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Sample records for pre-hospital trauma airway

  1. Pre-hospital triage performance after standardized trauma courses.

    PubMed

    Lampi, Maria; Junker, Johan; Berggren, Peter; Jonson, Carl-Oscar; Vikström, Tore

    2017-05-19

    The pre-hospital triage process aims at identifying and prioritizing patients in the need of prompt intervention and/or evacuation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate triage decision skills in a Mass Casualty Incident drill. The study compares two groups of participants in Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support courses. A questionnaire was used to deal with three components of triage of victims in a Mass Casualty Incident: decision-making; prioritization of 15 hypothetical casualties involved in a bus crash; and prioritization for evacuation. Swedish Advanced Trauma Life Support and Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants filled in the same triage skills questionnaire just before and after their respective course. One hundred fifty-three advanced Trauma Life Support course participants were compared to 175 Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support course participants. The response rates were 90% and 95%, respectively. A significant improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for the Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support group in regards to decision-making. This difference was only noticeable among the participants who had previously participated in Mass Casualty Incident drills or had experience of a real event (pre-test mean ± standard deviation 2.4 ± 0.68, post-test mean ± standard deviation 2.60 ± 0.59, P = 0.04). No improvement was found between pre-test and post-test for either group regarding prioritization of the bus crash casualties or the correct identification of the most injured patients for immediate evacuation. Neither Advanced Trauma Life Support nor Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants showed general improvement in their tested triage skills. However, participation in Mass Casualty Incident drills or experience of real events prior to the test performed here, were shown to be advantageous for Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support participants. These courses should be

  2. Trauma in elderly people: access to the health system through pre-hospital care1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Hilderjane Carla; Pessoa, Renata de Lima; de Menezes, Rejane Maria Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to identify the prevalence of trauma in elderly people and how they accessed the health system through pre-hospital care. Method: documentary and retrospective study at a mobile emergency care service, using a sample of 400 elderly trauma victims selected through systematic random sampling. A form validated by experts was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied. The chi-square test was used to analyze the association between the variables. Results: Trauma was predominant among women (52.25%) and in the age range between 60 and 69 years (38.25%), average age 74.19 years (standard deviation±10.25). Among the mechanisms, falls (56.75%) and traffic accidents (31.25%) stood out, showing a significant relation with the pre-hospital care services (p<0.001). Circulation, airway opening, cervical control and immobilization actions were the most frequent and Basic Life Support Services (87.8%) were the most used, with trauma referral hospitals as the main destination (56.7%). Conclusion: trauma prevailed among women, victims of falls, who received pre-hospital care through basic life support services and actions and were transported to the trauma referral hospital. It is important to reorganize pre-hospital care, avoiding overcrowded hospitals and delivering better care to elderly trauma victims. PMID:27143543

  3. Scandinavian SSAI clinical practice guideline on pre-hospital airway management.

    PubMed

    Rehn, M; Hyldmo, P K; Magnusson, V; Kurola, J; Kongstad, P; Rognås, L; Juvet, L K; Sandberg, M

    2016-08-01

    The Scandinavian society of anaesthesiology and intensive care medicine task force on pre-hospital airway management was asked to formulate recommendations following standards for trustworthy clinical practice guidelines. The literature was systematically reviewed and the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system was applied to move from evidence to recommendations. We recommend that all emergency medical service (EMS) providers consider to: apply basic airway manoeuvres and airway adjuncts (good practice recommendation); turn unconscious non-trauma patients into the recovery position when advanced airway management is unavailable (good practice recommendation); turn unconscious trauma patients to the lateral trauma position while maintaining spinal alignment when advanced airway management is unavailable [strong recommendation, low quality of evidence (QoE)]. We suggest that intermediately trained providers use a supraglottic airway device (SAD) or basic airway manoeuvres on patients in cardiac arrest (weak recommendation, low QoE). We recommend that advanced trained providers consider using an SAD in selected indications or as a rescue device after failed endotracheal intubation (ETI) (good practice recommendation). We recommend that ETI should only be performed by advanced trained providers (strong recommendation, low QoE). We suggest that videolaryngoscopy is considered for ETI when direct laryngoscopy fails or is expected to be difficult (weak recommendation, low QoE). We suggest that advanced trained providers apply cricothyroidotomy in 'cannot intubate, cannot ventilate' situations (weak recommendation, low QoE). This guideline for pre-hospital airway management includes a combination of techniques applied in a stepwise fashion appropriate to patient clinical status and provider training. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Anaesthesiologica

  4. Anaesthetist-provided pre-hospital advanced airway management in children: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Tarpgaard, Mona; Hansen, Troels Martin; Rognås, Leif

    2015-08-27

    Pre-hospital advanced airway management has been named one of the top-five research priorities in physician-provided pre-hospital critical care. Few studies have been made on paediatric pre-hospital advanced airway management. The aim of this study was to investigate pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate in children, first-pass success rates and complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management in patients younger than 16 years of age treated by pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region (1.3 million inhabitants). A prospective descriptive study based on data collected from eight anaesthetist-staffed pre-hospital critical care teams between February 1st 2011 and November 1st 2012. Primary endpoints were 1) pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate in children 2) pre-hospital endotracheal intubation first-pass success rate in children and 3) complications related to prehospital advanced airway management in children. The pre-hospital critical care anaesthetists attempted endotracheal intubation in 25 children, 13 of which were less than 2 years old. In one patient, a neonate (600 g birth weight), endotracheal intubation failed. The patient was managed by uneventful bag-mask ventilation. All other 24 children had their tracheas successfully intubated by the pre-hospital critical care anaesthetists resulting in a pre-hospital endotracheal intubation success rate of 96 %. Overall first pass success-rate was 75 %. In the group of patients younger than 2 years old, first pass success-rate was 54 %. The total rate of airway management related complications such as vomiting, aspiration, accidental intubation of the oesophagus or right main stem bronchus, hypoxia (oxygen saturation < 90 %) or bradycardia (according to age) was 20 % in children younger than 16 years of age and 38 % in children younger than 2 years of age. No deaths, cardiac arrests or severe bradycardia (heart rate <60) occurred in relation to pre-hospital

  5. French pre-hospital trauma triage criteria: Does the “pre-hospital resuscitation” criterion provide additional benefit in triage?

    PubMed Central

    Hornez, Emmanuel; Maurin, Olga; Mayet, Aurélie; Monchal, Tristan; Gonzalez, Federico; Kerebel, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the performance of the specific French Vittel “Pre-Hospital (PH) resuscitation” criteria in selecting polytrauma patients during the pre-hospital stage and its potential to increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of pre-hospital trauma triage. METHODS: This was a monocentric prospective cohort study of injured adults transported by emergency medical service to a trauma center. Patients who met any of the field trauma triage criteria were considered “triage positive”. Hospital data was statistically linked to pre-hospital records. The primary outcome of defining a “major trauma patient” was Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16. RESULTS: There were a total of 200 injured patients evaluated over a 2 years period who met at least 1 triage criterion. The number of false positives was 64 patients (ISS < 16). The PPV was 68%. The sensitivity and the negative predictive value could not be evaluated in this study since it only included patients with positive Vittel criteria. The criterion of “PH resuscitation” was present for 64 patients (32%), but 10 of them had an ISS < 16. This was statistically significant in correlation with the severity of the trauma in univariate analysis (OR = 7.2; P = 0.005; 95%CI: 1.6-31.6). However, despite this correlation the overall PPV was not significantly increased by the use of the criterion “PH resuscitation” (68% vs 67.8%). CONCLUSION: The criterion of “pre-hospital resuscitation” was statistically significant with the severity of the trauma, but did not increase the PPV. The use of “pre-hospital resuscitation” criterion could be re-considered if these results are confirmed by larger studies. PMID:25379459

  6. Refraining from pre-hospital advanced airway management: a prospective observational study of critical decision making in an anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital critical care service.

    PubMed

    Rognås, Leif; Hansen, Troels Martin; Kirkegaard, Hans; Tønnesen, Else

    2013-10-25

    We report prospectively recorded observational data from consecutive cases in which the attending pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologist considered performing pre-hospital advanced airway management but decided to withhold such interventions. Anaesthesiologists from eight pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region (a mixed rural and urban region with 1.27 million inhabitants) registered data from February 1st 2011 to October 31st 2012. Included were patients of all ages for whom pre-hospital advanced airway management were considered but not performed. The main objectives were to investigate (1) the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' reasons for considering performing pre-hospital advanced airway management in this group of patients (2) the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' reasons for not performing pre-hospital advanced airway management (3) the methods used to treat these patients (4) the incidence of complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management not being performed. We registered data from 1081 cases in which the pre-hospital critical care anaesthesiologists' considered performing pre-hospital advanced airway management. The anaesthesiologists decided to withhold pre-hospital advanced airway management in 32.1% of these cases (n = 347). In 75.1% of these cases (n = 257) pre-hospital advanced airway management were withheld because of the patient's condition and in 30.8% (n = 107) because of patient co-morbidity. The most frequently used alternative treatment was bag-mask ventilation, used in 82.7% of the cases (n = 287). Immediate complications related to the decision of not performing pre-hospital advanced airway management occurred in 0.6% of the cases (n = 2). We have illustrated the complexity of the critical decision-making associated with pre-hospital advanced airway management. This study is the first to identify the most common reasons why pre-hospital critical care

  7. Pre-hospital advanced airway management by experienced anaesthesiologists: a prospective descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Rognås, Leif; Hansen, Troels Martin; Kirkegaard, Hans; Tønnesen, Else

    2013-07-25

    We report data from the first Utstein-style study of physician-provided pre-hospital advanced airway management. Anaesthesiologists from eight pre-hospital critical care teams in the Central Denmark Region (a mixed rural and urban region with 1.27 million inhabitants) prospectively registered data according to the template for reporting data from pre-hospital advanced airway management. Data collection took place from February 1st 2011 to October 31st 2012. Included were patients of all ages on whom pre-hospital advanced airway management was performed. The objective was to estimate the incidences of failed and difficult pre-hospital endotracheal intubation, and complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management. The overall incidence of successful pre-hospital endotracheal intubation among 636 intubation attempts was 99.7%, even though 22.4% of pre-hospital endotracheal intubations required more than one intubation attempt. The overall incidence of complications related to pre-hospital advanced airway management was 7.9%. Following rapid sequence intubation, the incidence of first pass success was 85.8%, the overall incidence of complications was 22.0%, the incidence of hypotension 7.3% and that of hypoxia 5.3%. Multiple endotracheal intubation attempts were associated with an increased overall incidence of complications. No airway management related deaths occurred. The overall incidence of successful pre-hospital endotracheal intubations compares to those found in other physician-staffed pre-hospital systems. The incidence of pre-hospital endotracheal intubations requiring more than one attempt is higher than suspected. The incidence of hypotension or hypoxia after pre-hospital rapid sequence intubation compares to those found in UK emergency departments. Pre-hospital advanced airway management including pre-hospital endotracheal intubation performed by experienced anaesthesiologists is associated with high success rates and relatively low

  8. Success Rate of Pre-hospital Emergency Medical Service Personnel in Implementing Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support Guidelines on Traffic Accident Victims.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, Changiz; Vahdati, Samad Shams; Notash, Mehdi; Miri, Seyed Hassan; Ghafouri, Rouzbeh Rajaei

    2014-06-01

    Road traffic injuries are responsible for a vast number of trauma-related deaths in middle- and low-income countries. Pre-hospital emergency medical service (PHEMS) provides care and transports the injured patients from the scene of accident to the destined hospital. The PHEMS providers and paramedics were recently trained in the Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) guidelines to improve the outcome of trauma patients in developing countries. We decided to carry out a study on the success rate of PHEMS personnel in implementing PHTLS guidelines at the scene of trauma. Severe trauma patients who had been transferred to the emergency department were included in the study. Evaluations included transfer time, airway management, spinal immobilization, external bleeding management, intravenous (IV) line access, and fluid therapy. All evaluations were performed by an expert emergency physician in the emergency department. The mean response time was 17.87±9.1 minutes. The PHEMS personnel immobilized cervical spine in 60.4% of patients, out of whom 16.7% were not properly immobilized. Out of 99 (98%) cases of established IV line access by the PHEMS providers, 57% were satisfactory. Fluid therapy, which was carried out in 99 (98%) patients by the PHEMS personnel, was appropriate in 92% of the cases. PHEMS personnel need more education and supervising to provide services according to PHTLS guidelines.

  9. Pre-hospital airway management: guidelines from a task force from the Scandinavian Society for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine.

    PubMed

    Berlac, P; Hyldmo, P K; Kongstad, P; Kurola, J; Nakstad, A R; Sandberg, M

    2008-08-01

    This article is intended as a generic guide to evidence-based airway management for all categories of pre-hospital personnel. It is based on a review of relevant literature but the majority of the studies have not been performed under realistic, pre-hospital conditions and the recommendations are therefore based on a low level of evidence (D). The advice given depends on the qualifications of the personnel available in a given emergency medical service (EMS). Anaesthetic training and routine in anaesthesia and neuromuscular blockade is necessary for the use of most techniques in the treatment of patients with airway reflexes. For anaesthesiologists, the Task Force commissioned by the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine recommends endotracheal intubation (ETI) following rapid sequence induction when securing the pre-hospital airway, although repeated unsuccessful intubation attempts should be avoided independent of formal qualifications. Other physicians, as well as paramedics and other EMS personnel, are recommended the lateral trauma recovery position as a basic intervention combined with assisted mask-ventilation in trauma patients. When performing advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation, we recommend that non-anaesthesiologists primarily use a supraglottic airway device. A supraglottic device such as the laryngeal tube or the intubation laryngeal mask should also be available as a backup device for anaesthesiologists in failed ETI.

  10. Definitive airway management of patients presenting with a pre-hospital inserted King LT(S)-D laryngeal tube airway: a historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Arun; Garcia-Marcinkiewicz, Annery G; Brown, Daniel R; Brown, Michael J; Diedrich, Daniel A

    2016-03-01

    The King LT(S)-D laryngeal tube (King LT) has gained popularity as a bridge airway for pre-hospital airway management. In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the use of the King LT and its associated airway outcomes at a single Level 1 trauma centre. The data on all adult patients presenting to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota with a King LT in situ from July 1, 2007 to October 10, 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Data collected and descriptively analyzed included patient demographics, comorbidities, etiology of respiratory failure, airway complications, subsequent definitive airway management technique, duration of mechanical ventilation, and status at discharge. Forty-eight adult patients met inclusion criteria. The most common etiology for respiratory failure requiring an artificial airway was cardiac arrest [28 (58%) patients] or trauma [9 (19%) patients]. Four of the nine trauma patients had facial trauma. Surgical tracheostomy was the definitive airway management technique in 14 (29%) patients. An airway exchange catheter, direct laryngoscopy, and video laryngoscopy were used in 11 (23%), ten (21%), and ten (21%) cases, respectively. Seven (78%) of the trauma patients underwent surgical tracheostomy compared with seven (18%) of the medical patients. Adverse events associated with King LT use occurred in 13 (27%) patients, with upper airway edema (i.e., tongue engorgement and glottic edema) being most common (19%). In this study of patients presenting to a hospital with a King LT, the majority of airway exchanges required an advanced airway management technique beyond direct laryngoscopy. Upper airway edema was the most common adverse observation associated with King LT use.

  11. Supporting Information Use and Retention of Pre-Hospital Information during Trauma Resuscitation: A Qualitative Study of Pre-Hospital Communications and Information Needs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhan; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Burd, Randall S.

    2013-01-01

    Pre-hospital communication is a critical first step towards ensuring efficient management of critically injured patients during trauma resuscitation. Information about incoming patients received from the field and en route serves a critical role in helping emergency medical teams prepare for patient care. Despite many efforts, inefficiencies persist. In this paper, we examine the pre-hospital communications between pre-hospital and hospital providers, including the types of information transferred during en-route calls, as well as the information needs of trauma teams. Our findings show that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) teams report a great deal of information from the field, most of which match the needs of trauma teams. We discuss design implications for a computerized system to support the use and retention of pre-hospital information during trauma resuscitation. PMID:24551428

  12. Pre-hospital advanced airway management by anaesthesiologists: is there still room for improvement?

    PubMed

    Sollid, Stephen J M; Heltne, Jon Kenneth; Søreide, Eldar; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2008-07-21

    Endotracheal intubation is an important part of pre-hospital advanced life support that requires training and experience, and should only be performed by specially trained personnel. In Norway, anaesthesiologists serve as Helicopter Emergency Medical Service HEMS physicians. However, little is known about how they themselves evaluate the quality and safety of pre-hospital advanced airway management. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we interviewed anaesthesiologists working in the three HEMS programs covering Western Norway. We compared answers from specialists and non-specialists as well as full- and part-time HEMS physicians. Of the 17 available respondents, most (88%) felt that their continuous exposure to intubations was not sufficient. Additional training was mainly acquired through other clinical practice and mannequin- or cadaver-based skills training. Of the respondents, 77% and 35% reported having experienced difficult and failed intubations, respectively. Further, 59% reported knowledge of airway management-related deaths in their HEMS program. Significantly more full- than part-time HEMS physicians had experienced these problems. All respondents had airway back-up equipment in their service, but 29% were not familiar with all the equipment. The majority of anaesthesiologists working as HEMS physicians view pre-hospital advanced airway management as a high-risk procedure. Relevant airway management competencies for HEMS physicians in Norway seem to be insufficiently trained and maintained. A better-defined level of competence with better training methods and systems seems warranted.

  13. Pre-hospital advanced airway management by anaesthesiologists: Is there still room for improvement?

    PubMed Central

    Sollid, Stephen JM; Heltne, Jon Kenneth; Søreide, Eldar; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2008-01-01

    Background Endotracheal intubation is an important part of pre-hospital advanced life support that requires training and experience, and should only be performed by specially trained personnel. In Norway, anaesthesiologists serve as Helicopter Emergency Medical Service HEMS physicians. However, little is known about how they themselves evaluate the quality and safety of pre-hospital advanced airway management. Method Using a semi-structured questionnaire, we interviewed anaesthesiologists working in the three HEMS programs covering Western Norway. We compared answers from specialists and non-specialists as well as full- and part-time HEMS physicians. Results Of the 17 available respondents, most (88%) felt that their continuous exposure to intubations was not sufficient. Additional training was mainly acquired through other clinical practice and mannequin- or cadaver-based skills training. Of the respondents, 77% and 35% reported having experienced difficult and failed intubations, respectively. Further, 59% reported knowledge of airway management-related deaths in their HEMS program. Significantly more full- than part-time HEMS physicians had experienced these problems. All respondents had airway back-up equipment in their service, but 29% were not familiar with all the equipment. Conclusion The majority of anaesthesiologists working as HEMS physicians view pre-hospital advanced airway management as a high-risk procedure. Relevant airway management competencies for HEMS physicians in Norway seem to be insufficiently trained and maintained. A better-defined level of competence with better training methods and systems seems warranted. PMID:18957064

  14. Learning the lessons from conflict: pre-hospital cervical spine stabilisation following ballistic neck trauma.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Arul; Midwinter, Mark; Mahoney, Peter; Clasper, Jon

    2009-12-01

    Current ATLS protocols dictate that spinal precautions should be in place when a casualty has sustained trauma from a significant mechanism of injury likely to damage the cervical spine. In hostile environments, the application of these precautions can place pre-hospital medical teams at considerable personal risk. It may also prevent or delay the identification of airway problems. In today's global threat from terrorism, this hostile environment is no longer restricted to conflict zones. The aim of this study was to ascertain the incidence of cervical spine injury following penetrating ballistic neck trauma in order to evaluate the need for pre-hospital cervical immobilisation in these casualties. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of British military casualties of combat, from Iraq and Afghanistan presenting with a penetrating neck injury during the last 5.5 years. For each patient, the mechanism of injury, neurological state on admission, medical and surgical intervention was recorded. During the study period, 90 casualties sustained a penetrating neck injury. The mechanism of injury was by explosion in 66 (73%) and from gunshot wounds in 24 (27%). Cervical spine injuries (either cervical spine fracture or cervical spinal cord injury) were present in 20 of the 90 (22%) casualties, but only 6 of these (7%) actually survived to reach hospital. Four of this six subsequently died from injuries within 72 h. Only 1 (1.8%) of the 56 survivors to reach a surgical facility sustained an unstable cervical spine injury that required surgical stabilisation. This patient later died as result of a co-existing head injury. Penetrating ballistic trauma to the neck is associated with a high mortality rate. Our data suggests that it is very unlikely that penetrating ballistic trauma to the neck will result in an unstable cervical spine in survivors. In a hazardous environment (e.g. shooting incidents or terrorist bombings), the risk/benefit ratio of mandatory spinal

  15. Pre-Hospital Intravenous Fluid is Associated with Increased Survival in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, David A.; Fabricant, Löic J.; Differding, Jerry; Diggs, Brian; Underwood, Samantha; De La Cruz, Dodie; Holcomb, John B.; Brasel, Karen J.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Fox, Erin E.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Phelan, Herb A.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Muskat, Peter; Myers, John G.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Wade, Charles E.; Cotton, Bryan A.; Schreiber, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Delivery of intravenous crystalloid fluids (IVF) remains a tradition-based priority during pre-hospital resuscitation of trauma patients. Hypotensive and targeted resuscitation algorithms have been shown to improve patient outcomes. We hypothesized that receiving any pre-hospital IVF is associated with increased survival in trauma patients compared to receiving no pre-hospital IVF. Methods Prospective data from ten Level 1 trauma centers were collected. Patient demographics, pre-hospital IVF volume, pre-hospital and Emergency Department vital signs, life-saving interventions, laboratory values, outcomes and complications were collected and analyzed. Patients who did or did not receive pre-hospital IVF were compared. Tests for non-parametric data were utilized to assess significant differences between groups (p ≤ 0.05). Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the independent influence of IVF on outcome and complications. Results The study population consisted of 1245 trauma patients; 45 were removed due to incomplete data; 84% (n=1009) received pre-hospital IVF, and 16% (n=191) did not. There was no difference between the groups with respect to gender, age, and Injury Severity Score. The on-scene systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower in the IVF group (110 vs. 100 mmHg, p<0.04) and did not change significantly after IVF, measured at ED admission (110 vs. 105 mmHg, p=0.05). Hematocrit/hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and platelets were lower (p<0.05), and Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio and Partial Thromboplastin Time were higher (p<0.001) in the IVF group. The IVF group received a median fluid volume of 700ml (IQR: 300-1300). The Cox regression revealed that pre-hospital fluid administration was associated with increased survival, Hazard Ratio: 0.84 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.72, 0.98; p=0.03). Site differences in ISS and fluid volumes were demonstrated (p<0.001). Conclusions Pre-hospital IVF volumes commonly used by PROMMTT

  16. Pre-hospital transfusion of plasma in hemorrhaging trauma patients independently improves hemostatic competence and acidosis.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Hanne H; Rahbar, Elaheh; Baer, Lisa A; Holcomb, John B; Cotton, Bryan A; Steinmetz, Jacob; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Stensballe, Jakob; Johansson, Pär I; Wade, Charles E

    2016-12-09

    The early use of blood products has been associated with improved patient outcomes following severe hemorrhage or traumatic injury. We aimed to investigate the influence of pre-hospital blood products (i.e. plasma and/or RBCs) on admission hemostatic properties and patient outcomes. We hypothesized that pre-hospital plasma would improve hemostatic function as evaluated by rapid thrombelastography (rTEG). We conducted a prospective observational study recruiting 257 trauma patients admitted to a Level I trauma center having received either blood products pre-hospital or in-hospital within 6 hours of admission. Clinical data on patient demographics, blood biochemistry, injury severity score and mortality were collected. Admission rTEG was conducted to characterize the coagulation profile and hemostatic function. 75 patients received pre-hospital plasma and/or RBCs (PH group; nearly half received both RBCs and plasma) whereas 182 patients only received in-hospital blood products (RBCs, Plasma and Platelets) within 6 hours of admission (IH group). PH patients had lower Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores, more penetrating injuries, lower systolic blood pressures, lower hemoglobin levels, lower platelet counts and greater acidosis upon ED admission than the IH group (all p < 0.05). Despite differences in type of injury and admission vitals indicating that the PH group had more signs of bleeding than the IH group, there were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality (PH 26.7% vs. IH 20.9% p = 0.31). When comparing rTEG variables between PH patients transfused with 0, 1 or 2 units of plasma, more pre-hospital plasma transfusion was tendency towards improved rTEG variables. When adjusting for pre-hospital RBC, pre-hospital plasma was associated with significantly higher rTEG MA (p = 0.012) at hospital admission. After adjusting for pre-hospital RBCs, pre-hospital plasma transfusion was independently associated with increased rTEG MA, as well as arrival indices of

  17. Is the prevalence of deliberate penetrating trauma increasing in London? Experiences of an urban pre-hospital trauma service.

    PubMed

    Crewdson, K; Lockey, D; Weaver, A; Davies, G E

    2009-05-01

    Recent media interest in stabbings and shootings has lead to the general assumption that injury and death secondary to deliberate penetrating trauma are rising. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of deliberate penetrating trauma within a London-based physician-led pre-hospital trauma service, and evaluate whether the perceived increase reported by the media translates into a real increase in penetrating trauma caseload. A retrospective review of a physician-led pre-hospital care trauma database was conducted to identify all patients who sustained stabbing or shooting injuries over a 16-year period. Patients who died in the pre-hospital phase and paediatric patients were included. Other local and national datasets were examined to determine whether similar trends were observed. 1564 penetrating trauma victims were identified, including 92 children. 1358 patients (86.8%) sustained stab wounds; 206 patients were shot (13.2%). Penetrating injury accounted for 9.9% of the overall trauma caseload during the study period. The annual increase in patients sustaining stabbing injuries was 23.2%. Gun shot wounds increased by 11.0% per year. The study demonstrates a significant annual rise in the number of cases of deliberate penetrating trauma managed by a UK physician-led pre-hospital trauma service.

  18. Medical pre-hospital management reduces mortality in severe blunt trauma: a prospective epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Severe blunt trauma is a leading cause of premature death and handicap. However, the benefit for the patient of pre-hospital management by emergency physicians remains controversial because it may delay admission to hospital. This study aimed to compare the impact of medical pre-hospital management performed by SMUR (Service Mobile d'Urgences et de Réanimation) with non-medical pre-hospital management provided by fire brigades (non-SMUR) on 30-day mortality. Methods The FIRST (French Intensive care Recorded in Severe Trauma) study is a multicenter cohort study on consecutive patients with severe blunt trauma requiring admission to university hospital intensive care units within the first 72 hours. Initial clinical status, pre-hospital life-sustaining treatments and Injury Severity Scores (ISS) were recorded. The main endpoint was 30-day mortality. Results Among 2,703 patients, 2,513 received medical pre-hospital management from SMUR, and 190 received basic pre-hospital management provided by fire brigades. SMUR patients presented a poorer initial clinical status and higher ISS and were admitted to hospital after a longer delay than non-SMUR patients. The crude 30-day mortality rate was comparable for SMUR and non-SMUR patients (17% and 15% respectively; P = 0.61). After adjustment for initial clinical status and ISS, SMUR care significantly reduced the risk of 30-day mortality (odds ratio (OR): 0.55, 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.94, P = 0.03). Further adjustments for the delay to hospital admission only marginally affected these results. Conclusions This study suggests that SMUR management is associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality. The role of careful medical assessment and intensive pre-hospital life-sustaining treatments needs to be assessed in further studies. PMID:21251331

  19. Pre hospital intensive care in multiple trauma children.

    PubMed

    Hervé, C; Gaillard, M; Petit, J L; Geni, S; Huguenard, P

    1986-01-01

    From January 1979 to December 1984, 1,272 calls, concerning injured children, aged 11 days to 15 years, justified the intervention of a Mobile Medical Emergency and Intensive Care Service, in the department of "Val-de-Marne" near Paris. Three hundred and twenty-two were very serious trauma children (25%); 45 were in cardiac arrest, and 41 died on the scene of the accident despite the intensive cares delivered by the anesthetists or pediatricians. Two hundred and eighty-one children were hospitalized in an intensive multiple trauma pediatric unit (97 cases) or in a neurosurgical pediatric unit (184 cases). The mode of accident was traffic accident (252), fall (48), fire arms (4), knife wounds (7), hanging or strangulation (9), others (2). They concerned 119 females and 203 males. 126 were multiple trauma children (40%). 37% of these accidents happened between May and July, and 40% occurred between 3 to 6 p.m. The 322 children immediately received medical care but 26% died during their hospitalization (17% in the first 24 hours). Thus mortality rate is 35% (114 cases).

  20. Pre-hospital trauma care in road traffic accidents in kashan, iran.

    PubMed

    Paravar, Mohammad; Hosseinpour, Mehrdad; Salehi, Shayesteh; Mohammadzadeh, Mahdi; Shojaee, Abolfazl; Akbari, Hossein; Mirzadeh, Azadeh Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Iran has one of the highest rates of road traffic accidents (RTAs) worldwide. Pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize many instances of traffic-related mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of pre-hospital care in patients who were injured in RTAs, admitted to hospital. The focus was mainly directed at evaluating pre-hospital trauma care provided in city streets and roads out of the city. This retrospective study was carried out on all trauma patients, transported by the emergency medical service (EMS) system, who were admitted to Kashan Shahid-Beheshti hospital during the period from March 2011 to March 2012. The patients' demographic data, location of accident, damaged organs, mechanism of injury, injury severity, pre-hospital times (response, scene, transport), pre-hospital interventions and outcomes, were extracted from the data registry and analyzed through descriptive statistics using SPSS 18 software. Findings of this study showed that, 75% of RTAs occurred on city streets (n = 1 251). Motor-car accidents were the most frequent mechanism of RTA on city streets (n = 525) (42%), while car rollover was the most frequent mechanism of RTA on roads out of the city (n = 155) (44.4%). The mean pre-hospital time intervals (min); response, scene, and transport for all patients were 6.6 ± 3.1, 10.7 ± 5 and 13 ± 9.8, respectively. The mean pre-hospital time intervals (response, scene, transport) in roads out of the city were higher than those in city streets. There was a significant difference (P = 0.04) in the mortality rates due to RTAs between city streets (n = 46) and roads out of the city (n = 32). In comparison with road traffic accidents on city streets, trauma patients in RTAs on roads out of the city have longer pre-hospital time intervals and more severe injuries; therefore, this group needs more pre-hospital resuscitation interventions.

  1. Equipment for pre-hospital airway management on Helicopter Emergency Medical System helicopters in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Schmid, M; Schüttler, J; Ey, K; Reichenbach, M; Trimmel, H; Mang, H

    2011-05-01

    For advanced out-of-hospital airway management, skilled personnel and adequate equipment are key prerequisites. There are little data on the current availability of airway management equipment and standards of medical staff on Helicopter Emergency Medical System (HEMS) helicopters in central Europe. An internet search identified all HEMS helicopters in Austria, Switzerland and Luxembourg. We identified 15 HEMS helicopter bases in Switzerland, 28 in Austria and three in Luxembourg. A questionnaire was sent to all bases, asking both for the details of the clinical background and experience of participating staff, and details of airway management equipment carried routinely on board. Replies were received from 14 helicopter bases in Switzerland (93%), 25 bases in Austria (89%) and all three bases in Luxembourg. Anaesthesiologists were by far the most frequent attending physicians (68-85%). All except one bases reported to have at least one alternative supraglottic airway device. All bases had capnometry and succinylcholine. All bases in the study except two in Austria had commercial pre-packed sets for a surgical airway. All helicopters were equipped with automatic ventilators, although not all were suitable for non-invasive ventilation (NIV; Switzerland: 43%, Austria: 12%, Luxembourg: 100%). Masks for NIV were rarely available in Switzerland (two bases; 14%) and in Austria (three bases; 12%), whereas all three bases in Luxembourg carried those masks. Most HEMS helicopters carry appropriate equipment to meet the demands of modern advanced airway management in the pre-hospital setting. Further work is needed to ensure that appropriate airway equipment is carried on all HEMS helicopters.

  2. Comparison between two mobile pre-hospital care services for trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Pre-hospital care (PH) in Brazil is currently in the phase of implementation and expansion, and there are few studies on the impacts of this public health service. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of care and severity of trauma among the population served, using trauma scores, attendance response times, and mortality rates. This work compares two pre-hospital systems: the Mobile Emergency Care Service, or SAMU 192, and the Fire Brigade Group, or CB. Method Descriptive study evaluating all patients transported by both systems in Catanduva, SP, admitted to a single hospital. Results 850 patients were included, most of whom were men (67.5%); the mean age was 38.5 ± 18.5 years. Regarding the use of PH systems, most patients were transported by SAMU (62.1%). The trauma mechanisms involved motorcycle accidents in 32.7% of cases, transferred predominantly by SAMU, followed by falls (25.8%). Regarding the response time, CB showed the lowest rates. In relation to patient outcome, only 15.5% required hospitalization. The average score on the Glasgow Coma Scale was 14.7 ± 1.3; average RTS was 7.7 ± 0.7; ISS 3.8 ± 5.9; and average TRISS 97.6 ± 9.3. The data analysis showed no statistical differences in mortality between the groups studied (SAMU - 1.5%; CB - 2.5%). The trauma scores showed a higher severity of trauma among the fatal victims. Conclusion Trauma victims are predominantly young and male; the trauma mechanism that accounted for the majority of PH cases was motorcycle accidents; CB responded more quickly than SAMU; and there was no statistical difference between the services of SAMU and CB in terms of severity of the trauma and mortality rates. PMID:23531089

  3. Pre-Hospital Triage of Trauma Patients Using the Random Forest Computer Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Scerbo, Michelle; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Cotton, Bryan; Dua, Anahita; Del Junco, Deborah; Wade, Charles; Holcomb, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over-triage not only wastes resources but displaces the patient from their community and causes delay of treatment for the more seriously injured. This study aimed to validate the Random Forest computer model (RFM) as means of better triaging trauma patients to Level I trauma centers. Methods Adult trauma patients with “medium activation” presenting via helicopter to a Level I Trauma Center from May 2007 to May 2009 were included. The “medium activation” trauma patient is alert and hemodynamically stable on scene but has either subnormal vital signs or an accumulation of risk factors that may indicate a potentially serious injury. Variables included in the RFM computer analysis including demographics, mechanism of injury, pre-hospital fluid, medications, vitals, and disposition. Statistical analysis was performed via the Random Forest Algorithm to compare our institutional triage rate to rates determined by the RFM. Results A total of 1,653 patients were included in this study of which 496 were used in the testing set of the RFM. In our testing set, 33.8% of patients brought to our Level I trauma center could have been managed at a Level III trauma center and 88% of patients that required a Level I trauma center were identified correctly. In the testing set, there was an over-triage rate of 66% while utilizing the RFM we decreased the over-triage rate to 42% (p<0.001). There was an under-triage rate of 8.3%. The RFM predicted patient disposition with a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 42%, negative predictive value of 92% and positive predictive value of 34%. Conclusion While prospective validation is required, it appears that computer modeling potentially could be used to guide triage decisions, allowing both more accurate triage and more efficient use of the trauma system. PMID:24484906

  4. Technology for trauma: testing the validity of a smartphone app for pre-hospital clinicians.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, Eleanor S; Crouch, Robert

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of regional trauma networks in England, ambulance clinicians have been required to make triage decisions relating to severity of injury, and appropriate destination for the patient, which may require 'bypassing' the nearest Emergency Department. A 'Trauma Unit Bypass Tool' is utilised in this process. The Major Trauma Triage tool smartphone application (App) is a digital representation of a tool, available for clinicians to use on their smartphone. Prior to disseminating the application, validity and performance against the existing paper-based tool was explored. A case-based study using clinical scenarios was conducted. Scenarios, with appropriate triage decisions, were agreed by an expert panel. Ambulance clinicians were assigned to either the paper-based tool or smartphone app group and asked to make a triage decision using the available information. The positive predictive value (PPV) of each tool was calculated. The PPV of the paper tool was 0.76 and 0.86 for the smartphone app. User comments were mainly positive for both tools with no negative comments relating to the smartphone app. The smartphone app version of the Trauma Unit Bypass Tool performs at least as well as the paper version and can be utilised safely by pre-hospital clinicians in supporting triage decisions relating to potential major trauma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A consensus-based template for uniform reporting of data from pre-hospital advanced airway management.

    PubMed

    Sollid, Stephen J M; Lockey, David; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2009-11-20

    Advanced airway management is a critical intervention that can harm the patient if performed poorly. The available literature on this subject is rich, but it is difficult to interpret due to a huge variability and poor definitions. Several initiatives from large organisations concerned with airway management have recently propagated the need for guidelines and standards in pre-hospital airway management. Following the path of other initiatives to establish templates for uniform data reporting, like the many Utstein-style templates, we initiated and carried out a structured consensus process with international experts to establish a set of core data points to be documented and reported in cases of advanced pre-hospital airway management. A four-step modified nominal group technique process was employed. The inclusion criterion for the template was defined as any patient for whom the insertion of an advanced airway device or ventilation was attempted. The data points were divided into three groups based on their relationship to the intervention, including system-, patient-, and post-intervention variables, and the expert group agreed on a total of 23 core data points. Additionally, the group defined 19 optional variables for which a consensus could not be achieved or the data were considered as valuable but not essential. We successfully developed an Utstein-style template for documenting and reporting pre-hospital airway management. The core dataset for this template should be included in future studies on pre-hospital airway management to produce comparable data across systems and patient populations and will be implemented in systems that are influenced by the expert panel.

  6. Trauma unit emergency doctor airway management.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, T C; Goff, T

    2007-09-01

    To audit indications for and practice (in terms of training/qualification) of definitive airway management compared with current UK practices. Consecutive observational study. Tygerberg Academic Hospital Trauma Service, Western Cape. All trauma patients either arriving intubated or requiring intubation at the Trauma unit during the period 1 - 31 August 2006. A data collection proforma was completed either at the time of intubation or from medical records. Results. Fifty-seven patients required definitive airway management. In the unit 32 patients (56%) were intubated by emergency medicine registrars or medical officers, with rapid sequence intubations (RSIs) in all 32 (100%). Seven patients (12.3%) were intubated by paramedics pre-hospital, and 18 patients (31.6%) were intubated at referring hospitals by non-anaesthetists. Endotracheal intubation was successful in 55 patients (96.4%). Two patients (3.6%) could not be intubated and therefore underwent surgical cricothyroidotomy at the unit. Clinical outcomes included 12 patients (21%) extubated for ward transfer, 7 patients (12.3%) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), 21 patients (36.8%) taken for surgery, and 17 patients (29.8%) died. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) was the predominant mechanism of injury, accounting for 30 (52.6%) patients, while 16 patients (28.1%) had penetrating injuries (gunshot and/or stab wounds), 6 patients (10.5%) had blunt trauma, and the remaining 5 patients (8.8%) suffered serious burns. The most common indication for intubation was a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of less than 8, typically in the polytrauma patient with suspected head injury due to MVA. Emergency doctors managed 100% of definitive airway in-hospital, and RSI was the favoured method. This differs greatly from the UK where non-anaesthetists only perform between 31% and 56% of trauma intubations, with the rest performed by anaesthetists. Outcome was, however, similar to that described in the literature.

  7. Pre-hospital trauma care resources for road traffic injuries in a middle-income country--a province based study on need and access in Iran.

    PubMed

    Haghparast Bidgoli, Hassan; Bogg, Lennart; Hasselberg, Marie

    2011-09-01

    Access to pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize many of traffic related mortality and morbidity in low- and middle-income countries with high rate of traffic deaths such as Iran. The aim of this study was to assess if the distribution of pre-hospital trauma care facilities reflect the burden of road traffic injury and mortality in different provinces in Iran. This national cross-sectional study is based on ecological data on road traffic mortality (RTM), road traffic injuries (RTIs) and pre-hospital trauma facilities for all 30 provinces in Iran in 2006. Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients were used to describe the distributions of RTM/RTIs and pre-hospital trauma care facilities across provinces. Spearman rank-order correlation was performed to assess the relationship between RTM/RTI and pre-hospital trauma care facilities. RTM and RTIs as well as pre-hospital trauma care facilities were distributed unequally between different provinces. There was no significant association between the rate of RTM and RTIs and the number of pre-hospital trauma care facilities across the country. The distribution of pre-hospital trauma care facilities does not reflect the needs in terms of RTM and RTIs for different provinces. These results suggest that traffic related mortality and morbidity could be reduced if the needs in terms of RTM and RTIs were taken into consideration when distributing pre-hospital trauma care facilities between the provinces. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as an Adjunct to Pre-hospital Advanced Trauma Life Support.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Keith

    2011-12-01

    Most commercial diving operations and naval operations have 24/7, on-site availability of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to perform routine surface decompression or immediate treatment of arterial gas embolism or decompression sickness. Availability and prompt use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the field for treatment of divers with dysbaric conditions has demonstrated its efficacy in acute, co-morbid conditions such as acute exsanguination, blast injury, crush injury, and cardiopulmonary arrest affecting those same divers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy applied in these cases has demonstrated its utility to augment the efficacy of conventional, pre-hospital advanced cardiac life support and advanced trauma life support. Case studies gleaned from actual experience with the diving industry illustrate the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in these conditions. The unexpectedly favorable results have been replicated by controlled laboratory animal studies. The deck decompression or saturation multiplace chambers used by offshore diving operations can easily and quickly be converted for use as medical field resuscitative units. Lightweight and mobile hyperbaric chambers can be outfitted for use in ambulances or helicopters to address civilian street injury or military "far-forward" injury. These transport chambers are compact in design to be efficient transport stretchers designed to hold both the patient and the medical support clinician. It is hoped that hyperbaric oxygen therapy will gain an increasing role as an adjunct to pre-hospital advanced cardiac life support and advanced trauma life support resuscitative efforts as a low-cost, high-yield intervention. In this regard HBO as applied to ATLS/ACLS in civilian and military medical systems may be a productive, disruptive new application of technology.

  9. Identifying pre-hospital factors associated with outcome for major trauma patients in a regional trauma network: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lee; Hill, Michael; Davies, Caroline; Shaw, Gary; Kiernan, Matthew D

    2017-08-23

    Major trauma is often life threatening and the leading cause of death in the United Kingdom (UK) for adults aged less than 45 years old. This study aimed to identify pre-hospital factors associated with patient outcomes for major trauma within one Regional Trauma Network. Secondary analysis of pre-hospital audit data and patient outcome data from the Trauma Audit Research Network (TARN) was undertaken. The primary outcome used in analysis was 'Status at Discharge' (alive/deceased). Independent variables considered included 'Casualty Characteristics' such as mechanism of injury (MOI), age, and physiological measurements, as well as 'Response Characteristics' such as response timings and skill mix. Binary Logistic Regression analysis using the 'forward stepwise' method was undertaken for physiological measures taken at the scene. The study analysed 1033 major trauma records (mean age of 38.5 years, SD 21.5, 95% CI 37-40). Adults comprised 82.6% of the sample (n = 853), whilst 12.9% of the sample were children (n = 133). Men comprised 68.5% of the sample (n = 708) in comparison to 28.8% women (n = 298). Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) (p < 0.000), Respiration Rate (p < 0.001) and Age (p < 0.000), were all significant when associated with the outcome 'Status at Discharge' (alive/deceased). Isolated bivariate associations provided tentative support for response characteristics such as existing dispatching practices and the value of rapid crew arrival. However, these measurements appear to be of limited utility in predictive modelling of outcomes. The complexity of physiological indices potentially complicate their predictive utility e.g. whilst a Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of < 90 mmHg serves as a trigger for bypass to a Major Trauma Centre, the utility of this observation is nullified in cases of Traumatic Brain Injury. Analysis suggested that as people age, outcomes from major trauma significantly worsened. This finding is consistent with existing research

  10. Experience of pre-hospital treatment of survivors of falls-related trauma by an Australian helicopter emergency medical service.

    PubMed

    Janssen, D J; Burns, B J

    2013-05-01

    Greater Sydney Area Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (GSA-HEMS) operates a doctor and paramedic team providing pre-hospital and inter-hospital retrieval. Falls are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among trauma patients. In NSW, patients injured by falling comprise 38% of those with serious to critical injuries (ISS>15). The mortality of falls in this group is 15.2%, higher than the mortality rate for other common injury mechanisms. Mortality rate for high falls (>5m) is similar to that of low/medium falls. The primary aim was describe the basic demographics, transportation, injured areas, treatment and mortality of falls survivors attended to by GSA-HEMS. The secondary aim was to determine if there was any association between height of fall, revised trauma score (RTSc) and need for advanced pre-hospital interventions. Cases of trauma due to falling were identified by searching an electronic database covering the period June 2007 to March 2010. Hardcopy casesheets were abstracted using a proforma. Data was collected on demographics, timings, winch use, height of fall, physiologic variables, injured areas, advanced pre-hospital interventions and mortality at 24h. Associations between height of fall and RTSc, and height of fall and pre-hospital interventions were compared using Fischer's exact test. One hundred and fifty-four of 208 potential cases identified were cases of trauma due to falls, representing 13% of all pre-hospital trauma cases retrieved by the service. Median age of patients was 37, 67% of patients were male. Helicopter transport was use for 97% of cases, with 47% requiring winch extraction. High falls (>5m), which accounted for 25% of cases, were more likely to show non-normal RTSc. A greater proportion of high falls required advanced pre-hospital interventions. Our experience describes a HEMS system that is often called to falls not just based on injury severity or requirement for advanced pre-hospital intervention, but also due to

  11. Pre-hospital airway management by non-physicians in Northern Finland -- a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Raatiniemi, L; Länkimäki, S; Martikainen, M

    2013-05-01

    Airway management is an important skill in pre-hospital emergency medicine. The most optimal method depends on the resources and experience of the emergency medical service (EMS) providers. We wanted to study the frequency of occurrence, equipment used, problems experienced and maintenance of skills in pre-hospital airway management by non-physicians. A structured questionnaire consisting of 30 questions was distributed to 383 EMS providers in three hospital districts (population 597,521 and area 147,467 km(2) ) in Northern Finland. The questionnaire was answered by 226 EMS providers and 58.5% (224/383) were included in the final analyses. In all, 82.6% (185/224) of the EMS providers were allowed to perform endotracheal intubation (ETI) and 44.2% (99/224) could perform ETI using sedative agents. The annual mean frequency of using a supraglottic airway device (SAD) was 1.0 (range 0-20, n = 224), for ETI it was 2.0 (range 0-16, n = 185) and for bag-valve-mask ventilation it was 4.3 (range 0-30, n = 223). The mean frequency of drug-assisted ETI was 1.1 (range 0-13, n = 99). Unsuccessful ETI had been experienced by 65.7% (119/181) of the EMS providers. Airway management had been practised in an operating room by 25.9% (56/216) and with a manikin by 81.3% (182/224) of the EMS providers during the past 12 months. Advanced airway management procedures are uncommon for most EMS providers in Northern Finland. Procedures, training in and maintenance of airway management skills should be re-evaluated. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  12. Barriers and facilitators to provide effective pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic injury victims in Iran: a grounded theory approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries are a major global public health problem. Improvements in pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries (RTIs) worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a high rate of RTIs such as Iran. The current study aimed to explore pre-hospital trauma care process for RTI victims in Iran and to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of pre-hospital trauma care professionals. Methods A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was selected. The data, collected via in-depth interviews with 15 pre-hospital trauma care professionals, were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results Seven categories emerged to describe the factors that hinder or facilitate an effective pre-hospital trauma care process: (1) administration and organization, (2) staff qualifications and competences, (3) availability and distribution of resources, (4) communication and transportation, (5) involved organizations, (6) laypeople and (7) infrastructure. The core category that emerged from the other categories was defined as "interaction and common understanding". Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. Conclusions Improving the interaction within the current pre-hospital trauma care system and building a common understanding of the role of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) emerged as key issues in the development of an effective pre-hospital trauma care process. PMID:21059243

  13. Barriers and facilitators to provide effective pre-hospital trauma care for road traffic injury victims in Iran: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Hasselberg, Marie; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Johansson, Eva

    2010-11-08

    Road traffic injuries are a major global public health problem. Improvements in pre-hospital trauma care can help minimize mortality and morbidity from road traffic injuries (RTIs) worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with a high rate of RTIs such as Iran. The current study aimed to explore pre-hospital trauma care process for RTI victims in Iran and to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of pre-hospital trauma care professionals. A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was selected. The data, collected via in-depth interviews with 15 pre-hospital trauma care professionals, were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Seven categories emerged to describe the factors that hinder or facilitate an effective pre-hospital trauma care process: (1) administration and organization, (2) staff qualifications and competences, (3) availability and distribution of resources, (4) communication and transportation, (5) involved organizations, (6) laypeople and (7) infrastructure. The core category that emerged from the other categories was defined as "interaction and common understanding". Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. Improving the interaction within the current pre-hospital trauma care system and building a common understanding of the role of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) emerged as key issues in the development of an effective pre-hospital trauma care process.

  14. Effect of pre-hospital advanced airway management for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by respiratory disease: a propensity score-matched study.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Fukuda, N; Fukuda, T; Yahagi, N

    2017-05-01

    Optimal pre-hospital care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by respiratory disease may differ from that for OHCA associated with other aetiologies, especially with respect to respiratory management. We aimed to investigate whether pre-hospital advanced airway management (AAM) was associated with favourable outcomes after OHCA caused by intrinsic respiratory disease. This nationwide, population-based, propensity score-matched study of adult patients in Japan with OHCA due to respiratory disease from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2012 compared patients with and without pre-hospital AAM. The primary outcome was neurologically favourable survival at one month after the OHCA. Of 49,534 eligible patients, 20,458 received pre-hospital AAM and 29,076 did not. In a propensity score-matched cohort (18,483 versus 18,483 patients), the odds of neurologically favourable survival were significantly lower for patients receiving pre-hospital AAM (0.6% versus 1.5%; odds ratio [OR] 0.42 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.34 to 0.52]). The results from multivariable logistic regression analysis also showed that pre-hospital AAM was significantly associated with a decreased chance of neurologically favourable survival (adjusted OR 0.43 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.52]). Similar findings were observed for one-month survival and pre-hospital return of spontaneous circulation. In subgroup analyses, pre-hospital AAM was associated with poor neurological outcomes, regardless of the type of airway device used (laryngeal mask airway, adjusted OR 0.35 [95% CI 0.19 to 0.57]; oesophageal obturator airway, adjusted OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.55]; and endotracheal tube, adjusted OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.30 to 0.69]). In conclusion, pre-hospital AAM was associated with poor neurological outcome among patients with OHCA caused by intrinsic respiratory disease.

  15. Pre-hospital endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation is associated with hypotension and decreased survival in hypovolemic trauma patients: an analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Shahid; Gentilello, Larry

    2005-11-01

    Studies of pre-hospital endotracheal intubation (ETI) from single EMS systems have shown contradictory results, which may represent local differences in paramedic training and experience. An alternative hypothesis is that positive pressure ventilation increases mortality because positive pressure ventilation causes hypotension in severely injured hypovolemic patients. A national sample (National Trauma Data Bank, 1994-2002) was used to minimize effects of local paramedic training and experience. All patients with pre-hospital GCS < 8 (most likely to warrant early ETI) and ISS > 16 (most likely to be hypovolemic) were included. Patients intubated in the field (pre-hospital group, n = 871) and in the emergency department (ED group, n = 6581) were compared. To determine whether pre-hospital ETI was an independent predictor of hypotension and mortality, logistic regression was used to control for potential confounders, including age, ISS, body region injured, AIS scores, pre-hospital IV fluids, and other variables. Physiologic variables were not used, as they may be influenced by ETI and positive pressure ventilation, and were therefore considered outcomes, rather than predictors. Groups were comparable in age, gender, anatomic distribution of injuries, likelihood of at least one severe injury (AIS >3) and other variables, except for head injury (ED 83%, pre-hospital 71%, p < 0.001) and ISS (ED 33 +/- 0.2, pre-hospital 36 +/- 0.6, p < 0.001). Patients intubated in the field were more likely to be hypotensive upon arrival in the ED (SBP < or = 90 mm Hg; ED 33%, pre-hospital 54%, p < 0.001), and had worse survival (ED 45% versus pre-hospital 24%, p < 0.001). Even after controlling for potential confounders, pre-hospital ETI was still an independent predictor of hypotension upon arrival in ED (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.46 -2.09, p < 0.001) and decreased survival (OR 0.51, 95% C.I. 0.43-0.62, p < 0.001). Pre-hospital endotracheal intubation in trauma patients is associated with

  16. The characteristics and pre-hospital management of blunt trauma patients with suspected spinal column injuries: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Oosterwold, J T; Sagel, D C; van Grunsven, P M; Holla, M; de Man-van Ginkel, J; Berben, S

    2017-08-01

    Pre-hospital spinal immobilisation by emergency medical services (EMS) staff is currently the standard of care in cases of suspected spinal column injuries. There is, however, a lack of data on the characteristics of patients who received spinal immobilisation during the pre-hospital phase and on the adverse effects of immobilisation. The objectives of this study were threefold. First, we determined the pre-hospital characteristics of blunt trauma patients with suspected spinal column injuries who were immobilised by EMS staff. Second, we assessed the choices made by EMS staff regarding spinal immobilisation techniques and reasons for immobilisation. Third, we researched the possible adverse effects of immobilisation. A retrospective observational study in a cohort of blunt trauma patients. Data of blunt trauma patients with suspected spinal column injuries were collected from one EMS organisation between January 2008 and January 2013. Coded data and free text notes were analysed. A total of 1082 patients were included in this study. Spinal immobilisation was applied in 96.3 % of the patients based on valid pre-hospital criteria. In 2.1 % of the patients immobilisation was not based on valid criteria. Data of 1.6 % patients were missing. Main reasons for spinal immobilisation were posterior midline spinal tenderness (37.2 % of patients) and painful distracting injuries (13.5 % of patients). Spinal cord injury (SCI) was suspected in 5.7 % of the patients with posterior midline spinal tenderness. A total of 15.8 % patients were immobilised using non-standard methods. The reason for departure from the standard method was explained for 3 % of these patients. Reported adverse effects included pain (n = 10, 0.9 %,); shortness of breath (n = 3, 0.3 %); combativeness or anxiety (n = 6, 0.6 %); and worsening of pain when supine (n = 1, 0.1 %). Spinal immobilisation was applied in 96.3 % of all included patients based on pre-hospital criteria. We found

  17. The epidemiology of Scottish trauma: A comparison of pre-hospital and in-hospital deaths, 2000 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jonathan J; Yapp, Liam Z; Beattie, Anne; Devlin, Eimar; Samarage, Milan; McCaffer, Craig; Jansen, Jan O

    2016-02-01

    To characterise the temporal trends and urban-rural distribution of fatal injuries in Scotland through the analysis of mortality data collected by the National Records of Scotland. The prospectively collected NRS database was queried using ICD-10 codes for all Scottish trauma deaths during the period 2000 to 2011. Patients were divided into pre-hospital and in-hospital groups depending on the location of death. Incidence was plotted against time and linear regression was used to identify temporal trends. A total of 13,100 deaths were analysed. There were 4755 (36.3%) patients in the pre-hospital group with a median age (IQR) of 42 (28-58) years. The predominant cause of pre-hospital death related to vehicular injury (27.8%), which had a decreasing trend over the study period (p = 0.004). In-hospital, patients had a median age of 80 (58-88) years and the majority (67.0%) of deaths occurred following a fall on the level. This trend was shown to increase over the decade of study (p = 0.020). In addition, the incidence of urban incidents remained static, but the rate of rural fatal trauma decreased (p < 0.001). Around a third of Scottish trauma patients die prior to hospital admission and the predominant mechanism of injury is due to road traffic accidents. This contrasts with in-hospital deaths, which are mainly observed in elderly patients following a fall from standing height. Further research is required to determine the preventability of fatal traumatic injury in Scotland. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Trauma-informed care for children in the ambulance: international survey among pre-hospital providers

    PubMed Central

    Alisic, Eva; Tyler, Mark P.; Giummarra, Melita J.; Kassam-Adams, Rahim; Gouweloos, Juul; Landolt, Markus A.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Pre-hospital providers, such as paramedics and emergency medical technicians, are in a position to provide key emotional support to injured children and their families. Objective: Our goal was to examine (a) pre-hospital providers’ knowledge of traumatic stress in children, attitudes towards psychosocial aspects of care, and confidence in providing psychosocial care, (b) variations in knowledge, attitudes, and confidence according to demographic and professional characteristics, and (c) training preferences of pre-hospital providers regarding psychosocial care to support paediatric patients and their families. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional, online survey among an international sample of 812 pre-hospital providers from high-income countries. The questionnaire was adapted from a measure for a similar study among Emergency Department staff, and involved 62 items in 7 main categories (e.g. personal and work characteristics, knowledge of paediatric traumatic stress, and confidence regarding 18 elements of psychosocial care). The main analyses comprised descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, respondents answered 2.7 (SD = 1.59) out of seven knowledge questions correctly. Respondents with higher knowledge scores were more often female, parent of a child under 17, and reported that at least 10% of their patients were children. A majority of participants (83.5%) saw all 18 aspects of psychosocial care as part of their job. Providers felt moderately confident (M = 3.2, SD = 0.45) regarding their skills in psychosocial care, which was predicted by gender (female), having more experience, having a larger proportion of child patients, and having received training in psychosocial care in the past five years. Most respondents (89.7%) wanted to gain more knowledge and skills regarding psychosocial care for injured children. In terms of training format, they preferred an interactive website or a one

  19. Trauma-informed care for children in the ambulance: international survey among pre-hospital providers.

    PubMed

    Alisic, Eva; Tyler, Mark P; Giummarra, Melita J; Kassam-Adams, Rahim; Gouweloos, Juul; Landolt, Markus A; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pre-hospital providers, such as paramedics and emergency medical technicians, are in a position to provide key emotional support to injured children and their families. Objective: Our goal was to examine (a) pre-hospital providers' knowledge of traumatic stress in children, attitudes towards psychosocial aspects of care, and confidence in providing psychosocial care, (b) variations in knowledge, attitudes, and confidence according to demographic and professional characteristics, and (c) training preferences of pre-hospital providers regarding psychosocial care to support paediatric patients and their families. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional, online survey among an international sample of 812 pre-hospital providers from high-income countries. The questionnaire was adapted from a measure for a similar study among Emergency Department staff, and involved 62 items in 7 main categories (e.g. personal and work characteristics, knowledge of paediatric traumatic stress, and confidence regarding 18 elements of psychosocial care). The main analyses comprised descriptive statistics and multiple regression analyses. Results: On average, respondents answered 2.7 (SD = 1.59) out of seven knowledge questions correctly. Respondents with higher knowledge scores were more often female, parent of a child under 17, and reported that at least 10% of their patients were children. A majority of participants (83.5%) saw all 18 aspects of psychosocial care as part of their job. Providers felt moderately confident (M = 3.2, SD = 0.45) regarding their skills in psychosocial care, which was predicted by gender (female), having more experience, having a larger proportion of child patients, and having received training in psychosocial care in the past five years. Most respondents (89.7%) wanted to gain more knowledge and skills regarding psychosocial care for injured children. In terms of training format, they preferred an interactive website or a one-off group

  20. Saving Lives on the Battlefield: A Joint Trauma System Review of Pre-Hospital Trauma Care in Combined Joint Operating Area - Afghanistan (CJOA-A)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-30

    What makes military medicine unique? 2. Why do military medical providers exist? 3. What is the leading cause of death on the battlefield? 4. Where do...the advocate for medics and pre-hospital battlefield trauma care? 13. Who owns battlefield medicine ? Unclassified 3 Unclassified SECTION II. EXECUTIVE...customized for use on the battlefield. [Maughon JS. An inquiry into the nature of wounds resulting in killed in action in Vietnam. Military Medicine 1970; 135

  1. Neural Network Medical Decision Algorithms for Pre-Hospital Trauma Care. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    Associates, Inc. Abbreviations and Acronyms AGE Patient’s age AI Artificial Intelligence AIS Abbreviated Injury Scale APACHE Acute Physiology and...Statistics, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1991, pp. 1-66. [30] Fries, G.R., G. McCalla, M.A. Levitt, and R. Cordova , "A prospective comparison of paramedic judgment and...judgment and APACHE II score predicting the outcome in critically ill surgical patients," J. Trauma, Vol. 32, No. 6, Jun. 1992, p. 747. [60] Morris, J.A

  2. Revisiting the value of pre-hospital tracheal intubation: an all time systematic literature review extracting the Utstein airway core variables.

