than those in milled rice (0.193 vs. 0.069, and 1.6 vs. 1.21 mg/100g, respectively). The isolated starch from brown rice grains treated at the harsh condition exhibited a lower pasting temperature and higher breakdown in pasting properties than that treated at the mild condition. The crystalline structure of starch became more homogeneous by UT at both conditions with longer soaking times. Both of the melting enthalpy and relative crystallinity of starch significantly decreased by UT, however A-type crystal form was maintained.

  10. Expression of snowdrop lectin (GNA) in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V; Rathore, K S; Hodges, T K; Fu, X; Stoger, E; Sudhakar, D; Williams, S; Christou, P; Bharathi, M; Bown, D P; Powell, K S; Spence, J; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    1998-08-01

    Snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) has been shown previously to be toxic towards rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH) when administered in artificial diet. BPH feeds by phloem abstraction, and causes 'hopper burn', as well as being an important virus vector. To evaluate the potential of the gna gene to confer resistance towards BPH, transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were produced, containing the gna gene in constructs where its expression was driven by a phloem-specific promoter (from the rice sucrose synthase RSs1 gene) and by a constitutive promoter (from the maize ubiquitin ubi1 gene). PCR and Southern analyses on DNA from these plants confirmed their transgenic status, and that the transgenes were transmitted to progeny after self-fertilization. Western blot analyses revealed expression of GNA at levels of up to 2.0% of total protein in some of the transgenic plants. GNA expression driven by the RSs1 promoter was tissue-specific, as shown by immunohistochemical localization of the protein in the non-lignified vascular tissue of transgenic plants. Insect bioassays and feeding studies showed that GNA expressed in the transgenic rice plants decreased survival and overall fecundity (production of offspring) of the insects, retarded insect development, and had a deterrent effect on BPH feeding. gna is the first transgene to exhibit insecticidal activity towards sap-sucking insects in an important cereal crop plant.

  11. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (p<0.05) at 80°C. However, heat treatment had more effect on wheat dough compared to brown rice batter.

  12. [Effects of typhoon 'Haitang' airflow field on the northward migration route of rice brown planthopper].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cui-Hua; Zhai, Bao-Ping; Bao, Yun-Xuan

    2009-10-01

    Based on GIS, GrADS, and HYSPLIT-4.8 model, this paper analyzed the daily light-trap catches of rice brown planthopper at 42 pest monitoring stations of 10 provinces in China, the wind field on 850 hPa isobaric surface, and the migration tracks of rice brown planthopper at 20 pest monitoring stations during the occurrence of 0505 typhoon 'Haitang' from 19th to 21st July, 2005. After its landing on China, the typhoon 'Haitang' changed the southwest air flow, a flow which leads the northward migration of rice brown planthopper, and made the wind field converge in the southwest of the typhoon and swerve in larger areas. Accordingly, the northward migration of the rice brown planthopper was stopped, and the airborne populations were forced to descend in some areas. The shear line area nearby 850 hPa isobaric surface was the concentration and deposition area of the rice brown planthopper. There would be a mass migration area in the warm airflow shear area in the southeast of typhoon during the collapse of the typhoon. After the whole typhoon landed, the southwest airflow rebuilt, and a mass rice brown planthopper migrated to the north.

  13. Impact of germination on the structures and in vitro digestibility of starch from waxy brown rice.

    PubMed

    You, Su-Yeon; Oh, Sea-Gwan; Han, Hye Min; Jun, Wujin; Hong, Young-Shick; Chung, Hyun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro digestibility as well as the molecular and crystalline structures of waxy rice starches isolated from brown rice, germinated brown rice (GBR), ultrasonicated GBR, and heat-moisture treated GBR were investigated. The germinated brown rice starch (GBRS) had a lower average molecular weight and a higher proportion of DP 6-12 in amylopectin than brown rice starch (BRS). The relative crystallinity, intensity ratio of the band at 1,047 cm(-1) and 1,022 cm(-1), gelatinization temperature and pasting temperature of waxy rice starch were reduced by germination. However, the ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS increased the relative crystallinity and gelatinization temperature. The digestibility of starch from brown waxy rice was increased by germination. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) contents were 50.5%, 42.4%, and 7.1% in BRS, and 69.0%, 27.9% and 3.1% in GBRS, respectively. The ultrasonication and heat-moisture treatment of GBRS reduced RDS content and increased RS content in raw and gelatinized starches. The decrease in starch digestibility of cooked GBR was more pronounced after heat-moisture treatment than after ultrasonication.

  14. Speciation And Localization Of Arsenic In White And Brown Rice Grains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) was utilized to locate arsenic (As) in polished (white) and unpolished (brown) rice grains from the United States, China, and Bangladesh. In white rice As was generally dispersed throughout the grain, the bulk of which constitutes the...

  15. The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in cooked rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Oh, Sang-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Eui-Hong; Ree Kim, Mee; Baek, Min; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2007-05-01

    The effect of irradiation temperature on the non-enzymatic browning reaction in a sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice generated by gamma irradiation was evaluated in the present study. When the sugar-glycine solution and cooked rice were irradiated at room temperature, the browning reaction was dramatically increased during the post-irradiation period. In the case of irradiation at below the freezing point, the browning by irradiation was retarded during not only irradiation but also a post-irradiation period. The changes of the sugar profile, such as a sugar loss or reducing power of the irradiated sugar-glycine solution and the electron spin resonance signal intensity of the irradiated cooked rice were also decreased with lower irradiation temperature. The present results may suggest that the production of free radicals and a radiolysis product is inhibited during gamma irradiation in the frozen state and it may prevent the browning reaction generated by gamma irradiation from occurring.

  16. Plasma lipids and large bowel volatile fatty acids in pigs fed on white rice, brown rice and rice bran.

    PubMed

    Marsono, Y; Illman, R J; Clarke, J M; Trimble, R P; Topping, D L

    1993-09-01

    Adult male pigs were fed on a diet containing (% of energy) fat 25 starch 55 from white rice and providing 20 g fibre/pig d (diet WR). In two other groups rice bran was added to the diet to provide 43 g fibre/d. One group received the diet unmodified (diet RB), but in another (diet RO) heat-stabilized unrefined rice oil replaced the palm oil. In a further group brown rice replaced white rice and provided 37 g fibre/pig per d (diet BR). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar with diets WR, RB and BR. With diet RO the concentration was significantly lower than with diets WR and BR but was not different from diet RB. Plasma high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol and plasma triacylglycerols were unaffected by diet. In all groups, digesta mass rose from the caecum to the proximal colon but fell in the distal colon. Diet WR gave the lowest digesta mass while diet BR gave a significantly higher mass along the large bowel length. RB- and RO-fed pigs had equal masses of digesta which were intermediate between BR- and WR-fed pigs at all sampling sites. Pools of individual and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the proximal large bowel were unaffected by diet. Pools of total and individual VFA in the median and distal colon were lowest with diets WR and RB and significantly higher with diet BR. In these regions of the colon pools of acetate in RO-fed pigs did not differ from those in the BR-fed group but were higher than in other groups. However, pools of propionate and butyrate with the RO diet were significantly lower than with diet BR and the same as with diets WR and RB. Portal venous VFA concentrations were unaffected by diet. The higher large bowel digesta masses and VFA with diet BR may reflect the escape of starch from the small intestine. PMID:8260477

  17. Pre-germinated conidia of Coniothyrium minitans enhances the foliar biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junling; Li, Yin; Qian, Huali; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2004-11-01

    The relatively slow germination rate of Coniothyrium minitans limits its control efficiency against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Pre-germinated conidia of C. minitans enhanced its efficiency significantly: in foliar experiments with oilseed rape, hyphal extension of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 68%, while formation of sclerotia was completely inhibited when pre-germinated conidia were applied.

  18. Pre-germinated conidia of Coniothyrium minitans enhances the foliar biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junling; Li, Yin; Qian, Huali; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2004-11-01

    The relatively slow germination rate of Coniothyrium minitans limits its control efficiency against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Pre-germinated conidia of C. minitans enhanced its efficiency significantly: in foliar experiments with oilseed rape, hyphal extension of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 68%, while formation of sclerotia was completely inhibited when pre-germinated conidia were applied. PMID:15604814

  19. Particle size distribution of brown and white rice during gastric digestion measured by image analysis.

    PubMed

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Kostlan, Kevin; Singh, R Paul

    2013-09-01

    The particle size distribution of foods during gastric digestion indicates the amount of physical breakdown that occurred due to the peristaltic movement of the stomach walls in addition to the breakdown that initially occurred during oral processing. The objective of this study was to present an image analysis technique that was rapid, simple, and could distinguish between food components (that is, rice kernel and bran layer in brown rice). The technique was used to quantify particle breakdown of brown and white rice during gastric digestion in growing pigs (used as a model for an adult human) over 480 min of digestion. The particle area distributions were fit to a Rosin-Rammler distribution function. Brown and white rice exhibited considerable breakdown as the number of particles per image decreased over time. The median particle area (x(50)) increased during digestion, suggesting a gastric sieving phenomenon, where small particles were emptied and larger particles were retained for additional breakdown. Brown rice breakdown was further quantified by an examination of the bran layer fragments and rice grain pieces. The percentage of total particle area composed of bran layer fragments was greater in the distal stomach than the proximal stomach in the first 120 min of digestion. The results of this study showed that image analysis may be used to quantify particle breakdown of a soft food product during gastric digestion, discriminate between different food components, and help to clarify the role of food structure and processing in food breakdown during gastric digestion.

  20. Preventive Effects of Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran against Prostate Carcinogenesis in TRAP Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kuno, Toshiya; Nagano, Aya; Mori, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Hideki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) is considered to have the potential to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis in multiple organs of rodents. In the present study, we evaluated the possible chemopreventive effects of FBRA against prostate tumorigenesis. Six-week-old male rats of the transgenic rat for adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) strain were fed diets containing 5% or 10% FBRA for 15 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 21 weeks of age, and the ventral and lateral prostate were removed for histopathological evaluation and immunoblot analyses. FBRA decreased the incidence of adenocarcinoma in the lateral prostate and suppressed the progression of prostate carcinogenesis. Treatment with FBRA induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in histologically high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasias. Phospho-AMP-activated kinase α (Thr172) was up-regulated in the prostate of rats fed the diet supplemented with FBRA. These results indicate that FBRA controls tumor growth by activating pathways responsive to energy deprivation and suggest that FBRA has translational potential for the prevention of human prostate cancer. PMID:27409632

  1. Consumption of brown rice: a potential pathway for arsenic exposure in rural Bengal.

    PubMed

    Halder, Dipti; Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Biswas, Ashis; Mandal, Ujjal; Nriagu, Jerome; Mazumdar, Debendra Nath Guha; Chatterjee, Debashis; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2012-04-01

    This study assesses the arsenic (As) accumulation in different varieties of rice grain, that people in rural Bengal mostly prefer for daily consumption, to estimate the potential risk of dietary As exposure through rice intake. The rice samples have been classified according to their average length (L) and L to breadth (B) ratio into four categories, such as short-bold (SB), medium-slender (MS), long-slender (LS), and extra-long slender (ELS). The brown colored rice samples fall into the SB, MS, or LS categories; while all Indian Basmati (white colored) are classified as ELS. The study indicates that the average accumulation of As in rice grain increases with a decrease of grain size (ELS: 0.04; LS: 0.10; MS: 0.16; and SB: 0.33 mg kg(-1)), however people living in the rural villages mostly prefer brown colored SB type of rice because of its lower cost. For the participants consuming SB type of brown rice, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) in 29% of the cases exceeds the previous WHO recommended provisional tolerable daily intake value (2.1 μg day(-1) kg(-1) BW), and in more than 90% of cases, the As content in the drinking water equivalent to the inorganic As intake from rice consumption (C(W,eqv)) exceeds the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg L(-1). This study further demonstrates that participants in age groups 18-30 and 51-65 yrs are the most vulnerable to the potential health threat of dietary As exposure compared to participants of age group 31-50 yrs, because of higher amounts of brown rice consumption patterns and lower BMI.

  2. Effects of extrusion conditions on the extrusion responses and the quality of brown rice pasta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of extrusion temperature and screw speed on the extrusion system parameters and the qualities of brown rice pasta. The die pressure and motor torque value reached a maximum at 90°C but decreased when the screw speed increased from 80 to 120rpm. The extrusion temperature and screw speed also significantly affected the cooking quality and textural properties of brown rice pasta. The pasta produced at an extrusion temperature of 120°C and screw speed of 120rpm had the best quality with a cooking loss, hardness and adhesiveness of 6.7%, 2387.2g and -7.0g⋅s, respectively, similar to those of pasta made from gluten-free flour. The results indicated that brown rice can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with improved nutrition. PMID:26988508

  3. Tablet-based two-dimensional measurement for estimating the embryo area of brown rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chaitavon, Kosom; Chanhorm, Sataporn; Pongsoon, Prasit; Prasertsak, Anchalee

    2014-10-01

    The embryo or germ of a rice seed is growing to the shoot and the root parts of a seedling. In the early stage, the germinated embryo directly receives food from the endosperm. How healthy of the seedling can be physically predicted by measuring the areas of the embryo and endosperm. In this work, we show for the first time how the embryo and endosperm areas of a brown rice can be spatially measured. Our key design is based on the utilization of a tablet equipped with our lens module for capturing the rice seed image under white light illumination. Our Windows-based program is developed to analyze and separate the image of the whole brown rice into the embryo and endosperm parts within 2 seconds per seed. Our tablet-based system is just 30×30×6 cm3 with 1 kilogram in weight, capable to easily carry to perform in the field.

  4. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    PubMed Central

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Ramanathan, V.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate changes due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades. PMID:17158795

  5. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India.

    PubMed

    Auffhammer, Maximilian; Ramanathan, V; Vincent, Jeffrey R

    2006-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate changes due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  6. Integrated model shows that atmospheric brown clouds and greenhouse gases have reduced rice harvests in India

    SciTech Connect

    Auffhammer, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Vincent, J.R.

    2007-12-26

    Previous studies have found that atmospheric brown clouds partially offset the warming effects of greenhouse gases. This finding suggests a tradeoff between the impacts of reducing emissions of aerosols and greenhouse gases. Results from a statistical model of historical rice harvests in India, coupled with regional climate scenarios from a parallel climate model, indicate that joint reductions in brown clouds and greenhouse gases would in fact have complementary, positive impacts on harvests. The results also imply that adverse climate change due to brown clouds and greenhouse gases contributed to the slowdown in harvest growth that occurred during the past two decades.

  7. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. PMID:24973509

  8. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability.

  9. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product.

  10. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  11. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-02-04

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP.

  12. Monitoring fungal growth on brown rice grains using rapid and non-destructive hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Siripatrawan, U; Makino, Y

    2015-04-16

    This research aimed to develop a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate method based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for monitoring spoilage fungal growth on stored brown rice. Brown rice was inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of Aspergillus oryzae and stored at 30 °C and 85% RH. Growth of A. oryzae on rice was monitored using viable colony counts, expressed as colony forming units per gram (CFU/g). The fungal development was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The HSI system was used to acquire reflectance images of the samples covering the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. Unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM) was used to visualize data classification of different levels of fungal infection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to predict fungal growth on rice grains from the HSI reflectance spectra. The HSI spectral signals decreased with increasing colony counts, while conserving similar spectral pattern during the fungal growth. When integrated with SOM, the proposed HSI method could be used to classify rice samples with different levels of fungal infection without sample manipulation. Moreover, HSI was able to rapidly identify infected rice although the samples showed no symptoms of fungal infection. Based on PLS regression, the coefficient of determination was 0.97 and root mean square error of prediction was 0.39 log (CFU/g), demonstrating that the HSI technique was effective for prediction of fungal infection in rice grains. The ability of HSI to detect fungal infection at early stage would help to prevent contaminated rice grains from entering the food chain. This research provides scientific information on the rapid, non-destructive, and effective fungal detection system for rice grains. PMID:25662486

  13. Effects of slag-based silicon fertilizer on rice growth and brown-spot resistance.

    PubMed

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization.

  14. Effects of Slag-Based Silicon Fertilizer on Rice Growth and Brown-Spot Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Dongfeng; Song, Alin; Fan, Fenliang; Li, Zhaojun; Liang, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    It is well documented that slag-based silicon fertilizers have beneficial effects on the growth and disease resistance of rice. However, their effects vary greatly with sources of slag and are closely related to availability of silicon (Si) in these materials. To date, few researches have been done to compare the differences in plant performance and disease resistance between different slag-based silicon fertilizers applied at the same rate of plant-available Si. In the present study both steel and iron slags were chosen to investigate their effects on rice growth and disease resistance under greenhouse conditions. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the effects of slags on ultrastructural changes in leaves of rice naturally infected by Bipolaris oryaze, the causal agent of brown spot. The results showed that both slag-based Si fertilizers tested significantly increased rice growth and yield, but decreased brown spot incidence, with steel slag showing a stronger effect than iron slag. The results of SEM analysis showed that application of slags led to more pronounced cell silicification in rice leaves, more silica cells, and more pronounced and larger papilla as well. The results of TEM analysis showed that mesophyll cells of slag-untreated rice leaf were disorganized, with colonization of the fungus (Bipolaris oryzae), including chloroplast degradation and cell wall alterations. The application of slag maintained mesophyll cells relatively intact and increased the thickness of silicon layer. It can be concluded that applying slag-based fertilizer to Si-deficient paddy soil is necessary for improving both rice productivity and brown spot resistance. The immobile silicon deposited in host cell walls and papillae sites is the first physical barrier for fungal penetration, while the soluble Si in the cytoplasm enhances physiological or induced resistance to fungal colonization. PMID:25036893

  15. Evaluation of the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice based on the K nutritional status of shoots.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Yamada, Takashi; Hotsuki, Tomoe; Fujiwara, Toru; Mimura, Tetsuro; Matsuzaki, Akio

    2014-01-01

    The radioactive cesium ((134,137)Cs) concentration in brown rice is correlated with that in the straw/husk. The distribution of (134,137)Cs, resembles that of potassium (K), a homologous element of Cs, in the rice plant body. The relative isotopic abundance of (40)K is 0.0117 %; thus, 1 g K contains 30.4 Bq ⁴⁰K, and the mass of 4,000 Bq (40)K is 0.0154 g, indicating that the K concentration can be calculated from (40)K concentration. We examined if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be estimated from (40)K concentrations in straw, and especially might be predicted from the (40)K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We determined the concentrations of (40)K and radioactive Cs in straw and brown rice, and found a strong correlated-equation (y = 72.922 x(-0.759); r = 0.907) between the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice and the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. The estimated-radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice can be as much as double, depending on the K nutritional status changing the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in straw. We herein propose a nutritional diagnosis that radioactive Cs concentrations in brown rice can be predicted from the ⁴⁰K:(134,137)Cs ratio in shoots.

  16. Occurrence of arsenic in brown rice and its relationship to soil properties from Hainan Island, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yangrong; Chen, Mulong; Bi, Xiangyang; He, Yusheng; Ren, Limin; Xiang, Wu; Qiao, Shengying; Yan, Sen; Li, Zhonggen; Ma, Zhendong

    2011-07-01

    The acquaintance of arsenic concentrations in rice grain is vital in risk assessment. In this study, we determined the concentration of arsenic in 282 brown rice grains sampled from Hainan Island, China, and discussed its possible relationships to the considered soil properties. Arsenic concentrations in the rice grain from Hainan Island varied from 5 to 309 μg/kg, with a mean (92 μg/kg) lower than most published data from other countries/regions and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for As(i) in rice. The result of correlation analysis between grain and soil properties showed that grain As concentrations correlated significantly to soil arsenic speciation, organic matter and soil P contents and could be best predicted by humic acid bound and Fe-Mn oxides bound As fractions. Grain arsenic rises steeply at soil As concentrations lower than 3.6 mg/kg and gently at higher concentrations. PMID:21549462

  17. Improving the lipid profile in hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbit by supplementation of germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Abdul Kadir, Khairul-Kamilah; Amom, Zulkhairi; Azlan, Azrina

    2011-07-27

    It is imperative that there be a diet designed specifically to improve lipid profile in order to impede the progress of atherosclerosis. Because rice is a staple food in Asia, it will be chosen as the diet of interest. This study sets out to discover whether consumption of different processed rice diets may result in a change of the lipid profile. The experiment was done on male New Zealand white rabbits after 10 weeks of treatment with diet containing 0.5% cholesterol. The experimental diets include white rice (WR), brown rice (BR), and germinated brown rice (GBR). Among them, rabbits fed a GBR diet demonstrated significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/HDL, and atherogenic index (AI) and a higher level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Results from atherosclerotic plaque assessment further support the findings. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), which acts as an indicator for oxidative stress, was also reduced by GBR diet. The positive change in lipid profile in the rabbits fed GBR appeared to correspond with the higher amounts of γ-oryzanol, tocopherol, and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content. PMID:21682316

  18. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  19. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  20. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  1. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.) 868.261 Section 868.261 Agriculture Regulations of the... COMMODITIES United States Standards for Brown Rice for Processing Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.261 Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See...

  2. Efficacy of bacillus biocontrol agents for management of sheath blight and narrow brown leaf spot in organic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in the U. S. over the last decade. Growers lack effective tools to manage sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS), caused by Cercospora janseana, two major diseases affecting organic rice production. An experi...

  3. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hye; Ahn, Sung-Il; Lim, Chan-Mook; Jhoo, Jin-Woo; Kim, Gur-Yoo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  4. Effects of Germinated Brown Rice Addition on the Flavor and Functionality of Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the functional and physicochemical properties of yogurt, supplemented with germinated brown rice (GBR) containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), during storage. GBR was produced by soaking brown rice at 30℃, and saccharified germinated brown rice (SGBR) was produced by treating brown rice with α- and β-amylase for 1 h, at 80℃ and 60℃, respectively. Yogurt was manufactured using a commercial starter (YC-X11, CHR. Hansen, Denmark) at 37℃ for 12 h. The fatty acids and GABA contents were analyzed using GC and HPLC, respectively. The fatty acids in the cereal samples consisted of oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acid. The portion of oleic acid was the highest, at 35.65% in GBR, and 32.16% in SGBR. During germination, the oleic acid content increased, whereas linolenic and palmitic acid contents from GBR tended to decrease. Although the portion of saturated fatty acids, such as stearic and myristic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05), that of unsaturated fatty acids, such as oleic and linoleic acid, increased with an increase in supplementation of BR, GBR, or SGBR in the yogurt. The yogurt, supplemented with cereal samples, showed a tendency of an increase in the concentration of GABA with an increase in the supplementation of the cereal samples. However, yogurt supplemented with GBR showed the highest concentration of GABA, regardless of the supplementation of the cereal samples. These results indicated that yogurt supplemented with BR, GBR, or SGBR could be a promising dairy product. PMID:27621692

  5. Effects of Brown Rice and White Rice on Expression of Xenobiotic Metabolism Genes in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Xenobiotics constantly influence biological systems through several means of interaction. These interactions are disturbed in type 2 diabetes, with implications for disease outcome. We aimed to study the implications of such disturbances on type 2 diabetes and rice consumption, the results of which could affect management of the disease in developing countries. In a type 2 diabetic rat model induced through a combination of high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin injection, up-regulation of xenobiotic metabolism genes in the diabetic untreated group was observed. Xenobiotic metabolism genes were upregulated more in the white rice (WR) group than the diabetic untreated group while the brown rice (BR) group showed significantly lower expression values, though not as effective as metformin, which gave values closer to the normal non-diabetic group. The fold changes in expression in the WR group compared to the BR group for Cyp2D4, Cyp3A1, Cyp4A1, Cyp2B1, Cyp2E1, Cyp2C11, UGT2B1, ALDH1A1 and Cyp2C6 were 2.6, 2, 1.5, 4, 2.8, 1.5, 1.8, 3 and 5, respectively. Our results suggest that WR may upregulate these genes in type 2 diabetes more than BR, potentially causing faster drug metabolism, less drug efficacy and more toxicity. These results may have profound implications for rice eating populations, constituting half the world’s population. PMID:22942722

  6. Development and characterization of a emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  7. Analysis of benzobicyclon and its metabolite in brown rice and rice straw after field application using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Im, So Jeong; Abd El-Aty, A M; Lee, Young-Jun; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-02-01

    This study was carried out to develop an extraction as well as an analytical method for detecting benzobicyclon and its amino-substituted metabolite (1315P-570) in brown rice and rice straw using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The parent as well as the metabolite in rice and rice straw were extracted and analysed under the same conditions. A correlation coefficient (R(2)) of >0.994 was obtained for matrix-matched calibration curves constructed in various concentration ranges. Recoveries at two fortification levels were satisfactory and ranged between 75.4% and 118.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<13%. Under storage conditions (-20°C), the analyte and its metabolite were stable for up to 92days. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) were lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.1mg/kg) set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration for brown rice. Field trials with recommended or double the recommended dose revealed that the herbicide could safely be applied to rice and rice straw, as no residues were detected in the harvested samples. The sensitivity of the developed method was sufficient to ensure reliable determination of benzobicyclon and its metabolite in rice grain and rice straw.

  8. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-01-01

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice. PMID:27525873

  9. Identification of QTLs for resistant starch and total alkaloid content in brown and polished rice.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Y W; Sun, D; Du, J; Pu, X Y; Yang, S M; Yang, X M; Yang, T; Yang, J Z

    2016-07-29

    An F3 population consisting of 117 F2:3 families derived from a cross between two varieties of rice, Gongmi No. 3 and Diantun 502, with a large difference in their resistant starch and total alkaloid content, was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Two QTLs of resistant starch for rice (qRS7-1, qRS7-2) were identified in a linkage group on chromosome 7, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.6 to 17.3%, due to additive effects for resistant starch from Gongmi No. 3 or over-dominance effects for qRS7-2 of the marker interval (RM3404-RM478) on chromosome 7 from Gongmi No. 3, accounting for 13.8-17.3% of the phenotypic variance. Two QTLs of total alkaloids for brown rice (qALb7-1, qALb7-2) were identified in the same linkage group, which could explain phenotypic variance from 7.7 and 19.3%, respectively, due to dominance or over-dominance effects for total alkaloids on chromosome 7 from Diantun 502. To our knowledge, these are the first QTLs to be identified, which are related to resistant starch and total alkaloid content in rice. These results are beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of, as well as for developing markers linked with, resistant starch and total alkaloids of functional components for marker-assisted selection breeding in rice.

  10. Control of brown spot pathogen of rice (Bipolaris oryzae) using some phenolic antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Y.M.; Abdel-Fattah, G.M.; Ismail, A.E.; Rashad, Y.M.

    2008-01-01

    Bipolaris oryzae is the causal agent of rice brown spot disease and is responsible for significant economic losses. In order to control this disease, three phenolic antioxidants were tested (salicylic acid, benzoic acid and hydroquinone). The antifungal activity of the tested substances were investigated against B. oryzae at different concentrations in vitro, as well as the efficacy of their exogenous application in controlling rice brown spot disease under field conditions. In vitro, benzoic acid or salicylic acid at 9 mM completely inhibited the growth of B. oryzae. Under field conditions, spraying of benzoic acid at 20 mM led to a significant reduction in disease severity (DS) and disease incidence (DI) on the plant leaves, in addition to a significant increase in the grain yield and its components. Some biochemical responses were also detected, where the application of the previous treatment led to a significant increase in the total photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids) in rice leaves and in the total carbohydrate and protein contents of the yielded grains. PMID:24031243

  11. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    PubMed

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  12. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot.

    PubMed

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments.

  13. Rice-Infecting Pseudomonas Genomes Are Highly Accessorized and Harbor Multiple Putative Virulence Mechanisms to Cause Sheath Brown Rot

    PubMed Central

    Quibod, Ian Lorenzo; Grande, Genelou; Oreiro, Eula Gems; Borja, Frances Nikki; Dossa, Gerbert Sylvestre; Mauleon, Ramil; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Sheath rot complex and seed discoloration in rice involve a number of pathogenic bacteria that cannot be associated with distinctive symptoms. These pathogens can easily travel on asymptomatic seeds and therefore represent a threat to rice cropping systems. Among the rice-infecting Pseudomonas, P. fuscovaginae has been associated with sheath brown rot disease in several rice growing areas around the world. The appearance of a similar Pseudomonas population, which here we named P. fuscovaginae-like, represents a perfect opportunity to understand common genomic features that can explain the infection mechanism in rice. We showed that the novel population is indeed closely related to P. fuscovaginae. A comparative genomics approach on eight rice-infecting Pseudomonas revealed heterogeneous genomes and a high number of strain-specific genes. The genomes of P. fuscovaginae-like harbor four secretion systems (Type I, II, III, and VI) and other important pathogenicity machinery that could probably facilitate rice colonization. We identified 123 core secreted proteins, most of which have strong signatures of positive selection suggesting functional adaptation. Transcript accumulation of putative pathogenicity-related genes during rice colonization revealed a concerted virulence mechanism. The study suggests that rice-infecting Pseudomonas causing sheath brown rot are intrinsically diverse and maintain a variable set of metabolic capabilities as a potential strategy to occupy a range of environments. PMID:26422147

  14. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Caceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Rosell, Cristina M; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-15

    The effect of germination conditions on the nutritional benefits of germinated brown rice flour (GBR) bread has been determined. The proximate composition, phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, glucose and starch content, as well as the most relevant bioactive compounds (GABA, γ-oryzanol and total phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of breads prepared with GBR at different germination conditions was determined. When comparing different germination times (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h), germination for 48 h provides GBR bread with nutritionally superior quality on the basis of its higher content of protein, lipids and bioactive compounds (GABA and polyphenols), increased antioxidant activity and reduced phytic acid content and glycaemic index, although a slight decrease in in vitro protein digestibility was detected. Overall, germination seems to be a natural and sustainable way to improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free rice breads.

  15. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Caceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Rosell, Cristina M; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-15

    The effect of germination conditions on the nutritional benefits of germinated brown rice flour (GBR) bread has been determined. The proximate composition, phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, glucose and starch content, as well as the most relevant bioactive compounds (GABA, γ-oryzanol and total phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of breads prepared with GBR at different germination conditions was determined. When comparing different germination times (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h), germination for 48 h provides GBR bread with nutritionally superior quality on the basis of its higher content of protein, lipids and bioactive compounds (GABA and polyphenols), increased antioxidant activity and reduced phytic acid content and glycaemic index, although a slight decrease in in vitro protein digestibility was detected. Overall, germination seems to be a natural and sustainable way to improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free rice breads. PMID:25466026

  16. Genetic mapping of the rice resistance-breaking gene of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Kuwazaki, Seigo; Hattori, Makoto; Jairin, Jirapong; Sanada-Morimura, Sachiyo; Matsumura, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    Host plant resistance has been widely used for controlling the major rice pest brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens). However, adaptation of the wild BPH population to resistance limits the effective use of resistant rice varieties. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted to identify resistance-breaking genes against the anti-feeding mechanism mediated by the rice resistance gene Bph1. QTL analysis in iso-female BPH lines with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers detected a single region on the 10th linkage group responsible for the virulence. The QTL explained from 57 to 84% of the total phenotypic variation. Bulked segregant analysis with next-generation sequencing in F2 progenies identified five SNPs genetically linked to the virulence. These analyses showed that virulence to Bph1 was controlled by a single recessive gene. In contrast to previous studies, the gene-for-gene relationship between the major resistance gene Bph1 and virulence gene of BPH was confirmed. Identified markers are available for map-based cloning of the major gene controlling BPH virulence to rice resistance. PMID:24870048

  17. Comparative study on the hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects of fermented paste (doenjang) prepared from soybean and brown rice mixed with rice bran or red ginseng marc in mice fed with high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-10-22

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities.

  18. Comparative Study on the Hypoglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Fermented Paste (Doenjang) Prepared from Soybean and Brown Rice Mixed with Rice Bran or Red Ginseng Marc in Mice Fed with High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Rico, Catherine W.; Kang, Mi Young

    2014-01-01

    The effects of fermented paste made from soybean, brown rice, or brown rice in combination with rice bran or red ginseng marc on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative defense system in high fat-fed mice were investigated. The mice were given experimental diets for eight weeks: Normal control, high fat, and high fat supplemented with soybean fermented paste, brown rice fermented paste, brown rice-rice bran fermented paste, or brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented paste. The high fat group showed markedly higher blood glucose level and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation than the normal control group. Diet supplementation of fermented paste inhibited the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of the glucose-regulating and antioxidant enzymes activities. The soybean and brown rice-red ginseng marc fermented pastes were the most effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense status in mice under high fat diet condition. These findings illustrate that brown rice, in combination with red ginseng marc, may be useful in the development of fermented paste with strong hypoglycemic and antioxidative activities. PMID:25340370

  19. Omics-Based Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Two Contrasting Rice Genotypes during Early Infestation by Small Brown Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weilin; Yang, Ling; Li, Mei; Ma, Bojun; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is one of the destructive pests of rice. Although different biochemical pathways that are involved in rice responding to planthopper infestation have been documented, it is unclear which individual metabolic pathways are responsive to planthopper infestation. In this study, an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of two contrasting rice genotypes, an SBPH-resistant and an SBPH-susceptible rice line, was assessed for rice individual metabolic pathways responsive to SBPH infestation. When exposed to SBPH, 166 metabolic pathways were differentially regulated; of these, more than one-third of metabolic pathways displayed similar change patterns between these two contrasting rice genotypes; the difference of change pattern between these two contrasting rice genotypes mostly lies in biosynthetic pathways and the obvious difference of change pattern lies in energy metabolism pathways. Combining the Pathway Tools Omics Viewer with the web tool Venn, 21 and 6 metabolic pathways which potentially associated with SBPH resistance and susceptibility, respectively were identified. This study presents an omics-based comparative transcriptional profiling of SBPH-resistant and SBPH-susceptible rice plants during early infestation by SBPH, which will be very informative in studying rice-insect interaction. The results will provide insight into how rice plants respond to early infestation by SBPH from the biochemical pathways perspective. PMID:26633389

  20. Using SPOT-5 images in rice farming for detecting BPH (Brown Plant Hopper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadifar, F.; Wayayok, A.; Shattri, M.; Shafri, H.

    2014-06-01

    Infestation of rice plant-hopper such as Brown Plant Hopper (BPH) (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most notable risk in rice yield in tropical areas especially in Asia. In order to use visible and infrared images to detect stress in rice production caused by BPH infestation, several remote sensing techniques have been developed. Initial recognition of pest infestation by means of remote sensing will spreads, for precision farming practice. To address this issue, detection of sheath blight in rice farming was examined by using SPOT-5 images. Specific image indices such as Normalized decrease food production costs, limit environmental hazards, and enhance natural pest control before the problem Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Standard difference indices (SDI) and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) were used for analyses using ENVI 4.8 and SPSS software. Results showed that all the indices to recognize infected plants are significant at α = 0.01. Examination of the association between the disease indices indicated that band 3 (near infrared) and band 4 (mid infrared) have a relatively high correlation. The selected indices declared better association for detecting healthy plants from diseased ones. Consequently, these sorts of indices especially NDVI could be valued as indicators for developing techniques for detecting the sheath blight of rice by using remote sensing. This infers that they are useful for crop disease detection but the spectral resolution is probably not sufficient to distinguish plants with light infections (low severity level). Using the index as an indicator can clarify the threshold for zoning the outbreaks. Quick assessment information is very useful in precision farming to practice site specific management such as pesticide application.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Camptothecin against Rice Bacterial Brown Stripe Pathogen Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae RS-2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaolin; Luo, Ju; Qiu, Wen; Cai, Li; Anjum, Syed Ishtiaq; Li, Bin; Hou, Mingsheng; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2016-01-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) has anticancer, antiviral, and antifungal properties. However, there is a dearth of information about antibacterial activity of CPT. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CPT on Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae strain RS-2, the pathogen of rice bacterial brown stripe, by measuring cell growth, DNA damage, cell membrane integrity, the expression of secretion systems, and topoisomerase-related genes, as well as the secretion of effector protein Hcp. Results indicated that CPT solutions at 0.05, 0.25, and 0.50 mg/mL inhibited the growth of strain RS-2 in vitro, while the inhibitory efficiency increased with an increase in CPT concentration, pH, and incubation time. Furthermore, CPT treatment affected bacterial growth and replication by causing membrane damage, which was evidenced by transmission electron microscopic observation and live/dead cell staining. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that CPT treatment caused differential expression of eight secretion system-related genes and one topoisomerase-related gene, while the up-regulated expression of hcp could be justified by the increased secretion of Hcp based on the ELISA test. Overall, this study indicated that CPT has the potential to control the bacterial brown stripe pathogen of rice. PMID:27472315

  2. Assessment on proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytic acid and protein hydrolysis of germinated Ecuatorian brown rice.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Amigo, Lourdes; Frias, Juana

    2014-09-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered healthier than brown rice (BR) but its nutritive value has been hardly studied. Since nutritive quality of GBR depends on genetic diversity and germination conditions, six Ecuadorian BR varieties were germinated at 28 and 34 ºC for 48 and 96 h in darkness and proximate composition, dietary fiber fractions, phytic acid content as well as degree of protein hydrolysis and peptide content were studied. Protein, lipids, ash and available carbohydrate ranged 7.3-10.4%, 2.0-4.0%, 0.8-1.5% and 71.6 to 84.0%, respectively, in GBR seedlings. Total dietary fiber increased during germination (6.1-13.6%), with a large proportion of insoluble fraction, while phytic acid was reduced noticeably. In general, protein hydrolysis occurred during germination was more accused at 28 ºC for 48 h. These results suggest that GBR can be consumed directly as nutritive staple food for a large population worldwide contributing to their nutritional requirements.

  3. A novel multi-biofunctional protein from brown rice hydrolysed by endo/endo-exoproteases.

    PubMed

    Selamassakul, Orrapun; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok

    2016-06-15

    Brown rice, which is a less allergenic food grain and contains essential amino acids, was hydrolysed by bromelain and PROTEASE FP51® to improve its functionalities and taste for food applications. The hydrolysate prepared by bromelain (eb-RPH) had high protein solubility, surface hydrophobicity, low molecular weight peptides, hydrophobic amino acids (leucine, valine and glycine) and flavor amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid). The eb-RPH exhibited higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic (ABTS˙(+)) radical-scavenging activities of 76.62% and 52.96%, respectively, and possessed a better foaming capacity (221.76%) and emulsifying capacity (32.34%) than the hydrolysate prepared by PROTEASE FP51® (ep-RPH) did. The eb-RPH gave the desired taste, which is attributed to volatile flavor compounds (benzaldehyde, benzeneacetaldehyde and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline) and non-volatile flavor compounds, such as monosodium glutamate, 5'-guanosine monophosphate and 5'-inosine monophosphate (0.07, 0.03 and 0.05 mg mL(-1), respectively). Brown rice peptides generated by bromelain were novel bioactive peptides with multifunctional properties. PMID:27186602

  4. Physicochemical properties of brown rice as influenced by gamma irradiation, variety and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sabularse, V.C.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation, variety and storage on physicochemical properties of brown rice from three Louisiana rice varieties: Mars, a medium grain variety, Lemont and Tebonnet, long grain varieties, were determined. Cooking time was significantly reduced in Mars and Lemont at doses of 200 and 300 Krads. Irradiation increased cooking rate, water uptake at 80{degree}C, water uptake ratios, total solids content in residual cooking liquid and starch damage from 100 to 300 Krad samples. Water uptake at 96{degree}C generally decreased with increasing dose levels. Evidence indicated alterations in the rice grain structures and composition. The component drastically affected by gamma irradiation was starch as shown by reduced cooking time, increased water uptake, increased amounts of starch and protein in residual cooking liquid, reduced volume expansion, increased damage starch and changes in amylographic pasting characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy showed more simple starch granules in irradiated samples than in nonirradiated samples. Structural changes in the bran layer due to gamma irradiation were not evident from electron micrographs.

  5. Electrical penetration graphic evidence of pymetrozine toxicity to the rice brown planthopperis by inibition of phloem feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Pymetrozine is a valuable novel insecticide for control of sucking insects including the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), one of the most serious pests on rice. This study was conducted to elucidate action mechanisms of pymetrozine on the feeding behavior of the planthopper. ...

  6. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs.

  7. Serotonin accumulation in transgenic rice by over-expressing tryptophan decarboxylase results in a dark brown phenotype and stunted growth.

    PubMed

    Kanjanaphachoat, Parawee; Wei, Bi-Yin; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Wang, I-Wen; Wang, Chang-Sheng; Yu, Su-May; Yen, Ming-Liang; Chiu, Sheng-Hsien; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, Liang-Jwu

    2012-04-01

    A mutant M47286 with a stunted growth, low fertility and dark-brown phenotype was identified from a T-DNA-tagged rice mutant library. This mutant contained a copy of the T-DNA tag inserted at the location where the expression of two putative tryptophan decarboxylase genes, TDC-1 and TDC-3, were activated. Enzymatic assays of both recombinant proteins showed tryptophan decarboxylase activities that converted tryptophan to tryptamine, which could be converted to serotonin by a constitutively expressed tryptamine 5' hydroxylase (T5H) in rice plants. Over-expression of TDC-1 and TDC-3 in transgenic rice recapitulated the stunted growth, darkbrown phenotype and resulted in a low fertility similar to M47286. The degree of stunted growth and dark-brown color was proportional to the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. The levels of tryptamine and serotonin accumulation in these transgenic rice lines were also directly correlated with the expression levels of TDC-1 and TDC-3. A mass spectrometry assay demonstrated that the darkbrown leaves and hulls in the TDC-overexpressing transgenic rice were caused by the accumulation of serotonin dimer and that the stunted growth and low fertility were also caused by the accumulation of serotonin and serotonin dimer, but not tryptamine. These results represent the first evidence that over-expression of TDC results in stunted growth, low fertility and the accumulation of serotonin, which when converted to serotonin dimer, leads to a dark brown plant color.

  8. QTLs for Resistance to Major Rice Diseases Exacerbated by Global Warming: Brown Spot, Bacterial Seedling Rot, and Bacterial Grain Rot.