    PubMed

    Lossius, Hans Morten; Sollid, Stephen J M; Rehn, Marius; Lockey, David J

    2011-01-01

    Although tracheal intubation (TI) in the pre-hospital setting is regularly carried out by emergency medical service (EMS) providers throughout the world, its value is widely debated. Heterogeneity in procedures, providers, patients, systems and stated outcomes, and inconsistency in data reporting make scientific reports difficult to interpret and compare, and the majority are of limited quality. To hunt down what is really known about the value of pre-hospital TI, we determined the rate of reported Utstein airway variables (28 core variables and 12 fixed-system variables) found in current scientific publications on pre-hospital TI. We performed an all time systematic search according to the PRISMA guidelines of Medline and EMBASE to identify original research pertaining to pre-hospital TI in adult patients. From 1,076 identified records, 73 original papers were selected. Information was extracted according to an Utstein template for data reporting from in-the-field advanced airway management. Fifty-nine studies were from North American EMS systems. Of these, 46 (78%) described services in which non-physicians conducted TI. In 12 of the 13 non-North American EMS systems, physicians performed the pre-hospital TI. Overall, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and 65 were observational studies. None of the studies presented the complete set of recommended Utstein airway variables. The median number of core variables reported was 10 (max 21, min 2, IQR 8-12), and the median number of fixed system variables was 5 (max 11, min 0, IQR 4-8). Among the most frequently reported variables were "patient category" and "service mission type", reported in 86% and 71% of the studies, respectively. Among the least-reported variables were "co-morbidity" and "type of available ventilator", both reported in 2% and 1% of the studies, respectively. Core data required for proper interpretation of results were frequently not recorded and reported in studies investigating TI in

  3. Airway and ventilator management in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Stefan K; Brokmann, Jörg C; Rossaint, Rolf

    2014-12-01

    Securing the airway to provide sufficient oxygenation and ventilation is of paramount importance in the management of all types of emergency patients. Particularly in severely injured patients, strategies should be adapted according to useful recent literature findings. The role of out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury as prevention of hypoxia still persists, and the ideal neuromuscular blocking agent will be a target of research. Standardized monitoring, including capnography and the use of standardized medication protocols without etomidate, can reduce further complications. Prophylactic noninvasive ventilation may be useful for patients with blunt chest trauma without respiratory insufficiency. An algorithm-based approach to airway management can prevent complications due to inadequate oxygenation or procedural difficulties in trauma patients; therefore, advanced equipment for handling a difficult airway is needed. After securing the airway, ventilation must be monitored by capnography, and normoventilation involving the early use of protective ventilation with low-tidal volume and moderate positive end-expiratory pressure must be the target. After early identification of patients with blunt chest trauma at risk for respiratory failure, noninvasive ventilation might be a treatment strategy, which should be evaluated in future research.

  4. The Quality of Pre-hospital Circulatory Management in Patients With Multiple Trauma Referred to the Trauma Center of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Kashan, Iran, in the First Six Months of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulatory management is a critical issue in pre-hospital transportation phase of multiple trauma patients. However, the quality of this important care did not receive enough attention. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of pre-hospital circulatory management in patients with multiple trauma. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. The study population consisted of all patients with multiple trauma who had been transferred by emergency medical services (EMS) to the central trauma department in Kashan Shahid Beheshti medical center, Kashan, Iran. We recruited a convenience sample of 400 patients with multiple trauma. Data were collected using the circulatory assessment questionnaire and controlling hemorrhage (CAQCH) that were designed by the researchers and were described by using frequency tabulations, central tendency measures, and variability indices. The chi-square test was used to analyze the data. Results The study sample consisted of 263 males (75.2%); 57.75% had lower levels of education and 28.75% were workers. The most common mechanism of trauma was traffic accident (85.4%). We found that the quality of circulatory management was unfavorable in 61% of the cases. A significant relationship was observed between the quality of circulatory management and type of trauma and staff’s employment status. Conclusions The quality of pre-hospital circulatory management provided to patients with multiple trauma was unfavorable. Therefore, establishment of in-service training programs on circulatory management is recommended. PMID:27556056

  5. Comparison of supraglottic airway versus endotracheal intubation for the pre-hospital treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Both supraglottic airway devices (SGA) and endotracheal intubation (ETI) have been used by emergency life-saving technicians (ELST) in Japan to treat out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs). Despite traditional emphasis on airway management during cardiac arrest, its impact on survival from OHCA and time dependent effectiveness remains unclear. Methods All adults with witnessed, non-traumatic OHCA, from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008, treated by the emergency medical services (EMS) with an advanced airway in Osaka, Japan were studied in a prospective Utstein-style population cohort database. The primary outcome measure was one-month survival with neurologically favorable outcome. The association between type of advanced airway (ETI/SGA), timing of device placement and neurological outcome was assessed by multiple logistic regression. Results Of 7,517 witnessed non-traumatic OHCAs, 5,377 cases were treated with advanced airways. Of these, 1,679 were ETI while 3,698 were SGA. Favorable neurological outcome was similar between ETI and SGA (3.6% versus 3.6%, P = 0.95). The time interval from collapse to ETI placement was significantly longer than for SGA (17.2 minutes versus 15.8 minutes, P < 0.001). From multivariate analysis, early placement of an advanced airway was significantly associated with better neurological outcome (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) for one minute delay, 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88 to 0.95). ETI was not a significant predictor (AOR 0.71, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.30) but the presence of an ETI certified ELST (AOR, 1.86, 95% CI 1.04 to 3.34) was a significant predictor for favorable neurological outcome. Conclusions There was no difference in neurologically favorable outcome from witnessed OHCA for ETI versus SGA. Early airway management with advanced airway regardless of type and rhythm was associated with improved outcomes. PMID:21985431

  6. The effect of paramedic training on pre-hospital trauma care (EPPTC-study): a study protocol for a prospective semi-qualitative observational trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accidents are the leading cause of death in adults prior to middle age. The care of severely injured patients is an interdisciplinary challenge. Limited evidence is available concerning pre-hospital trauma care training programs and the advantage of such programs for trauma patients. The effect on trauma care procedures or on the safety of emergency crews on the scene is limited; however, there is a high level of experience and expert opinion. Methods I – Video-recorded case studies are the basis of an assessment tool and checklist being developed to verify the results of programs to train participants in the care of seriously injured patients, also known as “objective structured clinical examination” (OSCE). The timing, completeness and quality of the individual measures are assessed using appropriate scales. The evaluation of team communication and interaction will be analyzed with qualitative methods and quantified and verified by existing instruments (e.g. the Clinical Team Scale). The developed assessment tool is validated by several experts in the fields of trauma care, trauma research and medical education. II a) In a German emergency medical service, the subjective assessment of paramedics of their pre-hospital care of trauma patients is evaluated at three time points, namely before, immediately after and one year after training. b) The effect of a standardized course concept on the quality of documentation in actual field operations is determined based on three items relevant to patient safety before and after the course. c) The assessment tool will be used to assess the effect of a standardized course concept on procedures and team communication in pre-hospital trauma care using scenario-based case studies. Discussion This study explores the effect of training on paramedics. After successful study completion, further multicenter studies are conceivable, which would evaluate emergency-physician staffed teams. The influence on the patients

  7. AAGBI: Safer pre-hospital anaesthesia 2017: Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

    PubMed

    Lockey, D J; Crewdson, K; Davies, G; Jenkins, B; Klein, J; Laird, C; Mahoney, P F; Nolan, J; Pountney, A; Shinde, S; Tighe, S; Russell, M Q; Price, J; Wright, C

    2017-03-01

    Pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia with oral tracheal intubation is the technique of choice for trauma patients who cannot maintain their airway or achieve adequate ventilation. It should be carried out as soon as safely possible, and performed to the same standards as in-hospital emergency anaesthesia. It should only be conducted within organisations with comprehensive clinical governance arrangements. Techniques should be straightforward, reproducible, as simple as possible and supported by the use of checklists. Monitoring and equipment should meet in-hospital anaesthesia standards. Practitioners need to be competent in the provision of in-hospital emergency anaesthesia and have supervised pre-hospital experience before carrying out pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia. Training programmes allowing the safe delivery of pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia by non-physicians do not currently exist in the UK. Where pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia skills are not available, oxygenation and ventilation should be maintained with the use of second-generation supraglottic airways in patients without airway reflexes, or basic airway manoeuvres and basic airway adjuncts in patients with intact airway reflexes. © 2017 The Authors. Anaesthesia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E

    2015-12-19

    Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care.

  9. Simplifying trauma airway management in South African rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Berry, Michael; Wood, Darryl

    2014-05-14

    South African emergency centres witness high levels of trauma. Successfully managing a compromised trauma airway requires considerable skill and expertise. In the rural healthcare setting, clinics and hospitals are often staffed by junior doctors without formal advanced airway training. Current airway management algorithms tend to ignore lack of resources and skill. We therefore propose a simplified guideline for the rural hospital practitioner. Our algorithm offers a step-by-step approach, with the aim of providing an easy sequence to follow that will ensure successful airway management and patient safety. The lack of advanced airway equipment in most rural hospitals is taken into consideration.

  10. Advanced airway management is necessary in prehospital trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Lockey, D J; Healey, B; Crewdson, K; Chalk, G; Weaver, A E; Davies, G E

    2015-04-01

    Treatment of airway compromise in trauma patients is a priority. Basic airway management is provided by all emergency personnel, but the requirement for on-scene advanced airway management is controversial. We attempted to establish the demand for on-scene advanced airway interventions. Trauma patients managed with standard UK paramedic airway interventions were assessed to determine whether airway compromise had been effectively treated or whether more advanced airway management was required. A prospective observational study was conducted to identify trauma patients requiring prehospital advanced airway management attended by a doctor-paramedic team. The team assessed and documented airway compromise on arrival, interventions performed before and after their arrival, and their impact on airway compromise. Four hundred and seventy-two patients required advanced airway intervention and received 925 airway interventions by ground-based paramedics. Two hundred and sixty-nine patients (57%) still had airway compromise on arrival of the enhanced care team; no oxygen had been administered to 52 patients (11%). There were 45 attempted intubations by ground paramedics with a 64% success rate and 11% unrecognized oesophageal intubation rate. Doctor-paramedic teams delivering prehospital anaesthesia achieved definitive airway management for all patients. A significant proportion of severely injured trauma patients required advanced airway interventions to effectively treat airway compromise. Standard ambulance service interventions were only effective for a proportion of patients, but might not have always been applied appropriately. Complications of advanced airway management occurred in both provider groups, but failed intubation and unrecognized oesophageal intubation were a particular problem in the paramedic intubation group. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  11. Relationships between pre-hospital characteristics and outcome in victims of foreign body airway obstruction during meals.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kosaku; Azuhata, Takeo; Kawano, Daisuke; Kawahara, Yayoi

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the outcome of foreign body airway obstruction according to the initial actions taken for choking victims during meals. Our subjects were patients who became unresponsive or unconscious because of foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO) during meals in the presence of bystander witnesses. We investigated the associations between outcome and the following factors: age, gender, type of foreign body, chest compressions after the patient became unresponsive or unconscious, episode of cardiac arrest, efforts by a bystander to remove the foreign body, eating-related activities of daily living, time elapsed from the 119 call to arrival of emergency medical technicians (EMTs), and time elapsed from the 119 call to hospital arrival (primary endpoint). Of the 138 patients enrolled during the study period, 35 (25.4%) received chest compressions by bystanders after becoming unresponsive or unconscious and 69 (50.0%) suffered cardiac pulmonary arrest. Chest compressions by a bystander after the victim became unresponsive or unconscious (p<0.0001) and no CPA (p<0.0001) were significantly related to good outcome. Chest compressions by a bystander were both associated with good neurological outcome (odds ratio, 10.57; 95% CI, 2.472-65.059, p<0.0001). No CPA after FBAO was another independent predictor (odds ratio, 50.512; 95% CI, 13.45-284.41; p<0.0001), but efforts to remove the foreign body before the arrival of EMTs did not affect outcome. Chest compressions by a bystander, a support received by only 25% of the patients, proved to be essential for improved outcome for choking victims who became unresponsive or unconscious. Education for lay-rescuer response to choking might further improve overall outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pain management in trauma patients in (pre)hospital based emergency care: current practice versus new guideline.

    PubMed

    Scholten, A C; Berben, S A A; Westmaas, A H; van Grunsven, P M; de Vaal, E T; Rood, P P M; Hoogerwerf, N; Doggen, C J M; Schoonhoven, L

    2015-05-01

    Acute pain in trauma patients in emergency care is still undertreated. Early pain treatment is assumed to effectively reduce pain in patients and improve long-term outcomes. In order to improve pain management in the chain of emergency care, a national evidence-based guideline was developed. The aim of this study was to assess whether current practice is in compliance with the guideline 'Pain management for trauma patients in the chain of emergency care' from the Netherlands Association for Emergency Nurses (in Dutch NVSHV), and to evaluate early and initial pain management for adult trauma patients in emergency care. Chart reviews were conducted in three regions of the Netherlands using electronic patient files of trauma patients from the chain of emergency care. We included one after-hours General Practitioner Co-operation (GPC), one ambulance Emergency Medical Services (EMS), two Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS), and three Emergency Departments (EDs). Organisation of pain management, pain assessment, and pain treatment was examined and compared with national guideline recommendations, including quality indicators. We assessed a random sample of 1066 electronic patient files. The use of standardised tools to assess pain was registered in zero to 52% of the electronic patient files per organisation. Registration of (non-)pharmacological pain treatment was found in less than half of the files. According to the files, pharmacological pain treatment deviated from the guideline in 73-99% of the files. Time of administration of medication was missing in 73-100%. Reassessment of pain following pain medication was recorded in half of the files by the HEMS, but not in files of the other organisations. The (registration of) current pain management in trauma patients in the chain of emergency care varies widely between healthcare organisation, and deviates from national guideline recommendations. Although guideline compliance differs across groups of healthcare

  13. Data quality of a wearable vital signs monitor in the pre-hospital and emergency departments for enhancing prediction of needs for life-saving interventions in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nehemiah T; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles E; Darrah, Mark I; Salinas, Jose

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the quality of data in the pre-hospital and emergency departments when using a wearable vital signs monitor and examine the efficacy of a combined model of standard vital signs and respective data quality indices (DQIs) for predicting the need for life-saving interventions (LSIs) in trauma patients. It was hypothesised that prediction of needs for LSIs in trauma patients is associated with data quality. Also, a model utilizing vital signs and DQIs to predict the needs for LSIs would be able to outperform models using vital signs alone. Data from 104 pre-hospital trauma patients transported by helicopter were analysed, including means and standard deviations of continuous vital signs, related DQIs and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores for LSI and non-LSI patient groups. DQIs involved percentages of valid measurements and mean deviation ratios. Various multivariate logistic regression models for predicting LSI needs were also obtained and compared through receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Demographics of patients were not statistically different between LSI and non-LSI patient groups. In addition, ROC curves demonstrated better prediction of LSI needs in patients using heart rate and DQIs (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.86) than using heart rate alone (AUC of 0.73). Likewise, ROC curves demonstrated better prediction using heart rate, total GCS score and DQIs (AUC of 0.99) than using heart rate and total GCS score (AUC of 0.92). AUCs were statistically different (p < 0.05). This study showed that data quality could be used in addition to continuous vital signs for predicting the need for LSIs in trauma patients. Importantly, trauma systems should incorporate processes to regulate data quality of physiologic data in the pre-hospital and emergency departments. By doing so, data quality could be improved and lead to better prediction of needs for LSIs in trauma patients.

  14. Anaesthesia and pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Booth, A; Steel, A; Klein, J

    2013-01-01

    Major trauma is a leading cause of death and disability in the UK, particularly in the young. Pre-hospital emergency medicine (PHEM) involves provision of immediate medical care to critically ill and injured patients, across all age ranges, often in environments that may be remote and are not only physically challenging but also limited in terms of time and resources. PHEM is now a GMC-recognised subspecialty of anaesthesia or emergency medicine and the first recognised training program in the UK commenced in August 2012. This article discusses subspeciality development in PHEM, the competency based framework for training in PHEM, and the provision of pre-hospital emergency anaesthesia.

  15. Pre-hospital and initial management of head injury patients: An update.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Kowalski, Stephen; Arabi, Yaseen; Dash, Hari Hara

    2014-01-01

    Most of the bad outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are related to the presence of a high incidence of pre-hospital secondary brain insults. Therefore, knowledge of these variables and timely management of the disease at the pre-hospital period can significantly improve the outcome and decrease the mortality. The Brain Trauma Foundation guideline on "Prehospital Management" published in 2008 could provide the standardized protocols for the management of patients with TBI; however, this guideline has included the relevant papers up to 2006. A PubMed search for relevant clinical trials and reviews (from 1 January 2007 to 31 March 2013), which specifically discussed about the topic, was conducted. Based on the evidence, majority of the management strategies comprise of rapid correction of hypoxemia and hypotension, the two most important predictors for mortality. However, there is still a need to define the goals for the management of hypotension and inclusion of newer difficult airway carts as well as proper monitoring devices for ensuring better intubation and ventilatory management. Isotonic saline should be used as the first choice for fluid resuscitation. The pre-hospital hypothermia has more adverse effects; therefore, this should be avoided. Most of the management trials published after 2007 have focused mainly on the treatment as well as the prevention strategies for secondary brain injury. The results of these trials would be certainly adopted by new standardized guidelines and therefore may have a substantial impact on the pre-hospital management in patients with TBI.

  16. Airway Management of the Patient with Maxillofacial Trauma: Review of the Literature and Suggested Clinical Approach.

    PubMed

    Barak, Michal; Bahouth, Hany; Leiser, Yoav; Abu El-Naaj, Imad

    2015-01-01

    According to the Advanced Trauma Life Support recommendations for managing patients with life-threatening injuries, securing the airway is the first task of a primary caregiver. Airway management of patients with maxillofacial trauma is complex and crucial because it can dictate a patient's survival. Securing the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma is often extremely difficult because the trauma involves the patient's airway and their breathing is compromised. In these patients, mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation are anticipated to be difficult. Additionally, some of these patients may not yet have been cleared of a cervical spine injury, and all are regarded as having a full stomach and having an increased risk of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The requirements of the intended maxillofacial operation may often preclude the use of an oral intubation tube, and alternative methods for securing the airway should be considered before the start of the surgery. In order to improve the clinical outcome of patients with maxillofacial trauma, cooperation between maxillofacial surgeons, anesthesiologists, and trauma specialists is needed. In this review, we discuss the complexity and difficulties of securing the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma and present our approach for airway management of such patients.

  17. Airway Management of the Patient with Maxillofacial Trauma: Review of the Literature and Suggested Clinical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Barak, Michal; Bahouth, Hany; Leiser, Yoav; Abu El-Naaj, Imad

    2015-01-01

    According to the Advanced Trauma Life Support recommendations for managing patients with life-threatening injuries, securing the airway is the first task of a primary caregiver. Airway management of patients with maxillofacial trauma is complex and crucial because it can dictate a patient's survival. Securing the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma is often extremely difficult because the trauma involves the patient's airway and their breathing is compromised. In these patients, mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation are anticipated to be difficult. Additionally, some of these patients may not yet have been cleared of a cervical spine injury, and all are regarded as having a full stomach and having an increased risk of regurgitation and pulmonary aspiration. The requirements of the intended maxillofacial operation may often preclude the use of an oral intubation tube, and alternative methods for securing the airway should be considered before the start of the surgery. In order to improve the clinical outcome of patients with maxillofacial trauma, cooperation between maxillofacial surgeons, anesthesiologists, and trauma specialists is needed. In this review, we discuss the complexity and difficulties of securing the airway of patients with maxillofacial trauma and present our approach for airway management of such patients. PMID:26161411

  18. Pre-hospital care--current concepts.

    PubMed

    Boyington, T; Williams, D

    1995-01-01

    After a brief outline of past developments in the training of ambulance personnel, this paper traces the adoption in the UK of Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) courses from the US. The 1991 World Student Games in Sheffield, UK led to liaison between training staff from South Yorkshire Metropolitan Ambulance and Paramedic Service (SYMAPS) and from Western New York Medical Training Institute. As a result, the trauma care policy of SYMAPS was altered from aiming to stabilise the patient at the scene of the accident to emphasising rapid and thorough assessment, packaging and transport. This is a resume of the scope of the PHTLS provider course. The course concentrates on the principles of PHTLS for the multisystems trauma victim.

  19. Pre-Hospital Emergency in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghardashi, Fatemeh; Izadi, Ahmad Reza; Ravangard, Ramin; Mirhashemi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Context Pre-hospital care plays a vital role in saving trauma patients. Objectives This study aims to review studies conducted on the pre-hospital emergency status in Iran. Data Sources Data were sourced from Iranian electronic databases, including SID, IranMedex, IranDoc, Magiran, and non-Iranian electronic databases, such as Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, available data and statistics for the country were used. Data Selection All Persian-language articles published in Iranian scientific journals and related English-language articles published in Iranian and non-Iranian journals indexed on valid sites for September 2005 - 2014 were systematically reviewed. Data Extraction To review the selected articles, a data extraction form developed by the researchers as per the study’s objective was adopted. The articles were examined under two categories: structure and function of pre-hospital emergency. Results A total of 19 articles were selected, including six descriptive studies (42%), four descriptive-analytical studies (21%), five review articles (16%), two qualitative studies (10.5%), and two interventional (experimental) studies (10.5%). In addition, of these, 14 articles (73.5%) had been published in the English language. The focus of these selected articles were experts (31.5%), bases of emergency medical services (26%), injured (16%), data reviews (16%), and employees (10.5%). A majority of the studies (68%) investigated pre-hospital emergency functions and 32% reviewed the pre-hospital emergency structure. Conclusions The number of studies conducted on pre-hospital emergency services in Iran is limited. To promote public health, consideration of prevention areas, processes to provide pre-hospital emergency services, policymaking, foresight, systemic view, comprehensive research programs and roadmaps, and assessments of research needs in pre-hospital emergency seem necessary. PMID:27626016

  20. Airway management in laryngotracheal injuries from blunt neck trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Debnath; Agarwal, Rita; Bajaj, Lalit; Teng, Sarena N; Prager, Jeremy D

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric laryngotracheal injuries from blunt neck trauma are extremely rare, but can be potentially catastrophic. Early diagnosis and skillful airway management is critical in avoiding significant morbidity and mortality associated with these cases. We present a case of a patient who suffered a complete tracheal transection and cervical spine fracture following a clothesline injury to the anterior neck. A review of the mechanisms of injury, clinical presentation, initial airway management, and anesthetic considerations in laryngotracheal injuries from blunt neck trauma in children are presented.

  1. Trauma airway management in emergency departments: a multicentre, prospective, observational study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Shunichiro; Kimura, Akio; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2015-02-04

    Although successful airway management is essential for emergency trauma care, comprehensive studies are limited. We sought to characterise current trauma care practice of airway management in the emergency departments (EDs) in Japan. Analysis of data from a prospective, observational, multicentre registry-the Japanese Emergency Airway Network (JEAN) registry. 13 academic and community EDs from different geographic regions across Japan. 723 trauma patients who underwent emergency intubation from March 2010 through August 2012. ED characteristics, patient and operator demographics, methods of airway management, intubation success or failure at each attempt and adverse events. A total of 723 trauma patients who underwent emergency intubation were eligible for the analysis. Traumatic cardiac arrest comprised 32.6% (95% CI 29.3% to 36.1%) of patients. Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) was the initial method chosen in 23.9% (95% CI 21.0% to 27.2%) of all trauma patients and in 35.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 39.9%) of patients without cardiac arrest. Overall, intubation was successful in ≤3 attempts in 96% of patients (95% CI 94.3% to 97.2%). There was a wide variation in the initial methods of intubation; RSI as the initial method was performed in 0-50.9% of all trauma patients among 12 EDs. Similarly, there was a wide variation in success rates and adverse event rates across the EDs. Success rates varied between 35.5% and 90.5% at the first attempt, and 85.1% and 100% within three attempts across the 12 EDs. In this multicentre prospective study in Japan, we observed a high overall success rate in airway management during trauma care. However, the methods of intubation and success rates were highly variable among hospitals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Management of pain in pre-hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Parker, Michael; Rodgers, Antony

    2015-06-01

    Assessment and management of pain in pre-hospital care settings are important aspects of paramedic and clinical team roles. As emergency department waiting times and delays in paramedic-to-nurse handover increase, it becomes more and more vital that patients receive adequate pre-hospital pain relief. However, administration of analgesia can be inadequate and can result in patients experiencing oligoanalgesia, or under-treated pain. This article examines these issues along with the aetiology of trauma and the related socioeconomic background of traumatic injury. It reviews validated pain-assessment tools, outlines physiological responses to traumatic pain and discusses some of the misconceptions about the provision of effective analgesia in pre-hospital settings.

  3. Submental intubation: alternative short-term airway management in maxillofacial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ravi Raja; Vyloppilli, Suresh; Thangavelu, Annamala; Joseph, Benny; Ahsan, Auswaf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess submental route intubation as an alternative technique to a tracheostomy in the management of the airway in cranio-maxillofacial trauma, along with an assessment of its morbidity and complications. Materials and Methods Submental intubation was performed in 17 patients who had maxillofacial panfacial trauma and management was done under general anesthesia during a period of one year from 2013 to 2014 at Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Medical College, Kochi, India. Results In all 17 cases, the technique of submental intubation was found to be simple and reliable. Hypertrophic scars were noted in three cases, orocutaneous fistula and mucocele in one case each. All these complications were managed comfortably without significant morbidity to the patient. Conclusion Submental intubation is a good technique that can be used regularly in the management of the airway in cranio-maxillofacial trauma, but with some manageable complications. PMID:27429937

  4. Prehospital airway management: high tech meets trauma: an air medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in the United States for those younger than 35 years and injuries sustained from trauma are a significant source of moderate to severe disability. The inability to establish, secure, or maintain a definitive airway is a major cause of preventable death and secondary injury due to inadequate oxygenation and ventilation. Prehospital airway management is an essential skill of any prehospital care provider. A critical component to providing excellent airway management is the ability of the provider to quickly establish endotracheal intubation without complications such as hypoxia, hyper/hypocapnea, or hypotension. These complications have been shown to cause increased morbidity and mortality, especially in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury. This article presents some of the challenges faced by flight nurses in the air medical environment and how Airlift Northwest has developed a structured, standardized approach to airway management both in training and it the prehospital setting. We will discuss the process improvements that lead to the implementation of video laryngoscopy as our first-line intubation tool. The ultimate goal of any air medical or prehospital emergency medical services program is to manage 100% of airways without complications, which will decrease morbidity and mortality, ultimately improving patient outcomes.

  5. Bougie-related airway trauma: dangers of the hold-up sign.

    PubMed

    Marson, B A; Anderson, E; Wilkes, A R; Hodzovic, I

    2014-03-01

    The bougie is a popular tool in difficult intubations. The hold-up sign is used to confirm tracheal placement of a bougie. This study aimed to establish the potential for airway trauma when using this sign with an Eschmann re-usable bougie or a Frova single-use bougie. Airways were simulated using a manikin (hold-up force) and porcine lung model (airway perforation force). Mean (SD) hold-up force (for airway lengths over the range 25-45 cm) of 1.0 (0.4) and 5.2 (1.1) N were recorded with the Eschmann and Frova bougies, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean (SD) force required to produce airway perforation was 0.9 (0.2) N with the Eschmann bougie and 1.1 (0.3) N with the Frova bougie (p = 0.11). It is possible to apply a force at least five times greater than the force required to produce significant trauma with a Frova single-use bougie. We recommend that the hold-up sign should no longer be used with single-use bougies. Clinicians should be cautious when eliciting this sign using the Eschmann re-usable bougie.

  6. Airway Management in Maxillofacial Trauma: Do We Really Need Tracheostomy/Submental Intubation

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Geeta; Mittal, Rajinder K.; Katyal, Sunil; Uppal, Sanjeev; Mittal, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are various techniques available for airway management in patients with maxillofacial trauma. Patients with panfacial injuries may need surgical airway access like submental intubation or tracheostomy, which have their associated problems. We have been managing these types of cases by a novel technique, i.e, intraoperative change of nasotracheal to orotracheal intubation. Aim: To review our experience about various techniques for the airway management in patient with maxillofacial trauma. To analyse the possibility of using nasotracheal intubation and intraoperative change of nasotracheal to orotracheal intubation in panfacial fractures. Materials and Methods: In a tertiary care centre four hundred eighty seven patients of maxillofacial injuries, operated over a period of 2 years were reviewed in relation to age, sex, mode of injury, type of facial fractures, methods of airway management and their associated complications. Results: Young patients with male predominance is the most common affected population. Panfacial fracture is the most common type of injury (39.83%) among facial fractures. Airway was managed with intraoperative change of nasotracheal to orotracheal intubation in 33.05% of the patients whereas submental intubation or tracheostomy was done in 8.62% of the patients. Conclusion: Nasal route for endotracheal intubation is not a contraindication in the presence of nasal fractures, base of skull fractures and CSF leak. By changing the nasotracheal intubation to orotracheal intubation intraoperatively in cases panfacial fractures, most of the tracheostomies and submental intubations can be avoided. PMID:24783087

  7. Current perspectives in intra operative airway management in maxillofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Vidya, B; Cariappa, K M; Kamath, Abhay T

    2012-06-01

    Maxillofacial trauma presents a complex problem due to the disruption of normal anatomy. In such cases, we anticipate a difficult oral intubation that may hinder intraoperative IMF. Nasal and skull base fractures do not advocate use of nasotracheal intubation. Hence, other anesthetic techniques should be considered in management of maxillofacial trauma patients with occlusal derangement and nasal deformity. This study evaluates the indications and outcomes of anesthetic management by retromolar, nasal, submental intubation and tracheostomy. Of the 49 maxillofacial trauma cases reviewed, that required intraoperative IMF, 32 underwent nasal intubation, 9 patients had tracheostomy, 5 patients utilized submental approach and 3 underwent retromolar intubation. Among patients who underwent nasal intubation, eight cases needed fiberoptic assistance. In retromolar approach, though no complication was encountered, constant monitoring was mandatory to avoid risk of tube displacement. Consequently, submental intubation required a surgical procedure which could result in a cosmetically acceptable scar. Though invasive, tracheostomy has its benefits for long term ventilation. Intubation of any form performed in a maxillofacial trauma patient is complex and requires both sound judgement and considerable experience.

  8. Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) and facial trauma: can one size fit all? Part 2: ATLS, maxillofacial injuries and airway management dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Perry, M; Morris, C

    2008-04-01

    Maxillofacial trauma poses an obvious threat to the patient's airway, which may not be immediately evident. In the multiply injured patient, the co-existence of actual or potential injuries elsewhere may complicate airway management, notably in the presence of full spinal immobilization. Following high-velocity trauma, injuries to the cervical spine must be assumed to be present. They also need to be ruled out in an appropriate and timely manner, as patients may wish to sit up. Assessment and management of the airway in maxillofacial trauma can be difficult, requiring a senior anaesthetist or other individual appropriately trained in emergency airway care. A number of management options may exist to protect the airway, each with advantages and drawbacks. Agitation and vomiting can occur unexpectedly and need to be managed safely with due consideration to the spine. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons need to be aware of these dilemmas and their early warning signs, and be skilled in emergency surgical airway procedures, especially if involved as part of the trauma team. Prolonged immobilization is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A number of protocols currently exist for 'clearing' the spine. Imaging now plays a greater role, especially in the obtunded, unconscious or intubated patient, and this is discussed.

  9. Assessing the degree of involvement of Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists in airway management and trauma stabilization in rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Penn, Marlo; Ruthman, Jacklyn

    2005-06-01

    Certified Registered Nurses Anesthetists (CRNAs) are airway experts who can stabilize the condition of trauma patients with skills acquired from practice as an anesthetist. CRNAs practice in a variety of settings; one of the most challenging is the rural hospital. Anesthetists have a wide range of skills. However, the setting in which CRNAs practice may influence the skills needed. This study was designed to address the issue of CRNA involvement in airway management and trauma stabilization in rural hospitals through a descriptive, quantitative, nonexperimental design study. A random sample of 382 CRNAs who practice in rural hospitals were invited to answer questions using a practice pattern questionnaire about these experiences developed for this study. Data were analyzed descriptively. The 13-item Airway Management and Trauma Stabilization Practice Pattern Questionnaire performed reliably (alpha = .8320). Results revealed the majority of CRNAs working in rural and semirural settings manage airways and stabilize the condition of trauma patients. Practice patterns suggest that nurse anesthesia students be trained to manage airways and stabilize trauma, particularly if they plan to work in rural or semirural settings.

  10. [Emergency anesthesia, airway management and ventilation in major trauma. Background and key messages of the interdisciplinary S3 guidelines for major trauma patients].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, M; Matthes, G; Kanz, K G; Waydhas, C; Fischbacher, M; Fischer, M; Böttiger, B W

    2011-11-01

    Patients with multiple trauma presenting with apnea or a gasping breathing pattern (respiratory rate <6/min) require prehospital endotracheal intubation (ETI) and ventilation. Additional indications are hypoxia (S(p)O(2)<90% despite oxygen insufflation and after exclusion of tension pneumothorax), severe traumatic brain injury [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)<9], trauma-associated hemodynamic instability [systolic blood pressure (SBP)<90 mmHg] and severe chest trauma with respiratory insufficiency (respiratory rate >29/min). The induction of anesthesia after preoxygenation is conducted as rapid sequence induction (analgesic, hypnotic drug, neuromuscular blocking agent). With the availability of ketamine as a viable alternative, the use of etomidate is not encouraged due to its side effects on adrenal function. An electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure measurement and pulse oximetry are needed to monitor the emergency anesthesia and the secured airway. Capnography is absolutely mandatory to confirm correct placement of the endotracheal tube and to monitor tube dislocations as well as ventilation and oxygenation in the prehospital and hospital setting. Because airway management is often complicated in trauma patients, alternative devices and a fiber-optic endoscope need to be available within the hospital. Use of these alternative measures for airway management and ventilation should be considered at the latest after a maximum of three unsuccessful intubation attempts. Emergency medical service (EMS) physicians should to be trained in emergency anesthesia, ETI and alternative methods of airway management on a regular basis. Within hospitals ETI, emergency anesthesia and ventilation are to be conducted by trained and experienced anesthesiologists. When a difficult airway or induction of anesthesia is expected, endotracheal intubation should be supervised or conducted by an anesthesiologist. Normoventilation should be the goal of mechanical ventilation. After arrival in the

  11. The Effects of Pediatric Advanced Life Support Guidelines on Pediatric Trauma Airway Management.

    PubMed

    Sperka, Jana; Hanson, Sheila J; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Dasgupta, Mahua; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Recent Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) guidelines have deemphasized the use of advanced airways in short transport. It is unclear if guideline recommendations have altered practice. We sought to determine if a temporal change exists in the number of prehospital pediatric trauma intubations since the 2005 PALS guidelines update. This is an institutional review board-approved, retrospective, single-center study. Reviewed all pediatric trauma activations where patients younger than 19 years were intubated at the scene, en route or at the level 1 trauma center during 2006 to 2011. Specific complications collected were esophageal intubations, mainstem intubations and need for re-intubations. There were 1012 trauma activations, 1009 pediatric patients, 300 (29.7%) intubated during transport to Children's Hospital of Wisconsin Pediatric Trauma Center (PTC) or upon arrival. Mean age of 9.5 ± 5.9 years. Fifty-seven percent (n = 172) were intubated before PTC, 31.7% (n = 95) field intubations, 25.7% (n = 77) outside facility intubations. 44% (n = 132) at PTC. Age was not a significant variable. There was no difference in the proportion of injured children requiring intubation who were intubated before arrival to the PTC. Those intubated in the field versus a facility had significantly increased mortality (P = 0.0002), longer hospital days (P = 0.0004) including intensive care unit days (P = 0.0003) and ventilator days (P = 0.0003) even when adjusted for illness severity. There was no significant change in the proportion of pretrauma room intubations following the 2005 PALS guidelines even when adjusted for illness or injury severity. Children injured farther from the PTC and more severely injured children were more likely to be intubated before arrival at the PTC.

  12. Remote videolaryngoscopy skills training for pre-hospital personnel.

    PubMed

    Berg, Benjamin W; Beamis, Eileen K; Murray, W Bosseau; Boedeker, Ben H

    2009-01-01

    Videolaryngoscopy (VL) is a novel technology that can facilitate rapid acquisition of intubation skills with simultaneous teacher and learner visualization of laryngeal structures. Videolaryngoscopy improves laryngeal visualization, and improves intubation success in difficult airway management compared to standard direct laryngoscopy. First responders need enhanced airway management tools to improve intubation success rates in civilian pre-hospital and military battlefield settings. We evaluated feasibility and efficacy of a remote first responder videolaryngoscopy skills training paradigm using distance learning by VTC (256kb ISDN) with synchronous transmission of laryngoscopy images to a remotely located trainer. Airway visualization, intubation success rates, and intubation times documented feasibility and comparability of remote and face-to-face introductory familiarization and intubation training with the Storz-Berci videolaryngoscopy system. User acceptance was good. Remote training paradigms for advanced technology solutions such as videolaryngoscopy can accelerate the diffusion of life-saving new technologies, especially when there is limited access to specialized training. Videolaryngoscopy visualization and difficult airway intubation success rates were better than direct laryngoscopy.

  13. A Case Report: Establishing a Definitive Airway in a Trauma Patient With a King Laryngeal Tube In Situ in the Presence of a Closed Head Injury and Difficult Airway: "Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea".

    PubMed

    Koumpan, Yuri; Murdoch, John; Beyea, Jason A; Kahn, Michael; Colbeck, Jaime

    2017-03-15

    Airway management in trauma is a crucial skill, because patients are at risk of aspiration, hypoxia, and hypoventilation, all of which may be fatal in the setting of increased intracranial pressure. The King Laryngeal Tube reusable supraglottic airway (King Systems, Noblesville, IN) allows for temporary management of a difficult airway but poses a challenge when an attempt is made to exchange the device for an endotracheal tube, often managed by emergency tracheostomy. We describe a novel fiberoptic, video laryngoscope-assisted approach to intubation in a difficult trauma airway with an in situ King Laryngeal Tube.

  14. The effectiveness of a 'Code Red' transfusion request policy initiated by pre-hospital physicians.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Anne E; Hunter-Dunn, Ceri; Lyon, Richard M; Lockey, David; Krogh, Charlotte L

    2016-01-01

    Major trauma is a leading cause of mortality and serious morbidity. Recent approaches to life-threatening traumatic haemorrhage have emphasized the importance of early blood product transfusion. We have implemented a pre-hospital transfusion request policy where a pre-hospital physician can request the presence of a major transfusion pack on arrival at the destination trauma centre. This study was performed to establish whether three simple criteria (1) suspicion or evidence of active haemorrhage (2) systolic BP<90 mmHg (3) failure of blood pressure to respond to an intravenous fluid bolus) which were used to activate a pre-hospital 'Code Red' transfusion request accurately identified seriously injured patients who required transfusion on arrival at hospital. Prospective evaluation of all pre-hospital 'Code Red' requests over a 30-month period (August 2008-May 2011) was performed for patients transported to a major trauma centre. Mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, hospital mortality, and use of blood products were recorded. Patients were followed up to hospital discharge. 176 'Code Red' activations were made in the study period. 129 patients were transported to the Trauma Centre. Mechanism of injury was penetrating trauma in 39 (30%) cases, road traffic collision in 58 (45%), falls in 18 (14%) and 'other' in 14 (10.8%). Complete data was available for 126 patients. Of the patients reaching hospital, 20 died in the emergency department or operating theatre, 22 died following admission and 84 survived to hospital discharge. Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 29.1. (range 0-66). Overall, 115 (91%) of the patients declared 'Code Red' pre-hospital received blood product transfusion after arrival in hospital. Eleven patients did not receive any blood products following hospital admission. In patients declared 'Code Red' pre-hospital, mean packed red blood cell transfusion in the first 24-h was 10.4 unit (95% CI 8.4-12.3 unit). The use of simple pre-hospital

  15. Pre-hospital transfusion of packed red blood cells in 147 patients from a UK helicopter emergency medical service.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard M; de Sausmarez, Eleanor; McWhirter, Emily; Wareham, Gary; Nelson, Magnus; Matthies, Ashley; Hudson, Anthony; Curtis, Leigh; Russell, Malcolm Q

    2017-02-14

    Early transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBC) has been associated with improved survival in patients with haemorrhagic shock. This study aims to describe the characteristics of patients receiving pre-hospital blood transfusion and evaluate their subsequent need for in-hospital transfusion and surgery. The decision to administer a pre-hospital PRBC transfusion was based on clinical judgment. All patients transfused pre-hospital PRBC between February 2013 and December 2014 were included. Pre-hospital and in-hospital records were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred forty-seven patients were included. 142 patients had traumatic injuries and 5 patients had haemorrhagic shock from a medical origin. Median Injury Severity Score was 30. 90% of patients receiving PRBC had an ISS of >15. Patients received a mean of 2.4(±1.1) units of PRBC in the pre-hospital phase. Median time from initial emergency call to hospital arrival was 114 min (IQR 103-140). There was significant improvement in systolic (p < 0.001), diastolic (p < 0.001) and mean arterial pressures (p < 0.001) with PRBC transfusion but there was no difference in HR (p = 0.961). Patients received PRBC significantly faster in the field than waiting until hospital arrival. At the receiving hospital 57% required an urgent surgical or interventional radiology procedure. At hospital arrival, patients had a mean lactate of 5.4(±4.4) mmol/L, pH of 6.9(±1.3) and base deficit of -8.1(±6.7). Mean initial serum adjusted calcium was 2.26(±0.29) mmol/L. 89% received further blood products in hospital. No transfusion complications or significant incidents occurred and 100% traceability was achieved. Pre-hospital transfusion of packed red cells has the potential to improvde outcome for trauma patients with major haemorrhage. The pre-hospital time for trauma patients can be several hours, suggesting transfusion needs to start in the pre-hospital phase. Hospital transfusion research suggests a 1:1 ratio

  16. Hydrocolloid dressing in preventing nasal trauma secondary to nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li- hua

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with nasal devices (nCPAP) is widely used in the respiratory management of newborns. The present study aimed to compare the incidence of nasal trauma secondary to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) protected with or without hydrocolloid dressing in preterm infants. METHODS: This prospective controlled study was performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Children’s Hospital of Hunan Province from March 1, 2010 to June 31, 2010. A total of 65 infants, 46 males and 19 females, were recruited in this study. Their average gestational age was 32.6 weeks (range 28–37 weeks). The infants were randomly divided into clinical trial group (group A, n=33) and control group (group B, n=32). Paraffin oil was smeared around the nostrils before inserting prongs in group B; the infants in group A were covered on the infant’s nostrils surface with hydrocolloid dressing (hydrocolloid dressing, 1.8 mm thick, 90029T, 3M Company, Minnesota, USA) with a size of 2–3 cm cutting two holes adapted to the nose and nostrils. The nostrils of those infants were inspected daily during nCPAP support until they were weaned off nCPAP. RESULTS: Nine infants (2 in group A and 7 in group B) developed nasal injury during nCPAP support. The Chi-square test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference (P=0.01) in the incidence of nasal injury between groups A and B. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that hydrocolloid dressing significantly decreased the incidence and the severity of nasal injury. PMID:25225588

  17. Hydrocolloid dressing in preventing nasal trauma secondary to nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) with nasal devices (nCPAP) is widely used in the respiratory management of newborns. The present study aimed to compare the incidence of nasal trauma secondary to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) protected with or without hydrocolloid dressing in preterm infants. This prospective controlled study was performed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Children's Hospital of Hunan Province from March 1, 2010 to June 31, 2010. A total of 65 infants, 46 males and 19 females, were recruited in this study. Their average gestational age was 32.6 weeks (range 28-37 weeks). The infants were randomly divided into clinical trial group (group A, n=33) and control group (group B, n=32). Paraffin oil was smeared around the nostrils before inserting prongs in group B; the infants in group A were covered on the infant's nostrils surface with hydrocolloid dressing (hydrocolloid dressing, 1.8 mm thick, 90029T, 3M Company, Minnesota, USA) with a size of 2-3 cm cutting two holes adapted to the nose and nostrils. The nostrils of those infants were inspected daily during nCPAP support until they were weaned off nCPAP. Nine infants (2 in group A and 7 in group B) developed nasal injury during nCPAP support. The Chi-square test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference (P=0.01) in the incidence of nasal injury between groups A and B. The study demonstrated that hydrocolloid dressing significantly decreased the incidence and the severity of nasal injury.

  18. Effective pre-hospital care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tatsuma; Fukuda-Ohashi, Naoko; Doi, Kent; Matsubara, Takehiro; Yahagi, Naoki

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between pre-hospital care and the prognosis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by respiratory disease is unclear. This study aimed to assess the impact of pre-hospital care on the prognosis of OHCA caused by respiratory disease. In a nationwide, population-based, observational study, we enrolled 121,081 adults aged ≥18 years who experienced OHCA from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. The primary endpoint was favourable neurological outcomes. Of the 120,256 eligible adult OHCA patients, 7,071 (5.9%) experienced OHCA caused by respiratory disease. Of these 7,071 patients, 3,911 (55.3%) received no cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), 2,403 (34.0%) received chest-compression-only CPR, and 757 (10.7%) received conventional CPR by a bystander. There was no significant difference between the three types of bystander CPR with regard to the neurological outcome (no CPR: OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.39-1.24, p=0.1951; chest-compression-only CPR: OR 0.68, 95%CI 0.37-1.29, p=0.2295; and conventional CPR: as a reference). Pre-hospital administration of epinephrine (OR 0.37, 95%CI 0.13-0.85, p=0.0170) and the implementation of advanced airway management (OR 0.32, 95%CI 0.19-0.52, p<0.0001) were associated with poor neurological outcomes. Even in OHCA caused by respiratory disease, not only pre-hospital epinephrine administration but also pre-hospital advanced airway management and rescue breathing in bystander CPR may not be critical. Copyright © 2014 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. 4,871 Emergency Airway Encounters by Air Medical Providers: A Report of the Air Transport Emergency Airway Management (NEAR VI: “A-TEAM”) Project

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Calvin A.; Cox, Kelly; Hurwitz, Shelley; Walls, Ron M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pre-hospital airway management is a key component of resuscitation although the benefit of pre-hospital intubation has been widely debated. We report a large series of pre-hospital emergency airway encounters performed by air-transport providers in a large, multi-state system. Methods We retrospectively reviewed electronic intubation flight records from an 89 rotorcraft air medical system from January 01, 2007, through December 31, 2009. We report patient characteristics, intubation methods, success rates, and rescue techniques with descriptive statistics. We report proportions with 95% confidence intervals and binary comparisons using chi square test with p-values <0.05 considered significant. Results 4,871 patients had active airway management, including 2,186 (44.9%) medical and 2,685 (55.1%) trauma cases. There were 4,390 (90.1%) adult and 256 (5.3%) pediatric (age ≤ 14) intubations; 225 (4.6%) did not have an age recorded. 4,703 (96.6%) had at least one intubation attempt. Intubation was successful on first attempt in 3,710 (78.9%) and was ultimately successful in 4,313 (91.7%). Intubation success was higher for medical than trauma patients (93.4% versus 90.3%, p=0.0001 JT test). 168 encounters were managed primarily with an extraglottic device (EGD). Cricothyrotomy was performed 35 times (0.7%) and was successful in 33. Patients were successfully oxygenated and ventilated with an endotracheal tube, EGD, or surgical airway in 4809 (98.7%) encounters. There were no reported deaths from a failed airway. Conclusion Airway management, predominantly using rapid sequence intubation protocols, is successful within this high-volume, multi-state air-transport system. PMID:24672610

  20. Clinical governance in pre-hospital care.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Steel, I; Edwards, S; Gough, M

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to discover and recognize the importance of clinical governance within a new and emerging quality National Health Service (NHS) system. It evaluates the present state of prehospital care and recommends how change, via clinical governance, can ensure a paradigm shift from its currently fragmented state to a seamless ongoing patient care episode. Furthermore, it identifies the drivers of a quality revolution, examines the monitoring and supervision of quality care, and evaluates the role of evidence-based practice. A frank and open view of immediate care doctors is presented, with recommendations to improve the quality of skill delivery and reduce the disparity that exists. Finally, it reviews the current problems with pre-hospital care and projects a future course for quality and patient care excellence. PMID:11383428

  1. Pre-hospital and early in-hospital management of severe injuries: changes and trends.

    PubMed

    Hussmann, Bjoern; Lendemans, Sven

    2014-10-01

    The pre-hospital and early in-hospital management of most severely injured patients has dramatically changed over the last 20 years. In this context, the factor time has gained more and more attention, particularly in German-speaking countries. While the management in the early 1990s aimed at comprehensive and complete therapy at the accident site, the premise today is to stabilise trauma patients at the accident site and transfer them into the hospital rapidly. In addition, the introduction of training and education programmes such as Pre-hospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS(®)), Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS(®)) concept or the TEAM(®) concept has increased the quality of treatment of most severely injured trauma patients both in the preclinical field and in the emergency trauma room. Today, all emergency surgical procedures in severely injured patients are generally performed in accordance with the Damage Control Orthopaedics (DCO) principle. The advancements described in this article provide examples for the improved quality of the management of severely injured patients in the preclinical field and during the initial in-hospital treatment phase. The implementation of trauma networks, the release of the S3 polytrauma guidelines, and the DGU "Weißbuch" have contributed to a more structured management of most severely injured patients.

  2. Is it safe to use frova airway intubating device during tracheal intubation in difficult airway patient with multiple and chest trauma?

    PubMed

    Hajjar, Waseem M; Alsubaie, Nourah; Nouh, Thamer A; Al-Nassar, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic chest injury is one of the leading causes of death in motor vehicle accident (MVA). A complete tracheobronchial injury occurred in 1% of trauma cases and most of the cases died before arrival to the emergency department. We report a 37-year-old female involved in MVA presented to the emergency room (ER) with normal vital signs. Ten minutes later, her saturation dropped to 75%, which required ventilation; however, two attempts for endotracheal intubation failed. The third time frova airway intubating introducer used and succeeded. Immediately after tracheal intubation, the patient started to have extensive subcutaneous emphysema and severe hypoxia; chest X-ray showed right side tension pneumothorax which was not relieved by a chest tube insertion. Bronchoscopy confirmed total transection of the right main bronchus and lower tracheal laceration and injury. Emergency thoracotomy and repair of both trachea and the right main bronchus were successful.

  3. Potential cervical spine injury and difficult airway management for emergency intubation of trauma adults in the emergency department—a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ollerton, J E; Parr, M J A; Harrison, K; Hanrahan, B; Sugrue, M

    2006-01-01

    Background: Emergency airway management for trauma adults is practised by physicians from a range of training backgrounds and with differing levels of experience. The indications for intubation and technique employed are factors that vary within EDs and between hospitals. Objectives: To provide practical evidence based guidance for airway management in trauma resuscitation: first for the trauma adult with potential cervical spine injury and second the management when a difficult airway is encountered at intubation. Search strategy and methodology: Full literature search for relevant articles in Medline (1966–2003), EMBASE (1980–2003), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Relevant articles relating to adults and written in English language were appraised. English language abstracts of foreign articles were included. Studies were critically appraised on a standardised data collection sheet to assess validity and quality of evidence. The level of evidence was allocated using the methods of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. PMID:16373795

  4. Potential cervical spine injury and difficult airway management for emergency intubation of trauma adults in the emergency department--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, J E; Parr, M J A; Harrison, K; Hanrahan, B; Sugrue, M

    2006-01-01

    Emergency airway management for trauma adults is practised by physicians from a range of training backgrounds and with differing levels of experience. The indications for intubation and technique employed are factors that vary within EDs and between hospitals. To provide practical evidence based guidance for airway management in trauma resuscitation: first for the trauma adult with potential cervical spine injury and second the management when a difficult airway is encountered at intubation. Full literature search for relevant articles in Medline (1966-2003), EMBASE (1980-2003), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Relevant articles relating to adults and written in English language were appraised. English language abstracts of foreign articles were included. Studies were critically appraised on a standardised data collection sheet to assess validity and quality of evidence. The level of evidence was allocated using the methods of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

  5. Airway trauma: a review on epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Airway injuries are life threatening conditions. A very little number of patients suffering air injuries are transferred live at the hospital. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion based on the presence of non-specific for these injuries symptoms and signs and a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of injury. Bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography with MPR and 3D reconstruction of the airway represent the procedures of choice for the definitive diagnosis. Endotracheal intubation under bronchoscopic guidance is the key point to gain airway control and appropriate ventilation. Primary repair with direct suture or resection and an end to end anastomosis is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from tracheobronchial injuries (TBI). The surgical approach to the injured airway depends on its location. Selected patients, mainly with iatrogenic injuries, can be treated conservatively as long as the injury is small (<2 cm), a secure and patent airway and adequate ventilation are achieved, and there are no signs of sepsis. Patients with delayed presentation airway injuries should be referred for surgical treatment. Intraoperative evaluation of the viability of the lung parenchyma beyond the site of stenosis/obstruction is mandatory to avoid unnecessary lung resection. PMID:24980209

  6. Airway trauma: a review on epidemiology, mechanisms of injury, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Prokakis, Christos; Koletsis, Efstratios N; Dedeilias, Panagiotis; Fligou, Fotini; Filos, Kriton; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-06-30

    Airway injuries are life threatening conditions. A very little number of patients suffering air injuries are transferred live at the hospital. The diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion based on the presence of non-specific for these injuries symptoms and signs and a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of injury. Bronchoscopy and chest computed tomography with MPR and 3D reconstruction of the airway represent the procedures of choice for the definitive diagnosis. Endotracheal intubation under bronchoscopic guidance is the key point to gain airway control and appropriate ventilation. Primary repair with direct suture or resection and an end to end anastomosis is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from tracheobronchial injuries (TBI). The surgical approach to the injured airway depends on its location. Selected patients, mainly with iatrogenic injuries, can be treated conservatively as long as the injury is small (<2 cm), a secure and patent airway and adequate ventilation are achieved, and there are no signs of sepsis. Patients with delayed presentation airway injuries should be referred for surgical treatment. Intraoperative evaluation of the viability of the lung parenchyma beyond the site of stenosis/obstruction is mandatory to avoid unnecessary lung resection.

  7. Is the supine position associated with loss of airway patency in unconscious trauma patients? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hyldmo, Per Kristian; Vist, Gunn E; Feyling, Anders Christian; Rognås, Leif; Magnusson, Vidar; Sandberg, Mårten; Søreide, Eldar

    2015-07-01

    Airway compromise is a leading cause of death in unconscious trauma patients. Although endotracheal intubation is regarded as the gold standard treatment, most prehospital providers are not trained to perform ETI in such patients. Therefore, various lateral positions are advocated for unconscious patients, but their use remains controversial in trauma patients. We conducted a systematic review to investigate whether the supine position is associated with loss of airway patency compared to the lateral position. The review protocol was published in the PROSPERO database (Reg. no. CRD42012001190). We performed literature searches in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and British Nursing Index and included studies related to airway patency, reduced level of consciousness and patient position. We conducted meta-analyses, where appropriate. We graded the quality of evidence with the GRADE methodology. The search was updated in June 2014. We identified 1,306 publications, 39 of which were included for further analysis. Sixteen of these publications were included in meta-analysis. We did not identify any studies reporting direct outcome measures (mortality or morbidity) related to airway compromise caused by the patient position (lateral vs. supine position) in trauma patients or in any other patient group. In studies reporting only indirect outcome measures, we found moderate evidence of reduced airway patency in the supine vs. the lateral position, which was measured by the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). For other indirect outcomes, we only found low or very low quality evidence. Although concerns other than airway patency may influence how a trauma patient is positioned, our systematic review provides evidence supporting the long held recommendation that unconscious trauma patients should be placed in a lateral position.

  8. Pre-hospital critical care by anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Scandinavia: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, A J; Lossius, H M; Mikkelsen, S; Kurola, J; Castrén, M; Skogvoll, E

    2013-10-01

    All Scandinavian countries provide anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services. Little is known of the incidence of critical illness or injury attended by these services. We aimed to investigate anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Scandinavia with special emphasis on incidence and severity. This population-based, prospective study recorded activity in 16 anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden serving half of the Scandinavian population. We calculated population incidence of medical conditions, and the proportion of patients with severely deranged vital signs and/or receiving advanced therapy. Four thousand two hundred thirty-six alarm calls were recorded during 4 weeks. Two thousand two hundred fity-six alarms resulted in a patient encounter. The population incidence varied from 74.9 missions per 10,000 person-years (Denmark), followed by Finland with 14.6, Norway with 11, and Sweden with 5. Medical aetiology was most frequent (14.9 missions per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI: 14.2-15.8). Trauma was second (5.6 missions per 10,000 person-years, 95%CI: 5.12-6.09). Twenty-three per cent of patients had severely deranged vital functions, and advanced emergency medical procedures were performed in every four to twelve encounters (Denmark 8%, Sweden 15%, Norway 23%, and Finland 25%). The probability that the patient was physiologically deranged, received advanced medication, or procedure was 35%. Critical illness or injury occured at a rate of 25-30 per 10,000 person-years. The incidence of pre-hospital anaesthesiologist patient encounters in Scandinavia varies. Medical aetiology is most frequent. Almost one-quarter of patients presents with deranged vital functions requiring emergency measures. The Scandinavian pre-hospital population incidence of critical illness and injury is 25-30 per 10,000 person-years. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Should non-anaesthetists perform pre-hospital rapid sequence induction? an observational study.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, J N; Roberts, K J; Wyse, M

    2011-05-01

    The use of rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation (RSI) in the pre-hospital environment is controversial. Currently, it is felt that competence to perform RSI should be defined by skills in anaesthesia not by the primary speciality of a practitioner. This aim of the study was to evaluate the tracheal intubation success rate of doctors drawn from different clinical specialities performing RSI in the pre-hospital environment. Retrospective review of all RSI performed by doctors operating on the Warwickshire and Northamptonshire Air Ambulance over a 5-year period. Tracheal intubation failure rates were calculated and analysed for proportional differences between groups by χ(2) and, where appropriate, Fisher's exact test. 4362 active missions were flown. RSI was performed in 200 cases (4.6%, 3.1/month). Successful intubation occurred in 194 cases, giving a failure rate of 3% (6 cases, 95% CI 0.6 to 5.3%). While no difference in failure rate was observed between emergency department (ED) staff and anaesthetists (2.73% (3/110, 95% CI 0 to 5.7%) vs 0% (0/55, 95% CI 0 to 0%); p=0.55), a significant difference was found when non-ED, non-anaesthetic staff (GP and surgical) were compared to anaesthetists (10.34% (3/29, 95% CI 0 to 21.4%) vs 0%; p=0.04). There was no significant difference associated with seniority of practitioner (p=0.65). Non-anaesthetic practitioners have a higher tracheal intubation failure rate during pre-hospital RSI. This likely reflects a lack of training opportunities and infrequency of clinical experience. Strategies to improve pre-hospital airway management are required.

  10. Usage of documented pre-hospital observations in secondary care: a questionnaire study and retrospective comparison of records.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Geir O; Fredriksen, Knut

    2013-03-01

    The patient handover is important for the safe transition from the pre-hospital setting to secondary care. The loss of critical information about the pre-hospital phase may impact upon the clinical course of the patient. University Hospital Emergency Care registrars answered a questionnaire about how they perceive clinical documentation from the ambulance services. We also reviewed patient records retrospectively, to investigate to what extent eight selected parameters were transferred correctly to hospital records by clinicians. Only parameters outside the normal range were selected. The registrars preferred a verbal handover with hand-written pre-hospital reports as the combined source of clinical information. Scanned report forms were infrequently used. Information from other doctors was perceived as more important than the information from ambulance crews. Less than half of the selected parameters in pre-hospital notes were transferred to hospital records, even for parameters regarded as important by the registrars. Abnormal vital signs were not transferred as often as mechanism of injury, medication administered and immobilisation of trauma patients. Data on pre-hospital abnormal vital signs are frequently not transferred to the hospital admission notes. This information loss may lead to suboptimal care.

  11. Feasibility of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring in the pre-hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, A; Skowno, J; Lansdown, A; Lupton, T; Garner, A

    2012-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of death and severe disability from trauma. Pre-hospital care of patients with TBI may be aided by non-invasive monitoring of cerebral tissue oxygenation. This pilot observational study was designed to assess if cerebral tissue oximetry using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is feasible in the pre-hospital and transport environment. After ethics committee review, we undertook a feasibility trial in healthy volunteers, transported by road ambulance or helicopter, to assess if monitoring signals could be obtained in the outside environment and during patient transport. A total of 33 road ambulance transports and 32 helicopter transports were undertaken. For monitoring commenced outdoors, 33 of 66 probes applied (50%) provided adequate monitoring signal. For road transports, 33 out of 33 transports (100%) resulted in successful bilateral monitoring for more than 70% of the sampling period. For helicopter transports, four transports were cut short by battery failure during the mission and 24 of 28 transports (85.7%) resulted in successful bilateral monitoring for more than 70% of the sampling period. While patient and transport platform movement did not impact on monitoring signals, exposure to ambient light provided a challenge in obtaining monitoring signals that is nevertheless manageable with increased probe shielding. NIRS monitoring is feasible in the pre-hospital environment, opening up the possibility for further research of the role of this modality in this setting. © 2012 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  12. Pre-Hospital and In-Hospital Thoracostomy: Indications and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Aylwin, Christopher J; Brohi, Karim; Davies, Gareth D; Walsh, Michael S

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pleural drainage with chest tube insertion for thoracic trauma is a common and often life-saving technique. Although considered a simple procedure, complication rates have been reported to be 2–25%. We conducted a prospective cohort observational study of emergency pleural drainage procedures to validate the indications for pre-hospital thoracostomy and to identify complications from both pre- and in-hospital thoracostomies. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were collected over a 7-month period on all patients receiving either pre-hospital thoracostomy or emergency department tube thoracostomy. Outcome measures were appropriate indications, errors in tube placement and subsequent complications. RESULTS Ninety-one chest tubes were placed into 52 patients. Sixty-five thoracostomies were performed in the field without chest tube placement. Twenty-six procedures were performed following emergency department identification of thoracic injury. Of the 65 pre-hospital thoracostomies, 40 (61%) were for appropriate indications of suspected tension pneumothorax or a low output state. The overall complication rate was 14% of which 9% were classified as major and three patients required surgical intervention. Twenty-eight (31%) chest tubes were poorly positioned and 15 (17%) of these required repositioning. CONCLUSIONS Pleural drainage techniques may be complicated and have the potential to cause life-threatening injury. Pre-hospital thoracostomies have the same potential risks as in-hospital procedures and attention must be paid to insertion techniques under difficult scene conditions. In-hospital chest tube placement complication rates remain uncomfortably high, and attention must be placed on training and assessment of staff in this basic procedure. PMID:18201502

  13. Equipment to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypothermia: a survey of Norwegian pre-hospital services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Hypothermia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients and poses a challenge in pre-hospital treatment. The aim of this study was to identify equipment to prevent, diagnose, and treat hypothermia in Norwegian pre-hospital services. Method In the period of April-August 2011, we conducted a survey of 42 respondents representing a total of 543 pre-hospital units, which included all the national ground ambulance services, the fixed wing and helicopter air ambulance service, and the national search and rescue service. The survey explored available insulation materials, active warming devices, and the presence of protocols describing wrapping methods, temperature monitoring, and the use of warm i.v. fluids. Results Throughout the services, hospital duvets, cotton blankets and plastic “bubble-wrap” were the most common insulation materials. Active warming devices were to a small degree available in vehicle ambulances (14%) and the fixed wing ambulance service (44%) but were more common in the helicopter services (58-70%). Suitable thermometers for diagnosing hypothermia were lacking in the vehicle ambulance services (12%). Protocols describing how to insulate patients were present for 73% of vehicle ambulances and 70% of Search and Rescue helicopters. The minority of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (42%) and Fixed Wing (22%) units was reported to have such protocols. Conclusion The most common equipment types to treat and prevent hypothermia in Norwegian pre-hospital services are duvets, plastic “bubble wrap”, and cotton blankets. Active external heating devices and suitable thermometers are not available in most vehicle ambulance units. PMID:23938145

  14. Pre-hospital care of the injured in South Western Nigeria: a hospital based study of four tertiary level hospitals in three states.

    PubMed

    Oluwadiya, K S; Olakulehin, A O; Olatoke, S A; Kolawole, I K; Solagberu, B A; Olasinde, A A; Komolafe, E O K

    2005-01-01

    Pre-hospital care in developing worlds has been found to be grossly deficient compared to high income countries. The pre-hospital care given to road accident victims attending the casualty departments of four tertiary level hospitals in South Western Nigeria was assessed using a one-page pro-forma. 1996 patients with injuries from road crashes were seen in the hospitals, only 172 had any form of pre-hospital care, just 160 were transported in ambulances and none had any form of organized pre-hospital care. The mean arrival time in the hospital after crashes was 93.6 minutes and there was a high rate (29.5%) of inter-hospital referral. For every Revised Trauma Score (RTS), the Probability of survival (Ps) of the patients was higher than the Ps of patients from high income countries.

  15. Pre-Hospital Care Management of a Potential Spinal Cord Injured Patient: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Evidence-Based Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Henry; Singh, Jeffrey; Nathens, Avery; MacDonald, Russell D.; Travers, Andrew; Tallon, John; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An interdisciplinary expert panel of medical and surgical specialists involved in the management of patients with potential spinal cord injuries (SCI) was assembled. Four key questions were created that were of significant interest. These were: (1) what is the optimal type and duration of pre-hospital spinal immobilization in patients with acute SCI?; (2) during airway manipulation in the pre-hospital setting, what is the ideal method of spinal immobilization?; (3) what is the impact of pre-hospital transport time to definitive care on the outcomes of patients with acute spinal cord injury?; and (4) what is the role of pre-hospital care providers in cervical spine clearance and immobilization? A systematic review utilizing multiple databases was performed to determine the current evidence about the specific questions, and each article was independently reviewed and assessed by two reviewers based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Guidelines were then created related to the questions by a national Canadian expert panel using the Delphi method for reviewing the evidence-based guidelines about each question. Recommendations about the key questions included: the pre-hospital immobilization of patients using a cervical collar, head immobilization, and a spinal board; utilization of padded boards or inflatable bean bag boards to reduce pressure; transfer of patients off of spine boards as soon as feasible, including transfer of patients off spinal boards while awaiting transfer from one hospital institution to another hospital center for definitive care; inclusion of manual in-line cervical spine traction for airway management in patients requiring intubation in the pre-hospital setting; transport of patients with acute traumatic SCI to the definitive hospital center for care within 24 h of injury; and training of emergency medical personnel in the pre-hospital setting to apply criteria to clear patients of cervical spinal injuries, and immobilize patients

  16. Skills required for maritime pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Pre-hospital emergency care (PHEC) in the military has undergone major changes during the last 10 years of warfighting in the land environment. Providing this care in the maritime environment presents several unique challenges. This paper examines the clinical capabilities required of a PHEC team in the maritime environment and how this role can be fulfilled as part of Role 2 Afloat. It applies to Pre-hospital emergency care projected from a hospital not to General Duties Medical Officers at Role 1.

  17. Determining the composition and benefit of the pre-hospital medical response team in the conflict setting.

    PubMed

    Davis, P R; Rickards, A C; Ollerton, J E

    2007-12-01

    To determine the optimal composition o f the pre-hospital medical response team (MERT) and the value of pre-hospital critical care interventions in a military setting, and specifically to determine both the benefit of including a doctor in the pre-hospital response team and the relevance of the time and distance to definitive care. A comprehensive review of the literature incorporating a range of electronic search engines and hand searches of key journals. There was no level 1 evidence on which to base conclusions. The 15 most relevant articles were analysed in detail. There was one randomized controlled trial (level 2 evidence) that supports the inclusion of a doctor on MERT. Several cohort studies were identified that analysed the benefits of specific critical care interventions in the pre-hospital setting. A doctor with critical care skills deployed on the MERT is associated with improved survival in victims of major trauma. Specific critical care interventions including emergency endotracheal intubation and ventilation, and intercostal drainage are associated with improved survival and functional recovery in certain patients. These benefits appear to be more easily demonstrated for the rural and remote setting than for the urban setting.

  18. An intelligent pre-hospital patient care system.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Mark; Myung, Dan; Hashmi, Nada; Shankaranarayanan, G

    2007-01-01

    iRevive is a sensor-supported, pre-hospital patient care system for the capture and transmittal of electronic patient data from the field to hospitals. It is being developed by 10Blade and Boston MedFlight. iRevive takes advantage of emerging technologies to offer a robust, flexible, and extensible IT infrastructure for patient data collection.

  19. Pre-hospital care in Nigeria: a country without emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Solagberu, B A; Ofoegbu, C K P; Abdur-Rahman, L O; Adekanye, A O; Udoffa, U S; Taiwo, J

    2009-03-01

    Efficient pre-hospital transport (emergency medical services, EMS) is associated with improved outcomes in road traffic injuries (RTI). This study aims to discover possible interventions in the existing mode of transport. Persons bringing all RTI victims to the Emergency room (ER) over a 4-year period and the injury arrival intervals were noted prospectively. There were 2,624 patients (1,886 males and 738 females); only 2,046 (78%) had clear documentations of three categories of persons bringing victims to ER: Relatives (REL, 1,081, 52.83%); Police/Federal Road Safety Corps (P/F, 827, 40.42%) and Bystanders (BS, 138, 6.74%). No intervention was provided during transport: Within 1 hour, 986 victims (48.2% of 2,046) arrived ERbrought by P/F (448, 21.9%), REL (439, 21.5% of 2,046), and BS (99, 4.8%). These figures, in each instance, represent 40.6 % of total victims brought by REL; 54.2% by P/F and 71.7% by BS. However, after 6 hours, REL were the main active group as they brought 94.5% (359 of 380) patients of this period. In 91 victims (4.4%) the injury arrival time was not captured. This study has identified three groups of persons involved in pre-hospital transport with nearly 50% getting to ER within 1 hour without any intervention or prior notification of ER. Absence of EMS obscures pre-hospital death records. The P/F responsible for only 40% of transport should be trained and equipped to offer basic trauma life support (BTLS). The REL and BS (both responsible for 60% of transport) represent a pool of volunteers for BTLS to be trained.

  20. A review of pre-admission advanced airway management in combat casualties, Helmand Province 2013.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Harry E J; LeClerc, S; Mclennan, J

    2015-06-01

    Airway compromise is the third leading cause of potentially preventable combat death. Pre-hospital airway management has lower success rates than in hospital. This study reviewed advanced airway management focusing on cricothyroidotomies and supraglottic airway devices in combat casualties prior to admission to a Role 3 Hospital in Afghanistan. This was a retrospective review of all casualties who required advanced airway management prior to arrival at the Role 3 Hospital, Bastion, Helmand Province over a 30-week period identified by the US Joint Theatre Trauma Registry. The notes and relevant X-rays were analysed. The opinions of US and UK clinical Subject Matter Experts (SME) were then sought. Fifty-seven advanced airway interventions were identified. 45 casualties had attempted intubations, 37 (82%) were successful and of those who had failed intubations, one had a King LT Airway (supraglottic device) and seven had a rescue cricothyroidotomy. The other initial advanced airway interventions were five attempted King LT airways and seven attempted cricothyroidotomies. In total, 14 cricothyroidotomies were performed; in this group, there were nine complications/significant events. The SMEs suggested that dedicated surgical airway kits should be used and students in training should be taught to secure the cricothyroidotomy tube as well as how to insert it. This review re-emphasises the need to 'ensure the right person, with the right equipment and the right training, is present at the right time if we are to improve the survival of patients with airway compromise on the battlefield'. The audit reference number is RCDM/Res/Audit/1036/12/0368. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Pre-hospital management of spinal injuries in a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Athar; Khan, Shahbaz Ali; Ahmed, Ehtisham; Fatima, Sadia; Fatima, Fozia; Pasha, Tousif; Alvi, Hamid Fazeel

    2011-01-01

    Spinal injuries are one of the most devastating and crippling conditions known to mankind. Natural calamities follow no rules, and all have the potential of devastating medical and public health resources, earthquakes being the deadliest. The incidence of spinal injuries increases by leaps and bounds in such calamities. Improper pre-hospital management and inadvertent manipulation of the spine during rescue and transfer can aggravate the damage. This study was conducted in order to access the level of pre-hospital care that had been provided to the patients with spinal injuries reaching Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad after the October 2005 earthquake. This study was conducted in the department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical College after the earthquake of October 2005. All patients sustaining spinal injuries were included in the study. Demographic data like age, gender and time of arrival at hospital were recorded. The important aspects of pre-hospital care like spinal immobilisation, intravenous access, fluid resuscitation, catheterisation, pain killers and intravenous steroids administration were also recorded. Out of the 83 patients with spinal injuries, 55 (66.26%) were females and 28 (33.7%) were males. Age ranged from 12-68 years (mean 26.6 +/- 13.2 years). At the time of presentation 70 (84.3%) patients had complete spinal injury whereas 13 (15.6%) had incomplete spinal injury. Sixty-one (73.5%) patients were paraplegic and 22 (26.5%) cases were quadriplegic. Only 8 (9.6%) patients were brought to the hospital after proper spinal immobilisation on the spinal boards. Intravenous line was maintained in 24 (28.9%) patients and only 18 (21.7%) received some sort of fluid resuscitation. Thirty-eight (45.7%) were catheterised. 18 (21.6%) received some sort of parenteral analgesics and 4 (4.8%) received steroids at the time of patients. Only 10(12%) were brought in properly equipped ambulances. Poor pre-hospital management of spinal injured patients depicts the

  2. [Nursing care in pre-hospital services and airmedical removal].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Patricia Kuerten; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Radünz, Vera; Wosny, Antônio de Miranda

    2003-01-01

    The present article is a description of an experience developed during the Conclusive Monography of the Nursing Course from Santa Catarina's Federal University, in the second semester year 2000. It discusses the importance of the Pre-hospital Attendiment Service and Airmedical Removal, and the need of nurses preparation to attend the increasing requests of those services. It presents a historical review on these kind of attention method in health, in Brazil and in the world. It discusses some aspects related to management of human and material resources, concerning its specificity in those kind of services. It also points out the importance of the Nurse roll, and the necessity of widening their skills to act in the field of pre-hospital attendiment and airmedical removal.

  3. [Pre-hospital adverse events: a way to go].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ortiz, Nancy Jezzi; Aranaz Andrés, Jesús María; Gea Velázquez De Castro, María Teresa; Miralles Bueno, Juan José

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of adverse events is a problem at all levels of care and creates a significant burden of morbidity and mortality. In Spain there have been significant investigations of adverse effects (AE) in hospitals and primary care, however, studies of pre-hospital care are not yet developed. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, type, preventability, severity and impact of "pre-hospital" adverse events, which were detected in the hospitalization index and the comparing those that occurred in ambulatory and non-ambulatory care. Case Series Study, with analytical components, of a sample of subjects included in the "National study of adverse events related to hospitalization (ENEAS). Qualitative data are presented as proportions with confidence intervals. For comparative analysis of qualitative data, we used the chi-square test. Of a total of 5624 patients, 2.3% (N=131) ((95%)CI: 1.94-2.72) had an AE that occurred prior to hospitalization or "pre-hospital", and 40.5% of these (N=53) ((95%)CI: 32.05-48.86) were preventable. In 44 patients the AE had its origin in ambulatory care and 85 patients in non-ambulatory care. The characteristic of patients with ambulatory AE are men and older women (median 76 years) who consulted for medical problems (84.1%) and the AE were related to medication in 77.8%. The characteristic of patients with non-ambulatory AE, were men (median 73 years), consulting for medical and surgical problems (44,7-55,3%) and the EA is related to medications, infections and procedures. The characteristics of patients with AE and undesirable effects that occurred during pre-hospitalization period depended on whether they originated during ambulatory care or non-ambulatory care. Therefore prevention strategies should take these differences into account. Copyright 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Pediatric pre-hospital emergencies in Belgium: a 2-year national descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Demaret, Pierre; Lebrun, Frédéric; Devos, Philippe; Champagne, Caroline; Lemaire, Roland; Loeckx, Isabelle; Messens, Marie; Mulder, André

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to describe the pediatric physician-staffed EMS missions at a national level and to compare the pediatric and the adult EMS missions. Using a national database, we analyzed 254,812 interventions including 15,294 (6 %) pediatric emergencies. Less children than adults received an intravenous infusion (52.7 versus 77.1 %, p < 0.001), but the intra-osseous access was used more frequently in children (1.3 versus 0.8 %, p < 0.001). More children than adults benefited from a therapeutic immobilization (16.3 versus 13.2 %, p < 0.001). Endotracheal intubation was rare in children (2.1 %) as well as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (1.2 %). Children were more likely than adults to suffer from a neurological problem (32.4 versus 21.3 %, p < 0.001) or from a trauma (27.1 versus 16.8 %, p < 0.001). The prevalence of the pediatric diagnoses showed an age dependency: the respiratory problems were more prevalent in infants (40.3 % of the 0-12-months old), 52.1 % of the 1-4-year-old children suffered from a neurological problem, and the prevalence of trauma raised from 14.8 % of the infants to 47.1 % of the 11-15 year olds. Pre-hospital pediatric EMS missions are not frequent and differ from the adult interventions. The pediatric characteristics highlighted in this study should help EMS teams to be better prepared to deal with sick children in the pre-hospital setting. • Pediatric and adult emergencies differ. • Pediatric life-threatening emergencies are not frequent. What is New: • This study is the first to describe a European national cohort of pediatric physician-staffed EMS missions and to compare the pediatric and the adult missions at a national level. • This large cohort study confirms scarce regional data indicating that pediatric pre-hospital emergencies are not frequent and mostly non-life-threatening.

  5. Factors Impacting Mortality in the Pre-Hospital Period After Road Traffic Accidents in Urban India.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekharan, Ananthnarayan; Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Sandhya; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    India currently has the dubious distinction of experiencing the highest number of road traffic accidents in the world. We believe that this study on road traffic accidents may help to identify factors in the pre-hospital setting that may influence mortality rates. A prospective observational study was carried out in a metro area in India over a period of one year. The study included consecutive patients admitted to the trauma service after road traffic accidents. Demographic information, time and place of accident, and details regarding the vehicle and the events leading up to the hospital admission were recorded. Injury severity, management in the hospital, and final outcomes in terms of mortality were noted. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. A total of 773 patients were enrolled. Of these, there were 197 deaths and 576 survivors. The majority of patients were aged 15 - 40 years (67%) and were male (87.84%). More accidents occurred at night (58.2%) than during the day (41.8%). Mortality was not significantly associated with age, sex, or time of accident. City roads (38.9%) saw more accidents than highways (26.13%), but highway accidents were more likely to be fatal. Two-wheeler riders (37.65%) and pedestrians (35.75%) formed the majority of our study population. Mortality was significantly associated with crossing the road on foot (P = 0.004). Pillion riders on two-wheeler vehicles were more likely to experience poor outcomes (relative risk [RR] = 1.9, P = 0.001). Front-seat occupants in four-wheeler vehicles were at an increased risk of not surviving the accident (61.98%; RR=2.56, P = 0.01). Lack of safety gear, such as helmets, seat belts, and airbags, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.05). Delays in transfers of patients to the hospital and a lack of pre-hospital emergency services was significantly associated with increased mortality (P = 0.000). A lack of respect for the law, weak legislation and law enforcement, disregard for

  6. Factors Impacting Mortality in the Pre-Hospital Period After Road Traffic Accidents in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekharan, Ananthnarayan; Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Sandhya; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Background India currently has the dubious distinction of experiencing the highest number of road traffic accidents in the world. Objectives We believe that this study on road traffic accidents may help to identify factors in the pre-hospital setting that may influence mortality rates. Patients and Methods A prospective observational study was carried out in a metro area in India over a period of one year. The study included consecutive patients admitted to the trauma service after road traffic accidents. Demographic information, time and place of accident, and details regarding the vehicle and the events leading up to the hospital admission were recorded. Injury severity, management in the hospital, and final outcomes in terms of mortality were noted. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results A total of 773 patients were enrolled. Of these, there were 197 deaths and 576 survivors. The majority of patients were aged 15 - 40 years (67%) and were male (87.84%). More accidents occurred at night (58.2%) than during the day (41.8%). Mortality was not significantly associated with age, sex, or time of accident. City roads (38.9%) saw more accidents than highways (26.13%), but highway accidents were more likely to be fatal. Two-wheeler riders (37.65%) and pedestrians (35.75%) formed the majority of our study population. Mortality was significantly associated with crossing the road on foot (P = 0.004). Pillion riders on two-wheeler vehicles were more likely to experience poor outcomes (relative risk [RR] = 1.9, P = 0.001). Front-seat occupants in four-wheeler vehicles were at an increased risk of not surviving the accident (61.98%; RR=2.56, P = 0.01). Lack of safety gear, such as helmets, seat belts, and airbags, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.05). Delays in transfers of patients to the hospital and a lack of pre-hospital emergency services was significantly associated with increased mortality (P = 0.000). Conclusions A lack of respect for the

  7. Telemedicine in pre-hospital care: a review of telemedicine applications in the pre-hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Amadi-Obi, Ahjoku; Gilligan, Peadar; Owens, Niall; O'Donnell, Cathal

    2014-01-01

    The right person in the right place and at the right time is not always possible; telemedicine offers the potential to give audio and visual access to the appropriate clinician for patients. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) in the area of video-to-video communication have led to growth in telemedicine applications in recent years. For these advances to be properly integrated into healthcare delivery, a regulatory framework, supported by definitive high-quality research, should be developed. Telemedicine is well suited to extending the reach of specialist services particularly in the pre-hospital care of acute emergencies where treatment delays may affect clinical outcome. The exponential growth in research and development in telemedicine has led to improvements in clinical outcomes in emergency medical care. This review is part of the LiveCity project to examine the history and existing applications of telemedicine in the pre-hospital environment. A search of electronic databases including Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for relevant papers was performed. All studies addressing the use of telemedicine in emergency medical or pre-hospital care setting were included. Out of a total of 1,279 articles reviewed, 39 met the inclusion criteria and were critically analysed. A majority of the studies were on stroke management. The studies suggested that overall, telemedicine had a positive impact on emergency medical care. It improved the pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke and myocardial infarction and enhanced the supervision of delivery of tissue thromboplasminogen activator in acute ischaemic stroke. Telemedicine presents an opportunity to enhance patient management. There are as yet few definitive studies that have demonstrated whether it had an effect on clinical outcome.

  8. Telemedicine in pre-hospital care: a review of telemedicine applications in the pre-hospital environment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The right person in the right place and at the right time is not always possible; telemedicine offers the potential to give audio and visual access to the appropriate clinician for patients. Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) in the area of video-to-video communication have led to growth in telemedicine applications in recent years. For these advances to be properly integrated into healthcare delivery, a regulatory framework, supported by definitive high-quality research, should be developed. Telemedicine is well suited to extending the reach of specialist services particularly in the pre-hospital care of acute emergencies where treatment delays may affect clinical outcome. The exponential growth in research and development in telemedicine has led to improvements in clinical outcomes in emergency medical care. This review is part of the LiveCity project to examine the history and existing applications of telemedicine in the pre-hospital environment. A search of electronic databases including Medline, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) for relevant papers was performed. All studies addressing the use of telemedicine in emergency medical or pre-hospital care setting were included. Out of a total of 1,279 articles reviewed, 39 met the inclusion criteria and were critically analysed. A majority of the studies were on stroke management. The studies suggested that overall, telemedicine had a positive impact on emergency medical care. It improved the pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke and myocardial infarction and enhanced the supervision of delivery of tissue thromboplasminogen activator in acute ischaemic stroke. Telemedicine presents an opportunity to enhance patient management. There are as yet few definitive studies that have demonstrated whether it had an effect on clinical outcome. PMID:25635190

  9. Trauma.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain and spine injury (TBI/TSI) is a leading cause of death and lifelong disability in children. The biomechanical properties of the child's brain, skull, and spine, the size of the child, the age-specific activity pattern, and variance in trauma mechanisms result in a wide range of age-specific traumas and patterns of brain and spine injuries. A detailed knowledge about the various types of primary and secondary pediatric head and spine injuries is essential to better identify and understand pediatric TBI/TSI, which enhances sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis, will guide therapy, and may give important information about the prognosis. The purposes of this chapter are to: (1) discuss the unique epidemiology, mechanisms, and characteristics of TBI/TSI in children; (2) review the anatomic and functional imaging techniques that can be used to study common and rare pediatric TBI/TSI and their complications; (3) comprehensively review frequent primary and secondary brain injuries; and (4) to give a short overview of two special types of pediatric TBI/TSI: birth-related and nonaccidental injuries.

  10. [Comparison of effectiveness of intubation by way of "Gum Elastic Bougie" and "Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway" in endotracheal intubation of patients with simulated cervical trauma].

    PubMed

    Sut, Esra Yildiz; Gunal, Solmaz; Yazar, Mehmet Akif; Dikmen, Bayazit

    In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of intubations by way of "Gum Elastic Bougie" and "Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway" in endotracheal intubation of patients with simulated cervical trauma. 134 patients were included in the study. All patients were placed cervical collar for a simulated cervical trauma. Patients were allocated randomly into three groups: Group NI (n=45) intubation with Macintosh laryngoscopy, Group GEB (n=45) intubation with Gum Elastic Bougie, and Group ILMA (n=44) intubation with Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway. The number of intubation attempts, success of intubation, duration of complete visualization of the larynx, duration of intubation, user's performance score, hemodynamic changes and the observed complications were recorded. Success of intubation in the first attempt was highest in Group GEB while it was lowest in Group ILMA. Regarding the intubation success, rates of successful intubation were 95.6%, 84.4% and 65.9% in Groups GEB, NI, and ILMA, respectively. Durations of visualization of larynx and intubation were shorter in Groups NI and GEB than in Group ILMA. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05) while there was no significant difference between Groups NI and GEB. The number of patients with "good" intubation performance was significantly higher in Group GEB while the number of patients with "poor" intubation performance was significantly higher in Group ILMA (p<0.05). We conclude that GEB, which is cheap and easily accessible, should be an advantageous choice in cervical trauma patients for both the easeness of intubation and patient morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. The Impact of Pre-Hospital Administration of Lactated Ringer's Solution versus Normal Saline in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Susan E.; Barbosa, Ronald R.; Watters, Jennifer M.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Holcomb, John B.; Cohen, Mitchell J.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Fox, Erin E.; Schreiber, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lactated Ringer's (LR) and normal saline (NS) are both used for resuscitation of injured patients. NS has been associated with increased resuscitation volume, blood loss, acidosis, and coagulopathy compared with LR. We sought to determine if pre-hospital LR is associated with improved outcome compared with NS in patients with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI). We included patients receiving pre-hospital LR or NS from the PRospective Observational Multicenter Major Trauma Transfusion (PROMMTT) study. Patients with TBI (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] head ≥3) and without TBI (AIS head ≤2) were compared. Cox proportional hazards models including Injury Severity Score (ISS), AIS head, AIS extremity, age, fluids, intubation status, and hospital site were generated for prediction of mortality. Linear regression models were generated for prediction of red blood cell (RBC) and crystalloid requirement, and admission biochemical/physiological parameters. Seven hundred ninety-one patients received either LR (n = 117) or NS (n = 674). Median ISS, AIS head, AIS extremity, and pre-hospital fluid volume were higher in TBI and non-TBI patients receiving LR compared with NS (p < 0.01). In patients with TBI (n = 308), LR was associated with higher adjusted mortality compared with NS (hazard rate [HR] = 1.78, confidence interval [CI] 1.04–3.04, p = 0.035). In patients without TBI (n = 483), no difference in mortality was demonstrated (HR = 1.49, CI 0.757–2.95, p = 0.247). Fluid type had no effect on admission biochemical or physiological parameters, 6-hour RBC, or crystalloid requirement in either group. LR was associated with increased mortality compared with NS in patients with TBI. These results underscore the need for a prospective randomized trial comparing pre-hospital LR with NS in patients with TBI. PMID:26914721

  12. Do pre-hospital anaesthesiologists reliably predict mortality using the NACA severity score? A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Raatiniemi, L; Mikkelsen, K; Fredriksen, K; Wisborg, T

    2013-11-01

    The National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics' (NACA) severity score is widely used in pre-hospital emergency medicine to grade the severity of illness or trauma in patient groups but is scarcely validated. The aim of this study was to assess the score's ability to predict mortality and need for advanced in-hospital interventions in a cohort from one anaesthesiologist-manned helicopter service in Northern Norway. All missions completed by one helicopter service during January 1999 to December 2009 were reviewed. One thousand eight hundred forty-one patients were assessed by the NACA score. Pre-hospital and in-hospital interventions were collected from patient records. The relationship between NACA score and the outcome measures was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A total of 1533 patients were included in the analysis; uninjured and dead victims were excluded per protocol. Overall mortality rate of the patients with NACA score 1-6 was 5.2%. Trauma patients with NACA score 1-6 had overall mortality rate of 1.9% (12/625) and non-trauma patients 7.4% (67/908). The NACA score's ability to predict mortality was assessed by using ROC area under curve (AUC) and was 0.86 for all, 0.82 for non-trauma and 0.98 for trauma patients. The NACA score's ability to predict a need for respiratory therapy within 24 h revealed an AUC of 0.90 for all patients combined. The NACA score had good discrimination for predicting mortality and need for respiratory therapy. It is thus useful as a tool to measure overall severity of the patient population in this kind of emergency medicine system. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Do pre-hospital anaesthesiologists reliably predict mortality using the NACA severity score? A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    RAATINIEMI, L; MIKKELSEN, K; FREDRIKSEN, K; WISBORG, T

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics' (NACA) severity score is widely used in pre-hospital emergency medicine to grade the severity of illness or trauma in patient groups but is scarcely validated. The aim of this study was to assess the score's ability to predict mortality and need for advanced in-hospital interventions in a cohort from one anaesthesiologist-manned helicopter service in Northern Norway. Methods All missions completed by one helicopter service during January 1999 to December 2009 were reviewed. One thousand eight hundred forty-one patients were assessed by the NACA score. Pre-hospital and in-hospital interventions were collected from patient records. The relationship between NACA score and the outcome measures was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results A total of 1533 patients were included in the analysis; uninjured and dead victims were excluded per protocol. Overall mortality rate of the patients with NACA score 1–6 was 5.2%. Trauma patients with NACA score 1–6 had overall mortality rate of 1.9% (12/625) and non-trauma patients 7.4% (67/908). The NACA score's ability to predict mortality was assessed by using ROC area under curve (AUC) and was 0.86 for all, 0.82 for non-trauma and 0.98 for trauma patients. The NACA score's ability to predict a need for respiratory therapy within 24 h revealed an AUC of 0.90 for all patients combined. Conclusion The NACA score had good discrimination for predicting mortality and need for respiratory therapy. It is thus useful as a tool to measure overall severity of the patient population in this kind of emergency medicine system. PMID:24134443

  14. Adherence with the pre-hospital triage protocol in the transport of injured patients in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Fitzharris, Michael; Stevenson, Mark; Middleton, Paul; Sinclair, Garry

    2012-09-01

    Pre-hospital triage protocols are an important component in the treatment of injured patients. The aim was to determine the level of, and factors associated with, adherence to the pre-hospital trauma triage criteria for urban patients transported in New South Wales, Australia. This retrospective study included patients injured in urban areas who were transported by road for the treatment of traumatic injuries in the period 1 July 2006 to 30 June 2007. Of the 57,775 transported to hospital due to traumatic injury, 9344 (16%) met one or more of the pre-hospital triage criteria. Of these, 74% were transported to a protocol adherent major or regional trauma centre. Adherence rates differed by triage criteria met and was lowest for patients meeting physiologic-only criteria (63.5%) and highest for patients meeting all three triage criteria of physiology, mechanism and injury (85.4%). Female gender, increasing patient age, patients classified as having had a fall, the qualification level of treating officer and patients transported between midday to 18:00 (relative to those transported between midnight to 06:00) were factors associated with significantly lower levels of protocol adherence with respect to hospital destination. Minimal time differences were evident between patients transported to protocol adherent and non-adherent destinations. Based on the post hoc evaluation of triage status, adherence to the triage protocol was 74%. Analysis of patient destinations for protocol non-adherence appears to indicate that paramedic interpretation and discretion played a role in determining hospital choice. There was a marginal time difference between those transported to protocol adherent and non-adherent destinations. Future research needs to determine whether deviations from protocol are associated with differential mortality. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of the i-gel™ during pre-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Häske, David; Schempf, Benjamin; Gaier, Gernot; Niederberger, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines recommend airway management and ventilation whilst minimising interruptions to chest compressions. We have assessed i-gel™ use during CPR. In an observational study of i-gel™ use during CPR we assessed the ease of i-gel™ insertion, adequacy of ventilation, the presence of a leak during ventilation, and whether ventilation was possible without interrupting chest compressions. We analysed i-gel™ insertion by paramedics (n=63) and emergency physicians (n=7) in 70 pre-hospital CPR attempts. There was a 90% first attempt insertion success rate, 7% on the second attempt, and 3% on the third attempt. Insertion was reported as easy in 80% (n=56), moderately difficult in 16% (n=11), and difficult in 4% (n=3). Providers reported no leak on ventilation in 80% (n=56), a moderate leak in 17% (n=12), and a major leak with no chest rise in 3% (n=2). There was a significant association between ease of insertion and the quality of the seal (r=0.99, p=0.02). The i-gel™ enabled continuous chest compressions without pauses for ventilation in 74% (n=52) of CPR attempts. There was no difference in the incidence of leaks on ventilation between patients having continuous chest compressions and patients who had pauses in chest compressions for ventilation (83% versus 72%, p=0.33, 95% CI [-0.1282, 0.4037]). Ventilation during CPR was adequate during 96% of all CPR attempts. The i-gel™ is an easy supraglottic airway device to insert and enables adequate ventilation during CPR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-hospital midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial: A national observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Silbergleit, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Implementation of evidence-based treatment for pre-hospital status epilepticus can improve outcomes. We hypothesized that publication of a pivotal pre-hospital clinical trial (RAMPART), demonstrating superiority of intramuscular midazolam over intravenous lorazepam, altered the national utilization rates of midazolam for pre-hospital benzodiazepine-treated seizures, while upholding its safety and efficacy outside the trial setting. Methods and findings This is a retrospective, observational cohort study of pre-hospital patient encounters throughout the United States in the National Emergency Medicine Services Information System database, from January 2010 through December 2014. We compared the rates and odds of midazolam use as first-line treatment among all adult and pediatric benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after RAMPART publication (February 2012). Secondary analyses were conducted for rates of airway interventions and rescue therapy, as proxies for safety and efficacy of seizure termination. 156,539 benzodiazepine-treated seizures were identified. Midazolam use increased from 26.1% in January 2010 to 61.7% in December 2014 (difference +35.6%, 95% CI, 32.7%-38.4%). The annual rate of midazolam adoption increased significantly from 5.9% per year to 8.9% per year after the publication of RAMPART (difference +3.0% per year; 95%CI, 1.6%-4.5% per year; adjusted OR 1.24; 95%CI, 1.17–1.32). Overall frequency of rescue therapy and airway interventions changed little after the publication of RAMPART. Conclusions These data are consistent with effective, ongoing, but incomplete clinical translation of the RAMPART results. The effects of the trial, however, cannot be isolated. The study was limited by broad inclusion of all benzodiazepine-treated seizures as well as a lack of information on route of drug of administration. The safety and effectiveness of midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures in prehospital clinical practice appear consistent

  17. Pre-hospital midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial: A national observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shtull-Leber, Eytan; Silbergleit, Robert; Meurer, William J

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of evidence-based treatment for pre-hospital status epilepticus can improve outcomes. We hypothesized that publication of a pivotal pre-hospital clinical trial (RAMPART), demonstrating superiority of intramuscular midazolam over intravenous lorazepam, altered the national utilization rates of midazolam for pre-hospital benzodiazepine-treated seizures, while upholding its safety and efficacy outside the trial setting. This is a retrospective, observational cohort study of pre-hospital patient encounters throughout the United States in the National Emergency Medicine Services Information System database, from January 2010 through December 2014. We compared the rates and odds of midazolam use as first-line treatment among all adult and pediatric benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after RAMPART publication (February 2012). Secondary analyses were conducted for rates of airway interventions and rescue therapy, as proxies for safety and efficacy of seizure termination. 156,539 benzodiazepine-treated seizures were identified. Midazolam use increased from 26.1% in January 2010 to 61.7% in December 2014 (difference +35.6%, 95% CI, 32.7%-38.4%). The annual rate of midazolam adoption increased significantly from 5.9% per year to 8.9% per year after the publication of RAMPART (difference +3.0% per year; 95%CI, 1.6%-4.5% per year; adjusted OR 1.24; 95%CI, 1.17-1.32). Overall frequency of rescue therapy and airway interventions changed little after the publication of RAMPART. These data are consistent with effective, ongoing, but incomplete clinical translation of the RAMPART results. The effects of the trial, however, cannot be isolated. The study was limited by broad inclusion of all benzodiazepine-treated seizures as well as a lack of information on route of drug of administration. The safety and effectiveness of midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures in prehospital clinical practice appear consistent with trial data, which should encourage

  18. [Pre-hospital observation as an alternative to emergency hospitalisation].

    PubMed

    Jensvold, Morten; Seim, Arnfinn

    2014-09-30

    Pre-hospital observation beds in community care centres have for many years served as an alternative to hospitalisation in rural districts of Norway. The article presents the use of observation beds associated with the Fosen A&E centre. A retrospective review of records of patients who had contacted Fosen A&E centre during the period 21 August 2006-21 August 2009 was undertaken. Patient characteristics and clinical pathways were registered, including admissions to hospital or to an observation bed, as well as re-admissions. Ever since observation beds were first introduced, clear inclusion and exclusion criteria have been applied with regard to the allocation of patients to observation beds. Altogether 8027 patients had been in direct contact with an A&E doctor, and 2342 were admitted, of whom 77% to hospital and 23% to an observation bed. Of the 530 patients admitted to an observation bed, 55% were 70 years or older. Of these, 68% were discharged to their homes within 36 hours, 17% were transferred to hospital, and the remainder received further treatment in a local rehabilitation unit or nursing home. The rate of readmission to observation beds or hospital amounted to 4% among those who had been discharged after no more than three days, and 18% among those discharged after 3-28 days. A low number of readmissions may indicate that the use of observation beds is an alternative to hospitalisation.

  19. An evaluation of pre-hospital communication between ambulances and an accident and emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We studied pre-hospital notification and the quality of data received from ambulance crews transporting seriously ill or injured patients to an accident and emergency department. During a two-month study period, pre-hospital notification was received for 54 patients. However, the department was notified about only 25 of 62 patients (40%) who, on arrival by ambulance, were triaged as emergencies. Despite developing a data protocol for emergency pre-hospital communication and being equipped to receive emergency ambulance calls directly, many such patients still arrived either unannounced or described in insufficient detail to allow appropriate preparations to be made for them.

  20. Fast Neural Networks Decision Algorithm for Pre-Hospital Trauma Care. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    identification of high risk patients [19, 12, 14] and for earthquake prediction [16, 17]. During Phase I SQI developed a prototype of a computer-assisted...Statistical Meetings, ASA, 7 pp. 15. Katz S., Aki K, 1992, Experiments with a neural net based earthquake prediction , EOS, Transactions, American Geoph

  1. Trauma system development.

    PubMed

    Lendrum, R A; Lockey, D J

    2013-01-01

    The word 'trauma' describes the disease entity resulting from physical injury. Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and deaths due to injury look set to increase. As early as the 1970s, it became evident that centralisation of resources and expertise could reduce the mortality rate from serious injury and that organisation of trauma care delivery into formal systems could improve outcome further. Internationally, trauma systems have evolved in various forms, with widespread reports of mortality and functional outcome benefits when major trauma management is delivered in this way. The management of major trauma in England is currently undergoing significant change. The London Trauma System began operating in April 2010 and others throughout England became operational this year. Similar systems exist internationally and continue to be developed. Anaesthetists have been and continue to be involved with all levels of trauma care delivery, from the provision of pre-hospital trauma and retrieval teams, through to chronic pain management and rehabilitation of patients back into society. This review examines the international development of major trauma care delivery and the components of a modern trauma system.

  2. Improving trauma care in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Adam, R; Stedman, M; Winn, J; Howard, M; Williams, J I; Ali, J

    1994-06-01

    Identification of trauma as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Trinidad and Tobago prompted the establishment of a training programme aimed at improving trauma care in this developing country. An Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) programme for physicians, funded through the Canadian International Development Agency resulted in a statistically significant improvement of in-hospital trauma patient outcome at the Port-of-Spain General Hospital (observed to expected mortality ratio of 3.16 pre-ATLS compared to 1.94 post-ATLS). A recent analysis of all motor vehicle injuries for a shorter period did not confirm this positive impact of the ATLS programme, primarily because a large number of these patients died in the pre-hospital period. Pre-hospital trauma care therefore required urgent attention to complement the positive in-hospital impact of the ATLS programme. A second training programme (the Pre-Hospital Trauma Life Support or PHTLS) for paramedical personnel was thus instituted in 1990. Over 250 physicians have been trained in the ATLS programme and to date over 100 paramedical personnel have been trained in the PHTLS programme. Attempts have also been made to equip the ambulances with more appropriate resuscitative devices in order to improve pre-hospital care. The combination of the PHTLS and the ATLS programme should result in further improvement in the care of patients sustaining major injuries in Trinidad and Tobago.

  3. The Swiss bus accident on 13 March 2012: lessons for pre-hospital care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The recent bus crash in Switzerland involving many children provides several lessons for the pre-hospital care community. The use of multiple helicopters that are capable of flying at night and that carry advanced medical pre-hospital teams undoubtedly saved lives following the tragedy. We describe the medical response to the incident and the lessons that can be learned for emergency medical services. PMID:22784360

  4. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita: airway concerns in an emergency situation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Babita; Suri, Saurabh; Kohli, Santvana; Ahmad, Suma; Gupta, Surender

    2014-06-01

    Difficult airway is always of special concern to anesthesiologists, but in a trauma setting where having a secured airway is most important, the incidence of difficult airway increases manifold. We report a "cannot ventilate cannot intubate" situation in a trauma patient who was later diagnosed to have arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, a syndrome known to affect the airway, and in whom all measures of securing a nonsurgical airway failed. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Migrants' and professionals' views on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Diana; Hannig, Christian; Schmidt, Silke

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to explore the views of migrants and professionals on culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care in order to adapt such care to migrants' needs. Interviews were conducted with 41 migrants who had received direct (as a patient) or indirect (as a significant other) pre-hospital emergency care. Furthermore, 20 professionals in the field of pre-hospital emergency care were interviewed. The content analysis showed five distinguishable categories based on the statements by the migrants and six categories based on the statements by the professionals. While migrants gave priority to basic proficiencies of first responders such as 'social/emotional competencies' and 'communication skills', the professionals considered '(basic) cultural knowledge', 'awareness' and 'attitude' the most important. Furthermore, migrants provided practical indications, e.g. regarding areas of cultural knowledge, whereas professionals seemed to view the issue of culturally pre-hospital emergency care from a more theoretical perspective. The issues of the culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care itself, as well as the varying points of view of the two groups interviewed, resulted in eight recommendations for culturally sensitive pre-hospital emergency care.

  6. Protocol for a systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components compared to other resuscitative fluids in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dretzke, Janine; Smith, Iain M; James, Robert H; Midwinter, Mark J

    2014-10-24

    There is growing interest in the use of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation of patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. It has been speculated that early resuscitation with blood components may have benefits in terms of treating trauma-induced coagulopathy, which in turn may influence survival. The proposed systematic review will evaluate the evidence on the clinical effectiveness of pre-hospital blood components (red blood cells and/or plasma or whole blood), in both civilian and military settings, compared with other resuscitation strategies in patients with major traumatic haemorrhage. Standard systematic review methods aimed at minimising bias will be employed for study identification, selection and data extraction. General medical and specialist databases will be searched; the search strategy will combine terms for the population, intervention and setting. Studies will be selected for review if the population includes adult patients with major traumatic haemorrhage who receive blood components in a pre-hospital setting (civilian or military). Systematic reviews, randomised and non-randomised controlled trials and controlled observational studies will be included. Uncontrolled studies will be considered depending on the volume of controlled evidence. Quality assessment will be tailored to different study designs. Both patient related and surrogate outcomes will be considered. Synthesis is likely to be primarily narrative, but meta-analyses and subgroup analyses will be undertaken where clinical and methodological homogeneity exists. Given the increasing use by emergency services of blood components for pre-hospital resuscitation, this is a timely systematic review, which will attempt to clarify the evidence base for this practice. As far as the authors are aware, the proposed systematic review will be the first to address this topic. PROSPERO CRD42014013794.

  7. Cost-effectiveness and benefit of alternatives to improve training for prehospital trauma care in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Mock, Charles; Herrera-Escamilla, Alejandro J; Contreras, Ismael; Vargas, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    In Latin America, there is a preponderance of prehospital trauma deaths. However, scarce resources mandate that any improvements in prehospital medical care must be cost-effective. This study sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of several approaches to improving training for personnel in three ambulance services in Mexico. In Monterrey, training was augmented with PreHospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) at a cost of [US] dollar 150 per medic trained. In San Pedro, training was augmented with Basic Trauma Life Support (BTLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), and a locally designed airway management course, at a cost of dollar 400 per medic. Process and outcome of trauma care were assessed before and after the training of these medics and at a control site. The training was effective for both intervention services, with increases in basic airway maneuvers for patients in respiratory distress in Monterrey (16% before versus 39% after) and San Pedro (14% versus 64%). The role of endotrachal intubation for patients with respiratory distress increased only in San Pedro (5% versus 46%), in which the most intensive Advanced Life Support (ALS) training had been provided. However, mortality decreased only in Monterrey, where it had been the highest (8.2% before versus 4.7% after) and where the simplest and lowest cost interventions were implemented. There was no change in process or outcome in the control site. This study highlights the importance of assuring uniform, basic training for all prehospital providers. This is a more cost-effective approach than is higher-cost ALS training for improving prehospital trauma care in environments such as Latin America.

  8. Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R; Pandian, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Prateek S

    2014-11-01

    The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world's roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August 2014) was conducted in the Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram. The method of sampling was universal sampling and all RTA victims satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. During the entire study duration, total 200 RTA victims were included. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the desired information after the victims of RTAs are stabilized. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the start of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants (patient/guardian of children) before obtaining any information from them. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 18. Frequency distributions and percentages were computed for all the variables. Majority of the RTA victims 158 (79%) were from the age-group of 15-45 years. Most of the accidents were reported in night time [77 (38.5%)], on week-ends [113 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [153 (76.5%)]. Almost 66 (33%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services. Also, only 15 (7.5%) victims were brought to the hospital in the emergency ambulance, of which only 3 victims were accompanied by a doctor. To conclude, the study indicates that a significant proportion of people were unaware about the emergency trauma ambulance services and the existing pre-hospital care services lack in multiple dimensions in a rural area of South India.

  9. [Pre-hospital management of patients with chest pain and/or dyspnoea of cardiac origin.

    PubMed

    Beygui, Farzin; Castren, Maaret; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Rosell-Ortiz, Fernando; Christ, Michael; Zeymer, Uwe; Huber, Kurt; Folke, Fredrik; Svensson, Leif; Bueno, Hector; Van't Hof, Arnoud; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Nibbe, Lutz; Charpentier, Sandrine; Swahn, Eva; Tubaro, Marco; Goldstein, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Chest pain and acute dyspnoea are frequent causes of emergency medical services activation. The pre-hospital management of these conditions is heterogeneous across different regions of the world and Europe, as a consequence of the variety of emergency medical services and absence of specific practical guidelines. This position paper focuses on the practical aspects of the pre-hospital treatment on board and transfer of patients taken in charge by emergency medical services for chest pain and dyspnoea of suspected cardiac aetiology after the initial assessment and diagnostic work-up. The objective of the paper is to provide guidance, based on evidence, where available, or on experts' opinions, for all emergency medical services' health providers involved in the pre-hospital management of acute cardiovascular care.

  10. Ultrasound in trauma.

    PubMed

    Rippey, James C R; Royse, Alistair G

    2009-09-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound is well suited for use in the emergency setting for assessment of the trauma patient. Currently, portable ultrasound machines with high-resolution imaging capability allow trauma patients to be imaged in the pre-hospital setting, emergency departments and operating theatres. In major trauma, ultrasound is used to diagnose life-threatening conditions and to prioritise and guide appropriate interventions. Assessment of the basic haemodynamic state is a very important part of ultrasound use in trauma, but is discussed in more detail elsewhere. Focussed assessment with sonography for Trauma (FAST) rapidly assesses for haemoperitoneum and haemopericardium, and the Extended FAST examination (EFAST) explores for haemothorax, pneumothorax and intravascular filling status. In regional trauma, ultrasound can be used to detect fractures, many vascular injuries, musculoskeletal injuries, testicular injuries and can assess foetal viability in pregnant trauma patients. Ultrasound can also be used at the bedside to guide procedures in trauma, including nerve blocks and vascular access. Importantly, these examinations are being performed by the treating physician in real time, allowing for immediate changes to management of the patient. Controversy remains in determining the best training to ensure competence in this user-dependent imaging modality.

  11. Pre-hospital antibiotic treatment and mortality caused by invasive meningococcal disease, adjusting for indication bias

    PubMed Central

    Perea-Milla, Emilio; Olalla, Julián; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Martos, Francisco; Matute-Cruz, Petra; Carmona-López, Guadalupe; Fornieles, Yolanda; Cayuela, Aurelio; García-Alegría, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background Mortality from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) has remained stable over the last thirty years and it is unclear whether pre-hospital antibiotherapy actually produces a decrease in this mortality. Our aim was to examine whether pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy reduces mortality from IMD, adjusting for indication bias. Methods A retrospective analysis was made of clinical reports of all patients (n = 848) diagnosed with IMD from 1995 to 2000 in Andalusia and the Canary Islands, Spain, and of the relationship between the use of pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy and mortality. Indication bias was controlled for by the propensity score technique, and a multivariate analysis was performed to determine the probability of each patient receiving antibiotics, according to the symptoms identified before admission. Data on in-hospital death, use of antibiotics and demographic variables were collected. A logistic regression analysis was then carried out, using death as the dependent variable, and pre-hospital antibiotic use, age, time from onset of symptoms to parenteral antibiotics and the propensity score as independent variables. Results Data were recorded on 848 patients, 49 (5.72%) of whom died. Of the total number of patients, 226 had received oral antibiotics before admission, mainly betalactams during the previous 48 hours. After adjusting the association between the use of antibiotics and death for age, time between onset of symptoms and in-hospital antibiotic treatment, pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy remained a significant protective factor (Odds Ratio for death 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.93). Conclusion Pre-hospital oral antibiotherapy appears to reduce IMD mortality. PMID:19344518

  12. EMS Adherence to a Pre-hospital Cervical Spine Clearance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Raynard J.; Miller, Kenneth; Langdorf, Mark I.; Johnson, David

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the degree of adherence to a cervical spine (c-spine) clearance protocol by pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel by both self-assessment and receiving hospital assessment, to describe deviations from the protocol, and to determine if the rate of compliance by paramedic self-assessment differed from receiving hospital assessment. Methods: A retrospective sample of pre-hospital (consecutive series) and receiving hospital (convenience sample) assessments of the compliance with and appropriateness of c-spine immobilization. The c-spine clearance protocol was implemented for Orange County EMS just prior to the April–November 1999 data collection period. Results: We collected 396 pre-hospital and 162 receiving hospital data forms. From the pre-hospital data sheet, the percentage deviation from the protocol was 4.0% (16/396). Only one out of 16 cases that did not comply with the protocol was due to over immobilization (0.2%). The remaining 15 cases were under immobilized, according to protocol. Nine of the under immobilized cases (66%) that should have been placed in c-spine precautions met physical assessment criteria in the protocol, while the other five cases met mechanism of injury criteria. The rate of deviations from protocol did not differ over time. The receiving hospital identified 8.0% (13/162; 6/l6 over immobilized, 7/16 under immobilized) of patients with deviations from the protocol; none was determined to have actual c-spine injury. Conclusion: The implementation of a pre-hospital c-spine clearance protocol in Orange County was associated with a moderate overall adherence rate (96% from the pre-hospital perspective, and 9250 from the hospital perspective. p = .08 for the two evaluation methods). Most patients who deviated from protocol were under immobilized. but no c-spine injuries were missed. The rate of over immobilization was better than previously reported, implying a saving of resources. PMID:20852696

  13. Association between off-hour presentation and endotracheal-intubation-related adverse events in trauma patients with a predicted difficult airway: A historical cohort study at a community emergency department in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yuko; Sugiyama, Takuya; Chida, Yasuyuki; Sato, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Daiji; Ikeda, Masakazu; Tanigawa, Koichi; Shinohara, Kazuaki

    2016-08-30

    A reduction in medical staff such as occurs in hospitals during nights and weekends (off hours) is associated with a worse outcome in patients with several unanticipated critical conditions. Although difficult airway management (DAM) requires the simultaneous assistance of several appropriately trained medical caregivers, data are scarce regarding the association between off-hour presentation and endotracheal intubation (ETI)-related adverse events, especially in the trauma population. The aim of this study was to determine whether off-hour presentation was associated with ETI complications in injured patients with a predicted difficult airway. This historical cohort study was conducted at a Japanese community emergency department (ED). All patients with inhalation burn, comminuted facial trauma (Abbreviated Injury Scale Score Face ≥3), and penetrating neck injury who underwent ETI from January 2007 to January 2016 in our ED were included. Primary exposure was off-hour presentation, defined as the period from 6:01 PM to 8:00 AM weekdays plus the entire weekend. The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of an ETI-related adverse event, including hypoxemia, unrecognized esophageal intubation, regurgitation, cardiac arrest, ETI failure rescued by emergency surgical airway, cuff leak, and mainstem bronchus intubation. Of the 123 patients, 75 (61.0 %) were intubated during off hours. Crude analysis showed that off-hour presentation was significantly associated with an increased risk of ETI-related adverse events [odds ratio (OR), 2.5; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.1-5.6; p = 0.033]. The increased risk remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders, including operator being an anesthesiologist, use of a paralytic agent, and injury severity score (OR, 3.0; 95 % CI, 1.1-8.4; p = 0.034). In this study, off-hour presentation was independently associated with ETI-related adverse events in trauma patients with a predicted difficult airway

  14. Advances in prehospital trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kelvin; Ramesh, Ramaiah; Grabinsky, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Prehospital trauma care developed over the last decades parallel in many countries. Most of the prehospital emergency medical systems relied on input or experiences from military medicine and were often modeled after the existing military procedures. Some systems were initially developed with the trauma patient in mind, while other systems were tailored for medical, especially cardiovascular, emergencies. The key components to successful prehospital trauma care are the well-known ABCs of trauma care: Airway, Breathing, Circulation. Establishing and securing the airway, ventilation, fluid resuscitation, and in addition, the quick transport to the best-suited trauma center represent the pillars of trauma care in the field. While ABC in trauma care has neither been challenged nor changed, new techniques, tools and procedures have been developed to make it easier for the prehospital provider to achieve these goals in the prehospital setting and thus improve the outcome of trauma patients. PMID:22096773

  15. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimian, Abbasali; Masoumi, Gholamreza; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz; Seyedin, Hesam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The number of requests for emergency medical services (EMSs) has increased during the past decade. However, most of the transports are not essential. Therefore, it seems crucial to develop an instrument to help EMS staff accurately identify patients who need pre-hospital care and transportation. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pre-hospital Medical Emergencies Early Warning Scale (Pre-MEWS). Materials and Methods: This mixed-method study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a qualitative content analysis study was conducted to identify the predictors of medical patients' need for pre-hospital EMS and transportation. In the second phase, the face and the content validity as well as the internal consistency of the scale were evaluated. Finally, the items of the scale were scored and scoring system was presented. Results: The final version of the scale contained 22 items and its total score ranged from 0 to 54. Conclusions: Pre-MEWS helps EMS staffs properly understand medical patients' conditions in pre-hospital environments and accurately identify their need for EMS and transportation. PMID:28515604

  16. Positive Coping: A Unique Characteristic to Pre-Hospital Emergency Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Ebadi, Abbas; Froutan, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction It is important to gain a thorough understanding of positive coping methods adopted by medical emergency personnel to manage stressful situations associated with accidents and emergencies. Thus, the purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of positive coping strategies used by emergency medical service providers. Methods This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis method. The study participants included 28 pre-hospital emergency personnel selected from emergency medical service providers in bases located in different regions of the city of Mashhad, Iran, from April to November 2016. The purposive sampling method also was used in this study, which was continued until data saturation was reached. To collect the data, semistructured open interviews, observations, and field notes were used. Results Four categories and 10 subcategories were extracted from the data on the experiences of pre-hospital emergency personnel related to positive coping strategies. The four categories included work engagement, smart capability, positive feedback, and crisis pioneering. All the obtained categories had their own subcategories, which were determined based on their distinctly integrated properties. Conclusion The results of this study show that positive coping consists of several concepts used by medical emergency personnel, management of stressful situations, and ultimately quality of pre-hospital clinical services. Given the fact that efficient methods such as positive coping can prevent debilitating stress in an individual, pre-hospital emergency authorities should seek to build and strengthen “positive coping” characteristics in pre-hospital medical emergency personnel to deal with accidents, emergencies, and injuries through adopting regular and dynamic policies. PMID:28243409

  17. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Blanchard, Ian E; Doig, Christopher J; Ghali, William A

    2012-10-03

    Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7-8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based on US data may not be appropriate in a

  18. A validation of ground ambulance pre-hospital times modeled using geographic information systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluating geographic access to health services often requires determining the patient travel time to a specified service. For urgent care, many research studies have modeled patient pre-hospital time by ground emergency medical services (EMS) using geographic information systems (GIS). The purpose of this study was to determine if the modeling assumptions proposed through prior United States (US) studies are valid in a non-US context, and to use the resulting information to provide revised recommendations for modeling travel time using GIS in the absence of actual EMS trip data. Methods The study sample contained all emergency adult patient trips within the Calgary area for 2006. Each record included four components of pre-hospital time (activation, response, on-scene and transport interval). The actual activation and on-scene intervals were compared with those used in published models. The transport interval was calculated within GIS using the Network Analyst extension of Esri ArcGIS 10.0 and the response interval was derived using previously established methods. These GIS derived transport and response intervals were compared with the actual times using descriptive methods. We used the information acquired through the analysis of the EMS trip data to create an updated model that could be used to estimate travel time in the absence of actual EMS trip records. Results There were 29,765 complete EMS records for scene locations inside the city and 529 outside. The actual median on-scene intervals were longer than the average previously reported by 7–8 minutes. Actual EMS pre-hospital times across our study area were significantly higher than the estimated times modeled using GIS and the original travel time assumptions. Our updated model, although still underestimating the total pre-hospital time, more accurately represents the true pre-hospital time in our study area. Conclusions The widespread use of generalized EMS pre-hospital time assumptions based

  19. Chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Budassi, S A

    1978-09-01

    For any patient with obvious or suspected chest trauma, one must first assure an adequate airway and adequate ventilation. One should never hesitate to administer oxygen to a victim with a chest injury. The nurse should be concerned with adequate circulation--this may mean the administration of intravenous fluids, specifically volume expanders, via large-bore cannulae. Any obvious open chest wound should be sealed, and any fractures should be splinted. These patients should be rapidly transported to the nearest Emergency Department capable of handling this type of injury. The majority of patients who arrive in the Emergency Department following blunt or penetrating trauma should be considered to be in critical condition until proven otherwise. On presentation, it is essential to recognize those signs, symptoms, and laboratory values that identify the patient's condition as life-threatening. Simple recognition of these signs and symptoms and early appropriate intervention may alter an otherwise fatal outcome.