    PubMed

    Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Tsushima, Seiya; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa L.), damage from diseases such as brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae, and bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, caused by Burkholderia glumae, has increased under global warming because the optimal temperature ranges for growth of these pathogens are relatively high (around 30 °C). Therefore, the need for cultivars carrying genes for resistance to these diseases is increasing to ensure sustainable rice production. In contrast to the situation for other important rice diseases such as blast and bacterial blight, no genes for complete resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot or bacterial grain rot have yet been discovered. Thus, rice breeders have to use partial resistance, which is largely influenced by environmental conditions. Recent progress in molecular genetics and improvement of evaluation methods for disease resistance have facilitated detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with resistance. In this review, we summarize the results of worldwide screening for cultivars with resistance to brown spot, bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot and we discuss the identification of QTLs conferring resistance to these diseases in order to provide useful information for rice breeding programs. PMID:27178300

  9. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP. PMID:26843000

  10. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP. PMID:26843000

  11. Rice ragged stunt virus-induced apoptosis affects virus transmission from its insect vector, the brown planthopper to the rice plant

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai-Jian; Bao, Yan-Yuan; Lao, Shu-Hua; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Ye, Yi-Zhou; Wu, Jian-Xiang; Xu, Hai-Jun; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Most plant viruses that seriously damage agricultural crops are transmitted by insects. However, the mechanisms enabling virus transmission by insect vectors are poorly understood. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is one of the most serious rice pests, causing extensive damage to rice plants by sucking the phloem sap and transmitting viruses, including Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of RRSV transmission from its insect vector to the rice plant in vivo using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and RNA interference technology. RRSV induced apoptosis in the salivary gland cells of its insect vector, N. lugens. The RRSV-induced apoptosis was regulated through a caspase-dependent manner, and inhibition of the expression of N. lugens caspase-1 genes significantly interfered with virus transmission. Our findings establish a link between virus-associated apoptosis and virus transmission from the insect vector to the host plant. PMID:26073458

  12. Viruliferous rate of small brown planthopper is a good indicator of rice stripe disease epidemics

    PubMed Central

    He, Dun-Chun; Zhan, Jiasui; Cheng, Zhao-Bang; Xie, Lian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), its vector insect (small brown planthopper, SBPH) and climatic conditions in Jiangsu, China were monitored between 2002 and 2012 to determine key biotic and abiotic factors driving epidemics of the disease. Average disease severity, disease incidence and viruliferous rate of SBPH peaked in 2004 and then gradually decreased. Disease severity of RSV was positively correlated with viruliferous rate of the vector but not with the population density of the insect, suggesting that the proportion of vectors infected by the virus rather than the absolute number of vectors plays an important role in RSV epidemics and could be used for disease forecasting. The finding of a positive correlation of disease severity and viruliferous rate among years suggests that local infection is likely the main source of primary inoculum of RSV. Of the two main climatic factors, temperature plays a more important role than rainfall in RSV epidemics. PMID:26898155

  13. Serum vitamin B12 levels in young vegans who eat brown rice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H

    1995-12-01

    A nutritional analysis was conducted on the dietary intake of a group of 6 vegan children aged 7 to 14 who had been living on a vegan diet including brown rice for from 4 to 10 years, and on that of an age-matched control group. In addition, their serum vitamin B12 levels and other data (red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, etc.) were determined in the laboratory. In vegans' diets, 2-4 g of nori (dried laver), which contained B12, were consumed daily. Not a single case of symptoms due to B12 deficiency was found. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the examination data, including B12 levels (p < 0.05). Therefore, consumption of nori may keep vegans from suffering B12 deficiency.

  14. Functional foods and the biomedicalisation of everyday life: a case of germinated brown rice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyomin

    2013-07-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is a functional food, whose benefits for chronic diseases have been demonstrated by scientific research on a single constituent of GBR, gamma aminobutyric acid. This article examines the processes through which the emphasis on biomedical rationality made during the production and consumption of functional foods is embedded in the complicated social contexts of the post-1990s. In the case of GBR, the Korean government, food scientists, mass media and consumers have added cultural accounts to the biomedical understanding of foods. In particular, consumers have transformed their households and online communities into a place for surveillance medicine. Functional foods are embedded in multiple actors' perspectives on what healthy foods mean and how and where the risks of chronic diseases should be managed.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of the Small Brown Planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus Carrying Rice stripe virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Tao, Xue Ying; Kim, Jae Su; Kim, Woojin; Je, Yeon Ho

    2013-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV), the type member of the genus Tenuivirus, transmits by the feeding behavior of small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus. To investigate the interactions between the virus and vector insect, total RNA was extracted from RSV-viruliferous SBPH (RVLS) and non-viruliferous SBPH (NVLS) adults to construct expressed sequence tag databases for comparative transcriptome analysis. Over 30 million bases were sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing to construct 1,538 and 953 of isotigs from the mRNA of RVLS and NVLS, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis demonstrated that both libraries have similar GO structures, however, the gene expression pattern analysis revealed that 17.8% and 16.8% of isotigs were up- and down-regulated significantly in the RVLS, respectively. These RSV-dependently regulated genes possibly have important roles in the physiology of SBPH, transmission of RSV, and RSV and SBPH interaction. PMID:25288960

  16. Study design and methods for a randomized crossover trial substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India.

    PubMed

    Wedick, Nicole M; Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Malik, Vasanti S; Venkatachalam, Siva Sankari; Parthasarathy, Vijayalaksmi; Vaidya, Ruchi; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Arumugam, Kokila; Jones, Clara; Campos, Hannia; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    India has the second largest number of people with diabetes in the world following China. Evidence indicates that consumption of whole grains can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. This article describes the study design and methods of a trial in progress evaluating the effects of substituting whole grain brown rice for polished (refined) white rice on biomarkers of diabetes risk (glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, inflammation). This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with a crossover design conducted in Chennai, India among overweight but otherwise healthy volunteers aged 25-65 y with a body mass index ≥23 kg/m(2) and habitual rice consumption ≥200 g/day. The feasibility and cultural appropriateness of this type of intervention in the local environment will also be examined. If the intervention is efficacious, the findings can be incorporated into national-level policies which could include the provision of brown rice as an option or replacement for white rice in government institutions and food programs. This relatively simple dietary intervention has the potential to substantially diminish the burden of diabetes in Asia and elsewhere.

  17. Study design and methods for a randomized crossover trial substituting brown rice for white rice on diabetes risk factors in India

    PubMed Central

    Wedick, Nicole M.; Vasudevan, Sudha; Spiegelman, Donna; Bai, Ramya; Malik, Vasanti; Venkatachalam, Siva Sankari; Parthasarathy, Vijayalaksmi; Vaidya, Ruchi; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Arumugam, Kokila; Jones, Clara; Campos, Hannia; Krishnaswamy, Kamala; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B.; Mohan, Anjana Ranjit; Viswanathan, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    India has the second largest number of people with diabetes in the world following China. Evidence indicates that consumption of whole grains can reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. This manuscript describes the study design and methods of a trial in progress evaluating the effects of substituting whole grain brown rice for polished (refined) white rice on biomarkers of diabetes risk (glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, inflammation). This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with a crossover design conducted in Chennai, India among overweight but otherwise healthy volunteers aged 25–65y with a body mass index ≥23kg/m2 and habitual rice consumption ≥200grams/day. The feasibility and cultural appropriateness of this type of intervention in the local environment will also be examined. If the intervention is efficacious, the findings can be incorporated into national-level policies which could include the provision of brown rice as an option or replacement for white rice in government institutions and food programs. This relatively simple dietary intervention has the potential to substantially diminish the burden of diabetes in Asia and elsewhere. PMID:26017321

  18. Changes in Endosymbiotic Bacteria of Brown Planthoppers During the Process of Adaptation to Different Resistant Rice Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hong-Xing, Xu; Xu-Song, Zheng; Ya-Jun, Yang; Jun-Ce, Tian; Qiang, Fu; Gong-Yin, Ye; Zhong-Xian, Lu

    2015-06-01

    The specific primers of five species of endosymbiotic bacteria were designed to determine their numbers in three virulent populations of brown planthopper, Nilapavata lugens Stål, and to assess changes during adaptation to different resistant varieties using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that Chryseobacterium was the dominant bacteria in all three populations of brown planthopper, followed by Acinetobacter in TN1 population, Arsenophonus and Serratia in Mudgo population, and Arthrobacter and Acinetobacter in ASD7 population. When the TN1 population of brown planthopper was transferred to ASD7 (with resistant gene bph2) rice plants, Chryseobacterium was still the dominant bacteria, but the originally subdominant Acinetobacter declined to a level that was not significantly different from that of other endosymbiotic bacteria. After they were transferred to Mudgo (with resistant gene Bph1), Serratia and Arsenophonus increased significantly and became the dominant bacteria. However, they declined to a level that was not significantly different from that of the three other species after two generations. When ASD7 and Mudgo populations of brown planthopper were transferred to the susceptible variety TN1, the community of endosymbiotic bacteria in the ASD7 population of brown planthopper showed no significant changes. However, the numbers of Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter in the Mudgo population of brown planthopper exhibited a transient increase and returned to their original levels after two generations. After the Mudgo population of brown planthopper was transferred to ASD7 rice plants, the quantity of endosymbiotic bacteria fluctuated, but the bacterial structure did not change significantly. However, after the ASD7 population of brown planthopper was transferred to the Mudgo rice plants, the bacterial structure changed significantly. Serratia and Arsenophonus increased significantly and became dominant. Although Serratia and Arsenophonus decreased

  19. Changes in Endosymbiotic Bacteria of Brown Planthoppers During the Process of Adaptation to Different Resistant Rice Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hong-Xing, Xu; Xu-Song, Zheng; Ya-Jun, Yang; Jun-Ce, Tian; Qiang, Fu; Gong-Yin, Ye; Zhong-Xian, Lu

    2015-06-01

    The specific primers of five species of endosymbiotic bacteria were designed to determine their numbers in three virulent populations of brown planthopper, Nilapavata lugens Stål, and to assess changes during adaptation to different resistant varieties using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that Chryseobacterium was the dominant bacteria in all three populations of brown planthopper, followed by Acinetobacter in TN1 population, Arsenophonus and Serratia in Mudgo population, and Arthrobacter and Acinetobacter in ASD7 population. When the TN1 population of brown planthopper was transferred to ASD7 (with resistant gene bph2) rice plants, Chryseobacterium was still the dominant bacteria, but the originally subdominant Acinetobacter declined to a level that was not significantly different from that of other endosymbiotic bacteria. After they were transferred to Mudgo (with resistant gene Bph1), Serratia and Arsenophonus increased significantly and became the dominant bacteria. However, they declined to a level that was not significantly different from that of the three other species after two generations. When ASD7 and Mudgo populations of brown planthopper were transferred to the susceptible variety TN1, the community of endosymbiotic bacteria in the ASD7 population of brown planthopper showed no significant changes. However, the numbers of Acinetobacter and Arthrobacter in the Mudgo population of brown planthopper exhibited a transient increase and returned to their original levels after two generations. After the Mudgo population of brown planthopper was transferred to ASD7 rice plants, the quantity of endosymbiotic bacteria fluctuated, but the bacterial structure did not change significantly. However, after the ASD7 population of brown planthopper was transferred to the Mudgo rice plants, the bacterial structure changed significantly. Serratia and Arsenophonus increased significantly and became dominant. Although Serratia and Arsenophonus decreased

  20. Evolving ideas about genetics underlying insect virulence to plant resistance in rice-brown planthopper interactions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Many plant-parasite interactions that include major plant resistance genes have subsequently been shown to exhibit features of gene-for-gene interactions between plant Resistance genes and parasite Avirulence genes. The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens is an important pest of rice (Oryza sativa). Historically, major Resistance genes have played an important role in agriculture. As is common in gene-for-gene interactions, evolution of BPH virulence compromises the effectiveness of singly-deployed resistance genes. It is therefore surprising that laboratory studies of BPH have supported the conclusion that virulence is conferred by changes in many genes rather than a change in a single gene, as is proposed by the gene-for-gene model. Here we review the behaviour, physiology and genetics of the BPH in the context of host plant resistance. A problem for genetic understanding has been the use of various insect populations that differ in frequencies of virulent genotypes. We show that the previously proposed polygenic inheritance of BPH virulence can be explained by the heterogeneity of parental populations. Genetic mapping of Avirulence genes indicates that virulence is a monogenic trait. These evolving concepts, which have brought the gene-for-gene model back into the picture, are accelerating our understanding of rice-BPH interactions at the molecular level. PMID:26668110

  1. A new finely mapped Oryza australiensis-derived QTL in rice confers resistance to brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Xiao, Cong; Cheng, Ming-Xing; Gao, Guan-Jun; Zhang, Qing-Lu; He, Yu-Qing

    2015-04-25

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice in Asia. The BPH resistance in the introgression line IR65482-17-511-5-7 (IR65482-17) is derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. An F2:3 population from a cross between Zhenshan 97 (ZS97) and IR65482-17 was used to map three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for seedling resistance and feeding rate to BPH. The loci were distributed on chromosomes 2, 4 and 12. The QTL qBph4.2 on chromosome 4 had the largest effect, and contributed 36-44% of the phenotypic variance with a LOD score of 19-29. To validate the effect of qBph4.2, two near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing the qBph4.2 locus in the backgrounds of ZS97 and 9311 were developed by marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC). BPH bioassays showed that lines homozygous for the IR65482-17 allele (NIL+) of qBph4.2 tented to have significantly higher seedling resistance to BPH than those homozygous for the ZS97 or 9311 alleles (NIL-). Resistance was associated with a lower feeding rate by the insect. qBph4.2 was delimited to a ~300 kb (0.04 cM) region flanked by markers RM261 and S1, and co-segregating with XC4-27. This study will facilitate map-based cloning and marker-assisted selection of the gene, and permits further studies of gene function and resistance mechanisms in rice: BPH interaction.

  2. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    PubMed

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  3. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products.

  4. A nutritious medida (Sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536.

    PubMed

    Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid

    2004-09-01

    The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (P< 0.01) increase in both the energy density and the protein content, having increased 12 folds and 24 folds, respectively. The essential amino acids including lysine and methionine were highly augmented. The resultant medida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.

  5. Fermentation and quality of yellow pigments from golden brown rice solid culture by a selected Monascus mutant.

    PubMed

    Yongsmith, Busaba; Thongpradis, Panida; Klinsupa, Worawan; Chantrapornchai, Withida; Haruthaithanasan, Vichai

    2013-10-01

    A single peak (λmax 370) yellow pigment-producing mutant derived from Monascus sp. TISTR 3179 was used for the pigment production in solid rice culture. Various factors affecting yellow tones were investigated. Hom-mali rice variety was the best amongst five Thai local varieties used for fungus culture. It was also better than corn, mungbean, soybean, potato, sweet potato, or cassava tubers. The moisture content and temperature were the key environmental factors affecting the color tones of creamy, tangerine, and golden brown rice solid cultures. The golden brown rice culture gave the highest yellow pigment concentration. Under an optimum room temperature of 28-32 °C, an initial moisture content of 42 %, and 7-day-old inoculum size of 2 % (v/w) the maximum yield at 2,224.63 A370U/gdw of yellow pigment was produced. A mellow yellow powder at 550 A370U/gdw could be obtained using spray-drying techniques. The powder had a moisture content of 5.15 %, a water activity value of 0.398, a hue angle of 73.70 ° (yellowish orange), high lightness (L) of 74.63, color saturation (C) of 28.97, a neutral pH of 7.42, 0.12 % acidity and solubility of 0.211 g/10 ml. It was noteworthy that the Chinese fresh noodle with spray-dried yellow powder showed no discoloration during 8-day storage.

  6. Potential interference by free fatty acids in determination of tricyclazole in brown rice by gas chromatography with flame thermionic detection.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Y; Nakamura, Y; Tonogai, Y; Shibata, T

    1996-01-01

    A convenient method is described for the determination of tricyclazole in brown rice, and the interference of free fatty acids with flame thermionic detection (FTD) is reported for the first time. Brown rice is extracted with acetone, the extract is filtered, and the filtrate is evaporated. To the residue is added 10% (w/v) NaCl solution, and the mixture is extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract is charged on a Sep-Pak Plus silica cartridge. Free fatty acids are removed from the rice by washing with diethyl ether, and tricyclazole is eluted with acetone-n-hexane (1 + 1). Tricyclazole is determined on a DB-1 capillary column by gas chromatography with FTD (GC-FTD). Linoleic acid and oleic acid, which have essentially the same retention time as tricyclazole, cannot be detected by FTD. Thus, without the Sep-Pak Plus silica cleanup, the peak height of tricyclazole in the chromatogram decreased, the extent depending on the concentration of linoleic acid. n-Hexane-acetonitrile partitioning was not used for cleanup because it could not remove 50% of the free fatty acids. Recoveries (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 5) of tricyclazole from rice fortified at 2 and 0.1 ppm were 90.5 +/- 9.4% and 81.3 +/- 10.6%, respectively. The limit of quantitation was 0.05 ppm.

  7. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-09-15

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E and γ-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics, and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from six cultivars having different bran colours were investigated. Parboiling rough and brown rice increased the concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants in whole grain rice but decreased the concentrations of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities found in the soluble fraction. After hydrothermal processing of purple bran rice, the retention of extractable anthocyanins was low, but was high for simple phenolics. For proanthocyanidins found in red bran rice, the extractable oligomers with a degree of polymerization (DP) less than 4, increased up to 6-fold; while for oligomers with DP⩾4 and polymers, there was a significant decrease that was positively correlated with the DP and the temperature of the processing methods. The presence of hulls helped to retain water-soluble antioxidants during parboiling.

  8. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H2O2 and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice. PMID:27258255

  9. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-05-31

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H₂O₂ and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice.

  10. The Transcription Factor OsWRKY45 Negatively Modulates the Resistance of Rice to the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Jiayi; Li, Jiancai; Li, Ran; Ye, Meng; Kuai, Peng; Zhang, Tongfang; Lou, Yonggen

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play a central role not only in plant growth and development but also in plant stress responses. However, the role of WRKY transcription factors in herbivore-induced plant defenses and their underlying mechanisms, especially in rice, remains largely unclear. Here, we cloned a rice WRKY gene OsWRKY45, whose expression was induced by mechanical wounding, by infestation of the brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) and by treatment with jasmonic acid (JA) or salicylic acid (SA). The antisense expression of OsWRKY45 (as-wrky) enhanced BPH-induced levels of H₂O₂ and ethylene, reduced feeding and oviposition preference as well as the survival rate of BPH, and delayed the development of BPH nymphs. Consistently, lower population densities of BPH on as-wrky lines, compared to those on wild-type (WT) plants, were observed in field experiments. On the other hand, as-wrky lines in the field had lower susceptibility to sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) but higher susceptibility to rice blast (caused by Magnaporthe oryzae) than did WT plants. These findings suggest that OsWRKY45 plays important but contrasting roles in regulating the resistance of rice to pathogens and herbivores, and attention should be paid if OsWRKY45 is used to develop disease or herbivore-resistant rice. PMID:27258255

  11. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on distribution dynamics of free amino acids in water soaked brown rice grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigematsu, T.; Hayashi, M.; Nakajima, K.; Uno, Y.; Sakano, A.; Murakami, M.; Narahara, Y.; Ueno, S.; Fujii, T.

    2010-03-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HP) with approximately below 400 MPa can induce a transformation of food materials to an alternative form, where membrane systems are damaged but certain enzymes are still active. HP treatment of water soaked brown rice grain could modify the mass transfer inside and apparent activities of enzymes, resulting in HP-dependent change of distribution of free amino acids. Thus, the distribution of free amino acids in brown rice grain during preservation after HP treatment was analyzed. Just after HP treatment at 200 MPa for 10 min, the distribution of free amino acids was not apparently different from that of untreated control. In contrast, after 1 to 4 days preservation at 25°C, amino acids, such as Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp and Val, showed higher concentrations than those in control. This result suggested that HP treatment induced proteolysis to produce free amino acids. However, Gln, Thr and Cys, showed no apparent difference, suggesting that conversion of certain amino acids produced by proteolysis occurred. Moreover, the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in HP-treated sample was higher than that in untreated control. These results suggested that HP treatment induced alteration of distribution of free amino acids of rice grains via proteolysis and certain amino acids metabolism pathways.

  12. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  13. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Park, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  14. Enhancing the health-beneficial qualities of whole grain rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various pre- and post-harvest approaches (i.e. pre-germination of whole grains and reduced milling degree) to enhancing the health beneficial compounds of whole grain and milled rice have been reported. A discussion of the results from our pre-harvest efforts is as follows. The majority of rice cons...

  15. Biocontrol of sheath blight and narrow brown leaf spot in organic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in Texas over the last decade. Texas organic rice acreage exceeded 16,000 acres in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Production is driven by the increased organic rice market and the unique position of Texas that has the ability to rotate large tracts of fallo...

  16. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    PubMed

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time. PMID:19291577

  17. Differentially regulated genes in the salivary glands of brown planthopper after feeding in resistant versus susceptible rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Mei; Feng, Fei; He, Ruifeng

    2015-06-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a damaging insect pest of rice. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and mirror orientation selection to identify differentially regulated genes in salivary glands of BPH after feeding on resistant and susceptible varieties. The forward SSH library included 768 clones with insertions ranging from 250 to 1000 bp. After differential screening, a total of 112 transcripts were identified, which included 27 upregulated genes and seven downregulated genes. Several of these transcripts showed sequence homology to known proteins such as trehalase, mucin-like protein, vitellogenin, calcium ion binding protein, and eukaryotic initiation factor-like protein. About half of the transcripts, however, did not match to any sequences in the protein databases currently available. Functional annotation of the transcripts showed gene ontology association with metabolism, signal transduction, and regulatory responses. Notably, many known functional genes were predicted to be secreted proteins. Also, gene expression profiles of the salivary glands of BPH feeding on resistant rice (B5) and susceptible rice (TN1) varieties were compared. Our data provide a molecular resource for future functional studies on salivary glands and will be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms between BPH feeding and rice varieties with BPH resistance differences.

  18. Brown Rice and Its Component, γ-Oryzanol, Attenuate the Preference for High-Fat Diet by Decreasing Hypothalamic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Sunagawa, Sumito; Ueda, Rei; Taira, Shin-ichiro; Ohshiro, Hiroyuki; Ikema, Tomomi; Yamakawa, Ken; Higa, Moritake; Tanaka, Hideaki; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Shimabukuro, Michio; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    Brown rice is known to improve glucose intolerance and prevent the onset of diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In the current study, we investigated the effect of brown rice and its major component, γ-oryzanol (Orz), on feeding behavior and fuel homeostasis in mice. When mice were allowed free access to a brown rice–containing chow diet (CD) and a high-fat diet (HFD), they significantly preferred CD to HFD. To reduce hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress on an HFD, mice were administered with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical chaperone, which caused them to prefer the CD. Notably, oral administration of Orz, a mixture of major bioactive components in brown rice, also improved glucose intolerance and attenuated hypothalamic ER stress in mice fed the HFD. In murine primary neuronal cells, Orz attenuated the tunicamycin-induced ER stress. In luciferase reporter assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, Orz suppressed the activation of ER stress–responsive cis-acting elements and unfolded protein response element, suggesting that Orz acts as a chemical chaperone in viable cells. Collectively, the current study is the first demonstration that brown rice and Orz improve glucose metabolism, reduce hypothalamic ER stress, and, consequently, attenuate the preference for dietary fat in mice fed an HFD. PMID:22826028

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:22949825

  20. Inhibition of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars using cold atmospheric plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Nisoa, Mudtorlep; Matan, Nirundorn

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize the operating parameters of cold atmospheric plasma treatment to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus flavus on agar media and brown rice cereal bars. The effects of argon plasma jet treatment on the growth of A. flavus on malt extract agar (MEA) at powers of 20 W and 40 W with exposure times at 5, 15 and 25 min were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite face-centered (CCF) design. Multiple regression analysis indicated that plasma treatment at 40 W for 25 min is most effective for inhibiting growth of A. flavus on the agar medium. On brown rice cereal bars, plasma powered at 40 W for 20 min was capable of giving protection against A. flavus growth for up to 20 days under storage conditions of 25°C and 100% RH. These results demonstrated the potential of cold atmospheric plasma jet treatment to control mold growth on various food products. PMID:23279819

  1. Effects of Brown Rice Extract Treated with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 on Osteoblast Differentiation and Osteoclast Formation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Miran; Song, Jung-Hee; Park, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2014-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) or phytate is considered an anti-nutrient due to the formation of precipitated complexes that strongly reduces the absorption of essential dietary minerals. In this study, brown rice with reduced phytate was made by inoculation with Lactobacillus sakei Wikim001 having high phytase activity. The effects of brown rice extract treated with L. sakei Wikim001 (BR-WK) on osteoblast differentiation and osteoclast formation were investigated. The proliferation of SaOS-2 cells was measured by the MTT assay. Treatment with BR-WK increased cell proliferation by 136% at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The Alkaline phosphate activity in SaOS-2 cells was 129% higher when BR-WK was processed at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The proliferation of bone marrow macrophages decreased by nearly 60% in response to treatment with BR-WK. In addition, BR-WK reduced the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) multinucleated cells from bone marrow macrophages. These results indicate that BR-WK stimulates bone formation through its positive action on osteoblast differentiation and function and furthermore, decreases osteoclast differentiation. PMID:25580402

  2. Comparing Gene Expression Profiles Between Bt and non-Bt Rice in Response to Brown Planthopper Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Ning, Duo; Chen, Yang; Dang, Cong; Han, Nai-Shun; Liu, Yu'e; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Bt proteins are the most widely used insecticidal proteins in transgenic crops for improving insect resistance. We previously observed longer nymphal developmental duration and lower fecundity in brown planthopper (BPH) fed on Bt rice line KMD2, although Bt insecticidal protein Cry1Ab could rarely concentrate in this non-target rice pest. In the present study, we performed microarray analysis in an effort to detect Bt-independent variation, which might render Bt rice more defensive and/or less nutritious to BPH. We detected 3834 and 3273 differentially expressed probe-sets in response to BPH infestation in non-Bt parent Xiushui 11 and Bt rice KMD2, respectively, only 439 of which showed significant differences in expression between rice lines. Our analysis revealed a shift from growth to defense responses in response to BPH infestation, which was also detected in many other studies of plants suffering biotic and abiotic stresses. Chlorophyll biosynthesis and basic metabolism pathways were inhibited in response to infestation. IAA and GA levels decreased as a result of the repression of biosynthesis-related genes or the induction of inactivation-related genes. In accordance with these observations, a number of IAA-, GA-, BR-signaling genes were downregulated in response to BPH. Thus, the growth of rice plants under BPH attack was reduced and defense related hormone signaling like JA, SA and ET were activated. In addition, growth-related hormone signaling pathways, such as GA, BR, and auxin signaling pathways, as well as ABA, were also found to be involved in BPH-induced defense. On the other side, 51 probe-sets (represented 50 genes) that most likely contribute to the impact of Bt rice on BPH were identified, including three early nodulin genes, four lipid metabolic genes, 14 stress response genes, three TF genes and genes with other functions. Two transcription factor genes, bHLH and MYB, together with lipid transfer protein genes LTPL65 and early nodulin gene ENOD

  3. Estimation of the age and amount of brown rice plant hoppers based on bionic electronic nose use.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sai; Zhou, Zhiyan; Lu, Huazhong; Luo, Xiwen; Lan, Yubin; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yanfang

    2014-09-29

    The brown rice plant hopper (BRPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), is one of the most important insect pests affecting rice and causes serious damage to the yield and quality of rice plants in Asia. This study used bionic electronic nose technology to sample BRPH volatiles, which vary in age and amount. Principal component analysis (PCA), linear discrimination analysis (LDA), probabilistic neural network (PNN), BP neural network (BPNN) and loading analysis (Loadings) techniques were used to analyze the sampling data. The results indicate that the PCA and LDA classification ability is poor, but the LDA classification displays superior performance relative to PCA. When a PNN was used to evaluate the BRPH age and amount, the classification rates of the training set were 100% and 96.67%, respectively, and the classification rates of the test set were 90.67% and 64.67%, respectively. When BPNN was used for the evaluation of the BRPH age and amount, the classification accuracies of the training set were 100% and 48.93%, respectively, and the classification accuracies of the test set were 96.67% and 47.33%, respectively. Loadings for BRPH volatiles indicate that the main elements of BRPHs' volatiles are sulfur-containing organics, aromatics, sulfur-and chlorine-containing organics and nitrogen oxides, which provide a reference for sensors chosen when exploited in specialized BRPH identification devices. This research proves the feasibility and broad application prospects of bionic electronic noses for BRPH recognition.

  4. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on the lipid profile and antioxidant status of growing Wistar rats. Part II.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of whole grain (WG) rice based diets on the lipid profile and antioxidant status was evaluated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. Triacylglycerols (TAGs), cholesterol and malondialdehyde equivalent (MDA eq.) in serum and liver were determined. Catalase (CAT), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activities and Glutathione Reduced (GSH) and Oxidized (GSSG) in the liver were analyzed. Animals consuming B and S diets presented lower body weight gain. All WG diets reduced TAGs in serum and MDA eq. content in liver in comparison with the C diet. WG rice diets improved the redox status in animals mainly fed G due to their higher GR activity and GSH/GSSG ratio.

  5. Natural food science based novel approach toward prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: recent studies on brown rice and γ-oryzanol.

    PubMed

    Kozuka, Chisayo; Yabiku, Kouichi; Takayama, Chitoshi; Matsushita, Masayuki; Shimabukuro, Michio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalences of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are dramatically increasing, and there is a strong need for more effective and safer therapies. However, some of drugs show limited efficacy and considerable adverse effects. Furthermore, artificial energy-dense foods and non-caloric foods may promote overeating and weight gain. In this context, a natural food-based approach may represent a valuable means of tackling the obesity-diabetes syndrome. Although recent studies have shown that brown rice improves glucose intolerance and prevents obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We found that one of the major components of brown rice, γ-oryzanol (Orz), plays an important role in the metabolically beneficial effects of brown rice. Orz acts as a chemical chaperone and decreases high fat diet (HFD)-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hypothalamus, thereby leading to a significant shift in preference from fatty to healthy foods. Orz also decreases HFD-induced ER stress in pancreatic β-cells and improves β-cell function. Notably, Orz directly acts on pancreatic islets and enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). This evidence highlights food preference as a promising therapeutic target in obesity-diabetes syndrome and suggests that brown rice and Orz may have potential for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans.

  6. Effect of UV-C radiation and vapor released from a water hyacinth root absorbent containing bergamot oil to control mold on storage of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Songsamoe, Sumethee; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min. The shelf-life of the brown rice with the absorbent after incubation at 25 ° C with 100 % RH for 12 weeks was also investigated. A microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to find out possible mode of action. Results indicated that the absorbent material produced from the water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil at 500 μl ml(-1) in the water solution, dried at 70 ° C and UV for 15 min showed the highest antifungal activity in a vapor phase against A. flavus on the brown rice. A microscopy investigation confirmed that the water hyacinth root could absorb bergamot oil from an outside water solution into root cells. Limonene in vapor phase was shown to be a stronger inhibitor than essential oil after UV-C radiation and should be the key factor in boosting bergamot oil antifungal activity. A vapor phase of bergamot oil could be released and inhibit natural mold on the surface of the brown rice for up to 12 weeks; without the absorbent, mold covered the brown rice in only 4 weeks. PMID:27570269

  7. Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Onuma, Kunishige; Kanda, Yusuke; Suzuki Ikeda, Saori; Sakaki, Ryuta; Nonomura, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masanobu; Osaki, Mitsuhiko; Shikanai, Masataka; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okada, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions. PMID:26670250

  8. Functional characterization of three trehalase genes regulating the chitin metabolism pathway in rice brown planthopper using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Yang, Mengmeng; Shen, Qida; Liu, Xiaojun; Shi, Zuokun; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective gene-silencing tool, and double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is considered a powerful strategy for gene function studies in insects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of trehalase (TRE) genes (TRE 1-1, TRE 1-2, and TRE-2) isolated from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a typical piercing-sucking insect in rice, and investigate their regulating roles in chitin synthesis by injecting larvae with dsRNA. The results showed that TRE1 and TRE2 had compensatory function, and the expression of each increased when the other was silenced. The total rate of insects with phenotypic deformities ranged from 19.83 to 24.36% after dsTRE injection, whereas the mortality rate ranged from 14.16 to 31.78%. The mRNA levels of genes involved in the chitin metabolism pathway in RNA-Seq and DGEP, namely hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) and chitinase (Cht), decreased significantly at 72 h after single dsTREs injection, whereas two transcripts of chitin synthase (CHS) genes decreased at 72 h after dsTRE1-1 and dsTREs injection. These results demonstrated that TRE silencing could affect the regulation of chitin biosynthesis and degradation, causing moulting deformities. Therefore, expression inhibitors of TREs might be effective tools for the control of planthoppers in rice. PMID:27328657

  9. Functional characterization of three trehalase genes regulating the chitin metabolism pathway in rice brown planthopper using RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Yang, Mengmeng; Shen, Qida; Liu, Xiaojun; Shi, Zuokun; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective gene-silencing tool, and double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is considered a powerful strategy for gene function studies in insects. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of trehalase (TRE) genes (TRE 1-1, TRE 1-2, and TRE-2) isolated from the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a typical piercing-sucking insect in rice, and investigate their regulating roles in chitin synthesis by injecting larvae with dsRNA. The results showed that TRE1 and TRE2 had compensatory function, and the expression of each increased when the other was silenced. The total rate of insects with phenotypic deformities ranged from 19.83 to 24.36% after dsTRE injection, whereas the mortality rate ranged from 14.16 to 31.78%. The mRNA levels of genes involved in the chitin metabolism pathway in RNA-Seq and DGEP, namely hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI) and chitinase (Cht), decreased significantly at 72 h after single dsTREs injection, whereas two transcripts of chitin synthase (CHS) genes decreased at 72 h after dsTRE1-1 and dsTREs injection. These results demonstrated that TRE silencing could affect the regulation of chitin biosynthesis and degradation, causing moulting deformities. Therefore, expression inhibitors of TREs might be effective tools for the control of planthoppers in rice. PMID:27328657

  10. Whole-genome expression analysis of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in different plant hosts and small brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiufang; Ni, Haiping; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lan, Ying; Ren, Chunmei; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-11-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) can infect a number of gramineous plants and cause severe crop yield losses in southeast Asian countries. The virus is transmitted by small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent circulative manner. The interactions between RBSDV and its different hosts remain unknown. Besides, how the virus adjusts itself to infect different hosts is unclear. In the present study, the relative RNA levels of the thirteen RBSDV genes in rice, maize, wheat, and SBPH were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. P7-1 and P10 genes were predominantly expressed whereas P8 and P7-2 genes were expressed at low levels in plant hosts. Similar to the expression in rice, P7-1 was the most abundantly expressed gene and P8 was expressed at the lowest level in SBPH, indicating that RBSDV adopts the same strategy to infect distinct hosts. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene in both plants and insect suggest that it can be used as the target gene for disease diagnostics. However, the expression levels of some genes varied from host to host. P5-1, P6 and P9-1, the components of the RBSDV viroplasm, are differentially expressed in different hosts. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the quantity of the P9-1 protein was more abundant in SBPH than in plant hosts. These data indicate that the virus may adjust its own gene expression to replicate in different hosts. Analysis of time course of gene expression revealed that P7-1 stands out as the only gene highly expressed at the earliest time point and its expression precedes all others throughout infection from 8 to 24days post-inoculation. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene suggest that it plays a significant role in RBSDV-host interactions.

  11. Whole-genome expression analysis of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in different plant hosts and small brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiufang; Ni, Haiping; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lan, Ying; Ren, Chunmei; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-11-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) can infect a number of gramineous plants and cause severe crop yield losses in southeast Asian countries. The virus is transmitted by small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent circulative manner. The interactions between RBSDV and its different hosts remain unknown. Besides, how the virus adjusts itself to infect different hosts is unclear. In the present study, the relative RNA levels of the thirteen RBSDV genes in rice, maize, wheat, and SBPH were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. P7-1 and P10 genes were predominantly expressed whereas P8 and P7-2 genes were expressed at low levels in plant hosts. Similar to the expression in rice, P7-1 was the most abundantly expressed gene and P8 was expressed at the lowest level in SBPH, indicating that RBSDV adopts the same strategy to infect distinct hosts. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene in both plants and insect suggest that it can be used as the target gene for disease diagnostics. However, the expression levels of some genes varied from host to host. P5-1, P6 and P9-1, the components of the RBSDV viroplasm, are differentially expressed in different hosts. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that the quantity of the P9-1 protein was more abundant in SBPH than in plant hosts. These data indicate that the virus may adjust its own gene expression to replicate in different hosts. Analysis of time course of gene expression revealed that P7-1 stands out as the only gene highly expressed at the earliest time point and its expression precedes all others throughout infection from 8 to 24days post-inoculation. The high expression levels of the P7-1 gene suggest that it plays a significant role in RBSDV-host interactions. PMID:26149652

  12. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties.

  13. Changes in properties of starch isolated from whole rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp after storage at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Valmor; Ferreira, Cristiano Dietrich; Goebel, Jorge Tiago Schwanz; El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Santetti, Gabriela Soster; Gutkoski, Luiz Carlos; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Elias, Moacir Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical, morphological, crystallinity, thermal, and pasting properties of starches isolated from rice grains with brown, black, and red pericarp. Starch was isolated from the rice grains at initial storage time, and after 6months of storage at different storage temperatures (16, 24, 32 and 40°C). Starch isolated from the grains stored for 6months at 40°C showed darker coloration, surface deformation of granules, and a significant reduction in the extraction yield, final viscosity, enthalpy, and crystallinity, independent of the grain pericarp coloration. The time and storage temperature not influence the swelling power and solubility of starch isolated from grains with brown pericarp, while for the grains with black and red pericarp there was reduction in swelling power and solubility of starches isolated of grains stored at 40°C. Grains stored at 16°C showed minimum changes in starch properties. PMID:27596409

  14. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703-409 versus 637-407 J/g; 33.0-21.0 versus 20.1-11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64-3.47 versus 8.27-4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7-5.1 versus 8.4-6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60-2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  15. Inhibitory effects of fermented brown rice and rice bran on the development of acute hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Toshiyuki; Nagayasu, Hiroki; Kitajo, Hiroyuki; Arisue, Makoto; Yamashita, Tomomi; Hatakeyama, Daijiro; Iwasaki, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the effects of fermented brown rice (FBRA) on the development of hereditary hepatitis in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, we compared the incidence and grades of acute hepatitis among rats fed 5% and 10% FBRA in the conventional diet and the conventional diet alone. Both the 5% and 10% FBRA-supplemented diets indicated a tendency to prevent the development of hepatitis, and the significant effect of 10% FBRA was observed until 16-17 weeks of age in the accumulated incidence and survival ratio compared with the unsupplemented conventional diet, although no significant difference was observed between 5% and 10% FBRA-supplemented diets. At the age of 12 weeks, which is just before the rats develop hepatitis, serum copper levels in rats fed either of the test diets were similar to those in rats fed the conventional diet. Furthermore, the copper concentration in liver tissue at 12 weeks of age was not changed by the test diet. These results suggest that FBRA has preventive effects on the development of hepatitis in LEC rats and may play an important role in protecting the liver against the free radicals induced by copper accumulation in the liver.

  16. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  17. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  18. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid.

  19. Inhibitory effect of rice bran extracts and its phenolic compounds on polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato and apple puree.

    PubMed

    Sukhonthara, Sukhontha; Kaewka, Kunwadee; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2016-01-01

    Full-fatted and commercially defatted rice bran extracts (RBE and CDRBE) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in potato and apple. RBE showed more effective inhibition of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and browning in potato and apple as compared to CDRBE. Five phenolic compounds in RBE and CDRBE (protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid) were identified by HPLC. They were then evaluated for their important role in the inhibition using a model system which found that ferulic acid in RBE and p-coumaric acid in CDRBE were active in enzymatic browning inhibition of potato and apple. p-Coumaric acid exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO (p ⩽ 0.05). Almost all phenolic compounds showed higher inhibitory effect on potato and apple PPO than 100 ppm citric acid. PMID:26213057

  20. Genome-wide Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) for Contents of Eight Elements in Brown Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Zarqa; Kakar, Kaleem U; Li, Xiao-bai; Li, Shan; Zhang, Bin; Shou, Hui-xia; Shu, Qing-yao

    2015-09-16

    An association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating the concentrations of eight elements in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) was performed using USDA mini-core subset cultivated in two different environments. In addition, correlation between the grain elemental concentrations was also studied. A total of 60 marker loci associated with 8 grain elemental concentrations were identified, and these loci were clustered into 37 genomic regions. Twenty new QTLs were found to be associated with important elements such as Zn, Fe, and P, along with others. Fe concentration was associated with the greatest number of markers in two environments. In addition, several important elemental/metal transporter genes were identified in a few mapped regions. Positive correlation was observed within all grain elemental concentrations. In summary, the results provide insight into the genetic basis of rice grain element accumulation and may help in the identification of genes associated with the accumulation of Zn, Fe, and other essential elements in rice.

  1. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    PubMed Central

    González, Rolando José; Pastor Cavada, Elena; Vioque Peña, Javier; Torres, Roberto Luis; De Greef, Dardo Mario; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (E), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility (S) were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution. PMID:26904605

  2. Ferritin acts as the most abundant binding protein for snowdrop lectin in the midgut of rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens).