  20. Development of a behaviour rating system for rural/remote pre-hospital settings.

    PubMed

    Holly, Deirdre; Swanson, Vivien; Cachia, Philip; Beasant, Beverley; Laird, Colville

    2017-01-01

    Remote and Rural pre-hospital care practitioners manage serious illness and injury on an unplanned basis, necessitating technical and non-technical skills (NTS). However, no behaviour rating systems currently address NTS within these settings. Informed by health psychology theory, a NTS-specific behaviour rating system was developed for use within pre-hospital care training for remote and rural practitioners. The Immediate Medical Care Behaviour Rating System (IMCBRS), was informed by literature, expert advice and review and observation of an Immediate Medical Care (IMC) course. Once developed, the usability and appropriateness of the rating system was tested through observation of candidates' behaviour at IMC courses during simulated scenarios and rating their use of NTS using the IMCBRS. Observation of training confirmed rating system items were demonstrated in 28-62% of scenarios, depending on context. The IMCBRS may thus be a useful addition to training for rural and practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Facilitators and obstacles in pre-hospital medical response to earthquakes: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthquakes are renowned as being amongst the most dangerous and destructive types of natural disasters. Iran, a developing country in Asia, is prone to earthquakes and is ranked as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world in this respect. The medical response in disasters is accompanied by managerial, logistic, technical, and medical challenges being also the case in the Bam earthquake in Iran. Our objective was to explore the medical response to the Bam earthquake with specific emphasis on pre-hospital medical management during the first days. Methods The study was performed in 2008; an interview based qualitative study using content analysis. We conducted nineteen interviews with experts and managers responsible for responding to the Bam earthquake, including pre-hospital emergency medical services, the Red Crescent, and Universities of Medical Sciences. The selection of participants was determined by using a purposeful sampling method. Sample size was given by data saturation. Results The pre-hospital medical service was divided into three categories; triage, emergency medical care and transportation, each category in turn was identified into facilitators and obstacles. The obstacles identified were absence of a structured disaster plan, absence of standardized medical teams, and shortage of resources. The army and skilled medical volunteers were identified as facilitators. Conclusions The most compelling, and at the same time amenable obstacle, was the lack of a disaster management plan. It was evident that implementing a comprehensive plan would not only save lives but decrease suffering and enable an effective praxis of the available resources at pre-hospital and hospital levels. PMID:21575233

  2. Effect of educational television commercial on pre-hospital delay in patients with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Haruo; Kon, Tomoya; Ueno, Tatsuya; Haga, Rie; Yamazaki, Keishi; Yagihashi, Kei; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Administering intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) within 4.5 h or endovascular procedures within 8 h of ischemic stroke onset may reduce the risk of disability. The effectiveness of media campaigns to raise stroke awareness and shorten pre-hospital delay is unclear. We studied 1144 consecutive ischemic stroke patients at Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Japan, between March 2010 and February 2014. From March 2012, the government sponsored an educational campaign based on a television commercial to improve knowledge of stroke symptoms and encourage ambulance calls for facial palsy, arm palsy, or speech disturbance. For the 544 and 600 patients admitted before and during the intervention, respectively, we recorded the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, stroke type, the time when patients or bystanders recognized stroke symptoms, and hospital arrival time. Pre-hospital delay, as the time interval from awareness of stroke to hospital arrival, was categorized as 0-3, 3-6, and 6+ h. The mean pre-hospital delay was shorter (12.0 vs 13.5 h; P = 0.0067), the proportion of patients arriving within 3 h was larger (55.7 vs 46.5 %; P = 0.0021), and the proportion arriving after 6 h was smaller (32.7 vs 39.5 %; P = 0.0162) in the intervention group than in the pre-intervention group. There was no significant difference in the proportion of patients treated with r-tPA (6 and 7.5 % of the intervention and pre-intervention groups, respectively). A television-based public education campaign potentially reduced pre-hospital delay for ischemic stroke patients, but the r-tPA treatment rate was unchanged.

  3. Development and Validation of the Pre-Hospital Stroke Symptoms Coping Test

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuemei; Zuo, Qingqing; Wu, Yanni; Yang, Liu; Gao, Wei; Li, Minghui; Cheng, Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Measures of specific knowledge of coping with pre-hospital stroke symptoms can help educate high-risk patients and family caregivers. This study aimed to develop and validate the Pre-hospital Stroke Symptoms Coping Test (PSSCT). Materials and Methods Reliability and validity were analyzed using multiple data sources. The Delphi expert consultation method was applied to assess the test’s surface validity and content validity index. The final edition of the 19-item PSSCT contained 3 sections assessing coping with typical symptoms and symptoms associated with vomiting and twitching. Its psychometric properties were investigated in a community sample of 300 high-risk patients and family members. Results The PSSCT was readily accepted by participants. It demonstrated adequate surface validity and content validity, and good internal consistency (KR20 = 0.822) and test-retest reliability (0.769), with difficulty (P) and degree of differentiation (D) ranges of 0.28–0.83 and 0.15–0.66, respectively. It was also able to distinguish between individuals who had/had not experienced a stroke. Experienced individuals scored significantly higher overall and on coping with typical symptoms and twitching (P<0.01). Conclusions The PSSCT can practically and directly assess critical knowledge regarding coping with pre-hospital stroke symptoms and has good reliability and validity. PMID:25330453

  4. Patients with acute chest pain - experiences of emergency calls and pre-hospital care.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Kerstin; Kihlgren, Mona; Ostman, Ingela; Sørlie, Venke

    2005-01-01

    Acute chest pain is a common reason why people call an emergency medical dispatch (EMD) centre. We examined how patients with acute chest pain experience the emergency call and their pre-hospital care. A qualitative design was used with a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Thirteen patients were interviewed, three women and 10 men. The patients were grateful that their lives had been saved and in general were satisfied with their pre-hospital contact. Sometimes they felt that it took too long for the emergency operators to answer and to understand the urgency. They were in a life-threatening situation and their feeling of vulnerability and dependency was great. Time seemed to stand still while they were waiting for help during their traumatic experience. The situation was fraught with pain, fear and an experience of loneliness. A sense of individualized care is important to strengthen trust and confidence between the patient and the pre-hospital personnel. Patients were aware of what number to call to reach the EMD centre, but were uncertain about when to call. More lives can be saved if people do not hesitate to call for help.

  5. [Pre-hospital treatment of ophidian accidents: review, update, and current problems].

    PubMed

    Gil-Alarcón, Guillermo; Sánchez-Villegas, María Del Carmen; Hugo Reynoso, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Mythic, out-dated, ambiguous and sometimes iatrogenic procedures, still remain in pre-hospital and hospital ophidian accident treatment. Errors, omissions and ignorance make ophidian accidents appear more dangerous than they truly are, resulting in a general public contempt toward snakes. Here we present an updated review of current knowledge on pre-hospital and hospital treatment of ophidian bite incidents, including indications, recommendations and logic errors. We describe an appropriate treatment for native Mexican poisonous snakebites using fabotherapics, based on our experience. Adequate initial pre-hospital and hospital management is crucial for a successful outcome of this medical emergency. We describe the state of the art in snake bite research discussing those procedures where research is needed to implement them either by the patient, first responders, paramedics and doctors. We suggest proposals to achieve even more efficient management of fabotherapics based on support networks. Finally, we emphasize prevention as the main subject of venom bite treatment, as it is always more adequate and economic to invest in prevention than to spend on mitigation during emergency and recovery.

  6. A consensus based template for reporting of pre-hospital major incident medical management.

    PubMed

    Fattah, Sabina; Rehn, Marius; Lockey, David; Thompson, Julian; Lossius, Hans Morten; Wisborg, Torben

    2014-01-30

    Structured reporting of major incidents has been advocated to improve the care provided at future incidents. A systematic review identified ten existing templates for reporting major incident medical management, but these templates are not in widespread use. We aimed to address this challenge by designing an open access template for uniform reporting of data from pre-hospital major incident medical management that will be tested for feasibility. An expert group of thirteen European major incident practitioners, planners or academics participated in a four stage modified nominal group technique consensus process to design a novel reporting template. Initially, each expert proposed 30 variables. Secondly, these proposals were combined and each expert prioritized 45 variables from the total of 270. Thirdly, the expert group met in Norway to develop the template. Lastly, revisions to the final template were agreed via e-mail. The consensus process resulted in a template consisting of 48 variables divided into six categories; pre-incident data, Emergency Medical Service (EMS) background, incident characteristics, EMS response, patient characteristics and key lessons. The expert group reached consensus on a set of key variables to report the medical management of pre-hospital major incidents and developed a novel reporting template. The template will be freely available for downloading and reporting on http://www.majorincidentreporting.org. This is the first global open access database for pre-hospital major incident reporting. The use of a uniform dataset will allow comparative analysis and has potential to identify areas of improvement for future responses.

  7. Pre-hospital care among victims of road traffic accident in a rural area of Tamil Nadu: A cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Pandian, Pradeep; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that globally almost 1.24 million people die annually on the world's roads. The aim of the study was to assess the attributes of pre-hospital care in road traffic accidents (RTAs) victim brought to the health care establishment and to evaluate the pre-hospital trauma care provided in the rural areas of Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of 3 months duration (June 2014 to August 2014) was conducted in the Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Kancheepuram. The method of sampling was universal sampling and all RTA victims satisfying the inclusion criteria were included in the study. During the entire study duration, total 200 RTA victims were included. A pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit the desired information after the victims of RTAs are stabilized. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee prior to the start of the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the study participants (patient/guardian of children) before obtaining any information from them. Data entry and statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 18. Frequency distributions and percentages were computed for all the variables. Results: Majority of the RTA victims 158 (79%) were from the age-group of 15-45 years. Most of the accidents were reported in night time [77 (38.5%)], on week-ends [113 (56.5%)], and involved two-wheelers [153 (76.5%)]. Almost 66 (33%) of the victims were not aware of the existence of emergency ambulance services. Also, only 15 (7.5%) victims were brought to the hospital in the emergency ambulance, of which only 3 victims were accompanied by a doctor. Conclusion: To conclude, the study indicates that a significant proportion of people were unaware about the emergency trauma ambulance services and the existing pre-hospital care services lack in multiple dimensions in a rural

  8. Lightweight physiologic sensor performance during pre-hospital care delivered by ambulance clinicians.

    PubMed

    Mort, Alasdair J; Fitzpatrick, David; Wilson, Philip M J; Mellish, Chris; Schneider, Anne

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the impact of motion generated by ambulance patient management on the performance of two lightweight physiologic sensors. Two physiologic sensors were applied to pre-hospital patients. The first was the Contec Medical Systems CMS50FW finger pulse oximeter, monitoring heart rate (HR) and blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). The second was the RESpeck respiratory rate (RR) sensor, which was wireless-enabled with a Bluetooth(®) Low Energy protocol. Sensor data were recorded from 16 pre-hospital patients, who were monitored for 21.2 ± 9.8 min, on average. Some form of error was identified on almost every HR and SpO2 trace. However, the mean proportion of each trace exhibiting error was <10 % (range <1-50 % for individual patients). There appeared to be no overt impact of the gross motion associated with road ambulance transit on the incidence of HR or SpO2 error. The RESpeck RR sensor delivered an average of 4.2 (±2.2) validated breaths per minute, but did not produce any validated breaths during the gross motion of ambulance transit as its pre-defined motion threshold was exceeded. However, this was many more data points than could be achieved using traditional manual assessment of RR. Error was identified on a majority of pre-hospital physiologic signals, which emphasised the need to ensure consistent sensor attachment in this unstable and unpredictable environment, and in developing intelligent methods of screening out such error.

  9. Pre-hospital care after a seizure: Evidence base and United Kingdom management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Andrew; Taylor, Louise; Reuber, Markus; Grünewald, Richard A; Parkinson, Martin; Dickson, Jon M

    2015-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation to pre-hospital emergency services and they generate significant healthcare costs. This article summarises the United Kingdom (UK) Ambulance Service guidelines for the management of seizures and explores the extent to which these guidelines are evidence-based. Summary of the Clinical Practice Guidelines of the UK Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee relating to the management of seizures. Review of the literature relating to pre-hospital management of seizure emergencies. Much standard practice relating to the emergency out of hospital management of patients with seizures is drawn from generic Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines although many patients do not need ALS during or after a seizure and the benefit of many ALS interventions in seizure patients remains to be established. The majority of studies identified pertain to medical treatment of status epilepticus. These papers show that benzodiazepines are safe and effective but it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions about the best medication or the optimal route of administration. The evidence base for current pre-hospital guidelines for seizure emergencies is incomplete. A large proportion of patients are transported to hospital after a seizure but many of these may be suitable for home management. However, there is very little research into alternative care pathways or criteria that could be used to help paramedics avoid transport to hospital. More research is needed to improve care for people after a seizure and to improve the cost-effectiveness of the healthcare systems within which they are treated. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pre-hospital, Maritime In-Transit care from a Role 2 Afloat platform.

    PubMed

    Whalley, L; Smith, S

    2013-01-01

    Maritime In-Transit Care (MITC) is a new concept to allow the provision of pre-hospital care in the maritime environment within Role 2 Afloat (R2A) teams. This article describes the experiences of an Emergency Medicine nurse and a Medical Assistant who made up the MITC team on the recent R2A exercise on RFA CARDIGAN BAY. As well as describing their personal experiences, the concept of the MITC team is introduced and their role within R2A outlined.

  11. Surgical Airway

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapna A; Meyer, Tanya K

    2014-01-01

    Close to 3% of all intubation attempts are considered difficult airways, for which a plan for a surgical airway should be considered. Our article provides an overview of the different types of surgical airways. This article provides a comprehensive review of the main types of surgical airways, relevant anatomy, necessary equipment, indications and contraindications, preparation and positioning, technique, complications, and tips for management. It is important to remember that the placement of a surgical airway is a lifesaving procedure and should be considered in any setting when one “cannot intubate, cannot ventilate”. PMID:24741501

  12. Degrees of reality: airway anatomy of high-fidelity human patient simulators and airway trainers.

    PubMed

    Schebesta, Karl; Hüpfl, Michael; Rössler, Bernhard; Ringl, Helmut; Müller, Michael P; Kimberger, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    Human patient simulators and airway training manikins are widely used to train airway management skills to medical professionals. Furthermore, these patient simulators are employed as standardized "patients" to evaluate airway devices. However, little is known about how realistic these patient simulators and airway-training manikins really are. This trial aimed to evaluate the upper airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers in comparison with actual patients by means of radiographic measurements. The volume of the pharyngeal airspace was the primary outcome parameter. Computed tomography scans of 20 adult trauma patients without head or neck injuries were compared with computed tomography scans of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers. By using 14 predefined distances, two cross-sectional areas and three volume parameters of the upper airway, the manikins' similarity to a human patient was assessed. The pharyngeal airspace of all manikins differed significantly from the patients' pharyngeal airspace. The HPS Human Patient Simulator (METI®, Sarasota, FL) was the most realistic high-fidelity patient simulator (6/19 [32%] of all parameters were within the 95% CI of human airway measurements). The airway anatomy of four high-fidelity patient simulators and two airway trainers does not reflect the upper airway anatomy of actual patients. This finding may impact airway training and confound comparative airway device studies.

  13. Threats and violence in the Swedish pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Petzäll, K; Tällberg, J; Lundin, T; Suserud, Björn-Ove

    2011-01-01

    Although acts of threats and violence are problems that have received increased attention in recent years within Swedish pre-hospital care, only a handful of scientific studies have been carried out in this field. Threats and violence have a negative influence on the well-being of ambulance personnel. The aim in this study was both to investigate the incidents of threats and violence within the Swedish ambulance service and to describe these situations. Data was collected with questionnaires answered by 134 registered nurses and paramedics from 11 ambulance stations located in four counties. The respondents' experiences of pre-hospital care varied from 3 months to 41 years (mean=12 years, median=8 years). The results showed that 66% of the ambulance personnel experienced threats and/or violence during their work while 26% experienced threats and 16% faced physical violence during the last year. The most common kind of threat was threats of physical violence with 27% of the respondents experiencing threats involving weapons. Commonly occurring physical violence was in the form of pushes, punches, kicks and bites. In most cases, the perpetrator was the patient himself often under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The most serious situations occurred when the reason for raising the ambulance alarm was intoxication or a decreased level of consciousness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood oxygenation during hyperpressure intraperitoneal fluid administration in a rabbit model of severe liver injury: Evaluation of a novel concept for control of pre-hospital liver bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Azizi, Saeed; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Maham, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen is an essential part of the most important metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. Oxygen delivery is merely dependent on blood, rendering blood loss a devastating event. Traumatic pre-hospital liver bleeding is a major cause of early trauma deaths in human and animals, with no established therapeutic method yet. Increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been shown to reduce liver bleeding by half. Although reduction of blood loss could be in favor of blood oxygen delivery, however, the complex interaction between increased IAP and respiratory mechanics during severe hemorrhagic shock remained unclear. We used a novel model of liver trauma in 16 rabbits and randomly assigned them to either normotensive abdomen group or increased IAP by fluid infusion (HA) groups (n=8 each). Liver size and the amount of liver injury were evaluated. Various blood oxygenation parameters were recorded. Both groups were identical in terms of the liver size and injury. The HA group had significantly lower shock index. Arterial oxygen capacity and oxygen content were higher in the HA group. No significant statistical difference was seen between groups in terms of abdominal perfusion pressure; alveolar pressure of oxygen; dissolved oxygen in blood plasma; alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient; arterial to alveolar oxygen pressure ratio; the ratio between partial pressure of arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen; and respiratory index. In conclusion, the novel therapeutic method of increasing IAP by fluid infusion in a rabbit model of liver hemorrhage preserved blood oxygenation better than the classic therapeutic method.

  15. Continuous Pre-Hospital Data as a Predictor of Outcome Following Major Trauma: A Study Using Improved and Expanded Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    this work. Major hurricanes Katrina and Rita were both located in the Gulf of Mexico during the time that SwRI was attempting to initiate access to...simulated “suicide bomber” attack inside a convention hall with multiple casualties. A LifeLink-equipped ambulance along with remote diagnostic ultrasound

  16. [Outcomes evaluation after the implementation of a pre-hospital thrombolysis protocol in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Hernández-García, J; Giménez-Ruiz, J J; Dueñas-Jurado, J M

    2016-10-01

    The aim is to evaluate the outcomes obtained from the implementation of a pre-hospital thrombolysis protocol in 3 rural emergency care teams, as well as delays and strategies of reperfusion applied in the treatment of the ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Retrospective cohort study (n=52) with historical control (n=20) of the patients assisted for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Medical emergency care teams, hospital, computerized medical history and ARIAM register reports were revised, obtaining epidemiological and clinical features, off-hospital management, reperfusion, time intervals and mortality. The baseline features in both groups were not significantly different. There was a non-significant improvement of emergency care teams-hospital diagnostic concordance (85.3 versus 76.9%). We found a similar use of nitroglycerin, morphine and aspirin; significant increase (P<0.0001) of clopidogrel/prasugrel (55 versus 90.4%) and enoxaparin/fondaparinux (35 versus 76.9%), as well as pre-hospital thrombolysis (5 versus 30,8%, P<0.03), that was applied within the first 2h to 71.4%, with a median door-needle of 40min, whereas in-hospital thrombolysis and primary angioplasty were performed after 3h from the symptoms onset (P<0.01). Delays are associated with the patient's own lateness (P<0.02). Pharmaco-invasive strategy increases (62.5 versus 84.6%) more than primary angioplasty (15 versus 17.3%), reducing in-hospital thrombolysis (35 versus 19.2%), all of them non-significant. Complications are similar and one-year mortality is reduced (P<0.67). The protocol is effective, safe, and reliable. It reduces delays and improves pre-hospital attention. The pharmaco-invasive strategy is a valid option. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. International trauma teleconference: evaluating trauma care and facilitating quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Parra, Michael W; Castillo, Roberto C; Rodas, Edgar B; Suarez-Becerra, Jose M; Puentes-Manosalva, Fabian E; Wendt, Luke M

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation, development, and implementation of trauma systems in Latin America are challenging undertakings as no model is currently in place that can be easily replicated throughout the region. The use of teleconferencing has been essential in overcoming other challenges in the medical field and improving medical care. This article describes the use of international videoconferencing in the field of trauma and critical care as a tool to evaluate differences in care based on local resources, as well as facilitating quality improvement and system development in Latin America. In February 2009, the International Trauma and Critical Care Improvement Project was created and held monthly teleconferences between U.S. trauma surgeons and Latin American general surgeons, emergency physicians, and intensivists. In-depth discussions and prospective evaluations of each case presented were conducted by all participants based on resources available. Care rendered was divided in four stages: (1) pre-hospital setting, (2) emergency room or trauma room, (3) operating room, and (4) subsequent postoperative care. Furthermore, the participating institutions completed an electronic survey of trauma resources based on World Health Organization/International Association for Trauma and Surgical Intensive Care guidelines. During a 17-month period, 15 cases in total were presented from a Level I and a Level II U.S. hospital (n=3) and five Latin American hospitals (n=12). Presentations followed the Advanced Trauma Life Support sequence in all U.S. cases but in only 3 of the 12 Latin American cases. The following deficiencies were observed in cases presented from Latin America: pre-hospital communication was nonexistent in all cases; pre-hospital services were absent in 60% of cases presented; lack of trauma team structure was evident in the emergency departments; during the initial evaluation and resuscitation, the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol was followed one time and the Clinical

  18. Pre-hospital core temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Strapazzon, Giacomo; Procter, Emily; Paal, Peter; Brugger, Hermann

    2014-06-01

    Core temperature (T core) measurement is the only diagnostic tool to accurately assess the severity of hypothermia. International recommendations for management of accidental hypothermia encourage T core measurement for triage, treatment, and transport decisions, but they also recognize that lack of equipment may be a limiting factor, particularly in the field. The aim of this nonsystematic review is to highlight the importance of field measurement of T core and to provide practical guidance for clinicians on pre-hospital temperature measurement in accidental and therapeutic hypothermia. Clinicians should recognize the difference between alternative measurement locations and available thermometers, tailoring their decision to the purpose of the measurement (i.e., intermittent vs. continual measurement), and the impact on management decisions. The importance of T core measurement in therapeutic hypothermia protocols during early cooling and monitoring of target temperature is discussed.

  19. [Cooperation between emergency and forensic medicine - retrospective evaluation of pre-hospital emergency measures].

    PubMed

    Buschmann, Claas T; Kleber, Christian; Tsokos, Michael; Püschel, Klaus; Hess, Thorsten; Kerner, Thoralf; Stuhr, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Emergency medical research is subject to special conditions. Emergency patients e.g. are generally considered to be non-capable of giving consent. This results in sparse emergency medical data when compared to clinical observation studies under controlled conditions. After emergency medical treatment, deceased patients are not rarely subject to forensic investigation. The cooperation between emergency and forensic medicine has not only emergency medical training potential in individual cases, but also scientific innovation potential especially with respect to the retrospective evaluation of pre-hospital emergency measures. Such partnerships (like in Berlin at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin between the Institute of Legal Medicine and the Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery or in Hamburg between the Institute for Legal Medicine at the University Hospital and the Municipal Fire Brigade with the Emergency Medical Service) are yet exceptional in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  20. [Nursing and pre-hospital care: dead-ends and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Martins, Pedro Paulo; do Prado, Marta Lenise

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is about a reflection related to the emerging of Pre-Hospital Care in Brazil ant its respective models of care during the last few decades. By drawing out a basic historical trajectory we were able to point out the successful and dead end paths of this modality of health assistance in our country. The most recent attempts of standardization at a national level of this kind of service were analyzed, especially the Health Ministry Decree no. 2048/02, which constitutes itself as a starting point, offering subsidies to institutions and to those involved in this specific field of health knowledge, in order to remake the path within another perspective.

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of telehealth in pre-hospital care.

    PubMed

    Langabeer, James R; Champagne-Langabeer, Tiffany; Alqusairi, Diaa; Kim, Junghyun; Jackson, Adria; Persse, David; Gonzalez, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Objective There has been very little use of telehealth in pre-hospital emergency medical services (EMS), yet the potential exists for this technology to transform the current delivery model. In this study, we explore the costs and benefits of one large telehealth EMS initiative. Methods Using a case-control study design and both micro- and gross-costing data from the Houston Fire Department EMS electronic patient care record system, we conducted a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) comparing costs with potential savings associated with patients treated through a telehealth-enabled intervention. The intervention consisted of telehealth-based consultation between the 911 patient and an EMS physician, to evaluate and triage the necessity for patient transport to a hospital emergency department (ED). Patients with non-urgent, primary care-related conditions were then scheduled and transported by alternative means to an affiliated primary care clinic. We measured CBA as both total cost savings and cost per ED visit averted, in US Dollars ($USD). Results In total, 5570 patients were treated over the first full 12 months with a telehealth-enabled care model. We found a 6.7% absolute reduction in potentially medically unnecessary ED visits, and a 44-minute reduction in total ambulance back-in-service times. The average cost for a telehealth patient was $167, which was a statistically significantly $103 less than the control group ( p < .0001). The programme produced a $928,000 annual cost savings from the societal perspective, or $2468 cost savings per ED visit averted (benefit). Conclusion Patient care enabled by telehealth in a pre-hospital environment, is a more cost effective alternative compared to the traditional EMS 'treat and transport to ED' model.

  2. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Turner, Conor D A; Lockey, David J; Rehn, Marius

    2016-11-08

    Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus were conducted in conjunction with simple searches of non-indexed databases; Web of Science, OpenDOAR and Evidence Search. The searches were last carried out on 20 April 2016 and only identified those papers published after the 1 January 1980. Included documents had to contain descriptions, discussions or experiences of the pre-hospital management of civilian mass shootings. From the 494 identified manuscripts, 73 were selected on abstract and title and after full text reading 47 were selected for inclusion in analysis. The search yielded reports of 17 mass shooting events, the majority from the USA with additions from France, Norway, the UK and Kenya. Between 1994 and 2015 the shooting of 1649 people with 578 deaths at 17 separate events are described. Quality appraisal demonstrated considerable heterogeneity in reporting and revealed limited data on mass shootings globally. Key themes were identified to improve future practice: tactical emergency medical support may harmonise inner cordon interventions, a need for inter-service education on effective haemorrhage control, the value of senior triage operators and the need for regular mass casualty incident simulation.

  3. Protection against cold - a survey of available equipment in Swedish pre-hospital services.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, O; Björnstig, U; Saveman, B-I; Lundgren, P J

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the current equipment used for prevention, treatment and monitoring of accidental hypothermia in Swedish pre-hospital services. A questionnaire was sent to all road ambulance services (AS), the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS), the national helicopter search and rescue service (SAR) and the municipal rescue services (RS) in Sweden to determine the availability of insulation, active warming, fluid heating, and low-reading thermometers. The response rate was 77% (n = 255). All units carried woollen or polyester blankets for basic insulation. Specific windproof insulation materials were common in the HEMS, SAR and RS units but only present in about half of the AS units. Active warming equipment was present in all the SAR units, but only in about two-thirds of the HEMS units and about one-third of the AS units. About half of the RS units had the ability to provide a heated tent or container. Low-reading thermometers were present in less than half of the AS and HEMS units and were non-existent in the SAR units. Pre-warmed intravenous fluids were carried by almost all of the AS units and half of the HEMS units but infusion heaters were absent in most units. Basic insulation capabilities are well established in the Swedish pre-hospital services. Specific wind and waterproof insulation materials, active warming devices, low-reading thermometers and IV fluid heating systems are less common. We suggest the development and implementation of national guidelines on accidental hypothermia that include basic recommendations on equipment requirements. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A retrospective quality assessment of pre-hospital emergency medical documentation in motor vehicle accidents in south-eastern Norway

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated pre-hospital documentation quality. We retrospectively assessed emergency medical service (EMS) documentation of key logistic, physiologic, and mechanistic variables in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs). Methods Records from police, Emergency Medical Communication Centers (EMCC), ground and air ambulances were retrospectively collected for 189 MVAs involving 392 patients. Documentation of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), respiratory rate (RR), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was classified as exact values, RTS categories, clinical descriptions enabling post-hoc inference of RTS categories, or missing. The distribution of values of exact versus inferred RTS categories were compared (Chi-square test for trend). Results 25% of ground and 11% of air ambulance records were unretrieveable. Patient name, birth date, and transport destination was documented in >96% of ambulance records and 81% of EMCC reports. Only 54% of patient encounter times were transmitted to the EMCC, but 77% were documented in ground and 96% in air ambulance records. Ground ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 48% and SBP in 53% of cases, exact RR in 10%, and RR RTS categories in 54%. Clinical descriptions made post-hoc inference of RTS categories possible in another 49% of cases for GCS, 26% for RR, and 20% for SBP. Air ambulance records documented exact values of GCS in 89% and SBP in 84% of cases, exact RR in 7% and RR RTS categories in 80%. Overall, for lower RTS categories of GCS, RR and SBP the proportion of actual documented values to inferred values increased (All: p < 0.001). Also, documentation of repeated assessment was more frequent for low RTS categories of GCS, RR, and SBP (All: p < 0.001). Mechanism of injury was documented in 80% of cases by ground and 92% of cases by air ambulance. Conclusion EMS documentation of logistic and mechanistic variables was adequate. Patient physiology was frequently documented only as descriptive text. Our

  5. Does Pre-hospital Endotracheal Intubation Improve Survival in Adults with Non-traumatic Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tiah, Ling; Kajino, Kentaro; Alsakaf, Omer; Bautista, Dianne Carrol Tan; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Lie, Desiree; Naroo, Ghulam Yasin; Doctor, Nausheen Edwin; Chia, Michael YC; Gan, Han Nee

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation (ETI) is currently considered superior to supraglottic airway devices (SGA) for survival and other outcomes among adults with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We aimed to determine if the research supports this conclusion by conducting a systematic review. Methods We searched the MEDLINE, Scopus and CINAHL databases for studies published between January 1, 1980, and 30 April 30, 2013, which compared pre-hospital use of ETI with SGA for outcomes of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); survival to hospital admission; survival to hospital discharge; and favorable neurological or functional status. We selected studies using pre-specified criteria. Included studies were independently screened for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We did not pool results because of study variability. Study outcomes were extracted and results presented as summed odds ratios with 95% CI. Results We identified five eligible studies: one quasi-randomized controlled trial and four cohort studies, involving 303,348 patients in total. Only three of the five studies reported a higher proportion of ROSC with ETI versus SGA with no difference reported in the remaining two. None found significant differences between ETI and SGA for survival to hospital admission or discharge. One study reported better functional status at discharge for ETI versus SGA. Two studies reported no significant difference for favorable neurological status between ETI and SGA. Conclusion Current evidence does not conclusively support the superiority of ETI over SGA for multiple outcomes among adults with OHCA. PMID:25493114

  6. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2017-01-14

    Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions, the severity of the reactions and to correlate the pre-hospital treatment with the severity of the anaphylactic reaction. Retrospective and descriptive study based on data from the Mobile Emergency Care Units (MECUs) in the Region of Southern Denmark (2008 only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region). Discharge summaries with diagnosis related to anaphylaxis according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) were reviewed to identify bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions. The severity of the anaphylactic reaction was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced anaphylaxis. The Incidence Rate was estimated to 35.8 cases per 1,000,000 person year (95% CI 25.9-48.2) in the Region of Southern Denmark during 2009-2014. According to Sampson's severity score, 65% (n = 177) of the cases were graded as moderate to severe anaphylaxis (grade 3-5). Almost one third of cases could not be graded according to Mueller's severity score. Adrenaline was administrated in 54% (96/177) of cases with moderate to severe anaphylaxis according to Sampson's severity score, compared to 88% receiving intravenous glucocorticoids (p < 0.001) and 91% receiving intravenous antihistamines (p < 0.001). Even in severe anaphylaxis (grade 5) adrenaline was administered in only 80% of the cases. Treatment with adrenaline is not administered in accordance with international guidelines

  7. Barriers of Pre-Hospital Services in Road Traffic Injuries in Tehran: The Viewpoint of Service Providers.

    PubMed

    Alinia, Shahrokh; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Maddah, Sadat Seyed Bagher; Negarandeh, Reza

    2015-10-01

    Iran is one of the countries with considerable road traffic injuries. Pre-hospital interventions have an important role in preventing mortalities and disabilities caused by traffic accidents. The present study aimed to explore the barriers of pre-hospital care in traffic injuries in Tehran, Iran. A qualitative content analysis approach was conducted based on 21 semi-structured interviews with 18 participants. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and then data condensing, labeling, coding and defining categories were performed by qualitative content analysis. Four main barriers including 4 main categories and 13 subcategories emerged; they included Barriers related to people, Barriers related to metropolitan infrastructure, Barriers related to the profession and Barriers related to managerial issues. Based on the findings of this study, pre-hospital service barriers in traffic accidents have many dimensions including cultural, structural and managerial domains. Policy makers in health system can use these findings to promote the quality of pre-hospital services, especially in the field of traffic injuries.

  8. An Introduction to Emergency Medical Services (EMS). Pre-Hospital Phase. Emergency Medical Services Orientation, Lesson Plan No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Derrick P.

    Designed for use with interested students at high schools, community colleges, and four-year colleges, this lesson plan was developed to provide an introduction to the pre-hospital phase of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and to serve as a recruitment tool for the EMS Program at Kapiolani Community College (KCC) in Hawaii. The objectives of the…

  9. Trauma research in the United Arab Emirates: reality and vision.

    PubMed

    Eid, H O; Lunsjo, K; Torab, F C; Abu-Zidan, F M

    2008-10-01

    Trauma is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates, and it is the second leading cause of death. Research can help us find solutions for this problem. We evaluated the published literature on trauma from United Arab Emirates to define research areas which need improvement. A MEDLINE search for articles on trauma and injury from the United Arab Emirates covering the period 1960-2005 was performed. The content of articles was studied, classified and summarised. 32 articles were found, of which 18 were published in the last six years. 18 articles were on prevention and epidemiology, ten on clinical management and four on education. The first author was affiliated to the university in 19 articles. There were no articles on pre-hospital care, experimental work, trauma systems, trauma registry or post-hospital rehabilitation. There is a need for a strategic plan to support research in areas like pre-hospital care, implementation of trauma systems, trauma registries and post-hospital rehabilitations to reduce the socioeconomic impact of trauma in the United Arab Emirates.

  10. EZ-IO(®) intraosseous device implementation in a pre-hospital emergency service: A prospective study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Santos, David; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Pasquier, Mathieu

    2013-04-01

    Intraosseous access is increasingly recognised as an effective alternative vascular access to peripheral venous access. We aimed to prospectively study the patients receiving prehospital intraosseous access with the EZ-IO(®), and to compare our results with those of the available literature. Every patient who required an intraosseous access with the EZ-IO from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2011 was included. The main data collected were: age, sex, indication for intraosseous access, localisation of insertion, success rate, drugs and fluids administered, and complications. All published studies concerning the EZ-IO device were systematically searched and reviewed for comparison. Fifty-eight patients representing 60 EZ-IO procedures were included. Mean age was 47 years (range 0.5-91), and the success rate was 90%. The main indications were cardiorespiratory arrest (74%), major trauma (12%), and shock (5%). The anterior tibia was the main route. The main drugs administered were adrenaline (epinephrine), atropine and amiodarone. No complications were reported. We identified 30 heterogeneous studies representing 1603 EZ-IO insertions. The patients' characteristics and success rate were similar to our study. Complications were reported in 13 cases (1.3%). The EZ-IO provides an effective way to achieve vascular access in the pre-hospital setting. Our results were similar to the cumulative results of all studies involving the use of the EZ-IO, and that can be used for comparison for further studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of pre-hospital care on the outcome of children arriving with agonal breathing to a pediatric emergency service in South India

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Debasis Das; Mahathi, Krishna; Ghosh, Urmi; Agarwal, Indira; Chacko, Anila; Jacob, Ebor; Ebenezer, Kala

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data on the prehospital interventions received by critically ill children at arrival to Paediatric Emergency Services (PES) is limited in developing countries. This study aims to describe the pre-hospital care scenario, transport and their impact on outcome in non-traumatic, acutely ill children presenting in PES with agonal breathing. Methods: Prospective observational study done on children aged below 15 years arriving in PES with agonal breathing due to non-trauma related causes. Results: Out of 75 children studied, 69% were infants. The duration of illness among 65% of them (75) was less than 3 days. Majority of them (81%) had received treatment prior to arrival. Government sector physicians (72%), half of them (51%) being pediatricians were the major treating doctors. 37% of the children had arrived to the Emergency in an ambulance. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) was given to 27% on arrival in PES. Other interventions included fluid boluses to correct shock (92%) and inotrope infusion (56%). Sepsis (24%) and pneumonia (24%) were the most common diagnoses. Out of 75, 57 (76%) children who were stabilized and shifted to PICU and among them 27 (47%) survived to discharge. Normal blood pressure (p=0.0410) and non-requirement of CPR (0.0047) and inotropic infusion (0.0459) in PES were associated with a higher chance of survival. Conclusion: 36% (27/75) of children who arrived to our PES with agonal breathing survived to hospital discharge. Survival was significantly better among those who did not need CPR. PMID:28217595

  12. Exploration of key stakeholders' preferences for pre-hospital physiologic monitoring by emergency rescue services.

    PubMed

    Mort, Alasdair J; Rushworth, Gordon F

    2013-12-01

    To gather preferences for novel pre-hospital physiologic monitoring technologies from emergency rescue services. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with three groups from UK Search and Rescue (SAR); (1) Extractors (e.g. SAR teams), (2) Transporters (personnel primarily responsible for casualty transport), and (3) Treaters (e.g. Emergency Department doctors). Three themes were defined; SAR casualty management, novel physiologic monitor potential, and physiologic monitor physical properties. Some SAR groups already employed physiologic monitoring but there was no consensus on which monitor(s) to carry or what to monitor and how frequently. Existing monitors also tended to be bulky and heavy and could be unreliable in an unstable environment or if the casualty was cold. Those performing monitoring tended to have only basic first-aid training, and their workload was often high particularly if there was more than one casualty. The potential benefits of employing a novel monitor were strategic and clinical; an opportunity for transmitting data off-scene in order to facilitate monitoring or generate advice (i.e. telemedicine) was also voiced. A range of more intuitive, physical properties was also raised (e.g. small/compact, lightweight). SAR-specific technology should be simple to operate by those with less medical training, which means that clinical data interpretation and presentation should be carefully considered. It would be beneficial if novel monitors carried out a majority of the interpretation, allowing rescuers to proceed with their priority task of removing the casualty to safety.

  13. Using ArcGIS software in the pre-hospital emergency medical system.

    PubMed

    Manole, M; Duma, Odetta; Custură, Maria Alexandra; Petrariu, F D; Manole, Alina

    2014-01-01

    To measure the accessibility to healtcare services in order to reveal their quality and to improve the overall coverage, continuity and other features. We used the software ESRI Arc GIS 9.3, the Network Analyst function and data provided by Ambulance Service of Iasi (A.S.I.) with emergencies statistics for the first four months of 2012, processed by Microsoft Office Excel 2010. As examples, we chose "St. Maria" Children's Emergency Hospital and "St. Spiridon" Emergency Hospital. ArcGIS Network Analyst finds the best route to get from one location to another or a route that includes multiple locations. Each route is characterized by three stops. The starting point is always the office of Ambulance Service of Iasi (A.S.I.), a second stop at the case address and the third to the hospital unit chosen according to the patient's diagnosis and age. Spatial distribution of emergency cases for the first four months of 2012 in these two examples is one unequable, with higher concentrations in districts located in two areas of the city. The presented examples highlight the poor coverage of healthcare services for the population of Iasi, Romania, especially the South-West area and its vulnerability in situations of emergency. Implementing such a broad project would lead to more complex analyses that would improve the situation of pre-hospital emergency medical services, with final goal to deserve the population, improve the quality of healthcare and develop the interdisciplinary relationships.

  14. Trauma systems and early management of severe injuries in Scandinavia: review of the current state.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Thomas; Søreide, Kjetil; Ringdal, Kjetil G; Rehn, Marius; Krüger, Andreas J; Reite, Andreas; Meling, Terje; Naess, Pål Aksel; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2010-05-01

    Scandinavian countries face common challenges in trauma care. It has been suggested that Scandinavian trauma system development is immature compared to that of other regions. We wanted to assess the current status of Scandinavian trauma management and system development. An extensive search of the Medline/Pubmed, EMBASE and SweMed+ databases was conducted. Wide coverage was prioritized over systematic search strategies. Scandinavian publications from the last decade pertaining to trauma epidemiology, trauma systems and early trauma management were included. The incidence of severe injury ranged from 30 to 52 per 100,000 inhabitants annually, with about 90% due to blunt trauma. Parts of Scandinavia are sparsely populated with long pre-hospital distances. In accordance with other European countries, pre-hospital physicians are widely employed and studies indicate that this practice imparts a survival benefit to trauma patients. More than 200 Scandinavian hospitals receive injured patients, increasingly via multidisciplinary trauma teams. Challenges remain concerning pre-hospital identification of the severely injured. Improved triage allows for a better match between patient needs and the level of resources available. Trauma management is threatened by the increasing sub-specialisation of professions and institutions. Scandinavian research is leading the development of team- and simulation-based trauma training. Several pan-Scandinavian efforts have facilitated research and provided guidelines for clinical management. Scandinavian trauma research is characterised by an active collaboration across countries. The current challenges require a focus on the role of traumatology within an increasingly fragmented health care system. Regional networks of predictable and accountable pre- and in-hospital resources are needed for efficient trauma systems. Successful development requires both novel research and scientific assessment of imported principles of trauma care. (c

  15. Impact of a predefined hospital mass casualty response plan in a limited resource setting with no pre-hospital care system.

    PubMed

    Shah, Adil Aijaz; Rehman, Abdul; Sayyed, Raza Hasnain; Haider, Adil Hussain; Bawa, Amber; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Zia-Ur-Rehman; Ali, Kamran; Zafar, Hasnain

    2015-01-01

    Pre-hospital triage is an intricate part of any mass casualty response system. However, in settings where no such system exists, it is not known if hospital-based disaster response efforts are beneficial. This study describes in-hospital disaster response management and patient outcomes following a mass casualty event (MCE) involving 200 victims in a lower-middle income country in South Asia. We performed a single-center, retrospective review of bombing victims presenting to a trauma center in the spring of 2013, after a high energy car bomb leveled a residential building. Descriptive analysis was utilized to present demographic variables and physical injuries. A disaster plan was devised based on the canons of North-American trauma care; some adaptations to the local environment were incorporated. Relevant medical and surgical specialties were mobilized to the ED awaiting a massive influx of patients. ED waiting room served as the triage area. Operating rooms, ICU and blood bank were alerted. Seventy patients presented to the ED. Most victims (88%) were brought directly without prehospital triage or resuscitation. Four were pronounced dead on arrival. The mean age of victims was 27 (±14) years with a male preponderance (78%). Penetrating shrapnel injury was the most common mechanism of injury (71%). Most had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) >90 with a mean of 120.3 (±14.8). Mean pulse was 90.2 (±21.6) and most patients had full GCS. Extremities were the most common body region involved (64%) with orthopedics service being consulted most frequently. Surgery was performed on 36 patients, including 4 damage control surgeries. All patients survived. This overwhelming single mass-casualty incident was met with a swift multidisciplinary response. In countries with no prehospital triage system, implementing a pre-existing disaster plan with pre-defined interdisciplinary responsibilities can streamline in-hospital management of casualties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  16. PRE-HOSPITAL EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES FOR ELDERLY POPULATION IN TBILISI.

    PubMed

    Dalakishvili, S; Bakuradze, N; Gugunishvili, M; Jojua, R; Eremashvili, M

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the issue is determined by the current demographic situation in Georgia and the world in general. The trend of growing the number of older people and the increase of the life span is obvious. At the same time in the number of countries, particularly in the developed western countries and Japan, the decrease of birth rate is noticed. Similar processes are taking place in Georgia; this logically increases the number of sick and weakened people, which means that taking care of them becomes more acute problem. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was the study of the situation of the pre-hospital emergency medical services in the Georgian capital Tbilisi during the period of 2012-2014. For this reason, the data provided by the Tbilisi Emergency Medical Service were used. Besides, we have also looked for the statistics of the different countries, including the US, Japan and South-East Asian countries. Attention was paid to the recommendations proposed because of the Monitoring of the European Union Mission in Georgia, which focuses on the social and economic protection of elderly. The tables and diagrams, describing the current conditions are provided. Since 2012, there has been launched the state health care program for the elderly in Georgia, but based on research conducted, it does not cover home care services while, the majority of the elderly are chronically sick people and suffer from the number of diseases. Results of the study can be used for improving quality of the Emergency Medical Service model in Georgia and finding the possible ways for its reforms.

  17. Pre-hospital ticagrelor in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the French ATLANTIC population.

    PubMed

    Cayla, Guillaume; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Ecollan, Patrick; Stibbe, Olivier; Benezet, Jean Francois; Henry, Patrick; Hammett, Christopher J; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Storey, Robert F; Ten Berg, Jur M; Hamm, Christian W; Van't Hof, Arnoud W; Montalescot, Gilles

    2017-10-01

    ATLANTIC was a randomized study comparing pre- and in-hospital treatment with a ticagrelor loading dose (LD) in ongoing ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to compare patient characteristics and clinical outcomes in France with other countries participating in ATLANTIC. The population comprised 1862 patients, 660 (35.4%) from France and 1202 from 12 other countries. The main endpoints were reperfusion (≥70% ST-segment elevation resolution) and TIMI flow grade 3 before (co-primary endpoints) and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Other endpoints included a composite ischaemic endpoint (death/myocardial infarction/stroke/urgent revascularization/definite stent thrombosis) and bleeding events at 30days. In France, median times from first LD to angiography and between first and second LDs were 49 and 35min, respectively, and were similar to other countries. French patients were younger (mean 58.7 vs 61.9years, p<0.0001) and characterized by a higher rate of radial access (89.9% vs 54.8%, p<0.0001), more frequent use of pre-hospital glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors (14.1% vs 3.1%, p<0.0001) and intravenous enoxaparin (57.3% vs 10.1%, p<0.0001). In France, as in other countries, the co-primary endpoints did not differ between the two randomization groups. The composite ischaemic endpoint was numerically lower in France (3.3% vs 5.1%, p=0.07), with a lower mortality (1.4% vs 3.3%, p=0.01). PLATO major bleeding was numerically less frequent in France (1.8% vs 3.2%, p=0.07). The French population appears to have better outcomes than the rest of the study population, and seems related to differences in demographics and management characteristics. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01347580). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between use of pre-hospital ECG and 30-day mortality: A large cohort study of patients experiencing chest pain.

    PubMed

    Rawshani, Nina; Rawshani, Araz; Gelang, Carita; Herlitz, Johan; Bång, Angela; Andersson, Jan-Otto; Gellerstedt, Martin

    2017-12-01

    In the assessment of patients with chest pain, there is support for the use of pre-hospital ECG in the literature and in the care guidelines. Using propensity score methods, we aim to examine whether the mere acquisition of a pre-hospital ECG among patients with chest pain affects the outcome (30-day mortality). The association between pre-hospital ECG and 30-day mortality was studied in the overall cohort (n=13151), as well as in the one-to-one matched cohort with 2524 patients not examined with pre-hospital ECG and 2524 patients examined with pre-hospital ECG. In the overall cohort, 21% (n=2809) did not undergo an ECG tracing in the pre-hospital setting. Among those who had pain during transport, 14% (n=1159) did not undergo a pre-hospital ECG while 32% (n=1135) of those who did not have pain underwent an ECG tracing. In the overall cohort, the OR for 30-day mortality in patients who had a pre-hospital ECG, as compared with those who did not, was 0.63 (95% CI 0.05-0.79; p<0.001). In the matched cohort, the OR was 0.65 (95% CI 0.49-0.85; p<0.001). Using the propensity score, in the overall cohort, the corresponding HR was 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.74). Using propensity score methods, we provide real-world data demonstrating that the adjusted risk of death was considerably lower among the cases in whoma pre-hospital ECG was used. The PH-ECG is underused among patients with chest discomfort and the mere acquisition of a pre-hospital ECG may reduce mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Advanced airway management--a medical emergency response team perspective.

    PubMed

    Haldane, A G

    2010-09-01

    To determine the number of medical emergency response team (MERT) patients undergoing advanced airway management in the peri-evacuation phase and to determine the indications for airway interventions undertaken in flight. This was a retrospective study. Data was collected from patient report and mission debrief forms completed after each MERT mission during Operation HERRICK 10 (April-October 2009). All patients that received advanced airway interventions before or during evacuation were identified. MERTs were involved in the primary transfer of 534 patients during the period studied, 56 (10.5%) underwent advanced airway management, of which 31 (5.8% of total) were initiated by the MERT in the peri-evacuation phase. Twenty five cases (4.7%) underwent advanced airway management by other pre-hospital providers prior to MERT arrival. Of the 31 advanced airway interventions undertaken in-flight, cardiac arrest was the primary indication in only nine cases. The figure of 56 patients requiring advanced airway management is at the higher end of the range expected from the study of historical military data. This may reflect the doctrine of "intelligent tasking", that is sending this physician-led team to the most seriously injured casualties.

  20. Upper airway obstruction. General principles and selected conditions in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Aron, D N; Crowe, D T

    1985-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the clinical features of upper airway obstructive disorders. It includes more detailed discussions of certain common conditions such as brachycephalic airway syndrome, laryngeal paralysis, and upper airway obstruction due to trauma, foreign bodies, extraluminal masses, and tumours of the larynx and trachea.

  1. Establishing a successful pre-hospital emergency service in a developing country: experience from Rescue 1122 service in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Hunniya; Naseer, Rizwan; Razzak, Junaid Abdul

    2011-06-01

    As in many other developing countries, emergency medical services, especially pre-hospital emergency care, has long been neglected in Pakistan. Consequently, patients are brought to the emergency departments by relatives or bystanders in private cars, taxis or any other readily available mode of transportation. Ambulances, where they exist, have barely a stretcher and arrangements for oxygen supply. Modern emergency services are considered too costly for many countries. A model of pre-hospital emergency services, called Rescue 1122 and established in Punjab province of Pakistan, is presented. The system is supported by government funding and provides a quality service. The article describes the process of establishment of the service, the organisational structure, the scope of services and the role it is currently playing in the healthcare of the region it serves.

  2. Pre-hospital management of acute coronary syndrome patients in Belgium and Luxembourg and other Western European countries.

    PubMed

    Beauloye, Christophe; Vrolix, Mathias; Claeys, Marc J; van de Borne, Philippe; Vandendriessche, Eef; Van De Werf, Frans

    2016-02-01

    This sub-analysis of the EPICOR study describes pre-hospital care (PHC) patterns in Belgium, Luxembourg (Belux) and Western European (WEU) countries (Finland, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, UK, Belgium, Luxembourg, Spain, France, Italy, Greece and Germany. EPICOR (NCT01171404) is multinational, observational study comprising patients with acute coronary syndrome hospitalized within 24h of symptoms onset, diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI (NSTEMI) or unstable angina (UA). Of the 325 WEU centres, 37 were in Belgium and 1 in Luxembourg. PHC was defined as pre-hospital ECG and/or pre-hospital medication (PHM). 504 Belux and 6,119 WEU patients were enrolled. Of the WEU patients 51.5% received PHC and 28.1% PHM, compared to 27.6% and 11.3% of the Belux patients. These differences were observed in both STEMI and UA/NSTEMI patients. In Belux, the most frequent PHM was acetylsalicylic acid (53 patients); only 1 patient received thrombolytics. The median time from symptoms onset to ECG was longer for Belux (2.8 h) than for WEU patients (2.4 h). PHC shortened this time by almost 1.5h. Belux patients with PHC had a shorter median time between symptoms onset and first medical attention (FMA) than WEU patients (1.0 vs 1.3 h). Only 34.7% of Belux patients with pre-hospital ECG and with time from FMA to ECG available had ECG within 10 minutes of FMA, as recommended by the European Society of Cardiology. In Belux, diagnostic ECG is delayed compared to WEU, despite the short time to FMA. Few patients undergo ECG within the recommended period, indicating room for improvement.

  3. Between professional values and the social valuation of patients: the fluctuating economy of pre-hospital emergency work.

    PubMed

    Nurok, Michael; Henckes, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    A number of authors have shown how medical decisions are influenced by social values; others have minimized the putative influence of values and have argued that medical decisions are predominantly constrained by the organization of medical work. Based on fieldwork in France and the USA observing pre-hospital resuscitations, we seek to resolve these views by showing that while judgments about the social value of a patient do influence professional decisions, so do judgments about the work that must be accomplished to manage a case. Pre-hospital emergency work has many facets that are variably valued by different professionals at different moments of an emergency's trajectory. These values compete with each other in what we call a "fluctuating economy". This article analyses the role of social, technical, medical or surgical, heroic, and competence values in the course of pre-hospital emergency work. We show how these values may conflict or align with each other, forcing professionals to constantly establish priorities during an emergency trajectory.