    PubMed

    Du, J; Foissac, X; Carss, A; Gatehouse, A M; Gatehouse, J A

    2000-04-01

    The mannose-specific snowdrop lectin [Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)] displays toxicity to the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. A 26kDa GNA-binding polypeptide from N. lugens midgut was identified by lectin blotting and affinity chromatography, and characterized by N-terminal sequencing. This polypeptide is the most abundant binding protein for GNA in the N. lugens midgut. A cDNA (fersub2) encoding this protein was isolated from an N. lugens cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant homology to ferritin subunits from Manduca sexta and other arthropods, plants and vertebrates, and contains a putative N-glycosylation site. Native ferritin was purified from whole insects as a protein of more than 400kDa in size and characterized biochemically. Three subunits of 20, 26 and 27kDa were released from the native complex. The 26kDa subunit binds GNA, and its N-terminal sequence was identical to that of fersub2. A second cDNA (fersub1), exhibiting strong homology with dipteran ferritin, was identified as an abundant cDNA in an N. lugens midgut-specific cDNA library, and could encode the larger ferritin subunit. The fersub1 cDNA carries a stem-loop structure (iron-responsive element) upstream from the start codon, similar to structures that have been shown to play a role in the control of ferritin synthesis in other insects.

  3. Effect of additional of Hoodia Gordonii and seaweed powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of brown rice bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajal, Masturah Ebni; Ghani, Maaruf Abd; Daud, Norlida Mat

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of the nutritional content of food has increased with the emergence of various health products in the market. Cereal bar is one of the beneficial foods among consumer that concern on their healthy food. This study was conducted to develop a brown rice bar that contain active ingredients (H. gordonii and seaweed powder) and to determine the effect on sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties (colour, texture and proximate analysis) of this product. This study consisted of two phases in which the first phase consisted of development of ten formulations including control. All of the formulations were undergo analysis of colour, texture and sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory evaluation, Control (H. gordonii: 0%, seaweed: 0%) and two best formulations that consist of formulation 6 (H. gordonii: 1.6%; seaweed: 2.8%) and formulation 9 (H. gordonii: 2.4%, seaweed: 2.8%) were chosen to undergo the second phase which is proximate analysis. Base on the result, were significant different (p<0.05) on proximate analysis except for the protein and moisture content. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. gordonii is a good source of fiber when adding in a bar.

  4. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M

    2014-02-01

    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed.

  5. Anti-obesity effects of germinated brown rice extract through down-regulation of lipogenic genes in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Son, Mi-Eun; Lim, Won-Chul; Lim, Seung-Taik; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2012-01-01

    Lipid accumulation using Oil Red O dye was measured in 3T3-L1 murine adipocytes to examine the anti-obesity effect of four types of germinated rice, including germinated brown rice (GBR), germinated waxy brown rice (GWBR), germinated black rice (GB-R), and germinated waxy black rice (GWB-R). GBR methanol extract exhibited the highest suppression of lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cell line and also the anti-obesity effect of GBR on high fat induced-obese mice. The mice were divided into three groups and were administered: ND, a normal diet; HFD control, a high fat diet; and GBR, a high fat diet plus 0.15% GBR methanol extract for 7 weeks. GBR administration significantly decreased body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipose tissue as compared to the HFD control group. In addition, serum triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) levels were significantly decreased by following GBR administration compared with those in the HFD control group, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level increased. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, such as CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR)-γ, and related genes (aP2, FAS), decreased significantly. Taken together, GBR administration suppressed body weight gain and lipid accumulation in the liver and epididymal adipocytes, and improved serum lipid profiles, in part, by controlling adipogenesis through a reduction in transcriptional factors. These results suggest that GBR is a potential agent against obesity.

  6. Expression of BrD1, a plant defensin from Brassica rapa, confers resistance against brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rices.

    PubMed

    Choi, Man-Soo; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Hyang-Mi; Seo, Bo-Yoon; Jung, Jin-Kyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Kim, Min-Chul; Shin, Dong-Bum; Yun, Hong-Tai; Choi, Im-Soo; Kim, Chung-Kon; Lee, Jang-Yong

    2009-08-31

    Plant defensins are small (5-10 kDa) basic peptides thought to be an important component of the defense pathway against fungal and/or bacterial pathogens. To understand the role of plant defensins in protecting plants against the brown planthopper, a type of insect herbivore, we isolated the Brassica rapa Defensin 1 (BrD1) gene and introduced it into rice (Oryza sativa L.) to produce stable transgenic plants. The BrD1 protein is homologous to other plant defensins and contains both an N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum signal sequence and a defensin domain, which are highly conserved in all plant defensins. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the defensin domain of various plant defensins, we established that BrD1 belongs to a distinct subgroup of plant defensins. Relative to the wild type, transgenic rices expressing BrD1 exhibit strong resistance to brown planthopper nymphs and female adults. These results suggest that BrD1 exhibits insecticidal activity, and might be useful for developing cereal crop plants resistant to sap-sucking insects, such as the brown planthopper.

  7. The Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Germinated Brown Rice Involves the Upregulation of the Apolipoprotein A1 and Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Maznah; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Ithnin, Hairuszah

    2013-01-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is rich in bioactive compounds, which confer GBR with many functional properties. Evidence of its hypocholesterolemic effects is emerging, but the exact mechanisms of action and bioactive compounds involved have not been fully documented. Using type 2 diabetic rats, we studied the effects of white rice, GBR, and brown rice (BR) on lipid profile and on the regulation of selected genes involved in cholesterol metabolism. Our results showed that the upregulation of apolipoprotein A1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor genes was involved in the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR. Additionally, in vitro studies using HEPG2 cells showed that acylated steryl glycoside, gamma amino butyric acid, and oryzanol and phenolic extracts of GBR contribute to the nutrigenomic regulation of these genes. Transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms are likely involved in the overall hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR suggesting that it may have an impact on the prevention and/or management of hypercholesterolemia due to a wide variety of metabolic perturbations. However, there is need to conduct long-term clinical trials to determine the clinical relevance of the hypocholesterolemic effects of GBR determined through animal studies. PMID:23671850

  8. Aflatoxins contamination in Pakistani brown rice: a comparison of TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Muhammad Asif; Ahmed, Aftab; Khan, Mobeen Ahmed; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Advancement in the field of analytical food-chemistry has explored various experimental techniques for aflatoxins (AFs) quantification. The present study was aimed to compare four different techniques; thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the analysis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) in brown rice (n = 120) being collected from Karachi, Pakistan. All the four assays provide precised, accurate and comparable results. However, some differences were observed. For instance, TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies offered the advantage of the quantification of individual toxins in contrast to ELISA technique. The contamination ranges of AFB₁/AFB₂ as determined by TLC, HPLC and LC-MS/MS were 1.18-9.97/0.59-1.52, 0.16-10.54/0.26-1.35 and 0.11-10.88/0.38-1.48 µg/kg, respectively. However, AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected in any tested samples. Furthermore, owing to low-detection limit and sensitivity, HPLC and LC-MS/MS methodologies have identified greater number of contaminated samples in comparison to TLC and ELISA techniques. The overall average results of total AFs as provided by HPLC (3.79 µg/kg) and LC-MS/MS (3.89 µg/kg) were found higher in comparison to TLC (3.68 µg/kg) and ELISA (3.70 µg/kg). On the basis of achieved results, it was concluded that TLC, HPLC, LC-MS/MS and ELISA techniques are valuable tool for the quantification of AFs in cereals and grains. Furthermore, HPLC and LC-MS/MS techniques offer an added advantage for the detection of AFs in diminutive levels.

  9. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    PubMed

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities. PMID:27283689

  10. Map-based cloning and characterization of BPH29, a B3 domain-containing recessive gene conferring brown planthopper resistance in rice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Cao, Liming; Zhang, Yuexiong; Cao, Changxiang; Liu, Fang; Huang, Fengkuan; Qiu, Yongfu; Li, Rongbai; Lou, Xiaojin

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) production, essential for global food security, is threatened by the brown planthopper (BPH). The breeding of host-resistant crops is an economical and environmentally friendly strategy for pest control, but few resistance gene resources have thus far been cloned. An indica rice introgression line RBPH54, derived from wild rice Oryza rufipogon, has been identified with sustainable resistance to BPH, which is governed by recessive alleles at two loci. In this study, a map-based cloning approach was used to fine-map one resistance gene locus to a 24kb region on the short arm of chromosome 6. Through genetic analysis and transgenic experiments, BPH29, a resistance gene containing a B3 DNA-binding domain, was cloned. The tissue specificity of BPH29 is restricted to vascular tissue, the location of BPH attack. In response to BPH infestation, RBPH54 activates the salicylic acid signalling pathway and suppresses the jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent pathway, similar to plant defence responses to biotrophic pathogens. The cloning and characterization of BPH29 provides insights into molecular mechanisms of plant–insect interactions and should facilitate the breeding of rice host-resistant varieties. PMID:26136269

  11. Resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens) and brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in transgenic rice expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA).

    PubMed

    Foissac, X; Thi Loc, N; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.

    2000-04-01

    Transgenic rice plants expressing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA) were screened for resistance to green leafhopper (Nephotettix virescens; GLH), a major homopteran pest of rice. Survival was reduced by 29% and 53% (P<0.05) respectively, on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific (phloem and epidermal layer) or constitutive. Similar levels of resistance in GNA-expressing transgenic rice were previously reported for rice brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens; BPH). GNA binding to glycoproteins in gut tissues showed that BPH contained more "receptors" than GLH, and that the binding affinity was stronger, particularly in the midgut. Subsequent toxicity of GNA is thus unlikely to be directly related to the amount of lectin bound. GNA was not detected in the honeydew of either insect species when they were fed on GNA-expressing plants, in contrast to results from artificial diet studies. This result suggests that GNA is not being delivered to the insect efficiently. When offered a free choice vs control plants, BPH nymphs tended to avoid plants expressing GNA; avoidance was less pronounced and took longer to develop on plants where GNA expression was tissue-specific, In contrast to BPH, GLH nymphs were attracted to plants expressing GNA, whether constitutively or in a tissue-specific manner.

  12. Extruded whole grain diets based on brown, soaked and germinated rice. Effects on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters of growing Wistar rats. Part I.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, Micaela; Weisstaub, Adriana R; Zuleta, Angela; Drago, Silvina R

    2016-06-15

    The influence of diets with whole rice processed ingredients on cecum health, calcium absorption and bone parameters was studied using an animal model. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were fed with Control (C), extruded Brown rice (B), extruded Soaked whole rice (S) and extruded Germinated whole rice (G) diets for 60 days. The cecum weight, cecal content pH, cecal sIgA content, and β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase activities were determined. Calcium apparent absorption, total bone mineral content and density and right femur parameters (ashes, organic content, calcium and P) were evaluated. The results showed that animals fed with whole grain diets have lower food intake in comparison with the C diet, and decreased cecal content pH (7.06 vs. 6.33) and β-glucosidase activity (1.66 vs. 0.21 μmol p-nitrophenol g(-1) cc h(-1)). Even though calcium apparent absorption was not different among treatments (∼70%), none of the whole grain diets improved calcium related bone parameters over the control fed rats (cellulose as dietary fibre). PMID:27199005

  13. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources.

  14. Application of Brown Planthopper Salivary Gland Extract to Rice Plants Induces Systemic Host mRNA Patterns Associated with Nutrient Remobilization

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Adelina; Smith, Charles Michael

    2015-01-01

    Insect saliva plays an important role in modulation of plant-insect interactions. Although this area of research has generated much attention in recent years, mechanisms of how saliva affects plant responses remain poorly understood. To address this void, the present study investigated the impact of the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, Stål; hereafter BPH) salivary gland extract (SGE) on rice (Oryza sativa) systemic responses at the mRNA level. Differentially expressed rice mRNAs were generated through suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and classified into six functional groups. Those with the most representatives were from the primary metabolism (28%), signaling-defense (22%) and transcription-translation-regulation group (16%). To validate SSH library results, six genes were further analyzed by One-Step Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-PCR. Five of these genes exhibited up-regulation levels of more than 150% of those in the control group in at least one post-application time point. Results of this study allow assignment of at least two putative roles of BPH saliva: First, application of SGE induces immediate systemic responses at the mRNA level, suggesting that altering of the rice transcriptome at sites distant to hoppers feeding locations may play an important role in BPH-rice interactions. Second, 58% of SGE-responsive up-regulated genes have a secondary function associated with senescence, a process characterized by remobilization of nutrients. This suggests that BPH salivary secretions may reprogram the rice transcriptome for nutritional enhancement. When these findings are translated onto ‘whole plant’ scale, they indicate that BPH saliva may play the ‘wise investment’ role of ‘minimum input today, maximum output tomorrow’. PMID:26641488

  15. Effects of hydrothermal processes on antioxidants in brown, purple and red bran whole grain rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impacts of parboiling and wet-cooking, alone and in combination, on concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants (vitamin E homologs and '-oryzanol), soluble (including proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins) and cell wall-bound phenolics and antioxidant capacities in whole grain rice from 6 rice culti...

  16. Map-based Cloning and Characterization of the BPH18 Gene from Wild Rice Conferring Resistance to Brown Planthopper (BPH) Insect Pest

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hyeonso; Kim, Sung-Ryul; Kim, Yul-Ho; Suh, Jung-Pil; Park, Hyang-Mi; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Misra, Gopal; Kim, Suk-Man; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Kim, Hakbum; Lee, Gang-Seob; Yoon, Ung-Han; Kim, Tae-Ho; Lim, Hyemin; Suh, Suk-Chul; Yang, Jungil; An, Gynheung; Jena, Kshirod K.

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is a phloem sap-sucking insect pest of rice which causes severe yield loss. We cloned the BPH18 gene from the BPH-resistant introgression line derived from the wild rice species Oryza australiensis. Map-based cloning and complementation test revealed that the BPH18 encodes CC-NBS-NBS-LRR protein. BPH18 has two NBS domains, unlike the typical NBS-LRR proteins. The BPH18 promoter::GUS transgenic plants exhibited strong GUS expression in the vascular bundles of the leaf sheath, especially in phloem cells where the BPH attacks. The BPH18 proteins were widely localized to the endo-membranes in a cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, trans-Golgi network, and prevacuolar compartments, suggesting that BPH18 may recognize the BPH invasion at endo-membranes in phloem cells. Whole genome sequencing of the near-isogenic lines (NILs), NIL-BPH18 and NIL-BPH26, revealed that BPH18 located at the same locus of BPH26. However, these two genes have remarkable sequence differences and the independent NILs showed differential BPH resistance with different expression patterns of plant defense-related genes, indicating that BPH18 and BPH26 are functionally different alleles. These findings would facilitate elucidation of the molecular mechanism of BPH resistance and the identified novel alleles to fast track breeding BPH resistant rice cultivars. PMID:27682162

  17. Effect of replacing corn with brown rice in a total, mixed, ration silage on milk production, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effects of substituting corn grain with brown rice (BR) grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage on milk yield, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen (N) balance. The TMR silages were made from the ensiling of TMR containing (dry matter basis) 50.1% forage in rice silage and corn silage combination, and 49.9% concentrate. The grain portion of the diets contained 31.2% steam-flaked corn, 31.2% steam-flaked BR or an equal mixture of corn and BR. Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat, protein and lactose yields. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The urinary N excretion decreased linearly (P < 0.01) in response to increased levels of BR, with no dietary effect on N intake, N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. Our results indicate that steam-flaked BR is a suitable replacement for steam-flaked corn in dairy cow diets, and that it can be included in rations to a level of at least 31.2% of dry matter without adverse effects on milk production, when cows were fed rice silage and corn silage-based diets.

  18. Detection of three herbicide, and one metabolite, residues in brown rice and rice straw using various versions of the QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Chung, Hyung Suk; Kim, Sung-Woo; Abdel-Aty, Azza M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    A single-run analytical method was developed to analyze the three herbicides azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, and mesotrione and its metabolite (4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid (MNBA)) in brown rice and rice straw using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Samples extracted using various versions of Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe "QuEChERS" (original unbuffered, acetate (AOAC), and citrate (EN) buffered) methods gave poor recoveries of all the tested analytes in both matrices. The extraction efficiency was improved when primary-secondary amine (PSA) sorbent was removed from the purification step, with the best recovery being achieved for EN-QuEChERS, which was subsequently used throughout the study. Overall, a determination coefficients (R(2))⩾0.995 was achieved at matrix-matched calibration curves at various concentration ranges. The recovery rates at three fortification levels (limit of quantification (LOQ), 1/2 maximum residue limit (1/2MRL), and MRL) ranged from 78 to 114.5, with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<18% for all the tested analytes in both matrices. The LOQs for all herbicides were lower than the MRL set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), Republic of Korea. Field trials with the recommended, or double the recommended dose, revealed that the herbicides can safely be applied to rice, as no residues were detected in the harvested samples at 110days. PMID:27211669

  19. Toxicity and physiological effects of neem pesticides applied to rice on the Nilaparvata lugens Stål, the brown planthopper.

    PubMed

    Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Choi, Man-Young; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Seo, Hong-Yul; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy

    2009-09-01

    The effects of two different neem products (Parker Oil and Neema) on mortality, food consumption and survival of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) were investigated. The LC(50) (3.45 ml/L for nymph and 4.42 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 4.18 ml/L for nymph and 5.63 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) and LC(90) (8.72 ml/L for nymph and 11.1 ml/L for adult in Parker Oil treatment; 9.84 ml/L for nymph and 13.07 ml/L for adult in Neema treatment) were identified by probit analysis. The LC(90) (equal to recommended dose) was applied in the rice field. The effective concentration of both Parker Oil and Neema took more than 48 h to kill 80% of the N. lugens. Fourth instar nymph and adult female N. lugens were caged on rice plants and exposed to a series (both LC(50) and LC(90)) of neem concentrations. Nymph and adult female N. lugens that were chronically exposed to neem pesticides showed immediate mortality after application in laboratory experiment. The quantity of food ingested and assimilated by N. lugens on neem-treated rice plants was significantly less than on control rice plants. The results clearly indicate the neem-based pesticide (Parker Oil and Neema), containing low lethal concentration, can be used effectively to inhibit the growth and survival of N. lugens. PMID:19500844

  20. Restriction of viral dissemination from the midgut determines incompetence of small brown planthopper as a vector of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Hongyan; Mao, Qianzhuo; Liu, Qifei; Wei, Taiyun

    2012-08-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus, is transmitted by the white-backed planthopper in a persistent-propagative manner. In this study, we found that another planthopper species, the small brown planthopper (SBPH), could acquire SRBSDV but not transmit it. To identify the transmission barrier for SRBSDV in SBPHs, sequential infection by SRBSDV in the organs of SBPHs was studied with immunofluorescence for viral antigens. SRBSDV initially entered the epithelial cells of the midgut, then viroplasms, the sites for viral replication, formed in the midgut of viruliferous SBPHs. Furthermore, SRBSDV spread within the midgut, but failed to disseminate from the midgut into the hemocoel or into the salivary glands. All these results indicated that the inability of SBPH to transmit SRBSDV could be due to the restriction of viral dissemination from the midgut of SBPH, which led to the failure of viral spread to the salivary glands for virus transmission.

  1. Restriction of viral dissemination from the midgut determines incompetence of small brown planthopper as a vector of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Hongyan; Mao, Qianzhuo; Liu, Qifei; Wei, Taiyun

    2012-08-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a fijivirus, is transmitted by the white-backed planthopper in a persistent-propagative manner. In this study, we found that another planthopper species, the small brown planthopper (SBPH), could acquire SRBSDV but not transmit it. To identify the transmission barrier for SRBSDV in SBPHs, sequential infection by SRBSDV in the organs of SBPHs was studied with immunofluorescence for viral antigens. SRBSDV initially entered the epithelial cells of the midgut, then viroplasms, the sites for viral replication, formed in the midgut of viruliferous SBPHs. Furthermore, SRBSDV spread within the midgut, but failed to disseminate from the midgut into the hemocoel or into the salivary glands. All these results indicated that the inability of SBPH to transmit SRBSDV could be due to the restriction of viral dissemination from the midgut of SBPH, which led to the failure of viral spread to the salivary glands for virus transmission. PMID:22683297

  2. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki-Moon

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal content of blood lipids often results in metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. Many agents, including natural sources from traditional food, have been developed to regulate the blood lipid contents. In this study, we examined the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar (RNSpBRV), a Korean traditional pickled soybean food. Since RNSpBRV is made of R. nulubilis seeds (RNS) soaked in brown rice vinegar (BRV), we compared the anti-adipogenic activity between RNS, BRV and solid fraction of RNSpBRV (SF-RNSpBRV), liquid fraction of RNSpBRV (LF-RNSpBRV). For this, the inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was checked by adding methanol extracts of mixed RNS and BRV, LF-RNSpBRV, and SF-RNSpBRV. The addition of each methanol extract up to 1 mg/ml showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and approximately 20% of the lipid droplet formation was suppressed with the methanol extract of BRL or SF-RNSpBRV. The highest suppression (42.1%) was achieved with LF-RNSpBRV. In addition, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 5% RNSpBRV powder led to increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower blood glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol compared to mice fed with a HFD diet only. Interestingly, the size of the epididymis cells gradually decreased in HFD + 1% RNSpBRV- and HFD + 5% RNSpBRV-fed mice if compared those of HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that RNSpBRV has a regulatory role in lipid metabolism that is related to hyperlipidemia. PMID:24353830

  3. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Moon; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    The abnormal content of blood lipids often results in metabolic diseases, such as hyperlipidemia and obesity. Many agents, including natural sources from traditional food, have been developed to regulate the blood lipid contents. In this study, we examined the anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Rhynchosia nulubilis seeds pickled with brown rice vinegar (RNSpBRV), a Korean traditional pickled soybean food. Since RNSpBRV is made of R. nulubilis seeds (RNS) soaked in brown rice vinegar (BRV), we compared the anti-adipogenic activity between RNS, BRV and solid fraction of RNSpBRV (SF-RNSpBRV), liquid fraction of RNSpBRV (LF-RNSpBRV). For this, the inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocyte was checked by adding methanol extracts of mixed RNS and BRV, LF-RNSpBRV, and SF-RNSpBRV. The addition of each methanol extract up to 1 mg/ml showed no cytotoxicity on 3T3-L1 adipocyte, and approximately 20% of the lipid droplet formation was suppressed with the methanol extract of BRL or SF-RNSpBRV. The highest suppression (42.1%) was achieved with LF-RNSpBRV. In addition, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) supplemented with 5% RNSpBRV powder led to increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower blood glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol compared to mice fed with a HFD diet only. Interestingly, the size of the epididymis cells gradually decreased in HFD + 1% RNSpBRV- and HFD + 5% RNSpBRV-fed mice if compared those of HFD-fed mice. Taken together, these results provide evidence that RNSpBRV has a regulatory role in lipid metabolism that is related to hyperlipidemia.

  4. Improvement of the antifungal activity of Litsea cubeba vapor by using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against Aspergillus flavus on brown rice snack bars.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn; Danworaphong, Sorasak; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal activity of the volatile Litsea cubeba essential oil and its main components (citral and limonene) on brown rice snack bars by applying He-Ne laser treatment. Different volumes (50-200 μL) of L. cubeba, citral or limonene were absorbed into a filter paper and placed inside an oven (18 L). Ten brown rice snack bars (2 cm wide × 4 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) were put in an oven and heated at 180 °C for 20 min. The shelf-life of the treated snack bars at 30 °C was assessed and sensory testing was carried out to investigate their consumer acceptability. A count of total phenolic content (TPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on the properties of essential oil, citral, and limonene before and after the laser treatment was studied for possible modes of action. It was found that the laser treatment improved the antifungal activity of the examined volatile L. cubeba and citral with Aspergillus flavus inhibition by 80% in comparison with those of the control not treated with the laser. L. cubeba vapor at 100 μL with the laser treatment was found to completely inhibit the growth of natural molds on the snack bars for at least 25 days; however, without essential oil vapor and laser treatment, naturally contaminating mold was observed in 3 days. Results from the sensory tests showed that the panelists were unable to detect flavor and aroma differences between essential oil treatment and the control. Laser treatment caused an increase in TPC of citral oil whereas the TPC in limonene showed a decrease after the laser treatment. These situations could result from the changing peak of the aliphatic hydrocarbons that was revealed by the FTIR spectra. PMID:26433461

  5. Improvement of the antifungal activity of Litsea cubeba vapor by using a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser against Aspergillus flavus on brown rice snack bars.

    PubMed

    Suhem, Kitiya; Matan, Narumol; Matan, Nirundorn; Danworaphong, Sorasak; Aewsiri, Tanong

    2015-12-23

    The aim of this study was to improve the antifungal activity of the volatile Litsea cubeba essential oil and its main components (citral and limonene) on brown rice snack bars by applying He-Ne laser treatment. Different volumes (50-200 μL) of L. cubeba, citral or limonene were absorbed into a filter paper and placed inside an oven (18 L). Ten brown rice snack bars (2 cm wide × 4 cm long × 0.5 cm deep) were put in an oven and heated at 180 °C for 20 min. The shelf-life of the treated snack bars at 30 °C was assessed and sensory testing was carried out to investigate their consumer acceptability. A count of total phenolic content (TPC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) on the properties of essential oil, citral, and limonene before and after the laser treatment was studied for possible modes of action. It was found that the laser treatment improved the antifungal activity of the examined volatile L. cubeba and citral with Aspergillus flavus inhibition by 80% in comparison with those of the control not treated with the laser. L. cubeba vapor at 100 μL with the laser treatment was found to completely inhibit the growth of natural molds on the snack bars for at least 25 days; however, without essential oil vapor and laser treatment, naturally contaminating mold was observed in 3 days. Results from the sensory tests showed that the panelists were unable to detect flavor and aroma differences between essential oil treatment and the control. Laser treatment caused an increase in TPC of citral oil whereas the TPC in limonene showed a decrease after the laser treatment. These situations could result from the changing peak of the aliphatic hydrocarbons that was revealed by the FTIR spectra.

  6. Immunohistochemical and developmental studies to elucidate the mechanism of action of the snowdrop lectin on the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal).

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, A M.R.; Gatehouse, J A.; Bharathi, M; Spence, J; Powell, K S.

    1998-07-01

    Rice brown planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens) were fed on artificial diet containing snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin; GNA), which has been shown to be toxic towards this insect pest. In addition to decreasing survival, the lectin affected development, reducing the growth rate of nymphs by approximately 50% when present at a concentration of 5.3&mgr;M. Immunolocalisation studies showed that lectin binding was concentrated on the luminal surface of the midgut epithelial cells within the planthopper, suggesting that GNA binds to cell surface carbohydrate moieties in the gut. Immunolabelling at a lower level was also observed in the fat bodies, the ovarioles, and throughout the haemolymph. These observations suggest that GNA is able to cross the midgut epithelial barrier, and pass into the insect's circulatory system, resulting in a systemic toxic effect. Electron microscope studies showed morphological changes in the midgut region of planthoppers fed on a toxic dose of GNA, with disruption of the microvilli brush border region. No significant proteolytic degradation of GNA was observed either in the gut or honeydew of planthoppers fed on lectin-containing diet. The presence of glycoproteins which bind GNA in the gut of the brown planthopper was confirmed using digoxigen-labeled lectins to probe blots of extracted gut polypeptides.

  7. A novel, in vivo, indoor method to preserve rice black-streaked dwarf virus in small brown planthopper using wheat seedling as a bridge host.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunmei; Cheng, Zhaobang; Yang, Liu; Miao, Qian; Fan, Yongjian; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) naturally infects Gramineae plants through small brown planthopper (SBPH) as a vector. However, RBSDV cannot be transmitted to the SBPH offspring through transovarian transmission. Wheat plant, an important intermediate host in winter, is essential for the completion of the annual cycle of RBSDV in farm ecosystem. We developed a novel, in vivo, indoor method to preserve RBSDV in SBPH using wheat seedling as a bridge host. The temperature range of 23-27°C was initially selected to rear the insects and plants. Before initiating the scheme cycle, viruliferous SBPH was obtained by feeding the virus-free 1st to 2nd instar nymphs with RBSDV-infected rice plants. Four to six RBSDV-infected SBPH were placed per plant to inoculate wheat seedlings at two-to-four leaf stages. After 48 h of inoculation, the viruliferous SBPH were removed. Five mated, newly emerged virus-free SBPH females were then transferred onto each inoculated plant and allowed to lay eggs for 48 h. The newly hatched SBPH were raised on wheat seedlings until the 2nd instar nymph stage, and then transferred onto healthy rice seedlings for further development until 5th instar nymphs or adults. These newly obtained viruliferous SBPH can be used for inoculating new wheat seedlings in the succeeding maintenance cycles, or for further experiments. We discovered that the incubation period of RBSDV in wheat seedlings synchronized with the gestation period of SBPH eggs at four to six inoculated viruliferous SBPH per plant and lasted for approximately seven days. In addition, this period was optimal for enhancing the SBPH infection ratio because SBPH nymphs can only acquire the virus after they hatch. The RBSDV infection ratio of the SBPHs acquired through this method consistently exceeded 50%.

  8. A novel, in vivo, indoor method to preserve rice black-streaked dwarf virus in small brown planthopper using wheat seedling as a bridge host.

    PubMed

    Ren, Chunmei; Cheng, Zhaobang; Yang, Liu; Miao, Qian; Fan, Yongjian; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) naturally infects Gramineae plants through small brown planthopper (SBPH) as a vector. However, RBSDV cannot be transmitted to the SBPH offspring through transovarian transmission. Wheat plant, an important intermediate host in winter, is essential for the completion of the annual cycle of RBSDV in farm ecosystem. We developed a novel, in vivo, indoor method to preserve RBSDV in SBPH using wheat seedling as a bridge host. The temperature range of 23-27°C was initially selected to rear the insects and plants. Before initiating the scheme cycle, viruliferous SBPH was obtained by feeding the virus-free 1st to 2nd instar nymphs with RBSDV-infected rice plants. Four to six RBSDV-infected SBPH were placed per plant to inoculate wheat seedlings at two-to-four leaf stages. After 48 h of inoculation, the viruliferous SBPH were removed. Five mated, newly emerged virus-free SBPH females were then transferred onto each inoculated plant and allowed to lay eggs for 48 h. The newly hatched SBPH were raised on wheat seedlings until the 2nd instar nymph stage, and then transferred onto healthy rice seedlings for further development until 5th instar nymphs or adults. These newly obtained viruliferous SBPH can be used for inoculating new wheat seedlings in the succeeding maintenance cycles, or for further experiments. We discovered that the incubation period of RBSDV in wheat seedlings synchronized with the gestation period of SBPH eggs at four to six inoculated viruliferous SBPH per plant and lasted for approximately seven days. In addition, this period was optimal for enhancing the SBPH infection ratio because SBPH nymphs can only acquire the virus after they hatch. The RBSDV infection ratio of the SBPHs acquired through this method consistently exceeded 50%. PMID:25075933

  9. Report of the key comparison CCQM-K108 determination of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shinichi; Kotzeva, Boriana; Kakoulides, Elias; Sxoina, Vasiliki; Fung, W. H.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yau, H. P.; Tsoi, Y. T.; Lee, C. L.; Kong, M. F.; Shin, Richard; Juan, Wang; Sin Yee, Ng; Uribe, Christian; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Silva Dutra, Emily; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Valiente, Liliana; Horvat, Milena; Jacimovic, Radojko; Oduor Okumu, Tom; Kang'Iri, Jacqueline; Owiti Orwa, Tabitha; Chao, Wei; Jingbo, Chao; Taebunpakul, Sutthinun; Yafa, Charun; Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn; Chailap, Benjamat; Pharat, Yanee; Phukphattanachai, Pranee; Turk, Gregory C.; Long, Stephen; Murphy, K. E.; Davis, Clay; Ellisor, Michael; Merrick, Jeffrey; White, Ian; Saxby, David; Linsky, S. M.; Barzev, A.; Botha, A.

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K108 key comparison was organised by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to test the abilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratory. The participants used different measurement methods, though most of them used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for Cd and ICP-MS for total arsenic. Regarding arsenic speciation, all participants used ICP-MS coupled with liquid chromatography (LC). Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, comparability of measurement results for each of total arsenic and cadmium was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs or DIs for the measurement of the measurand at the level of less than 0.5 mg/kg. Regarding arsenic species (inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)), there was, however, a measurement problem still to be solved and that part of CCQM-K108 will be repeated. It is expected that arsenic, cadmium and other metals at mass fractions greater than approximately 0.1 mg/kg in rice flour can be determined by each participant using the same technique(s) employed for this key comparison to achieve similar uncertainties mentioned in the present report. Furthermore, the results of this key comparison can be utilised along with the IAWG core capability approach. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Stereoselective determination of a novel chiral insecticide, sulfoxaflor, in brown rice, cucumber and apple by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zenglong; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Youpu; Liu, Na; Tao, Yan; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-02-01

    An effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the stereoselective determination of a new sulfoximines insecticide, sulfoxaflor, in brown rice, cucumber and apple. Target compounds were extracted with acetonitrile and an aliquot cleaned with Cleanert PestiCarb/PSA (primary and secondary amine) cartridge. Five polysaccharide-based columns were investigated on the separation of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers and the best was achieved on a ChromegaChiral CCA column with n-hexane/ethanol/methanol (90:2:8, v/v/v) as mobile phase by UV detection at 220 nm at 20ºC. The resolutions of the four stereoisomers were 1.85, 1.54 and 3.08, and the elution order was identified by optical rotation and stereoisomers ratio. The mean recoveries of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers ranged from 77.1% to 99.3%, with relative standard deviations less than 8.9% at three concentration levels in all matrices. The limits of detection for all stereoisomers varied from 0.05 mg/kg to 0.07 mg/kg, while the limit of quantification did not exceed 0.22 mg/kg. The method was then successfully applied to determine the sulfoxaflor stereoisomers in authentic samples, confirming that it is convenient and reliable for stereoselective determination of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers in food.

  11. Germinated Brown Rice Alters Aβ(1-42) Aggregation and Modulates Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes in Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Norsharina; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu Mohammed; Abdullah, Maizaton Atmadini

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease involves complex etiological factors, of which the deposition of beta-amyloid (Aβ) protein and oxidative stress have been strongly implicated. We explored the effects of H2O2, which is a precursor for highly reactive hydroxyl radicals, on neurotoxicity and genes related to AD on neuronal cells. Candidate bioactive compounds responsible for the effects were quantified using HPLC-DAD. Additionally, the effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the morphology of Aβ(1-42) were assessed by Transmission Electron Microscopy and its regulatory effects on gene expressions were explored. The results showed that GBR extract had several phenolic compounds and γ-oryzanol and altered the structure of Aβ(1-42) suggesting an antiamyloidogenic effect. GBR was also able to attenuate the oxidative effects of H2O2 as implied by reduced LDH release and intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, gene expression analyses showed that the neuroprotective effects of GBR were partly mediated through transcriptional regulation of multiple genes including Presenilins, APP, BACE1, BACE2, ADAM10, Neprilysin, and LRP1. Our findings showed that GBR exhibited neuroprotective properties via transcriptional regulation of APP metabolism with potential impact on Aβ aggregation. These findings can have important implications for the management of neurodegenerative diseases like AD and are worth exploring further. PMID:26858770

  12. Roles of NlAKTIP in the Growth and Eclosion of the Rice Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, as Revealed by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Peiying; Lu, Chaofeng; Ma, Yan; Xu, Lingbo; Zhu, Jiajun; Yu, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    AKT-interacting protein (AKTIP) interacts with serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT. AKTIP modulates AKT’s activity by enhancing the phosphorylation of the regulatory site and plays a crucial role in multiple biological processes. In this study, the full length cDNA of NlAKTIP, a novel AKTIP gene in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, was cloned. The reverse transcription quantitive PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that the NlAKTIP gene was strongly expressed in gravid female adults, but was relatively weakly expressed in nymphs and male adult BPH. In female BPH, treatment with dsAKTIP resulted in the efficient silencing of NlAKTIP, leading to a significant reduction of mRNA levels, about 50% of those of the untreated control group at day 7 of the study. BPH fed with dsAKTIP had reduced growth with lower body weights and smaller sizes, and the body weight of BPH treated with dsAKTIP at day 7 decreased to about 30% of that of the untreated control. Treatment of dsAKTIP significantly delayed the eclosion for over 7 days relative to the control group and restricted ovarian development to Grade I (transparent stage), whereas the controls developed to Grade IV (matured stage). These results indicated that NlAKTIP is crucial to the growth and development of female BPH. This study provided a valuable clue of a potential target NlAKTIP for inhibiting the BPH, and also provided a new point of view on the interaction between BPH and resistant rice. PMID:26402675

  13. Infection of rice plants by rice black streaked dwarf virus improves an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of rice planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-10-01

    The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae.

  14. Infection of rice plants by rice black streaked dwarf virus improves an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), of rice planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-10-01

    The effects of rice plants infected by rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) on the host preference, duration of immature stages, sex ratio, and adult longevity and parasitic capacity of an egg parasitoid, Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang, of rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, were evaluated. Tests of response to plant volatiles using an olfactometer showed that A. nilaparvatae preferred rice plants harboring rice brown planthopper eggs over plants free of rice brown planthopper eggs. However, both the response to plant volatiles and the host selectivity test showed no significant differences in host preference between RBSDV-infected plants and healthy plants when both contained rice brown planthopper eggs. The developmental duration at immature stage of the male A. nilaparvatae in rice brown planthopper eggs on RBSDV-infected rice plants was significantly prolonged, and the parasitic capacity of rice brown planthopper eggs was significantly increased in comparison with the A. nilaparvatae parasite in rice brown planthopper eggs on healthy rice plants. There were no significant differences between RBSDV-infected rice plants and healthy rice plants in other ecological fitness parameters, including the developmental duration of female adults, female percentage, and adult longevity of A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25199055

  15. Bone mass density estimation: Archimede’s principle versus automatic X-ray histogram and edge detection technique in ovariectomized rats treated with germinated brown rice bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Sani Ismaila; Maznah, Ismail; Mahmud, Rozi Binti; Esmaile, Maher Faik; Zuki, Abu Bakar Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone mass density is an important parameter used in the estimation of the severity and depth of lesions in osteoporosis. Estimation of bone density using existing methods in experimental models has its advantages as well as drawbacks. Materials and methods In this study, the X-ray histogram edge detection technique was used to estimate the bone mass density in ovariectomized rats treated orally with germinated brown rice (GBR) bioactives, and the results were compared with estimated results obtained using Archimede’s principle. New bone cell proliferation was assessed by histology and immunohistochemical reaction using polyclonal nuclear antigen. Additionally, serum alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium and zinc concentrations were detected using a chemistry analyzer and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were divided into groups of six as follows: sham (nonovariectomized, nontreated); ovariectomized, nontreated; and ovariectomized and treated with estrogen, or Remifemin®, GBR-phenolics, acylated steryl glucosides, gamma oryzanol, and gamma amino-butyric acid extracted from GBR at different doses. Results Our results indicate a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, serum and bone calcium, and zinc and ash content in the treated groups compared with the ovariectomized nontreated group (P < 0.05). Bone density increased significantly (P < 0.05) in groups treated with estrogen, GBR, Remifemin®, and gamma oryzanol compared to the ovariectomized nontreated group. Histological sections revealed more osteoblasts in the treated groups when compared with the untreated groups. A polyclonal nuclear antigen reaction showing proliferating new cells was observed in groups treated with estrogen, Remifemin®, GBR, acylated steryl glucosides, and gamma oryzanol. There was a good correlation between bone mass densities estimated using Archimede’s principle and the edge detection technique between the treated groups (r2 = 0.737, P

  16. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  17. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? Some children with Brown syndrome have poor binocular ... In the congenital form of Brown syndrome, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  18. Germinated brown rice (GBR) reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of β-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1) positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR), (G2) fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g)/weight of rat (kg)), (G3) fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4) fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5) negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR). GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of β-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p < 0.05) in all the groups treated with GBR (G2, G3 and G4) compared to the control group (G1). Spearman rank correlation test showed significant positive linear relationship between total β-catenin and COX-2 score (Spearman's rho = 0.616, p = 0.0001). It is demonstrated that GBR inhibits the development of total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, reduces the expression of β-catenin and COX-2, and thus can be a promising dietary supplement in prevention of colon cancer. PMID:20346115

  19. 7 CFR 868.261 - Grade and grade requirements for the classes of brown rice for processing. (See also § 868.263.)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 868.263.) Grade Maximum limits of— Paddy kernels Percent Number in 500 grams Seeds and heat-damaged kernels Total (singly or combined) (number in 500 grams) Heat-damaged kernels (number in 500 grams) Objectionable seeds (number in 500 grams) Red rice and damaged kernels (singly or combined) (percent)...

  20. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein.

  1. Effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure processing on mineral elements, amino acids and antioxidants in vitro bioaccessibility, as well as starch digestibility in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Xu, Congcong; Mei, Jun; Li, Yunfei

    2017-01-01

    The effects of germination and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the in vitro bioaccessibility of mineral elements, amino acids (AAs), antioxidants and starch in brown rice (BR) were investigated. Germinated BR (GBR) was obtained by incubating at 37°C for 36h and then subjected to HHP treatments at 0.1, 100, 300 and 500MPa for 10min. The in vitro bioaccessibility of calcium and copper was increased by 12.59-52.17% and 2.87-23.06% after HHP, respectively, but bioaccessible iron was decreased. In addition, HHP significantly improved individual AAs, particularly indispensable AAs and gama-aminobutyric acid, as well as bioaccessible total antioxidant activities and starch resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. However, germination greatly increased starch digestibility. Atomic force microscopy characterization suggested an obvious structural change in bran fraction at pressures above 300MPa. These results can help to understand the effects of germination and HHP technologies on nutrients bioaccessibility and develop appropriate processing conditions. PMID:27507507

  2. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis. PMID:26842399

  3. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Poritosh; Orikasa, Takahiro; Okadome, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR), germinated brown rice (GBR) and partially-milled rice (PMR) contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR). Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR) seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled), and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society. PMID:21776212

  4. Total and inorganic arsenic in rice and rice bran purchased in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruangwises, Suthep; Saipan, Piyawat; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2012-04-01

    Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic were determined in 180 samples of polished and brown rice of three rice types, namely white, jasmine, and sticky, and 44 samples of rice bran from these three rice types purchased in Thailand. Concentrations (expressed in nanograms per gram) of inorganic arsenic in polished white, jasmine, and sticky rice were 68.3 ± 17.6 (with a range of 45.0 to 106), 68.4 ± 15.6 (41.7 to 101), and 75.9 ± 24.8 (43.5 to 156), respectively, while those in the three brown rice samples were 124 ± 34.4 (74.5 to 193), 120 ± 31.6 (73.1 to 174), and 131 ± 35.6 (78.0 to 188), respectively. Inorganic arsenic concentrations (expressed in nanograms per gram) in rice bran produced from the three rice types were 633 ± 182 (375 to 919), 599 ± 112 (447 to 824), and 673 ± 195 (436 to 1,071), respectively. Rice bran contained concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic approximately seven and nine times higher, respectively, than those found in the corresponding polished rice. The levels of inorganic arsenic in the three rice types of both polished and brown rice were within the only published regulatory limit of 200 ng/g.

  5. Total and inorganic arsenic in rice and rice bran purchased in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruangwises, Suthep; Saipan, Piyawat; Tengjaroenkul, Bundit; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2012-04-01

    Concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic were determined in 180 samples of polished and brown rice of three rice types, namely white, jasmine, and sticky, and 44 samples of rice bran from these three rice types purchased in Thailand. Concentrations (expressed in nanograms per gram) of inorganic arsenic in polished white, jasmine, and sticky rice were 68.3 ± 17.6 (with a range of 45.0 to 106), 68.4 ± 15.6 (41.7 to 101), and 75.9 ± 24.8 (43.5 to 156), respectively, while those in the three brown rice samples were 124 ± 34.4 (74.5 to 193), 120 ± 31.6 (73.1 to 174), and 131 ± 35.6 (78.0 to 188), respectively. Inorganic arsenic concentrations (expressed in nanograms per gram) in rice bran produced from the three rice types were 633 ± 182 (375 to 919), 599 ± 112 (447 to 824), and 673 ± 195 (436 to 1,071), respectively. Rice bran contained concentrations of total and inorganic arsenic approximately seven and nine times higher, respectively, than those found in the corresponding polished rice. The levels of inorganic arsenic in the three rice types of both polished and brown rice were within the only published regulatory limit of 200 ng/g. PMID:22488070

  6. Brown's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Eustis, H S; Parks, M M

    1989-01-01

    Brown's syndrome is a well-recognized clinical disorder of ocular motility manifesting most notably a restriction of active and passive elevation in adduction. The original name, "superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome," is no longer appropriate, since it has been shown that the tissue surrounding the anterior superior oblique tendon is blameless as a restrictive force. "True" and "simulated" as descriptive modifiers should also be discarded, as they relate to the disproven sheath concept. Brown's syndrome occurs as a congenital or acquired, constant or intermittent condition; the common link is restriction of free movement through the trochlea pulley mechanism. The various etiologic theories are reviewed and the spectrum of medical and surgical treatments are described and evaluated. Evidence suggests that subtypes of Brown's syndrome lie on a single continuum and that spontaneous resolution occurs in each group, probably more often than previously recognized. A simplified classification scheme is encouraged and possible future directions in Brown's syndrome research are introduced.

  7. Genotype and environment effects on Tocopherol, Tocotrienol, and y-Oryzanol contents of southern US rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran contains phytochemicals such as E vitamers (i.e., tocopherols and tocotrienols) and the y-oryzanol fraction that reportedly may have positive effects on human health. Brown rice, rice bran, and rice bran extracts are therefore attractive candidates for use in the development of functional ...

  8. Unmaking Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockette, Tim

    2010-01-01

    America's schools are more segregated now than they were in the late 1960s. More than 50 years after "Brown v. Board of Education," educators need to radically rethink the meaning of "school choice." For decades at Wake County, buses would pick up public school students in largely minority communities along the Raleigh Beltline. This system won…

  9. Metabolomic and functional genomic analyses reveal varietal differences in bioactive compounds of cooked rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emerging evidence supports that cooked brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains metabolites with biomedical activities, yet little is known about the genetic diversity that is responsible for metabolite variation and differences in health beneficial traits. Metabolites from cooked brown rice of ten div...

  10. Disease severity of organic rice as affected by host resistance, fertility and tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several studies were conducted to determine the effect of fertilizer inputs and tillage methods on disease incidence in an organic rice production system. The results of these studies suggest that organically produced rice is more vulnerable to infection of narrow brown leaf spot and brown spot. Thi...

  11. Organic rice disease management using genetic resistance, cover crop and organic fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The strong market demand for organic rice has driven the continued increase of organic rice production in the US. However, growers still lack effective tools to manage narrow brown leaf spot (NBLS) caused by Cercospora janseana and brown spot caused by Cochliobolus miyabeanus, two common diseases af...

  12. Effects of polishing, cooking, and storing on total arsenic and arsenic species concentrations in rice cultivated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Naito, Shigehiro; Matsumoto, Eri; Shindoh, Kumiko; Nishimura, Tsutomu

    2015-02-01

    The effects of polishing, cooking, and storing on total arsenic (As) and As species concentrations in rice were studied adopting typical Japanese conditions. Total and inorganic As levels in three white rice samples polished by removing 10% of bran by weight were reduced to 61-66% and 51-70% of those in brown rice. The As levels in the white rice after three washings with deionized water were reduced to 81-84% and 71-83% of those in raw rice. Rinse-free rice, which requires no washing before cooking because bran remaining on the surface of the rice was removed previously, yielded an effect similar to that of reducing As in rice by washing. Low-volume cooking (water:rice 1.4-2.0:1) rice to dryness did not remove As. The As content of brown rice stored in grain form for one year was stable.

  13. Brown recluse spider (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The brown recluse is a venomous spider most commonly found in midwestern and southern states of the United States. ... inch overall and has long skinny legs. The brown recluse is brown with a characteristic dark violin- ...

  14. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran contains several bioactive components that have been linked to the promotion of human health. Brown rice bran contains lipophilic components that include the tocotrienols and gamma-oryzanol. Pigmented or colored rice bran contains different phenolic compounds including anthocyanins (purp...

  15. Use of bacillus biocontrol agents for disease management in organic rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic rice production has significantly increased in the U. S. over the last decade. Organic rice growers lack effective tools to manage sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and narrow brown leaf spot, caused by Cercospora janseana, two major diseases affecting organic rice production. Thi...

  16. Aflatoxins in Rice Artificially Contaminated with Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus under Natural Storage in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Ikeda, Satoru

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin (AFT) contamination is frequent in foods grown in tropical regions, including rice. Although AFTs are generally not found in temperate-region foods, global warming has affected typical temperate-region climates, potentially permitting the contamination of foods with AFT-producing Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus). Here we investigated the AFT production in rice during storage under natural climate conditions in Japan. We examined AFTs in brown rice and rough rice artificially contaminated with A. flavus for 1 year in Japan, and we subjected AFTs in white rice to the same treatment in airtight containers and examined the samples in warm and cold seasons, simulating the storage of white rice in general households. In the brown rice, AFTs increased after 2 months (March) and peaked after 9 months (October). The AFT contamination in the rough rice was minimal. After the polishing and cooking of the brown rice, AFTs were undetectable. In the white rice stored in airtight containers, AFTs increased after 1 month (August) and peaked after 2 months (September). Minimal AFTs were detected in the cold season. Thus, AFT contamination in rice may occur in temperate regions following A. flavus contamination. The storage of rice as rough rice could provide be useful for avoiding AFT contamination.

  17. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively. PMID:25719881

  18. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  19. Changes in physical, cooking, textural properties and crystallinity upon iron fortification of red rice (Jyothi).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shruti; Mr, Asha; A, Jayadep

    2016-02-01

    The present study is an investigation, into one of the varieties of paddy (Jyothi) its fortification with sodium iron EDTA salt, its physical properties, cooking characteristics, color, texture and characterization studies. Fortification was done at two concentrations 1.88 g/kg (T1 corresponding Iron content 0.25 g/Kg) and 3.39 g/kg (T2 corresponding Iron content 0.45 g/Kg). It was found that the iron content increased 2.5 folds after fortification, as compared to control sample. The results revealed that, there was significant difference between the physical properties of rice in the control, fortified brown and milled rice. The cooking parameters for control and fortified brown rice viz. cooking time, volume expansion water uptake were quite close to the control sample. The cooking time for fortified rice was 1-2 min high as compared to control, other parameters remained same. In case of milled rice, the cooking time and volume expansion for control milled rice and fortified was almost same; however the water uptake was higher for fortified milled rice as compared to control milled rice. The texture of fortified brown rice was hard as compared to fortified milled rice, although the taste was found satisfactory. The colour was significantly different in brown and milled rice. X-ray diffraction results revealed the polycrystalline nature of the fortified sample, was somewhat less crystalline as compared to control sample. PMID:27162381

  20. Changes in physical, cooking, textural properties and crystallinity upon iron fortification of red rice (Jyothi).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shruti; Mr, Asha; A, Jayadep

    2016-02-01

    The present study is an investigation, into one of the varieties of paddy (Jyothi) its fortification with sodium iron EDTA salt, its physical properties, cooking characteristics, color, texture and characterization studies. Fortification was done at two concentrations 1.88 g/kg (T1 corresponding Iron content 0.25 g/Kg) and 3.39 g/kg (T2 corresponding Iron content 0.45 g/Kg). It was found that the iron content increased 2.5 folds after fortification, as compared to control sample. The results revealed that, there was significant difference between the physical properties of rice in the control, fortified brown and milled rice. The cooking parameters for control and fortified brown rice viz. cooking time, volume expansion water uptake were quite close to the control sample. The cooking time for fortified rice was 1-2 min high as compared to control, other parameters remained same. In case of milled rice, the cooking time and volume expansion for control milled rice and fortified was almost same; however the water uptake was higher for fortified milled rice as compared to control milled rice. The texture of fortified brown rice was hard as compared to fortified milled rice, although the taste was found satisfactory. The colour was significantly different in brown and milled rice. X-ray diffraction results revealed the polycrystalline nature of the fortified sample, was somewhat less crystalline as compared to control sample.

  1. Cooking rice in excess water reduces both arsenic and enriched vitamins in the cooked grain.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patrick J; Conklin, Sean D; Todorov, Todor I; Kasko, Sasha M

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of rinsing rice and cooking it in variable amounts of water on total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, iron, cadmium, manganese, folate, thiamin and niacin in the cooked grain. We prepared multiple rice varietals both rinsed and unrinsed and with varying amounts of cooking water. Rinsing rice before cooking has a minimal effect on the arsenic (As) content of the cooked grain, but washes enriched iron, folate, thiamin and niacin from polished and parboiled rice. Cooking rice in excess water efficiently reduces the amount of As in the cooked grain. Excess water cooking reduces average inorganic As by 40% from long grain polished, 60% from parboiled and 50% from brown rice. Iron, folate, niacin and thiamin are reduced by 50-70% for enriched polished and parboiled rice, but significantly less so for brown rice, which is not enriched.

  2. Effects of arsenic compound amendment on arsenic speciation in rice grain.

    PubMed

    Arao, Tomohito; Kawasaki, Akira; Baba, Koji; Matsumoto, Shingo

    2011-02-15

    Rice consumption is a major source of arsenic for Asian populations. Arsenic is present in rice grain both as inorganic arsenic and as dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). It is unclear whether DMA in rice is taken up from the soil or synthesized in planta. We investigated the effect of DMA, methylarsonic acid (MMA) and arsenite amendment on arsenic speciation in rice grain grown in soil and in solution culture. We also investigated the methylation of arsenic in solution culture under suppression of bacterial activity. When rice was grown under flooded conditions after the heading stage, DMA amendment to the soil resulted in higher DMA concentration in brown rice and rice straw. In the solution culture, not only DMA amendment but also MMA or arsenite amendment increased the DMA concentration in brown rice and rice straw. DMA was detected in the solution amended by MMA or arsenite with young rice plants. When the solution included the antibacterial agent chloramphenicol, DMA concentration in the solution decreased dramatically. When only the soil was incubated with MMA or arsenite, only a slight amount of DMA was detected in the soil. These results suggest that rice rhizosphere associated bacteria would be involved in the formation of DMA in brown rice. PMID:21247103

  3. [Effects of phosphorus-containing substances on arsenic uptake by rice].

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han; Hu, Li-Qiong; Zhou, Hang; Long, Shui-Bo

    2014-08-01

    The disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were added into arsenic contaminated soil, then rice pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phosphorus (P)-containing substances on arsenic (As) uptake by rice. The results showed that: DSP and HAP significantly increased soil pH and the contents of available P in soil (P < 0.05), activating soil arsenic. And DSP was stronger than HAP in improving the migration ability of As in soil. DSP and HAP treatments both significantly reduced the contents of total As in root, as well as total As and inorganic As in brown rice. But HAP significantly increased total As contents in stem. DSP and HAP treatments had better reducing effects on inorganic As than on total As in brown rice. And DSP had the same reducing effects as HAP on total As and inorganic As in brown rice. Analysis results showed that the contents of As in rice were affected by the antagonism between P and As and the increase of As bio-availability in soil. The antagonism played the major role in this study and it was clearly exhibited in both root and rice. Lower dosage (< or = 0.12 g x kg(-1)) of DSP and HAP increased total biomass of rice and brown rice yield, but with the increase of P addition, the two kinds of P-containing substances obviously inhibited the growth of rice, and inhibition by HAP was relatively light. PMID:25338392

  4. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  5. [Human brown adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Kirsi A; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2015-01-01

    Adult humans have heat-producing and energy-consuming brown adipose tissue in the clavicular region of the neck. There are two types of brown adipose cells, the so-called classic and beige adipose cells. Brown adipose cells produce heat by means of uncoupler protein 1 (UCP1) from fatty acids and sugar. By applying positron emission tomography (PET) measuring the utilization of sugar, the metabolism of brown fat has been shown to multiply in the cold, presumably influencing energy consumption. Active brown fat is most likely present in young adults, persons of normal weight and women, least likely in obese persons.

  6. Accumulation of arsenic in tissues of rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) and its distribution in fractions of rice grain.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Hasegawa, H; Rahman, M Mahfuzur; Rahman, M Arifur; Miah, M A M

    2007-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the accumulation and distribution of arsenic in different fractions of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) collected from arsenic affected area of Bangladesh. The agricultural soil of study area has become highly contaminated with arsenic due to the excessive use of arsenic-rich underground water (0.070+/-0.006 mg l(-1), n=6) for irrigation. Arsenic content in tissues of rice plant and in fractions of rice grain of two widely cultivated rice varieties, namely BRRI dhan28 and BRRI hybrid dhan1, were determined. Regardless of rice varieties, arsenic content was about 28- and 75-folds higher in root than that of shoot and raw rice grain, respectively. In fractions of parboiled and non-parboiled rice grain of both varieties, the order of arsenic concentrations was; rice hull>bran-polish>brown rice>raw rice>polish rice. Arsenic content was higher in non-parboiled rice grain than that of parboiled rice. Arsenic concentrations in parboiled and non-parboiled brown rice of BRRI dhan28 were 0.8+/-0.1 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 were 0.8+/-0.2 and 0.6+/-0.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. However, parboiled and non-parboiled polish rice grain of BRRI dhan28 contained 0.4+/-0.0 and 0.3+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight of arsenic, respectively while those of BRRI hybrid dhan1 contained 0.43+/-0.01 and 0.5+/-0.0 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Both polish and brown rice are readily cooked for human consumption. The concentration of arsenic found in the present study is much lower than the permissible limit in rice (1.0 mg kg(-1)) according to WHO recommendation. Thus, rice grown in soils of Bangladesh contaminated with arsenic of 14.5+/-0.1 mg kg(-1) could be considered safe for human consumption. PMID:17599387

  7. Rice consumption and cancer incidence in US men and women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ran; Zhang, Xuehong; Wu, Kana; Wu, Hongyu; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B.; Han, Jiali; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    While both the 2012 and 2014 Consumer Reports concerned arsenic levels in US rice, no previous study has evaluated long-term consumption of total rice, white rice and brown rice in relation to risk of developing cancers. We investigated this in the female Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010), and Nurses' Health Study II (1989-2009), and the male Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008), which included a total of 45,231 men and 160,408 women, free of cancer at baseline. Validated food frequency questionnaires were used to measure rice consumption at baseline and repeated almost every 4 years thereafter. We employed Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate multivariable relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During up to 26 years of follow-up, we documented 31,655 incident cancer cases (10,833 in men and 20,822 in women). Age-adjusted results were similar to multivariable-adjusted results. Compared to participants with less than one serving per week, the multivariable RRs of overall cancer for individuals who ate at least 5 servings per week were 0.97 for total rice (95% CI: 0.85-1.07), 0.87 for white rice (95% CI: 0.75-1.01), and 1.17 for brown rice (95% CI: 0.90-1.26). Similar non-significant associations were observed for specific sites of cancers including prostate, breast, colon and rectum, melanoma, bladder, kidney, and lung. Additionally, the null associations were observed among European Americans and non-smokers, and were not modified by BMI. Long-term consumption of total rice, white rice or brown rice was not associated with risk of developing cancer in US men and women. PMID:26219234

  8. [Effect of selenium on the uptake and translocation of manganese, iron, phosphorus and selenium in rice (Oryza sativa L.)].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying; Huang, Yi-Zong; Huang, Yan-Chao; Liu, Yun-Xia; Liang, Jian-Hong

    2013-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to clarify the effect of selenium on the uptake and translocation of manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) , phosphorus (P) and selenium (Se) in rice ( Oryza sativa L.). The results showed that addition of Se led to the significant increase of Se concentration in iron plaque on the root surface, root, shoot, husk and brown rice, and significant decrease of Mn concentration in shoot, husk and brown rice. At the Se concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mg.kg-1 in soil, Mn concentrations in rice shoot decreased by 32. 2% and 35.0% respectively, in husk 22.0% and 42.6% , in brown rice 27.5% and 28.5% , compared with the Se-free treatment. There was no significant effect of Se on the P and Fe concentrations in every parts of rice, except for Fe concentrations in husk. The translocation of P and Fe from iron plaque, root, shoot and husk to brown rice was not significantly affected by Se addition, but Mn translocation from iron plaque and root to brown rice was significantly inhibited by Se addition. Addition of 1.0 mg.kg-1. Se resulted in the decrease of translocation factor from iron plaque and root to brown rice by 38.9% and 37.9%, respectively, compared with the control treatment. The distribution ratios of Mn, Fe, P and Se in iron plaque, root, shoot, husk and brown rice were also affected by Se addition. The results indicated that Mn uptake, accumulation and translocation in rice could be decreased by the addition of Se in soil, therefore, Se addition could reduce the Mn harm to human health through food chain.

  9. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers.

  10. Brown as Personal Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Walter

    2004-01-01

    The Brown v. Board of Education decision was not specifically focused on postsecondary education; however, it helped facilitate minority admissions into predominantly White colleges and universities from the late 1950s onward. The Brown decision made many colleges and universities question whether diversity is a legitimate educational goal in…

  11. Astrophysics: Illuminating brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showman, Adam P.

    2016-05-01

    Objects known as brown dwarfs are midway between stars and planets in mass. Observations of a hot brown dwarf irradiated by a nearby star will help to fill a gap in our knowledge of the atmospheres of fluid planetary objects. See Letter p.366

  12. WISE and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; WISE Team

    2009-05-01

    The search for the nearest and coolest brown dwarfs will use WISE's two short-wavelength channels (W1 and W2), which are optimized for brown dwarf detection. W1 samples the methane fundamental absorption band at 3.3 microns, and W2 measures the relatively opacity-free portion of the brown dwarf atmosphere near 4.7 microns. Cool brown dwarfs will thus have very red [W1]-[W2] colors, maximizing our chances of identifying them. Extrapolating preferred mass functions to very low masses and assuming that the star formation rate has been constant over the last 10 Gyr, we can predict the number of brown dwarfs WISE is expected to image. At spectral types later than T7 (Teff > 850K), WISE is expected to find 500 brown dwarfs, which makes WISE uniquely suited among future surveys to measure the low-mass limit of star formation for the first time. This sample will also show whether a new spectral class beyond T, dubbed "Y", is needed at the lowest temperatures. Although the primary six-month WISE mission will cover the entire sky once, WISE should have sufficient cryogen to perform a second, complete pass of the sky. In this case, the identification of nearby brown dwarfs need not rely solely on color selection. Kinematics (proper motion) and geometry (parallax) can also be used to distinguish our closest brown dwarf neighbors, one of which may lie less distant than Proxima Centauri or even fall within our own Oort Cloud.

  13. The transfer of radioactive cesium and potassium from rice to sake.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masaki; Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Joyo, Midori; Tsukamoto, Kaori; Endo, Michiko; Matsumaru, Katsumi; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Yamaoka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Using rice grains contaminated with radioactive cesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) that was released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in March of 2011, we investigated the behaviors of the radioactive cesium and potassium (total K and (40)K) during sake brewing. Cesiumis a congener of K, and yeast cells have the ability to take up Cs using known K transporters. During rice polishing, the concentrations of radioactive Cs and K in the polished rice grains decreased gradually until a milling ratio (polished rice weight/brown rice weight) of 70% was reached. No significant changes were observed below this milling ratio. Sake was brewed on a small scale using the 70% polished rice. The transfer ratio of radioactive Cs to sake and to the sake cake was significantly different than the ratio of K. Approximately 36% and 23% of radioactive Cs in the polished rice was transferred to the sake and sake cake, respectively; however, 40% was removed by washing and steeping the rice grains. On the other hand, 25% and 40% of K in the polished rice was recovered in the sake and sake cake, respectively, and 35% was removed by washing and steeping the rice grains. From the present results, the concentration of radioactive Cs in sake would be 4 Bq/kg fresh weight, which is well below the regulation values (100 Bq/kg), even using brown rice containing 100 Bq/kg of radioactive Cs.

  14. Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-25

    Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438±23, 287±03, and 283±18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56±05, 92±10, 82±06 and 172±24 μg kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 μg kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice.

  15. Arsenic speciation in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia: implications for human health risk.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-06-25

    Rice is an important route of arsenic (As) exposure to humans, especially populations with rice-based diets. Human health risk of As varies greatly with rice variety and country of origin. The purpose of the present study was to determine total and speciated As in Australian-grown and imported rice on sale in Australia to assess their health risk to consumers. The total As (tAs) concentrations in Australian-grown organic brown, medium grain brown, and organic white rice were 438±23, 287±03, and 283±18 μg kg(-1) dry weight (d wt), respectively. In Bangladeshi, Indian, Pakistani, and Thai rice imported and on sale in Australia, tAs concentrations were 56±05, 92±10, 82±06 and 172±24 μg kg(-1), respectively. Asian rice contained mainly inorganic As (iAs; 86-99%), whereas 18-26% of the tAs in Australian-grown rice was dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Relatively higher concentrations of tAs in Australian-grown rice than that in imported rice of Asian origin suggest that Australian-grown rice may be a health risk for the consumers. It was estimated that Australian-grown organic brown rice can contribute up to 98% of the FAO/WHO recommended maximum tolerable daily intake limit of iAs (2.1 μg kg(-1) body wt day(-1)) for Asian immigrants. However, other Australian consumers including European immigrants are unlikely to be at risk to As from rice diets due to their lower rice consumption rates than that of Asian immigrants. The risk assessment showed that imported rice on sale in Australia was likely to pose a lower health risk to consumers than Australian-grown rice. PMID:24892387

  16. Brown Recluse Spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a group of spiders commonly known as violin spiders or fiddlebacks. The characteristic fiddle-shaped pattern ... 4-19.1mm) • Color: Golden brown • A dark violin/fiddle shape (see top photo) is located on ...

  17. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  18. Water management affects arsenic and cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Huang, Jiexue; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Song, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Zhou, Liqiang; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food and one of the major sources of dietary arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Asia. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of four water management regimes (aerobic, intermittent irrigation, conventional irrigation and flooding) on As and Cd accumulation in seven major rice cultivars grown in Zhejiang province, east China. With increasing irrigation from aerobic to flooded conditions, the soil HCl-extractable As concentrations increased significantly and the HCl-extractable Cd concentrations decreased significantly. These trends were consistent with the As and Cd concentrations in the straw, husk and brown rice. Water management both before and after the full tillering stage affected As and Cd accumulation in the grains. The intermittent and conventional treatments produced higher grain yields than the aerobic and flooded treatments. Cd concentrations in brown rice varied 13.1-40.8 times and As varied 1.75-8.80 times among the four water management regimes. Cd and As accumulation in brown rice varied among the rice cultivars, with Guodao 6 (GD6) was a low Cd but high-As-accumulating cultivar while Indonesia (IR) and Yongyou 9 (YY9) were low As but high-Cd-accumulating cultivars. Brown rice Cd and As concentrations in the 7 cultivars were significantly negatively correlated. The results indicate that As and Cd accumulated in rice grains with opposite trends that were influenced by both water management and rice cultivar. Production of 'safe' rice with respect to As and Cd might be possible by balancing water management and rice cultivar according to the severity of soil pollution. PMID:23719663

  19. Wild rice, hypoallergenic rice--immunologic comparison.

    PubMed

    Yum, Hye-Yung; Lee, Kyung Eun; Choi, Sung Youn; Yang, Hea Sun; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Lee, Sang-Il

    2006-01-01

    Rice is a cereal that is mainly produced and widely consumed in Asian countries including Korea. Several reports have suggested a role of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity in asthma and eczema associated with ingestion or inhalation of rice. In Japan, hypoallergenic rices are used for a substitute of common rice in some atopic patients. We performed this study to identify major allergens of rice and changed allergenicity in cooked and hypoallergenic rice. We purified crude extracts from a variety of rice and analyzed their protein distributions by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Based on UniCAP test and skin-prick test, we selected sera with high sensitivity and analyzed specific IgE binding to rice by immunoblotting. In addition, the inhibition rate among some rice was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and CAP test. As the result of this study, rice with various origins and polishing levels had no difference in protein band pattern. After cooking, it was difficult to detect protein bands distributed in raw rice; and, even through IgE immunoblot analysis, it was impossible to differentiate between wild and hypoallergenic rice. In addition, both wild and hypoallergenic rice still had IgE binding activity on their remaining protein bands. In conclusion, almost all proteins of rice were excluded or weakened in the process of boiling and IgE binding activity still remained even in hypoallergenic rice.

  20. Rice antioxidants: phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid

    PubMed Central

    Goufo, Piebiep; Trindade, Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggested that the low incidence of certain chronic diseases in rice-consuming regions of the world might be associated with the antioxidant compound contents of rice. The molecules with antioxidant activity contained in rice include phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, tocopherols, tocotrienols, γ-oryzanol, and phytic acid. This review provides information on the contents of these compounds in rice using a food composition database built from compiling data from 316 papers. The database provides access to information that would have otherwise remained hidden in the literature. For example, among the four types of rice ranked by color, black rice varieties emerged as those exhibiting the highest antioxidant activities, followed by purple, red, and brown rice varieties. Furthermore, insoluble compounds appear to constitute the major fraction of phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins in rice, but not of flavonoids and anthocyanins. It is clear that to maximize the intake of antioxidant compounds, rice should be preferentially consumed in the form of bran or as whole grain. With respect to breeding, japonica rice varieties were found to be richer in antioxidant compounds compared with indica rice varieties. Overall, rice grain fractions appear to be rich sources of antioxidant compounds. However, on a whole grain basis and with the exception of γ-oryzanol and anthocyanins, the contents of antioxidants in other cereals appear to be higher than those in rice. PMID:24804068

  1. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  2. How, Now, Brown Dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with colorful names for stars, from red giants to blue stragglers. Objects with masses between roughly .01 and .1 solar masses are called "brown dwarfs". Do they - could they - ever actually appear brown? Color is not a one-dimensional physical parameter like wavelength. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving not only three degrees of freedom - hue (often incorrectly equated with "color"), saturation and brightness - but also observational context. The perceptual nature of color has been known since Newton wrote in his "Opticks” in 1704: "For the Rays to speak properly are not coloured. In them there is nothing else than a certain Power and disposition to stir up a Sensation of this or that Colour.” To most observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the half dozen exceptions which look reddish/orange like Betelgeuse, Arcturus and Antares. But what color would Betelgeuse (effective temperature 3600 K) appear at a distance of, say, 100 times the Earth-Sun separation? Not red. In fact, it has a temperature about 40% higher than that of an ordinary incandescent light bulb. It would appear white (or yellowish)! Can a very cool radiating (emissive) object ever appear brown? What is brown anyway? It is not a primary or even secondary color. In this presentation, we will explore the nature and meaning of "brown” by the use of several physical and computer demonstrations developed as part of "Project LITE- Light Inquiry Through Experiments", an educational materials development project. These demonstrations show that an isolated thermally radiating object will never appear brown. Hence the term "Brown Dwarf” is as nonsensical as the phrase "How, Now, Brown Cow?". Project LITE is supported by the NSF through DUE Grant # 0715975.

  3. Accumulation of mercury and cadmium in rice from paddy soil near a mercury mine.

    PubMed

    Li, W C; Ouyang, Y; Ye, Z H

    2014-11-01

    Paddy soil and rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Wanshan mining area in Guizhou Province, China, have been contaminated by toxic trace metals such as cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg). The present study examined correlations between the types and physicochemical parameters of the soil and the contents of trace metals and the different forms of Hg in rice. The health risks of consuming contaminated rice from the Wanshan mining area were also assessed. Sequential extraction procedures were used to investigate the chemical behavior of Hg in the soil. The results showed that Hg and Cd were the most abundant trace metals in the Wanshan mining area. The toxic methylmercury (MeHg) content was substantial in brown rice, and the total amounts of total Hg (THg), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-Hg, and water-soluble Hg varied in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils. An antagonistic interaction between Mn in brown rice, straw, and husk and MeHg in brown rice was also shown. An analysis of calculated dietary intake, target hazard quotients, and hazard indexes showed a potential risk of transferring Hg, MeHg, and Cd to humans when rice from the Wanshan mining area is consumed. Therefore, it must be concluded that consuming contaminated rice near the Wanshan mining area is a potential threat to human health.

  4. Accumulation of total mercury and methylmercury in rice plants collected from different mining areas in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; Li, Bing; Shao, Jun-juan; Wang, Thanh; He, Bin; Shi, Jian-bo; Ye, Zhi-hong; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2014-01-01

    A total of 155 rice plants were collected from ten mining areas in three provinces of China (Hunan, Guizhou and Guangdong), where most of mercury (Hg) mining takes place in China. During the harvest season, whole rice plants were sampled and divided into root, stalk & leaf, husk and seed (brown rice), together with soil from root zone. Although the degree of Hg contamination varied significantly among different mining areas, rice seed showed the highest ability for methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation. Both concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in rice plants were significantly correlated with Hg levels in soil, indicating soil is still an important source for both inorganic mercury (IHg) and MeHg in rice plants. The obvious discrepancy between the distribution patterns of THg and MeHg reflected different pathways of IHg and MeHg accumulation. Water soluble Hg may play more important role in MeHg accumulation in rice plants.

  5. Jinggangmycin increases fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), via fatty acid synthase gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibiotic jinggangmycin (JGM) is mainly used in controlling the rice sheath blight, Rhizoctonia solani, in China. JGM also enhances reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). To date, however, molecular mechanisms of the enhancement are unclear. Our related report d...

  6. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-05-17

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection.

  7. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection. PMID:27185548

  8. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection. PMID:27185548

  9. Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus and rice ragged stunt virus enhances their insect vector acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-07-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV.

  10. Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus and rice ragged stunt virus enhances their insect vector acquisition.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Wang, Han; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-07-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, is a novel rice virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (Sogatella furcifera). Since its discovery in 2001, SRBSDV has spread rapidly throughout eastern and southeastern Asia and caused large rice losses in China and Vietnam. Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) (genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) is a common rice virus vectored by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens). RRSV is also widely distributed in eastern and southeastern Asia but has not previously caused serious problems in China owing to its low incidence. With SRBSDV's spread, however, RRSV has become increasingly common in China, and is frequently found in co-infection with SRBSDV. In this study, we show that SRBSDV and RRSV interact synergistically, the first example of synergism between plant viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rice plants co-infected with both viruses displayed enhanced stunting, earlier symptoms, and higher virus titers compared with singly infected plants. Furthermore, white-backed and brown planthoppers acquired SRBSDV and RRSV, respectively, from co-infected plants at higher rates. We propose that increased RRSV incidence in Chinese fields is partly due to synergism between SRBSDV and RRSV. PMID:24915431

  11. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-09-09

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  12. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper-transmitted fijivirus threatening rice production in Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guohui; Xu, Donglin; Xu, Dagao; Zhang, Maoxin

    2013-01-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a non-enveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae) first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice-virus-insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus). Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi) and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China. PMID:24058362

  13. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers.

  14. Occurrence and distribution study of residues from pesticides applied under controlled conditions in the field during rice processing.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Besil, Natalia; Heinzen, Horacio; Böcking, Bernardo; Cesio, Verónica; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2012-05-01

    The results of an experiment to study the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing are reported. Four herbicides, nine fungicides, and two insecticides (azoxystrobin, byspiribac-sodium, carbendazim, clomazone, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, isoprothiolane, kresoxim-methyl, propanil, quinclorac, tebuconazole, thiamethoxam, tricyclazole, trifloxystrobin, λ-cyhalotrin) were applied to an isolated rice-crop plot under controlled conditions, during the 2009-2010 cropping season in Uruguay. Paddy rice was harvested and industrially processed to brown rice, white rice, and rice bran, which were analyzed for pesticide residues using the original QuEChERS methodology and its citrate variation by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. The distribution of pesticide residues was uneven among the different matrices. Ten different pesticide residues were found in paddy rice, seven in brown rice, and eight in rice bran. The highest concentrations were detected in paddy rice. These results provide information regarding the fate of pesticides in the rice food chain and its safety for consumers. PMID:22497619

  15. The search for brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, David J.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of brown dwarfs is summarized and observational findings regarding brown dwarfs are reviewed. The equation of state, the thermal properties, the interior transport properties, the boundary conditions, and the initial conditions are examined. Indirect observations, IR speckle interferometry, IR photometry, and field observations of brown dwarfs are discussed.

  16. "Brown's" Far Reaching Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" U.S. Supreme Court decision changed the face of American education forever, few individuals at that time could have fully realized its far-reaching implications. Certainly, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Legal Director Thurgood Marshall in his arguments was focusing on…

  17. Rice consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from a pooled analysis of 3 U.S. cohorts1234

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Isao; Wu, Hongyu; Imamura, Fumiaki; Laden, Francine; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Sun, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health concerns have been raised about rice consumption, which may significantly contribute to arsenic exposure. However, little is known regarding whether habitual rice consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Objective: We examined prospectively the association of white rice and brown rice consumption with CVD risk. Design: We followed a total of 207,556 women and men [73,228 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2010), 92,158 women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2011), and 42,170 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2010)] who were free of CVD and cancer at baseline. Validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess consumption of white rice, brown rice, and other food items. Fatal and nonfatal CVD (coronary artery disease and stroke) was confirmed by medical records or self-reports. Results: During 4,393,130 person-years of follow-up, 12,391 cases of CVD were identified. After adjustment for major CVD risk factors, including demographics, lifestyle, and other dietary intakes, rice consumption was not associated with CVD risk. The multivariable-adjuted HR of developing CVD comparing ≥5 servings/wk with <1 serving/wk was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.14) for white rice, 1.01 (0.79, 1.28) for brown rice, and 0.99 (0.90, 1.08) for total rice. To minimize the potential impact of racial difference in rice consumption, we restricted the analyses to whites only and obtained similar results: the HRs of CVD for ≥5 servings/wk compared with <1 serving/wk were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.22) for white rice and 1.01 (0.78, 1.31) for brown rice. Conclusions: Greater habitual consumption of white rice or brown rice is not associated with CVD risk. These findings suggest that rice consumption may not pose a significant CVD risk among the U.S. population when consumed at current amounts. More prospective studies are needed to explore these associations in other populations. PMID

  18. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  19. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  20. Morphology based field rice density detection from rice transplant stage to rice jointing stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, X. D.; Cao, Z. G.; Wang, Y.; Ye, M. N.; Yu, Z. H.; Li, Y. N.

    2013-10-01

    Rice yield estimation is an important aspect in the agriculture research field. For the rice yield estimation, rice density is one of its useful factors. In this paper, we propose a new method to automatically detect the rice density from the rice transplanting stage to rice jointing stage. It devotes to detect rice planting density by image low-level features of the rice image sequences taken in the fields. Moreover, a rice jointing stage automatic detection method is proposed so as to terminate the rice density detection algorithm. The validities of the proposed rice density detection method and the rice jointing stage automatic detection method are proved in the experiment.

  1. Comparison of nutritional quality between Chinese indica rice with sck and cry1Ac genes and its nontransgenic counterpart.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Huang, K; He, X; Zhu, B; Liang, Z; Li, H; Luo, Y

    2007-08-01

    Nutritional assessment of transgenic crops used for human food and animal feed is an important aspect of safety evaluations. An insect-resistant rice (IRR) was generated by the stable insertion of sck, a modified cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene, and cry1Ac, encoding a crystal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis into the genome of a common variety of Chinese indica rice. The composition of the brown and milled rice grain from the resulted IRR line designated Liangyou Kefeng No. 6 was compared with that of the parental rice cultivar Liangyou 2186. Nutrients, including the proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, and vitamins, were measured. The antinutritive components such as phytic acid, lectin, and trypsin inhibitors were also examined. The data demonstrated that the nutritional quality of both the brown and milled rice grains from the transgenic line was substantially equivalent to that of the nontransgenic counterpart, and measured amounts of nutritional components fell within the range of values reported for other commercial lines.

  2. Phospholipids in rice: significance in grain quality and health benefits: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Rose, Terry J; Bao, Jinsong; King, Graham J

    2013-08-15

    Phospholipids (PLs) are a major class of lipid in rice grain. Although PLs are only a minor nutrient compared to starch and protein, they may have both nutritional and functional significance. We have systemically reviewed the literature on the class, distribution and variation of PLs in rice, their relation to rice end-use quality and human health, as well as available methods for analytical profiling. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and their lyso forms are the major PLs in rice. The deterioration of PC in rice bran during storage was considered as a trigger for the degradation of rice lipids with associated rancid flavour in paddy and brown rice. The lyso forms in rice endosperm represent the major starch lipid, and may form inclusion complexes with amylose, affecting the physicochemical properties and digestibility of starch, and hence its cooking and eating quality. Dietary PLs have a positive impact on several human diseases and reduce the side-effects of some drugs. As rice has long been consumed as a staple food in many Asian countries, rice PLs may have significant health benefits for those populations. Rice PLs may be influenced both by genetic (G) and environmental (E) factors, and resolving G×E interactions may allow future exploitation of PL composition and content, thus boosting rice eating quality and health benefits for consumers. We have identified and summarised the different methods used for rice PL analysis, and discussed the consequences of variation in reported PL values due to inconsistencies between methods. This review enhances the understanding of the nature and importance of PLs in rice and outlines potential approaches for manipulating PLs to improve the quality of rice grain and other cereals.

  3. Influence of Rapeseed Cake on Heavy Metal Uptake by a Subsequent Rice Crop After Phytoextraction Using Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liqiang; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Yang, Bingfan; Yin, Bin; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytoextraction by Sedum plumbizincicola and application of rapeseed cake (RSC) on heavy metal accumulation by a subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop in a contaminated paddy soil collected from east China. After phytoextraction by S. plumbizincicola the soil and brown rice Cd concentrations effectively declined. After phytoextraction, RSC application reduced brown rice Cd concentrations in the subsequent rice crop to 0.23-0.28 mg kg(-1), almost down to the standard limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)). After phytoextraction and then application of RSC, the soil solution pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations increased during early stages of rice growth resulting directly and indirectly in lowering the bioavailability of the heavy metals. Thus the grain yield of the subsequent rice crop increased and the heavy metals in the brown rice declined significantly. In this contaminated acid soil, growing the hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola and rice in rotation together with RSC application may therefore be regarded as a viable strategy for safe grain production and bioremediation.

  4. Influence of Rapeseed Cake on Heavy Metal Uptake by a Subsequent Rice Crop After Phytoextraction Using Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liqiang; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Yang, Bingfan; Yin, Bin; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytoextraction by Sedum plumbizincicola and application of rapeseed cake (RSC) on heavy metal accumulation by a subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop in a contaminated paddy soil collected from east China. After phytoextraction by S. plumbizincicola the soil and brown rice Cd concentrations effectively declined. After phytoextraction, RSC application reduced brown rice Cd concentrations in the subsequent rice crop to 0.23-0.28 mg kg(-1), almost down to the standard limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)). After phytoextraction and then application of RSC, the soil solution pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations increased during early stages of rice growth resulting directly and indirectly in lowering the bioavailability of the heavy metals. Thus the grain yield of the subsequent rice crop increased and the heavy metals in the brown rice declined significantly. In this contaminated acid soil, growing the hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola and rice in rotation together with RSC application may therefore be regarded as a viable strategy for safe grain production and bioremediation. PMID:25174427

  5. Dissipation and residue of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Li; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2015-03-01

    The dissipation and residue of pymetrozine in rice field ecosystem were studied based on a novel and reliable analytical method for pymetrozine in paddy water, soil, rice straw, brown rice, and rice husk. The pymetrozine residues were extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned up by Carb-NH2 SPE cartridge and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). The dissipation of pymetrozine followed first-order kinetics and its half-lives ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 days in paddy water, 5.1 to 5.7 days in soil, and 2.3 to 2.6 days in rice straw, respectively. At harvest time, the highest final residues of pymetrozine varied in soil among three geographical fields and were below the limit of detection in rice tissues. The recommended dosage was considered to be safe for human beings and animals, and the results were helpful in setting maximum residue limit for pymetrozine in rice.