  4. Submandibular intubation in awake patient of panfacial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Kamra, SK; Khandavilli, HK; Banerjee, P

    2016-01-01

    Maxillofacial trauma patients present with airway problems. Submandibular intubation is an effective means of intubation to avoid tracheostomy for operative procedures. Airway is secured with oral endotracheal intubation in paralyzed patient and tube is then transplaced in sub mental or submandibular region. However there may be instances when paralyzing such trauma patients is not safe and short term tracheostomy is the only airway channel available for conduction of anesthesia. We report a case of submandibular intubation in awake patient of maxillofacial trauma with anticipated intubation problems. PMID:27833492

  5. Airway management in emergency situations.

    PubMed

    Dörges, Volker

    2005-12-01

    Securing and monitoring the airway are among the key requirements of appropriate therapy in emergency patients. Failures to secure the airways can drastically increase morbidity and mortality of patients within a very short time. Therefore, the entire range of measures needed to secure the airway in an emergency, without intermediate ventilation and oxygenation, is limited to 30-40 seconds. Endotracheal intubation is often called the 'gold standard' for airway management in an emergency, but multiple failed intubation attempts do not result in maintaining oxygenation; instead, they endanger the patient by prolonging hypoxia and causing additional trauma to the upper airways. Thus, knowledge and availability of alternative procedures are also essential in every emergency setting. Given the great variety of techniques available, it is important to establish a well-planned, methodical protocol within the framework of an algorithm. This not only facilitates the preparation of equipment and the training of personnel, it also ensures efficient decision-making under time pressure. Most anaesthesia-related deaths are due to hypoxaemia when difficulty in securing the airway is encountered, especially in obstetrics during induction of anaesthesia for caesarean delivery. The most commonly occurring adverse respiratory events are failure to intubate, failure to recognize oesophageal intubation, and failure to ventilate. Thus, it is essential that every anaesthesiologist working on the labour and delivery ward is comfortable with the algorithm for the management of failed intubation. The algorithm for emergency airway management describing the sequence of various procedures has to be adapted to internal standards and to techniques that are available.

  6. Low-cost improvements in prehospital trauma care in a Latin American city.

    PubMed

    Arreola-Risa, C; Mock, C N; Lojero-Wheatly, L; de la Cruz, O; Garcia, C; Canavati-Ayub, F; Jurkovich, G J

    2000-01-01

    Prehospital care is a critical component of efforts to lower trauma mortality. In less-developed countries, scarce resources dictate that any improvements in prehospital care must be low in cost. In one Latin American city, recent efforts to improve prehospital care have included an increase in the number of sites of ambulance dispatch from two to four and introduction of the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) course. The effect of increased dispatch sites was evaluated by comparing response times before and after completion of the change. The effect of PHTLS was evaluated by comparing prehospital treatment for the 3 months before initiation of the course (n = 361 trauma patients) and the 6 months after (n = 505). Response time decreased from a mean of 15.5 +/- 5.1 minutes, when there were two sites of dispatch, to 9.5 +/- 2.7 minutes, when there were four sites. Prehospital trauma care improved after initiation of the PHTLS course. For all trauma patients, use of cervical immobilization increased from 39 to 67%. For patients in respiratory distress, there were increases in the use of oropharyngeal airways (16-39%), in the use of suction (10-38%), and in the administration of oxygen (64-87%). For hypotensive patients, there was an increase in use of large-bore intravenous lines from 26 to 58%. The improved prehospital treatment did not increase the mean scene time (5.7 +/- 4.4 minutes before vs. 5.9 +/- 6.8 minutes after). The percent of patients transported who died in route decreased from 8.2% before the course to 4.7% after. These improvements required a minimal increase (16%) in the ambulance service budget. Increase in sites of dispatch and increased training in the form of the PHTLS course improved the process of pre-hospital care in this Latin American city and resulted in a decrease in prehospital deaths. These improvements were low cost and should be considered for use in other less developed countries.

  7. Is high-quality trauma care "business as usual" in New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Civil, Ian; Isles, Siobhan

    2017-05-12

    New Zealand is on the cusp of establishing a world-class trauma system. Many of the building blocks are in place with national and regional guidelines in both the pre-hospital and hospital phases of care established. A dedicated clinical workforce is available in all DHBs and national data available through the Major Trauma Registry. The greatest threat to achieving high-quality trauma care in New Zealand at this point is governance stability rather than clinical variability. Now is the time to lock the trauma system into a framework not subject to political or bureaucratic whims.

  8. Blunt laryngeal trauma secondary to sporting injuries.

    PubMed

    Mendis, D; Anderson, J A

    2017-08-01

    Laryngeal injury after blunt trauma is uncommon, but can cause catastrophic airway obstruction and significant morbidity in voice and airway function. This paper aims to discuss a case series of sports-related blunt laryngeal trauma patients and describe the results of a thorough literature review. Retrospective case-based analysis of laryngeal trauma referrals over six years to a tertiary laryngology centre. Twenty-eight patients were identified; 13 (46 per cent) sustained sports-related trauma. Most were young males, presenting with dysphonia, some with airway compromise (62 per cent). Nine patients were diagnosed with a laryngeal fracture. Four patients were managed conservatively and nine underwent surgery. Post-treatment, the majority of patients achieved good voice outcomes (83 per cent) and all had normal airway function. Sports-related neck trauma can cause significant injury to the laryngeal framework and endolaryngeal soft tissues, and most cases require surgical intervention. Clinical presentation may be subtle; a systematic approach along with a high index of suspicion is essential, as early diagnosis and treatment have been reported to improve airway and voice outcome.

  9. Difficult airway response team: a novel quality improvement program for managing hospital-wide airway emergencies.

    PubMed

    Mark, Lynette J; Herzer, Kurt R; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I; Berkow, Lauren C; Haut, Elliott R; Hillel, Alexander T; Miller, Christina R; Feller-Kopman, David J; Schiavi, Adam J; Xie, Yanjun J; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W; Mirski, Marek A

    2015-07-01

    Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. We developed a quality improvement program-the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)-to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had 3 core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a Web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index >40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous or current tracheostomy. Twenty

  10. Difficult Airway Response Team: A Novel Quality Improvement Program for Managing Hospital-Wide Airway Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Lynette J.; Herzer, Kurt R.; Cover, Renee; Pandian, Vinciya; Bhatti, Nasir I.; Berkow, Lauren C.; Haut, Elliott R.; Hillel, Alexander T.; Miller, Christina R.; Feller-Kopman, David J.; Schiavi, Adam J.; Xie, Yanjun J.; Lim, Christine; Holzmueller, Christine; Ahmad, Mueen; Thomas, Pradeep; Flint, Paul W.; Mirski, Marek A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Difficult airway cases can quickly become emergencies, increasing the risk of life-threatening complications or death. Emergency airway management outside the operating room is particularly challenging. Methods We developed a quality improvement program—the Difficult Airway Response Team (DART)—to improve emergency airway management outside the operating room. DART was implemented by a team of anesthesiologists, otolaryngologists, trauma surgeons, emergency medicine physicians, and risk managers in 2005 at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. The DART program had three core components: operations, safety, and education. The operations component focused on developing a multidisciplinary difficult airway response team, standardizing the emergency response process, and deploying difficult airway equipment carts throughout the hospital. The safety component focused on real-time monitoring of DART activations and learning from past DART events to continuously improve system-level performance. This objective entailed monitoring the paging system, reporting difficult airway events and DART activations to a web-based registry, and using in situ simulations to identify and mitigate defects in the emergency airway management process. The educational component included development of a multispecialty difficult airway curriculum encompassing case-based lectures, simulation, and team building/communication to ensure consistency of care. Educational materials were also developed for non-DART staff and patients to inform them about the needs of patients with difficult airways and ensure continuity of care with other providers after discharge. Results Between July 2008 and June 2013, DART managed 360 adult difficult airway events comprising 8% of all code activations. Predisposing patient factors included body mass index > 40, history of head and neck tumor, prior difficult intubation, cervical spine injury, airway edema, airway bleeding, and previous

  11. Strategically Leapfrogging Education in Prehospital Trauma Management: Four-Tiered Training Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Rohit; Vyas, Dinesh; Narayan, Mayur; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Trauma-related injury in fast developing countries are linked to 90% of international mortality rates, which can be greatly reduced by improvements in often non-existent or non-centralized emergency medical systems (EMS)—particularly in the pre-hospital care phase. Traditional trauma training protocols—such as Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), International Trauma Life Support (ITLS), and Basic Life Support (BLS)—have failed to produce an effective pre-hospital ground force of medical first responders. To overcome these barriers, we propose a new four-tiered set of trauma training protocols: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Trauma Training, Acute Trauma Training (ATT), Broad Trauma Training (BTT), and Cardiac and Trauma Training (CTT). These standards are specifically differentiated to accommodate the educational and socioeconomic diversity found in fast developing settings, where each free course is taught in native, lay language while ensuring the education standards are maintained by fully incorporating high-fidelity simulation, video-recorded debriefing, and retraining. The innovative pedagogy of this trauma education program utilizes MOOC for global scalability and a “train-the-trainer” approach for exponential growth—both components help fast developing countries reach a critical mass of first responders needed for the base of an evolving EMS. PMID:27419222

  12. Strategically Leapfrogging Education in Prehospital Trauma Management: Four-Tiered Training Protocols.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Rohit; Vyas, Dinesh; Narayan, Mayur; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-related injury in fast developing countries are linked to 90% of international mortality rates, which can be greatly reduced by improvements in often non-existent or non-centralized emergency medical systems (EMS)-particularly in the pre-hospital care phase. Traditional trauma training protocols-such as Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), International Trauma Life Support (ITLS), and Basic Life Support (BLS)-have failed to produce an effective pre-hospital ground force of medical first responders. To overcome these barriers, we propose a new four-tiered set of trauma training protocols: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Trauma Training, Acute Trauma Training (ATT), Broad Trauma Training (BTT), and Cardiac and Trauma Training (CTT). These standards are specifically differentiated to accommodate the educational and socioeconomic diversity found in fast developing settings, where each free course is taught in native, lay language while ensuring the education standards are maintained by fully incorporating high-fidelity simulation, video-recorded debriefing, and retraining. The innovative pedagogy of this trauma education program utilizes MOOC for global scalability and a "train-the-trainer" approach for exponential growth-both components help fast developing countries reach a critical mass of first responders needed for the base of an evolving EMS.

  13. Arrow trauma to cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Geissinger, Gregory; Magid, Gail A; McMahon, Robert C

    2009-07-01

    A 50-year-old man was the victim of an accidental arrow shooting while hunting. The arrow entered his posterolateral neck and came to rest in the space between the C1/C2 vertebrae in his cervical spine. He was able to maintain his own cervical immobilization. His hunting partners drove him to meet emergency medical technicians, who stabilized the arrow shaft, transferred him to a backboard and gurney, and continued manual cervical immobilization en route to a local hospital. Cervical spine X-ray results compelled an air ambulance transfer to a trauma center where he underwent surgical intervention to remove the arrow. Following approximately 12 months of physical and occupational therapy, he returned to work full-time. Adherence to training and utilization of proven techniques involving pre-hospital transfers and positioning of cervically injured patients proved imperative to the patient's ultimate recovery.

  14. Does the Norwegian emergency medical dispatch classification as non-urgent predict no need for pre-hospital medical treatment? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Grusd, Eystein; Kramer-Johansen, Jo

    2016-05-06

    The number of ambulance call-outs in Norway is increasing owing to societal changes and increased demand from the public. Together with improved but more expensive education of ambulance staff, this leads to increased costs and staffing shortages. We wanted to study whether the current dispatch triage tools could reliably identify patients who only required transport, and not pre-hospital medical care. This could allow selection of such patients for designated transport units, freeing up highly trained ambulance staff to attend patients in greater need. A cross-sectional observational study was used, drawing on all electronic and paper records in our ambulance service from four random days in 2012. The patients were classified into acuity groups, based on Emergency Medical Dispatch codes, and pre-hospital interventions were extracted from the Patient Report Forms. Of the 1489 ambulance call-outs included in this study, 82 PRFs (5 %) were missing. A highly significant association was found between acuity group and recorded pre-hospital intervention (p ≤ 0.001). We found no correlation between gender, distance to hospital, age and pre-hospital interventions. Ambulances staffed by paramedics performed more interventions (234/917, 26 %) than those with emergency medical technicians (42/282, 15 %). The strongest predictor for needing pre-hospital interventions was found to be the emergency medical dispatch acuity descriptor. This study has demonstrated that the Norwegian dispatch system is able to correctly identify patients who do not need pre-hospital interventions. Patients with a low acuity code had a very low level of pre-hospital interventions. Evaluation of adherence to protocol in the Emergency Medical Dispatch is not possible due to the inherent need for medical experience in the triage process. This study validates the Norwegian dispatch tool (Norwegian index) as a predictor of patients who do not need pre-hospital interventions.

  15. Airway management for cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Farag, Ehab

    2016-03-01

    Cervical spine surgery is one of the most commonly performed spine surgeries in the United States, and 90% of the cases are related to degenerative cervical spine disease (the rest to cervical spine trauma and/or instability). The airway management for cervical spine surgery represents a crucial step in the anesthetic management to avoid injury to the cervical cord. The crux for upper airway management for cervical spine surgery is maintaining the neck in a neutral position with minimal neck movement during endotracheal intubation. Therefore, the conventional direct laryngoscopy (DL) can be unsuitable for securing the upper airway in cervical spine surgery, especially in cases of cervical spine instability and myelopathy. This review discusses the most recent evidence-based facts of the main advantages and limitations of different techniques available for upper airway management for cervical spine surgery.

  16. Pre-hospital physical activity status affects in-hospital course of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Takamichi; Obayashi, Tohru; Hattori, Eijirou; Yamauchi, Yasuteru; Niwa, Akihiro; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2010-03-01

    The clinical course of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) can sometimes unexpectedly result in an adverse outcome even when therapy appears to be successful. We suspect that specific factors may characterize this worsening of status during hospitalization. This study examines whether the pre-hospital physical activity status of the elderly treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for AMI affects their in-hospital course. We studied 110 consecutive patients, aged 80 or older, who had undergone emergent PCI for AMI. Patients were divided into two groups based on clinical presentation: Better Killip class (Killip classes I and II) and Worse Killip class (Killip classes III and IV). Patients were also divided into two groups based on pre-hospital physical activity status, determined retrospectively by review of medical records: Good physical activity (n=57) comprising those able to go out alone independently and Poor physical activity comprising those mainly confined to home (n=53). The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 9.1% for the study population. The Worse Killip class group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the Better Killip class group (27.8% vs 5.4%, respectively; p=0.0102). In addition, the Poor physical activity group had a higher in-hospital mortality rate than the Good physical activity group (15.1% vs. 3.5%, respectively; p=0.047). These data suggest that pre-hospital physical activity status in elderly patients with AMI may affect in-hospital mortality as well as Killip class.

  17. Motivation of the nurses in pre-hospital emergency and educational hospitals emergency in the southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sheikhbardsiri, Hojjat; Khademipour, Gholamreza; Nekoei-Moghadam, Mahmoud; Aminizadeh, Mohsen

    2017-09-06

    Nurses, as the largest human resource element of health care systems, have a major role in providing ongoing, high-quality care to patients. Therefore, due to the importance of this issue, this study aimed to determine job motivation of the nurses in pre-hospital and educational hospitals emergency in the southeast of Iran. In this study, a cross-sectional method was used, and it was conducted in educational hospitals and pre-hospital emergencies under supervision of the Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2017. Using a valid and reliable questionnaire, we assessed job motivation of the nurses using a census method (N = 275). Data were analyzed by implementing descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation (SD), and analytical statistics such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA, t-test, X2, Pearson, and multivariate regression tests using SPSS 16 and P ≤ 0.05. Among the pre-hospital emergency nurses, the average of the educational factors was 25.33, financial factors was 6.34, psychological factors was 20.07, welfare factors was 0.63, and administrative factors was 8.16. Among the nurses of the educational hospitals emergency, these factors were 25.33, 6.51, 20.34, 16.55, and 8.39, respectively. Two group's nurses were at the intermediate level of the job motivation. Dynamic and predetermined goals of emergency include providing services as soon as possible and stabilizing patient's condition during the golden and vital time of rescue. Findings suggest that national and local policies in Iran may need to examine factors that contribute to the promotion of the motivation as well as focusing on how to improve them. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Urban and rural implementation of pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jacob Thorsted; Terkelsen, Christian Juhl; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Trautner, Sven; Hansen, Troels Martin; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Andersen, Henning Rud

    2011-02-01

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is the preferred treatment for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The distance to primary PCI centres and the inherent time delay in delivering primary PCI, however, limit widespread use of this treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pre-hospital diagnosis on time from emergency medical services contact to balloon inflation (system delay) in an unselected cohort of patients with STEMI recruited from a large geographical area comprising both urban and rural districts. From February 2004 until January 2007, data on pre-hospital timing and transport distance were prospectively recorded. Patients were divided into groups depending on achievement of pre-hospital diagnosis and/or direct referral to a primary PCI centre. Seven hundred and fifty-nine consecutive STEMI patients were included. In patients with a pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral, the system delay was 92 vs. 153 min in patients without pre-hospital diagnosis (P < 0.001). Patients from rural areas were transported a median of 30 km longer than patients from urban areas; however, this prolonged the system delay by only 9 min. Pre-hospital electrocardiographic (ECG) diagnosis and direct referral for primary PCI enables STEMI patients living far from a PCI centre to achieve a system delay comparable with patients living in close vicinity of a PCI centre.

  19. The role of general practitioners in the pre hospital setting, as experienced by emergency medicine technicians: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Together with the ambulances staffed with emergency medical technicians (EMTs), general practitioners (GPs) on call are the primary resources for handling emergencies outside hospitals in Norway. The benefit of the GP accompanying the ambulance to pre-hospital calls is a matter of controversy in Norway. The purpose of the present study was to gain better insight into the EMT’s experiences with the role of the GPs in the care for critically ill patients in the pre-hospital setting. Methods We conducted four focus group interviews with EMTs at four different ambulance stations in Norway. Three of the stations were located at least 2 hours driving distance from the nearest hospital. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results The EMTs described increasing confidence in emergency medicine during the last few years. However, they felt the need for GP participation in the ambulance when responding to a critically ill patient. The presence of GPs made the EMTs feel more confident, especially in unclear and difficult cases that did not fit into EMT guidelines. The main contributions of the GPs were described as diagnosis and decision-making. Bringing the physician to the patient shortened transportation time to the hospital and important medication could be started earlier. Several examples of sub-optimal treatment in the absence of the GP were given. The EMTs described discomfort with GPs not responding to the calls. They also experienced GPs responding to calls that did not function in the pre-hospital emergency setting. The EMTs reported a need for professional requirements for GPs taking part in out-of-hours work and mandatory interdisciplinary training on a regular basis. Conclusions EMTs want GPs to be present in challenging pre-hospital emergency settings. The presence of GPs is perceived as improving patient care. However, professional requirements are needed for GPs taking part in out-of-hours work, and

  20. The Phillips airway.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P; Wilkinson, D J

    2012-07-01

    The Phillips airway was developed by George Ramsay Phillips. There is no known original description of the airway and the earliest known reference to it is from 1919. The airway and its modifications are described.

  1. [Pre-hospital management of adults with life-threatening emergencies].

    PubMed

    Wattel, Francis; Dubois, François

    2012-01-01

    In France, acute life-threatening situations are handled by the French Secours a Personne (assistance to persons) and emergency medical facilities. An unequivocal success, this early management of life-threatening emergency situations relies upon centralized call reception, medical dispatching, and immediate on-site emergency medical care. We describe the different emergency care providers and steps involved in the response to emergency situations. Each call centre (Samu, phone number 15; Sapeurs-Pompiers, 18) provides a response tailored to the nature of incoming calls for assistance. A check-list of grounds for an "automatic response" by the SDIS (Service Départemental d'Incendie et de Secours--the French fire brigade) is in use, ensuring that firefighters are often the first on the spot, while the knowledge and skills of the dispatching physician are essential to ascertain the patient's needs, to preserve life and vital functions, and to ensure the patient is sent to the appropriate emergency healthcare facility. In life-threatening emergency situations, patients must be brought straight to the appropriate reference emergency healthcare facility, as quickly as possible, without prior admittance to an emergency department. This is the procedure for extremely acute emergency situations in the following areas: trauma (multiple trauma and/or uncontrolled bleeding, spinal cord trauma), delivery bleeding, other life-threatening situations such as ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrest (sudden death), cerebrovascular stroke and ensuing brain damage, some acute respiratory situations such as anaphylactic shock, foreign-body inhalation, electrocution, drowning, drug overdose, certain forms of poisoning, and conditions requiring initial hyperbaric oxygen (diving accidents, acute carbon monoxide and smoke poisoning). The reasons for suboptimal emergency care in life-threatening situations are currently a major issue, with medical facilities being reduced in some areas

  2. Blockage of upper airway

    MedlinePlus

    ... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...

  3. Ear trauma.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Kylee; Fralich, Laura; Stevenson, J Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Understanding basic ear anatomy and function allows an examiner to quickly and accurately identify at-risk structures in patients with head and ear trauma. External ear trauma (ie, hematoma or laceration) should be promptly treated with appropriate injury-specific techniques. Tympanic membrane injuries have multiple mechanisms and can often be conservatively treated. Temporal bone fractures are a common cause of ear trauma and can be life threatening. Facial nerve injuries and hearing loss can occur in ear trauma.

  4. (Non-)utilization of pre-hospital emergency care by migrants and non-migrants in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kietzmann, Diana; Knuth, Daniela; Schmidt, Silke

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the utilization and non-utilization of pre-hospital emergency care by migrants and non-migrants, and the factors that influence this behaviour. A cross-sectional representative German survey was conducted in a sample of 2.175 people, 295 of whom had a migration background. An additional sample of 50 people with Turkish migration background was conducted, partially in the Turkish language. Apart from socio-demographics, the utilization of emergency services and the reasons for non-utilization were assessed. Migrants had a higher utilization rate of pre-hospital emergency care (RR = 1.492) than non-migrants. Furthermore, migrants who were not born in Germany had a lower utilization rate (RR = 0.793) than migrants who were born in Germany. Regarding non-utilization, the most frequently stated reasons belonged to the categories initial misjudgment of the emergency situation and acting on one's own behalf, with the latter stated more frequently by migrants than by non-migrants. To prevent over-, under-, and lack of supply, it is necessary to transfer knowledge about the functioning of the medical emergency services, including first aid knowledge.

  5. [Analysis of the implementation of a mobile pre-hospital treatment system in five Brazilian state capitals].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2008-08-01

    The article presents a description and analysis of the implementation of a pre-hospital treatment system (SAMU) as part of the research project Diagnostic Analysis of the Implementation of a National Policy for the Reduction of Violence and Accidents. Implementation and organization of the SAMU service, together with the related materials, human resources, and equipment, was studied in five Brazilian State capitals with high morbidity and mortality rates from external causes: Curitiba (Paraná), Recife (Pernambuco), Brasília (Federal District), Rio de Janeiro, and Manaus (Amazonas). The study involved four phases, each developing exploratory and analytical cycles, combined with fieldwork, triangulating quantitative and qualitative data. Implementation of the pre-hospital treatment system is now a key health sector asset. Further necessary steps include: comprehensive legislation covering vehicles, personnel, and equipment; closer networking between mobile units and healthcare facilities; focus on information generated in this sub-system, thus facilitating planning; and maintaining and upgrading high qualifications for SAMU crews. The service is officially establishing, standardizing, and regulating a sub-system that is crucial for saving lives.

  6. Knowledge of Community General Practitioners and Nurses on Pre-Hospital Stroke Prevention and Treatment in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Zhang, Jie; Ou, Shu; Wang, Ni; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of community general practitioners (GPs) and nurses about pre-hospital stroke recognition, treatment and management and secondary stroke prevention; to identify the sociodemographic and educational factors influencing knowledge. Methods A self-designed test questionnaire was applied in a self-administered close-exam setting among 480 GPs and nurses working in community health centers (stations) in eight urban districts of Chongqing. Results A total of 331 (69%) valid test questionnaires were returned. Of the 331 participants, 39% were aware of the clinical guidelines for cerebrovascular diseases, whereas 48% considered themselves to have stroke management capabilities. The correct rate of answering questions of pre-hospital recognition and management knowledge was as low as 24%, the correct rate of secondary stroke prevention knowledge was only 38%. In terms of the total score for stroke prevention and treatment knowledge, there were significant differences between the medical staff with different specialties before engaging in community health services and whether they have received GP training (P <0.05). Conclusion The community GPs and nurses in the urban districts of Chongqing clearly lack knowledge of stroke, and the levels of stroke prevention and treatment urgently need to be improved. PMID:26384330

  7. Impact of emergency medical helicopter transport directly to a university hospital trauma center on mortality of severe blunt trauma patients until discharge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of transporting severely injured patients by helicopter remain controversial. This study aimed to analyze the impact on mortality of helicopter compared to ground transport directly from the scene to a University hospital trauma center. Methods The French Intensive Care Research for Severe Trauma cohort study enrolled 2,703 patients with severe blunt trauma requiring admission to University hospital intensive care units within 72 hours. Pre-hospital and hospital clinical data, including the mode of transport, (helicopter (HMICU) versus ground (GMICU), both with medical teams), were recorded. The analysis was restricted to patients admitted directly from the scene to a University hospital trauma center. The main endpoint was mortality until ICU discharge. Results Of the 1,958 patients analyzed, 74% were transported by GMICU, 26% by HMICU. Median injury severity score (ISS) was 26 (interquartile range (IQR) 19 to 34) for HMICU patients and 25 (IQR 18 to 34) for GMICU patients. Compared to GMICU, HMICU patients had a higher median time frame before hospital admission and were more intensively treated in the pre-hospital phase. Crude mortality until hospital discharge was the same regardless of pre-hospital mode of transport. After adjustment for initial status, the risk of death was significantly lower (odds ratio (OR): 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 0.98, P = 0.035) for HMICU compared with GMICU. This result did not change after further adjustment for ISS and overall surgical procedures. Conclusions This study suggests a beneficial impact of helicopter transport on mortality in severe blunt trauma. Whether this association could be due to better management in the pre-hospital phase needs to be more thoroughly assessed. PMID:23131068

  8. Destination Healthcare Facility of Shocked Trauma Patients in Scotland: Analysis of Transfusion and Surgical Capability of Receiving Hospitals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    of this study is to evaluate the resource provision of the destination hospital of Scottish trauma patients exhibiting evidence of pre-hospital shock...Methods: Patients who sustained a traumatic injury between November 2008 and October 2010 were retrospectively identified from the Scottish Ambulance... Scottish trauma patients are transported to a hospital with full transfusion capability, although the majority lack surgical sub-specialty

  9. Pre-hospital assessment with ultrasound in emergencies: implementation in the field.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Kevin P; Lahham, Sari; Lahham, Shadi; Anderson, Craig L; Bledsoe, Bryan; Sloane, Bryan; Joseph, Linda; Osborn, Megan B; Fox, John C

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound (US) is a proven diagnostic imaging tool in the emergency department (ED). Modern US devices are now more compact, affordable and portable, which has led to increased usage in austere environments. However, studies supporting the use of US in the prehospital setting are limited. The primary outcome of this pilot study was to determine if paramedics could perform cardiac ultrasound in the field and obtain images that were adequate for interpretation. A secondary outcome was whether paramedics could correctly identify cardiac activity or the lack thereof in cardiac arrest patients. We performed a prospective educational study using a convenience sample of professional paramedics without ultrasound experience. Eligible paramedics participated in a 3-hour session on point-of-care US. The paramedics then used US during emergency calls and saved the scans for possible cardiac complaints including: chest pain, dyspnea, loss of consciousness, trauma, or cardiac arrest. Four paramedics from two distinct fire stations enrolled a total of 19 unique patients, of whom 17 were deemed adequate for clinical decision making (89%, 95%CI 67%-99%). Paramedics accurately recorded 17 cases of cardiac activity (100%, 95%CI 84%-100%) and 2 cases of cardiac standstill (100%, 95%CI 22%-100%). Our pilot study suggests that with minimal training, paramedics can use US to obtain cardiac images that are adequate for interpretation and diagnose cardiac standstill. Further large-scale clinical trials are needed to determine if prehospital US can be used to guide care for patients with cardiac complaints.

  10. Systemic trauma.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Martin, Christina Gamache; Smith, Carly Parnitzke

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical, empirical, and clinical work examines trauma as it relates to individual victims and perpetrators. As trauma professionals, it is necessary to acknowledge facets of institutions, cultures, and communities that contribute to trauma and subsequent outcomes. Systemic trauma-contextual features of environments and institutions that give rise to trauma, maintain it, and impact posttraumatic responses-provides a framework for considering the full range of traumatic phenomena. The current issue of the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation is composed of articles that incorporate systemic approaches to trauma. This perspective extends conceptualizations of trauma to consider the influence of environments such as schools and universities, churches and other religious institutions, the military, workplace settings, hospitals, jails, and prisons; agencies and systems such as police, foster care, immigration, federal assistance, disaster management, and the media; conflicts involving war, torture, terrorism, and refugees; dynamics of racism, sexism, discrimination, bullying, and homophobia; and issues pertaining to conceptualizations, measurement, methodology, teaching, and intervention. Although it may be challenging to expand psychological and psychiatric paradigms of trauma, a systemic trauma perspective is necessary on both scientific and ethical grounds. Furthermore, a systemic trauma perspective reflects current approaches in the fields of global health, nursing, social work, and human rights. Empirical investigations and intervention science informed by this paradigm have the potential to advance scientific inquiry, lower the incidence of a broader range of traumatic experiences, and help to alleviate personal and societal suffering.

  11. Pre-hospital care time intervals among victims of road traffic injuries in Iran. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bigdeli, Maryam; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Mohammadi, Reza

    2010-07-09

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major public health problem, requiring concerted efforts both for their prevention and a reduction of their consequences. Timely arrival of the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) at the crash scene followed by speedy victim transportation by trained personnel may reduce the RTIs' consequences. The first 60 minutes after injury occurrence--referred to as the "golden hour"--are vital for the saving of lives. The present study was designed to estimate the average of various time intervals occurring during the pre-hospital care process and to examine the differences between these time intervals as regards RTIs on urban and interurban roads. A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed and various time intervals in relation to pre-hospital care of RTIs identified in the ambulance dispatch centre in Urmia, Iran from 20 March 2005 to 20 March 2007. All cases which resulted in ambulance dispatches were reviewed and those that had complete data on time intervals were analyzed. In total, the cases of 2027 RTI victims were analysed. Of these, 61.5% of the subjects were injured in city areas. The mean response time for city locations was 5.0 minutes, compared with 10.6 minutes for interurban road locations. The mean on-scene time on the interurban roads was longer than on city roads (9.2 vs. 6.1 minutes, p < 0.001). Mean transport times from the scene to the hospital were also significantly longer for interurban incidents (17.1 vs. 6.3 minutes, p < 0.001). The mean of total pre-hospital time was 37.2 (+/-17.2) minutes with a median of 32.0. Overall, 72.5% of the response interval time was less than eight minutes. The response, transport and total time intervals among EMS responding to RTI incidents were longer for interurban roads, compared to the city areas. More research should take place on needs-to and access-for EMS on city and interurban roads. The notification interval seems to be a hidden part of the post-crash events and

  12. The efficacy of hydrogel dressings as a first aid measure for burn wound management in the pre-hospital setting: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Nicholas S; Spinks, Anneliese; Wasiak, Jason

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine the supporting evidence for the clinical use of hydrogel dressings as a first aid measure for burn wound management in the pre-hospital setting. Two authors searched three databases (Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase and The Cochrane Library) for relevant English language articles published through September 2014. Reference lists, conference proceedings and non-indexed academic journals were manually searched. A separate search was conducted using the Internet search engine Google to source additional studies from burns advisory agencies, first aid bodies, military institutions, manufacturer and paramedic websites. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and relevance of non-traditional data forms for inclusion. Studies were independently assessed and included if Hydrogel-based burn dressings (HBD) were examined in first aid practices in the pre-hospital setting. A total of 129 studies were considered for inclusion, of which no pre-hospital studies were identified. The review highlights that current use of HBD in the pre-hospital setting appears to be driven by sources of information that do not reflect the paramedic environment. We recommend researchers in the pre-hospital settings undertake clinical trials in this field. More so, the review supports the need for expert consensus to identify key demographic, clinical and injury outcomes for clinicians and researchers undertaking further research into the use of dressings as a first aid measure.

  13. Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Enrique; Peña, Raul; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Avila, Alfonso; Perez-Diaz de Cerio, David

    2015-01-01

    This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN. PMID:26007741

  14. Survey of WBSNs for Pre-Hospital Assistance: Trends to Maximize the Network Lifetime and Video Transmission Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Enrique; Peña, Raul; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Avila, Alfonso; de Cerio, David Perez-Diaz

    2015-05-22

    This survey aims to encourage the multidisciplinary communities to join forces for innovation in the mobile health monitoring area. Specifically, multidisciplinary innovations in medical emergency scenarios can have a significant impact on the effectiveness and quality of the procedures and practices in the delivery of medical care. Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) are a promising technology capable of improving the existing practices in condition assessment and care delivery for a patient in a medical emergency. This technology can also facilitate the early interventions of a specialist physician during the pre-hospital period. WBSNs make possible these early interventions by establishing remote communication links with video/audio support and by providing medical information such as vital signs, electrocardiograms, etc. in real time. This survey focuses on relevant issues needed to understand how to setup a WBSN for medical emergencies. These issues are: monitoring vital signs and video transmission, energy efficient protocols, scheduling, optimization and energy consumption on a WBSN.

  15. A rapid infusion pump driven by micro electromagnetic linear actuation for pre-hospital intravenous fluid administration.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Chong, Yinbao; Zhao, An; Lang, Lang; Wang, Qing; Liu, Jiuling

    2015-02-01

    A rapid infusion pump with a maximum flow rate of 6 L/h was designed experimentally using a micro electromagnetic linear actuator, and its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing with that of a commercial Power Infuser under preset flow rates of 0.2, 2, and 6 L/h. The flow rate, air detection sensitivity, occlusion response time, quantitative determination of hemolysis, and power consumption of the infusion devices were extensively investigated using statistical analysis methods (p < 0.05). The experimental results revealed that the flow rate of the designed infusion pump was more stable and accurate, and the hemolysis was significantly less than that of the Power Infuser. The air detection sensitivity and the power consumption could be comparable to that of the Power Infuser except the occlusion response time. The favorable performance made the designed infusion pump a potential candidate for applications in pre-hospital fluid administration.

  16. Incidence of difficult airway situations during prehospital airway management by emergency physicians--a retrospective analysis of 692 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, Nils; Piegeler, Tobias; Brueesch, Martin; Sulser, Simon; Haas, Thorsten; Mueller, Stefan M; Seifert, Burkhardt; Spahn, Donat R; Ruetzler, Kurt

    2015-05-01

    In the prehospital setting, advanced airway management is challenging as it is frequently affected by facial trauma, pharyngeal obstruction or limited access to the patient and/or the patient's airway. Therefore, incidence of prehospital difficult airway management is likely to be higher compared to the in-hospital setting and success rates of advanced airway management range between 80 and 99%. 3961 patients treated by an emergency physician in Zurich, Switzerland were included in this retrospective analysis in order to determine the incidence of a difficult airway along with potential circumstantial risk factors like gender, necessity of CPR, NACA score, GCS, use and type of muscle relaxant and use of hypnotic drugs. 692 patients underwent advanced prehospital airway management. Seven patients were excluded due to incomplete or incongruent documentation, resulting in 685 patients included in the statistical analysis. Difficult intubation was recorded in 22 patients, representing an incidence of a difficult airway of 3.2%. Of these 22 patients, 15 patients were intubated successfully, whereas seven patients (1%) had to be ventilated with a bag valve mask during the whole procedure. In this physician-led service one out of five prehospital patients requires airway management. Incidence of advanced prehospital difficult airway management is 3.2% and eventual success rate is 99%, if performed by trained emergency physicians. A total of 1% of all prehospital intubation attempts failed and alternative airway device was necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Facial trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bruising around the eyes or widening of the distance between the eyes, which may mean injury to ... major deformity. The goal of treatment is to: Control bleeding Create a clear airway Treat the fracture ...

  18. Triggers of airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kerrebijn, K F

    1986-01-01

    Most asthmatics have hyperresponsive airways. This makes them more sensitive than non-asthmatics to bronchoconstricting environmental exposures which, in their turn, may enhance responsiveness. Airway inflammation is considered to be a key determinant of airway hyperresponsiveness: the fact that chronic airway inflammation in cystic fibrosis does not lead to airway hyperresponsiveness of any importance indicates, however, that the role of airway inflammation is complex and incompletely elucidated. The main inducers of airway inflammation are viral infections, antigens, occupational stimuli and pollutants. Although exercise, airway cooling and hyper- or hypotonic aerosols are potent stimuli of bronchoconstriction, it is questionable if airway inflammation is involved in their mode of action. Each of the above-mentioned stimuli is discussed, with emphasis laid on the relation of symptoms to mechanisms.

  19. Prevalence of Oral and Maxillofacial Trauma in Elders Admitted to a Reference Hospital in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Filho, Marcus Antonio Melo; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Dos Anjos, Rita Edna da Silveira; Pinheiro, Solange Sousa; Cardoso, Luciana de Carvalho Pádua; Moizan, Jean André Hervé; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To know the prevalence and etiology of oral and maxillofacial trauma in elders. Methods Analytical quantitative cross-sectional study conducted at a public trauma hospital located in Fortaleza-Ceará, Brazil. The study population comprised patients with trauma who were hospitalized from April to August 2014. Of these patients, patients with oral and maxillofacial trauma were chosen to be included in the research. A questionnaire was administered in order to obtain information on socio-demographics, systemic comorbidities, use of medication, deleterious habits (smoking and alcohol consumption), etiology of oral and maxillofacial trauma and type of pre-hospital care. Results Of the 280 elderly hospitalized with trauma, 47 had oral and maxillofacial trauma, with a prevalence of 16.8%. In this group, the age ranged from 60 to 88 years, with a mean age of 72.4 years (SD± 8.38). The elderly were mostly women (55.3%), self-declared pardos (53.2%), who presented with cardiovascular disorders (48.9%), and who received formal pre-hospital care (70.2%). Elderly who were in the 60–69 years age group, spent 6–9 years at school and drank alcohol were 2.64, 3.75, and 1.97, respectively, more likely to suffer oral and maxillofacial trauma. The main causes of trauma were physical aggression, traffic accidents, falls and domestic accidents. All of the physical aggressions resulted in oral and maxillofacial traumas, and the elderly who suffered traffic accidents were four times more likely to have oral and maxillofacial trauma. Conclusion The prevalence of 16.8% and the lack of research on oral and maxillofacial traumas in the elderly is worrisome and should be included in the oral health indicators for the elderly population to support the importance of oral health. PMID:26288229

  20. Advanced trauma life support training: How useful it is?

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2016-01-01

    We have tried in a recently published systematic review (World J of Surg 2014; 38: 322-329) to study the educational value of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) courses and whether they improve survival of multiple trauma patients. This Frontier article summarizes what we have learned and reflects on future perspectives in this important area. Our recently published systematic review has shown that ATLS training is very useful from an educational point view. It significantly increased knowledge, and improved practical skills and the critical decision making process in managing multiple trauma patients. These positive changes were evident in a wide range of learners including undergraduate medical students and postgraduate residents from different subspecialties. In contrast, clear evidence that ATLS training reduces trauma death is lacking. It is obvious that it is almost impossible to perform randomized controlled trials to study the effect of ATLS courses on trauma mortality. Studying factors predicting trauma mortality is a very complex issue. Accordingly, trauma mortality does not depend solely on ATLS training but on other important factors, like presence of well-developed trauma systems including advanced pre-hospital care. We think that the way to answer whether ATLS training improves survival is to perform large prospective cohort studies of high quality data and use advanced statistical modelling. PMID:26855889

  1. Diversity in clinical management and protocols for the treatment of major bleeding trauma patients across European level I Trauma Centres.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Nadine; Driessen, Arne; Fröhlich, Matthias; Stürmer, Ewa K; Maegele, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Uncontrolled haemorrhage is still the leading cause of preventable death after trauma and the primary focus of any treatment strategy should be related to early detection and control of blood loss including haemostasis. For assessing management practices across six European level I trauma centres with academic interest and research in the field of coagulopathy an online survey was conducted addressing local management practice for bleeding trauma patients including algorithms for detection, management and monitoring coagulation disorders and immediate interventions. Each centre provided their locally applied massive transfusion protocol. All participating trauma centres have developed and implemented a local algorithm and protocol for the bleeding trauma patient. These are uniformly activated by clinical triggers and deactivated once the bleeding has stopped according to clinical assessment in combination with laboratory signs of achieved haemostasis. The severity of coagulopathy and shock is mostly assessed via standard coagulation tests and partially used extended viscoelastic tests. All centres have implemented the immediate use of tranexamic acid. Initial resuscitation is started either pre-hospital or after hospital admission by using transfusion packages with pre-fixed universal blood product combinations and ratios following the concept of "damage control resuscitation" at which applied ratios substantially vary. Two centres initially start with transfusion packages but with viscoelastic tests running in parallel to quickly allow a shift towards a viscoelastic test-guided therapy. Diversity in the management of bleeding trauma patients such as pre-hospital blood administration and routinely performed viscoelastic tests exists even among level I trauma centres. The paucity of consensus among these centres highlights the need for further primary research followed by clinical trials to improve the evidence for sophisticated guidelines and strategies.

  2. Childhood Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falasca, Tony; Caulfield, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes some classic causes of trauma and symptoms that can result when a child has been traumatized. Lists several factors that effect the degree to which a child is affected by trauma. Categories a wide range of behaviors displayed by the victims into three groups: affect, memories, and behaviors. Discusses various considerations when…

  3. Childhood Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falasca, Tony; Caulfield, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes some classic causes of trauma and symptoms that can result when a child has been traumatized. Lists several factors that effect the degree to which a child is affected by trauma. Categories a wide range of behaviors displayed by the victims into three groups: affect, memories, and behaviors. Discusses various considerations when…

  4. Nasal deformities resulting from flow driver continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, N J; McCarthy, L S; Hamilton, P A; Moss, A L

    1996-01-01

    Over a period of six months, seven cases were documented of trauma to the nose as a result of flow driver continuous positive airway pressure in babies of very low birthweight (VLBW). There was a complication rate of 20% in the babies who required it. Deformities consisted of columella nasi necrosis which can occur within three days, flaring of nostrils which worsens with duration of continuous positive airway pressure, and snubbing of the nose which persists after prolonged continuous positive airway pressure. These complications should be preventable by modifications to the mechanism and method of use. Images PMID:8976689

  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax in two cats with small airway disease.

    PubMed

    White, Heidi L; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Tidwell, Amy S; Chan, Daniel L; Rush, John E

    2003-06-01

    Two adult domestic shorthair cats were examined because of pneumothorax. Neither had a history of trauma, and spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to small airway disease was diagnosed. In both cats, treatment consisted of thoracocentesis for evacuation of air and administration of anti-inflammatory agents. One cat had multiple episodes of pneumothorax and eventually died; the other had only a single episode of pneumothorax. Small airway disease should be considered as a potential underlying cause in cats that develop spontaneous pneumothorax. Additionally, the potential for pneumothorax should be considered in cats with small airway disease, particularly when clinical signs suddenly become much worse.

  6. Combined tracheoesophageal transection after blunt neck trauma.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Umar Imran; Jones, James Mark

    2013-04-01

    Survival following tracheoesophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Understanding the mechanism of the incident can be a useful adjunct in predicting the likelihood and severity of specific anatomical patterns of injuries. We discuss published literature on combined tracheoesophageal injuries after blunt neck trauma and their outcome. A search of MEDLINE for papers published regarding tracheoesophageal injury was made. The literature search identified 14 such articles referring to a total of 27 patients. Age ranged from 3-73 years. The mechanism of injury was secondary to a rope/wire in 33%, metal bar in 4% of cases and unspecified in 63%. All of the patients were managed surgically. A number of tissues were used to protect the anastomosis including pleural and sternocleidomastoid muscle flaps. There were no reported mortalities. Patients with combined tracheoesophageal injury after blunt neck trauma require acute management of airway along with concomitant occult injuries.

  7. Airway-parenchymal interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Paré, Peter D; Mitzner, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript we discuss the interaction of the lung parenchyma and the airways as well as the physiological and pathophysiological significance of this interaction. These two components of the respiratory organ can be thought of as two independent elastic structures but in fact the mechanical properties of one influence the behavior of the other. Traditionally the interaction has focused on the effects of the lung on the airways but there is good evidence that the opposite is also true, i.e., that the mechanical properties of the airways influence the elastic properties of the parenchyma. The interplay between components of the respiratory system including the airways, parenchyma and vasculature is often referred to as “interdependence.” This interdependence transmits the elastic recoil of the lung to create an effective pressure that dilates the airways as transpulmonary pressure and lung volume increase. By using a continuum mechanics analysis of the lung parenchyma, it is possible to predict the effective pressure between the airways and parenchyma, and these predictions can be empirically evaluated. Normal airway caliber is maintained by this pressure in the adventitial interstitium of the airway, and it counteracts airway compression during forced expiration as well as the ability of airway smooth muscle to narrow airways. Interdependence has physiological and pathophysiological significance. Weakening of the forces of interdependence contributes to airway dysfunction and gas exchange impairment in acute and chronic airway diseases including asthma and emphysema. PMID:23723029

  8. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment Assessment Overview ...

  9. Common Reactions After Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment Assessment Overview ...

  10. [Facial trauma and multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Corre, Pierre; Arzul, Ludovic; Khonsari, Roman Hossein; Mercier, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    The human face contains the sense organs and is responsible for essential functions: swallowing, chewing, speech, breathing and communication. It is also and most importantly the seat of a person's identity. Multiple trauma adds a life-threatening dimension to the physical and psychological impact of a facial trauma.

  11. Upper airway biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... upper airway Images Upper airway test Bronchoscopy Throat anatomy References Yung RC, Boss EF. Tracheobronchial endoscopy. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  12. Careers in Airway Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has initiated the Airway Science curriculum as a method of preparing the next generation of aviation technicians and managers. This document: (1) discusses the FAA's role in the Airway Science program; (2) describes some of the career fields that FAA offers to Airway Science graduates (air traffic control…

  13. Airway-parenchymal interdependence.

    PubMed

    Paré, Peter D; Mitzner, Wayne

    2012-07-01

    In this article, we discuss the interaction of the lung parenchyma and the airways as well as the physiological and pathophysiological significance of this interaction. These two components of the respiratory organ can be thought of as two independent elastic structures but in fact the mechanical properties of one influence the behavior of the other. Traditionally, the interaction has focused on the effects of the lung on the airways but there is good evidence that the opposite is also true, that is, that the mechanical properties of the airways influence the elastic properties of the parenchyma. The interplay between components of the respiratory system including the airways, parenchyma, and vasculature is often referred to as "interdependence." This interdependence transmits the elastic recoil of the lung to create an effective pressure that dilates the airways as transpulmonary pressure and lung volume increase. By using a continuum mechanics analysis of the lung parenchyma, it is possible to predict the effective pressure between the airways and parenchyma, and these predictions can be empirically evaluated. Normal airway caliber is maintained by this pressure in the adventitial interstitium of the airway, and it attenuates the ability of airway smooth muscle to narrow airways. Interdependence has physiological and pathophysiological significance. Weakening of the forces of interdependence contributes to airway dysfunction and gas exchange impairment in acute and chronic airway diseases including asthma and emphysema. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  14. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2014-09-28

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents.

  15. Pre-hospital 12-Lead ST-Segment Monitoring Improves the Early Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hemsey, Jessica Zègre; Dracup, Kathleen; Fleischmann, Kirsten; Sommargren, Claire E.; Drew, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Methods We studied 620 patients who activated ‘911’ for chest pain symptoms to determine the sensitivity and specificity of 12-lead ECG ST-segment monitoring in the pre-hospital period (PH ECG) for diagnosing acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and to assess whether the addition of PH ECG signs of ischemia/injury to the initial hospital 12-lead ECG obtained in the emergency department (ED) would improve the diagnosis of ACS. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the PH ECG were 65.4% and 66.4%. There was a significant increase in sensitivity (79.9%) and decrease in specificity (61.2%) when considered in conjunction with the initial hospital ECG (p<0.001). Those with PH ECG ischemia/injury were more than 2.5 times likely to have an ACS diagnosis than those who had no PH ECG ischemia/injury (p<0.001). Conclusions PH ECG data obtained with 12-lead ST-segment monitoring provides diagnostic information about ACS above and beyond the initial hospital ECG. PMID:22115367

  16. The use of segmented regression in analysing interrupted time series studies: an example in pre-hospital ambulance care.

    PubMed

    Taljaard, Monica; McKenzie, Joanne E; Ramsay, Craig R; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2014-06-19

    An interrupted time series design is a powerful quasi-experimental approach for evaluating effects of interventions introduced at a specific point in time. To utilize the strength of this design, a modification to standard regression analysis, such as segmented regression, is required. In segmented regression analysis, the change in intercept and/or slope from pre- to post-intervention is estimated and used to test causal hypotheses about the intervention. We illustrate segmented regression using data from a previously published study that evaluated the effectiveness of a collaborative intervention to improve quality in pre-hospital ambulance care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. In the original analysis, a standard regression model was used with time as a continuous variable. We contrast the results from this standard regression analysis with those from segmented regression analysis. We discuss the limitations of the former and advantages of the latter, as well as the challenges of using segmented regression in analysing complex quality improvement interventions. Based on the estimated change in intercept and slope from pre- to post-intervention using segmented regression, we found insufficient evidence of a statistically significant effect on quality of care for stroke, although potential clinically important effects for AMI cannot be ruled out. Segmented regression analysis is the recommended approach for analysing data from an interrupted time series study. Several modifications to the basic segmented regression analysis approach are available to deal with challenges arising in the evaluation of complex quality improvement interventions.

  17. [Importance of interdisciplinary cooperation in multiple trauma management].

    PubMed

    Vyhnánek, F

    2014-05-01

    Multiple trauma represents the most serious type of trauma in which the result of the treatment depends on the quality of pre-hospital care according to ATLS (Advanced Trauma Life Support) as well as on the availability of emergency specialized care in traumatology centres. Resuscitation in the early post-injury phase involves prevention of the lethal triad (hypothermia, acidosis, coagulopathy) development, as early as during pre-hospital care and also during admission to a traumatology department (damage control resuscitation). Damage control resuscitation involves permissive hypotension and coagulopathy correction with red blood cells (RBCs), fresh frozen plasma and platelets administration with crystalloid solutions restriction. Management in a traumatology centre involves : 1. Determining the sequence for treating each of the injuries step by step: a) control of external and intracavitary bleeding, b) operation for craniocerebral injuries, c) external fixation of fractures. 2. Phased management of intracavitary injuries (damage control surgery) and injuries of the extremities (damage control orthopaedics). 3. Non-operative management of solid organs injuries including radiointervention procedures. 4. Post-injury intensive care after the primary operation (treatment of the lethal triad). 5. Treatment regimen extension in craniocerebral injuries (stabilisation of cerebral perfusion pressure with sufficient oxygenation). 6. Modern therapeutic strategies in mechanical ventilation (protective, non-invasive ventilation). 7. Integration of new imaging methods such as MDCT (Multidetector Computed Tomography). Ensuring complex management in polytrauma treatment requires active cooperation of numerous clinical disciplines, already in the early post-injury period.

  18. Communication technology in trauma centers: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Kim, Young-Ju; Gardner, Sharyn D; Faraj, Samer; MacKenzie, Colin F

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between information and communication technology (ICT) and trauma work coordination has long been recognized. The purpose of the study was to investigate the type and frequency of use of various ICTs to activate and organize trauma teams in level I/II trauma centers. In a cross-sectional survey, questionnaires were mailed to trauma directors and clinicians in 457 trauma centers in the United States. Responses were received from 254 directors and 767 clinicians. Communication with pre-hospital care providers was conducted predominantly via shortwave radio (67.3%). The primary communication methods used to reach trauma surgeons were manual (56.7%) and computerized group page (36.6%). Computerized group page (53.7%) and regular telephone (49.8%) were cited as the most advantageous devices; e-mail (52.3%) and dry erase whiteboard (52.1%) were selected as the least advantageous. Attending surgeons preferred less overhead paging and more cellular phone communication than did emergency medicine physicians and nurses. Cellular phones have become an important part of hospital-field communication. In high-volume trauma centers, there is a need for more accurate methods of communicating with field personnel and among hospital care providers.

  19. Statement of severe trauma management in France; teachings of the FIRST study.

    PubMed

    Tissier, C; Bonithon-Kopp, C; Freysz, M

    2013-01-01

    The blunt trauma victim management is still a matter of debate and comparing studies involving different emergency medical services and health care organization remains fictitious. Hence, the French Intensive care Recorded in Severe Trauma (FIRST) was conducted in order to describe the severe blunt trauma management in France. The present paper aimed at recalling the main results of FIRST study. The FIRST study was based on a multicenter prospective cohort of patients aged 18 or over with severe exclusive blunt trauma requiring admission to university hospital care unit within the first 72h and/or managed by medical-Staffed Emergency Mobile Unit (SMUR). Multiple data were collected about patient characteristics, clinical initial status, typology of trauma and the main endpoints were 30-day mortality. Sixty-one percent of trauma patients were road traffic victims and 30% were domestic, sport or leisure trauma. Patients who benefited from medical pre-hospital management were globally more severely injured than those who received basic life support care by fire brigades. Therefore, they were delivered more aggressive treatment in the pre-hospital setting and the median time for their hospital admission was lengthened. However, their 30-day mortality was significantly reduced. The probability of death was also decreased when casualties were transported by SMUR helicopter directly to the university hospital. In the in-hospital setting, the performance of a whole-body computed tomography (CT) was associated with a significant reduction in the mortality risk compared with a selective CT. The FIRST study suggests the benefit of a medical management in the pre-hospital setting on the survival of trauma patients. The emergency physician (EP) expertise in the pre-hospital and initial hospital phases would lead to the concept of the appropriate care for the appropriate trauma patient. It also highlights the necessity to set up organized regional sectors of care and registries

  20. Maxillofacial trauma in the emergency department: a review.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, J W; Lynham, A; Lee, G A; Perry, M; Harrington, U

    2014-04-01

    In 1978 the Advanced Trauma Life Support guidelines were first implemented and are viewed by many as the gold standard of care in the emergency setting. It may not be immediately obvious where assessment and management of maxillofacial injuries fits within these trauma guidelines. This article aims to provide a concise, contemporary guide for the treatment of maxillofacial trauma in the emergency setting. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed and Science Direct on articles from 1970 to the present day. The key search terms were Maxillofacial, Trauma, ATLS, Advanced Trauma Life Support, EMST, Early Management of Severe Trauma, Airway, Eye, Ophthalmic and Management. The findings were compiled into a review article. The article was then reviewed by experts in the fields of Maxillofacial Surgery and Ophthalmology to ensure content and contextual accuracy. Physicians are becoming increasingly exposed to major maxillofacial injuries. Resuscitative measures can be complex and require prompt decisions especially in gaining a secure airway. A proposed treatment algorithm for maxillofacial trauma patients has been devised by the authors. It is imperative that sight preserving assessment and interventions are not forgotten in the emergency management of maxillofacial trauma. We propose an algorithm for the management of maxillofacial trauma, and recommend the use of CT as a powerful adjunct to clinical examination in patients with maxillofacial trauma. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. All rights reserved.

  1. A Thailand case study based on quantitative assessment: does a national lead agency make a difference in pre-hospital care development in middle income countries?

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Tansirisithikul, Rassamee

    2014-12-12

    Emergency Medical Institute of Thailand (EMIT) has been established as a national lead agency to improve emergency medical service systems since December 2008. However up to now, there has not been any published systematic assessment of its performance to guide further policy decisions. This study assesses the 4-year pre-hospital care coverage and performance in Thailand after EMIT establishment. The assessment makes use of 1,171,564 records from a national data set for pre-hospital care i.e., Information Technology for Emergency Medical Service System (ITEMS) in 2012. Comparing with historical data, we found evidence indicating the national lead agency making differences in two basic requirements of pre-hospital care i.e., the coverage was increased by at least 1.4 times higher than the majority reported figures among 11 out of the total 13 regions of the country at baseline; and mean total response time for critical-coded patients, the longest in our study, is 1.6 times shorter than previously reported figure in 2008 (48.46 minutes). Analysis of the national data set also revealed quite substantial missing values indicating a need for further improvement. When historical data was not available, we compared our findings with international figures. Over triage rate of 28.4% for advanced life support (ALS) ambulance was found which is roughly a third of that reported in Taiwan. Almost all patients were stabilized and/or treated regardless of being transferred to hospitals in contrast to the scenarios in the U.S. systems which may probably be due to different payment mechanism. Relying on circumstantial evidences, we identified probable stagnation in pre-hospital care coverage for patients visiting emergency department after the establishment of the lead agency. This national data assessment shows progression in certain basic pre-hospital care requirements in Thailand. However, it needs regular systematic evaluation and there is still room for improvement of pre-hospital

  2. Trauma care - a participant observer study of trauma centers at Delhi, Lucknow and Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Chaudhary, Sushant; Kumar, Akshay; Agarwal, Arpit Kumar; Misra, M C

    2009-06-01

    Trained doctors and para-medical personnel in accident and emergency services are scant in India. Teaching and training in trauma and emergency medical system (EMS) as a specialty accredited by the Medical Council of India is yet to be started as a postgraduate medical education program. The MI and CMO (casualty medical officer) rooms at military and civilian hospitals in India that practice triage, first-aid, medico-legal formalities, reference and organize transport to respective departments leads to undue delays and lack multidisciplinary approach. Comprehensive trauma and emergency infrastructure were created only at a few cities and none in the rural areas of India in last few years. To study the infrastructure, human resource allocation, working, future plans and vision of the established trauma centers at the 3 capital cities of India - Delhi (2 centres), Lucknow and Mumbai. Participant observer structured open ended qualitative research by 7 days direct observation of the facilities and working of above trauma centers. Information on, 1. Infrastructure; space and building, operating, ventilator, and diagnostic and blood bank facilities, finance and costs and pre-hospital care infrastructure, 2. Human resource; consultant and resident doctors, para-medical staff and specialists and 3. Work style; first responder, type of patients undertaken, burn management, surgical management and referral system, follow up patient management, social support, bereavement and postmortem services were recorded on a pre-structured open ended instrument interviewing the officials, staff and by direct observation. Data were compressed, peer-analyzed as for qualitative research and presented in explicit tables. Union and state governments of Delhi, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh have spent heavily to create trauma and emergency infrastructure in their capital cities. Mostly general and orthopedics surgeons with their resident staff were managing the facilities. Comprehensively

  3. An evaluation of pre-hospital emergency medical systems for suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarction in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Engelman, Glenn H; Carry, Patrick M; Kubes, Kyle M; Gleason, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) benefit from rapid cardiac reperfusion therapy. Emergency medical service (EMS) agencies can improve patient outcomes by calling STEMI alerts to the receiving facility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of pre-hospital activation systems for suspected ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) throughout Colorado. A cross sectional, survey design was utilized to collect all data from EMS agencies in Colorado. A univariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors predictive of an agency reporting that they utilize a STEMI activation protocol. 84.5% [95% CI: 78.3 to 90.7%] of agencies included indicate that they utilize a STEMI activation protocol. Based on the logistic regression analysis, the number of EMT employees was significantly associated with whether or not an agency indicates that they utilize a STEMI activation protocol. For every 10% increase in the number of EMTs employed by an EMS agency, there was a 3.0 [95% CI: 1.5 to 6.0, p = 0.0012] fold increase in the odds of the agency indicating they utilize a STEMI activation protocol. Our study provides evidence that larger agencies are more likely to utilize a STEMI activation protocol. In areas without a STEMI system of care, improvements in smaller agencies that cover more ground (with longer transport times) should be the focus for protocol implementation. Based on the current prevalence of such training, competency based training in reading ST-elevations on ECG should be considered by EMS agencies.