  6. Arsenic speciation in rice and risk assessment of inorganic arsenic in Taiwan population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Ching-Chang; Huang, Winn-Jung; Huang, Han-Ting; Wu, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Yi-Ting

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the total arsenic content and arsenic speciation in rice to determine the health risks associated with rice consumption in various age-gender subgroups in Taiwan. The average total arsenic levels in white rice and brown rice were 116.6 ± 39.2 and 215.5 ± 63.5 ng/g weight (n = 51 and 13), respectively. The cumulative cancer risk among males was 10.4/100,000. The highest fraction of inorganic/total arsenic content in white rice ranged from 76.9 to 88.2 % and from 81.0 to 96.5 % in brown rice. The current study found different arsenic speciation of rice in southern Taiwan, where the famous blackfoot disease has been reported compared with arsenic speciation from other Taiwan areas. Therefore, rice and other grains should be further monitored in southern Taiwan to evaluate whether arsenic contamination is well controlled in this area. PMID:26511258

  7. Arsenic speciation in rice and risk assessment of inorganic arsenic in Taiwan population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lee, Ching-Chang; Huang, Winn-Jung; Huang, Han-Ting; Wu, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Yi-Ting

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the total arsenic content and arsenic speciation in rice to determine the health risks associated with rice consumption in various age-gender subgroups in Taiwan. The average total arsenic levels in white rice and brown rice were 116.6 ± 39.2 and 215.5 ± 63.5 ng/g weight (n = 51 and 13), respectively. The cumulative cancer risk among males was 10.4/100,000. The highest fraction of inorganic/total arsenic content in white rice ranged from 76.9 to 88.2 % and from 81.0 to 96.5 % in brown rice. The current study found different arsenic speciation of rice in southern Taiwan, where the famous blackfoot disease has been reported compared with arsenic speciation from other Taiwan areas. Therefore, rice and other grains should be further monitored in southern Taiwan to evaluate whether arsenic contamination is well controlled in this area.

  8. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-12-01

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10(-4). The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents. PMID:26670240

  9. Heavy Metal Contamination in Rice-Producing Soils of Hunan Province, China and Potential Health Risks

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fanfu; Wei, Wei; Li, Mansha; Huang, Ruixue; Yang, Fei; Duan, Yanying

    2015-01-01

    We studied Cd, Cr, As, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Hg in three agricultural areas of Hunan province and determined the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for residents. Soil and brown rice samples from Shimen, Fenghuang, and Xiangtan counties were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Soil levels of Cd and Hg were greatest, followed by As and Ni. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in brown rice were Cd 0.325, Cr 0.109, As 0.344, Ni 0.610, Mn 9.03, Pb 0.023, and Hg 0.071 mg/kg, respectively. Cd and Hg had greater transfer ability from soil to rice than the other elements. Daily intake of heavy metals through brown rice consumption were estimated to be Cd 2.30, Cr 0.775, As 2.45, Ni 4.32, Pb 0.162, Mn 64.6 and Hg 0.503 µg/(kg·day), respectively. Cd, Hg and As Hazard Quotient values were greater than 1 and Cd, Cr, As and Ni Cancer Risk values were all greater than 10−4. The total non-carcinogenic risk factor was 14.6 and the total carcinogenic risk factor was 0.0423. Long-term exposure to heavy metals through brown rice consumption poses both potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks to the local residents. PMID:26670240

  10. Growth-inhibitory effects of pigmented rice bran extracts and three red bran fractions against human cancer cells: Relationships to composition and antioxidative activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the phenolic, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of three brown, purple, and red rice brans isolated from different rice varieties using HPLC-PDA with the aid of 27 standards of known structure and by matching unknown peaks to a spectral library of known compounds. DPPH and ORA...

  11. Transgenic Cry1Ab Rice Does Not Impact Ecological Fitness and Predation of a Generalist Spider

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Chen, Yang; Li, Zhao-Liang; Li, Kai; Chen, Mao; Peng, Yu-Fa; Hu, Cui; Shelton, Anthony M.; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Background The commercial release of rice genetically engineered to express a Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for control of Lepidoptera in China is a subject of debate. One major point of the debate has focused on the ecological safety of Bt rice on nontarget organisms, especially predators and parasitoids that help control populations of insect pests. Methodology/Principal Findings A tritrophic bioassay was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ab-expressing rice on fitness parameters of a predaceous ground spider (Pardosa pseudoannulata (Bösenberg et Strand)) that had fed on Bt rice-fed brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)) nymphs. Survival, development time and fecundity of this spider were not different when they were fed with Bt rice-fed or non-Bt rice-fed prey. Furthermore, ELISA and PCR gut assays, as well as a functional response trial, indicated that predation by P. pseudoannulata was not significantly different in Bt rice or non-Bt rice fields. Conclusions/Significance The transgenic Cry1Ab rice lines tested in this study had no adverse effects on the survival, developmental time and fecundity of P. pseudoannulata in the laboratory or on predation under field conditions. This suggests that this important predator would not be harmed if transgenic Cry1Ab rice were commercialized. PMID:22511982

  12. Silencing a sugar transporter gene reduces fecundity, growth and development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, sugar transporter gene 6 (Nlst6) is a facilitative glucose/fructose transporter expressed in midgut that mediates sugar uptake from rice phloem, a major energy source for BPH. In mammals, down regulation of the major sugar transporter gene GLUT or SGL...

  13. Differential resistance and cross-resistance to three phenylpyrazole insecticides in the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-resistance to two fipronil analogs, butene-fipronil and ethiprole were detected in fipronil-resistant field populations and a resistant laboratorial strain of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, although the two analogs have not been used widely in rice-growing areas in China. The resul...

  14. Characterization of High-Value Bioactives in Some Selected Varieties of Pakistani Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad; Uddin, Md. Kamal

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the composition and variation of fatty acids, sterols, tocopherols and γ-oryzanol among selected varieties namely Basmati Super, Basmati 515, Basmati 198, Basmati 385, Basmati 2000, Basmati 370, Basmati Pak, KSK-139, KS-282 and Irri-6 of Pakistani rice (Oryza sativa L). Oil content extracted with n-hexane from different varieties of brown rice seed (unpolished rice) ranged from 1.92% to 2.72%. Total fatty acid contents among rice varieties tested varied between 18240 and 25840 mg/kg brown rice seed. The rice tested mainly contained oleic (6841–10952 mg/kg) linoleic (5453–7874 mg/kg) and palmitic acid (3613–5489 mg/kg). The amounts of total phytosterols (GC and GC-MS analysis), with main contribution from β-sitosterol (445–656 mg/kg), campesterol (116–242 mg/kg), Δ5-avenasterol (89–178 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (75–180 mg/kg) were established to be 739.4 to 1330.4 mg/kg rice seed. The content of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols as analyzed by HPLC varied from 39.0–76.1, 21.6–28.1 and 6.5–16.5 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. The amounts of different γ-oryzanol components (HPLC data), identified as cycloartenyl ferulate, 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate, campesteryl ferulate and β-sitosteryl ferulate, were in the range of 65.5–103.6, 140.2–183.1, 29.8–45.5 and 8.6–10.4 mg/kg rice seed, respectively. Overall, the concentration of these bioactives was higher in the Basmati rice cultivars showing their functional food superiority. In conclusion, the tested varieties of Pakistani rice, especially the Basmati cultivars, can provide best ingredients for functional foods. PMID:22605998

  15. Rice Production and Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briers, Gary; Lee, Jasper S.

    This guide contains lesson plans for use in secondary programs of agricultural education in geographical areas in which rice is produced. Six units and 13 problem areas are organized into teaching plans that cover the broad nature of rice production. The six units are: (1) determining the importance and history of rice production; (2) determining…

  16. A systematic review of the influence of rice characteristics and processing methods on postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses.

    PubMed

    Boers, Hanny M; Seijen Ten Hoorn, Jack; Mela, David J

    2015-10-14

    Rice is an important staple food for more than half of the world's population. Especially in Asian countries, rice is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load (GL). Sustained consumption of higher-GL diets has been implicated in the development of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given that a reduction in postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses is generally seen as a beneficial dietary change, it is useful to determine the variation in the range of postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) responses to rice and the primary intrinsic and processing factors known to affect such responses. Therefore, we identified relevant original research articles on glycaemic response to rice through a systematic search of the literature in Scopus, Medline and SciFinder databases up to July 2014. Based on a glucose reference value of 100, the observed glycaemic index values for rice varieties ranged from 48 to 93, while the insulinaemic index ranged from 39 to 95. There are three main factors that appear to explain most of the variation in glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice: (1) inherent starch characteristics (amylose:amylopectin ratio and rice cultivar); (2) post-harvest processing (particularly parboiling); (3) consumer processing (cooking, storage and reheating). The milling process shows a clear effect when compared at identical cooking times, with brown rice always producing a lower PPG and PPI response than white rice. However, at longer cooking times normally used for the preparation of brown rice, smaller and inconsistent differences are observed between brown and white rice. PMID:26310311

  17. A systematic review of the influence of rice characteristics and processing methods on postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses.

    PubMed

    Boers, Hanny M; Seijen Ten Hoorn, Jack; Mela, David J

    2015-10-14

    Rice is an important staple food for more than half of the world's population. Especially in Asian countries, rice is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load (GL). Sustained consumption of higher-GL diets has been implicated in the development of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given that a reduction in postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses is generally seen as a beneficial dietary change, it is useful to determine the variation in the range of postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) responses to rice and the primary intrinsic and processing factors known to affect such responses. Therefore, we identified relevant original research articles on glycaemic response to rice through a systematic search of the literature in Scopus, Medline and SciFinder databases up to July 2014. Based on a glucose reference value of 100, the observed glycaemic index values for rice varieties ranged from 48 to 93, while the insulinaemic index ranged from 39 to 95. There are three main factors that appear to explain most of the variation in glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice: (1) inherent starch characteristics (amylose:amylopectin ratio and rice cultivar); (2) post-harvest processing (particularly parboiling); (3) consumer processing (cooking, storage and reheating). The milling process shows a clear effect when compared at identical cooking times, with brown rice always producing a lower PPG and PPI response than white rice. However, at longer cooking times normally used for the preparation of brown rice, smaller and inconsistent differences are observed between brown and white rice.

  18. Origins, Evolution, and Fate of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Research related to the origins, evolution and fate of brown dwarfs is presented. The topics include: 1) Imaging surveys for brown dwarfs; 2) Companion detection techniques; 3) Measurements of fundamental properties of brown dwarfs; 4) Classification schemes for ultracool dwarfs; 5) Origins and evolution of brown dwarfs; 6) Ultracool atmospheres and interiors; 7) Time variable phenomena in brown dwarfs; 8) Comparisons between brown dwarfs and planets; 9) Substellar mass functions; and 10) Future facilities.

  19. Inhibition of browning in foodstuffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    Addition of water-soluble sulfur-containing compounds, thio compounds or potential thio compounds, to a mixture of carbohydrates, and either proteins, peptides, or amino acids can retard or completely eliminate the browning process. Determining factor is dependent upon the concentration of the anti-browning agent in the aqueous media.

  20. Dissipation kinetics, safety evaluation, and preharvest interval assessment of trichlorfon application on rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Ren, Ya-jun; Meng, Zhi-yuan; Lu, Chun-liang; Gu, Hao-tian; Zhuang, Yi-qing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays, there is an urgent need for the investigation of the field dissipation and assessment of the preharvest interval for trichlorfon residues on rice. To protect consumers from potential health risks, this study can provide references for the safe application of trichlorfon in the rice fields. Results of the field dissipation study showed that the dissipation dynamic equations of trichlorfon were based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations and that the dissipation rates vary among rice plant, brown rice, rice bran, soil, and water. The 2-year field trials conducted in Yangzhou and Xiaogan suggested the interval of each application for trichlorfon on rice to be at least 7 days when 80 % trichlorfon SP was sprayed with a dose ranges between 80 and 160 a.i g/667 m(2). Additionally, the preharvest interval of the last application should be at least 15 days to ensure the amounts of residues below the maximum residue limits of trichlorfon on brown rice (0.1 mg/kg).

  1. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  2. Methodology for assessing rice varieties for resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica.

    PubMed

    Chanbang, Y; Arthur, F H; Wilde, G E; Throne, J E; Subramanyam, B H

    2008-01-01

    Several physical and chemical attributes of rice were evaluated to determine which character would be best to use to assess multiple rice varieties for resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.). Laboratory tests were conducted on single varieties of long-, short-, and medium grain-rice to develop procedures and methodologies that could be used for large-scale screening studies. Progeny production of R. dominica was positively correlated with the percentage of broken hulls. Although kernel hardness, amylose content, neonate preference for brown rice, and adult emergence from neonates varied among the three rice varieties tested they did not appear to be valid indicators of eventual progeny production, and may not be useful predictors of resistance or susceptibility. Soundness and integrity seem to be the best characters to use for varietal screening studies with R. dominica.

  3. Tailoring Grain Storage Reserves for a Healthier Rice Diet and its Comparative Status with Other Cereals.

    PubMed

    Butardo, Vito M; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2016-01-01

    A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases.

  4. Brown spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    The venom from spiders of the genus Loxosceles, the most famous being Loxosceles recluse (the most brown recluse spider) can cause serious poisoning. These spiders inhabit the south and south central states from Georgia through Texas and north to southern Wisconsin. They are commonly called violin spiders because of the violin-shaped marking on the dorsum of the cephalothorax. Many dermonecrotic lesions are incorrectly diagnosed as Brown recluse bites, as up to 50% of the diagnoses are in geographic regions of the country which do not have Loxosceles spiders. Sphingomyelinase D is the primary venom dermonecrotic factor. The toxin depletes serum hemolytic complement, prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time and depletes clotting factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII. The venom induces rapid coagulation and occlusion of small capillaries, causing subsequent tissue necrosis. A classic "bulls eye" lesion develops, an erythematous area inside of which is a pale ischemic region that develops a dark necrotic center as the lesion matures. Healing is slow, and these ulcers may persist for months leaving a deep scar. Systemic signs occur less commonly but can be life threatening. The most prevalent sign is a hemolytic anemia with significant hemoglobinuria. There is no specific antidote. Dapsone a leukocyte inhibitor has been shown to be effective in treating dermal lesions in animal models. Conservative therapy includes several cleanings daily with Burrow's solution and hydrogen peroxide. Systemic signs of Loxosceles envenomation are potentially fatal and should be aggressively addressed. Hospitalization and intravenous fluid therapy may be needed to maintain adequate hydration and to protect renal function.

  5. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen.

  6. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen. PMID:27436950

  7. Overexpression of BSR1 confers broad-spectrum resistance against two bacterial diseases and two major fungal diseases in rice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Satoru; Hayashi, Nagao; Sasaya, Takahide; Mori, Masaki

    2016-06-01

    Broad-spectrum disease resistance against two or more types of pathogen species is desirable for crop improvement. In rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal bacteria of rice leaf blight, and Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungal pathogen causing rice blast, are two of the most devastating pathogens. We identified the rice BROAD-SPECTRUM RESISTANCE 1 (BSR1) gene for a BIK1-like receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase using the FOX hunting system, and demonstrated that BSR1-overexpressing (OX) rice showed strong resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xoo and the fungal pathogen, M. oryzae. Here, we report that BSR1-OX rice showed extended resistance against two other different races of Xoo, and to at least one other race of M. oryzae. In addition, the rice showed resistance to another bacterial species, Burkholderia glumae, which causes bacterial seedling rot and bacterial grain rot, and to Cochliobolus miyabeanus, another fungal species causing brown spot. Furthermore, BSR1-OX rice showed slight resistance to rice stripe disease, a major viral disease caused by rice stripe virus. Thus, we demonstrated that BSR1-OX rice shows remarkable broad-spectrum resistance to at least two major bacterial species and two major fungal species, and slight resistance to one viral pathogen. PMID:27436950

  8. Extraction of light filth from rice flours, extruded rice products, and rice paper: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Dent, R G

    1982-09-01

    Two new methods were developed for the extraction of rodent hairs and insect fragments from rice products: one for rice flour and one for extruded rice products and rice paper. A 100 g sample of rice flour was extracted with mineral oil-40% isopropanol, followed by a water phase as needed for additional cycles. For extruded rice products and rice paper, a 225 g sample of each was initially extracted as above, followed by a single extraction with mineral oil-20% isopropanol. Both methods used an acid hydrolysis pretreatment followed by wet sieving and a percolator extraction. Average rodent hair recoveries were 77.8% for rice flour and 82.2% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Average insect fragment recoveries were 89.6% for rice flour and 91.9% for extruded rice products and rice paper. Both methods were adopted official first action. PMID:7130079

  9. Assessment of reclaimed wastewater irrigation impacts on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Kang, Moon Seong; Kim, Sang Min; Park, Seung Woo; Lee, Jeong Jae; Yoo, Kyung H

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this research was to monitor and assess the impact of reclaimed wastewater irrigation on water quality, soil, and rice cultivation by comparing the effects of various wastewater treatment levels on the growth and yield of rice. A randomized complete block design was used for the application methods of the wastewater effluents to paddy rice, with five treatments and six replications. The treatments were: control with groundwater irrigation (GW); irrigation with polluted water form a nearby stream (SW); and three treatments of reclaimed wastewater irrigation at different treatment levels. The three levels of wastewater treatments included wastewater effluents: (i) directly from the wastewater plant (WW); (ii) after passing through a sand filter (WSF); and (iii) after passing a sand filter followed by an ultraviolet treatment (WSFUV). Each plot was 4 x 4 m and was planted with rice (Oryza sativa L.) in 2002 and 2003. The results indicated that irrigation of rice with reclaimed municipal wastewater caused no adverse effects on the growth and yield of rice. The chemical compositions of the rice from all plots were within the normal ranges of brown rice quality in Korea. No adverse effects were observed on chemical concentrations including the heavy metals Cu, As, Cd, Zn, Hg, and Pb, in either the brown rice or the field. The results showed that treated municipal wastewater can be safely used as an alternative water source for the irrigation of rice, although continued monitoring will be needed to determine the long-term effects with regard to soil contamination and other potential health concerns.

  10. Population Genetic Structure of Cochliobolus miyabeanus on Cultivated Wild Rice (Zizania palustris L.) in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Bipolaris oryzae) is the causal agent of fungal brown spot (FBS) in wild rice (Zizania palustris L.), an aquatic grass, endemic in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and parts of Canada. Grain yield losses can reach up to 74% when the disease starts at the boot stage and continues until ...

  11. Deposition velocity of gaseous organic iodine from the atmosphere to rice plants

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Shigeo-Uchida; Sumiya, Misako; Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1996-11-01

    To obtain parameter values for the assessment of {sup 129}I transfer from the atmosphere to rice, deposition of CH{sub 3}I to rice plants has been studied. The mass normalized deposition velocity (V{sub D}) of CH{sub 3}I for rough (unhulled) rice was 0.00048 cm{sup 3} g{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}, which is about 1/300 of that of I{sub 2}. Translocation of iodine, deposited as CH{sub 3}I on leaves and stems, to rice grain was negligibly small. Distribution of iodine between hull and inner part of the grain was found to depend also on the chemical forms of atmospheric iodine to be deposited. The ratio of the iodine distribution in a grain exposed to CH{sub 3}I was as follows: rough rice: brown rice (hulled rice):polished rice = 1.0:0.49:0.38. The distribution ratio in polished grains for CH{sub 3}I exposed rice was about 20 times higher than that for I{sub 2}. 22 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  12. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3505 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.3505 Section 29.3505 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3505 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a light brown to a dark brown. These colors vary from medium to low saturation and from medium to very low brillance. As used in...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2504 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2504 Section 29.2504 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2504 Brown colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low to medium saturation and from...

  2. Faces of Marshall: Arthur Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Several Marshall employees were interviewed as part of Marshall's 50th Anniversary activities. Metallurgist Arthur Brown shares how his high school drafting and welding success led him to a NASA ca...

  3. Brown dwarfs detections through microlensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranc, C.; Cassan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Gravitational microlensing is known to be a powerful method to hunt for extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. Recently, several brown dwarfs companions to stars have been detected through microlensing, as well as brown dwarfs binaries. We present the discovery of a new ˜ 40 M_{J} brown dwarf orbiting a K-dwarf at ˜ 4 AU, located at ˜ 4 kpc from the Earth. Besides using the standard photometric light curves gathered from different round-the-world observatories, its characterization involved high-resolution adaptative optics measurements from NaCo at VLT which allowed to break the degeneracies between the physical parameters and provide the exact mass and projected separation of the system.

  4. HUBBLE SPIES BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY STELLAR NURSERY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    objects. The brown dwarfs are the faintest objects in the image. Surveying the cluster's central region, the Hubble telescope spied brown dwarfs with masses equaling 10 to 80 Jupiters. Researchers think there may be less massive brown dwarfs that are beyond the limits of Hubble's vision. The near-infrared image was taken Jan. 17, 1998. Two near-infrared filters were used to obtain information on the colors of the stars at two wavelengths (1.1 and 1.6 microns). The Trapezium picture is 1 light-year across. This composite image was made from a 'mosaic' of nine separate, but adjoining images. In this false-color image, blue corresponds to warmer, more massive stars, and red to cooler, less massive stars and brown dwarfs, and stars that are heavily obscured by dust. The visible-light data were taken in 1994 and 1995. Credits for near-infrared image: NASA; K.L. Luhman (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass.); and G. Schneider, E. Young, G. Rieke, A. Cotera, H. Chen, M. Rieke, R. Thompson (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.) Credits for visible-light picture: NASA, C.R. O'Dell and S.K. Wong (Rice University)

  5. Biology and epidemiology of rice viruses.

    PubMed

    Hibino, H

    1996-01-01

    The 15 known viruses that occur in rice are rice black-streaked dwarf, rice bunchy stunt, rice dwarf, rice gall dwarf, rice giallume, rice grassy stunt, rice hoja blanca, rice necrosis mosaic, rice ragged stunt, rice stripe necrosis, rice stripe, rice transitory yellowing, rice tungro bacilliform, rice tungro spherical, and rice yellow mottle viruses. This paper describes their geographical distribution, relation to vectors, infection cycles, field dispersal, and development, and lists recorded outbreaks of the viruses. Many rice viruses have become serious problems since rice cultivation has been intensified. Double-cropping of rice using improved, photo-insensitive cultivars of short growth duration has significantly influenced the incidence of these viruses. PMID:15012543

  6. The effect of fertilization on cesium concentration of rice grown in a paddy field in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Kajikawa, Masataka; Nishida, Sho; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Tanoi, Keitaro; Furukawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Toru

    2014-01-01

    After the accident of the Fukushima 1 nuclear power plant in March 2011, radioactive cesium was released and paddy field in a wide area of Fukushima Prefecture was contaminated. To reduce radioactive Cs uptake by rice, it is important to understand factors that affect Cs uptake in rice. Here we describe our study in 2011 and 2012 to investigate Cs concentration in two rice cultivars, Koshihikari and Hitomebore, the top two cultivars in Fukushima prefecture, grown under different fertilizer conditions in the contaminated paddy field. Our study demonstrated that high nitrogen and low potassium conditions increase Cs concentrations both in straw and brown rice.

  7. Influence of rice black streaked dwarf virus on the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Yang, Ya-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). Non-vector rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), shares the same host rice plants with SBPH in paddy fields. The changes in nutritional composition of rice plants infected by RBSDV and the ecological fitness of BPH feeding on the infected plants were studied under both artificial climate chamber and field conditions. Contents of 16 detected amino acids and soluble sugar in RBSDV infected rice plants were higher than those in the healthy ones. On the diseased plants BPH had significantly higher nymphal survival rates, nymphal duration of the males, weight of the female adults, as well as egg hatchability compared to BPH being fed on healthy plants. However, there was no obvious difference in female nymph duration, longevity and fecundity. Defense enzymes (superoxidase dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and detoxifying enzymes (carboxylesterase, CAE and glutathione S-transferase, GST) in BPH adults fed on diseased plants had markedly higher activities. The results indicate rice plants infected by RBSDV improved the ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, a serious pest but not a transmitter of the RBSDV virus.

  8. Influence of rice black streaked dwarf virus on the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Yang, Ya-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). Non-vector rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), shares the same host rice plants with SBPH in paddy fields. The changes in nutritional composition of rice plants infected by RBSDV and the ecological fitness of BPH feeding on the infected plants were studied under both artificial climate chamber and field conditions. Contents of 16 detected amino acids and soluble sugar in RBSDV infected rice plants were higher than those in the healthy ones. On the diseased plants BPH had significantly higher nymphal survival rates, nymphal duration of the males, weight of the female adults, as well as egg hatchability compared to BPH being fed on healthy plants. However, there was no obvious difference in female nymph duration, longevity and fecundity. Defense enzymes (superoxidase dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and detoxifying enzymes (carboxylesterase, CAE and glutathione S-transferase, GST) in BPH adults fed on diseased plants had markedly higher activities. The results indicate rice plants infected by RBSDV improved the ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, a serious pest but not a transmitter of the RBSDV virus. PMID:23956237

  9. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  10. Potential risks of copper, zinc, and cadmium pollution due to pig manure application in a soil-rice system under intensive farming: a case study of Nanhu, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiachun; Yu, Xiulin; Zhang, Mingkui; Lu, Shenggao; Wu, Weihong; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal (copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], and cadmium [Cd]) pollution of soils from pig manures in soil-rice ( L.) systems under intensive farming was investigated, taking Nanhu, China, as the case study area. Two hundred pig manures and 154 rice straws, brown rice samples, and corresponding surface soil (0-15 cm) samples were collected in paddy fields from 150 farms in 16 major villages within the study area. The mean Cu and Zn concentrations in pig manures consistently exceeded the related standard. About 44 and 60% of soil samples exceed the Chinese Soil Cu and Cd Environmental Quality Standards, respectively. The concentration of Cu, Zn, and Cd in brown rice did not exceed the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard. There was a significant positive correlation between total Cu and Zn contents in soil and application rate of pig manures. Strong correlation was observed between the extractable Cu, Zn, and Cd in soil and the Cu, Zn, and Cd contents in the brown rice. The spatial distribution maps of Cu and Zn concentrations in brown rice, straw, and extractable soil Cu and Zn concentration also showed similar geographical trends. Further analyses on heavy metals loading flux and accumulation rates from pig manure applied suggested that Cu and Cd contents in soil currently have already exceeded the maximum permissible limit, and Zn, if still at current manure application rates, will reach the ceiling concentration limits in 9 yr. This study assists in understanding the risk of heavy metals accumulating from pig manure applications to agricultural soils.

  11. Systematic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) metabolic responses to herbivory.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Christeller, John T; Fukumoto, Kaori; Isshiki, Ryutaro; Shinya, Tomonori; Baldwin, Ian T; Galis, Ivan

    2016-02-01

    Plants defend against attack from herbivores by direct and indirect defence mechanisms mediated by the accumulation of phytoalexins and release of volatile signals, respectively. While the defensive arsenals of some plants, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis are well known, most of rice's (Oryza sativa) defence metabolites and their effectiveness against herbivores remain uncharacterized. Here, we used a non-biassed metabolomics approach to identify many novel herbivory-regulated metabolic signatures in rice. Most were up-regulated by herbivore attack while only a few were suppressed. Two of the most prominent up-regulated signatures were characterized as phenolamides (PAs), p-coumaroylputrescine and feruloylputrescine. PAs accumulated in response to attack by both chewing insects, i.e. feeding of the lawn armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia) and the rice skipper (Parnara guttata) larvae, and the attack of the sucking insect, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH). In bioassays, BPH insects feeding on 15% sugar solution containing p-coumaroylputrescine or feruloylputrescine, at concentrations similar to those elicited by heavy BPH attack in rice, had a higher mortality compared to those feeding on sugar diet alone. Our results highlight PAs as a rapidly expanding new group of plant defence metabolites that are elicited by herbivore attack, and deter herbivores in rice and other plants.

  12. A hydroponic rice seedling culture model system for investigating proteome of salt stress in rice leaf.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dea-Wook; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jung, Young-Ho; Shibato, Junko; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Iwahashi, Yumiko; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Kim, Du Hyun; Shim, Ie-Sung; Usui, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By using an in vivo hydroponic rice seedling culture system, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of a model rice japonica cultivar Nipponbare to salt stress using proteomics and classical biochemical methods. Yoshida's nutrient solution (YS) was used to grow rice seedlings. YS-grown 18-day-old seedlings manifested highly stable and reproducible symptoms, prominently the wilting and browning of the 3rd leaf, reduced photosynthetic activity, inhibition in overall seedling growth, and failure to develop new (5th) leaf, when subjected to salt stress by transferring them to YS containing 130 mM NaCl for 4 days. As leaf response to salt stress is least investigated in rice by proteomics, we used the 3rd leaf as source material. A comparison of 2-DE protein profiles between the untreated control and salt-stressed 3rd leaves revealed 55 differentially expressed CBB-stained spots, where 47 spots were increased over the control. Of these changed spots, the identity of 33 protein spots (27 increased and 5 decreased) was determined by nESI-LC-MS/MS. Most of these identified proteins belonged to major metabolic processes like photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation and photorespiration, suggesting a good correlation between salt stress-responsive proteins and leaf morphology. Moreover, 2-DE immunoblot and enzymatic activity analyses of 3rd leaves revealed remarkable changes in the key marker enzymes associated with oxidative damage to salt stress: ascorbate peroxidase and lipid peroxidation were induced, and catalase was suppressed. These results demonstrate that hydroponic culture system is best suited for proteomics of salt stress in rice seedling.

  13. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  14. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  15. Brown's syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To better understand the various etiologies of Brown's syndrome, define specific clinical characteristics of Brown's syndrome, describe the natural history of Brown's syndrome, and evaluate the longterm outcome of a novel surgical procedure: the silicone tendon expander. Also, to utilize a computer model to simulate the pattern of strabismus seen clinically with Brown's syndrome and manipulate the model to show potential surgical outcomes of the silicone tendon expander. METHODS: Charts were reviewed on patients with the diagnosis of Brown's syndrome seen at a children's hospital ophthalmology clinic from 1982 to 1997, or seen in the author's private practice. Objective fundus torsion was assessed in up gaze, down gaze, and primary position in 7 Brown's syndrome patients and in 4 patients with primary superior oblique overaction. A fax survey was taken of members of the American Association of Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) listed in the 1997-1998 directory regarding their results using the silicone tendon expander procedure for the treatment of Brown's syndrome. A computer model of Brown's syndrome was created using the Orbit 1.8 program by simulating a shortened superior oblique tendon or by changing stretch sensitivity to create an inelastic muscle. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were studied: 85 with Brown's syndrome (38 with congenital and 47 with acquired disease), 6 with masquerade syndromes, 1 with Brown's syndrome operated on elsewhere, and 4 with primary superior oblique overaction in the torsion study. Three original clinical observations were made: 1. Significant limitation of elevation in abduction occurs in 70% of Brown's syndrome cases surgically verified as caused by a tight superior oblique tendon. Contralateral pseudo-inferior oblique overaction is associated with limited elevation in abduction. 2. Traumatic Brown's syndrome cases have larger hypotropias than nontraumatic cases (P < .001). There was no significant hypotropia in

  16. Efficacy of Deltamethrin Against Stored-Product Beetles at Short Exposure Intervals or on a Partially Treated Rice Mass.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-06-01

    Stored-product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of three species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were exposed for 1, 4, 8, and 24 h on brown rice treated with the pyrethroid deltamethrin at the label rate of 0.5 ppm, then removed and placed on untreated rice. Adults of these same species plus the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were exposed on treated brown rice mixed with varying amounts of untreated rice to assess progeny production. Immediate and delayed mortality of exposed adults did not exceed 7% for any exposure interval, but progeny production for T. castaneum was generally lower in comparison with that for the other species. Increasing the amount of treated rice decreased progeny production of R. dominica but not for any Sitophilus species. Mixed results were obtained for T. castaneum and T. variabile. Results show that long exposure times and treatment of an entire rice mass may be necessary to give complete control of stored-product beetles. PMID:26470270

  17. Determination and optimization of Vitamin B complex in xylanase enzyme treated polished rice by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Kothakota, Anjineyulu; Pandey, J P; Ahmad, A H; Kumar, Anil; Ahmad, Wasif

    2016-07-01

    The present study provides information about the concentrations of Vitamin B (thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and niacin) in polished brown rice treated with xylanase. Xylanase enzyme was produced from Aspergillus awamori MTCC 9166. Brown rice was treated with 60-100% enzyme (40 ml of buffer -undiluted) for 30 to 150 min (with variation of 30 min) at 30 degrees C to 50 degrees C (with variation of 5 degrees C) to attain a saturated moisture level of 35.5 g100(-1)g .The enzyme acted upon selective degradation (polishing time 10-50 sec) of bran layer facilitating retention of more vital nutrients along with the vitamins. Vitamin B content, detected through HPLC and optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCRD), demonstrated that selective degradation of bran layers for polished rice facilitated increase of thiamine (57%), riboflavin (48%), pyridoxine (90%) and niacin (55%) concentration in bio polished rice over normally milled rice.Enzyme treated bio-polished rice was considered to be better source of vitamin B complex than mechanically milled rice, hence more nutritionally efficacious. PMID:27498499

  18. Efficacy of Deltamethrin Against Stored-Product Beetles at Short Exposure Intervals or on a Partially Treated Rice Mass.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-06-01

    Stored-product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of three species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were exposed for 1, 4, 8, and 24 h on brown rice treated with the pyrethroid deltamethrin at the label rate of 0.5 ppm, then removed and placed on untreated rice. Adults of these same species plus the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were exposed on treated brown rice mixed with varying amounts of untreated rice to assess progeny production. Immediate and delayed mortality of exposed adults did not exceed 7% for any exposure interval, but progeny production for T. castaneum was generally lower in comparison with that for the other species. Increasing the amount of treated rice decreased progeny production of R. dominica but not for any Sitophilus species. Mixed results were obtained for T. castaneum and T. variabile. Results show that long exposure times and treatment of an entire rice mass may be necessary to give complete control of stored-product beetles.

  19. Expressing ScACR3 in rice enhanced arsenite efflux and reduced arsenic accumulation in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guilan; Kamiya, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Satoru; Arao, Tomohito; Fujiwara, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain poses a serious health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Extrusion of arsenite [As(III)] by ScAcr3p is the major arsenic detoxification mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, ScAcr3p homolog is absent in higher plants, including rice. In this study, ScACR3 was introduced into rice and expressed under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. In the transgenic lines, As concentrations in shoots and roots were about 30% lower than in the wild type, while the As translocation factors were similar between transgenic lines and the wild type. The roots of transgenic plants exhibited significantly higher As efflux activities than those of the wild type. Within 24 h exposure to 10 μM arsenate [As(V)], roots of ScACR3-expressing plants extruded 80% of absorbed As(V) to the external solution as As(III), while roots of the wild type extruded 50% of absorbed As(V). Additionally, by exposing the As-containing rice plants to an As-lacking solution for 24 h, about 30% of the total As derived from pre-treatment was extruded to the external solution by ScACR3-expressing plants, while about 15% of As was extruded by wild-type plants. Importantly, ScACR3 expression significantly reduced As accumulation in rice straws and grains. When grown in flooded soil irrigated with As(III)-containing water, the As concentration in husk and brown rice of the transgenic lines was reduced by 30 and 20%, respectively, compared with the wild type. This study reports a potential strategy to reduce As accumulation in the food chain by expressing heterologous genes in crops. PMID:22107880

  20. Effects of microbial phytase on the apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of phosphorus in rice coproducts fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the effect of microbial phytase on ATTD and STTD of P in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, broken rice, and rice mill feed when fed to pigs. Ninety-six barrows (initial BW of 19.4 ± 1.4 kg) were allotted to 12 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal was formulated. Five additional diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each rice coproduct were also formulated, and the ratio between corn and soybean meal in these diets was similar to that in the basal diet. Six additional diets that were similar to the initial 6 diets with the exception that 1,000 units of microbial phytase were added to the diets were also formulated. The ATTD and STTD of P were calculated for each diet using the direct procedure, and the ATTD and STTD of P in each rice coproduct were calculated using the difference procedure. Results of the experiment indicated that the concentration of P in feces was reduced (P < 0.05) from pigs fed diets with microbial phytase compared with pigs fed diets without phytase. No differences were observed between the basal diet and the broken rice diet, but the ATTD and the STTD of P in those diets was greater (P < 0.05) than in all other diets both without and with phytase. Among the rice coproducts, the greatest (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of P were observed for broken rice regardless of inclusion of phytase. If no microbial phytase was used, the values for STTD of P in brown rice, FFRB, DFRB, and rice mill feed were not different, but if microbial phytase was included in the diet, ATTD and STTD of P in brown rice was greater (P < 0.05) than in FFRB, DFRB, and rice mill feed. The STTD of P in brown rice, FFRB, and rice mill feed was greater (P < 0.05) if microbial phytase was used than if no

  1. African-American Heritage profile - Maikeyza Brown

    NASA Video Gallery

    Maikeyza Brown is a contract management specialist at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. A native of Washington, D.C., Brown overcame obstacles to receive honors in high school a...

  2. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25.

  3. Dietary supplementation of germinated pigmented rice (Oryza sativa L.) lowers dyslipidemia risk in ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Lara Marie Pangan; Kang, Mi Young; Yi, Seong Joon; Chung, Soo Im

    2016-01-01

    Background In the recent years, cases of elderly women suffering from metabolic diseases such as dyslipidemias brought about by hormonal imbalance after menopause are continuously increasing. In this regard, a continuous and escalating demand to develop a more functional and highly nutritional food product as an adjunct supplement that can help alleviate these diseases is still being sought. Objective This study investigated the effects of germinated blackish-purple rice cultivars Keunnunjami, Superjami, and reddish-brown cultivar Superhongmi in the lipid metabolism of ovariectomized Sprague–Dawley rats. Method The animals were randomly divided into nine groups (n=5) and were supplemented with either non-germinated or germinated rice for 9 weeks. Then the plasma, liver, and fat samples were collected for the lipid metabolism effects analyses. Results Animals fed with germinated rice cultivars had improved lipid profile levels relative to the groups supplemented with non-germinated rice cultivars. The germinated rice groups, Keununjami and Superjami in particular, showed a low total cholesterol levels, high levels of high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol, high fecal lipid output, low hepatic lipid values, and low hepatic adipocyte accumulation. There was also an increase in the rate of lipolysis and decrease in lipogenesis based on the lipid-regulating enzyme activity profiles obtained for the groups that fed on germinated rice. Also, results revealed that pigmented rice cultivars had superior effects in improving the lipid metabolism relative to the non-pigmented normal brown rice variety. Conclusion Based on the results, this study suggests that germinated pigmented rice consumption can confer better lipid metabolism than ordinary white rice and constitutes as an effective functional food in alleviating the risk of having dyslipidemias like those suffering from menopausal co-morbidities. PMID:27032671

  4. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  8. 7 CFR 29.2254 - Brown colors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brown colors. 29.2254 Section 29.2254 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... colors. A group of colors ranging from a reddish brown to yellowish brown. These colors vary from low...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1120 - Brown algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brown algae. 184.1120 Section 184.1120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1120 Brown algae. (a) Brown algae are seaweeds of the species Analipus japonicus, Eisenia...

  14. Fulfilling the Promise of Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Judith A.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes the U.S. Department of Education's efforts to implement the mandate of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, examining traditional tools used in enforcing civil rights laws and reviewing new strategies to promote high quality education, equal educational opportunity, and diversity. (SM)

  15. Microlensing, brown dwarfs and Gaia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, N. W.

    The GAIA satellite can precisely measure the masses of nearby brown dwarfs and lower main sequence stars by the microlensing effect. The scientific yield is maximised if the microlensing event is also followed with ground-based telesecopes to provide densely sampled photometry. There are two possible strategies. First, ongoing events can be triggered by photometric or astrometric alerts by GAIA. Second, events can be predicted using known high proper motion stars as lenses. This is much easier, as the location and time of an event can be forecast. Using the GAIA source density, we estimate that the sample size of high proper motion (>300 mas yr-1) brown dwarfs needed to provide predictable events during the 5 year mission lifetime is surprisingly small, only of the order of tens. This is comparable to the number of high proper motion brown dwarfs already known from the work of the UKIDSS Large Area Survey and the all-sky WISE satellite. Provided the relative parallax of the lens and the angular Einstein radius can be recovered from astrometric data, then the mass of the lens can be found. Microlensing provides the only way of measuring the masses of individual objects irrespective of their luminosity. So, microlensing with GAIA is the best way to carry out an inventory of masses in the solar neighbourhood in the brown dwarf regime.

  16. Brown at 50: Keeping Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    The story of Brown is compelling. Blacks and Whites alike understood that the Jim Crow system of "separate but equal" was a convenient fiction. There was no actual effort to ensure that Whites and Blacks were provided the same services. Invariably, the White schools had higher funding, better buildings, newer supplies and so on. Indeed, in many…

  17. Beth Starts Like Brown Bear!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Gay

    1994-01-01

    Recounts a reading teacher's illuminating experience with a first grader who enjoyed reading Bill Martin's "Brown Bear" books, despite being labeled as dyslexic. Dyslexia is an elusive condition that is biological in origin and distinct from other reading problems. New research shows that reading difficulties, including dyslexia, occur as part of…

  18. Total Arsenic, Cadmium, and Lead Determination in Brazilian Rice Samples Using ICP-MS

    PubMed Central

    Buzzo, Márcia Liane; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Henriques; Arakaki, Edna Emy Kumagai; Matsuzaki, Richard; Tiglea, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89.3 to 98.2% for muffle furnace, 94.2 to 103.3% for heating block, 81.0 to 115.0% for hot plate, and 92.8 to 108.2% for microwave. Validation parameters showed that the method fits for its purpose, being the total arsenic, cadmium, and lead within the Brazilian Legislation limits. The method was applied for analyzing 37 rice samples (including polished, brown, and parboiled), consumed by the Brazilian population. The total arsenic, cadmium, and lead contents were lower than the established legislative values, except for total arsenic in one brown rice sample. This study indicated the need to establish monitoring programs for emphasizing the study on this type of cereal, aiming at promoting the Public Health. PMID:27766178

  19. Concentration of radiocaesium in rice and irrigation water, and soil management practices in Oguni, Date, Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Ohse, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    The concentration of radiocaesium ((134) Cs and (137) Cs) in brown rice collected from Oguni, Date, Fukushima in 2011 was over 500 Bq kg(-1) , which was the provisional regulation value in 2011, and rice cultivation was prohibited in 2012. Rice culture was resumed following the application of K fertilizer as a countermeasure in 2013. The concentration of (137) Cs in soils and irrigation water in 2013 was in the range of 1200 to 4000 Bq kg(-1) (n = 31) and 0.078 to 1.1 Bq L(-1) (n = 7), respectively. The concentration of (137) Cs in the dissolved fraction in irrigation water filtered with 0.45 µm pore-size membrane filter was a relatively constant at 0.019 to 0.038 Bq L(-1) (n = 7). The concentration of (137) Cs in brown rice cultivated in the paddy fields after implementing the countermeasure was 1.1 to 24 Bq kg(-1) dry weight (n = 29), which was lower than the Standard Limits (100 Bq kg(-1) ). However, the concentration of Cs in rice cultivated under a similar agricultural management as in 2011 and prior to the Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings' (TEPCO) Fukushima accident was over the Standard Limits. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:659-661. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:27640411

  20. Brown dwarfs as dark galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Fred C.; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that the dark matter in galactic halos can consist of brown dwarf stars is considered. The radiative signature for such halos consisting solely of brown dwarfs is calculated, and the allowed range of brown dwarf masses, the initial mass function (IMF), the stellar properties, and the density distribution of the galactic halo are discussed. The prediction emission from the halo is compared with existing observations. It is found that, for any IMF of brown dwarfs below the deuterium burning limit, brown dwarf halos are consistent with observations. Brown dwarf halos cannot, however, explain the recently observed near-IR background. It is shown that future satellite missions will either detect brown dwarf halos or place tight constraints on the allowed range of the IMF.

  1. Assessment of brown adipose tissue function

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Sam; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In this review we discuss practical considerations for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in rodent models, focusing on mice. The central aim of the review is to provide a critical appraisal of the utility of specialized techniques for assessing brown adipose tissue function in vivo. We cover several of the most common specialized methods for analysing brown adipose tissue function in vivo, including assessment of maximal thermogenic capacity by indirect calorimetry and the measurement of sympathetic tone to brown adipose tissue. While these techniques are powerful, they are not readily available to all laboratories; therefore we also cover several simple measurements that, particularly in combination, can be used to determine if a mouse model is likely to have alterations in brown adipose tissue function. Such techniques include: pair feeding, analysis of brown adipose tissue lipid content and mRNA and protein markers of brown adipose tissue activation. PMID:23760815

  2. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus alters insect vectors' host orientation preferences to enhance spread and increase rice ragged stunt virus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Xu, Donglin; Pu, Lingling; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae), has spread rapidly and caused serious rice losses in eastern and southeastern Asia. With this virus spread, Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV, genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) became more common in southern China, usually in co-infection with the former. SRBSDV and RRSV are transmitted by two different species of planthoppers, white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) and brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens), respectively, in a persistent, circulative, propagative manner. In this study, using a Y-shape olfactometer-based device, we tested the host preference of three types of macropterous WBPH adults for healthy or SRBSDV-infected rice plants. The results showed that virus-free WBPHs significantly preferred infected rice plants to healthy plants, whereas both the viruliferous and nonviruliferous WBPHs preferred healthy plants to infected plants. In additional tests, we found that the BPHs significantly preferred healthy plants when they were virus free, whereas RRSV-carrying BPHs preferred SRBSDV-infected rice plants. From these findings, we propose that plant viruses may alter host selection preference of vectors to enhance their spread and that of insects vectoring another virus to result in co-infection with more than one virus.

  3. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus alters insect vectors' host orientation preferences to enhance spread and increase rice ragged stunt virus co-infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Xu, Donglin; Pu, Lingling; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a tentative species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae), has spread rapidly and caused serious rice losses in eastern and southeastern Asia. With this virus spread, Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV, genus Oryzavirus, family Reoviridae) became more common in southern China, usually in co-infection with the former. SRBSDV and RRSV are transmitted by two different species of planthoppers, white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) and brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens), respectively, in a persistent, circulative, propagative manner. In this study, using a Y-shape olfactometer-based device, we tested the host preference of three types of macropterous WBPH adults for healthy or SRBSDV-infected rice plants. The results showed that virus-free WBPHs significantly preferred infected rice plants to healthy plants, whereas both the viruliferous and nonviruliferous WBPHs preferred healthy plants to infected plants. In additional tests, we found that the BPHs significantly preferred healthy plants when they were virus free, whereas RRSV-carrying BPHs preferred SRBSDV-infected rice plants. From these findings, we propose that plant viruses may alter host selection preference of vectors to enhance their spread and that of insects vectoring another virus to result in co-infection with more than one virus. PMID:24047253

  4. A simplified method for simultaneous detection of Rice stripe virus and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in insect vector.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Wang, Xi; Xu, Jianxiang; Ji, Yinghua; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) are transmitted by their common vector small brown planthopper (SBPH) that cause serious crop losses in China. A simple reverse transcription-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection of RSV and RBSDV in single SBPH. Three primers targeted to RSV-RNA4 and RBSDV-S2 segments were designed to amplify respectively 1114-bp and 414-bp fragments in a reaction. The method is reliable, rapid and inexpensive for detecting the two viruses in vector, which could facilitate better forecasting and control of the virus diseases. Using this method, it was found that SBPH could carry RSV and RBSDV simultaneously. PMID:25455902

  5. A simplified method for simultaneous detection of Rice stripe virus and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus in insect vector.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Wang, Xi; Xu, Jianxiang; Ji, Yinghua; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) are transmitted by their common vector small brown planthopper (SBPH) that cause serious crop losses in China. A simple reverse transcription-PCR method was developed for the simultaneous detection of RSV and RBSDV in single SBPH. Three primers targeted to RSV-RNA4 and RBSDV-S2 segments were designed to amplify respectively 1114-bp and 414-bp fragments in a reaction. The method is reliable, rapid and inexpensive for detecting the two viruses in vector, which could facilitate better forecasting and control of the virus diseases. Using this method, it was found that SBPH could carry RSV and RBSDV simultaneously.

  6. Shaping a better rice plant.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan

    2010-06-01

    Two studies describe how regulatory variation at the rice gene OsSPL14 can lead to altered plant morphology and improve grain yield. These studies support the possibility of improving rice yield through changing plant architecture.

  7. Modeling moisture movement in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is one of the leading food crops in the world. At harvest, rice normally has higher moisture content than the moisture content considered safe for its storage, which creates the necessity for a drying process before its storage. In addition to drying, moisture movement within the rice kernels a...

  8. Survey of arsenic and its speciation in rice products such as breakfast cereals, rice crackers and Japanese rice condiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Carey, Anne-Marie; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2009-04-01

    Rice has been demonstrated to be one of the major contributors to arsenic (As) in human diets in addition to drinking water, but little is known about rice products as an additional source of As exposure. Rice products were analyzed for total As and a subset of samples were measured for arsenic speciation using high performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A wide range of rice products had total and inorganic arsenic levels that typified those found in rice grain including, crisped rice, puffed rice, rice crackers, rice noodles and a range of Japanese rice condiments as well as rice products targeted at the macrobiotic, vegan, lactose intolerant and gluten intolerance food market. Most As in rice products are inorganic As (75.2-90.1%). This study provides a wider appreciation of how inorganic arsenic derived from rice products enters the human diet. PMID:18775567

  9. Methane potential and biodegradability of rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process.

    PubMed

    Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively.

  10. Effect of rice variety and nutrient management on rice productivity in organic rice system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic rice has been increasing for decades. However, the information on sustainable organic rice production systems is still lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil amendment products, nitrogen rate, and variety on rice grain yield, yield components, ...

  11. Selenium addition alters mercury uptake, bioavailability in the rhizosphere and root anatomy of rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xun; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Fu, Shi; Ametkhan, Aray; Ouyang, Yun; Ye, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, especially in the form of methylmercury (MeHg), whereas selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in the human diet. This study aimed to ascertain whether addition of Se can produce rice with enriched Se and lowered Hg content when growing in Hg-contaminated paddy fields and, if so, to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Methods Two cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa, japonica and indica) were grown in either hydroponic solutions or soil rhizobags with different Se and Hg treatments. Concentrations of total Hg, MeHg and Se were determined in the roots, shoots and brown rice, together with Hg uptake kinetics and Hg bioavailability in the soil. Root anatonmy was also studied. Key Results The high Se treatment (5 μg g–1) significantly increased brown rice yield by 48 % and total Se content by 2·8-fold, and decreased total Hg and MeHg by 47 and 55 %, respectively, compared with the control treatments. The high Se treatment also markedly reduced ‘water-soluble’ Hg and MeHg concentrations in the rhizosphere soil, decreased the uptake capacity of Hg by roots and enhanced the development of apoplastic barriers in the root endodermis. Conclusions Addition of Se to Hg-contaminated soil can help produce brown rice that is simultaneously enriched in Se and contains less total Hg and MeHg. The lowered accumulation of total Hg and MeHg appears to be the result of reduced bioavailability of Hg and production of MeHg in the rhizosphere, suppression of uptake of Hg into the root cells and an enhancement of the development of apoplastic barriers in the endodermis of the roots. PMID:24948669

  12. Explosibility of Victorian brown coal dust

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboenko, F.

    1987-04-01

    The explosibility of Victorian brown coal dusts has been investigated in a wide range of equipment, including the 1.2 dm/sup 3/ Hartmann bomb and the 20 litre spherical bomb. The Hartmann bomb seriously underestimates the severity of brown coal dust explosions and empirical relations between Hartmann bomb and Spherical bomb results cited in the literature are not valid for brown coal. Explosibility increases with decreasing moisture content and particle size and increases with increasing volatile matter content.

  13. Sequential presentation of bilateral Brown syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sekeroğlu, Hande Taylan; Türkçüoğlu, Peykan; Sanaç, Ali Şefik; Sener, Emin Cumhur

    2012-04-01

    Brown syndrome, characterized by a limitation of elevation in adduction and positive forced duction testing, is usually unilateral but occurs bilaterally in 10% of all cases. It may present as a congenital condition in one eye and develop in the other eye with no apparent cause. We present a case of bilateral Brown syndrome in which the right eye became involved within 1 year of surgery on the left eye for congenital Brown syndrome.

  14. [Response of yield, quality and nitrogen use efficiency to nitrogen fertilizer from mechanical transplanting super japonica rice].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Yan; Wang, Ya-Jiang; Meng, Tian-Yao; Ge, Meng-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Cheng; Dai, Qi-Gen; Huo, Zhong-Yang; Xu, Ke

    2014-02-01

    Five super japonica rice cultivars were grown by mechanical transplanting in field and seven N treatments with total N application rate of 0, 150, 187.5, 225, 262.5, 300 and 337.5 kg x hm(-2) respectively were adopted to study the effects of N rate on rice yield, quality and N use efficiency. The differences between N requirement for obtaining the highest yield and for achieving the best economic benefit were compared. With the increase of N fertilizer rate, the yields of five super japonica rice cultivars increased firstly and then descended, achieving the highest yield at the N level of 300 kg x hm(-2) ranging from 10.33-10.60 kg x hm(-2). Yield increase mainly attributed to the large number of spikelet, for the total spikelet number of each rice cultivar reached the maximum value at the 300 kg x hm(-2) N level. With the increase of N application, the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein content of the five super japonica rice cultivars were all increased, and the rates of brown rice, milled rice, head milled rice and the protein con- tent were higher at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 3.3%-4.2%, 2.9%-6.0%, 4.4%-33.7% and 23.8%-44.3%, respectively. While the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value of the five rice cultivars were all decreased, and the amylose content, gel consistency and taste value were lower at 337.5 kg x hm(-2) N level than at 0 kg x hm(-2) N level by 12.4%-38.9%, 10.3%-28.5% and 20.3%-29.7%, respectively. The chalkiness increased firstly and then decreased while the change of chalky rate varied with the cultivars. With the increase of N application, the N use efficiency, agronomic N use efficiency and physiological N use efficiency decreased while the N uptake of grain increased significantly. If the cost of N fertilizer was taken into account, the N fertilizer amount to obtain the optimal economic benefits would be 275.68 kg x hm(-2) with the corresponding yield of 9.97 t x hm

  15. Brown dwarfs in young stellar clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.

    1991-01-01

    The present calculations of the early evolution of brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (LMSs) yield isochrones spanning 0.01-0.2 solar masses for ages in the 1 to 300 million year range. Since the brown dwarfs remain sharply segregated in T(eff) from LMSs for ages of less than 100 million years, it follows that for coeval populations of known age, a domain exists in the H-R diagram in which only brown dwarfs exist. These theoretical results are compared with recent observations of the Pleiades brown dwarf candidates, using two new sets of color-T(eff) transformations. Both sets yield consistent interpretations.

  16. Suppression of cadmium uptake in rice using fermented bark as a soil amendment.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Kotaki, Kenta; Gunji, Fumine; Kubo, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Shizusa; Ito, Tsukasa; Itabashi, Hideyuki

    2016-04-01

    The contamination of rice paddies with heavy metals has become a serious concern due to their high toxicity to human health. In this study, we developed a chemical-free, fermented bark amendment (FBA) and used it for organic rice cultivation. The application of FBA resulted in the fixation of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), in the soil and suppressed their uptake in brown rice. The suppression of Cd uptake was most effective, since its uptake in rice from FBA-supplemented soil was 10 times lower than that from untreated soil under ordinary water-filling conditions. These results could be explained by the rapid conversion of sulfate ions to sulfide ions, which subsequently react with Cd producing insoluble sulfide species, as well as Cd adsorption to the decomposed bark in soil. The FBA did not affect the uptake of metals, such as calcium and iron, which are necessary for the growth of rice. Thus, the FBA may suppress Cd uptake in rice, and its effectiveness is related to application time and water regime. PMID:26841291

  17. Viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of purple-rice drinks following ultrahigh pressure and pasteurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worametrachanon, Srivilai; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how pressure (500, 600 MPa/20 min) altered the viscoelastic characteristics and phytochemical properties of germinated and non-germinated purple-rice drinks in comparison with pasteurization. Accordingly, color parameters, storage and loss moduli, anthocyanin content, γ-oryzanol, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), total phenolic compounds and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylthydrazyl (DPPH) capacity of the processed drinks were determined. The finding showed that germinated and pressurized rice drink had lower Browning Index than the non-germinated and pasteurized rice drink. The plots of storage and loss moduli for processed rice drinks indicated that time of pressurization had greater impact on gel structural modification than the level of pressure used. The phytochemicals, including total phenolics, and DPPH capacity in pressurized rice drinks retained higher quantity than those in pasteurized drink, despite less treatment effects on anthocyanin. On the contrary, both γ-oryzanol and GABA were found in high amounts in germinated rice drink with little variation among processing effects.

  18. Application of a rotation system to oilseed rape and rice fields in Cd-contaminated agricultural land to ensure food safety.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingling; Zhu, Junyan; Huang, Qingqing; Su, Dechun; Jiang, Rongfeng; Li, Huafen

    2014-10-01

    This field experiment analyzed the phytoremediation effects of oilseed rape in moderately cadmium (Cd)-contaminated farmland and the food safety of successive rice in an oilseed rape-rice rotation system. Two oilseed rape cultivars accumulated Cd at different rates. The rapeseed cultivar Zhucang Huazi exhibited high Cd accumulation rates, higher than the legal limit for human consumption (0.2mgkg(-1)); Cd concentrations in the cultivar Chuanyou II-93 were all below the maximum allowed level. Planting oilseed rape increased the uptake of Cd by the successive rice crop compared with a previous fallow treatment. Most Cd concentrations of brown rice were below the maximum allowed level. The phytoextraction efficiency was lower in the moderately Cd-contaminated soil in field experiments. The results suggest screening rice cultivars with lower Cd accumulation can assure the food safety; the mobilization of heavy metals by roots of different plant species should be considered during crop rotation to assure food safety.

  19. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis. PMID:26781688

  20. 50 Years after Brown v. the Board of Education: An Interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriuolo, Nancy E.

    2004-01-01

    This spring marks the 50th anniversary (May 17, 1954-2004) of the Supreme Courts' decision to outlaw segregation by ruling unanimously in favor of the plaintiffs in Brown v. the Board of Education. Of course, segregation never really ended, as will be explained in this interview with Cheryl Brown Henderson, daughter of Oliver Brown, the 10th of…

  1. Direct action of capsaicin in brown adipogenesis and activation of brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kida, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Hirofumi; Murakami, Masaru; Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Hashimoto, Osamu; Kawada, Teruo; Matsui, Tohru; Funaba, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of capsaicin, the principle pungent component of red and chili peppers, induces thermogenesis, in part, through the activation of brown adipocytes expressing genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and uncoupling such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (Ppar) γ coactivator-1α (Pgc-1α) and uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). Capsaicin has been suggested to induce the activation of brown adipocytes, which is mediated by the stimulation of sympathetic nerves. However, capsaicin may directly affect the differentiation of brown preadipocytes, brown adipocyte function, or both, through its significant absorption. We herein demonstrated that Trpv1, a capsaicin receptor, is expressed in brown adipose tissue, and that its expression level is increased during the differentiation of HB2 brown preadipocytes. Furthermore, capsaicin induced calcium influx in brown preadipocytes. A treatment with capsaicin in the early stage of brown adipogenesis did not affect lipid accumulation or the expression levels of Fabp4 (a gene expressed in mature adipocytes), Pparγ2 (a master regulator of adipogenesis) or brown adipocyte-selective genes. In contrast, a treatment with capsaicin in the late stage of brown adipogenesis slightly increased the expression levels of Fabp4, Pparγ2 and Pgc-1α. Although capsaicin did not affect the basal expression level of Ucp1, Ucp1 induction by forskolin was partially inhibited by capsaicin, irrespective of the dose of capsaicin. The results of the present study suggest the direct effects of capsaicin on brown adipocytes or in the late stage of brown adipogenesis.

  2. Rice disease management under organic production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in organic rice production has increased because of the increased market demand for organic rice. Texas organic rice acreage has constantly increased over the last decade, reaching 32,000 acres in 2012. Texas is now the leading state in organic rice production in the U.S. Organic rice is p...

  3. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  4. Map-based cloning and characterization of a brown planthopper resistance gene BPH26 from Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica cultivar ADR52.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yasumori; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Yoshioka, Miki; Takahashi, Akira; Wu, Jianzhong; Sentoku, Naoki; Yasui, Hideshi

    2014-07-29

    The brown planthopper (BPH) is the most serious insect pest of rice in Asia. The indica rice cultivar ADR52 carries two BPH resistance genes, BPH26 (brown planthopper resistance 26) and BPH25. Map-based cloning of BPH26 revealed that BPH26 encodes a coiled-coil-nucleotide-binding-site-leucine-rich repeat (CC-NBS-LRR) protein. BPH26 mediated sucking inhibition in the phloem sieve element. BPH26 was identical to BPH2 on the basis of DNA sequence analysis and feeding ability of the BPH2-virulent biotype of BPH. BPH2 was widely incorporated in elite rice cultivars and was well-cultivated in many Asian countries as a favorable gene resource in rice breeding against BPH. However, BPH2 was rendered ineffective by a virulent biotype of BPH in rice fields in Asia. In this study, we suggest that BPH2 can be reused by combining with other BPH resistance genes, such as BPH25, to ensure durable resistance to BPH.

  5. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%).

  6. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo Im; Ryu, Su Noh; Kang, Mi Young

    2016-01-01

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance. PMID:27775654

  7. Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.

    PubMed

    Khoa, Nguyen Đac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

    2011-02-01

    Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

  8. Exploring Japan through Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the role of rice in Japanese culture by presenting historical background and teaching activities in a variety of categories, such as language, sociology, history, and contemporary politics. Suggests teachers create cross-cultural comparisons; for example, the role of corn in the United States. Provides a list of teacher resources. (CMK)

  9. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, L.; Isella, A.; Testi, L.; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Natta, A.; Scholz, A.

    2014-08-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array continuum and spectral line data at 0.89 mm and 3.2 mm for three disks surrounding young brown dwarfs and very low mass stars in the Taurus star forming region. Dust thermal emission is detected and spatially resolved for all the three disks, while CO(J = 3-2) emission is seen in two disks. We analyze the continuum visibilities and constrain the disks' physical structure in dust. The results of our analysis show that the disks are relatively large; the smallest one has an outer radius of about 70 AU. The inferred disk radii, radial profiles of the dust surface density, and disk to central object mass ratios lie within the ranges found for disks around more massive young stars. We derive from our observations the wavelength dependence of the millimeter dust opacity. In all the three disks, data are consistent with the presence of grains with at least millimeter sizes, as also found for disks around young stars, and confirm that the early stages of the solid growth toward planetesimals occur also around very low-mass objects. We discuss the implications of our findings on models of solids evolution in protoplanetary disks, the main mechanisms proposed for the formation of brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars, as well as the potential of finding rocky and giant planets around very low-mass objects.

  10. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  11. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  12. Remembering "Brown": Silence, Loss, Rage, and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The author was in the seventh grade at the Newsome Training School in Aubrey, Arkansas when the Supreme Court handed down "Brown v. Board of Education" on May 17, 1954. His most powerful memory of the "Brown" decision is that he has no memory of it being rendered or mentioned by his parents, teachers, or preachers. In his rural southern Black…

  13. Speaking Personally--With John Seely Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John Seely Brown, a visiting scholar at the University of Southern California and a former chief scientist of Xerox Corporation and director of its Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)--a position he held for nearly two decades. While head of PARC, Brown expanded the role of corporate research to include such…

  14. Calcifying Sorting and Segregating: "Brown" at 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Cristina Santamaria; Kozleski, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 "Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1". Supreme Court 5:4 decision suggests that the Court is divided in its interpretation of "Brown" and its intent in addressing racial segregation. Although "Brown" intended equal educational opportunities through desegregation practices,…

  15. [Effects of organic amendments on the growth and heavy metal uptake of rice on a contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Qiang; Wu, Long-Hua; Luo, Yong-Ming; Yin, Bin

    2012-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of three organic amendments (organic carbon material, rapeseed cake, and pig manure) on the growth and heavy metal uptake of rice on a heavy metal mixed contaminated paddy soil. Applying rapeseed cake and pig manure could mitigate the toxic effect of heavy metals on rice plant. The two organic amendments increased the shoot biomass and grain yield significantly, and decreased the heavy metal concentration in brown rice. Under the application of organic carbon material, rice growth was inhibited. As compared with the control, applying rapeseed cake and pig manure increased the grain yield by 128.3% and 67.9%, and decreased the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations in brown rice by 47.6%, 35.2% and 21.5%, and 9.5%, 21.2% and 9.3%, respectively. The shoot biomass and its total accumulation of Cd, Cu, and Zn had significant negative correlations with the soil DTPA-extractable heavy metals.

  16. [Effects of organic amendments on the growth and heavy metal uptake of rice on a contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Qiang; Wu, Long-Hua; Luo, Yong-Ming; Yin, Bin

    2012-02-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of three organic amendments (organic carbon material, rapeseed cake, and pig manure) on the growth and heavy metal uptake of rice on a heavy metal mixed contaminated paddy soil. Applying rapeseed cake and pig manure could mitigate the toxic effect of heavy metals on rice plant. The two organic amendments increased the shoot biomass and grain yield significantly, and decreased the heavy metal concentration in brown rice. Under the application of organic carbon material, rice growth was inhibited. As compared with the control, applying rapeseed cake and pig manure increased the grain yield by 128.3% and 67.9%, and decreased the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations in brown rice by 47.6%, 35.2% and 21.5%, and 9.5%, 21.2% and 9.3%, respectively. The shoot biomass and its total accumulation of Cd, Cu, and Zn had significant negative correlations with the soil DTPA-extractable heavy metals. PMID:22586962

  17. Meal replacement with mixed rice is more effective than white rice in weight control, while improving antioxidant enzyme activity in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Yun; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Da Hee; Kim, Sook He; Lee, Sang Sun

    2008-02-01

    The physiologic consequences of using white rice or mixed rice were evaluated in overweight Korean women (body mass index > or = 25 kg/m(2)) over a period of 6 weeks. Forty women between 20 and 35 years of age were randomly divided into 2 groups who consumed 1 of 2 low-energy meal replacements containing either white rice (WR group) or mixture of brown rice and black rice (BRBL group). The subjects were not allowed to have any food other than the low-energy meal replacement 3 times a day and snacks provided by the researcher. The changes in anthropometric indices and blood parameters such as lipid levels and antioxidant activities were measured every 3 weeks during the dietary intervention. The subjects showed a significant reduction in weight, body mass index, and body fat (%) during the experimental period, with the BRBL group exhibiting levels of all 3 parameters significantly lower than those of the WR group (P < .05). The levels of total cholesterol and triacylglycerols decreased gradually and significantly after intervention in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly elevated in the BRBL group but not in the WR group. Superoxide dismutase activity was not affected by dietary intervention, but glutathione peroxidase activity in the BRBL group was higher than in the WR group, and the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance was lower in the BRBL group compared to the WR group. In conclusion, meal replacement with mixed rice was superior to replacement with white rice in weight control, improving antioxidant enzyme activity, and as such, should be recommended for diet therapy in obese women.

  18. Brown adipose tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Lidell, M E; Enerbäck, S

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is capable of transforming chemically stored energy, in the form of triglycerides, into heat. Recent studies have shown that metabolically active BAT is present in a large proportion of adult humans, where its activity correlates with a favorable metabolic status. Hence, the tissue is now regarded as an interesting target for therapies against obesity and associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes, the hypothesis being that an induction of BAT would be beneficial for these disease states. Apart from the association between BAT activity and a healthier metabolic status, later studies have also shown a positive correlation between BAT volume and both bone cross-sectional area and bone mineral density, suggesting that BAT might stimulate bone anabolism. The aim of this review is to give the reader a brief overview of the BAT research field and to summarize and discuss recent findings regarding BAT being a potential player in bone metabolism. PMID:27152171

  19. The presence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in rice and rice products; and evaluation of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Hanif, Usman; Zuber, Muhammad; Jinap, S

    2016-11-01

    In present study aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analysed in 208 samples of rice and products collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detector. The results have shown that 35% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 19% and 24% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 19% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 14% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in brown rice samples i.e. 8.91 and 12.4μg/kg, respectively. However, white rice samples have shown the highest mean level of OTA (8.50μg/kg) with highest level of 24.9μg/kg. The high mean dietary exposure 22.2 and 24.2ngkg(-1)bwday(-1) to AFB1 and OTA, respectively poses significant health hazard for local population. PMID:27211631

  20. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Du, Linlin; Wang, Lijiao; Wang, Ying; Gao, Cunyi; Lan, Ying; Sun, Feng; Fan, Yongjian; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-07-22

    Rice black-streaked dwarf disease, caused by rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), is transmitted by small brown planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, SBPH) and causes severe yield loss in epidemic years in China and other East Asian countries. Breeding for resistance to RBSDV is a promising strategy to control the disease. We identified Tetep that showed resistance to RBSDV using a field test and artificial inoculation test. An evaluation of the resistance mechanism revealed that Tetep was resistant to RBSDV but not to SBPH. Genetic analysis showed that the resistance of Tetep to RBSDV was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Three new QTLs for RBSDV resistance were identified in this study, i.e., qRBSDV-3, qRBSDV-10 and qRBSDV-11. The LOD scores of qRBSDV-3, qRBSDV-10 and qRBSDV-11 were 4.07, 2.24 and 2.21, accounting for 17.5%, 0.3% and 12.4% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. All the resistance loci identified in this study were associated with virus resistance genes. The alleles for enhancing resistance on chromosomes 3 and 11 originated from Tetep, whereas the other allele on chromosome 10 originated from a susceptible parent. The identified new resistance QTLs in this study are useful resources for efficiently breeding resistant rice cultivars to RBSDV.

  1. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tong; Du, Linlin; Wang, Lijiao; Wang, Ying; Gao, Cunyi; Lan, Ying; Sun, Feng; Fan, Yongjian; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf disease, caused by rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), is transmitted by small brown planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, SBPH) and causes severe yield loss in epidemic years in China and other East Asian countries. Breeding for resistance to RBSDV is a promising strategy to control the disease. We identified Tetep that showed resistance to RBSDV using a field test and artificial inoculation test. An evaluation of the resistance mechanism revealed that Tetep was resistant to RBSDV but not to SBPH. Genetic analysis showed that the resistance of Tetep to RBSDV was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Three new QTLs for RBSDV resistance were identified in this study, i.e., qRBSDV-3, qRBSDV-10 and qRBSDV-11. The LOD scores of qRBSDV-3, qRBSDV-10 and qRBSDV-11 were 4.07, 2.24 and 2.21, accounting for 17.5%, 0.3% and 12.4% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. All the resistance loci identified in this study were associated with virus resistance genes. The alleles for enhancing resistance on chromosomes 3 and 11 originated from Tetep, whereas the other allele on chromosome 10 originated from a susceptible parent. The identified new resistance QTLs in this study are useful resources for efficiently breeding resistant rice cultivars to RBSDV. PMID:26198760

  2. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of QTLs for resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf disease in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Du, Linlin; Wang, Lijiao; Wang, Ying; Gao, Cunyi; Lan, Ying; Sun, Feng; Fan, Yongjian; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf disease, caused by rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), is transmitted by small brown planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén, SBPH) and causes severe yield loss in epidemic years in China and other East Asian countries. Breeding for resistance to RBSDV is a promising strategy to control the disease. We identified Tetep that showed resistance to RBSDV using a field test and artificial inoculation test. An evaluation of the resistance mechanism revealed that Tetep was resistant to RBSDV but not to SBPH. Genetic analysis showed that the resistance of Tetep to RBSDV was controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Three new QTLs for RBSDV resistance were identified in this study, i.e., qRBSDV-3, qRBSDV-10 and qRBSDV-11. The LOD scores of qRBSDV-3, qRBSDV-10 and qRBSDV-11 were 4.07, 2.24 and 2.21, accounting for 17.5%, 0.3% and 12.4% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. All the resistance loci identified in this study were associated with virus resistance genes. The alleles for enhancing resistance on chromosomes 3 and 11 originated from Tetep, whereas the other allele on chromosome 10 originated from a susceptible parent. The identified new resistance QTLs in this study are useful resources for efficiently breeding resistant rice cultivars to RBSDV. PMID:26198760

  3. 3D brown adipogenesis to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands".

    PubMed

    Unser, Andrea M; Mooney, Bridget; Corr, David T; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in energy balance and treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells, and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of the expression of the brown adipocyte-defining marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), as well as other general adipocyte markers. Cells within microstrands were responsive to a β-adrenergic agonist with an increase in gene expression of thermogenic UCP1, indicating that these "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" are functional. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  4. 3D brown adipogenesis to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands".

    PubMed

    Unser, Andrea M; Mooney, Bridget; Corr, David T; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems are needed to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in energy balance and treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells, and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of the expression of the brown adipocyte-defining marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), as well as other general adipocyte markers. Cells within microstrands were responsive to a β-adrenergic agonist with an increase in gene expression of thermogenic UCP1, indicating that these "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" are functional. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:26496384

  5. Effects of tire rubber ash and zinc sulfate on crop productivity and cadmium accumulation in five rice cultivars under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Khan, Fahad; Wu, Chao; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Ahmad, Naeem; Gang, Deng; Ullah, Abid; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is among the most widespread and toxic heavy metals becoming a severe threat to humans. A field study was conducted to examine the role of various zinc (Zn) fertilization treatments and cultivars on crop productivity and Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice and rice straw. The Zn fertilization treatments included an unfertilized control, foliar applied Zn sulfate (ZnSO4) at panicle initiation stage, foliar applied ZnSO4 at milky stage, soil application of rubber ash, and soil-applied ZnSO4, while five rice cultivars were Swat-1, Shadab, Shua-92, Swat-2, and Sada Hayat. All the Zn fertilization treatments resulted in significantly higher number of panicles, number of spikelets per panicles, spikelet fertility, 1,000-grain weight, grain yield, brown rice and rice straw Zn concentrations, and significantly lower Cd concentrations. Soil application of rubber ash remained the best among all Zn fertilization treatments as it resulted in 73% higher grain yield and reduced Cd concentration by 51% as compared with control. Variations were also apparent among cultivars, and Shua-92 and Swat-2 performed better in terms of all studied attributes as compared with other cultivars. Conclusively, cultivar selection and Zn application are effective strategies to improve rice grain yield as well as quality. Rubber ash appeared a viable source of Zn having the ability to increase yield along with reducing Cd accumulation.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  7. Molecular Screening of Blast Resistance Genes in Rice using SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, A. K.; Singh, P. K.; Arya, Madhuri; Singh, N. K.; Singh, U. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rice Blast is the most devastating disease causing major yield losses in every year worldwide. It had been proved that using resistant rice varieties would be the most effective way to control this disease. Molecular screening and genetic diversities of major rice blast resistance genes were determined in 192 rice germplasm accessions using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The genetic frequencies of the 10 major rice blast resistance genes varied from 19.79% to 54.69%. Seven accessions IC337593, IC346002, IC346004, IC346813, IC356117, IC356422 and IC383441 had maximum eight blast resistance gene, while FR13B, Hourakani, Kala Rata 1–24, Lemont, Brown Gora, IR87756-20-2-2-3, IC282418, IC356419, PKSLGR-1 and PKSLGR-39 had seven blast resistance genes. Twenty accessions possessed six genes, 36 accessions had five genes, 41 accessions had four genes, 38 accessions had three genes, 26 accessions had two genes, 13 accessions had single R gene and only one accession IC438644 does not possess any one blast resistant gene. Out of 192 accessions only 17 accessions harboured 7 to 8 blast resistance genes. PMID:25774106

  8. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Talukdar, Partha; Douglas, Alex; Price, Adam H.; Norton, Gareth J.

    2015-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population) and a genome wide association (GWA) study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity). However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed. PMID:26356220

  9. Biallelic and Genome Wide Association Mapping of Germanium Tolerant Loci in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Talukdar, Partha; Douglas, Alex; Price, Adam H; Norton, Gareth J

    2015-01-01

    Rice plants accumulate high concentrations of silicon. Silicon has been shown to be involved in plant growth, high yield, and mitigating biotic and abiotic stresses. However, it has been demonstrated that inorganic arsenic is taken up by rice through silicon transporters under anaerobic conditions, thus the ability to efficiently take up silicon may be considered either a positive or a negative trait in rice. Germanium is an analogue of silicon that produces brown lesions in shoots and leaves, and germanium toxicity has been used to identify mutants in silicon and arsenic transport. In this study, two different genetic mapping methods were performed to determine the loci involved in germanium sensitivity in rice. Genetic mapping in the biparental cross of Bala × Azucena (an F6 population) and a genome wide association (GWA) study with 350 accessions from the Rice Diversity Panel 1 were conducted using 15 μM of germanic acid. This identified a number of germanium sensitive loci: some co-localised with previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tissue silicon or arsenic concentration, none co-localised with Lsi1 or Lsi6, while one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected within 200 kb of Lsi2 (these are genes known to transport silicon, whose identity was discovered using germanium toxicity). However, examining candidate genes that are within the genomic region of the loci detected above reveals genes homologous to both Lsi1 and Lsi2, as well as a number of other candidate genes, which are discussed.

  10. Multi-mycotoxin screening reveals separate occurrence of aflatoxins and ochratoxin a in Asian rice.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Wei; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Layne, Jeff; Chan, Sheot Harn

    2015-04-01

    The determination of important regulated mycotoxins in rice has been reported previously but not in the individual matrix of white, brown, red, and basmati rice with respect to the matrix effect, recovery, and stability. A total of 190 Asian rices were examined for regulated mycotoxin contamination by the LC-ESI-MS/MS method. Significant variation (p < 0.05) in the matrix effect was observed for fumonisins. Methanol improved the limits of detection (LOD) for HT-2 from 50 μg/kg to 2.3 μg/kg by promoting ionization efficiency of the ammonium-adduct. LOD and limits of quantitation ranged from 0.1 to 18 μg/kg and 0.2-31 μg/kg, respectively. All analytes degraded by more than 50% on storage, except fumonisins. Acetic acid (1%) provided significant improvement (p < 0.05) in recovery for all analytes in selected white rice from Thailand and China. Mean recovery ranged from 70 to 120%. RSD values were lower than 15% for all analytes. Five AFB1 and single OTA positive samples were detected. No correlation between mycotoxin contamination and rice species (r = 0) exists.

  11. Thomas Brown on the philosophy and psychology of perception.

    PubMed

    Mills, J A

    1987-01-01

    Thomas Brown's theory of perception is set in its philosophical context, and the influence of George Berkeley, David Hume, and Thomas Reid on Brown is discussed. Destutt de Tracy, who appears to have been an unacknowledged source for Brown's ideas, is also discussed. Brown's theory of perception is elaborated, and he is categorized both as a sense-datum theorist and as a phenomenalist.

  12. School Choice Discourse and the Legacy of "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    Fifty years after the "Brown" decision, and in the context of persistent racial and economic segregation and inequality in schooling, it is still important to examine "Brown"'s legacy. In this focus on school choice, the rhetoric and the ways in which the legacy of "Brown" has been emphatically invoked in charter school and voucher debates is…

  13. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis spores in Korean rice: prevalence and toxin production as affected by production area and degree of milling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Booyoung; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Kim, Yoonsook; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    We determined the prevalence of and toxin production by Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Korean rice as affected by production area and degree of milling. Rough rice was collected from 64 farms in 22 agricultural areas and polished to produce brown and white rice. In total, rice samples were broadly contaminated with B. cereus spores, with no effect of production area. The prevalence and counts of B. cereus spores declined as milling progressed. Frequencies of hemolysin BL (HBL) production by isolates were significantly (P ≤ 0.01) reduced as milling progressed. This pattern corresponded with the presence of genes encoding the diarrheal enterotoxins. The frequency of B. cereus isolates positive for hblC, hblD, or nheB genes decreased as milling progressed. Because most B. cereus isolates from rice samples contained six enterotoxin genes, we concluded that B. cereus in rice produced in Korea is predominantly of the diarrheagenic type. The prevalence of B. thuringiensis in rice was significantly lower than that of B. cereus and not correlated with production area. All B. thuringiensis isolates were of the diarrheagenic type. This study provides information useful for predicting safety risks associated with B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in rough and processed Korean rice.

  14. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  15. [Stress effects of imidacloprid on RSV in rice plants].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Fu, Hong-wei; Yang, Yi-zhong

    2014-12-01

    The rice stripe disease is a viral disease transmitted by small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, which outbroke a few years ago in the Yangtze River basin, especially Jiangsu region, China. To study the effects of imidacloprid stress on rice stripe virus (RSV) in rice plants, the rice seedlings were treated with imidacloprid 1, 2, 3 and 4 times (B1, B2, B3 and B4), respectively, after artificial inoculation by L. striatellus for 48 h, and the expression levels of relative genes including RSV NS3, CP, SP and NSvc4, as well as the protein concentrations of CP and SP were detected at different stages by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that the effects of imidacloprid treatment on the expression levels of four genes were gene-specific and correlated with application frequencies of imidacloprid. The expression levels of NS3 gene were upregulated in three treatments, and the highest expression level (10.86) was observed 16 days after inoculation in B4 treatment, but a significant down-regulation of NS3 gene was found in all other treatments. The expression levels of CP, SP and NSvc4 genes were down-regulated significantly (0-0.74) in almost all B2 and B3 treatments, while a significant up-regulation was found in half of B1 and B4 treatments, and the highest expression levels of SP gene were observed 16 days after inoculation in B1 (258.89) and B4 (730.54) treatment, respectively. On the other hand, the effects of imidacloprid stress on the expression patterns of CP and SP genes were different from those of CP and SP proteins. For example, the expression level of CP gene was almost no expression (0) 19 days after inoculation in B1 treatment, while significantly up-regulated (23.08) was observdd for CP protein. PMID:25876413

  16. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  17. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  18. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â...) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF... classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  19. Acquired Brown's syndrome: an unusual cause.