  4. Methylphenidate intoxications in children and adults: exposure circumstances and evidence-based dose threshold for pre-hospital triage.

    PubMed

    Hondebrink, Laura; Rietjens, Saskia J; Hunault, Claudine C; Pereira, Rob R; Kelleci, Nuriye; Yasar, Gulhan; Ghebreslasie, Ariam; Lo-A-Foe, Cindy; De Vries, Irma; Meulenbelt, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Methylphenidate intoxications mostly have a relatively mild course, although serious complications can occur. We aimed to characterize methylphenidate exposures and reassess our current dose threshold for hospital referral (2 mg/kg). In a prospective follow-up study, we analysed 364 consecutive methylphenidate exposures that were reported to the Dutch Poisons Information Center. Patients and/or physicians were surveyed by telephone using standardized questionnaires. Three physicians independently scored the observed severity of the intoxication of each patient as 'no/mild' (observation at home) or 'moderate/severe' (hospital referral necessary). Unintentional exposures (40%) mostly occurred at home involving the patients' own medication or those from a family member. Compared to unintentionally exposed patients, intentionally exposed patients were exposed to relatively high methylphenidate doses (3.1 vs 1.6 mg/kg), more often used immediate release methylphenidate formulations (62 vs 34%) and more frequently had concomitant exposures (71 vs 17%). Severe symptoms like convulsions or coma were reported only in patients with concomitant exposures. Following exposure to methylphenidate only (i.e. no concomitant exposures), the most commonly reported symptoms were dry mucosa, headache, agitation, sleepiness and tachycardia. Our results show that the reported methylphenidate dose is predictive of the observed severity of the intoxication and can therefore aid in pre-hospital triage. We increased our current dose threshold for hospital referral from 2 to 3 mg/kg. In addition, we will refer patients at lower doses when clinical symptoms indicate the need for hospital referral. Application of this new dose threshold optimizes triage, thereby reducing unnecessary hospital referral and thus costs, without jeopardising patient safety.

  5. Medical and logistical challenges of trauma care in a 12-day cave rescue: A case report.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Thomas-Michael; Bregani, Rino; Stopar, Rok; Krammer, Jacob; Göksu, Martin; Müller, Natalie; Petermeyer, Michael; Schiffer, Johannes; Strapazzon, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    To describe the case of a patient with a severe head injury at a depth of about 1000 m from the cave entrance in Bavaria, Germany, who received pre-hospital trauma care for 12 days until evacuation. Search and rescue (SAR) operation involved 728 rescuers, 202 working directly in the cave (for a total of 9239 h) and 7 physicians from five countries. At 6-month follow-up, the patient had recovered completely and resumed his job. This case highlights several pitfalls of trauma care in complex SAR operations, which often rely on expert knowledge and are not yet evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cuffed oropharyngeal airway for difficult airway management.

    PubMed

    Takaishi, Kazumi; Kawahito, Shinji; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Eguchi, Satoru; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties with airway management are often caused by anatomic abnormalities due to previous oral surgery. We performed general anesthesia for a patient who had undergone several operations such as hemisection of the mandible and reconstructive surgery with a deltopectoralis flap, resulting in severe maxillofacial deformation. This made it impossible to ventilate with a face mask and to intubate in the normal way. An attempt at oral awake intubation using fiberoptic bronchoscopy was unsuccessful because of severe anatomical abnormality of the neck. We therefore decided to perform retrograde intubation and selected the cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) for airway management. We inserted the COPA, not through the patient's mouth but through the abnormal oropharyngeal space. Retrograde nasal intubation was accomplished with controlled ventilation through the COPA, which proved to be very useful for this difficult airway management during tracheal intubation even though the method was unusual.

  7. Nasal trauma: Primary reconstruction with open rhinoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinidis, I; Malliari, H; Metaxas, S

    2011-01-01

    Due to the prominent location of the nose, the most common facial traumas are nasal injuries. Although nasal traumas usually require staged intervention at a later period of time, in selected cases, primary reconstruction can be effective. A 20-year-old man who was referred from the emergency department with nasal trauma is presented. He reported a fall after feeling unsteady, which caused a direct nasal injury. Clinical examination revealed septal fracture with obstruction of the left nasal cavity and deformity of the nasal pyramid (inverted V deformity). The patient also had a complete dissection of the columella skin. Epistaxis was self-limited, and an open rhinoplasty procedure was decided because the trauma occurred 1 h before admission and there was no significant edema. Surgical intervention included septal reconstruction combined with restoration of the nasal pyramid and columella. One month later, the patient had patent nasal airways, and he was satisfied with the aesthetic result. PMID:22942663

  8. 'The first pulse you take is your own' - but don't forget your colleagues'. Emotion teamwork in pre-hospital emergency medical services.

    PubMed

    Henckes, Nicolas; Nurok, Michael

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the way that intense emotions, both positive and negative, are collectively regulated at work by pre-hospital emergency teams. We analyse the collective strategies and solutions that are developed in daily medical work by teams and individuals with a view to furthering the action. After a review of the literature on emotion work in work collectives, we discuss the nature of pre-hospital emergency work and the role of emotions in this work. We then examine the collective management of both disruptive and desired emotions by teams during interventions. The last section reflects on the long-term management of emotions at work using Randall Collins' concepts of interaction ritual and emotional energy. This study relies on fieldwork performed in emergency medical services in New York and Paris.

  9. Comparison of quality control for trauma management between Western and Eastern European trauma center.

    PubMed

    Calderale, Stefano Massimiliano; Sandru, Raluca; Tugnoli, Gregorio; Di Saverio, Salomone; Beuran, Mircea; Ribaldi, Sergio; Coletti, Massimo; Gambale, Giorgio; Paun, Sorin; Russo, Livio; Baldoni, Franco

    2008-11-19

    Quality control of trauma care is essential to define the effectiveness of trauma center and trauma system. To identify the troublesome issues of the system is the first step for validation of the focused customized solutions. This is a comparative study of two level I trauma centers in Italy and Romania and it has been designed to give an overview of the entire trauma care program adopted in these two countries. This study was aimed to use the results as the basis for recommending and planning changes in the two trauma systems for a better trauma care. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 182 major trauma patients treated in the two hospitals included in the study, between January and June 2002. Every case was analyzed according to the recommended minimal audit filters for trauma quality assurance by The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACSCOT). Satisfactory yields have been reached in both centers for the management of head and abdominal trauma, airway management, Emergency Department length of stay and early diagnosis and treatment. The main significant differences between the two centers were in the patients' transfers, the leadership of trauma team and the patients' outcome. The main concerns have been in the surgical treatment of fractures, the outcome and the lacking of documentation. The analyzed hospitals are classified as Level I trauma center and are within the group of the highest quality level centers in their own countries. Nevertheless, both of them experience major lacks and for few audit filters do not reach the mmum standard requirements of ACS Audit Filters. The differences between the western and the eastern European center were slight. The parameters not reaching the minimum requirements are probably occurring even more often in suburban settings.

  10. A national trauma capacity assessment of Haiti.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Chelsea; DeGennaro, Vincent; Bagley, Joel K; Sharma, Jyotirmay; Saint-Fort, Mackenson; Henrys, Jean Hugues

    2016-03-01

    Trauma systems in high-income countries have been shown to reduce trauma-related morbidity and mortality; however, these systems are infrequently implemented in low- and middle-income countries. Haiti currently lacks a well-resourced and structured trauma system and in turn loses an estimated 800,000 y of healthy life to injuries annually. In the present study, we perform a nationwide trauma capacity assessment, and using the World Health Organization's Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care as a framework, we attempt to identify achievable steps that can be taken toward improving trauma care in Haiti. This cross-sectional study was performed at 12 facilities nationally using a survey tool assessing the areas of infrastructure, supplies and equipment, personnel and training, and procedural capabilities. Additionally, the total number of trauma cases presenting to each facility was tabulated from emergency room logbooks. A total of six secondary and six tertiary facilities were surveyed. Secondary facilities received an average of 35 trauma cases per week, whereas tertiary facilities received an average of 65 cases per week. Survey results demonstrated a shortage of airway, breathing, and circulation equipment and supplies in both facility levels, particularly in emergency rooms. All facilities lacked access to essential surgical personnel and trauma training. This study makes recommendations for improvements in trauma care in Haiti in the areas of infrastructure and administration, physical resources, and training and human resources. These recommendations represent feasible steps that can be taken toward the construction of a national trauma system in Haiti. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of parental accompaniment in paediatric trauma: a helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Major trauma remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in young people and adolescents throughout the western world. Both the physical and psychological consequences of trauma are well documented and it is shown that peri-traumatic factors play a large part in the emotional recovery of children involved in trauma. Indeed, parental anxiety levels may play one of the biggest roles. There are no publically available guidelines on pre-hospital accompaniment, and where research has been done on parental presence it often focuses primarily on the parents or staff, rather than the child themselves. Whilst acknowledging the impact on parents and staff, the importance of the emotional wellbeing of the child should be reinforced, to reduce the likelihood of developing symptoms in keeping with post-traumatic stress disorder. This non-systematic literature review, aims to examine the impact of parental accompaniment to hospital, following paediatric trauma, and to help pre-hospital clinicians decide whether accompaniment would be of benefit to their patient population. The lack of published data does not enable a formal recommendation of parental accompaniment in the helicopter to be mandated, though it should be the preference in land based conveyance. Future research is needed into the emotional recovery of children after trauma, as well as the experiences of patient, parent and staff during conveyance. PMID:24887082

  12. Improving prehospital trauma care in Rwanda through continuous quality improvement: an interrupted time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Scott, John W; Nyinawankusi, Jeanne D'Arc; Enumah, Samuel; Maine, Rebecca; Uwitonze, Eric; Hu, Yihan; Kabagema, Ignace; Byiringiro, Jean Claude; Riviello, Robert; Jayaraman, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    Injury is a major cause of premature death and disability in East Africa, and high-quality pre-hospital care is essential for optimal trauma outcomes. The Rwandan pre-hospital emergency care service (SAMU) uses an electronic database to evaluate and optimize pre-hospital care through a continuous quality improvement programme (CQIP), beginning March 2014. The SAMU database was used to assess pre-hospital quality metrics including supplementary oxygen for hypoxia (O2), intravenous fluids for hypotension (IVF), cervical collar placement for head injuries (c-collar), and either splinting (splint) or administration of pain medications (pain) for long bone fractures. Targets of >90% were set for each metric and daily team meetings and monthly feedback sessions were implemented to address opportunities for improvement. These five pre-hospital quality metrics were assessed monthly before and after implementation of the CQIP. Met and unmet needs for O2, IVF, and c-collar were combined into a summative monthly SAMU Trauma Quality Scores (STQ score). An interrupted time series linear regression model compared the STQ score during 14 months before the CQIP implementation to the first 14 months after. During the 29-month study period 3,822 patients met study criteria. 1,028 patients needed one or more of the five studied interventions during the study period. All five endpoints had a significant increase between the pre-CQI and post-CQI periods (p<0.05 for all), and all five achieved a post-CQI average of at least 90% completion. The monthly composite STQ scores ranged from 76.5 to 97.9 pre-CQI, but tightened to 86.1-98.7 during the post-CQI period. Interrupted time series analysis of the STQ score showed that CQI programme led to both an immediate improvement of +6.1% (p=0.017) and sustained monthly improvements in care delivery-improving at a rate of 0.7% per month (p=0.028). The SAMU experience demonstrates the utility of a responsive, data-driven quality improvement

  13. Expert validation of the knowledge base for E-CAD - a pre-hospital dispatch triage decision support system.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Muzna; Saini, Devashish; Brown, Todd B; Orthner, Helmuth F; Mazza, Giovanni; Battles, Marcie M

    2007-10-11

    The knowledge base (KB) for E-CAD (Enhanced Computer-Aided Dispatch), a triage decision support system for Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) of medical resources in trauma cases, is being evaluated. We aim to achieve expert consensus for validation and refinement of the E-CAD KB using the modified Delphi technique. Evidence-based, expert-validated and refined KB will provide improved EMD practice guidelines and may facilitate acceptance of the E-CAD by state-wide professionals.

  14. The Potential Role of Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in Military Pre-Hospital Setting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    50]. Damage to the lungs may range from minimal hemorrhage to hemothorax and massive pulmonary hemorrhage. Acute respiratory distress may develop...175-6. 49. Hirshberg B, Oppenheim-Eden A, Pizov R, Sklair-Levi M, Rivkin A, Bardach E, et al. Recovery from blast lung injury: one -year follow-up...assessments will have to be based on data from civilian trauma. Paper presented at the RTO HFM Symposium on “Combat Casualty Care in Ground Based

  15. A strategy to implement and support pre-hospital emergency medical systems in developing, resource-constrained areas of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jared H; Shing, Rachel; Twomey, Michele; Wallis, Lee A

    2014-01-01

    Resource-constrained countries are in extreme need of pre-hospital emergency care systems. However, current popular strategies to provide pre-hospital emergency care are inappropriate for and beyond the means of a resource-constrained country, and so new ones are needed-ones that can both function in an under-developed area's particular context and be done with the area's limited resources. In this study, we used a two-location pilot and consensus approach to develop a strategy to implement and support pre-hospital emergency care in one such developing, resource-constrained area: the Western Cape province of South Africa. Local community members are trained to be emergency first aid responders who can provide immediate, on-scene care until a Transporter can take the patient to the hospital. Management of the system is done through local Community Based Organizations, which can adapt the model to their communities as needed to ensure local appropriateness and feasibility. Within a community, the system is implemented in a graduated manner based on available resources, and is designed to not rely on the whole system being implemented first to provide partial function. The University of Cape Town's Division of Emergency Medicine and the Western Cape's provincial METRO EMS intend to follow this model, along with sharing it with other South African provinces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Regeneration of airway epithelium].

    PubMed

    Adam, D; Perotin, J-M; Lebargy, F; Birembaut, P; Deslée, G; Coraux, C

    2014-04-01

    Epithelial regeneration is a complex process. It can lead to the remodeling of the airway epithelium as in asthma, COPD or cystic fibrosis. The development of in vivo and in vitro models has allowed the analysis of remodeling mechanisms and showed the role of components of extracellular matrix, proteases, cytokines and growth factors. Airway epithelial progenitors and stems cells have been studied in these models. However, their identification remains difficult. Identification and characterization of airway epithelial progenitor/stem-cells, and a better knowledge of the regeneration process may allow the development of new therapeutic strategies for airway epithelial reconstitution. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. In-hospital airway management training for non-anesthesiologist EMS physicians: a descriptive quality control study.

    PubMed

    Trimmel, Helmut; Beywinkler, Christoph; Hornung, Sonja; Kreutziger, Janett; Voelckel, Wolfgang G

    2017-04-26

    Pre-hospital airway management is a major challenge for emergency medical service (EMS) personnel. Despite convincing evidence that the rescuer's qualifications determine efficacy of tracheal intubation, in-hospital airway management training is not mandatory in Austria, and often neglected. Thus we sought to prove that airway management competence of EMS physicians can be established and maintained by a tailored training program. In this descriptive quality control study we retrospectively evaluated all in- and pre-hospital airway cases managed by EMS physicians who underwent a structured in-hospital training program in anesthesia at General Hospital Wiener Neustadt. Data was obtained from electronic anesthesia and EMS documentation systems. From 2006 to 2016, 32 EMS physicians with 3-year post-graduate education, but without any prior experience in anesthesia were trained. Airway management proficiency was imparted in three steps: initial training, followed by an ongoing practice schedule in the operating room (OR). Median and interquartile range of number of in-hospital tracheal intubations (TIs) vs. use of supra-glottic airway devices (SGA) were 33.5 (27.5-42.5) vs. 19.0 (15.0-27.0) during initial training; 62.0 (41.8-86.5) vs. 33.5 (18.0-54.5) during the first, and 64.0 (34.5-93.8) vs. 27 (12.5-56.0) during the second year. Pre-hospitaly, every physician performed 9.0 (5.0-14.8) TIs vs. 0.0 (0.0-0.0) SGA cases during the first, and 9.0 (7.0-13.8) TIs vs. 0.0 (0.0-0.3) SGA during the second year. Use of an SGA was mandatory when TI failed after the second attempt, thus accounting for a total of 33 cases. In 8 cases, both TI and SGA failed, but bag mask ventilation was successfully performed. No critical events related to airway management were noted and overall success rate for TI with a max of 2 attempts was 95.3%. Number of TIs per EMS physician is low in the pre-hospital setting. A training concept that assures an additional 60+ TIs per year appears to

  18. Multiple triangulation and collaborative research using qualitative methods to explore decision making in pre-hospital emergency care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maxine; O'Hara, Rachel; Hirst, Enid; Weyman, Andrew; Turner, Janette; Mason, Suzanne; Quinn, Tom; Shewan, Jane; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2017-01-24

    Paramedics make important and increasingly complex decisions at scene about patient care. Patient safety implications of influences on decision making in the pre-hospital setting were previously under-researched. Cutting edge perspectives advocate exploring the whole system rather than individual influences on patient safety. Ethnography (the study of people and cultures) has been acknowledged as a suitable method for identifying health care issues as they occur within the natural context. In this paper we compare multiple methods used in a multi-site, qualitative study that aimed to identify system influences on decision making. The study was conducted in three NHS Ambulance Trusts in England and involved researchers from each Trust working alongside academic researchers. Exploratory interviews with key informants e.g. managers (n = 16) and document review provided contextual information. Between October 2012 and July 2013 researchers observed 34 paramedic shifts and ten paramedics provided additional accounts via audio-recorded 'digital diaries' (155 events). Three staff focus groups (total n = 21) and three service user focus groups (total n = 23) explored a range of experiences and perceptions. Data collection and analysis was carried out by academic and ambulance service researchers as well as service users. Workshops were held at each site to elicit feedback on the findings and facilitate prioritisation of issues identified. The use of a multi-method qualitative approach allowed cross-validation of important issues for ambulance service staff and service users. A key factor in successful implementation of the study was establishing good working relationships with academic and ambulance service teams. Enrolling at least one research lead at each site facilitated the recruitment process as well as study progress. Active involvement with the study allowed ambulance service researchers and service users to gain a better understanding of the research

  19. Trauma Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Prachanukool, Thidathit; Sricharoen, Pungkava; Saksobhavivat, Nitima; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasound plays a pivotal role in the evaluation of acute trauma patients through the use of multi-site scanning encompassing abdominal, cardiothoracic, vascular and skeletal scans. In a high-speed polytrauma setting, because exsanguinations are the primary cause of trauma morbidity and mortality, ultrasound is used for quick and accurate detection of hemorrhages in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities during the primary Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) survey. Volume status can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound of the inferior vena cava (IVC), which is a useful tool in the initial phase and follow-up evaluations. Pneumothorax can also be quickly detected with ultrasound. During the secondary survey and in patients sustaining low-speed or localized trauma, ultrasound can be used to help detect abdominal organ injuries. This is particularly helpful in patients in whom hemoperitoneum is not identified on an initial scan because findings of organ injuries will expedite the next test, often computed tomography (CT). Moreover, ultrasound can assist in detection of fractures easily obscured on radiography, such as rib and sternal fractures.

  20. Analysis of the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) in 200 victims of different trauma mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Bruno Durante; Razente, Danilo Mardegam; Lacerda, Daniel Augusto Mauad; Lother, Nicole Silveira; VON-Bahten, Luiz Carlos; Stahlschmidt, Carla Martinez Menini

    2016-01-01

    to analyze the epidemiological profile and mortality associated with the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) in trauma victims treated at a university hospital. we conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study of trauma protocols (prospectively collected) from December 2013 to February 2014, including trauma victims admitted in the emergency room of the Cajuru University Hospital. We set up three groups: (G1) penetrating trauma to the abdomen and chest, (G2) blunt trauma to the abdomen and chest, and (G3) traumatic brain injury. The variables we analyzed were: gender, age, day of week, mechanism of injury, type of transportation, RTS, hospitalization time and mortality. we analyzed 200 patients, with a mean age of 36.42 ± 17.63 years, and 73.5% were male. The mean age was significantly lower in G1 than in the other groups (p <0.001). Most (40%) of the visits occurred on weekends and the most common pre-hospital transport service (58%) was the SIATE (Emergency Trauma Care Integrated Service). The hospital stay was significantly higher in G1 compared with the other groups (p <0.01). Regarding mortality, there were 12%, 1.35% and 3.95% of deaths in G1, G2 and G3, respectively. The median RTS among the deaths was 5.49, 7.84 and 1.16, respectively, for the three groups. the majority of patients were young men. RTS was effective in predicting mortality in traumatic brain injury, however failing to predict it in patients suffering from blunt and penetrating trauma. analisar o perfil epidemiológico e a mortalidade associada ao escore de trauma revisado (RTS) em vítimas de trauma atendidas em um hospital universitário. estudo transversal descritivo de protocolos de trauma (coletados prospectivamente) de dezembro de 2013 a fevereiro de 2014, incluindo vítimas de trauma admitidas na sala de emergência do Hospital Universitário Cajuru. Três grupos foram criados: (G1) trauma penetrante em abdome e tórax, (G2) trauma contuso em abdome e tórax, e (G3) trauma cranioencef

  1. Prehospital care for multiple trauma patients in Germany.

    PubMed

    Maegele, Marc

    2015-01-01

    For the German speaking countries, Tscherne's definition of "polytrauma" which represents an injury of at least two body regions with one or a combination being life-threatening is still valid. The timely and adequate management including quick referral of the trauma patient into a designated trauma center may limit secondary injury and may thus improve outcomes already during the prehospital phase of care. The professional treatment of multiple injured trauma patients begins at the scene in the context of a well structured prehospital emergency medical system. The "Primary Survey" is performed by the emergency physician at the scene according to the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS)-concept. The overall aim is to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening conditions even in the absence of patient history and diagnosis ("treat-first-what-kills-first"). If no immediate treatment is necessary, a "Secondary Sur- vey" follows with careful and structured body examination and detailed assessment of the trauma mechanism. Massive and life-threatening states of hemorrhage should be addressed immediately even disregarding the ABCDE-scheme. Critical trauma patients should be referred without any delay ("work and go")toTR-DGU® certified trauma centers of the local trauma networks. Due to the difficult pre- hospital environment the number of quality studies in the field is low and, as consequence, the level of evidence for most recommendations is also low. Much information has been obtained from different care systems and the interchangeability of results is limited. The present article provides a synopsis of rec- ommendations for early prehospital care for the severely injured based upon the 2011 updated multi- disciplinary S3-Guideline "Polytrauma/Schwerstverletzten Behandlung", the most recently updated European Trauma guideline and the current PHTLS-algorithms including grades of recommendation whenever possible.

  2. Initial management of trauma. The first 5 minutes.

    PubMed

    Barton, R G; Cerra, F B

    1990-10-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death in young Americans and is responsible for the loss of more productive years of life than heart disease and cancer combined. Initial management of trauma consists of the establishment or maintenance of a patent airway, ensurance of adequate breathing, and resuscitation of the circulation. All of these are accomplished simultaneously with a cursory survey to identify immediately life-threatening injuries and to prevent permanent disability.

  3. The laryngeal mask airway.

    PubMed

    Brimacombe, J; Shorney, N

    The laryngeal mask airway is a new development in airway management. It became commercially available in 1988 and has since become an integral part of anaesthetic practice; its potential outside anaesthesia is rapidly developing. This article describes the basic concepts, methods of insertion and applications, current and projected.

  4. Advanced airway management teaching in otolaryngology residency programs in Canada: A survey of residents.

    PubMed

    Côté, Valérie; Kus, Lukas H; Zhang, Xun; Richardson, Keith; Nguyen, Lily H

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a study to assess residents' levels of comfort with advanced airway management in Canadian otolaryngology residency programs. In October 2008, an electronic questionnaire was sent to all otolaryngology residents in Canada. Responses were voluntary and anonymous. The response rate was 64.8% (94 of 145 residents). Residents were asked about the amount of teaching they received and the amount they would like to receive each year in four areas: emergency surgical airway, pediatric airway, airway trauma, and management of complications during laryngoscopy/bronchoscopy. They were also asked how comfortable they were with their current level of knowledge in these areas. Overall, residents were not comfortable with difficult airway situations, scoring a mean of 3.08 on a 5-point Likert scale. Residents were most comfortable with the emergency airway and least comfortable with the pediatric airway. Overall, residents indicated that they had not received adequate teaching on advanced airway management, and they consistently desired more. With respect to the type of instruction, most residents requested more teaching via simulations, mannequins, and cadaver or animal models. Linear regression models revealed a positive relationship between their overall comfort with airway management and the number of airway teaching hours they received. Their consensus was that formal airway training should occur during postgraduate year (PGY) 2, with refresher courses offered every 2 years. This is the first wide-scale assessment of the status of airway teaching in otolaryngology residency programs in Canada. Overall, our findings suggest that otolaryngology residents in these programs are not comfortable with advanced airway management early in their training and feel they would benefit from a significant increase in airway teaching time. Comfort levels improved with increasing levels of training such that PGY5 residents indicated they were indeed comfortable with advanced

  5. Effect of the prehospital trauma life support program (PHTLS) on prehospital trauma care.

    PubMed

    Ali, J; Adam, R U; Gana, T J; Bedaysie, H; Williams, J I

    1997-05-01

    Improvement in trauma patient outcome has been demonstrated after the implementation of the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS) program in Trinidad and Tobago. This study was aimed at identifying prehospital care factors that may explain this improvement. All patients transferred by ambulance to the major trauma referral hospital had assessment of airway control, oxygen use, cervical (C)-spine control, and hemorrhage control, as well as splinting of extremities during pre-PHTLS (July of 1990 to December of 1991; n = 332) and post-PHTLS periods (January of 1994 to June of 1995; n = 350). Pre-PHTLS data were compared with post-PHTLS data by chi 2 analysis with a p value < or = 0.05 being considered statistically significant. The frequency (%) increased in the post-PHTLS period for airway control (10 vs. 99.7%), C-spine control (2.1 vs. 89.4%), splinting of extremities (22 vs. 60.6%), hemorrhage control (16 vs. 96.9%), and oxygen use (6.6 vs. 89.5%) when no specific problem was identified. When a specific problem was identified in these areas, the post-PHTLS percentage also increased for airway control (16.2 vs. 100%), C-spine control (25 vs. 100%), splinting of extremities (33.9 vs. 100%), hemorrhage control (18 vs. 100%), and oxygen use (43.2 vs. 98.9%). Prehospital trauma care has changed after the introduction of the PHTLS program as indicated by more frequent airway control, use of oxygen, control of cervical (C)-spine and hemorrhage, as well as splinting of fractures. This finding was evident not only as a routine but particularly when a specific related problem was identified. This change in prehospital care could be responsible for the improved trauma patient outcome after PHTLS.

  6. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways.

    PubMed

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient.

  7. Controversies in Pediatric Perioperative Airways

    PubMed Central

    Klučka, Jozef; Štourač, Petr; Štoudek, Roman; Ťoukálková, Michaela; Harazim, Hana; Kosinová, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric airway management is a challenge in routine anesthesia practice. Any airway-related complication due to improper procedure can have catastrophic consequences in pediatric patients. The authors reviewed the current relevant literature using the following data bases: Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline (OVID SP), and Dynamed, and the following keywords: Airway/s, Children, Pediatric, Difficult Airways, and Controversies. From a summary of the data, we identified several controversies: difficult airway prediction, difficult airway management, cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes for securing pediatric airways, rapid sequence induction (RSI), laryngeal mask versus endotracheal tube, and extubation timing. The data show that pediatric anesthesia practice in perioperative airway management is currently lacking the strong evidence-based medicine (EBM) data that is available for adult subpopulations. A number of procedural steps in airway management are derived only from adult populations. However, the objective is the same irrespective of patient age: proper securing of the airway and oxygenation of the patient. PMID:26759809

  8. Dentoalveolar trauma.

    PubMed

    Olynik, Christopher R; Gray, Austin; Sinada, Ghassan G

    2013-10-01

    Dentoalveolar injuries are an important and common component of craniomaxillofacial trauma. The dentition serves as a vertical buttress of the face and fractures to this area may result in malalignment of facial subunits. Furthermore, the dentition is succedaneous with 3 phases-primary dentition, mixed dentition, and permanent dentition-mandating different treatment protocols. This article is written for nondental providers to diagnose and treat dentoalveolar injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Operational demands on pre-hospital emergency care for burn injuries in a middle-income setting: a study in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Allgaier, Rachel L; Laflamme, Lucie; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-12-01

    Burns occur disproportionately within low-socioeconomic populations. The Western Cape Province of South Africa represents a middle-income setting with a high rate of burns, few specialists and few burn centres, yet a well-developed pre-hospital system. This paper describes the burn cases from a viewpoint of operational factors important to pre-hospital emergency medical services. A retrospective, cross-sectional study of administrative and patient records was conducted. Data were captured for all pre-hospital burn patients treated by public Emergency Medical Services over a continuous 12-month period. Data were captured separately at each site using a standardised data collection tool. Described categories included location (rural or urban), transport decision (transported or remained on scene), age (child or adult) and urgency (triage colour). EMS treated 1198 patients with confirmed burns representing 0.6% of the total EMS caseload; an additional 819 potential burn cases could not be confirmed. Of the confirmed cases, 625 (52.2%) were located outside the City of Cape Town and 1058 (88.3%) were transported to a medical facility. Patients from urban areas had longer mission times. Children accounted for 37.5% (n = 449) of all burns. The majority of transported patients that were triaged were yellow (n = 238, 41.6% rural and n = 182, 37.4% urban). Burns make up a small portion of the EMS caseload. More burns occurred in areas far from urban hospitals and burn centres. The majority of burn cases met the burn centre referral criteria.

  10. Is the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) superior to clinician judgement in detecting critical illness in the pre-hospital environment?

    PubMed

    Fullerton, James N; Price, Charlotte L; Silvey, Natalie E; Brace, Samantha J; Perkins, Gavin D

    2012-05-01

    Physiological track and trigger scores have an established role in enhancing the detection of critical illness in hospitalized patients. Their potential to identify individuals at risk of clinical deterioration in the pre-hospital environment is unknown. This study compared the predictive accuracy of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) with current clinical practice. A retrospective observational cohort study of consecutive adult (≥16 yrs) emergency department attendances to a single centre over a two-month period. The outcome of interest was the occurrence or not of an adverse event within 24h of admission. Hospital pre-alerting was used as a measure of current critical illness detection and its accuracy compared with MEWS scores calculated from pre-hospital observations. 3504 patients were included in the study. 76 (2.5%) suffered an adverse event within 24 h of admission. Paramedics pre-alerted the hospital in 224 cases (7.3%). Clinical judgement demonstrated a sensitivity of 61.8% (95% CI 51.0-72.8%) with a specificity of 94.1% (95% CI 93.2-94.9%). MEWS was a good predictor of adverse outcomes and hence critical illness detection (AUC 0.799, 95% CI 0.738-0.856). Combination systems of MEWS and clinical judgement may be effective MEWS ≥4+clinical judgement: sensitivity 72.4% (95% CI 62.5-82.7%), specificity 84.8% (95% CI 83.52-86.1%). Clinical judgement alone has a low sensitivity for critical illness in the pre-hospital environment. The addition of MEWS improves detection at the expense of reduced specificity. The optimal scoring system to be employed in this setting is yet to be elucidated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Teleconsultation in pre-hospital emergency medical services: real-time telemedical support in a prospective controlled simulation study.

    PubMed

    Skorning, Max; Bergrath, Sebastian; Rörtgen, Daniel; Beckers, Stefan K; Brokmann, Jörg C; Gillmann, Benjamin; Herding, Jöran; Protogerakis, Michael; Fitzner, Christina; Rossaint, Rolf

    2012-05-01

    Teleconsultation from the scene of an emergency to an experienced physician including real-time transmission of monitoring, audio and visual information seems to be feasible. In preparation for bringing such a system into practice within the research project "Med-on-@ix", a simulation study has been conducted to investigate whether telemedical assistance (TMA) in Emergency Medical Services (EMS) has an impact on compatibility to guidelines and timing. In a controlled simulation study 29 EMS teams (one EMS physician, two paramedics) ran through standardized scenarios (STEMI: ST-elevation myocardial infarction; MT: major trauma) on high-fidelity patient simulators with defined complications (treatable clearly following guidelines). Team assignments were randomized and each team had to complete one scenario with and another without TMA. Analysis was based on videotaped scenarios using pre-defined scoring items and measured time intervals for each scenario. Adherence to treatment algorithms improved using TMA. STEMI: cathlab informed (9/14 vs. 15/15; p=0.0169); allergies checked prior to acetylsalicylic acid (5/14 vs. 13/15; p=0.0078); analgosedation prior to cardioversion (10/14 vs. 15/15; p=0.0421); synchronized shock (6/14 vs. 14/15; p=0.0052). MT: adequate medication for intubation (3/15 vs. 10/14; p=0.0092); mean time to inform trauma centre 547 vs. 189 s (p=0.0001). No significant impairment of performance was detected in TMA groups. In simulated setting TMA was able to improve treatment and safety without decline in timing. Nevertheless, further research is necessary to optimize the system for medical, organizational and technical reasons prior to the evaluation of this system in routine EMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of Errors Contributing to Trauma Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gruen, Russell L.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; McIntyre, Lisa K.; Foy, Hugh M.; Maier, Ronald V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify patterns of errors contributing to inpatient trauma deaths. Methods: All inpatient trauma deaths at a high-volume level I trauma center from 1996 to 2004 inclusive were audited. Data were collected with daily trauma registry chart abstraction, weekly morbidity and mortality reports, hospital quality assurance reports, and annual trauma registry analyses of risk of death using TRISS and HARM methodology. Deaths that met criteria for low to medium probability of mortality or those with quality of care concerns were analyzed for errors and then subjected to 3-stage peer review at weekly departmental, monthly hospital, and annual regional forums. Patterns of errors were constructed from the compiled longitudinal data. Results: In 9 years, there were 44,401 trauma patient admissions and 2594 deaths (5.8%), of which 601 met low to medium mortality risks. Sixty-four patients (0.14% admissions, 2.47% deaths) had recognized errors in care that contributed to their death. Important error patterns included: failure to successfully intubate, secure or protect an airway (16%), delayed operative or angiographic control of acute abdominal/pelvic hemorrhage (16%), delayed intervention for ongoing intrathoracic hemorrhage (9%), inadequate DVT or gastrointestinal prophylaxis (9%), lengthy initial operative procedures rather than damage control surgery in unstable patients (8%), over-resuscitation with fluids (5%), and complications of feeding tubes (5%). Resulting data-directed institutional and regional trauma system policy changes have demonstrably reduced the incidence of associated error-related deaths. Conclusions: Preventable deaths will occur even in mature trauma systems. This review has identified error patterns that are likely common in all trauma systems, and for which policy interventions can be effectively targeted. PMID:16926563

  13. Airway Monitoring experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-25

    ISS046e048360 (02/25/2016) --- NASA astronaut Tim Kopra prepares to participate in the Airway Monitoring experiment. With dust particles present in the International Space Station atmosphere, Airway Monitoring studies the occurrence and indicators of airway inflammation in crewmembers, using ultra-sensitive gas analyzers to analyze exhaled air. This helps to highlight any health impacts and to maintain crewmember well-being on future human spaceflight missions, especially longer-duration missions to the Moon and Mars for example, where crewmembers will have to be more self-sufficient in highlighting and avoiding such conditions.

  14. Airway Monitoring experiment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-02-25

    ISS046e047972 (02/25/2016) --- ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Timothy Peake participates in the Airway Monitoring experiment. With dust particles present in the International Space Station atmosphere, Airway Monitoring studies the occurrence and indicators of airway inflammation in crewmembers, using ultra-sensitive gas analyzers to analyze exhaled air. This helps to highlight any health impacts and to maintain crewmember well-being on future human spaceflight missions, especially longer-duration missions to the Moon and Mars for example, where crewmembers will have to be more self-sufficient in highlighting and avoiding such conditions.

  15. Does a pre-hospital emergency pathway improve early diagnosis and referral in suspected stroke patients? – Study protocol of a cluster randomised trial [ISRCTN41456865

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Marica; De Luca, Assunta; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Lori, Giuliano; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Background Early interventions proved to be able to improve prognosis in acute stroke patients. Prompt identification of symptoms, organised timely and efficient transportation towards appropriate facilities, become essential part of effective treatment. The implementation of an evidence based pre-hospital stroke care pathway may be a method for achieving the organizational standards required to grant appropriate care. We performed a systematic search for studies evaluating the effect of pre-hospital and emergency interventions for suspected stroke patients and we found that there seems to be only a few studies on the emergency field and none about implementation of clinical pathways. We will test the hypothesis that the adoption of emergency clinical pathway improves early diagnosis and referral in suspected stroke patients. We designed a cluster randomised controlled trial (C-RCT), the most powerful study design to assess the impact of complex interventions. The study was registered in the Current Controlled Trials Register: ISRCTN41456865 – Implementation of pre-hospital emergency pathway for stroke – a cluster randomised trial. Methods/design Two-arm cluster-randomised trial (C-RCT). 16 emergency services and 14 emergency rooms were randomised either to arm 1 (comprising a training module and administration of the guideline), or to arm 2 (no intervention, current practice). Arm 1 participants (152 physicians, 280 nurses, 50 drivers) attended an interactive two sessions course with continuous medical education CME credits on the contents of the clinical pathway. We estimated that around 750 patients will be met by the services in the 6 months of observation. This duration allows recruiting a sample of patients sufficient to observe a 30% improvement in the proportion of appropriate diagnoses. Data collection will be performed using current information systems. Process outcomes will be measured at the cluster level six months after the intervention. We will

  16. The role of motorcycle taxi drivers in the pre-hospital care of road traffic injury victims in rural Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Arellano, Naira; Mello, Michael J; Clark, Melissa A

    2010-08-01

    This study explored the role of motorcycle taxi drivers in the pre-hospital care of road traffic injury victims in the province of Monte Plata, Dominican Republic. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of 58 motorcycle taxi drivers working at six different highway taxi posts. The majority of drivers surveyed (67.2%) indicated witnessing a motor vehicle crash. The most common type of help drivers reported providing was transportation of crash victims (41%). Only 15.8% of drivers had ever attended a first-aid course but 84.5% expressed interest in attending a course if given the opportunity.

  17. Tuberculosis patients' pre-hospital delay and non-compliance with a longstanding DOT programme: a mixed methods study in urban Zambia.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Anne Lia; Gerrets, René; Kapata, Nathan; Kabika, Austin; Birnie, Emma; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobusch, Martin P

    2016-10-28

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem in Zambia, despite considerable efforts to control and prevent it. With this study, we aim to understand how perceptions and cultural, social, economic, and organisational factors influence TB patients' pre-hospital delay and non-compliance with care provided by the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP). A mixed methods study was conducted with 300 TB patients recruited at Kanyama clinic for structured interviews. Thirty were followed-up for multiple in-depth interviews. Six focus group discussions were organised and participant observation was conducted. Ten biomedical care providers, 10 traditional healers, and 10 faith healers were interviewed. Factors associated with non-compliance (disruption of treatment > one week) were assessed by applying logistic regression analyses; qualitative analysis was used to additionally assess factors influencing pre-hospital delay and for triangulation of study findings. TB treatment non-compliance was low (10 %), no association of outcome with cultural or socio-economic factors was found. Only patients' time constraints and long distance to the clinic indicated a possible association with a higher risk of non-compliance (OR 0.52; 95 % CI 0.25, 1.10, p = 0.086). Qualitative data showed that most TB patients combined understandings of biomedical and traditional TB knowledge, used herbal, traditional and/or faith healing, suffered from stigmatizing attitudes, experienced poverty and food shortages, and faced several organisational obstacles while being on treatment. This led in some cases to pre-hospital delay or treatment non-compliance. Mixed methods analysis demonstrated the importance of in-depth information ascertained by qualitative approaches to understand how cultural, socio-economic and organisational factors are influencing patients' pre-hospital delay and treatment compliance. To strengthen the Zambian NTP, combating stigma is of utmost priority coupled with

  18. Air-Q intubating laryngeal airway: A study of the second generation supraglottic airway device

    PubMed Central

    Attarde, Viren Bhaskar; Kotekar, Nalini; Shetty, Sarika M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Air-Q intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILA) is used as a supraglottic airway device and as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. This study aims to assess the efficacy of the Air-Q ILA regarding ease of insertion, adequacy of ventilation, rate of successful intubation, haemodynamic response and airway morbidity. Methods: Sixty patients presenting for elective surgery at our Medical College Hospital were selected. Following adequate premedication, baseline vital parameters, pulse rate and blood pressure were recorded. Air-Q size 3.5 for patients 50-70 kg and size 4.5 for 70-100 kg was selected. After achieving adequate intubating conditions, Air-Q ILA was introduced. Confirming adequate ventilation, appropriate sized endotracheal tube was advanced through the Air-Q blindly to intubate the trachea. Placement of the endotracheal tube in trachea was confirmed. Results: Air-Q ILA was successfully inserted in 88.3% of patients in first attempt and 11.7% patients in second attempt. Ventilation was adequate in 100% of patients. Intubation was successful in 76.7% of patients with Air-Q ILA. 23.3% of patients were intubated by direct laryngoscopy following failure with two attempts using Air-Q ILA. Post-intubation the change in heart rate was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). 10% of patients were noted to have a sore throat and 5% of patients had mild airway trauma. Conclusion: Air-Q ILA is a reliable device as a supraglottic airway ensuring adequate ventilation as well as a conduit for endotracheal intubation. It benefits the patient by avoiding the stress of direct laryngoscopy and is also superior alternative device for use in a difficult airway. PMID:27212722

  19. Bench-to-bedside review: Early tracheostomy in critically ill trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Shirawi, Nehad; Arabi, Yaseen

    2006-01-01

    A significant proportion of trauma patients require tracheostomy during intensive care unit stay. The timing of this procedure remains a subject of debate. The decision for tracheostomy should take into consideration the risks and benefits of prolonged endotracheal intubation versus tracheostomy. Timing of tracheostomy is also influenced by the indications for the procedure, which include relief of upper airway obstruction, airway access in patients with cervical spine injury, management of retained airway secretions, maintenance of patent airway and airway access for prolonged mechanical ventilation. This review summarizes the potential advantages of tracheostomy versus endotracheal intubation, the different indications for tracheostomy in trauma patients and studies examining early versus late tracheostomy. It also reviews the predictors of prolonged mechanical ventilation, which may guide the decision regarding the timing of tracheostomy. PMID:16356202

  20. A meta-analysis of prehospital airway control techniques part II: alternative airway devices and cricothyrotomy success rates.

    PubMed

    Hubble, Michael W; Wilfong, Denise A; Brown, Lawrence H; Hertelendy, Attila; Benner, Randall W

    2010-01-01

    Airway management is a key component of prehospital care for seriously ill and injured patients. Oral endotracheal intubation (OETI) is the definitive airway of choice in most emergency medical services (EMS) systems. However, OETI may not be an approved skill for some clinicians or may prove problematic in certain patients because of anatomic abnormalities, trauma, or inadequate relaxation. In these situations alternative airways are frequently employed. However, the reported success rates for these devices vary widely, and established benchmarks are lacking. We sought to determine pooled estimates of the success rates of alternative airway devices (AADs) and needle cricothyrotomy (NCRIC) and surgical cricothyrotomy (SCRIC) placement through a meta-analysis of the literature. We performed a systematic literature search for all English-language articles reporting success rates for AADs, SCRIC, and NCRIC. Studies of field procedures performed by prehospital personnel from any nation were included. All titles were reviewed independently by two authors using prespecified inclusion criteria. Pooled estimates of success rates for each airway technique were calculated using a random-effects meta-analysis model. Of 2,005 prehospital airway titles identified, 35 unique studies were retained for analysis of AAD success rates, encompassing a total of 10,172 prehospital patients. The success rates for SCRIC and NCRIC were analyzed across an additional 21 studies totaling 512 patients. The pooled estimates (and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for intervention success across all clinicians and patients were as follows: esophageal obturator airway-esophageal gastric tube airway (EOA-EGTA) 92.6% (90.1%-94.5%); pharyngeotracheal lumen airway (PTLA) 82.1% (74.0%-88.0%); esophageal-tracheal Combitube (ETC) 85.4% (77.3%-91.0%); laryngeal mask airway (LMA) 87.4% (79.0%-92.8%); King Laryngeal Tube airway (King LT) 96.5% (71.2%-99.7%); NCRIC 65.8% (42.3%-83.59%); and SCRIC 90.5% (84

  1. Comparison of trauma care systems in Asian countries: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Jin; Oh, Moon Young; Kim, Na Rae; Jung, Yoo Joong; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do

    2017-08-07

    The study aims to compare the trauma care systems in Asian countries. Asian countries were categorised into three groups; 'lower middle-income country', 'upper middle-income country' and 'high-income country'. The Medline/PubMed database was searched for articles published from January 2005 to December 2014 using relevant key words. Articles were excluded if they examined a specific injury mechanism, referred to a specific age group, and/or did not have full text available. We extracted information and variables on pre-hospital and hospital care factors, and regionalised system factors and compared them across countries. A total of 46 articles were identified from 13 countries, including Pakistan, India, Vietnam and Indonesia from lower middle-income countries; the Islamic Republic of Iran, Thailand, China, Malaysia from upper middle-income countries; and Saudi Arabia, the Republic of Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore from high-income countries. Trauma patients were transported via various methods. In six of the 13 countries, less than 20% of trauma patients were transported by ambulance. Pre-hospital trauma teams primarily comprised emergency medical technicians and paramedics, except in Thailand and China, where they included mainly physicians. In Iran, Pakistan and Vietnam, the proportion of patients who died before reaching hospital exceeded 50%. In only three of the 13 countries was it reported that trauma surgeons were available. In only five of the 13 countries was there a nationwide trauma registry. Trauma care systems were poorly developed and unorganised in most of the selected 13 Asian countries, with the exception of a few highly developed countries. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Emergency airway puncture

    MedlinePlus

    ... be inserted into the throat, just below the Adam's apple (cricoid cartilage), into the airway. In a ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ...

  3. Fatal airway injuries during Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    PubMed

    Mabry, Robert L; Edens, Jason W; Pearse, Lisa; Kelly, Joseph F; Harke, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Airway compromise is the third leading cause of potentially preventable death on the battlefield. An understanding of the injuries associated with fatal airway compromise is necessary to develop improvements in equipment, training, and prehospital management strategies in order to maximize survival. To determine injury patters resulting in airway compromise in the combat setting. This was a subgroup analysis of cases previously examined by Kelly and colleagues, who reviewed autopsies of military personnel who died in combat in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2003 and 2006. Casualties with potentially survivable (PS) injuries and deaths related to airway compromise previously identified by Kelly et al. were reviewed in depth by a second panel of military physicians. There were 982 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 232 cases had PS injuries. Eighteen (1.8%) cases were found to have airway compromise as the likely cause of primary death. All had penetrating injuries to the face or neck. Twelve deaths (67%) were caused by gunshot wounds, while six deaths (33%) were caused by explosions. Nine cases had concomitant injury to major vascular structures, and eight had significant airway hemorrhage. Cricothyroidotomy was attempted in five cases; all were unsuccessful. Airway compromise from battlefield trauma results in a small number of PS fatalities. Penetrating trauma to the face or neck may be accompanied by significant hemorrhage, severe and multiple facial fractures, and airway disruption, leading to death from airway compromise. Cricothyroidotomy may be required to salvage these patients, but the procedure failed in all instances in this series of cases. Further studies are warranted to determine the appropriate algorithm of airway management in combat casualties sustaining traumatic airway injuries.

  4. Severe sepsis and septic shock in pre-hospital emergency medicine: survey results of medical directors of emergency medical services concerning antibiotics, blood cultures and algorithms.

    PubMed

    Casu, Sebastian; Häske, David

    2016-06-01

    Delayed antibiotic treatment for patients in severe sepsis and septic shock decreases the probability of survival. In this survey, medical directors of different emergency medical services (EMS) in Germany were asked if they are prepared for pre-hospital sepsis therapy with antibiotics or special algorithms to evaluate the individual preparations of the different rescue areas for the treatment of patients with this infectious disease. The objective of the survey was to obtain a general picture of the current status of the EMS with respect to rapid antibiotic treatment for sepsis. A total of 166 medical directors were invited to complete a short survey on behalf of the different rescue service districts in Germany via an electronic cover letter. Of the rescue districts, 25.6 % (n = 20) stated that they keep antibiotics on EMS vehicles. In addition, 2.6 % carry blood cultures on the vehicles. The most common antibiotic is ceftriaxone (third generation cephalosporin). In total, 8 (10.3 %) rescue districts use an algorithm for patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock. Although the German EMS is an emergency physician-based rescue system, special opportunities in the form of antibiotics on emergency physician vehicles are missing. Simultaneously, only 10.3 % of the rescue districts use a special algorithm for sepsis therapy. Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock do not appear to be prioritized as highly as these deadly diseases should be in the pre-hospital setting.

  5. Self-Harm and Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... War Specific to Women Types of Trauma War Terrorism Violence and Abuse Disasters Is it PTSD? Treatment ... Overview Types of Trauma Trauma Basics Disaster and Terrorism Military Trauma Violence & other Trauma Assessment Assessment Overview ...

  6. An Intelligent Ecosystem for Providing Support in Prehospital Trauma Care in Cuenca, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Timbi-Sisalima, Cristian; Rodas, Edgar B; Salamea, Juan C; Sacoto, Hernán; Monje-Ortega, Diana; Robles-Bykbaev, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    According to facts given by the World Health Organization, one in ten deaths worldwide is due to an external cause of injury. In the field of pre-hospital trauma care, adequate and timely treatment in the golden period can impact the survival of a patient. The aim of this paper is to show the design of a complete ecosystem proposed to support the evaluation and treatment of trauma victims, using standard tools and vocabulary such as OpenEHR, as well as mobile systems and expert systems to support decision-making. Preliminary results of the developed applications are presented, as well as trauma-related data from the city of Cuenca, Ecuador.

  7. Airway stents in children.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, T

    2008-04-01

    Airway obstruction in children is a rare, but difficult clinical problem, with no clear agreement on optimal therapeutic approach. Stenting of the airway has been used successfully in adults, and is an attractive alternative in children. Fundamental differences of pediatric compared to adult use include the benign nature of most stenoses, the narrow and soft airways of children, the required long-term tolerance and adaptation to growth. These differences may significantly alter the therapeutic balance, calling into question the precise role stents play in the treatment of airway obstruction in children. Stent placement can be technically demanding but is not exceedingly difficult. Experience is necessary to select the proper size and type of stent. Metal stents usually achieve airway patency and clinical improvement in the majority of cases, while this is less frequently the case with silicone stents. Some complications such as granulation and secretion retention seem to occur in most children after stent implantation. Unfortunately, severe complications including death have been reported in a significant proportion of children. Stent related mortality can be estimated at 12.9% from published data, but these include complication centered reports. The initial euphoria for airway stents in children has largely abated and most authors agree that they should only be employed in circumstances with no good alternatives. It is crucial that all surgical and medical alternatives are considered and the decision to place a stent is not made because other options are overlooked or not available locally. Stent use in a palliative setting has also been reported and is probably reasonable. Stents will only allow limited adaptation for the growth of pediatric airways by balloon dilatation. All metal stents should be considered as potentially permanent, and removal sometimes may only be possible through a surgical and sometimes risky approach.

  8. A retropharyngeal–mediastinal hematoma with supraglottic and tracheal obstruction: The role of multidisciplinary airway management

    PubMed Central

    Birkholz, Torsten; Kröber, Stefanie; Knorr, Christian; Schiele, Albert; Bumm, Klaus; Schmidt, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    A 77-year-old man suffered hypoxemic cardiac arrest by supraglottic and tracheal airway obstruction in the emergency department. A previously unknown cervical fracture had caused a traumatic retropharyngeal–mediastinal hematoma. A lifesaving surgical emergency tracheostomy succeeded. Supraglottic and tracheal obstruction by a retropharyngeal–mediastinal hematoma with successful resuscitation via emergency tracheostomy after hypoxemic cardiac arrest has never been reported in a context of trauma. This clinically demanding case outlines the need for multidisciplinary airway management systems with continuous training and well-implemented guidelines. Only multidisciplinary staff preparedness and readily available equipments for the unanticipated difficult airway solved the catastrophic clinical situation. PMID:21063569

  9. Essentials of airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation: part 2: advanced airway devices: supraglottic airways.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M B; Phero, J C; Becker, D E

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Part 1 in this series on emergency airway management focused on basic and fundamental considerations for supplying supplemental oxygen to the spontaneously breathing patient and utilizing a bag-valve-mask system including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways to deliver oxygen under positive pressure to the apneic patient. This article will review the evolution and use of advanced airway devices, specifically supraglottic airways, with the emphasis on the laryngeal mask airway, as the next intervention in difficult airway and ventilation management. The final part of the series (part 3) will address airway evaluation, equipment and devices for tracheal intubation, and invasive airway procedures.

  10. Essentials of Airway Management, Oxygenation, and Ventilation: Part 2: Advanced Airway Devices: Supraglottic Airways

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, M. B; Phero, J. C; Becker, D. E

    2014-01-01

    Offices and outpatient dental facilities must be properly equipped with devices for airway management, oxygenation, and ventilation. Part 1 in this series on emergency airway management focused on basic and fundamental considerations for supplying supplemental oxygen to the spontaneously breathing patient and utilizing a bag-valve-mask system including nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways to deliver oxygen under positive pressure to the apneic patient. This article will review the evolution and use of advanced airway devices, specifically supraglottic airways, with the emphasis on the laryngeal mask airway, as the next intervention in difficult airway and ventilation management. The final part of the series (part 3) will address airway evaluation, equipment and devices for tracheal intubation, and invasive airway procedures. PMID:25191986

  11. Anesthesia for trauma during wartime.

    PubMed

    Barton, C R; Beeson, M

    1997-02-01

    Trauma during wartime has been the scourge of the ages. Conventional anesthesia with ether has been available since 1846 when it was demonstrated in Boston by a dentist named William Morton. Subsequently, ether was used during the Mexican-American War in 1847, and chloroform was used during the Crimean War from 1854 to 1856. Nurse anesthetists have made substantial contributions to care of the war-injured by initiating acute airway management and resuscitation efforts and by the administration of anesthesia care for critically injured war casualties undergoing surgical procedures. They have further contributed to goodwill in war-torn areas by providing anesthesia care to many civilian children and adults living in these areas of conflict. The evolution of nurse anesthesia contributions to the treatment of traumatized war casualties is the central focus of this article.

  12. Pre-Hospital Dietary Intake Correlates with Muscle Mass at the Time of Fracture in Older Hip-Fractured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Riccardo; Martone, Anna Maria; Marzetti, Emanuele; Onder, Graziano; Savera, Giulia; Lorenzi, Maria; Serafini, Elisabetta; Bernabei, Roberto; Landi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Background: Failure to meet an adequate dietary intake is involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which in turn increase the risk for falls and fractures, respectively. Older people with hip fracture are often protein-malnourished at hospitalization. Whether low protein-energy intake is associated with muscle atrophy in hip-fractured patients is presently unknown. This information is necessary for the development of novel strategies to manage this especially vulnerable patient population. The aim of this study was, therefore, to explore the relationship between dietary intake and muscle mass in older hip-fractured patients. Methods: Analyses were conducted in hip-fractured elderly admitted to an orthopedic and trauma surgery ward (University Hospital). Muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis within 24 h from admission. Dietary information was collected via 24-h dietary recall and nutrient intake calculated by a nutrition software. Results: Among 62 hip-fractured patients (mean age 84.6 ± 7.6 years, 84% women), the average energy intake was 929.2 ± 170.3 Kcal day−1, with higher values reported by men (1.046.8 ± 231.4 Kcal day−1) relative to women (906.5 ± 148.3 Kcal day−1; p = 0.01). Absolute and normalized protein intake was 50.0 ± 13.5 g day−1 and 0.88 ± 0.27 g kg (body weight)–1 day–1, respectively, with no gender differences. A positive correlation was determined between total energy intake and muscle mass (r = 0.384; p = 0.003). Similarly, protein and leucine consumption was positively correlated with muscle mass (r = 0.367 and 0.311, respectively; p = 0.005 for both). Conclusion: A low intake of calories, protein, and leucine is associated with reduced muscle mass in hip-fractured elderly. Given the relevance of sarcopenia as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in this patient population, our findings highlight the importance of a

  13. Epidemiology of severe trauma in Spain. Registry of trauma in the ICU (RETRAUCI). Pilot phase.

    PubMed

    Chico-Fernández, M; Llompart-Pou, J A; Guerrero-López, F; Sánchez-Casado, M; García-Sáez, I; Mayor-García, M D; Egea-Guerrero, J; Fernández-Ortega, J F; Bueno-González, A; González-Robledo, J; Servià-Goixart, L; Roldán-Ramírez, J; Ballesteros-Sanz, M Á; Tejerina-Alvarez, E; García-Fuentes, C; Alberdi-Odriozola, F

    2016-01-01

    To describe the characteristics and management of severe trauma disease in Spanish Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Registry of trauma in the ICU (RETRAUCI). Pilot phase. A prospective, multicenter registry. Thirteen Spanish ICUs. Patients with trauma disease admitted to the ICU. None. Epidemiology, out-of-hospital attention, registry of injuries, resources utilization, complications and outcome were evaluated. Patients, n=2242. Mean age 47.1±19.02 years. Males 79%. Blunt trauma 93.9%. Injury Severity Score 22.2±12.1, Revised Trauma Score 6.7±1.6. Non-intentional in 84.4% of the cases. The most common causes of trauma were traffic accidents followed by pedestrian and high-energy falls. Up to 12.4% were taking antiplatelet medication or anticoagulants. Almost 28% had a suspected or confirmed toxic influence in trauma. Up to 31.5% required an out-of-hospital artificial airway. The time from trauma to ICU admission was 4.7±5.3hours. At ICU admission, 68.5% were hemodynamically stable. Brain and chest injuries predominated. A large number of complications were documented. Mechanical ventilation was used in 69.5% of the patients (mean 8.2±9.9 days), of which 24.9% finally required a tracheostomy. The median duration of stay in the ICU and in hospital was 5 (range 3-13) and 9 (5-19) days, respectively. The ICU mortality rate was 12.3%, while the in-hospital mortality rate was 16.0%. The pilot phase of the RETRAUCI offers a first impression of the epidemiology and management of trauma disease in Spanish ICUs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Difficult airway management.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Peter; Sloane, Christian; Ban, Kevin M; Lanigra, Michele; Wolfe, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Airway management is unequivocally the most important responsibility of the emergency physician. No matter how prepared for the task, no matter what technologies are utilized, there will be cases that are difficult. The most important part of success in the management of a difficult airway is preparation. When the patient is encountered, it is too late to check whether appropriate equipment is available, whether a rescue plan has been in place, and what alternative strategies are available for an immediate response. The following article will review the principles of airway management with an emphasis upon preparation, strategies for preventing or avoiding difficulties, and recommended technical details that hopefully will encourage the reader to be more prepared and technically skillful in practice.