    PubMed

    Booth-Mason, S; Kyle, G M; Rossor, M; Bradbury, P

    1985-10-01

    A 62-year-old man with acquired Brown's syndrome is presented. This was due to an orbital metastatic deposit, a cause not previously reported. Other causes of this disorder and its treatment are discussed.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Study of Grain Appearance and Milling Quality in a Worldwide Collection of Indica Rice Germplasm.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianjin; Pang, Yunlong; Yuan, Zhihua; Xing, Danying; Xu, Jianlong; Dingkuhn, Michael; Li, Zhikang; Ye, Guoyou

    2015-01-01

    Grain appearance quality and milling quality are the main determinants of market value of rice. Breeding for improved grain quality is a major objective of rice breeding worldwide. Identification of genes/QTL controlling quality traits is the prerequisite for increasing breeding efficiency through marker-assisted selection. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study in indica rice to identify QTL associated with 10 appearance and milling quality related traits, including grain length, grain width, grain length to width ratio, grain thickness, thousand grain weight, degree of endosperm chalkiness, percentage of grains with chalkiness, brown rice rate, milled rice rate and head milled rice rate. A diversity panel consisting of 272 indica accessions collected worldwide was evaluated in four locations including Hangzhou, Jingzhou, Sanya and Shenzhen representing indica rice production environments in China and genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing and Diversity Arrays Technology based on next-generation sequencing technique called DArTseq™. A wide range of variation was observed for all traits in all environments. A total of 16 different association analysis models were compared to determine the best model for each trait-environment combination. Association mapping based on 18,824 high quality markers yielded 38 QTL for the 10 traits. Five of the detected QTL corresponded to known genes or fine mapped QTL. Among the 33 novel QTL identified, qDEC1.1 (qGLWR1.1), qBRR2.2 (qGL2.1), qTGW2.1 (qGL2.2), qGW11.1 (qMRR11.1) and qGL7.1 affected multiple traits with relatively large effects and/or were detected in multiple environments. The research provided an insight of the genetic architecture of rice grain quality and important information for mining genes/QTL with large effects within indica accessions for rice breeding. PMID:26714258

  1. Inorganic arsenic in rice bran and its products are an order of magnitude higher than in bulk grain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Carey, Anne-Marie; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Deacon, Claire; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Joerg; Islam, Rafiqul M; Meharg, Andrew A

    2008-10-01

    Rice is more elevated in arsenic than all other grain crops tested to date, with whole grain (brown) rice having higher arsenic levels than polished (white). It is reported here that rice bran, both commercially purchased and specifically milled for this study, have levels of inorganic arsenic, a nonthreshold, class 1 carcinogen, reaching concentrations of approximately 1 mg/kg dry weight, around 10-20 fold higher than concentrations found in bulk grain. Although pure rice bran is used as a health food supplement, perhaps of more concern is rice bran solubles, which are marketed as a superfood and as a supplement to malnourished children in international aid programs. Five rice bran solubles products were tested, sourced from the United States and Japan, and were found to have 0.61-1.9 mg/kg inorganic arsenic. Manufactures recommend approximately 20 g servings of the rice bran solubles per day, which equates to a 0.012-0.038 mg intake of inorganic arsenic. There are no maximum concentration levels (MCLs) set for arsenic or its species in food stuffs. EU and U.S. water regulations, set at 0.01 mg/L total or inorganic arsenic, respectively, are based on the assumption that 1 L of water per day is consumed, i.e., 0.01 mg of arsenic/ day. At the manufacturers recommended rice bran solubles consumption rate, inorganic arsenic intake exceeds 0.01 mg/ day, remembering that rice bran solubles are targeted at malnourished children and that actual risk is based on mg kg(-1) day(-1) intake.

  2. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  3. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production.

  4. How Long? Cosby, Brown and Racial Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2004-01-01

    Bill Cosby ruffled feathers, raised eyebrows and said a mouthful when, at a Howard University black-tie celebration of the 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education, he launched into a rift about "the lower economic people" not holding up their end of the bargain in the wake of Brown. "We can't blame White people," Cosby said, for an array…

  5. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter. 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions).

  6. What Brown saw and you can too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearle, Philip; Collett, Brian; Bart, Kenneth; Bilderback, David; Newman, Dara; Samuels, Scott

    2010-12-01

    A discussion of Robert Brown's original observations of particles ejected by pollen of the plant Clarkia pulchella undergoing what is now called Brownian motion is given. We consider the nature of those particles and how he misinterpreted the Airy disk of the smallest particles to be universal organic building blocks. Relevant qualitative and quantitative investigations with a modern microscope and with a "homemade" single lens microscope similar to Brown's are presented.

  7. Silencing COI1 in Rice Increases Susceptibility to Chewing Insects and Impairs Inducible Defense

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Mao; Luo, Shi Ming; Xie, Jie Fen; Li, Yan Fang; Xu, Tao; Liu, Yang; Song, Yuan Yuan; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonic acid (JA) pathway plays a key role in plant defense responses against herbivorous insects. CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) is an F-box protein essential for all jasmonate responses. However, the precise defense function of COI1 in monocotyledonous plants, especially in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is largely unknown. We silenced OsCOI1 in rice plants via RNA interference (RNAi) to determine the role of OsCOI1 in rice defense against rice leaf folder (LF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, a chewing insect, and brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, a phloem-feeding insect. In wild-type rice plants (WT), the transcripts of OsCOI1 were strongly and continuously up-regulated by LF infestation and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment, but not by BPH infestation. The abundance of trypsin protease inhibitor (TrypPI), and the enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were enhanced in response to both LF and BPH infestation, but the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) was only induced by LF. The RNAi lines with repressed expression of OsCOI1 showed reduced resistance against LF, but no change against BPH. Silencing OsCOI1 did not alter LF-induced LOX activity and JA content, but it led to a reduction in the TrypPI content, POD and PPO activity by 62.3%, 48.5% and 27.2%, respectively. In addition, MeJA-induced TrypPI and POD activity were reduced by 57.2% and 48.2% in OsCOI1 RNAi plants. These results suggest that OsCOI1 is an indispensable signaling component, controlling JA-regulated defense against chewing insect (LF) in rice plants, and COI1 is also required for induction of TrypPI, POD and PPO in rice defense response to LF infestation. PMID:22558386

  8. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and mobility from rice plants to Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ting-li; Liu, Shun; Tang, Qi-yi; Cheng, Jia-an

    2014-06-01

    Samples of soils, rice plants, and the adult, long-winged, brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), were collected from 18 sites of 9 regions in southern China. The concentrations of seven elements (Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, and Pb) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Heavy metal mobility and bioaccumulation were analyzed in the rice plant-N. lugens system. The concentrations of Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in rice plants were positively correlated with their relevant concentrations in soil samples The bioconcentration factors of the seven elements in the rice plant-N. lugens system showed that the order of metal accumulation was Mo>Zn>Ag>Cd>Cu>Pb>As. In particular, Mo and Zn showed significantly high accumulation in N. lugens. A cluster analysis and factor analysis showed that the bioaccumulation of these seven elements in the rice plant-N. lugens system could be classified into two groups, closely related to their molar mass. The first group consisted of five elements with relatively light molar masses: Cu, Zn, As, Mo, and Ag. Cu and Zn, which have nearly equal molar masses, showed similar accumulation levels in N. lugens. The second group included two elements with relatively heavy molar masses: Cd and Pb. This study demonstrated that bioaccumulation of seven heavy metals was regular in the rice plant-N. lugens system. N. lugens could be used as bioindicators of the contaminated degree for Zn in rice paddy fields. This information may provide a basis for future ecological research on the bioaccumulation mechanism in N. lugens. PMID:24735989

  9. Suppression of NS3 and MP Is Important for the Stable Inheritance of RNAi-Mediated Rice Stripe Virus (RSV) Resistance Obtained by Targeting the Fully Complementary RSV-CP Gene

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyang-Mi; Choi, Man-Soo; Kwak, Do-Yeon; Lee, Bong-Choon; Lee, Jong-Hee; Kim, Myeong-Ki; Kim, Yeon-Gyu; Shin, Dong-Bum; Park, Soon-Ki; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) is a viral disease that seriously impacts rice production in East Asia, most notably in Korea, China, and Japan. Highly RSV-resistant transgenic japonica rice plants were generated using a dsRNAi construct designed to silence the entire sequence region of the RSV-CP gene. Transgenic rice plants were inoculated with a population of viruliferous insects, small brown planthoppers (SBPH), and their resistance was evaluated using ELISA and an infection rate assay. A correlation between the expression of the RSV-CP homologous small RNAs and the RSV resistance of the transgenic rice lines was discovered. These plants were also analyzed by comparing the expression pattern of invading viral genes, small RNA production and the stable transmission of the RSV resistance trait to the T3 generation. Furthermore, the agronomic trait was stably transmitted to the T4 generation of transgenic plants. PMID:22134721

  10. RADIAL VELOCITY VARIABILITY OF FIELD BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, L.; Mace, G. N.; Rice, E. L.; McLean, I. S.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Burgasser, A. J.; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2015-07-20

    We present paper six of the NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey, an analysis of multi-epoch, high-resolution (R ∼ 20,000) spectra of 25 field dwarf systems (3 late-type M dwarfs, 16 L dwarfs, and 6 T dwarfs) taken with the NIRSPEC infrared spectrograph at the W. M. Keck Observatory. With a radial velocity (RV) precision of ∼2 km s{sup −1}, we are sensitive to brown dwarf companions in orbits with periods of a few years or less given a mass ratio of 0.5 or greater. We do not detect any spectroscopic binary brown dwarfs in the sample. Given our target properties, and the frequency and cadence of observations, we use a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the detection probability of our sample. Even with a null detection result, our 1σ upper limit for very low mass binary frequency is 18%. Our targets included seven known, wide brown dwarf binary systems. No significant RV variability was measured in our multi-epoch observations of these systems, even for those pairs for which our data spanned a significant fraction of the orbital period. Specialized techniques are required to reach the high precisions sensitive to motion in orbits of very low-mass systems. For eight objects, including six T dwarfs, we present the first published high-resolution spectra, many with high signal to noise, that will provide valuable comparison data for models of brown dwarf atmospheres.

  11. Discovery of a cool brown dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, T.; Oppenheimer, B. R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Golimowski, D. A.; Matthews, K.; Durrance, S. T.

    1995-11-01

    BROWN dwarfs are starlike objects with masses less than 0.08 times that of the Sun, which are unable to sustain hydrogen fusion in their interiors1-4. They are very hard to detect, as most of the energy of gravitational contraction is radiated away within ~108 yr, leaving only a very low residual luminosity. Accordingly, almost all searches for brown dwarfs have been directed towards clusters of young stars-a strategy that has recently proved successful5,6. But there are only modest observable differences between young brown dwarfs and very lowmass stars, making it difficult to identify the former without appealing to sophisticated models7. Older brown dwarfs should have a more distinctive appearance, and if they are companions to nearby stars, their luminosity can be determined unambiguously. Here we report the discovery of a probable companion to the nearby star G1229, with no more than onetenth the luminosity of the least luminous hydro-gen-burning star. We conclude that the companion, G1229B, is a brown dwarf with a temperature of less than 1,200 K, and a mass ~20-50 times that of Jupiter.

  12. MICROLENSING BINARIES WITH CANDIDATE BROWN DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, I.-G.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Skowron, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Poleski, R.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Kozlowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Sumi, T.; Dominik, M.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Tsapras, Y.; Bozza, V.; Abe, F.; Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; muFUN Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    Brown dwarfs are important objects because they may provide a missing link between stars and planets, two populations that have dramatically different formation histories. In this paper, we present the candidate binaries with brown dwarf companions that are found by analyzing binary microlensing events discovered during the 2004-2011 observation seasons. Based on the low mass ratio criterion of q < 0.2, we found seven candidate events: OGLE-2004-BLG-035, OGLE-2004-BLG-039, OGLE-2007-BLG-006, OGLE-2007-BLG-399/MOA-2007-BLG-334, MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172, MOA-2011-BLG-149, and MOA-201-BLG-278/OGLE-2011-BLG-012N. Among them, we are able to confirm that the companions of the lenses of MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149 are brown dwarfs by determining the mass of the lens based on the simultaneous measurement of the Einstein radius and the lens parallax. The measured masses of the brown dwarf companions are 0.02 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} and 0.019 {+-} 0.002 M {sub Sun} for MOA-2011-BLG-104/OGLE-2011-BLG-0172 and MOA-2011-BLG-149, respectively, and both companions are orbiting low-mass M dwarf host stars. More microlensing brown dwarfs are expected to be detected as the number of lensing events with well-covered light curves increases with new-generation searches.

  13. Brown adipose tissue and its therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Lidell, M E; Betz, M J; Enerbäck, S

    2014-10-01

    Obesity and related diseases are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality and constitute a substantial economic burden for society. Effective treatment regimens are scarce, and new therapeutic targets are needed. Brown adipose tissue, an energy-expending tissue that produces heat, represents a potential therapeutic target. Its presence is associated with low body mass index, low total adipose tissue content and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Knowledge about the development and function of thermogenic adipocytes in brown adipose tissue has increased substantially in the last decade. Important transcriptional regulators have been identified, and hormones able to modulate the thermogenic capacity of the tissue have been recognized. Intriguingly, it is now clear that humans, like rodents, possess two types of thermogenic adipocytes: the classical brown adipocytes found in the interscapular brown adipose organ and the so-called beige adipocytes primarily found in subcutaneous white adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation. The presence of two distinct types of energy-expending adipocytes in humans is conceptually important because these cells might be stimulated and recruited by different signals, raising the possibility that they might be separate potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this review, we will discuss important features of the energy-expending brown adipose tissue and highlight those that may serve as potential targets for pharmacological intervention aimed at expanding the tissue and/or enhancing its function to counteract obesity.

  14. Brown adipose tissue growth and development.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is uniquely able to rapidly produce large amounts of heat through activation of uncoupling protein (UCP) 1. Maximally stimulated brown fat can produce 300 watts/kg of heat compared to 1 watt/kg in all other tissues. UCP1 is only present in small amounts in the fetus and in precocious mammals, such as sheep and humans; it is rapidly activated around the time of birth following the substantial rise in endocrine stimulatory factors. Brown adipose tissue is then lost and/or replaced with white adipose tissue with age but may still contain small depots of beige adipocytes that have the potential to be reactivated. In humans brown adipose tissue is retained into adulthood, retains the capacity to have a significant role in energy balance, and is currently a primary target organ in obesity prevention strategies. Thermogenesis in brown fat humans is environmentally regulated and can be stimulated by cold exposure and diet, responses that may be further modulated by photoperiod. Increased understanding of the primary factors that regulate both the appearance and the disappearance of UCP1 in early life may therefore enable sustainable strategies in order to prevent excess white adipose tissue deposition through the life cycle.

  15. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    PubMed

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain. PMID:27109244

  16. Accumulation of (137)Cs by rice grown in four types of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Takeshi; Saitou, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasukazu; Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ueda, Yoshikatsu

    2015-02-01

    The ability to predict radiocesium transfer from soil to agricultural products is necessary for assessing management options in a radiocesium contaminated area. In this study, we evaluated the differences in transfer factors among soil samples and the differences in transfer factors between the first and the second years of contamination in rice. We employed pot experiments using four types of soils that are representative of the agricultural soils present in the Fukushima Prefecture contaminated by (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant after the March 2011 accident. The experiments were conducted during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons. The geometric mean of transfer factors for brown rice and inedible rice part was 0.011 and 0.031, respectively, in 2011 and 0.0061 and 0.020, respectively, in 2012. The average decreasing rate of the transfer factor was 40% and 30% in brown rice and inedible rice part, respectively, from 2011 to 2012, presumably owing to the irreversible sorption of (137)Cs to clay minerals.

  17. Bt Rice Expressing Cry2Aa Does Not Harm Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, a Main Predator of the Nontarget Herbivore Nilapavarta lugens

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu; Meng, Jiarong; Chen, Jie; Cai, Wanlun; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Jing; He, Yueping; Feng, Yanni; Hua, Hongxia

    2014-01-01

    T2A-1 is a newly developed transgenic rice that expresses a synthesized cry2Aa gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. T2A-1 exhibits high resistance against lepidopteran pests of rice. The brown planthopper, Nilapavarta lugens (Stål), is a main nontarget sap-sucking insect pest of rice, and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter) is the major predator of the eggs and young nymphs of planthoppers. As C. lividipennis may expose to the Cry2Aa protein via N. lugens, it is therefore essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on this predator. In the present study, three experiments were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of transgenic cry2Aa rice to C. lividipennis: (1) a direct feeding experiment in which C. lividipennis was fed an artificial diet containing Cry2Aa at the dose of 10-time higher than that it may encounter in the realistic field condition; (2) a tritrophic experiment in which the Cry2Aa protein was delivered to C. lividipennis indirectly through prey eggs or nymphs; (3) a realistic field experiment in which the population dynamics of C. lividipennis were investigated using vacuum-suction. Both direct exposure to elevated doses of the Cry2Aa protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein did not result in significant detrimental effects on the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of C. lividipennis. No significant differences in population density and population dynamics were observed between C. lividipennis in transgenic cry2Aa and nontransgenic rice fields. It may be concluded that transgenic cry2Aa rice had no detrimental effects on C. lividipennis. This study represents the first report of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry2Aa rice on C. lividipennis. PMID:25375147

  18. Rice scene radiation research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heilman, J.

    1982-01-01

    Data requirements, tasks to be accomplished, and the technical approaches to be used in identifying the characteristics of rice for crop inventories are listed as well as methods for estimating crop development and assessing its conditions.

  19. Rice Reoviruses in Insect Vectors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Taiyun; Li, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Rice reoviruses, transmitted by leafhopper or planthopper vectors in a persistent propagative manner, seriously threaten the stability of rice production in Asia. Understanding the mechanisms that enable viral transmission by insect vectors is a key to controlling these viral diseases. This review describes current understanding of replication cycles of rice reoviruses in vector cell lines, transmission barriers, and molecular determinants of vector competence and persistent infection. Despite recent breakthroughs, such as the discoveries of actin-based tubule motility exploited by viruses to overcome transmission barriers and mutually beneficial relationships between viruses and bacterial symbionts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of transmission mechanisms. Advances in genome sequencing, reverse genetics systems, and molecular technologies will help to address these problems. Investigating the multiple interaction systems among the virus, insect vector, insect symbiont, and plant during natural infection in the field is a central topic for future research on rice reoviruses. PMID:27296147

  20. Differentiation of weedy traits in ALS-resistant red rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a weedy form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) that competes aggressively with rice in the southern U.S., reduces yields and contaminates rice grains. The introduction of ClearfieldTM rice, a nontransgenic, herbicide-resistant rice cultivar a decade ago has led to increased use of imazet...

  1. GROWTH OF GRAINS IN BROWN DWARF DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Meru, Farzana; Galvagni, Marina; Olczak, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    We perform coagulation and fragmentation simulations using the new physically motivated model by Garaud et al. to determine growth locally in brown dwarf disks. We show that large grains can grow and that if brown dwarf disks are scaled-down versions of T Tauri disks (in terms of stellar mass, disk mass, and disk radius) growth at an equivalent location with respect to the disk truncation radius can occur to the same size in both disks. We show that similar growth occurs because the collisional timescales in the two disks are comparable. Our model may therefore potentially explain the recent observations of grain growth to millimeter sizes in brown dwarf disks, as seen in T Tauri disks.

  2. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Kripnerová, Michaela; Dvorakova, Jana; Pitule, Pavel; Grundmanova, Martina; Babuska, Vaclav; Mullerova, Dana; Kuncova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT), the brown (BAT), and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT) adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes. PMID:27073398

  3. Mitochondria in White, Brown, and Beige Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cedikova, Miroslava; Kripnerová, Michaela; Dvorakova, Jana; Pitule, Pavel; Grundmanova, Martina; Babuska, Vaclav; Mullerova, Dana; Kuncova, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in energy metabolism in many tissues, including cardiac and skeletal muscle, brain, liver, and adipose tissue. Three types of adipose depots can be identified in mammals, commonly classified according to their colour appearance: the white (WAT), the brown (BAT), and the beige/brite/brown-like (bAT) adipose tissues. WAT is mainly involved in the storage and mobilization of energy and BAT is predominantly responsible for nonshivering thermogenesis. Recent data suggest that adipocyte mitochondria might play an important role in the development of obesity through defects in mitochondrial lipogenesis and lipolysis, regulation of adipocyte differentiation, apoptosis, production of oxygen radicals, efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation, and regulation of conversion of white adipocytes into brown-like adipocytes. This review summarizes the main characteristics of each adipose tissue subtype and describes morphological and functional modifications focusing on mitochondria and their activity in healthy and unhealthy adipocytes. PMID:27073398

  4. Brown adipogenesis of mouse embryonic stem cells in alginate microstrands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unser, Andrea Mannarino

    The ability of brown adipocytes (fat cells) to dissipate energy as heat shows great promise for the treatment of obesity and other metabolic disorders. Employing pluripotent stem cells, with an emphasis on directed differentiation, may overcome many issues currently associated with primary fat cell cultures. However, brown adipocytes are difficult to transplant in vivo due to the instability of fat, in terms of necrosis and neovascularization, once injected. Thus, 3D cell culture systems that have the potential to mimic adipogenic microenvironments are needed, not only to advance brown fat implantation, but also to better understand the role of brown adipocytes in treating obesity. To address this need, we created 3D "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" by microfluidic synthesis of alginate hydrogel microstrands that encapsulated cells and directly induced cell differentiation into brown adipocytes, using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as a model of pluripotent stem cells and brown preadipocytes as a positive control. The effect of hydrogel formation parameters on brown adipogenesis was studied, leading to the establishment of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands". Brown adipocyte differentiation within microstrands was confirmed by lipid droplet accumulation, immunocytochemistry and qPCR analysis of gene expression of brown adipocyte marker uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in addition to adipocyte marker expression. Compared to a 2D approach, 3D differentiated "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" exhibited higher level of brown adipocyte marker expression. The functional analysis of "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" was attempted by measuring the mitochondrial activity of ESC-differentiated brown adipocytes in 3D using Seahorse XF24 3 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. The ability to create "Brown-Fat-in-Microstrands" from pluripotent stem cells opens up a new arena to understanding brown adipogenesis and its implications in obesity and metabolic disorders.

  5. Expansins in deepwater rice internodes

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Kende, H.

    1997-04-01

    Cell walls of deepwater rice internodes undergo long-term extension (creep) when placed under tension in acidic buffers. This is indicative of the action of the cell wall-loosening protein expansion. Wall extension had a pH optimum of around 4.0 and was abolished by boiling. Acid-induced extension of boiled cell walls could be reconstituted by addition of salt-extracted rice or cucumber cell wall proteins. Cucumber expansion antibody recognized a single protein band of 24.5-kD apparent molecular mass on immunoblots of rice cell wall proteins. Expansions were partially purified by concanavalin A affinity chromatography and sulfopropyl (SP) cation-exchange chromatography. The latter yielded two peaks with extension activity (SP20 and SP29), and immunoblot analysis showed that both of these active fractions contained expansion of 24.5-kD molecular mass. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SP20 expansion is identical to that deduced from the rice expansion cDNA Os-EXP1. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SP29 expansion matches that deduced from the rice expansion cDNA Os-EXP2 in six of eight amino acids. Our results show that two expansions occur in the cell walls of rice internodes and that they may mediate acid-induced wall extension.

  6. Facilitation of Rice Stripe Virus Accumulation in the Insect Vector by Himetobi P Virus VP1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuo; Ge, Shangshu; Wang, Xi; Sun, Lijuan; Liu, Zewen; Zhou, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    The small brown planthopper (SBPH) is the main vector for rice stripe virus (RSV), which causes serious rice stripe disease in East Asia. To characterize the virus-vector interactions, the SBPH cDNA library was screened with RSV ribonucleoprotein (RNP) as bait using a GAL4-based yeast two-hybrid system. The interaction between RSV-RNP and the Himetobi P virus (HiPV, an insect picorna-like virus) VP1 protein was identified. The relationships between HiPV and RSV in SBPH were further investigated, and the results showed that the titer of RSV was commonly higher in single insect that exhibited more VP1 expression. After the VP1 gene was repressed by RNA silencing, the accumulation of RSV decreased significantly in the insect, whereas the virus acquisition ability of SBPH was unaffected, which suggests that HiPV VP1 potentially facilitates the accumulation of RSV in SBPH. PMID:25807055

  7. Effects of water management on arsenic and cadmium speciation and accumulation in an upland rice cultivar.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Shen, Libo; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pot and field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water regimes on the speciation and accumulation of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Brazilian upland rice growing in soils polluted with both As and Cd. In the pot experiment constant and intermittent flooding treatments gave 3-16 times higher As concentrations in soil solution than did aerobic conditions but Cd showed the opposite trend. Compared to arsenate, there were more marked changes in the arsenite concentrations in the soil solution as water management shifted, and therefore arsenite concentrations dominated the As speciation and bioavailability in the soil. In the field experiment As concentrations in the rice grains increased from 0.14 to 0.21 mg/kg while Cd concentrations decreased from 0.21 to 0.02 mg/kg with increasing irrigation ranging from aerobic to constantly flooding conditions. Among the various water regimes the conventional irrigation treatment produced the highest rice grain yield of 6.29 tons/ha. The As speciation analysis reveals that the accumulation of dimethylarsinic acid (from 11.3% to 61.7%) made a greater contribution to the increase in total As in brown rice in the intermittent and constant flooding treatments compared to the intermittent-aerobic treatment. Thus, water management exerted opposite effects on Cd and As speciation and bioavailability in the soil and consequently on their accumulation in the upland rice. Special care is required when irrigation regime methods are employed to mitigate the accumulation of metal(loid)s in the grain of rice grown in soils polluted with both As and Cd. PMID:25597681

  8. Brown adipose tissue, thermogenesis, angiogenesis: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Honek, Jennifer; Lim, Sharon; Fischer, Carina; Iwamoto, Hideki; Seki, Takahiro; Cao, Yihai

    2014-07-01

    The number of obese and overweight individuals is globally rising, and obesity-associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are among the most common causes of death. While white adipose tissue is the key player in the storage of energy, active brown adipose tissue expends energy due to its thermogenic capacity. Expanding and activating brown adipose tissue using pharmacological approaches therefore might offer an attractive possibility for therapeutic intervention to counteract obesity and its consequences for metabolic health.

  9. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to begained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his wirt around this globe of ours. There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountain? Why 35 years ago why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we attend to win, and the others , too.'

  10. Kennedy at Rice University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    President Kennedy speaks before a crowd of 35,000 people at Rice University in the football field. The following are excerpts from his speech. ' ...We set sail on his new sea because there is a new knowledge to be gained, and new rights to be won, and they must be won and used for the progress of all people. ...Whether it will become a force for good or ill depends on man, and only if the United States occupies a position of pre-eminence can we help decide whether this new ocean will be a sea of peace or a new terrifying theater of war. But I do say space can be explored and mastered without feeding the fires of war, without repeating the mistakes that man has made with extending his writ around this globe of ours. ...There is no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation may never come again. But why, some say the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask, why climb the highest mountian? Why - 35 years ago - why fly the Atlantic? Why does Rice play Texas? We choose to go to the Moon, we choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one in which we intend to win, and the others too.'

  11. Outcrossing potential between U.S. red rice (Oryza sativa) and Chinese indica rice (Oryza sativa) lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice in southern U.S. rice fields remains a widespread, economically challenging problem despite nearly a decade of rice production systems that include true-breeding rice cultivars and indica-derived hybrid rice with resistance to imazethapyr. Both of these herbicide-resistant rice systems hav...

  12. Genetic analysis of atypical U.S. red rice phenotypes: indications of prior gene flow in rice fields?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red rice is a troublesome weed problem in rice fields of the southern U.S. Outcrossing between rice and red rice occurs at low rates, resulting in a broad array of plant types. SSR markers were used to evaluate the genetic backgrounds of atypical red rice types obtained from rice farms in comparis...

  13. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200mg/L), Zn (1800mg/L) and Pb (1200mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains+3mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd accumulation in

  14. Characterization of cadmium-resistant bacteria and their potential for reducing accumulation of cadmium in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyan; Mou, Renxiang; Cao, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ping; Wu, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Chen, Mingxue

    2016-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a serious widespread environmental problem that not only destroys the microbial ecology of soil and decreases crop production, but also poses a serious risk to human health. Many methods have been used for the remediation of Cd pollution but none of these is totally satisfactory. Microbial remediation strategies have attracted increasing interest since they are environmentally friendly and cost-effective. In the present study, three Cd-resistant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for potential application in Cd bioremediation. Based on their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, together with 16S rDNA gene sequence analyses, bacteria were identified as Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila (2#), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9#) and Delftia tsuruhatensis (12#). Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed very high tolerance to metals, especially Cd (2200mg/L), Zn (1800mg/L) and Pb (1200mg/L), and is thought to be a multi-metal-resistant bacterium. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also sensitive to 13 different antibiotics. The effects of the bacterial strains on the growth of rice plants and their ability to reduce Cd accumulation from Cd-contaminated soils in pot experiments were also evaluated. For Oryza sativa L. A grown in contaminated soil (3mg/kg Cd), the accumulation of Cd was decreased by 31.2 and 25.5% in brown rice and polished rice, respectively, by strain 9#; Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more effective in reducing Cd accumulation in rice grains than a mixture of strains. For Oryza sativa L. B, a mixture of strains acting synergistically was more effective than a single strain in reducing Cd accumulation; treatment with mixed strains (strains+3mg/kg Cd) resulted in 41.3, 35.9, and 32.6% reductions in Cd accumulation in unhulled rice, brown rice and polished rice, respectively. Although different results were obtained for two rice varieties, it can still be concluded that Cd-resistant bacteria are suitable for reducing Cd accumulation in

  15. Self-enhancement of GABA in rice bran using various stress treatments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Jung; Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2015-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may be synthesized in plant tissues when the organism is under stressful conditions. Rice bran byproduct obtained from the milling of brown rice was treated under anaerobic storage with nitrogen at different temperatures (20-60 °C) and moisture contents (10-50%) up to 12h. For the GABA synthesis, the storage at 30% moisture content and 40 °C appeared optimal. Utilisation of an electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW, pH 3.3) for moisture adjustment and addition of glutamic acid increased the GABA content in rice bran. The maximum GABA content in rice bran (523 mg/100g) could be achieved by the anaerobic storage at 30% EOW for 5h at 40 °C after an addition of glutamic acid (5mM). This amount was approximately 17 times higher than that in the control (30 mg/100g). The use of EOW also prevented bacterial growth by decreasing the colony counts almost by half.

  16. Antidiabetic Potential of Purple and Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Bran Extracts.

    PubMed

    Boue, Stephen M; Daigle, Kim W; Chen, Ming-Hsuan; Cao, Heping; Heiman, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    Pigmented rice contains anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins that are concentrated in the bran layer. In this study, we determined the phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin content of five rice bran (1 brown, 2 red, and 2 purple) extracts. Each bran extract was evaluated for inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. All purple and red bran extracts inhibited α-glucosidase activity, however only the red rice bran extracts inhibited α-amylase activity. Additionally, each bran extract was examined for their ability to stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a key function in glucose homeostasis. Basal glucose uptake was increased between 2.3- and 2.7-fold by exposure to the red bran extracts, and between 1.9- and 3.1-fold by exposure to the purple bran extracts. In red rice bran, the highest enzyme inhibition and glucose uptake was observed with a proanthocyanidin-enriched fraction. Both IITA red bran and IAC purple bran increased expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 mRNA, and genes encoding insulin-signaling pathway proteins.

  17. Influence of the nonexchangeable potassium of mica on radiocesium uptake by paddy rice.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Tetsuya; Ohta, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Matsunami, Hisaya; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Katashi; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shinano, Takuro

    2015-09-01

    A pot cultivation experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of the nonexchangeable potassium (K) of mica on radiocesium ((137)Cs) uptake by paddy rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Koshihikari), and to evaluate the potential of mica application as a countermeasure to reduce radiocesium transfer from soil to paddy rice. The increase in the exchangeable K concentrations of soils, measured before planting, due to mica (muscovite, biotite, and phlogopite) application was negligible. However, in trioctahedral mica (biotite and phlogopite)-treated soil, the release of nonexchangeable K from the mica interlayer maintained the soil-solution K at a higher level during the growing season in comparison to the control, and consequently decreased the (137)Cs transfer factor for brown rice (TF). The sodium tetraphenylboron (TPB)-extractable K concentration of the soils, measured before planting, was strongly negatively correlated with the TF, whereas the exchangeable K concentration of the soils, also measured before planting, was not correlated with the TF. Therefore, we conclude that TPB-extractable K is more reliable than exchangeable K as a basis of fertilizer recommendations for radiocesium-contaminated paddy fields. Phlogopite-treated soils exhibited higher TPB-extractable K concentrations and lower TF values than biotite-treated soils. We thus conclude that phlogopite application is an effective countermeasure to reduce radiocesium uptake in paddy rice.

  18. DDE in brown and white fat of hibernating bats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R.; Krynitsky, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Samples of brown and white fat from hibernating bats (big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus; little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; and eastern pipistrelle, Pipistrellus subflavus) collected in western Maryland, USA, were analysed to determine lipid and DDE content. Amounts of brown fat, expressed as percentages of total bat weight, were the same for all three species. Lipid content of brown fat was significantly less than that of white fat. Lipids of brown fat contained significantly higher (28%) concentrations of DDE than did lipids of white fat. In our mixed-species sample of 14 bats, concentrations of DDE increased exponentially in both brown and white fat as white fat reserves declined. Brown fat facilitates arousal from hibernation by producing heat through rapid metabolism of triglycerides. The question is raised whether organochlorine residues, such as DDE, may be concentrated and then liberated in lethal amounts by the processes of hibernation and arousal.

  19. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  20. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF BROWN DUCK LAKE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Brown Duck Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 4.4 miles North of Miners Gulch Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  1. Use of Brown Algae to Demonstrate Natural Products Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lee A.

    1985-01-01

    Background information is provided on the natural products found in marine organisms in general and the brown algae in particular. Also provided are the procedures needed to isolate D-mannitol (a primary metabolite) and cholesterol from brown algae. (JN)

  2. Natural rice rhizospheric microbes suppress rice blast infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The natural interactions between plant roots and their rhizospheric microbiome are vital to plant fitness, modulating both growth promotion and disease suppression. In rice (Oryza sativa), a globally important food crop, as much as 30% of yields are lost due to blast disease caused by fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Capitalizing on the abilities of naturally occurring rice soil bacteria to reduce M. oryzae infections could provide a sustainable solution to reduce the amount of crops lost to blast disease. Results Naturally occurring root-associated rhizospheric bacteria were isolated from California field grown rice plants (M-104), eleven of which were taxonomically identified by16S rRNA gene sequencing and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. Bacterial isolates were tested for biocontrol activity against the devastating foliar rice fungal pathogen, M. oryzae pathovar 70–15. In vitro, a Pseudomonas isolate, EA105, displayed antibiosis through reducing appressoria formation by nearly 90% as well as directly inhibiting fungal growth by 76%. Although hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a volatile commonly produced by biocontrol pseudomonads, the activity of EA105 seems to be independent of its HCN production. During in planta experiments, EA105 reduced the number of blast lesions formed by 33% and Pantoea agglomerans isolate, EA106 by 46%. Our data also show both EA105 and EA106 trigger jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) dependent induced systemic resistance (ISR) response in rice. Conclusions Out of 11 bacteria isolated from rice soil, pseudomonad EA105 most effectively inhibited the growth and appressoria formation of M. oryzae through a mechanism that is independent of cyanide production. In addition to direct antagonism, EA105 also appears to trigger ISR in rice plants through a mechanism that is dependent on JA and ET signaling, ultimately resulting in fewer blast lesions. The application of native bacteria as biocontrol agents in combination with

  3. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  4. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. PMID:26773513

  5. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    PubMed

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world's population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one "rice-fish system" (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers' net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability. PMID:27349875

  6. Inhibition of enzymatic browning in foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    McEvily, A J; Iyengar, R; Otwell, W S

    1992-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major factor contributing to quality loss in foods and beverages. Sulfiting agents are used commonly to control browning; however, several negative attributes associated with sulfites have created the need for functional alternatives. Recent advances in the development of nonsulfite inhibitors of enzymatic browning are reviewed. The review focuses on compositions that are of practical relevance to food use.

  7. Brown's Legacy: The Promises and Pitfalls of Judicial Relief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Deborah Jones

    2005-01-01

    "Brown v. Board of Education" (1954) is one of the greatest achievements of the American judicial system. It decisively declared racial segregation in the schools unconstitutional, inaugurating the modern civil rights era. In addition to advancing equality, "Brown" initiated a new type of judicial decision making. After "Brown," courts…

  8. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10532 - Tar, brown coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tar, brown coal. 721.10532 Section 721... Tar, brown coal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tar, brown coal (PMN P-12-167, CAS No. 101316-83-0) is subject...

  10. 49 CFR 173.216 - Asbestos, blue, brown or white.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Asbestos, blue, brown or white. 173.216 Section... Class 7 § 173.216 Asbestos, blue, brown or white. (a) Asbestos, blue, brown or white, includes each of the following hydrated mineral silicates: chrysolite, crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite...

  11. Suppressive effects of magnesium oxide materials on cadmium uptake and accumulation into rice grains II: Suppression of cadmium uptake and accumulation into rice grains due to application of magnesium oxide materials.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Okazaki, Masanori; Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Motobayashi, Takashi; Baasansuren, Jamsranjav; Hattori, Takayuki; Abe, Toshio

    2008-06-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the applicability of a commercial magnesium oxide (MgO) and a composite material containing MgO and natural minerals ('MgO-SH-A') as the soil amendments for suppression of cadmium (Cd) uptake and accumulation into rice grains. A cultivation experiment of rice plants (Oryza sativa L. cv. Kinuhikari) was conducted in an actual Cd-contaminated alluvial paddy field to evaluate the effectiveness of these materials. The 'plant available' fractions of Cd in the paddy soil significantly decreased by application of commercial MgO at 2250 kg ha(-1) or MgO-SH-A at 4500 kg ha(-1). These decreases would be primarily attributed to the increase in soil pH due to applications of the MgO materials because these soil Cd fractions were significantly negatively correlated with the soil pH. Even under a suppressive condition for Cd uptake by rice plants, i.e., continuous flooding of the paddy field around the heading stage, applications of these materials further reduced Cd concentration in brown rice as compared to that from the control. It was concluded that the two MgO materials examined would be effective in preventing Cd contamination of rice grains grown in Cd-polluted paddy fields. PMID:18054161

  12. Marilyn Levine: "Brown Boots, Leather Laces."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ray

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which uses Marilyn Levine's "Brown Boots, Leather Laces" to introduce students in grades 10-12 to naturalistic representation and the "trompe l'oeil" artistic tradition. Discusses Levine's background. Includes instructional strategies and student objectives, as well as a photograph of the artwork. (GEA)

  13. "Brown v. Board": With All Deliberate Speed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Monica

    2006-01-01

    This chapter argues that a detailed, grounded understanding of classroom literacy practices as well as of learners' writing is crucial to begin to change the ongoing and patently unequal educational outcomes that schools often produce. It is impossible to intervene realistically and effectively in an evidential vacuum. The 1955 "Brown v. Board of…

  14. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindiola, Tatcho Jr.; Niemann, Yolanda Flores; Rodriguez, Nestor

    This book analyzes how African and Hispanic Americans perceive and interact with one another, highlighting black-brown relations in Houston, Texas, one of the largest cities with a majority ethnic population and one in which Hispanic Americans outnumber African Americans. Using results from several sociological studies, the book examines: how each…

  15. Molecular Selectivity of Brown Carbon Chromophores

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey; Roach, Patrick J.; Eckert, Peter A.; Gilles, Mary K.; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and micro-spectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene (LSOA) and a-pinene (PSOA). Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas were detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl- imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the a-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores.

  16. Browns in Anger: The Overlooked Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara-Braud, Jorge

    This speech advocates that Mexican-Americans must undergo a process of radicalization to attempt to transfer anger from deeds to words. This minority is losing faith in speech as a means of redress, but corrective measures should come through dialogue and not collision. Few Mixican Americans designated themselves "browns" a year ago--but it is now…

  17. Fucoidans — sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usov, Anatolii I.; Bilan, M. I.

    2009-08-01

    The methods of isolation of fucoidans and determination of their chemical structures are reviewed. The fucoidans represent sulfated polysaccharides of brown algae, the composition of which varies from simple fucan sulfates to complex heteropolysaccharides. The currently known structures of such biopolymers are presented. A variety of the biological activities of fucoidans is briefly summarised.

  18. Reading Second. Brown Letters on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover

    2009-01-01

    Former President George W. Bush finished his tenure without having won congressional renewal of his No Child Left Behind (NCLB) policy. With President Barack Obama now at the helm, NCLB is up for debate. Brown Center Director Grover "Russ" Whitehurst examines Reading First, a key component of NCLB, that aims to ensure that all children learn to…

  19. Do You Mean Us, Mr Brown?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    This summer Chris Wardley, Chair of Access to Community Education (ACE), a small charity run by and for disabled people in Torbay, wrote to Gordon Brown. She asked him whether his mission to "fulfil the potential and realise the talents of all people" was based solely on economic goals or whether everyone, including disabled people, would be…

  20. Nixon's "Southern Strategy" and Forces against Brown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Richard M. Nixon, the United States President in 1968 gave birth to the modern reform movement through public vouchers and other educational reform measures under his "Southern Strategy" that was designed to gain the votes of individuals who oppose school desegregation. The political activities in school desegregation after Brown by the two major…

  1. "Brown" and the Failure of Civic Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennimore, Beatrice S.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I use perspective gained from 18 years of experience as an urban public school parent between 1978 and 1996 to provide insights into "Brown" at 50. Through description of two public conflicts over special choice programs in the school districts where my family and I lived during those years, I analyze the emergent issues of…

  2. Doppler Imaging of Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossfield, I.; Biller, B.; Schlieder, J.; Deacon, N.; Bonnefoy, M.; Homeier, D.; Allard, F.; Buenzli, E.; Henning, T.; Brandner, W.; Goldman, Bertr; Kopytova, T.

    2014-03-01

    Doppler Imaging produces 2D global maps. When applied to cool planets or more massive brown dwarfs, it can map atmospheric features and track global weather patterns. The first substellar map, of the 2pc-distant brown dwarf Luhman 16B (Crossfeld et al. 2014), revealed patchy regions of thin & thick clouds. Here, I investigate the feasibility of future Doppler Imaging of additional objects. Searching the literature, I find that all 3 of P, v sin i, and variability are published for 22 brown dwarfs. At least one datum exists for 333 targets. The sample is very incomplete below ~L5; we need more surveys to find the best targets for Doppler Imaging! I estimate limiting magnitudes for Doppler Imaging with various hi-resolution near-infrared spectrographs. Only a handful of objects - at the M/L and L/T transitions - can be mapped with current tools. Large telescopes such as TMT and GMT will allow Doppler Imaging of many dozens of brown dwarfs and the brightest exoplanets. More targets beyond type L5 likely remain to be found. Future observations will let us probe the global atmospheric dynamics of many diverse objects.