  15. Difficult decisions in the surgical care of military casualties with major torso trauma.

    PubMed

    Bowley, D M; Jansen, J O; Nott, D; Sapsford, W; Streets, C G; Tai, N R M

    2011-09-01

    Testing and difficult decision-making is a sine qua non of surgical practice on military operations. Better pre-hospital care protocols, reduced evacuation timelines and increased scrutiny of outcome have rightfully emphasised the requirement of surgeons to "get it right, first time and every time" when treating patients. This article addresses five contentious areas concerning severe torso trauma, with relevant literature summarised by a subject matter expert, in order to produce practical guidance that will assist the newly deployed surgeon in delivering optimal clinical outcomes.

  16. Pre-hospital identification and post-recovery challenges of intoxication with synthetic cannabinoid containing legal high products such as 'Exodus Damnation'.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, David; O'Meara, Patrick; Cunningham, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    This short report describes the case of a young adult male who had smoked a synthetic cannabinoid legal high product called 'Exodus Damnation'. The patient's presentation was atypical from that described in the literature, with hypotension and hypoxaemia. Of note was the rapid recovery after pre-hospital intervention with high-flow oxygen therapy and intravenous fluids. The patient refused on-going care, despite repeated advice to attend the Emergency Department. The distinct lack of specialist support and referral to drug treatment for this patient population, with whom ambulance services are coming into contact with increasing frequency, is reported. For those patients with the capacity to refuse on-going care, ambulance services may be in an opportune position to actively promote referral to support services for these vulnerable individuals.

  17. Development and evaluation of educational materials for pre-hospital and emergency department personnel on the care of patients with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, John J; Migyanka, Joann M; Glor-Scheib, Susan J; Cramer, Ryan; Fratangeli, Jeffrey J; Hegde, Gajanan G; Shang, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind

    2014-05-01

    With the rising prevalence of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there has been an increase in the acute presentation of these individuals to the general health care system. Emergency medical services and emergency department personnel commonly address the health care needs of patients with ASD at times of crisis. Unfortunately, there is little education provided to front-line emergency medical technicians, paramedics and emergency nurses on the characteristics of ASD and how these characteristics can create challenges for individuals with ASD and their health care providers in the pre-hospital and emergency department settings. This paper describes the development of educational materials on ASD and the results of training of emergency medical services and emergency department personnel.

  18. Asthma, airway inflammation and treatment in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Helenius, Ilkka; Lumme, Aki; Haahtela, Tari

    2005-01-01

    Highly trained athletes are repeatedly and strongly exposed to cold air during winter training and to many inhalant irritants and allergens all year round. Asthma occurs most commonly in athletes engaging in endurance events such as cross-country skiing, swimming, or long-distance running. As well as the type of training, a major risk factor is atopic disposition. A mixed type of eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation has been shown to affect elite swimmers, ice-hockey players, and cross-country skiers. The inflammation may represent a form of repeated thermal, mechanical, or osmotic airway trauma resulting in a healing or remodelling process. Elite athletes commonly use antiasthma drugs to treat exercise-induced bronchial symptoms. Only a few controlled studies have been conducted on the effects of antiasthma drugs on asthma symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in elite athletes. Inhaled beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists are effective against exercise-induced bronchospasm. In contrast, airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and symptoms have responded poorly to inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene antagonists. As discontinuing high-level exercise has proved effective in reducing eosinophilic airway inflammation, exercise or training should be restricted in athletes having troublesome symptoms and sputum eosinophilia. Switching training to less irritating environments should be considered whenever possible. It appears to be difficult to change the 'natural course' of asthma in athletes by anti-inflammatory treatment.

  19. Pre-hospital management of patients with chest pain and/or dyspnoea of cardiac origin. A position paper of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) of the ESC.

    PubMed

    Beygui, Farzin; Castren, Maaret; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Rosell-Ortiz, Fernando; Christ, Michael; Zeymer, Uwe; Huber, Kurt; Folke, Fredrik; Svensson, Leif; Bueno, Hector; Van't Hof, Arnoud; Nikolaou, Nikolaos; Nibbe, Lutz; Charpentier, Sandrine; Swahn, Eva; Tubaro, Marco; Goldstein, Patrick

    2015-08-27

    Chest pain and acute dyspnoea are frequent causes of emergency medical services activation. The pre-hospital management of these conditions is heterogeneous across different regions of the world and Europe, as a consequence of the variety of emergency medical services and absence of specific practical guidelines. This position paper focuses on the practical aspects of the pre-hospital treatment on board and transfer of patients taken in charge by emergency medical services for chest pain and dyspnoea of suspected cardiac aetiology after the initial assessment and diagnostic work-up. The objective of the paper is to provide guidance, based on evidence, where available, or on experts' opinions, for all emergency medical services' health providers involved in the pre-hospital management of acute cardiovascular care. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  20. Advanced training in trauma life support for ambulance crews.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Sudha; Sethi, Dinesh; Wong, Roger

    2014-08-21

    There is an increasing global burden of injury especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To address this, models of trauma care initially developed in high income countries are being adopted in LMIC settings. In particular, ambulance crews with advanced life support (ALS) training are being promoted in LMICs as a strategy for improving outcomes for victims of trauma. However, there is controversy as to the effectiveness of this health service intervention and the evidence has yet to be rigorously appraised. To quantify the impact of ALS-trained ambulance crews versus crews without ALS training on reducing mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. The search for studies was run on the 16th May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), Embase Classic+Embase (Ovid), ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), PubMed and screened reference lists. Randomised controlled trials, controlled trials and non-randomised studies, including before-and-after studies and interrupted time series studies, comparing the impact of ALS-trained ambulance crews versus crews without ALS training on the reduction of mortality and morbidity in trauma patients. Two review authors assessed study reports against the inclusion criteria, and extracted data. We found one controlled before-and-after trial, one uncontrolled before-and-after study, and one randomised controlled trial that met the inclusion criteria. None demonstrated evidence to support ALS training for pre-hospital personnel. In the uncontrolled before-and-after study, 'a priori' sub-group analysis showed an increase in mortality among patients who had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of less than nine and received care from ALS trained ambulance crews. Additionally

  1. I-gel versus laryngeal mask airway-Proseal: Comparison of two supraglottic airway devices in short surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Poonam A; Dalvi, Naina P; Tendolkar, Bharati A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Supraglottic airway devices have been established in clinical anesthesia practice and have been previously shown to be safe and efficient. The objective of this prospective, randomized trial was to compare I-Gel with LMA-Proseal in anesthetized spontaneously breathing patients. Material and Methods: Sixty patients undergoing short surgical procedures were randomly assigned to I-gel (Group I) or LMA- Proseal (Group P). Anesthesia was induced with standard doses of propofol and the supraglottic airway device was inserted. We compared the ease and time required for insertion, airway sealing pressure and adverse events. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic and hemodynamic data. I-gel was significantly easier to insert than LMA-Proseal (P < 0.05) (Chi-square test). The mean time for insertion was more with Group P (41 + 09.41 secs) than with Group I (29.53 + 08.23 secs) (P < 0.05). Although the airway sealing pressure was significantly higher with Group P (25.73 + 02.21 cm of H2O), the airway sealing pressure of Group I (20.07 + 02.94 cm of H2O) was very well within normal limit (Student's t test). The success rate of first attempt insertion was more with Group I (P < 0.05). There was no evidence of airway trauma, regurgitation and aspiration. Sore throat was significantly more evident in Group P. Conclusion: I-Gel is a innovative supraglottic device with acceptable airway sealing pressure, easier to insert, less traumatic with lower incidence of sore throat. Hence I-Gel can be a good alternative to LMA-Proseal. PMID:25948905

  2. Advances in prehospital airway management.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Pe; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts.

  3. Advances in prehospital airway management

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, PE; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts. PMID:24741499

  4. Supraglottic airway devices in children

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, S; Jayanthi, R

    2011-01-01

    Modern anaesthesia practice in children was made possible by the invention of the endotracheal tube (ET), which made lengthy and complex surgical procedures feasible without the disastrous complications of airway obstruction, aspiration of gastric contents or asphyxia. For decades, endotracheal intubation or bag-and-mask ventilation were the mainstays of airway management. In 1983, this changed with the invention of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA), the first supraglottic airway device that blended features of the facemask with those of the ET, providing ease of placement and hands-free maintenance along with a relatively secure airway. The invention and development of the LMA by Dr. Archie Brain has had a significant impact on the practice of anaesthesia, management of the difficult airway and cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children and neonates. This review article will be a brief about the clinical applications of supraglottic airways in children. PMID:22174464

  5. The BIG Score and Prediction of Mortality in Pediatric Blunt Trauma.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adrienne L; Wales, Paul W; Malik, Tahira; Stephens, Derek; Razik, Fathima; Schuh, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    To examine the association between in-hospital mortality and the BIG (composed of the base deficit [B], International normalized ratio [I], Glasgow Coma Scale [G]) score measured on arrival to the emergency department in pediatric blunt trauma patients, adjusted for pre-hospital intubation, volume administration, and presence of hypotension and head injury. We also examined the association between the BIG score and mortality in patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). A retrospective 2001-2012 trauma database review of patients with blunt trauma ≤ 17 years old with an Injury Severity score ≥ 12. Charts were reviewed for in-hospital mortality, components of the BIG score upon arrival to the emergency department, prehospital intubation, crystalloids ≥ 20 mL/kg, presence of hypotension, head injury, and disposition. 50/621 (8%) of the study patients died. Independent mortality predictors were the BIG score (OR 11, 95% CI 6-25), prior fluid bolus (OR 3, 95% CI 1.3-9), and prior intubation (OR 8, 95% CI 2-40). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95 (CI 0.93-0.98), with the optimal BIG cutoff of 16. With BIG <16, death rate was 3/496 (0.006, 95% CI 0.001-0.007) vs 47/125 (0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.7) with BIG ≥ 16, (P < .0001). In patients requiring admission to the ICU, the BIG score remained predictive of mortality (OR 14.3, 95% CI 7.3-32, P < .0001). The BIG score accurately predicts mortality in a population of North American pediatric patients with blunt trauma independent of pre-hospital interventions, presence of head injury, and hypotension, and identifies children with a high probability of survival (BIG <16). The BIG score is also associated with mortality in pediatric patients with trauma requiring admission to the ICU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prehospital trauma care reduces mortality. Ten-year results from a time-cohort and trauma audit study in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Blunt implementation of Western trauma system models is not feasible in low-resource communities with long prehospital transit times. The aims of the study were to evaluate to which extent a low-cost prehospital trauma system reduces trauma deaths where prehospital transit times are long, and to identify specific life support interventions that contributed to survival. Methods In the study period from 1997 to 2006, 2,788 patients injured by land mines, war, and traffic accidents were managed by a chain-of-survival trauma system where non-graduate paramedics were the key care providers. The study was conducted with a time-period cohort design. Results 37% of the study patients had serious injuries with Injury Severity Score ≥ 9. The mean prehospital transport time was 2.5 hours (95% CI 1.9 - 3.2). During the ten-year study period trauma mortality was reduced from 17% (95% CI 15 -19) to 4% (95% CI 3.5 - 5), survival especially improving in major trauma victims. In most patients with airway problems, in chest injured, and in patients with external hemorrhage, simple life support measures were sufficient to improve physiological severity indicators. Conclusion In case of long prehospital transit times simple life support measures by paramedics and lay first responders reduce trauma mortality in major injuries. Delegating life-saving skills to paramedics and lay people is a key factor for efficient prehospital trauma systems in low-resource communities. PMID:22304808

  7. Management of chest trauma in children.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Juan A; Vazquez, Juan J

    2013-06-01

    Chest trauma in children is caused by high-energy blows, due in general to traffic accidents, that involve several other body regions. They occur mainly in the first decade of life and can be penetrating but are more often non-penetrating. Rib fractures and lung contusions, sometimes associated with pneumothorax or haemothorax, are the more usual injuries, but tracheobronchial rupture, cardiac, oesophageal or diaphragmatic injuries may also occur. These injuries are treated with supportive respiratory and haemodynamic measures, drainage of air or blood from the pleural space and, at times, surgical repair of the injured organ(s). Ruptures of the airway may be difficult to treat and occasionally require suture, anastomosis or resection. Oesophageal injuries can be treated conservatively with antibiotics, drainage and parenteral nutrition. Diaphragmatic tears should be repaired operatively. Overall mortality ranges from 6 to 20%. Mortality is high but this is mainly due to the associated presence of extra-thoracic trauma, and particularly to head injuries.

  8. [Cost analysis of the treatment of patients with multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Rösch, M; Klose, T; Leidl, R; Gebhard, F; Kinzl, L; Ebinger, T

    2000-08-01

    Current clinical management after multiple trauma is expensive. The aim of the present study was to quantify the actual costs of inpatient treatment after multiple trauma in a German university hospital, to compare the actual costs with the reimbursement rates, and to identify important determinants of costs. Routine documentation of hospital costs at a patient level was not available. Therefore a method for calculating the costs of resource utilization during clinical treatment of patients was developed. The concept was based on financial and utilization data provided by the hospital administration and patient-specific data. The average costs per case in the study group (mean ISS = 37) were 73.613 DM, maximal costs were up to 292.490 DM. The most costly components were intensive care, accounting for 60%, followed by procedures in the operating room (24%). A comparison with the reimbursement rates resulted in an average loss of 23.211 DM per case. Factors significantly associated with the costs of acute care hospitalization were outcome, injury severity, pattern of injury, blood volume replacement, length of mechanical ventilation, and number of operations. Whereas patient age, CNS state, mechanism of injury, pre-hospital care, and time between accident and hospital admission revealed no effect. Given the current reimbursement rates, multiple trauma care clearly belongs to those categories of care which have to be subsidized within the hospital. Any challenge to the optimal level of care resulting from this should be avoided.

  9. Tourniquet use in combat trauma: UK military experience.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Steven; Hodgetts, Timothy J; Ollerton, Jo; McLeod, Judith; Lambert, Paul; Mahoney, Peter

    2007-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of tourniquet use in combat trauma, the contribution to lives saved and the complications of their use in this environment. All casualties treated at UK field hospital facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and meeting criteria for entry into UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) from 04 Feb 03 to 30 Sep 07. Cases were identified from UK JTTR. Casualties from Permanent Joint Overseas Bases (PJOBs) were excluded. ISS, NISS, TRISS and ASCOT were calculated automatically within JTTR from AIS 2005 (Military) codes. 1375 patients met UK JTTR entry criteria for the period specified (excluding PJOBs). 70/1375 patients (5.1%) were treated with one or more tourniquets (total 107 tourniquet applications). 61/70 (87%) survived their injuries. 17/70 (24%) patients had 2 or more tourniquets applied. 64/70 patients received a tourniquet after April 2006, when tourniquets were introduced as an individual first aid item. 43/70 (61%) patients were UK military. ISS and TRISS are poorly representative of injury severity and outcome for combat trauma involving isolated multiple limb injuries and cannot be used to discriminate whether a tourniquet is life-saving. The presence of severe isolated limb injuries, profound hypovolaemic shock and the requirement for massive transfusion reasonably identifies a cohort where the use of one or more tourniquets pre-hospital to control external bleeding can be said to be life-saving.

  10. Tourniquet use in combat trauma: U.K. military experience.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Steven; Hodgetts, Timothy J; Ollerton, Jo; McLeod, Judith; Lambert, Paul; Mahoney, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of tourniquet use in combat trauma, the contribution to lives saved and the complications of their use in this environment. All casualties treated at U.K. field hospital facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and meeting criteria for entry into U.K. Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) from 04 Feb 03 to 30 Sep 07. Cases were identified from U.K. JTTR. Casualties from Permanent Joint Overseas Bases (PJOBs) were excluded. ISS, NISS, TRISS and ASCOT were calculated automatically within JTTR from AIS 2005 (Military) codes. 1375 patients met U.K. JTTR entry criteria for the period specified (excluding PJOBs). 70/1375 patients (5.1%) were treated with one or more tourniquets (total 107 tourniquet applications). 61/70 (87%) survived their injuries. 17/70 (24%) patients had 2 or more tourniquets applied. 64/70 patients received a tourniquet after April 2006, when tourniquets were introduced as an individual first aid item. 43/70 (61%) patients were U.K. military. ISS and TRISS are poorly representative of injury severity and outcome for combat trauma involving isolated multiple limb injuries and cannot be used to discriminate whether a tourniquet is life-saving. The presence of severe isolated limb injuries, profound hypovolaemic shock and the requirement for massive transfusion reasonably identifies a cohort where the use of one or more tourniquets pre-hospital to control external bleeding can be said to be life-saving.

  11. We need to include bystander first aid in trauma research.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-03-23

    The chain of trauma survival is a concept that originated in the area of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and was adapted to the treatment of trauma. In out-of-hospital cardiac arrest research into bystander first aid has resulted in improved outcome. Whereas, in trauma research the first link of the chain of survival is almost ignored. In OHCA, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) from bystanders has been subject of a vast amount of research, as well as measures and programs to raise the rate of bystander CPR to cardiac arrest victims. These efforts have resulted in improved survival. The research effort has been well grounded in the research community, as demonstrated by its natural inclusion in the uniform reporting template (Utstein) for the treatment of OHCA. In trauma the bystander may contribute by providing an open airway, staunch bleedings, or prevent hypothermia. In trauma however, while the chain of survival has been adopted along with it distinct links, including bystander first aid, the consensus-based uniform reporting template for trauma (the Utstein template) does not include the bystander first aid efforts. There is extremely little research on what first aid measures bystanders provide to trauma victims, and on what impact such measures have on outcome. An important step to improve research on bystander first aid in trauma would be to include this as part of the uniform reporting template for trauma CONCLUSION: The lack of research on bystander first aid makes the first link in the trauma chain of survival the weakest link. We, the trauma research community, should either improve our research and knowledge in this area, or remove the link from the chain of survival.

  12. Management of maxillofacial trauma in emergency: An update of challenges and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Anson; Nagori, Shakil Ahmed; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Bhutia, Ongkila; Roychoudhury, Ajoy

    2016-01-01

    Trauma management has evolved significantly in the past few decades thereby reducing mortality in the golden hour. However, challenges remain, and one such area is maxillofacial injuries in a polytrauma patient. Severe injuries to the maxillofacial region can complicate the early management of a trauma patient owing to the regions proximity to the brain, cervical spine, and airway. The usual techniques of airway breathing and circulation (ABC) management are often modified or supplemented with other methods in case of maxillofacial injuries. Such modifications have their own challenges and pitfalls in an already difficult situation. PMID:27162439

  13. Factors Associated with ICU Admission following Blunt Chest Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Etteri, Massimiliano; Cantaluppi, Francesca; Pina, Paolo; Guanziroli, Massimo; Bianchi, AnnaMaria; Casazza, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background. Blunt chest wall trauma accounts for over 10% of all trauma patients presenting to emergency departments worldwide. When the injury is not as severe, deciding which blunt chest wall trauma patients require a higher level of clinical input can be difficult. We hypothesized that patient factors, injury patterns, analgesia, postural condition, and positive airway pressure influence outcomes. Methods. The study population consisted of patients hospitalized with at least 3 rib fractures (RF) and at least one pulmonary contusion and/or at least one pneumothorax lower than 2 cm. Results. A total of 140 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Ten patients (7.1%) were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) within the first 72 hours, because of deterioration of the clinical conditions and gas exchange with worsening of chest X-ray/thoracic ultrasound/chest computed tomography. On univariable analysis and multivariable analysis, obliged orthopnea (p = 0.0018) and the severity of trauma score (p < 0.0002) were associated with admission to ICU. Conclusions. Obliged orthopnea was an independent predictor of ICU admission among patients incurring non-life-threatening blunt chest wall trauma. The main therapeutic approach associated with improved outcome is the prevention of pulmonary infections due to reduced tidal volume, namely, upright postural condition and positive airway pressure. PMID:28044070

  14. Evaluation of Trauma Care capabilities in four countries using the WHO-IATSIC Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care.

    PubMed

    Mock, Charles; Nguyen, Son; Quansah, Robert; Arreola-Risa, Carlos; Viradia, Ramesh; Joshipura, Manjul

    2006-06-01

    We sought to identify affordable and sustainable methods to strengthen trauma care capabilities globally, especially in developing countries, using the Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care. These guidelines were created by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Society of Surgery and provide recommendations on elements of trauma care that should be in place at the range of health facilities globally. The guidelines were used as a basis for needs assessments in 4 countries selected to represent the world's range of geographic and economic conditions: Mexico (middle income; Latin America); Vietnam (low income; east Asia); India (low income; south Asia); and Ghana (low income; Africa). One hundred sites were assessed, including rural clinics (n=51), small hospitals (n=34), and large hospitals (n=15). Site visits utilized direct inspection and interviews with administrative and clinical staff. Resources were partly adequate or adequate at most large hospitals, but there were gaps that could be improved, especially in low-income settings, such as shortages of airway equipment, chest tubes, and trauma-related medications; and prolonged periods where critical equipment (e.g., X-ray, laboratory) were unavailable while awaiting repairs. Rural clinics everywhere had difficulties with basic supplies for resuscitation even though some received significant trauma volumes. In all settings, there was a dearth of administrative functions to assure quality trauma care, including trauma registries, trauma-related quality improvement programs, and regular in-service training. This study identified several low-cost ways in which to strengthen trauma care globally. It also has demonstrated the usefulness of the Guidelines for Essential Trauma Care in providing an internationally applicable, standardized template by which to assess trauma care capabilities.

  15. ['Advanced trauma life support' in Netherlands].

    PubMed

    van Vugt, A B

    2000-10-28

    Introduction of the principles of advanced trauma life support (ATLS) in the management of accident victims has been in progress in the Netherlands since 1995. The main ATLS principles are that the aid giver treats the most dangerous disorder first and does no further damage. After assessment and, if necessary, treatment of the airways, the respiration, the circulation and any craniocerebral injury, an exploratory examination is carried out. Physicians receive theoretical and practical instructions in this form of management during an intensive two-day course, counselled by a coordinating organization in the USA. Most of those attending are interns in general surgery, traumatology and orthopaedics, gatekeeper doctors of emergency rooms and army medical officers. The standardized way of thinking improves the communication and understanding between the various disciplines involved in trauma care, in part because there exist comparable programmes for ambulance care and emergency care. Other measures improving the quality of trauma care are regionalization of the trauma care, medical helicopter teams and evaluation of the effects of ATLS as an operating procedure.

  16. Incidence of fatal airway obstruction in police officers feloniously killed in the line of duty: a 10-year retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Laura A; Callaway, David W; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D

    2013-10-01

    According to US military data, airway obstruction is the third leading cause of possibly preventable death in combat. In the absence of law enforcement-specific medical training, military experience has been translated to the law enforcement sector. The purpose of this study was to determine whether airway obstruction represents a significant cause of possibly preventable death in police officers, and whether current military combat lifesaver training programs might have prevented these fatalities. De-identified, open-source US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Uniform Crime Report Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) data for the years 1998-2007 were reviewed. Cases were included if officers were on duty at the time of fatal injury and died within one hour from time of wounding from penetrating face or neck trauma. After case identification, letters requesting autopsy reports were sent to the departments of victim officers. Reports were abstracted into a Microsoft Excel database. During the study period, 42 of 533 victim officers met inclusion criteria. Departmental response rate was 85.7%. Autopsy reports were provided for 29 officers; 23 (54.8%) cases remained in the final analysis. All officers died from gunshot wounds. No coroner specifically identified airway obstruction as either a direct cause of death or contributing factor. Based upon autopsy findings, three of 341 officers possibly succumbed to airway trauma (0.9%; 95% CI, 0.0%-1.9%). Endotracheal intubation was the most common advanced airway management technique utilized during attempted resuscitation. The limited LEOKA data suggests that acute airway obstruction secondary to penetrating trauma appears to be a rare cause of possibly preventable death in police officers. Based upon the nature of airway trauma, nasopharyngeal airways would not be expected to be an effective lifesaving intervention. This study highlights the requirement for a comprehensive mortality and "near miss

  17. Implementing a perpetual anesthesia setup standardized for the trauma room in a level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Faircloth, Amanda C; Ford, Mary B

    2013-02-01

    The trauma room in a level I trauma center is a dynamic environment that provides little room for error. Significant variability can exist if anesthesia providers set up the room differently. Standardization provides a system that is consistent, reliable, and cost-effective. This study examines the process of creating and implementing a standardized anesthesia setup in the trauma room of a level I trauma center. As a result of this study, the medication cart and airway setups have been standardized. Providers are encouraged to only draw up medications that will be immediately used and to ensure that prefilled syringes have been incorporated into the pharmacy formulary. Using the EZ Endo prestyleted endotracheal tube (ETT) vs a regular ETT with stylet has yielded an annual cost savings of $2,673. Ensuring that items such as an esophageal temperature probe, humidifier, and nasogastric tube are available but unopened has provided a savings of $1,989.25 per year. The reservoir bag has been changed to a latex-free bag, and 3 central line kits including an arterial line kit are routinely stocked. An ultrasound machine dedicated for central line access, GlideScope, rapid fluid infuser, and Airtraq laryngoscope have all been incorporated into the permanent setup in the trauma room.

  18. Unrecognized failed airway management using a supraglottic airway device.

    PubMed

    Vithalani, Veer D; Vlk, Sabrina; Davis, Steven Q; Richmond, Neal J

    2017-10-01

    911 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems utilize supraglottic devices for either primary advanced airway management, or for airway rescue following failed attempts at direct laryngoscopy endotracheal intubation. There is, however, limited data on objective confirmation of supraglottic airway placement in the prehospital environment. Furthermore, the ability of EMS field providers to recognize a misplaced airway is unknown. Retrospective review of patients who underwent airway management using the King LTS-D supraglottic airway in a large urban EMS system, between 3/1/15-9/30/2015. Subjective success was defined as documentation of successful airway placement by the EMS provider. Objective success was confirmed by review of waveform capnography, with the presence of a 4-phase waveform greater than 5mmHg. Sensitivity and specificity of the field provider's assessment of success were then calculated. A total of 344 supraglottic airway attempts were reviewed. No patients met obvious death criteria. 269 attempts (85.1%) met criteria for both subjective and objective success. 19 attempts (5.6%) were recognized failures by the EMS provider. 47 (13.8%) airways were misplaced but unrecognized by the EMS provider. 4 attempts (1.2%) were correctly placed but misidentified as failures, leading to the unnecessary removal and replacement of the airway. Sensitivity of the provider's assessment was 98.5%; specificity was 28.7%. The use of supraglottic airway devices results in unrecognized failed placement. Appropriate utilization and review of waveform capnography may remedy a potential blind-spot in patient safety, and systemic monitoring/feedback processes may therefore be used to prevent unrecognized misplaced airways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ocular trauma in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Govett, G S; Amedee, R G

    1992-05-01

    Otolaryngologists are commonly called upon to emergently evaluate blunt trauma to the facial skeleton. These injuries are occasionally associated with serious trauma to the orbital contents. This manuscript reviews these orbital injuries by considering the pertinent eye anatomy and the extensive examination usually performed by an ophthalmologist. Anterior and posterior segment injuries along with specific trauma to the optic nerve will also be discussed.

  20. Trauma Facts for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…

  1. Helping Youth Overcome Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jamie C.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of trauma can roll on unchecked like a spirit of death. In its path are strewn its once vibrant victims. Human bonds are rent asunder by the disgrace of trauma. These are the youngsters who have been verbally bashed, physically battered, sexually assaulted, and spiritually exploited. Other traumas of childhood neglect include: (1)…

  2. Leukotrienes and airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Okunishi, Katsuhide; Peters-Golden, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by airway obstruction and hyperresponsiveness. Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators that contribute to many aspects of asthma pathogenesis. As the LT pathway is relatively steroid-resistant, its blockade by alternative strategies is a desirable component of asthma management. Cysteinyl LT receptor 1 antagonists have been utilized worldwide for more than 10 years, and while their efficacy in asthma is well accepted, their limitations are also evident. In this review, we summarize the biological effects of LTs in asthma, review recent advances in LT receptors, and consider possible new therapeutic targets in the LT pathway that offer the potential to achieve better control of asthma in the future. PMID:21352897

  3. Upper Airway Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Verbraecken, Johan A.; De Backer, Wilfried A.

    2009-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiological aspects of sleep-disordered breathing, with focus on upper airway mechanics in obstructive and central sleep apnoea, Cheyne-Stokes respiration and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. These disorders constitute the end points of a spectrum with distinct yet interrelated mechanisms that lead to substantial pathology, i.e. increased upper airway collapsibility, control of breathing instability, increased work of breathing, disturbed ventilatory system mechanics and neurohormonal changes. Concepts are changing. Although sleep apnoea is considered more and more to be an increased loop gain disorder, the central type of apnoea is now considered as an obstructive event, because it causes pharyngeal narrowing, associated with prolonged expiration. Although a unifying concept for the pathogenesis is lacking, it seems that these patients are in a vicious circle. Knowledge of common patterns of sleep-disordered breathing may help to identify these patients and guide therapy. PMID:19478479

  4. Comparative Effectiveness of In-Hospital Trauma Resuscitation at a French Trauma Center and Matched Patients Treated in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Adil H.; David, Jean-Stephane; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Efron, David T.; Floccard, Bernard; MacKenzie, Ellen J.; Voiglio, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this paper is to compare mortality outcomes between patients treated at a trauma center in France and matched patients in the United States. Summary Background Data Although trauma systems in France and the U.S. differ significantly in pre-hospital and in-hospital management, previous comparisons have been challenged by lack of comparable data. Methods Coarsened exact matching identified matching patients between a single center trauma database from Lyon, France and the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) of the U.S. Moderate to severely injured (ISS >8) adult patients (age ≥16) presenting alive to level-1 trauma centers from 2002–2005 with blunt or penetrating injuries were included. After matching patients, multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine difference in mortality between patients in Lyon and the NTDB. Results A total of 1,043 significantly injured patients presented to the Lyon center. Matching eligible patients with complete records were sought from 219,985 patients in the NTDB. The unadjusted odds of mortality at the Lyon center was 2.5 times higher than that of the NTDB (95% CI =2.18, 2.98). However, the Lyon center received patients with higher ISS, lower GCS and lower SBP (all p<0.001). After 1:1 matching 858 patient pairs were produced, and the odds of mortality became equivalent (OR= 1.3, 95% CI =0.91, 1.73). Similar results were found on multiple subset analyses. Conclusions Trauma patients admitted to a single French trauma center had an equal chance of survival compared to similarly injured patients treated at U.S. trauma centers. PMID:23478519

  5. Application of the laryngeal mask airway for anesthesia in three chimpanzees and one gibbon.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jacob A; Atkins, Adrienne L; Heard, Darryl J

    2010-09-01

    Three pediatric chimpanzees and one pediatric gibbon were anesthetized for routine physical examination. Anesthesia was maintained with inhalant delivered via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). The LMA was easy to insert, provided adequate control of the airway for ventilation, and caused no tracheal stimulation. No complications were observed. As compared with a face mask, the LMA has the advantage of a more secure airway; the ability to effectively ventilate the patient; less dead space, which leads to lower rebreathing of carbon dioxide; and less exposure of personnel to waste gases. As compared with an endotracheal tube, the LMA causes less airway trauma, is easier to place, and is less stimulating to the patient. The LMA should be considered for use in fasted non-human primates presented for procedures lasting less than 60 min where high peak inspiratory pressures are not needed.

  6. The airway, breathing and orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Page, David C; Mahony, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Dentists need to play a bigger role in managing airway development and craniofacial formation even though the relationship between the airway, breathing and malocclusion remains quite controversial. Certainly the airway, the mode of breathing and craniofacial formation are so interrelated during growth and development that form can follow function and function can follow form. So, it is imperative to normalize form and function as early as possible so that function is optimized for life.

  7. Pre-hospital delay and its associated factors in first-ever stroke registered in communities from three cities in China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bin; Ru, Xiaojuan; Sun, Haixin; Liu, Hongmei; Sun, Dongling; Liu, Yunhai; Huang, Jiuyi; He, Li; Wang, Wenzhi

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore pre-hospital delay and its associated factors in first-ever stroke registered in communities from three cities in China. The rates of delay greater than or equal to 2 hours were calculated and factors associated with delays were determined by non-conditional binary logistic regression, after adjusting for different explanatory factors. Among the 403 cases of stroke with an accurate documented time of prehospital delay, the median time (interquartile range) was 4.00 (1.50–14.00) hours. Among the 544 cases of stroke with an estimated time range of prehospital delay, 24.8% of patients were transferred to the emergency department or hospital within 2 hours, only 16.9% of patients with stroke were aware that the initial symptom represented a stroke, only 18.8% used the emergency medical service and one-third of the stroke cases were not identified by ambulance doctors. In the multivariate analyses, 8 variables or sub-variables were identified. In conclusion, prehospital delay of stroke was common in communities. Thus, intervention measures in communities should focus on education about the early identification of stroke and appropriate emergency medical service (EMS) use, as well as the development of organized stroke care. PMID:27411494

  8. Trauma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Kenneth L; Goetzl, Laura

    2005-10-01

    The objective of this article was to review the existing standards of practice regarding trauma which occurs during pregnancy. The design of this study was to review the available data from the surgical and obstetrical literature regarding trauma during pregnancy. The design was also to incorporate the contemporary recommendations from the trauma resuscitation courses relating to trauma during pregnancy. Trauma occurs in 5% of pregnancies. A fetus is not considered to be viable until week 25. Motor vehicle accidents account for more than 50% of all trauma during pregnancy, with 82% of fetal deaths occurring during these automobile accidents. With life threatening trauma a 50% fetal loss rate exists. As anatomy, physiology, and even laboratory findings change during pregnancy, the clinician must consider both patients, the mother and fetus. Following blunt trauma abruption of the placenta is the more common cause of fetus loss. Anterior abdominal penetrating trauma almost never fails to injury the uterus and fetus in the last half of pregnancy. Preventive strategies exist in the areas of social violence, automobile restraints and use of alcohol and drugs by the mother. Perimortem caesarian section is rarely successful. Trauma during pregnancy is uncommon, but with increasing trauma severity leads to increased fetal loss. Preventive strategies exist and when admitted monitoring standards should be followed.

  9. Airway Management of Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Overbeck, Michael C

    2016-02-01

    Patients in respiratory distress often require airway management, including endotracheal intubation. It takes a methodical approach to transition from an unstable patient in distress with an unsecured airway, to a stable, sedated patient with a definitive airway. Through a deliberate course of advanced preparation, the emergency physician can tailor the approach to the individual clinical situation and optimize the chance of first-pass success. Sedation of the intubated patient confers physiologic benefits and should be included in the plan for airway control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Citation classics in trauma.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, Joanne Emma; Sugrue, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The evolution of trauma may be analyzed by review of articles most frequently cited by scientific articles worldwide. This study identified the "trauma classics" by reviewing the most-cited articles ever published in The Journal of Trauma. The Science Citation Index of the Institute for Scientific Information was searched for the 50 most-cited articles in The Journal of Trauma. Of the 12,672 articles published since 1961, 80 were cited over 100 times and 17 over 200 times. The most-cited article was by Baker, a hallmark publication on injury scoring published in 1974. Feeding postinjury, bacterial translocation, and multiple organ failure were common themes. Overall, 32% involved gastrointestinal topics and 18% involved injury scoring, with institutions in the United States publishing 80% of the articles. This study identified the trauma classics from the last 42 years of The Journal of Trauma. Citation analysis has recognized limitations but gives a fascinating insight into the evolution of trauma care.

  11. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in cardiac arrest following trauma].

    PubMed

    Leidel, B A; Kanz, K-G

    2016-11-01

    For decades, survival rates of cardiac arrest following trauma were reported between 0 and 2 %. Since 2005, survival rates have increased with a wide range up to 39 % and good neurological recovery in every second person injured for unknown reasons. Especially in children, high survival rates with good neurologic outcomes are published. Resuscitation following traumatic cardiac arrest differs significantly from nontraumatic causes. Paramount is treatment of reversible causes, which include massive bleeding, hypoxia, tension pneumothorax, and pericardial tamponade. Treatment of reversible causes should be simultaneous. Chest compression is inferior following traumatic cardiac arrest and should never delay treatment of reversible causes of the traumatic cardiac arrest. In massive bleeding, bleeding control has priority. Damage control resuscitation with permissive hypotension, aggressive coagulation therapy, and damage control surgery represent the pillars of initial treatment. Cardiac arrest due to hypoxia should be resolved by airway management and ventilation. Tension pneumothorax should be decompressed by finger thoracostomy, pericardial tamponade by resuscitative thoracotomy. In addition, resuscitative thoracotomy allows direct and indirect bleeding control. Untreated impact brain apnea may rapidly lead to cardiac arrest and requires quick opening of the airway and effective oxygenation. Established algorithms for treatment of cardiac arrest following trauma enable a safe, structured, and effective management.

  12. Investigation of pulmonary acoustic simulation: comparing airway model generation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Brian; Dai, Zoujun; Peng, Ying; Mansy, Hansen A.; Sandler, Richard H.; Royston, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Alterations in the structure and function of the pulmonary system that occur in disease or injury often give rise to measurable spectral, spatial and/or temporal changes in lung sound production and transmission. These changes, if properly quantified, might provide additional information about the etiology, severity and location of trauma, injury, or pathology. With this in mind, the authors are developing a comprehensive computer simulation model of pulmonary acoustics, known as The Audible Human Project™. Its purpose is to improve our understanding of pulmonary acoustics and to aid in interpreting measurements of sound and vibration in the lungs generated by airway insonification, natural breath sounds, and external stimuli on the chest surface, such as that used in elastography. As a part of this development process, finite element (FE) models were constructed of an excised pig lung that also underwent experimental studies. Within these models, the complex airway structure was created via two methods: x-ray CT image segmentation and through an algorithmic means called Constrained Constructive Optimization (CCO). CCO was implemented to expedite the segmentation process, as airway segments can be grown digitally. These two approaches were used in FE simulations of the surface motion on the lung as a result of sound input into the trachea. Simulation results were compared to experimental measurements. By testing how close these models are to experimental measurements, we are evaluating whether CCO can be used as a means to efficiently construct physiologically relevant airway trees.

  13. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults.

    PubMed

    Frerk, C; Mitchell, V S; McNarry, A F; Mendonca, C; Bhagrath, R; Patel, A; O'Sullivan, E P; Woodall, N M; Ahmad, I

    2015-12-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team.

  14. Improve performance in trauma care.

    PubMed

    Spath, P

    2001-05-01

    Many states have adopted trauma program legislation that includes a statewide trauma registry and performance evaluation activities. Hospitals participating in the trauma network are required to support the statewide activities through submission of data about the trauma patients they treat. By analyzing the quality of care provided to trauma patients, the trauma team members work to improve their services. Consulting editor Patrice Spath, RHIT, provides in-depth advice on how to measure and improve performance in trauma care.

  15. [Airway management in obstetrics].

    PubMed

    Boutonnet, M; Faitot, V; Keïta, H

    2011-09-01

    Reviewing problems related to the airway management in obstetrics, taking into account the recent evolutions of the anaesthetic practices in obstetrics. A review of the literature in English and French was performed in the Pumed database in April 2010. The first research used the following MeshTerms: "Anesthesia, Obstetrical" [Mesh] AND "Intubation, Intratracheal" [Mesh]. Complementary research used alone or in combination the following keywords: difficult tracheal intubation; failed tracheal intubation; airway; prediction of difficult tracheal intubation; maternal mortality; maternal morbidity; liability; aspiration pneumonia and obstetrical anesthesia. All the publications were retained excluding the correspondence. Data analysis for the airway management in obstetrics, the prediction of difficult intubation, the prevention of pulmonary inhalation of gastric fluid, but also on maternal morbi-mortality in link with general anesthesia in obstetrics. Airway management in obstetrics remains a true challenge for various reasons. The physiological and anatomical modifications related to pregnancy are responsible for a faster hypoxemia, a reduction of the diameter of the pharyngolaryngal tract, as well as an increase of the risk of inhalation of gastric contents after 16 weeks of amenorrhea. The emergency or extreme emergency context and the presence of diseases like obesity or preeclampsia raise the risks of difficulties with airway management. The logical evolution of the practices, with the considerable rise of the regional anesthesia/analgesia limits the training and the maintenance of competences for intratracheal intubation in obstetrics. The training per simulation appears particularly interesting on the subject and this approach needs to be developed. The literature indicates that the incidence of difficult intubation is of one per 30. The impossible intubation is one per 280 in obstetrics, eight times greater than in the general population. No criterion of

  16. Management of laryngo-tracheal injuries associated with craniomaxillofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, David S; Bell, R Bryan; Bagheri, Shahrokh C; Dierks, Eric J; Potter, Bryce E

    2006-02-01

    Laryngeal fractures can occur in association with maxillofacial injuries and may lead to life-threatening airway obstruction. Because of a low incidence and a paucity of peer-reviewed information, there is no universally accepted treatment protocol and few clinicians have extensive experience with complex laryngo-tracheal trauma. The purpose of this retrospective analysis is to validate a treatment protocol for the management of laryngo-tracheal injuries occurring in severely injured patients by assessing the outcome of a consecutive series of patients who were treated by the same surgeons over a 12-year period. All patients with laryngeal fractures admitted to the trauma service at Legacy Emanuel Hospital and Health Center (LEHHC; Portland, OR) from 1992 to 2004 were managed by the same surgeons, using a standard protocol based on the stability of the airway, and were retrospectively identified using the LEHHC Trauma Registry. Using information from the Trauma Registry and individual physician chart notes, a database was created for the purpose of assessing outcome. The following data were collected: age, gender, mechanism of injury, number of associated injuries and the Injury Severity Score, Glasgow Coma Scale on admission, initial hematocrit, airway management techniques, length of hospital stay, LEHHC laryngeal injury classification, treatment modality, disposition, and any available follow-up. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographics, treatment, and outcome. Outcome measures were defined as complications, airway patency, speech, and deglutition. A total of 16,465 patients were identified from the Trauma Registry as having sustained head, neck, or facial injuries, of which 37 patients were diagnosed with laryngeal fractures. Complete patient records were available for 27 patients (mean age, 35.5 +/- 15.3 years; range, 8 to 80 years; 23 males, 4 females) who were classified according to the LEHHC laryngeal injury classification scheme. Most

  17. ACCESS TO TERTIARY TRAUMA CARE: CHALLENGES WITHIN A DEVELOPING HEALTH CARE SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Mbanje, C; Muguti, G

    2017-06-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of mortality the world over, with an increasing impact in low and middle income countries. Oneof the key challenges in tackling the morbidity and mortality associated with the growing trauma epidemic includes the ability to provide timely access to appropriate trauma care. A prospective cross-sectional study of 385 consecutive trauma patients admitted at Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals (PGH) following injury. Data inclusive of demographics, Methods of transfer, time to care and referral patterns was analysed. Over half of all casualties, (54%) were referrals from satellite hospitals. One hundred and twenty-one casualties (31.68%) received pre-hospital care by medical personnel. The most common means of transfer of casualties from injury scene was by private vehicle (53%), followed by ambulance (32%) and public transport (8%), but geographical variances were observed. The average transit time from injury was 10.64 hours (SD 23.61) for those injured within Harare. For direct transfers to PGH from within Harare, mean transit times were comparable between use of private vehicles (3.34 hours) and ambulances (3.31 hours). There was correlation between time of injury and method of transfer. There was no correlation between degree of injury according to ISS and transit time (p = 0.24). Significant challenges remain in ensuring timely and appropriate transfer of trauma casualties to tertiary care facilities.

  18. Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wykes, P M

    1991-06-01

    This is a complex condition, recognized primarily in brachycephalic breeds, that results in varying degrees of upper airway obstruction. The signs consist of respiratory distress, stridor, reduced exercise tolerance, and in more severe cases, cyanosis and collapse. The inherent anatomy of the brachycephalic skull contributes to the development of these signs. Such anatomic features include: a shortened and distorted nasopharynx, stenotic nares, an elongated soft palate, and everted laryngeal saccules. The increased negative pressure created in the pharyngolaryngeal region, as a result of these obstructing structures, ultimately results in distortion and collapse of the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx.

  19. Extraglottic airway devices: technology update

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimla; Sahai, Chand; Sood, Jayashree

    2017-01-01

    Extraglottic airway devices (EADs) have revolutionized the field of airway management. The invention of the laryngeal mask airway was a game changer, and since then, there have been several innovations to improve the EADs in design, functionality, safety and construction material. These have ranged from changes in the shape of the mask, number of cuffs and material used, like rubber, polyvinylchloride and latex. Phthalates, which were added to the construction material in order to increase device flexibility, were later omitted when this chemical was found to have serious adverse reproductive outcomes. The various designs brought out by numerous companies manufacturing EADs resulted in the addition of several devices to the airway market. These airway devices were put to use, many of them with inadequate or no evidence base regarding their efficacy and safety. To reduce the possibility of compromising the safety of the patient, the Difficult Airway Society (DAS) formed the Airway Device Evaluation Project Team (ADEPT) to strengthen the evidence base for airway equipment and vet the new extraglottic devices. A preuse careful analysis of the design and structure may help in better understanding of the functionality of a particular device. In the meantime, the search for the ideal EAD continues. PMID:28860875

  20. Reduced pre-hospital and in-hospital survival rates after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: an observational prospective community-based study.

    PubMed

    Van Hoeijen, Daniel A; Blom, Marieke T; Bardai, Abdennasser; Souverein, Patrick C; De Boer, Anthonius; Tan, Hanno L

    2015-05-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major cause of death. We aimed to determine whether type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with reduced pre-hospital and in-hospital survival rates after OHCA. An observational community-based cohort study was performed among 1549 OHCA patients with ECG-documented ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF). We compared pre-hospital and in-hospital survival rates between T2DM patients and non-diabetic patients. Analyses among T2DM patients were stratified according to current T2DM treatment, used as proxy for T2DM severity. Proportions of neurologically intact survival were analysed. Pre-hospital survival rates were lower in T2DM patients (n = 275) than in non-diabetic patients (n = 1274); 48.7 vs. 55.8% (univariate P = 0.032). Type-2 diabetes mellitus was associated with lower pre-hospital survival [OR 0.75 (0.58-0.98); after evaluation of the risk factors, we found no relevant confounding]. Patients treated with insulin only had lower pre-hospital survival rates than patients treated with oral glucose-lowering drugs only (37.3 vs. 53.3%, univariate P = 0.034), partially explained by location of OHCA and EMS response time [ORadj 0.62 (0.33-1.17)]. In-hospital survival rates were also lower in T2DM patients (n = 134) than in non-diabetic patients (n = 711); 40.3 vs. 57.7%, univariate P < 0.001. In those patients whose cause of OHCA was retrieved (n = 771), T2DM was significantly associated with lower in-hospital survival [ORadj 0.57 (0.37-0.87)]. Neurologically intact status at discharge was similarly high among T2DM and non-diabetic patients (94.4 vs. 94.6%, P = 0.954). T2DM is associated with lower pre-hospital and in-hospital survival rates after OHCA. Neurologically intact status at hospital discharge is high both among T2DM and non-diabetic patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Recurrent airway obstruction: a review.

    PubMed

    Pirie, R S

    2014-05-01

    Recurrent airway obstruction is a widely recognised airway disorder, characterised by hypersensitivity-mediated neutrophilic airway inflammation and lower airway obstruction in a subpopulation of horses when exposed to suboptimal environments high in airborne organic dust. Over the past decade, numerous studies have further advanced our understanding of different aspects of the disease. These include clarification of the important inhaled airborne agents responsible for disease induction, improving our understanding of the underlying genetic basis of disease susceptibility and unveiling the fundamental immunological mechanisms leading to establishment of the classic disease phenotype. This review, as well as giving a clinical overview of recurrent airway obstruction, summarises much of the work in these areas that have culminated in a more thorough understanding of this debilitating disease.

  2. Operative endoscopy of the airway

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Dustin M.

    2016-01-01

    Airway endoscopy has long been an important and useful tool in the management of thoracic diseases. As thoracic specialists have gained experience with both flexible and rigid bronchoscopic techniques, the technology has continued to evolve so that bronchoscopy is currently the foundation for diagnosis and treatment of many thoracic ailments. Airway endoscopy plays a significant role in the biopsy of tumors within the airways, mediastinum, and lung parenchyma. Endoscopic methods have been developed to treat benign and malignant airway stenoses and tracheomalacia. And more recently, techniques have been conceived to treat end-stage emphysema and prolonged air leaks in select patients. This review describes the abundant uses of airway endoscopy, as well as technical considerations and limitations of the current technologies. PMID:26981263

  3. Global airway disease beyond allergy.

    PubMed

    Hellings, Peter W; Prokopakis, Emmanuel P

    2010-03-01

    Besides the anatomic continuity of the upper and lower airways, inflammation in one part of the airway influences the homeostasis of the other. The mechanisms underlying this interaction have been studied primarily in allergic disease, showing systemic immune activation, induction of inflammation at a distance, and a negative impact of nasal inflammation on bronchial homeostasis. In addition to allergy, other inflammatory conditions of the upper airways are associated with lower airway disease. Rhinosinusitis is frequently associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The impairment of purification, humidification, and warming up of the inspired air by the nose in rhinosinusitis may be responsible in part for bronchial pathology. The resolution of sinonasal inflammation via medical and/or surgical treatment is responsible for the beneficial effect of the treatment on bronchial disease. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of upper and lower airway communication beyond allergic disease.

  4. The airway microbiome and disease.

    PubMed

    Marsland, Benjamin J; Yadava, Koshika; Nicod, Laurent P

    2013-08-01

    Although traditionally thought to be sterile, accumulating evidence now supports the concept that our airways harbor a microbiome. Thus far, studies have focused upon characterizing the bacterial constituents of the airway microbiome in both healthy and diseased lungs, but what perhaps provides the greatest impetus for the exploration of the airway microbiome is that different bacterial phyla appear to dominate diseased as compared with healthy lungs. As yet, there is very limited evidence supporting a functional role for the airway microbiome, but continued research in this direction is likely to provide such evidence, particularly considering the progress that has been made in understanding host-microbe mutualism in the intestinal tract. In this review, we highlight the major advances that have been made discovering and describing the airway microbiome, discuss the experimental evidence that supports a functional role for the microbiome in health and disease, and propose how this emerging field is going to impact clinical practice.

  5. The Direct Referral to Endovascular Center criteria: a proposal for pre-hospital evaluation of acute stroke in the Madrid Stroke Network.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pardo, J; Fuentes, B; Alonso de Leciñana, M; Ximénez-Carrillo, Á; Zapata-Wainberg, G; Álvarez-Fraga, J; Barriga, F J; Castillo, L; Carneado-Ruiz, J; Díaz-Guzman, J; Egido-Herrero, J; de Felipe, A; Fernández-Ferro, J; Frade-Pardo, L; García-Gallardo, Á; García-Pastor, A; Gil-Núñez, A; Gómez-Escalonilla, C; Guillán, M; Herrero-Infante, Y; Masjuan-Vallejo, J; Ortega-Casarrubios, M Á; Vivancos-Mora, J; Díez-Tejedor, E

    2017-03-01

    For patients with acute ischaemic stroke due to large-vessel occlusion, it has recently been shown that mechanical thrombectomy (MT) with stent retrievers is better than medical treatment alone. However, few hospitals can provide MT 24 h/day 365 days/year, and it remains unclear whether selected patients with acute stroke should be directly transferred to the nearest MT-providing hospital to prevent treatment delays. Clinical scales such as Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation (RACE) have been developed to predict large-vessel occlusion at a pre-hospital level, but their predictive value for MT is low. We propose new criteria to identify patients eligible for MT, with higher accuracy. The Direct Referral to Endovascular Center criteria were defined based on a retrospective cohort of 317 patients admitted to a stroke center. The association of age, sex, RACE scale score and blood pressure with the likelihood of receiving MT were analyzed. Cut-off points with the highest association were thereafter evaluated in a prospective cohort of 153 patients from nine stroke units comprising the Madrid Stroke Network. Patients with a RACE scale score ≥ 5, systolic blood pressure <190 mmHg and age <81 years showed a significantly higher probability of undergoing MT (odds ratio, 33.38; 95% confidence interval, 12-92.9). This outcome was confirmed in the prospective cohort, with 68% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 42% positive and 94% negative predictive values for MT, ruling out 83% of hemorrhagic strokes. The Direct Referral to Endovascular Center criteria could be useful for identifying patients suitable for MT. © 2017 EAN.

  6. Sex specific impact of prodromal chest pain on pre-hospital delay time during an acute myocardial infarction: Findings from the multicenter MEDEA Study with 619 STEMI patients.

    PubMed

    von Eisenhart Rothe, A F; Albarqouni, L; Gärtner, C; Walz, L; Smenes, K; Ladwig, K-H

    2015-12-15

    Scarce evidence yields conflicting results regarding the effect of prodromal chest pain (PCP) on pre-hospital delay during an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to assess the impact of PCP on delay. Data was collected on 619 ST-elevated MI patients from the multicenter Munich Examination of Delay in Patients Experiencing Acute Myocardial Infarction (MEDEA) study. Patients with any PCP (which was subdivided into undefined PCP, possible and definite angina) within a year before AMI were identified using the Rose questionnaire, administered in bedside interviews. The influence of PCP and its subdivisions (all compared to no PCP) was assessed using logistic regression (with cut-offs of 2 h, 6 h, and a 4-category ordinal outcome). Any type of PCP was reported by men (50.6%) more than women (34.6%) (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.3 to 2.8; p=.001). The median delay of patients with PCP was not significantly different to delay in patients with no PCP (p=.327). Prolonged delay times were observed in women with PCPs of lesser degree of cardiac confirmation, while the opposite was observed in men. In women, possible angina was more strongly associated with delay <2 h (OR=6.8; 95% CI=2 to 23.8) than any PCP (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.2 to 5.7). For men, PCPs of increasing cardiac confirmation are associated with prolonged delay. For women, PCPs of lesser cardiac confirmation are more likely to lead to prolonged delay. Future studies should investigate mediating factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortisol and alpha-amylase as stress response indicators during pre-hospital emergency medicine training with repetitive high-fidelity simulation and scenarios with standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Bernd; Grottke, Oliver; Skorning, Max; Bergrath, Sebastian; Fischermann, Harold; Rörtgen, Daniel; Mennig, Marie-Therese; Fitzner, Christina; Müller, Michael P; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Rossaint, Rolf; Beckers, Stefan K

    2015-04-08

    In emergency medicine, the benefits of high-fidelity simulation (SIM) are widely accepted and standardized patients (SP) are known to mimic real patients accurately. However, only limited data are available concerning physicians' stress markers within these training environments. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate repetitive stress among healthcare professionals in simulated pre-hospital emergency scenarios using either SIM or SPs. Teams with one emergency medical services (EMS) physician and two paramedics completed three SIM scenarios and two SP scenarios consecutively. To evaluate stress, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase were measured in saliva samples taken before, during and after the scenarios. A total of 14 EMS physicians (29% female; mean age: 36.8 ± 5.0 years; mean duration of EMS-experience: 9.1 ± 5.8 years) and 27 paramedics (11% female; age: 30.9 ± 6.9 years; EMS experience: 8.1 ± 6.0 years) completed the study. Alpha-amylase and cortisol levels did not differ significantly between the two professions. Cortisol values showed a gradual and statistically significant reduction over time but little change was observed in response to each scenario. In contrast, alpha-amylase activity increased significantly in response to every SIM and SP scenario, but there was no clear trend towards an overall increase or decrease over time. Increases in salivary alpha-amylase activity suggest that both SIM and SP training produce stress among emergency healthcare professionals. Corresponding increases in salivary cortisol levels were not observed. Among physicians in the emergency setting, it appears that alpha-amylase provides a more sensitive measure of stress levels than cortisol.

  8. Outcomes by day and night for patients bypassing the emergency department presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction identified with a pre-hospital electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, James; Karimi, Keyvan; Hoo, Soo; Rasmussen, Helge; Hansen, Peter; Nelson, Gregory; Ward, Michael; Bhindi, Ravinay; Figtree, Gemma

    2015-02-01

    Pre-hospital ECG and emergency department (ED) bypass direct to the catheter laboratory may optimize reperfusion times for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Questions remain over feasibility and safety during off hours. To determine if presenting time of day is associated with differences in in-hospital and 30-day mortality and key reperfusion times. Seven hundred and twenty consecutive patients with STEMI triaged directly from the field to the catheter laboratory between June 2004-May 2013. Vital status was reported as of August 2013. The mean age was 65 ± 14 years, and 75.1% were male. Overall mortality (in-hospital/30 days) did not significantly differ for patients (3.4% in hours and 3.1% off hours; P = N/S). Symptom onset-to-arrival to the heart attack was non-significantly lower (100 minutes off hours (IQR 78-174) versus 110 minutes in hours (IQR 75-199), P = N/S). Call-to-balloon time was not significantly affected by the time of presentation: 150 min in hours (IQR 111-239) versus 154 minutes during off hours (IQR 115-225) P = N/S. Overall door-to-balloon time was 36 minutes (IQR 25-51), 34 minutes in hours (IQR 24-49) versus 40 minutes off hours (IQR 29-55) P = N/S. The overall false positive activation rate was only 13.1%, (in hours 12.2% vs. off hours 14.6%, respectively, P = N/S). In a unit with an established field triage system facilitating ED bypass, reperfusion times and mortality are not significantly influenced by whether the patient presents during standard working hours or outside of these hours. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Snoring-Induced Nerve Lesions in the Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Poothrikovil, Rajesh P; Al Abri, Mohammed A

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of habitual snoring is extremely high in the general population, and is reported to be roughly 40% in men and 20% in women. The low-frequency vibrations of snoring may cause physical trauma and, more specifically, peripheral nerve injuries, just as jobs which require workers to use vibrating tools over the course of many years result in local nerve lesions in the hands. Histopathological analysis of upper airway (UA) muscles have shown strong evidence of a varying severity of neurological lesions in groups of snoring patients. Neurophysiological assessment shows evidence of active and chronic denervation and re-innervation in the palatopharyngeal muscles of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. Neurogenic lesions of UA muscles induced by vibration trauma impair the reflex dilation abilities of the UA, leading to an increase in the possibility of UA collapse. The neurological factors which are partly responsible for the progressive nature of OSAS warrant the necessity of early assessment in habitual snorers. PMID:22548134

  10. Snoring-induced nerve lesions in the upper airway.

    PubMed

    Poothrikovil, Rajesh P; Al Abri, Mohammed A

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of habitual snoring is extremely high in the general population, and is reported to be roughly 40% in men and 20% in women. The low-frequency vibrations of snoring may cause physical trauma and, more specifically, peripheral nerve injuries, just as jobs which require workers to use vibrating tools over the course of many years result in local nerve lesions in the hands. Histopathological analysis of upper airway (UA) muscles have shown strong evidence of a varying severity of neurological lesions in groups of snoring patients. Neurophysiological assessment shows evidence of active and chronic denervation and re-innervation in the palatopharyngeal muscles of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. Neurogenic lesions of UA muscles induced by vibration trauma impair the reflex dilation abilities of the UA, leading to an increase in the possibility of UA collapse. The neurological factors which are partly responsible for the progressive nature of OSAS warrant the necessity of early assessment in habitual snorers.