  3. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2001-01-01

    We obtained the optical and IR spectra of Gliese 229B and identified Cs, I, and CO features - as expected in theoretical models. Our optical IR spectrum showed that most of the refractory metals have condensed out of the atmosphere and the presence of Cs, I and CO shows evidence for disequilibrium chemistry. We reported orbital evidence for Gliese 229B. The HST measured optical magnitudes provide additional evidence for the absence of dust in the atmosphere of this cool object. The luminosity of brown dwarfs depend on their masses and ages and in order to interpret the results of the survey we have carried out an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. Our conclusion is that warm brown dwarfs are rare, as companions in the orbital period range beyond approximately 30 - 50 AU. The Palomer survey poses no constraint for brown dwarfs in planetary orbits similar to those of the outer planets. We have just started a program of imaging nearby stars with the newly commissioned AO system at Palomar and Keck and have already found a brown dwarf candidate.

  4. Brown Bodies, Racialisation and physical education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Katie

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how school physical education (PE) can both reinforce stereotyped notions of the brown body as inherently physical while also allowing young people to gain educational success. Drawing on a critical ethnographic study of Maori and Pasifika (Pacific Island) youth in PE in New Zealand, the article explores how the academic…

  5. How Glassy States Affect Brown Carbon Production?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Bateman, A. P.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Z.; Gilles, M. K.; Martin, S. T.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary organic material (SOM) can become light-absorbing (i.e. brown carbon) via multiphase reactions with nitrogen-containing species such as ammonia and amines. The physical states of SOM, however, potentially slow the diffusion of reactant molecules in organic matrix under conditions that semisolids or solids prevail, thus inhibiting the browning reaction pathways. In this study, the physical states and the in-particle diffusivity were investigated by measuring the evaporation kinetics of both water and organics from aromatic-derived SOMs using a quartz-crystal-microbalance (QCM). The results indicate that the SOMs derived from aromatic precursors toluene and m-xylene became solid (glassy) and the in particle diffusion was significantly impeded for sufficiently low relative humidity ( < 20% RH) at 293 K. Optical properties and the AMS spectra were measured for toluene-derived SOM after ammonia exposure at varied RHs. The results suggest that the production of light-absorbing nitrogen-containing compounds from multiphase reactions with ammonia was kinetically limited in the glassy organic matrix, which otherwise produce brown carbon. The results of this study have significant implications for production and optical properties of brown carbon in urban atmospheres that ultimately influence the climate and tropospheric photochemistry.

  6. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: 1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; 2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions. With the successful launch of the SIRTF mission in August of 2003, we now await the execution of these observations, which should begin in early 2004. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 and spring of 2003 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT, the 1.5 meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, and Magellan Observatory for several hundred candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348, Taurus, and Chamaeleon star-forming regions. All of these data have been published in three papers in The Astrophysical Journal. We also recently used the MMT to obtain deep near-IR images of IC348 to accompany the SIRTF images and have time in the next month at the IRTF and Keck for spectroscopy of candidate brown dwarfs in IC348 and Taurus. We have submitted proposals for deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in Chamaeleon and Ophiuchus for spring 2004 with Magellan and the AAT. Results from this research have been presented in invited talks at UU Symposium 221 (July 2003) and at the SIRTF Galactic Science Workshop (August 2003). For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approx. 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We expect to submit the paper describing these observations to The Astrophysical Journal by the end of the year

  7. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF METHYLMERCURY AND OTHER METAL(LOID)S IN MADAGASCAR UNPOLISHED RICE (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Mgutshini, Noma L.; Bizimis, Michael; Johnson-Beebout, Sarah E.; Ramanantsoanirina, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The rice ingestion rate in Madagascar is among the highest globally; however studies concerning metal(loid) concentrations in Madagascar rice are lacking. For Madagascar unpolished rice (n=51 landraces), levels of toxic elements (e.g., total mercury, methylmercury, arsenic and cadmium) as well as essential micronutrients (e.g., zinc and selenium) were uniformly low, indicating potentially both positive and negative health effects. Aside from manganese (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.01), no significant differences in concentrations for all trace elements were observed between rice with red bran (n=20) and brown bran (n=31) (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.06–0.91). Compared to all elements in rice, rubidium (i.e., tracer for phloem transport) was most positively correlated with methylmercury (Pearson's r=0.33, p<0.05) and total mercury (r=0.44, p<0.05), while strontium (i.e., tracer for xylem transport) was least correlated with total mercury and methylmercury (r<0.01 for both), suggesting inorganic mercury and methylmercury were possibly more mobile in phloem compared to xylem. PMID:25463705

  8. Elemental bioimaging of tissue level trace metal distributions in rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) from a mining area in China.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Priyanka; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Wu, Fengchang; Fu, Zhiyou; Zhang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Rice is a staple food and major source of nutrients, but it also bioaccumulates toxic elements. In this study, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine tissue-level trace metal spatial distribution in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds from the active Xikuangshan Sb mine area in China. Whole grain quantified elemental bioimages showed the highest concentration of Zn (1755 mg/kg) in the embryo andmicro zones of elevated Sb, As, Pb, Cd as high as 280, 57, 31 and 830 mg/kg, respectively on the husk/bran/endosperm tissues. Bioimages suggest that both Sb and Cd may be competing with Zn for binding sites. Both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were detected in seeds from upstream and downstream fields indicating the presence of toxic Sb(III). Brown rice is a good source of Zn, but white rice is a safer option if rice is grown in a polluted area.

  9. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aroma and flavor of cooked rice are major criteria for preference among consumers. Small variations in these sensory properties can make rice highly desired or unacceptable to consumers. Human sensory analyses have identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental ana...

  10. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  11. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaochan; Xu, Hongxing; Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25141278

  12. Virus-Mediated Chemical Changes in Rice Plants Impact the Relationship between Non-Vector Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and Its Egg Parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guanchun; Zhou, Xiaojun; Zheng, Xusong; Sun, Yujian; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae. PMID:25141278

  13. Morphogenetics in brown, beige and white fat development.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jean Z; Farmer, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Brown and beige (or brite) fat cells are capable of evoking non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold and β-adrenergic stimulation. By metabolizing lipids and carbohydrate via uncoupled respiration these cells directly convert energy to heat. The discovery of brown and brown-like adipocytes in adult humans has reinvigorated interest in stimulating brown and beige fat development to combat the obesity epidemic. This review focuses on the role that cytoskeleton dynamics play in the regulation of adipocyte biology, specifically beige and brown fat development and how newly discovered adipogenic morphogens affect these processes. PMID:27386157

  14. Delicious, healthy dishes incorporating whole grain wheat, brown rice and buckwheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic disease including type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing problems with poor dietary habits, especially among the aging population. Increased fiber from foods such as whole grains are beneficial in preventing metabolic disease and in promoting health. However, products derived from whol...

  15. Management of sheath blight and narrow brown leaf spot with biocontrol agents in organic rice, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was established in a field of League-type soil (3% sand, 32% silt, and 64% clay) under organic management for many years at the Texas A&M University System's Agrilife Research and Extension Center, Beaumont. Plots consisted of seven 18-ft rows, and spaced 7 inches between rows. There ...

  16. Evaluation of effects of fertilizers on narrow brown leaf spot in organic rice, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiment was established in a field of League soil (3% sand, 32% silt, and 64% clay) under organic management for many years at the Texas A&M University System's Agrilife Research and Extension Center, Beaumont. The experiment was conducted as a two factorial experimental design with five orga...

  17. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains.

  18. Improved plant growth and Zn accumulation in grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic microbes isolated from a Zn Hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii H.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuyan; Yang, Xiaoe; Zhang, Xincheng; Dong, Lanxue; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Lu, Lingli

    2014-02-26

    This study is to investigate the possibility of zinc (Zn) biofortification in the grains of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by inoculation of endophytic strains isolated from a Zn hyperaccumulator, Sedum alfredii Hance. Five endophytic strains, Burkholderia sp. SaZR4, Burkholderia sp. SaMR10, Sphingomonas sp. SaMR12, Variovorax sp. SaNR1, and Enterobacter sp. SaCS20, isolated from S. alfredii, were inoculated in the roots of Japonica rice Nipponbare under hydroponic condition. Fluorescence images showed that endophytic strains successfully colonized rice roots after 72 h. Improved root morphology and plant growth of rice was observed after inoculation with endophytic strains especially SaMR12 and SaCS20. Under hydroponic conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 increased Zn concentration by 44.4% and 51.1% in shoots, and by 73.6% and 83.4% in roots, respectively. Under soil conditions, endophytic inoculation with SaMR12 and SaCS20 resulted in an increase of grain yields and elevated Zn concentrations by 20.3% and 21.9% in brown rice and by 13.7% and 11.2% in polished rice, respectively. After inoculation of SaMR12 and SaCS20, rhizosphere soils of rice plants contained higher concentration of DTPA-Zn by 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. In situ micro-X-ray fluorescence mapping of Zn confirmed the elevated Zn content in the rhizosphere zone of rice treated with SaMR12 as compared with the control. The above results suggested that endophytic microbes isolated from S. alfredii could successfully colonize rice roots, resulting in improved root morphology and plant growth, increased Zn bioavailability in rhizosphere soils, and elevated grain yields and Zn densities in grains. PMID:24447030

  19. Physiological and proteomic characterization of manganese sensitivity and tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) in comparison with barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Führs, Hendrik; Behrens, Christof; Gallien, Sébastien; Heintz, Dimitri; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Research on manganese (Mn) toxicity and tolerance indicates that Mn toxicity develops apoplastically through increased peroxidase activities mediated by phenolics and Mn, and Mn tolerance could be conferred by sequestration of Mn in inert cell compartments. This comparative study focuses on Mn-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Mn-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa) as model organisms to unravel the mechanisms of Mn toxicity and/or tolerance in monocots. Methods Bulk leaf Mn concentrations as well as peroxidase activities and protein concentrations were analysed in apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) in both species. In rice, Mn distribution between leaf compartments and the leaf proteome using 2D isoelectic focusing IEF/SDS–PAGE and 2D Blue native BN/SDS–PAGE was studied. Key Results The Mn sensitivity of barley was confirmed since the formation of brown spots on older leaves was induced by low bulk leaf and AWF Mn concentrations and exhibited strongly enhanced H2O2-producing and consuming peroxidase activities. In contrast, by a factor of 50, higher Mn concentrations did not produce Mn toxicity symptoms on older leaves in rice. Peroxidase activities, lower by a factor of about 100 in the rice leaf AWF compared with barley, support the view of a central role for these peroxidases in the apoplastic expression of Mn toxicity. The high Mn tolerance of old rice leaves could be related to a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls. Proteomic studies suggest that the lower Mn tolerance of young rice leaves could be related to Mn excess-induced displacement of Mg and Fe from essential metabolic functions. Conclusions The results provide evidence that Mn toxicity in barley involves apoplastic lesions mediated by peroxidases. The high Mn tolerance of old leaves of rice involves a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls, whereas Mn toxicity in less Mn-tolerant young leaves is related to Mn-induced Mg and Fe deficiencies. PMID:20237113

  20. Effects of microbial xylanase on digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and energy and the concentrations of digestible and metabolizable energy in rice coproducts fed to weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, OM, fiber, and GE by weanling pigs and the concentration of DE and ME in full-fat rice bran (FFRB), defatted rice bran (DFRB), brown rice, and broken rice is improved if microbial xylanase is added to the diet. Eighty pigs (13.6 ± 0.8 kg initial BW) were allotted to 10 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 40 pigs. A basal diet based on corn and soybean meal and 4 diets containing corn, soybean meal, and each of the 4 rice coproducts were formulated. The rice coproducts and corn and soybean meal were the only sources of energy in the diets. Five additional diets that were similar to the initial 5 diets with the exception that they also contained 16,000 units of xylanase (Econase XT-25; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK) were also formulated. All diets also contained 1,500 units of microbial phytase (Quantum Blue 5G; AB Vista). The DE and ME and the ATTD of DM, OM, fiber, and GE in diets and ingredients were calculated using the direct method and the difference method, respectively. Results indicated that the concentrations of DE and ME (DM basis) in FFRB and DFRB increased ( < 0.05) if xylanase was used. Broken rice had a greater ( < 0.05) concentration of DE and ME than FFRB and DFRB if no xylanase was added to the diets, but if xylanase was used, no differences in ME among FFRB, brown rice, and broken rice were observed. The ATTD of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in ingredients with xylanase than in ingredients without xylanase and there was a tendency ( = 0.067) for the ATTD of OM to be greater if xylanase was used. The ATTD of NDF in FFRB was greater ( < 0.05) when xylanase was added than if no xylanase was used, whereas the ATTD of NDF in DFRB was not affected by the addition of xylanase. In conclusion, if no xylanase was used, broken rice and brown rice have greater concentrations of DE and ME than FFRB

  1. Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light (< 800 nm) were attenuated more than longer wavelengths (> 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When applied to a larger validation set, 8.0% of the apples with internal browning were misclassified. For both sets, the only apples misclassified were those with very slight browning that was very difficult to detect visually were misclassified, but none of the apples with slight to severe browning was misclassified. For nondefective apples, 6.1% were identified as having internal browning, because bruises and internal browning had the same effect on the spectral composition.

  2. [Environmental effects of applying heavy metal-containing municipal sewage sludge on wheat-rice rotation system on different types of soil].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing; Cheng, Miao-Miao; Li, Rui; Liu, Ling; Wu, Long-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yan; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2012-02-01

    A pot experiment with the yellow soil and limestone soil from Guizhou province, and paddy soil from Zhejiang Province was conducted to study the impacts of applying municipal sewage sludge containing different concentrations of heavy metals on the wheat and rice growth and their Zn and Cd absorption. The risks of the crop heavy metals pollution caused by the application of the same sludge differed with tested soils. On the yellow soil and paddy soil, applying the sludge containing high concentration heavy metals induced higher pollution risks to the crops. Applying the sludge 1.6% in dry mass and containing 1789 mg x kg(-1) of Zn and 8.47 mg x kg(-1) of Cd to yellow soil made the Zn and Cd concentrations in wheat grains reached 109 and 0.08 mg x kg(-1), and after the second time application of the same dosage of this sludge after rice planting, the Zn and Cd concentrations in brown rice reached 52.0 and 0.54 mg x kg(-1), respectively. However, applying the sludge to calcareous soil had no pollution risk to the edible parts of wheat and rice. Soil NH4OAc-extractable Zn was the main factor affecting the Zn concentration in wheat grain and brown rice, but soil NH4OAc-extractable Cd had less effect on the Cd concentration in wheat grain and brown nce. Applying the sludge containing high concentration Zn and Cd to the three soils made the concentrations of total Zn and Cd in the soils increased significantly, and after the first time and the second time of the application, the total Zn concentration in the soils all exceeded the 2nd level of the national soil environmental quality standards.

  3. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice.

  4. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. PMID:24345551

  5. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  6. Formation of Brown Dwarfs LTSA 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luhman, Kevin L.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goals of the work funded by this grant are: (1) The measurement of the mass function and minimum mass of free-floating brown dwarfs down to the mass of Jupiter; (2) The measurement of the frequency of wide brown dwarf and planetary companions down to the mass of Jupiter as function of primary mass (0.02-2 Msun), age (1-10 Myr), and environment (clusters vs. dispersed regions). For the first objective, we have completed the design of guaranteed SIRTF observations of nearby star-forming regions and now await the launch of the mission in April 2003. In support of these upcoming observations, in the fall of 2002 we obtained optical spectroscopy at the MMT and the 1.5-meter telescope at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory for candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the IC348 and Taurus star-forming regions. Two papers that include these data in new measurements of the mass functions in these regions are near completion and will be submitted for publication to the Astrophysical Journal in January. We have also proposed deep optical and near-IR imaging of the SIRTF fields in the IC348, Chamaeleon, and Ophiuchus star-forming regions with the MMT, Magellan, and Gemini North telescopes in early 2003. For the second objective, we have used deep HST WFPC2 images to search for young giant planets and brown dwarfs around approximately 100 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the nearby cluster IC 348. We have completed all data reduction and have checked these data for candidate companions. We are in the process of writing a paper that describes these candidate companions and presents the companion detection limits that were achieved with HST. We will attempt followup spectroscopy of the most promising candidate companions to confirm their nature as cool companions rather than background field stars during the commissioning of the facility adaptive optics system for the Gemini North telescope early in 2003. In addition, in SIRTF guaranteed time observations we plan to

  7. Annotated ESTs from various tissues of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens: A genomic resource for studying agricultural pests

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Hiroaki; Kawai, Sawako; Koizumi, Yoko; Matsui, Kageaki; Zhang, Qiang; Furukawa, Shigetoyo; Shimomura, Michihiko; Mita, Kazuei

    2008-01-01

    Background The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is a serious insect pests of rice plants. Major means of BPH control are application of agricultural chemicals and cultivation of BPH resistant rice varieties. Nevertheless, BPH strains that are resistant to agricultural chemicals have developed, and BPH strains have appeared that are virulent against the resistant rice varieties. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and related applications are useful to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance and virulence and to reveal physiological aspects of this non-model insect, with its poorly understood genetic background. Results More than 37,000 high-quality ESTs, excluding sequences of mitochondrial genome, microbial genomes, and rDNA, have been produced from 18 libraries of various BPH tissues and stages. About 10,200 clusters have been made from whole EST sequences, with average EST size of 627 bp. Among the top ten most abundantly expressed genes, three are unique and show no homology in BLAST searches. The actin gene was highly expressed in BPH, especially in the thorax. Tissue-specifically expressed genes were extracted based on the expression frequency among the libraries. An EST database is available at our web site. Conclusion The EST library will provide useful information for transcriptional analyses, proteomic analyses, and gene functional analyses of BPH. Moreover, specific genes for hemimetabolous insects will be identified. The microarray fabricated based on the EST information will be useful for finding genes related to agricultural and biological problems related to this pest. PMID:18315884

  8. Incorporating rice residues into paddy soils affects methylmercury accumulation in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huike; Zhong, Huan; Wu, Jialu

    2016-06-01

    Paddy fields are characterized by frequent organic input (e.g., fertilization and rice residue amendment), which may affect mercury biogeochemistry and bioaccumulation. To explore potential effects of rice residue amendment on methylmercury (MMHg) accumulation in rice, a mercury-contaminated paddy soil was amended with rice root (RR), rice straw (RS) or composted rice straw (CS), and planted with rice. Incorporating RS or CS increased grain MMHg concentration by 14% or 11%. The observed increases could be attributed to the elevated porewater MMHg levels and thus enhanced MMHg uptake by plants, as well as increased MMHg translocation to grain within plants. Our results indicated for the first time that rice residue amendment could significantly affect MMHg accumulation in rice grain, which should be considered in risk assessment of MMHg in contaminated areas. PMID:26974480

  9. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  10. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  11. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci for Mineral Element Contents in Whole Grain Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Chengxiao; Min, Jie; Chen, Yaling; Tong, Chuan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-12-23

    Mineral elements in brown rice grain play an important role in human health. In this study, variations in the content of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in 378 accessions of brown rice were investigated, and association mapping was used to detect the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for the variation. Among seven subpopulations, the mean values of Zn and Cd in the japonica group were significantly higher than in the indica groups. The population structure accounted for from 5.7% (Se) to 22.1% (Pb) of the total variation. Correlation analyses showed that Pb was positively correlated with the other minerals (P < 0.001) except for Se. For the five mineral elements investigated, 20 QTLs, including some previously reported and new candidate loci, were identified. Particularly, three cases of QTL colocalization, i.e. Cd and Pb on chromosome 5, Zn and Pb on chromosome 7, and Se and Pb on chromosome 11, were observed. This study suggested that the identified markers could feasibly be used to enhance desired micronutrients while reducing the heavy metal content in whole rice grain by marker-assisted selection (MAS).

  12. Weedy (red) rice: An emerging constraint to global rice production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be an essential aspect of food security for the 21st century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising productio...

  13. Histological findings after brown recluse spider envenomation.

    PubMed

    Elston, D M; Eggers, J S; Schmidt, W E; Storrow, A B; Doe, R H; McGlasson, D; Fischer, J R

    2000-06-01

    Histologic specimens from 41 rabbits were studied for changes resulting from the manual injection of brown recluse spider venom. Major findings included a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, coagulative tissue necrosis, and vasculitis. All specimens demonstrated a well-delineated zone of eosinophilic staining recognizable as "mummified" coagulative necrosis of the epidermis and dermis. A dense band of neutrophils bordered the zone of necrosis. Immediately adjacent to the neutrophilic band, small vessel vasculitis was a universal finding. Degranulated eosinophils and neutrophils and macrophages filled with eosinophilic granules were common. Inflammatory foci were often centered on groups of lipocytes within the dermis. Large vessel vasculitis resembling that seen in polyarteritis nodosa was present deep to 7 of the 40 eschars. Large vessel vasculitis may contribute to the large zones of necrosis seen after some brown recluse spider bites. Eosinophils may play a role in tissue damage after envenomation.

  14. Evolution and infrared spectra of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hubbard, William B.; Marley, Mark S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-consistent models are constructed for the structure, evolution, and observable properties of degenerately cooling objects, or 'brown dwarfs'. Model atmospheres composed of a range of likely gaseous and particulate opacity sources are calculated in order to provide a boundary condition for interior temperature-pressure profiles and to determine the emergent spectra for such objects. The radius derived from the interior models is combined with the emergent fluxes calculated from the atmosphere model to fit the data of McCarthy, Probst, and Low (1985) and to derive the luminosity and mass of VB 8B. The latter is found to be most probably an 0.05 solar mass object with effective temperature in the 1200-1500 K range and an atmosphere which very likely contains particulate absorbers. Key changes in chemical oxidation state and condensation of major constituents during the evolution of brown dwarfs are presented.

  15. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible.

  16. [Cancer cachexia and white adipose tissue browning].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S T; Yang, H M

    2016-08-01

    Cancer cachexia occurs in a majority of advanced cancer patients. These patients with impaired physical function are unable to tolerance cancer treatment well and have a significantly reduced survival rate. Currently, there is no effective clinical treatment available for cancer cachexia, therefore, it is necessary to clarify the molecular mechanisms of cancer cachexia, moreover, new therapeutic targets for cancer cachexia treatment are urgently needed. Very recent studies suggest that, during cancer cachexia, white adipose tissue undergo a 'browning' process, resulting in increased lipid mobilization and energy expenditure, which may be necessary for the occurrence of cancer cachexia. In this article, we summarize the definition and characteristics of cancer cachexia and adipose tissue 'browning', then, we discuss the new study directions presented in latest research. PMID:27531474

  17. The Ontogeny of Brown Adipose Tissue.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Michael E; Pope, Mark; Budge, Helen

    2015-01-01

    There are three different types of adipose tissue (AT)-brown, white, and beige-that differ with stage of development, species, and anatomical location. Of these, brown AT (BAT) is the least abundant but has the greatest potential impact on energy balance. BAT is capable of rapidly producing large amounts of heat through activation of the unique uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) located within the inner mitochondrial membrane. White AT is an endocrine organ and site of lipid storage, whereas beige AT is primarily white but contains some cells that possess UCP1. BAT first appears in the fetus around mid-gestation and is then gradually lost through childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We focus on the interrelationships between adipocyte classification, anatomical location, and impact of diet in early life together with the extent to which fat development differs between the major species examined. Ultimately, novel dietary interventions designed to reactivate BAT could be possible. PMID:26076904

  18. Insights into molecular mechanism of blast resistance in weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy rice is a serious pest in direct-seeded rice fields in the U.S. and worldwide. Under suitable conditions, weedy rice can reduce crop yields up to 70%. However, weedy rice may carry novel disease resistance genes. Rice blast disease caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is a major disease wo...

  19. Increased α-tocotrienol content in seeds of transgenic rice overexpressing Arabidopsis γ-tocopherol methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-Yun; Liu, Ru-Ru; Xu, Geng; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yin; Tang, Ke-Xuan; Liang, Guo-Hua; Liu, Qiao-Quan

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin E comprises a group of eight lipid soluble antioxidant compounds that are an essential part of the human diet. The α-isomers of both tocopherol and tocotrienol are generally considered to have the highest antioxidant activities. γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) catalyzes the final step in vitamin E biosynthesis, the methylation of γ- and δ-isomers to α- and β-isomers. In present study, the Arabidopsis γ-TMT (AtTMT) cDNA was overexpressed constitutively or in the endosperm of the elite japonica rice cultivar Wuyujing 3 (WY3) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. HPLC analysis showed that, in brown rice of the wild type or transgenic controls with empty vector, the α-/γ-tocotrienol ratio was only 0.7, much lower than that for tocopherol (~19.0). In transgenic rice overexpressing AtTMT driven by the constitutive Ubi promoter, most of the γ-isomers were converted to α-isomers, especially the γ- and δ-tocotrienol levels were dramatically decreased. As a result, the α-tocotrienol content was greatly increased in the transgenic seeds. Similarly, over-expression of AtTMT in the endosperm also resulted in an increase in the α-tocotrienol content. The results showed that the α-/γ-tocopherol ratio also increased in the transgenic seeds, but there was no significant effect on α-tocopherol level, which may reflect the fact that γ-tocopherol is present in very small amounts in wild type rice seeds. AtTMT overexpression had no effect on the absolute total content of either tocopherols or tocotrienols. Taken together, these results are the first demonstration that the overexpression of a foreign γ-TMT significantly shift the tocotrienol synthesis in rice, which is one of the world's most important food crops.

  20. Component composition of deresined brown coal wax

    SciTech Connect

    L.P. Noskova

    2008-10-15

    The products of the alkaline hydrolysis of wax isolated from brown coal from the Sergeevskoe deposit were studied using chromatography and IR and NMR spectroscopy. It was found that hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, and a representative fraction of unsaponifiable esters were the constituents of wax. High-molecular-weight fatty alcohols and acids were identified as the constituents of wax with the use of thin-layer chromatography.

  1. Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) skin carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bunton, T E

    2000-06-01

    Alternative models using fish species have been tested in liver toxicity and carcinogenesis bioassays. Similar models have not been developed for skin. The brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) has shown potential as a model for skin carcinogenesis studies due to its sensitivity to environmental chemical pollutants. The present study is an initial morphologic and biochemical characterization of the normal and neoplastic brown bullhead skin to assess its suitability as a model of skin carcinogenesis. Brown bullhead were removed from Back River in the Chesapeake Bay region, an area historically polluted with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Histology, histochemistry, and electron microscopy were used to stage the morphologic development and progression of neoplasia in skin. The distribution of keratin, a family of structural proteins with altered expression in mammalian tumorigenesis, was analyzed with one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose blots of extracts from normal skin. Keratin expression in skin and other organs was also assessed with immunohistochemistry using AE1, AE3, and PCK 26 antibodies, and the proliferation index in skin and neoplasms with PCNA antibody. Skin lesions appeared to progress from hyperplasia through carcinoma, and the proliferation index was increased in papilloma. Also in papilloma, intercellular interdigitations appeared increased and desmosomes decreased which may in future studies correlate with changes in expression of other molecular markers of neoplastic progression. Both Type I and Type II keratin subfamilies were detected in skin using gel electrophoresis with the complimentary keratin blot-binding assay. For further development of the brown bullhead model, future studies can compare and relate these baseline data to alterations in expression of keratin and other markers in fish neoplasms and to molecular events which occur in man. PMID:10930121

  2. Penetrating keratoplasty in a California Brown Pelican.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Gwendolyn L; Scagliotti, Randall H; Hoffman, Allison; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2007-01-01

    Fresh homologous penetrating keratoplasty (PK) was performed on the left cornea of a young adult female California Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) for the treatment of vision-threatening corneal scarring and granulation tissue. The procedure appeared to be highly successful based on short-term clinical follow-up and histopathology results. However, the patient died from unrelated causes before long-term follow-up could be obtained. PMID:17565558

  3. Molecular selectivity of brown carbon chromophores.

    PubMed

    Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Sergey A; Roach, Patrick; Eckert, Peter; Gilles, Mary K; Wang, Bingbing; Lee, Hyun Ji Julie; Hu, Qichi

    2014-10-21

    Complementary methods of high-resolution mass spectrometry and microspectroscopy were utilized for molecular analysis of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from ozonolysis of two structural monoterpene isomers: D-limonene SOA (LSOA) and α-pinene SOA (PSOA). The LSOA compounds readily formed adducts with Na(+) under electrospray ionization conditions, with only a small fraction of compounds detected in the protonated form. In contrast, a significant fraction of PSOA compounds appeared in the protonated form because of their increased molecular rigidity. Laboratory simulated aging of LSOA and PSOA, through conversion of carbonyls into imines mediated by NH3 vapors in humid air, resulted in selective browning of the LSOA sample, while the PSOA sample remained white. Comparative analysis of the reaction products in the aged LSOA and PSOA samples provided insights into chemistry relevant to formation of brown carbon chromophores. A significant fraction of carbonyl-imine conversion products with identical molecular formulas was detected in both samples. This reflects the high level of similarity in the molecular composition of these two closely related SOA materials. Several highly conjugated products were detected exclusively in the brown LSOA sample and were identified as potential chromophores responsible for the observed color change. The majority of the unique products in the aged LSOA sample with the highest number of double bonds contain two nitrogen atoms. We conclude that chromophores characteristic of the carbonyl-imine chemistry in LSOA are highly conjugated oligomers of secondary imines (Schiff bases) present at relatively low concentrations. Formation of this type of conjugated compounds in PSOA is hindered by the structural rigidity of the α-pinene oxidation products. Our results suggest that the overall light-absorbing properties of SOA may be determined by trace amounts of strong brown carbon chromophores. PMID:25233355

  4. New brown dwarf candidates in the Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbeiss, T.; Moualla, M.; Mugrauer, M.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Raetz, St.; Neuhäuser, R.; Ginski, Ch.; Hohle, M. M.; Koeltzsch, A.; Marka, C.; Rammo, W.; Reithe, A.; Roell, T.; Vaňko, M.

    2009-05-01

    We have performed deep, wide-field imaging on a ˜ 0.4 deg2 field in the Pleiades (Melotte 22). The selected field was not yet target of a deep search for low mass stars and brown dwarfs. Our limiting magnitudes are R˜22 mag and I˜20 mag, sufficient to detect brown dwarf candidates down to 40 MJ. We found 197 objects, whose location in the (I, R-I) color magnitude diagram is consistent with the age and the distance of the Pleiades. Using CTK R and I as well as JHK photometry from our data and the 2MASS survey we were able to identify 7 new brown dwarf candidates. We present our data reduction technique, which enables us to resample, calibrate, and co-add many images by just two steps. We estimate the interstellar extinction and the spectral type from our optical and the NIR data using a two-dimensional χ2 fitting. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich- Schiller-University. Table A3 is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/pub/cats/J/AN/330/439

  5. beta. -Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Geloeen, A.; Collet, A.J.; Guay, G.; Bukowiecki, L.J. Laboratoire de Thermoregulation et Metabolisme Energetique, Lyon )

    1988-01-01

    The mechanisms of brown adipose tissue (BAT) growth were studied by quantitative photonic radioautography using tritiated thymidine to follow mitotic activity. To identify the nature of the adrenergic pathways mediating brown adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, the effects of cold exposure (4 days at 4{degree}C) on BAT growth were compared with those induced by treating rats at 25{degree}C with norepinephrine (a mixed agonist), isoproterenol (a {beta}-agonist), and phenylephrine (an {alpha}-agonist). Norepinephrine mimicked the effects of cold exposure, not only on the mitotic activity, but also on the distribution of the labeling among the various cellular types. Isoproterenol entirely reproduced the effects of norepinephrine both on the labeling index and on the cellular type labeling frequency. These results demonstrate that norepinephrine triggers a coordinated proliferation of brown adipocytes and endothelial cells in warm-exposed rats that is similar to that observed after cold exposure. They also suggest that cold exposure stimulates BAT growth by increasing the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerves and that the neurohormone activates mitoses in BAT precursor cells via {beta}-adrenergic pathways.

  6. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2003-01-01

    The grant supported my research and that of my student (Ben Lane) and post-doctoral fellow (Zapatero Osorio). We were productive as can be seen from the list of publications below. In particular, we note three firsts. Using the exquisite angular resolution provided by the AO system at Keck we were able to directly determine the masses of two objects and show that one was a brown dwarf -- the first direct determination of the mass of a brown dwarf. Next, Mr. Lane reported the first direct demonstration of pulsations of a Cepheid star (this report received attention in the popular press). Finally, Dr. Zapatero Osorio continued her work on the search for young brown dwarfs and planets in young clusters with considerable success -- namely the detection of objects with mass below 10 M_J (these can be plausibly argued to be freely floating planets). Mr. Lane graduated and is now a Pappalardo Fellow at MIT and Dr. Zapatero Osorio obtained a position back in her home country.

  7. A Very Cool Pair of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    Observations with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope, along with two other telescopes, have shown that there is a new candidate for the coldest known star: a brown dwarf in a double system with about the same temperature as a freshly made cup of tea - hot in human terms, but extraordinarily cold for the surface of a star. This object is cool enough to begin crossing the blurred line dividing small cold stars from big hot planets. Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars: they lack enough mass for gravity to trigger the nuclear reactions that make stars shine. The newly discovered brown dwarf, identified as CFBDSIR 1458+10B, is the dimmer member of a binary brown dwarf system located just 75 light-years from Earth [1]. The powerful X-shooter spectrograph on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) was used to show that the composite object was very cool by brown dwarf standards. "We were very excited to see that this object had such a low temperature, but we couldn't have guessed that it would turn out to be a double system and have an even more interesting, even colder component," said Philippe Delorme of the Institut de planétologie et d'astrophysique de Grenoble (CNRS/Université Joseph Fourier), a co-author of the paper. CFBDSIR 1458+10 is the coolest brown dwarf binary found to date. The dimmer of the two dwarfs has now been found to have a temperature of about 100 degrees Celsius - the boiling point of water, and not much different from the temperature inside a sauna [2]. "At such temperatures we expect the brown dwarf to have properties that are different from previously known brown dwarfs and much closer to those of giant exoplanets - it could even have water clouds in its atmosphere," said Michael Liu of the University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy, who is lead author of the paper describing this new work. "In fact, once we start taking images of gas-giant planets around Sun-like stars in the near future, I expect that many of them

  8. Conventional steaming retains tocols and γ-oryzanol better than boiling and frying in the jasmine rice variety Khao dok mali 105.

    PubMed

    Srichamnong, Warangkana; Thiyajai, Parunya; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of various cooking methods on the white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and parboiled geminated brown rice (PGBR) of the same variety, focusing on γ-oryzanol and tocols. The methods used for analysis of γ-oryzanol and tocols included solvent extraction and HPLC. The results indicated that PGBR had a higher content of γ-oryzanol and tocols compared to BR and WR, when different cooking methods (raw, steamed, boiled and fried) were used. Steaming method retained the higher γ-oryzanol content (53.6-62.2mg/100g) in both PGBR and BR, in comparison with boiling (53.0-60.6mg/100g) and frying (23.4-31.5mg/100g) methods. Frying reduced the γ-oryzanol content significantly regardless of the rice type. Regarding tocols, a similar trend was noticed in all the methods studied. Tocotrienol was the most abundant tocol found in PGBR and BR. Therefore, steaming is the best cooking method to preserved most of the bioactive compounds; however, a slight increase in total tocols was observed after frying.

  9. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies. PMID:24175575

  10. Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Parray, Hilal Ahmad; Yun, Jong Won

    2016-05-01

    Recruitment of the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes (browning) and activation of existing brown adipocytes are currently being investigated as a means to combat obesity. Thus, a wide variety of dietary agents that contribute to browning of white adipocytes have been identified. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, on induction of browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CBD enhanced expression of a core set of brown fat-specific marker genes (Ucp1, Cited1, Tmem26, Prdm16, Cidea, Tbx1, Fgf21, and Pgc-1α) and proteins (UCP1, PRDM16, and PGC-1α). Increased expression of UCP1 and other brown fat-specific markers contributed to the browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes possibly via activation of PPARγ and PI3K. In addition, CBD increased protein expression levels of CPT1, ACSL, SIRT1, and PLIN while down-regulating JNK2, SREBP1, and LPL. These data suggest possible roles for CBD in browning of white adipocytes, augmentation of lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of lipogenesis. In conclusion, the current data suggest that CBD plays dual modulatory roles in the form of inducing the brown-like phenotype as well as promoting lipid metabolism. Thus, CBD may be explored as a potentially promising therapeutic agent for the prevention of obesity. PMID:27067870

  11. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of imazethapyr herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield® rice (Oryza sativa L.) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to comprise about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where 43% of rice in the USA was planted in 2013. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on herbicide res...

  12. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  13. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  14. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  15. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    PubMed

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  16. Isoflavone content and profile comparisons of cooked soybean-rice mixtures: electric rice cooker versus electric pressure rice cooker.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Yu, Bo-Ra; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2014-12-10

    This study examined the effects of heat and pressure on the isoflavone content and profiles of soybeans and rice cooked together using an electric rice cooker (ERC) and an electric pressure rice cooker (EPRC). The total isoflavone content of the soybean-rice mixture after ERC and EPRC cooking relative to that before cooking was ∼90% in soybeans and 14-15% in rice. Malonylglucosides decreased by an additional ∼20% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those cooked using the ERC, whereas glucosides increased by an additional ∼15% in EPRC-cooked soybeans compared to those in ERC-cooked soybeans. In particular, malonylgenistin was highly susceptible to isoflavone conversion during soybean-rice cooking. Total genistein and total glycitein contents decreased in soybeans after ERC and EPRC cooking, whereas total daidzein content increased in EPRC-cooked soybeans (p < 0.05). These results may be useful for improving the content of nutraceuticals, such as isoflavones, in soybeans.

  17. Evidence for two types of brown adipose tissue in humans.

    PubMed

    Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Heglind, Mikael; Elander, Louise; Slawik, Marc; Mussack, Thomas; Nilsson, Daniel; Romu, Thobias; Nuutila, Pirjo; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Beuschlein, Felix; Persson, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Enerbäck, Sven

    2013-05-01

    The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, a newly identified type of brown adipocyte that is distinct from the classical brown adipocytes that make up the interscapular thermogenic organs of other mammals. A combination of high-resolution imaging techniques and histological and biochemical analyses showed evidence for an anatomically distinguishable interscapular BAT (iBAT) depot in human infants that consists of classical brown adipocytes, a cell type that has so far not been shown to exist in humans. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that infants, similarly to rodents, have the bona fide iBAT thermogenic organ consisting of classical brown adipocytes that is essential for the survival of small mammals in a cold environment.

  18. A generalized three-dimensional Hoek-Brown strength criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.

    2008-12-01

    Although the Hoek-Brown strength criterion has been widely used in rock mechanics and rock engineering, it does not take account of the influence of the intermediate principal stress. Much evidence, however, has been accumulating to indicate that the intermediate principal stress does influence the rock strength in many instances. Therefore, researchers have developed three-dimensional (3D) versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion. In this paper, three existing 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion are reviewed and evaluated. The evaluation shows that all of the three 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion have limitations. To address the limitations, a generalized 3D Hoek-Brown criterion is proposed by modifying the generalized Hoek-Brown strength criterion. The proposed 3D criterion not only inherits the advantages of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion but can take account of the influence of the intermediate principal stress. At a 2D stress state (triaxial or biaxial), the proposed 3D criterion will simply reduce to the form of the generalized Hoek-Brown strength criterion. To validate the proposed 3D strength criterion, polyaxial or true triaxial compression test data of intact rocks and jointed rock masses has been collected from the published literature. Predictions of the proposed generalized 3D Hoek-Brown strength criterion are in good agreement with the test data for a range of different rock types. The difference of the proposed generalized 3D Hoek-Brown strength criterion from and its advantages over the existing 3D versions of the Hoek-Brown strength criterion are also discussed. It should be noted that the proposed 3D criterion is empirical in nature because it is an extension of the 2D Hoek-Brown strength criterion, which is empirical. Because of the non-convexity of the yield surface for a biaxial stress state, the proposed 3D criterion may have problems with some stress paths.

  19. Pharmacological and nutritional agents promoting browning of white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Luisa; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu

    2013-05-01

    The role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of energy balance and maintenance of body weight is well known in rodents. Recently, interest in this tissue has re-emerged due to the realization of active brown-like adipose tissue in adult humans and inducible brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue depots in response to appropriate stimuli ("browning process"). Brown-like adipocytes that appear in white fat depots have been called "brite" (from brown-in-white) or "beige" adipocytes and have characteristics similar to brown adipocytes, in particular the capacity for uncoupled respiration. There is controversy as to the origin of these brite/beige adipocytes, but regardless of this, induction of the browning of white fat represents an attractive potential strategy for the management and treatment of obesity and related complications. Here, the different physiological, pharmacological and dietary determinants that have been linked to white-to-brown fat remodeling and the molecular mechanisms involved are reviewed in detail. In the light of available data, interesting therapeutic perspectives can be expected from the use of specific drugs or food compounds able to induce a program of brown fat differentiation including uncoupling protein 1 expression and enhancing oxidative metabolism in white adipose cells. However, additional research is needed, mainly focused on the physiological relevance of browning and its dietary control, where the use of ferrets and other non-rodent animal models with a more similar adipose tissue organization and metabolism to humans could be of much help. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Brown and White Fat: From Signaling to Disease.

  20. Green-tuff landslide areas are beneficial for rice nutrition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tazaki, Kazue

    2006-12-01

    Japanese Islands are covered with weathered volcanic rocks and soils. Terraced rice field are located in green-tuff areas which are very fertile but where landslides occur associated to strong earthquakes. The Xray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses of the soils in landslide area identified predominant smectite and Mg, Al, Si, K, Ti, Mn and Fe are main components. The rice leaf showed that S, Cl, K and Ca play important roles for nutrients in the area. Drainpipe systems have set up in the green- tuff areas to reduce the risks of landslides. Reddish brown microbial mats inhabited bacteria and diatom in the drainpipe outlets. The microbial mats are rich in Fe and PO4(3-). The iron bacteria in the ground water have a high metabolic rate suggesting that the weathering materials were produced by not only physical and chemical influence but also by microorganism. Many microorganisms attach to mineral surfaces and show their high impact in the water mineral chemistry in the landslide area. Bacteria in the green-tuff over landslide area play important roles for sustainable agriculture including rice nutrition.