  11. Airway management during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Michael; Benger, Jonathan R

    2015-06-01

    This article evaluates the latest scientific evidence regarding airway management during in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In the in-hospital setting, observational research suggested that the quality of CPR using 'no flow ratio' as a surrogate marker was improved when advanced airway techniques were used. A registry study demonstrated that an initial failed intubation attempt was associated with an average delay of 3 min in time to return of spontaneous circulation. A prospective observational study showed that the Glide Scope videolaryngoscope was associated with a first-pass success rate of 93%, with no differences between less and more experienced physicians. In the out-of-hospital setting, a registry study suggested that intubation leads to a better outcome compared with supraglottic airway devices. However, no advanced airway devices showed a better outcome than basic airway techniques. An observational study reported that the i-gel supraglottic airway device offers a first-pass insertion success rate of 90%, and was easier to establish than the Portex Soft Seal laryngeal mask airway. Other out-of-hospital observational studies showed that the laryngeal tube offers a lower first-pass insertion success rate than expected, and complications of this device may influence later definitive airway management and the outcome as a whole. Recent studies of airway management during CPR rely mostly on registry and observational designs. Prospective randomized trials are needed to determine the optimal approach to airway management during cardiac arrest, but have not yet been completed.

  12. About Military Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

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  13. Trauma Education and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Richard; Matar, Maher M; Sakran, Joseph V

    2017-10-01

    Trauma education and injury prevention are essential components of a robust trauma program. Educational programs address specific knowledge gaps and provide focused and structured learning. Advanced Trauma Life Support is the most well-known. Each offering seems to be valid, although it has been difficult to prove improved patient care outcomes owing specifically to any of them. Injury prevention offers the best opportunity to limit death and disability owing to trauma. Injury prevention initiatives have paid tremendous dividends in reducing the mortality rates for motor vehicle crashes. Modern injury prevention efforts focus on reducing distracted driver rates and increasing helmet use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prone positioning in trauma patients: nursing roles and responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Jessica R

    2010-01-01

    One of the leading causes of mortality in the intensive care unit is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome can occur as a result from multiorgan dysfunction syndrome and sepsis. In the trauma population, ARDS accounts for an increase in mortality as well as morbidity and disability. Nurses have an essential role in the care of the trauma patients with ARDS or acute lung injury patients. Respiratory treatments such as airway pressure release ventilation and chest physiotherapy are utilized often for ARDS treatment. A lesser used therapy, intermittent prone positioning has also been found to be effective in increasing the pulmonary gas exchange in trauma patients. This article will explain the nursing roles and responsibilities in the initiation, continuation, and cessation of intermittent prone positioning.

  15. Emergency Difficult Airway Management in a Patient with Severe Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Ahmet Selim; Kayhan, Gülay Erdoğan; Akbaş, Sedat; Kaçmaz, Osman; Durmuş, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare disease characterised by vesiculobullous lesions with minimal trauma to the skin and mucous membranes. Bleeding, scar tissue, contractures, oedema and lesions that can spread throughout the body can cause a difficult airway and vascular access in patients with EB. Therefore, anaesthetic management in patients with EB is a major problem even for experienced anaesthesiologists. Herein, we report a case of difficult airway management in a patient diagnosed with severe EB who presented for emergency tracheostomy because of respiratory failure under general anaesthesia. PMID:27909609

  16. Holistic ultrasound in trauma: An update.

    PubMed

    Saranteas, Theodosios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F

    2016-10-01

    Holistic ultrasound is a total body examination using an ultrasound device aiming to achieve immediate patient care and decision making. In the setting of trauma, it is one of the most fundamental components of care of the injured patients. Ground-breaking imaging software allows physicians to examine various organs thoroughly, recognize imaging signs early, and potentially foresee the onset or the possible outcome of certain types of injuries. Holistic ultrasound can be performed on a routine basis at the bedside of the patients, at admission and during the perioperative period. Trauma care physicians should be aware of the diagnostic and guidance benefits of ultrasound and should receive appropriate training for the optimal management of their patients. In this paper, the findings of holistic ultrasound in trauma patients are presented, with emphasis on the lungs, heart, cerebral circulation, abdomen, and airway. Additionally, the benefits of ultrasound imaging in interventional anaesthesia techniques such as ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks and central vein catheterization are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Damage control applied to severe maxillofacial trauma].

    PubMed

    Laversanne, S; Pierrou, C; Haen, P; Brignol, L; Thiéry, G

    2014-02-01

    Damage control is defined by the extreme emergency implementation of a first resuscitation and surgical step, during which there is no attempt at repairing lesions but only at restoring adequate physiological function. In recent years, "damage control" has considerably improved the management of polytrauma patients, especially in war surgery. Respiratory distress or hemorrhagic shock requirements are critical maxillofacial emergencies. We present the specificities of "damage control" management for patients with severe maxillofacial trauma. Some clinical and biological criteria have been defined to choose "damage control" strategy, in patients presenting with life-threatening facial hemorrhage after facial trauma. A rapid initial stage restores vital functions. Airways are maintained and secured: oro-tracheal intubation, cricothyroidotomy, surgical tracheotomy. Facial bleeding is controlled with various means: oronasal packing, angiographic embolization, selective ligation then external carotid artery if necessary. The resuscitation step stabilizes the lethal triad: hypothermia, coagulopathy, metabolic acidosis. The second step that comes in later is a surgical repair of facial injuries. "Damage control" can be adequately applied to the management of patients with severe maxillofacial trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS): necessary for emergency physicians?

    PubMed

    Richards, J R; Panacek, E A; Brofeldt, B T

    2000-09-01

    A survey was conducted to determine differences in perspective towards Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) between emergency medicine (EM) physicians and other specialties (OS), assess its value in the management of acute trauma, and identify areas in the course which could be revised or updated. The survey was devised and completed by physicians after ATLS. Of 26 course participants, there were 11 EM physicians (42%), four family practitioners (15%), four surgeons (15%), four internists (15%), two paediatricians (8%), and one anaesthesiologist (4%). Both groups found ATLS useful and relevant, and reported little deviation from their prior management of acute trauma. Unclear topics identified were airway, spine trauma, and burns/cold injury for EM, and head, abdominal, and paediatric trauma for OS. Significant differences were noted for the following: 91% EM vs. 13% OS felt ATLS could be shortened into a one-day course (p = 0.002), 64% EM vs. 7% OS thought the laboratory could be omitted (p = 0.003), and all (100%) EM vs. 60% OS believed the course could be taught by EM physicians as effectively as surgeons (p = 0.02). EM disagreed with OS over the proposed requirement that all EM physicians be required to take ATLS (2.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.4, p = 0.03). The EM group reported doing > 20 per year of airway, vascular, and thoracostomy procedures in their own practice, whereas OS did significantly fewer. ATLS may not be useful for EM practitioners actively involved in trauma care. Proposed changes from the EM perspective include shortening ATLS to one day, increased use of EM instructors, clarifying certain portions of the manual, and omitting the laboratory section or making it optional.

  19. Putting the Squeeze on Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Ah; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by chronic inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and progressive airway remodeling. The airway epithelium is known to play a critical role in the initiation and perpetuation of these processes. Here, we review how excessive epithelial stress generated by bronchoconstriction is sufficient to induce airway remodeling, even in the absence of inflammatory cells. PMID:26136543

  20. Acute effects of physiotherapeutic respiratory maneuvers in critically ill patients with craniocerebral trauma

    PubMed Central

    de Cerqueira Neto, Manoel Luiz; Moura, Álvaro Vieira; Cerqueira, Telma Cristina Fontes; Aquim, Esperidião Elias; Reá-Neto, Álvaro; Oliveira, Mirella Cristine; da Silva Júnior, Walderi Monteiro; Santana-Filho, Valter J.; Herminia Scola, Rosana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of physiotherapeutic respiratory maneuvers on cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics and blood gas variables. METHOD: A descriptive, longitudinal, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial that included 20 critical patients with severe craniocerebral trauma who were receiving mechanical ventilation and who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Each patient was subjected to the physiotherapeutic maneuvers of vibrocompression and increased manual expiratory flow (5 minutes on each hemithorax), along with subsequent airway suctioning with prior instillation of saline solution, hyperinflation and hyperoxygenation. Variables related to cardiovascular and cerebral hemodynamics and blood gas variables were recorded after each vibrocompression, increased manual expiratory flow and airway suctioning maneuver and 10 minutes after the end of airway suctioning. RESULTS: The hemodynamic and blood gas variables were maintained during vibrocompression and increased manual expiratory flow maneuvers; however, there were increases in mean arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary capillary pressure during airway suctioning. All of the values returned to baseline 10 minutes after the end of airway suctioning. CONCLUSION: Respiratory physiotherapy can be safely performed on patients with severe craniocerebral trauma. Additional caution must be taken when performing airway suctioning because this technique alters cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics, even in sedated and paralyzed patients. PMID:24141836

  1. Telemedicine in British Airways.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, M

    1996-01-01

    In the year ending March 1994, British Airways (BA) carried in excess of 30 million passengers worldwide. There was a total of 2078 reported in-flight medical incidents, with 18 unscheduled diversions for medical reasons. The commonest reported conditions were faints, diarrhoea and vomiting. The BA aircraft medical kit content exceeds the statutory minimum requirement and all cabin crew undergo training in first aid and life support. There is a BA doctor on 24 h call with whom an aircraft captain may communicate via a high-frequency radio link. This link has limitations and immediate contact is not always possible. BA is installing satellite communication facilities in new aircraft and the application of telemedicine utilizing this facility is being explored.

  2. Gene Delivery to the Airway

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Nicholas W.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes generation of and gene transfer to several commonly used airway models. Isolation and transduction of primary airway epithelial cells are first described. Next, the preparation of polarized airway epithelial monolayers is outlined. Transduction of these polarized cells is also described. Methods are presented for generation of tracheal xenografts as well as both ex vivo and in vivo gene transfer to these xenografts. Finally, a method for in vivo gene delivery to the lungs of rodents is included. Methods for evaluating transgene expression are given in the support protocols. PMID:23853081

  3. Airway complications after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Machuzak, Michael; Santacruz, Jose F; Gildea, Thomas; Murthy, Sudish C

    2015-01-01

    Airway complications after lung transplantation present a formidable challenge to the lung transplant team, ranging from mere unusual images to fatal events. The exact incidence of complications is wide-ranging depending on the type of event, and there is still evolution of a universal characterization of the airway findings. Management is also wide-ranging. Simple observation or simple balloon bronchoplasty is sufficient in many cases, but vigilance following more severe necrosis is required for late development of both anastomotic and nonanastomotic airway strictures. Furthermore, the impact of coexisting infection, rejection, and medical disease associated with high-level immunosuppression further complicates care.

  4. Children and Facial Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... up after Facial trauma: A prospective study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997: 117:72-75 Kim MK, Buchman ... trauma in children: An urban hospital’s experience. Otolaryngoly–Head Neck Surgery 2000: 123: 439-43 Patient Health Home ...

  5. Thromboprophylaxis for trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Luis Manuel Barrera; Perel, Pablo; Ker, Katharine; Cirocchi, Roberto; Farinella, Eriberto; Morales, Carlos Hernando

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of thromboprophylaxis in trauma patients on mortality and incidence of DVT and PE. To compare the effects of different thromboprophylaxis interventions and their relative effects according to the type of trauma. PMID:25267908

  6. Treating childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Terr, Lenore C

    2013-01-01

    This review begins with the question "What is childhood trauma?" Diagnosis is discussed next, and then the article focuses on treatment, using 3 basic principles-abreaction, context, and correction. Treatment modalities and complications are discussed, with case vignettes presented throughout to illustrate. Suggestions are provided for the psychiatrist to manage countertransference as trauma therapy proceeds.

  7. Advances in forefoot trauma.

    PubMed

    Clements, J Randolph; Schopf, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Forefoot traumas, particularly involving the metatarsals, are commonly occurring injuries. There have been several advances in management of these injuries. These advances include updates in operative technique, internal fixation options, plating constructs, and external fixation. In addition, the advances of soft tissue management have improved outcomes. This article outlines these injuries and provides an update on techniques, principles, and understanding of managing forefoot trauma.

  8. Airway surface mycosis in chronic TH2-associated airway disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Paul C; Lim, Dae Jun; Maskatia, Zahida Khan; Mak, Garbo; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Citardi, Martin J; Fakhri, Samer; Shaw, Joanne L; Fothergil, Annette; Kheradmand, Farrah; Corry, David B; Luong, Amber

    2014-08-01

    Environmental fungi have been linked to TH2 cell-related airway inflammation and the TH2-associated chronic airway diseases asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS), but whether these organisms participate directly or indirectly in disease pathology remains unknown. To determine the frequency of fungus isolation and fungus-specific immunity in patients with TH2-associated and non-TH2-associated airway disease. Sinus lavage fluid and blood were collected from sinus surgery patients (n = 118) including patients with CRSwNP, patients with CRS without nasal polyps, patients with AFRS, and non-CRS/nonasthmatic control patients. Asthma status was determined from medical history. Sinus lavage fluids were cultured and directly examined for evidence of viable fungi. PBMCs were restimulated with fungal antigens in an enzyme-linked immunocell spot assay to determine total memory fungus-specific IL-4-secreting cells. These data were compared with fungus-specific IgE levels measured from plasma by ELISA. Filamentous fungi were significantly more commonly cultured in patients with TH2-associated airway disease (asthma, CRSwNP, or AFRS: n = 68) than in control patients with non-TH2-associated disease (n = 31): 74% vs 16%, respectively (P < .001). Both fungus-specific IL-4 enzyme-linked immunocell spot (n = 48) and specific IgE (n = 70) data correlated with TH2-associated diseases (sensitivity 73% and specificity 100% vs 50% and 77%, respectively). The frequent isolation of fungi growing directly within the airways accompanied by specific immunity to these organisms only in patients with TH2-associated chronic airway diseases suggests that fungi participate directly in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Efforts to eradicate airway fungi from the airways should be considered in selected patients. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D; Gonzalez, Luis S

    2014-08-01

    Coagulopathy is the inability of blood to coagulate normally; in trauma patients, it is a multifactorial and complex process. Seriously injured trauma patients experience coagulopathies during the acute injury phase. Risk factors for trauma-induced coagulopathy include hypothermia, metabolic acidosis, hypoperfusion, hemodilution, and fluid replacement. In addition to the coagulopathy induced by trauma, many patients may also be taking medications that interfere with hemostasis. Therefore, medication-induced coagulopathy also is a concern. Traditional laboratory-based methods of assessing coagulation are being supported or even replaced by point-of-care tests. The evidence-based management of trauma-induced coagulopathy should address hypothermia, fluid resuscitation, blood components administration, and, if needed, medications to reverse identified coagulation disorders. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. The pre-hospital experiences of Samoan families who have had a child admitted to hospital with pneumonia: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Young, N

    2001-03-01

    The aims of this investigation were to describe the pre-hospital experiences; health actions and attitudes towards health services of Samoan families who have had a child hospitalised with pneumonia. This information will inform policy makers, health professionals and the Samoan community in order for them to improve and create health care services that are appropriate for Samoan families. Twelve Samoan families, each with a child admitted to the Starship Children's Hospital with pneumonia, were interviewed in an open-ended in-depth interview style. Interviews lasted thirty to forty-five minutes and were undertaken in the preferred language of the caregiver (English or Samoan). For most caregivers continuity of care in the community was poor. Reasons for this included structural and personal barriers to health care services and mistrust of doctors. Mistrust influenced caregivers to go elsewhere for care and therefore care became fragmented. The theory of delayed presentation was not supported. Caregivers were quick to act on symptoms and behaviours that they believed were different from normal and worse than non-urgent symptoms. Those who 'self-referred' to the hospital had in fact visited a doctor in the community at least once prior to admission. They had then made their own decision to present to the hospital. Reasons for self-referral included mistrust of health professionals in the community and structural and personal barriers to services. A break down in communication between caregivers and health professionals was an important personal barrier to services. Caregivers did not feel that pneumonia was an appropriate illness to be treated solely with traditional methods. Caregivers who consulted traditional practitioners had also consulted at least one doctor in the community. Although Pacific children are less likely than other children to present to the emergency department with the documentation from a general practitioner, in many cases they have been to

  11. Trauma: the seductive hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Steven

    2003-01-01

    In much of contemporary culture, "trauma" signifies not so much terrible experience as a particular context for understanding and responding to a terrible experience. In therapy, in the media, and in international interventions, the traumatized are seen not simply as people who suffer and so are deserving of concern and aid; they are seen also as people who suffer for us, who are given special dispensation. They are treated with awe if they tell a certain kind of trauma story, and are ignored or vilified if they tell another. Trauma has become not simply a story of pain and its treatment, but a host of sub-stories involving the commodification of altruism, the justification of violence and revenge, the entry point into "true experience," and the place where voyeurism and witnessing intersect. Trauma is today the stuff not only of suffering but of fantasy. Historically, trauma theory and treatment have shown a tension, exemplified in the writings of Freud and Janet, between those who view trauma as formative and those who view it as exceptional. The latter view, that trauma confers exceptional status deserving of special privilege, has gained ground in recent years and has helped to shape the way charitable dollars are distributed, how the traumatized are presented in the media, how governments justify and carry out international responses to trauma, and how therapists attend to their traumatized patients. This response to trauma reflects an underlying, unarticulated belief system derived from narcissism; indeed, trauma has increasingly become the venue, in society and in treatment, where narcissism is permitted to prevail.

  12. Injury-related mortality audit in a regional trauma center at Puducherry, India

    PubMed Central

    Radjou, Angeline Neetha; Balliga, Dillip Kumar; Pal, Ranabir; Mahajan, Preetam

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is an alarming trend of injuries leading to poor outcome of victims in India. Objective: To study the profile of patients who died due to trauma and to identify factors involved in both pre-hospital and hospital care. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based study was performed at a trauma center in Puducherry from June 2009 to May 2010. Patients who had at least one sign of life on admission and later died were included. The demographic characteristics, injury mechanism, nature and site of injury, influence of alcohol, pre-hospital time and care, distance traveled, number of referrals, time spent in study hospital, cause of death, and missed injuries revealed at post mortem were noted. Results: Of the 204 fatal cases, most were between 25-65 years of age (77%); sustained injuries over weekends (36%) and between 4 pm and midnight (41%); had at least one halt in a medical facility before reaching definitive care (56%); and died within a week (63%). Adults (25-65 y) sustained most injuries (77%) on two wheelers. In those aged over 65 years, 79 percent were pedestrians. Road traffic injuries were responsible for 82 % of deaths; 16 percent were reportedly under the influence of alcohol at the time of injury. Mean delay from the time of accident to admission was 14.9 hours and median distance traveled was 30 kilometers. Head injury was the most common (66%) cause of death. Post mortem revealed skull fractures (37%), while missed injuries were noted in 8 percent, mostly involving the cervical spine and chest wall. Conclusion: The problem of trauma care needs to be addressed urgently in this part of southern India to reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:22416154

  13. Epidemiology of workplace-related fall from height and cost of trauma care in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Tuma, Mazin A; Acerra, John R; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Recicar, John F; Al Yazeedi, Wafaa; Maull, Kimball I

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to identify the incidence, injury patterns, and actual medical costs of occupational-related falls in Qatar, in order to provide a reference for establishing fall prevention guidelines and recommendations. Retrospective database registry review in Level 1 Trauma Center at Tertiary Hospital in Qatar. During a 12-month period between November 1(st) 2007 and October 31(st) 2008, construction workers who fell from height were enrolled. A database was designed to characterize demographics, injury severity score (ISS), total hospital length of stay, resource utilization, and cost of care. Data were presented as proportions, mean ± standard deviation or median and range as appropriate. In addition, case fatality rate and cost analysis were obtained from the Biostatistics and finance departments of the same hospital. There were 315 fall-related injuries, of which 298 were workplace related. The majority (97%) were male immigrants with mean age of 33 ± 11 years. The most common injuries were to the spine, head, and chest. Mean ISS was 16.4 ± 10. There was total of 29 deaths (17 pre-hospital and 12 in-hospital deaths) for a case fatality rate of 8.6%. Mean cost of care (rounded figures) included pre-hospital services Emergency Medical Services (EMS), trauma resuscitation room, radiology and imaging, operating room, intensive care unit care, hospital ward care, rehabilitation services, and total cost (123, 82, 105, 130, 496, 3048,434, and 4418 thousand United States Dollars (USD), respectively). Mean cost of care per admitted patient was approximately 16,000 USD. Falling from height at a construction site is a common cause of trauma that poses a significant financial burden on the health care system. Injury prevention efforts are warranted along with strict regulation and enforcement of occupational laws.

  14. Epidemiology of workplace-related fall from height and cost of trauma care in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Tuma, Mazin A.; Acerra, John R.; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Recicar, John F.; Al Yazeedi, Wafaa; Maull, Kimball I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to identify the incidence, injury patterns, and actual medical costs of occupational-related falls in Qatar, in order to provide a reference for establishing fall prevention guidelines and recommendations. Settings and Design: Retrospective database registry review in Level 1 Trauma Center at Tertiary Hospital in Qatar. Materials and Methods: During a 12-month period between November 1st 2007 and October 31st 2008, construction workers who fell from height were enrolled. A database was designed to characterize demographics, injury severity score (ISS), total hospital length of stay, resource utilization, and cost of care. Statistical Analysis: Data were presented as proportions, mean ± standard deviation or median and range as appropriate. In addition, case fatality rate and cost analysis were obtained from the Biostatistics and finance departments of the same hospital. Results: There were 315 fall-related injuries, of which 298 were workplace related. The majority (97%) were male immigrants with mean age of 33 ± 11 years. The most common injuries were to the spine, head, and chest. Mean ISS was 16.4 ± 10. There was total of 29 deaths (17 pre-hospital and 12 in-hospital deaths) for a case fatality rate of 8.6%. Mean cost of care (rounded figures) included pre-hospital services Emergency Medical Services (EMS), trauma resuscitation room, radiology and imaging, operating room, intensive care unit care, hospital ward care, rehabilitation services, and total cost (123, 82, 105, 130, 496, 3048,434, and 4418 thousand United States Dollars (USD), respectively). Mean cost of care per admitted patient was approximately 16,000 USD. Conclusions: Falling from height at a construction site is a common cause of trauma that poses a significant financial burden on the health care system. Injury prevention efforts are warranted along with strict regulation and enforcement of occupational laws. PMID:23724377

  15. Feasibility and mortality of airway balloon dilation in a live rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Visaya, Jiovani M; Ward, Robert F; Modi, Vikash K

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic balloon dilation is commonly performed in children with airway stenosis, but guidelines are needed for selecting safe and effective balloon inflation parameters. To determine the feasibility and safety of airway balloon dilation in live rabbits using a range of balloon diameters and pressures. Prospective animal study using 32 adult New Zealand white rabbits with 1-week follow-up performed at an academic animal research facility. Rabbits underwent endoscopic laryngeal balloon dilation with diameters ranging from 6 to 10 mm and pressures of 5 to 15 atm. Rabbits were observed for intraoperative complications and postoperative morbidity. All rabbit airways were sized to a 4-0 endotracheal tube (5.4-mm outer diameter). Balloon dilation was performed safely with no intraoperative complications in 25 of 30 cases. One rabbit developed transient cyanosis during balloon inflation. Three rabbits died while undergoing dilation with 10-mm balloons, and another rabbit developed respiratory failure shortly after the procedure. All rabbits that died perioperatively lacked endoscopic evidence of airway obstruction or gross trauma. Four rabbits developed postoperative feeding difficulties that did not correlate with balloon diameter or inflation pressure. Endoscopic balloon dilation is generally well tolerated in New Zealand white rabbits. Intraoperative mortality from cardiopulmonary arrest reaches 50% when the balloon diameter exceeds the airway diameter by 4.6 mm. Postoperative feeding difficulties may occur with any balloon diameter or inflation pressure. Additional animal studies are necessary to determine the short- and long-term histologic effects of balloon dilation on the airway.

  16. Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

  17. United airway disease: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Aun, Marcelo Vivolo; Takejima, Priscila; Kalil, Jorge; Agondi, Rosana Câmara

    2016-01-01

    Upper and lower airways are considered a unified morphological and functional unit, and the connection existing between them has been observed for many years, both in health and in disease. There is strong epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical evidence supporting an integrated view of rhinitis and asthma: united airway disease in the present review. The term “united airway disease” is opportune, because rhinitis and asthma are chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper and lower airways, which can be induced by allergic or nonallergic reproducible mechanisms, and present several phenotypes. Management of rhinitis and asthma must be jointly carried out, leading to better control of both diseases, and the lessons of the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma initiative cannot be forgotten. PMID:27257389

  18. Extraglottic airway devices: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramaiah, Ramesh; Das, Debasmita; Bhananker, Sanjay M; Joffe, Aaron M

    2014-01-01

    Extraglottic airway devices (EAD) have become an integral part of anesthetic care since their introduction into clinical practice 25 years ago and have been used safely hundreds of millions of times, worldwide. They are an important first option for difficult ventilation during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital difficult airway management and can be utilized as a conduit for tracheal intubation either blindly or assisted by another technology (fiberoptic endoscopy, lightwand). Thus, the EAD may be the most versatile single airway technique in the airway management toolbox. However, despite their utility, knowledge regarding specific devices and the supporting data for their use is of paramount importance to patient's safety. In this review, number of commercially available EADs are discussed and the reported benefits and potential pitfalls are highlighted. PMID:24741502

  19. [Evolution of US military transfusion support for resuscitation of trauma and hemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Prat, N; Pidcoke, H F; Sailliol, A; Cap, A P

    2013-05-01

    Military conflicts create a dynamic medical environment in which the number of severe trauma cases is compressed in both time and space. In consequence, lessons are learned at a rapid pace. Because the military has an effective organizational structure at its disposal and the logistical capacity to rapidly disseminate new ideas, adoption of novel therapies and protective equipment occurs quickly. The recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are no exception: more than three dozen new clinical practice guidelines were implemented by the US Armed Forces, with attendant survival benefits, in response to observation and research by military physicians. Here we review the lessons learned by coalition medical personnel regarding resuscitation of severe trauma, integrating knowledge gained from massive transfusion, autopsies, and extensive review of medical records contained in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Changes in clinical care included the shift to resuscitation with 1:1:1 component therapy, use of fresh whole blood, and the application of both medical devices and pharmaceutical adjuncts to reduce bleeding. Future research will focus on emerging concepts regarding coagulopathy of trauma and evaluation of promising new blood products for far-forward resuscitation. New strategies aimed at reducing mortality on the battlefield will focus on resuscitation in the pre-hospital setting where hemorrhagic death continues to be a major challenge.

  20. A new removable airway stent

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Tore; Sørhaug, Sveinung; Leira, Håkon Olav; Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Langø, Thomas; Hammer, Tommy; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Mattsson, Erney

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant airway obstruction is a feared complication and will most probably occur more frequently in the future because of increasing cancer incidence and increased life expectancy in cancer patients. Minimal invasive treatment using airway stents represents a meaningful and life-saving palliation. We present a new removable airway stent for improved individualised treatment. Methods To our knowledge, the new airway stent is the world's first knitted and uncovered self-expanding metal stent, which can unravel and be completely removed. In an in vivo model using two anaesthetised and spontaneously breathing pigs, we deployed and subsequently removed the stents by unravelling the device. The procedures were executed by flexible bronchoscopy in an acute and a chronic setting – a ‘proof-of-principle’ study. Results The new stent was easily and accurately deployed in the central airways, and it remained fixed in its original position. It was easy to unravel and completely remove from the airways without clinically significant complications. During the presence of the stent in the chronic study, granulation tissue was induced. This tissue disappeared spontaneously with the removal. Conclusions The new removable stent functioned according to its purpose and unravelled easily, and it was completely removed without significant technical or medical complications. Induced granulation tissue disappeared spontaneously. Further studies on animals and humans are needed to define its optimal indications and future use. PMID:27608269

  1. Pattern of ocular trauma.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M M; Mohiuddin, A A; Akhanda, A H; Hossain, M I; Islam, M F; Akonjee, A R; Ali, M

    2011-07-01

    This prospective observational study was conducted in the department of Ophthalmology Mymensingh Medical College Hospital during the period of November, 2009 to October, 2010. Two hundred & fifty (250) patients of both sexes and all ages with ocular trauma were selected randomly for this study. A detailed history of patients, duration of trauma, relation of trauma with work, visual status prior to injury, any surgery prior to injury & patients were alcoholic or not were taken. Male patients were 190(76%) and female patients were 60(24%). Majority of patients were 11-20 years group (39.2%). Most of patients (40%) attended into hospital within 60 hours of ocular trauma. Accidental occupational trauma were more common (51.2%) and assault injury were less common (12.8%). Greater number of ocular trauma was caused by sharp objects (59.2%) and less number of ocular trauma was caused by chemical injuries (2.4%). Open globe injuries were more common (62%) than closed globe injury (38%). Visual acuity on admission between 6/60 to PL comprises highest number (64%) and also on discharge between 6/60 to PL comprises highest number of cases (50%). Most of the patients came from poor socioeconomic group (60%).

  2. Factors correlating with delayed trauma center admission following traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Delayed admission to appropriate care has been shown increase mortality following traumatic brain injury (TBI). We investigated factors associated with delayed admission to a hospital with neurosurgical expertise in a cohort of TBI patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods A retrospective analysis of all TBI patients treated in the ICUs of Helsinki University Central Hospital was carried out from 1.1.2009 to 31.12.2010. Patients were categorized into two groups: direct admission and delayed admission. Patients in the delayed admission group were initially transported to a local hospital without neurosurgical expertise before inter-transfer to the designated hospital. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to identify pre-hospital factors associated with delayed admission. Results Of 431 included patients 65% of patients were in the direct admission groups and 35% in the delayed admission groups (median time to admission 1:07h, IQR 0:52–1:28 vs. 4:06h, IQR 2:53–5:43, p <0.001). In multivariate analysis factors increasing the likelihood of delayed admission were (OR, 95% CI): male gender (3.82, 1.60-9.13), incident at public place compared to home (0.26, 0.11-0.61), high energy trauma (0.05, 0.01-0.28), pre-hospital physician consultation (0.15, 0.06-0.39) or presence (0.08, 0.03-0.22), hypotension (0.09, 0.01-0.93), major extra cranial injury (0.17, 0.05-0.55), abnormal pupillary light reflex (0.26, 0.09-0.73) and severe alcohol intoxication (12.44, 2.14-72.38). A significant larger proportion of patients in the delayed admission group required acute craniotomy for mass lesion when admitted to the neurosurgical hospital (57%, 21%, p< 0.001). No significant difference in 6-month mortality was noted between the groups (p= 0.814). Conclusion Delayed trauma center admission following TBI is common. Factors increasing likelihood of this were: male gender, incident at public place compared to home, low energy trauma, absence of pre-hospital

  3. [Chest trauma: a report of 596 cases].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H

    1992-02-01

    The study presented 596 cases with chest injuries, experienced for 4 years in our trauma and critical care center. Cases with chest injuries account for approximately 40% of all traumatized patients. Cases dead on arrival (DOA) show more significant frequency (87% of all traumatized DOA patients). To grasp the significance and the severity of chest injuries, we designed a new classification by the site where abnormality exists; 1) the chest wall, 2) the pleural cavity, 3) the airway, 4) the mediastinum, 5) the intrapericardial space, and 6) cardiac function. An application of the classification may clearly identify the initial direction for the treatment of chest injuries, including some examination which should be given priority. It is also suspected that a more exact decision making should be possible by an utilization of the classification.

  4. Prehospital Glidescope video laryngoscopy for difficult airway management in a helicopter rescue program with anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Struck, Manuel Florian; Wittrock, Maike; Nowak, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the prehospital use of a Glidescope video laryngoscope (GSVL) due to anticipated and unexpected difficult airway in a helicopter emergency medical service setting in which emergency physicians (EP) are experienced anesthetists. Retrospective observational study and survey of the experiences of EP were conducted for more than a 3-year period (July 2007-August 2010). In 1675 missions, 152 tracheal intubations (TI) were performed. GSVL was used in 23 cases (15%). A total of 17 patients presented with multiple traumas, including nine with cervical spine immobilization, three with burns, and three with nontraumatic diagnoses. Eight patients experienced previously failed TI with conventional laryngoscopy (five by nonhelicopter emergency medical service EP). In two patients, the EP required two attempts with GSVL to obtain a successful TI. Since the introduction of the GSVL, no other backup airway device was necessary. GSVL may be a valuable support instrument in the prehospital management of difficult airways in emergency patients.

  5. Airway Hydration and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arunava; Boucher, R.C.; Tarran, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the prevalent causes of worldwide mortality and encompasses two major clinical phenotypes, i.e., chronic bronchitis (CB) and emphysema. The most common cause of COPD is chronic tobacco inhalation. Research focused on the chronic bronchitic phenotype of COPD has identified several pathological processes that drive disease initiation and progression. For example, the lung’s mucociliary clearance (MCC) system performs the critical task of clearing inhaled pathogens and toxic materials from the lung. MCC efficiency is dependent on: (i) the ability of apical plasma membrane ion channels such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) to maintain airway hydration; (ii) ciliary beating; and, (iii) appropriate rates of mucin secretion. Each of these components is impaired in CB and likely contributes to the mucus stasis/accumulation seen in CB patients. This review highlights the cellular components responsible for maintaining MCC and how this process is disrupted following tobacco exposure and with CB. We shall also discuss existing therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic bronchitis and how components of the MCC can be used as biomarkers for the evaluation of tobacco or tobacco-like-product exposure. PMID:26068443

  6. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    PubMed

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  7. Human airway ciliary dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kristin; Knowles, Michael R.; Davis, C. William

    2013-01-01

    Airway cilia depend on precise changes in shape to transport the mucus gel overlying mucosal surfaces. The ciliary motion can be recorded in several planes using video microscopy. However, cilia are densely packed, and automated computerized systems are not available to convert these ciliary shape changes into forms that are useful for testing theoretical models of ciliary function. We developed a system for converting planar ciliary motions recorded by video microscopy into an empirical quantitative model, which is easy to use in validating mathematical models, or in examining ciliary function, e.g., in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). The system we developed allows the manipulation of a model cilium superimposed over a video of beating cilia. Data were analyzed to determine shear angles and velocity vectors of points along the cilium. Extracted waveforms were used to construct a composite waveform, which could be used as a standard. Variability was measured as the mean difference in position of points on individual waveforms and the standard. The shapes analyzed were the end-recovery, end-effective, and fastest moving effective and recovery with mean (± SE) differences of 0.31(0.04), 0.25(0.06), 0.50(0.12), 0.50(0.10), μm, respectively. In contrast, the same measures for three different PCD waveforms had values far outside this range. PMID:23144323

  8. Intubation Performance of Advanced Airway Devices in a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service Setting.

    PubMed

    Hafner, John W; Perkins, Blake W; Korosac, Joshua D; Bucher, Alayna K; Aldag, Jean C; Cox, Kelly L

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to determine if newer indirect laryngoscopes or intubating devices are superior to a standard laryngoscope for intubation success among helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) personnel. Flight nurses and paramedics intubated standardized mannequins with a normal airway, a trauma airway, and a difficult airway using a standard laryngoscope, a gum elastic bougie, the Airtraq laryngoscope (King System Corp, Noblesville, IN), the Glidescope Ranger laryngoscope (Verathon Inc, Bothell, WA), and the S.A.L.T. device (Microtek Medical, Inc, Lehmberg, IN) in grounded helicopters wearing helmets and flight gear. Participant demographics, time to glottic view, the modified Cormack-Lehane score, total intubation time, number of attempts, and overall successful intubation were recorded for each type of airway. Two-hundred thirty-six subjects were initially enrolled across 107 bases in 15 states, and 177 completed the study. First-attempt success rates did not vary by device for the normal airway (P = .203), but the Airtraq laryngoscope and the S.A.L.T. device were highest in the difficult airway (82.0% and 85.0%, respectively; P < .0001). The time to first-attempt success in the difficult airway was lowest for the S.A.L.T. device and the Airtraq laryngoscope (mean = 9.72 seconds and 19.70 seconds, respectively; P < .0001). Using HEMS providers, the Airtraq laryngoscope and the S.A.L.T. device showed the fastest and highest intubation success on the first attempt in difficult simulated HEMS airway scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing volume of patients at level I trauma centres: is there a need for triage modification in elderly patients with injuries of low severity?

    PubMed

    Liberman, Moishe; Mulder, David S; Sampalis, John S

    2003-12-01

    Since the introduction of a regionalized trauma system in Quebec in 1993, patient loads at level I trauma centres have been increasing gradually. We aimed to investigate the type of patient presenting to 4 tertiary trauma centres in Quebec, the nature of their injuries and whether there was a need to modify triage protocols. The study consisted of a review of major trauma patients entered into a regional trauma registry between Apr. 7, 1993, and Mar. 31, 2000. A total of 29 669 patients fulfilled the eligibility criteria. We compared patient demographics, injury type and severity and mechanism of injury. During the 7 years of the study, there was an increase in the volume and presentation of patients injured in falls (p < 0.01), patients with extremity injuries (p < 0.01), single injuries (p < 0.01) and injuries to single body regions (p < 0.01). Young patients were mostly injured in motor vehicle collisions and had multiple injuries of high severity whereas elderly patients were mostly injured in falls and experienced isolated extremity injuries of low severity. The proportion of elderly patients injured in falls, experiencing isolated extremity injuries of low severity and being treated at tertiary trauma centres in Quebec is overwhelmingly high. Revision of pre-hospital triage protocols should be considered and studied in order to transport trauma patients to appropriate facilities.

  10. The importance of pelvic ring stabilization as a life-saving measure in pre-hospital - A case report commented by autopsy.

    PubMed

    Durão, Carlos; Alves, Magda; Barros, André; Pedrosa, Frederico

    2017-08-01

    Hip fractures with unstable pelvic ring have great morbidity and mortality rates. These fractures result from high energy trauma such as falls from heights, road accidents and collapsing structures or other similar mechanisms of action. We report the case of a 63 years old man, construction worker, who stood inside a ditch during a wall construction when he was surprised by this collapse, which resulted in direct trauma to the right thigh and pelvis. The autopsy revealed diaphysis fracture of the right femur with an open book pelvic fracture with severe hemorrhagic infiltration and hematoma of the pelvic muscles without arterial injury. Bone bleeding and the vascular damage associated with disruption of the sacroiliac ligaments promote a very significant bleeding. Simple maneuvers such as sheet circumferential compression to promote pelvic ring closure are effective on stabilizing and closure of the sacroiliac joint. Hip manipulation of the fracture was performed during the necropsy to demonstrate and prove how a simple sheet contention can promote stabilization of the pelvic ring by closing the sacroiliac joints in open book fractures.

  11. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Methods: Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Results: Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh–Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Conclusion: Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty. PMID:26567879

  12. Efficacy of Surgical Airway Plasty for Benign Airway Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Tsukioka, Takuma; Takahama, Makoto; Nakajima, Ryu; Kimura, Michitaka; Inoue, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Ryoji

    2016-01-01

    Long-term patency is required during treatment for benign airway stenosis. This study investigated the effectiveness of surgical airway plasty for benign airway stenosis. Clinical courses of 20 patients, who were treated with surgical plasty for their benign airway stenosis, were retrospectively investigated. Causes of stenosis were tracheobronchial tuberculosis in 12 patients, post-intubation stenosis in five patients, malacia in two patients, and others in one patient. 28 interventional pulmonology procedures and 20 surgical plasty were performed. Five patients with post-intubation stenosis and four patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with tracheoplasty. Eight patients with tuberculous stenosis were treated with bronchoplasty, and two patients with malacia were treated with stabilization of the membranous portion. Anastomotic stenosis was observed in four patients, and one to four additional treatments were required. Performance status, Hugh-Jones classification, and ventilatory functions were improved after surgical plasty. Outcomes were fair in patients with tuberculous stenosis and malacia. However, efficacy of surgical plasty for post-intubation stenosis was not observed. Surgical airway plasty may be an acceptable treatment for tuberculous stenosis. Patients with malacia recover well after surgical plasty. There may be untreated patients with malacia who have the potential to benefit from surgical plasty.

  13. Bronchoscopic management of malignant airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick D; Kennedy, Marcus P

    2014-05-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with lung cancer will develop airway obstruction and many cancers lead to airway obstruction through meta stases. The treatment of malignant airway obstruction is often a multimodality approach and is usually performed for palliation of symptoms in advanced lung cancer. Removal of airway obstruction is associated with improvement in symptoms, quality of life, and lung function. Patient selection should exclude patients with short life expectancy, limited symptoms, and an inability to visualize beyond the obstruction. This review outlines both the immediate and delayed bronchoscopic effect options for the removal of airway obstruction and preservation of airway patency with endobronchial stenting.

  14. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Y S; Pabelick, Christina M; Sieck, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    There is increasing appreciation that mitochondria serve cellular functions beyond oxygen sensing and energy production. Accordingly, it has become important to explore noncanonical roles of mitochondria in normal and pathophysiological processes that influence airway structure and function in the context of diseases such as asthma and COPD. Mitochondria can sense upstream processes such as inflammation, infection, tobacco smoke, and environmental insults important in these diseases and in turn can respond to such stimuli through altered mitochondrial protein expression, structure, and resultant dysfunction. Conversely, mitochondrial dysfunction has downstream influences on cytosolic and mitochondrial calcium regulation, airway contractility, gene and protein housekeeping, responses to oxidative stress, proliferation, apoptosis, fibrosis, and certainly metabolism, which are all key aspects of airway disease pathophysiology. Indeed, mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a role even in normal processes such as aging and senescence and in conditions such as obesity, which impact airway diseases. Thus, understanding how mitochondrial structure and function play central roles in airway disease may be critical for the development of novel therapeutic avenues targeting dysfunctional mitochondria. In this case, it is likely that mitochondria of airway epithelium, smooth muscle, and fibroblasts play differential roles, consistent with their contributions to disease biology, underlining the challenge of targeting a ubiquitous cellular element of existential importance. This translational review summarizes the current state of understanding of mitochondrial processes that play a role in airway disease pathophysiology and identifying areas of unmet research need and opportunities for novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Anaesthetic management in a paediatric patient with a difficult airway due to epidermolysis bullosa dystrophica].

    PubMed

    Blázquez Gómez, E; Garcés Aletá, A; Monclus Diaz, E; Manen Berga, F; García-Aparicio, L; Ontanilla López, A

    2015-05-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by blistering after minimal trauma. These blisters tend to form dystrophic scars, leading to limiting and life-threatening sequelae. The anaesthetic management of patients with DEB is a challenge, even for the most experienced anaesthesiologists, but basic principles can help us prepare the plan of care. The main goals are to prevent trauma/infection of skin/mucous, and to establish a secure airway without causing bullae. Patient positioning and the instruments used to monitor vital signs and administering anaesthetic agents can cause new lesions. It is advisable to lubricate the instruments and to avoid adhesive material and shearing forces on the skin. Besides the implications of the comorbidities, there is a potential difficult intubation and difficult vascular access. Acute airway obstruction can occur due to airway instrumentation. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with EBD difficult airway and undergoing correction of syndactylyl and dental extractions. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuances in pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Kenefake, Mary Ella; Swarm, Matthew; Walthall, Jennifer

    2013-08-01

    Pediatric trauma evaluation mimics adult stabilization in that it is best accomplished with a focused and systematic approach. Attention to developmental differences, anatomic and physiologic nuances, and patterns of injury equip emergency physicians to stabilize and manage pediatric injury.

  17. Trauma program development.

    PubMed

    Althausen, Peter L

    2014-07-01

    The development of a strong trauma program is clearly one of the most important facets of successful business development. Several recent publications have demonstrated that well run trauma services can generate significant profits for both the hospital and the surgeons involved. There are many aspects to this task that require constant attention and insight. Top notch patient care, efficiency, and cost-effective resource utilization are all important components that must be addressed while providing adequate physician compensation within the bounds of hospital financial constraints and the encompassing legal issues. Each situation is different but many of the components are universal. This chapter addresses all aspects of trauma program development to provide the graduating fellow with the tools to create a new trauma program or improve an existing program in order to provide the best patient care while optimizing financial reward and improving care efficiency.

  18. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  19. [Pediatric multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Auner, B; Marzi, I

    2014-05-01

    Multiple trauma in children is rare so that even large trauma centers will only treat a small number of cases. Nevertheless, accidents are the most common cause of death in childhood whereby the causes are mostly traffic accidents and falls. Head trauma is the most common form of injury and the degree of severity is mostly decisive for the prognosis. Knowledge on possible causes of injury and injury patterns as well as consideration of anatomical and physiological characteristics are of great importance for treatment. The differences compared to adults are greater the younger the child is. Decompression and stopping bleeding are the main priorities before surgical fracture stabilization. The treatment of a severely injured child should be carried out by an interdisciplinary team in an approved trauma center with expertise in pediatrics. An inadequate primary assessment involves a high risk of early mortality. On the other hand children have a better prognosis than adults with comparable injuries.

  20. Trauma-Informed Schools.

    PubMed

    Wiest-Stevenson, Courtney; Lee, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Violence has impacted every aspect of daily life. These tragedies have shocked the world. This has resulted in school communities being fractured. Additionally, The National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence found that 60% of the children surveyed have been exposed to some form of trauma, either in or out of school. Traumatology research has shown most people respond to a wide range of traumatic events in similar ways. The common responses include traumatic responses, posttraumatic stress responses, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this article the authors outline the impact of trauma on children within school systems; discuss the mental health services schools are providing; present a trauma-informed school model; identifies tools which can be utilized in schools; and provide resources needed for a trauma-informed school, along with additional tools and resources. The authors discuss future recommendations for the community and schools as traumatic events continue to grow and impact a large number of children.

  1. Prevalence of difficult airway predictors in cases of failed prehospital endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Joshua B; Spaite, Daniel W; Stolz, Uwe; Ennis, Joshua; Mosier, Jarrod; Sakles, John J

    2014-09-01

    Difficult airway predictors (DAPs) are associated with failed endotracheal intubation (ETI) in the emergency department (ED). However, little is known about the relationship between DAPs and failed prehospital ETI. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of common DAPs among failed prehospital intubations. We reviewed a quality-improvement database, including all cases of ETI in a single ED, over 3 years. Failed prehospital (FP) ETI was defined as a case brought to the ED after attempted prehospital ETI, but bag-valve-mask ventilation, need for a rescue airway (supraglottic device, cricothyrotomy, etc.), or esophageal intubation was discovered at the ED. Physicians performing ETI evaluated each case for the presence of DAPs, including blood/emesis, facial/neck trauma, airway edema, spinal immobilization, short neck, and tongue enlargement. There were a total of 1377 ED ETIs and 161 had an FP-ETI (11.8%). Prevalence of DAPs in cases with FP-ETI was obesity 13.0%, large tongue 18.0%, short neck 13%, small mandible 4.3%, cervical immobility 49.7%, blood in airway 57.8%, vomitus in airway 23.0%, airway edema 12.4%, and facial or neck trauma 32.9%. The number of cases with FP-ETI and 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 or more DAPs per case was 22 (13.6%), 43 (26.7%), 23 (24.3%), 42 (26.1%), and 31 (19.3%), respectively. DAPs are common in cases of FP-ETI. Some of these factors may be associated with FP-ETI. Additional study is needed to determine if DAPs can be used to identify patients that are difficult to intubate in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Linear abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Danto, L A; Wolfman, E F

    1976-03-01

    Three cases of blunt abdominal trauma are presented to exemplify the mechanism of trauma and the problems of diagnosis associated with any linear blow to the abdomen. The mechanisms of visceral injury are reviewed, and special attention is directed to the abdominal wall injury that can be present in these patients. This injury has special implications in directing the operative approach and repair. An unusual aortic occlusion is described which is peculiar to this type of injury.

  3. [Sports and genitourinary traumas].

    PubMed

    Sacco, E; Marangi, F; Pinto, F; D'Addessi, A; Racioppi, M; Gulino, G; Volpe, A; Gardi, M; Bassi, P F

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data referring to sports-related traumas of the urinary tract are quite scarce; nevertheless, it is possible to draw general data on the relationship between sports and urological traumas. Literature review of peer-reviewed articles published by May 2009. Urological traumas account for about 10% of all traumas, and about 13% of them is sports-related. Genitourinary traumas are among the most common cause of abdominal injuries in sports. Blunt injuries are more common than penetrating ones and renal injuries are by far the most common, followed by testicular injuries; ureters, bladder and penis injuries are much more infrequent. Considering chronic microtraumas, injuries of bulbar urethra are also common in sports that involve riding. Overall, the incidence of genitourinary trauma due to sports is low. Renal traumas in sports injuries usually consist of grade I-II lesions and usually do not require surgical treatment. Cycling is the sporting activity most commonly associated with genitourinary injuries, followed by winter sports, horse riding and contact/collision sports. Literature data suggest that significant injuries are rare also in athletes with only one testicle or kidney. General preventive measures against sport-related injuries, along with the use of protective cups for male external genitalia, are generally sufficient to reduce the incidence of urogenital trauma. Overall, studies show that urogenital injuries are uncommon in team and individual sports, and that most of them are low-grade injuries. Participation in sports that involve the potential for contact or collision needs to be carefully assessed in the athletes with only one testicle or kidney, even though urogenital injuries should not preclude sports participation to an appropriately informed and counseled patient. Further research is needed to acquire more knowledge on genitourinary injuries according to age, sports type and technical skill.

  4. Quality of trauma care and trauma registries.

    PubMed

    Pino Sánchez, F I; Ballesteros Sanz, M A; Cordero Lorenzana, L; Guerrero López, F

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic disease is a major public health concern. Monitoring the quality of services provided is essential for the maintenance and improvement thereof. Assessing and monitoring the quality of care in trauma patient through quality indicators would allow identifying opportunities for improvement whose implementation would improve outcomes in hospital mortality, functional outcomes and quality of life of survivors. Many quality indicators have been used in this condition, although very few ones have a solid level of scientific evidence to recommend their routine use. The information contained in the trauma registries, spread around the world in recent decades, is essential to know the current health care reality, identify opportunities for improvement and contribute to the clinical and epidemiological research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothermia in trauma.

    PubMed

    Moffatt, Samuel Edwin

    2013-12-01

    Hypovolaemic shock that results through traumatically inflicted haemorrhage can have disastrous consequences for the victim. Initially the body can compensate for lost circulating volume, but as haemorrhage continues compensatory mechanisms fail and the patient's condition worsens significantly. Hypovolaemia results in the lethal triad, a combination of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy, three factors that are interlinked and serve to worsen each other. The lethal triad is a form of vicious cycle, which unless broken will result in death. This report will focus on the role of hypothermia (a third of the lethal triad) in trauma, examining literature to assess how prehospital temperature control can impact on the trauma patient. Spontaneous hypothermia following trauma has severely deleterious consequences for the trauma victim; however, both active warming of patients and clinically induced hypothermia can produce particularly positive results and improve patient outcome. Possible coagulopathic side effects of clinically induced hypothermia may be corrected with topical haemostatic agents, with the benefits of an extended golden hour given by clinically induced hypothermia far outweighing these risks. Active warming of patients, to prevent spontaneous trauma induced hypothermia, is currently the only viable method currently available to improve patient outcome. This method is easy to implement requiring simple protocols and contributes significantly to interrupting the lethal triad. However, the future of trauma care appears to lie with clinically induced therapeutic hypothermia. This new treatment provides optimism that in the future the number of deaths resulting from catastrophic haemorrhaging may be significantly lessened.

  6. Noninvasive ventilation in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Karcz, Marcin K; Papadakos, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Trauma patients are a diverse population with heterogeneous needs for ventilatory support. This requirement depends mainly on the severity of their ventilatory dysfunction, degree of deterioration in gaseous exchange, any associated injuries, and the individual feasibility of potentially using a noninvasive ventilation approach. Noninvasive ventilation may reduce the need to intubate patients with trauma-related hypoxemia. It is well-known that these patients are at increased risk to develop hypoxemic respiratory failure which may or may not be associated with hypercapnia. Hypoxemia in these patients is due to ventilation perfusion mismatching and right to left shunt because of lung contusion, atelectasis, an inability to clear secretions as well as pneumothorax and/or hemothorax, all of which are common in trauma patients. Noninvasive ventilation has been tried in these patients in order to avoid the complications related to endotracheal intubation, mainly ventilator-associated pneumonia. The potential usefulness of noninvasive ventilation in the ventilatory management of trauma patients, though reported in various studies, has not been sufficiently investigated on a large scale. According to the British Thoracic Society guidelines, the indications and efficacy of noninvasive ventilation treatment in respiratory distress induced by trauma have thus far been inconsistent and merely received a low grade recommendation. In this review paper, we analyse and compare the results of various studies in which noninvasive ventilation was applied and discuss the role and efficacy of this ventilator modality in trauma. PMID:25685722

  7. Acute external laryngeal trauma: experience with 112 patients.

    PubMed

    Butler, Allen P; Wood, Brennan P; O'Rourke, Ashli K; Porubsky, Edward S

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to promote early recognition, expeditious evaluation, and judicious management of acute external laryngeal trauma. A retrospective chart review was performed of 112 cases that were managed at a Medical College of Georgia tertiary care hospital by the senior author (E.S.P.). Patients were classified by the time of their presentation, the severity of their injury, and the treatment protocol followed. The clinical outcomes of airway, voice quality, and deglutition were retrospectively reviewed. For voice outcomes, in the delayed treatment group, only 27.7% of patients had a good result, as compared to a 78.3% good result in the early treatment group. Similar differences were demonstrated regarding the airway. In the delayed treatment group, only 73.3% had good airway function, as compared to 93.3% who had good airway function in the early treatment group. Ninety-nine percent of all patients had a good result for deglutition. We conclude that expeditious diagnosis and intervention reduce the incidence of suboptimal clinical outcomes, and with timely and appropriate application of diagnostic and management protocols, the majority of patients will be successfully decannulated (97%) with functional speech (100%) and normal deglutition (99%).

  8. Massive blood transfusions post trauma in the elderly compared to younger patients.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Biswadev; Olaussen, Alexander; Cameron, Peter A; O'Donohoe, Tom; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Older age and blood transfusion have both been independently associated with higher mortality post trauma and the combination is expected to be associated with catastrophic outcomes. Among patients who received a massive transfusion post trauma, we aimed to investigate mortality at hospital discharge of patients ≥65 years old and explore variables associated with poor outcomes. A retrospective review of registry data on all major trauma patients presenting to a level I trauma centre between 2006 and 2011 was conducted. Mortality at hospital discharge among patients ≥65 years old was compared to the younger cohort. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to determine independent risk-factors for mortality among older patients. There were 51 (16.4%) patients of age ≥65 years who received a massive transfusion. There were 20 (39.2%) deaths, a proportion significantly higher than 55 (21.1%) deaths among younger patients (p<0.01). Pre-hospital GCS, the presence of acute traumatic coagulopathy and higher systolic blood pressure on presentation were independently associated with higher mortality. Age and volume of red cells transfused were not significantly associated with higher mortality. Survival to hospital discharge was demonstrated in elderly patients receiving massive transfusions post trauma, even in the presence of multiple risk factors for mortality. Restrictive resuscitation or transfusion on the basis of age alone cannot be supported. Early aggressive resuscitation of elderly trauma patients along specific guidelines directed at the geriatric population is justified and may further improve outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Airway Microbiome at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Charitharth Vivek; Travers, Colm; Aghai, Zubair H.; Eipers, Peter; Jilling, Tamas; Halloran, Brian; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Keeley, Jordan; Rezonzew, Gabriel; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Bhandari, Vineet; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam

    2016-01-01

    Alterations of pulmonary microbiome have been recognized in multiple respiratory disorders. It is critically important to ascertain if an airway microbiome exists at birth and if so, whether it is associated with subsequent lung disease. We found an established diverse and similar airway microbiome at birth in both preterm and term infants, which was more diverse and different from that of older preterm infants with established chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia). Consistent temporal dysbiotic changes in the airway microbiome were seen from birth to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely preterm infants. Genus Lactobacillus was decreased at birth in infants with chorioamnionitis and in preterm infants who subsequently went on to develop lung disease. Our results, taken together with previous literature indicating a placental and amniotic fluid microbiome, suggest fetal acquisition of an airway microbiome. We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease. PMID:27488092

  10. A consensus-based criterion standard for trauma center need.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Willenbring, Brian D; Pirrallo, Ronald G; Brasel, Karen J; Cady, Charles E; Colella, M Riccardo; Cooper, Arthur; Cushman, Jeremy T; Gourlay, David M; Jurkovich, Gregory J; Newgard, Craig D; Salomone, Jeffrey P; Sasser, Scott M; Shah, Manish N; Swor, Robert A; Wang, Stewart C

    2014-04-01

    In civilian trauma care, field triage is the process applied by prehospital care providers to identify patients who are likely to have severe injuries and immediately need the resources of a trauma center. Studies of the efficacy of field triage have used various measures to define trauma center need because no "criterion standard" exists, making cross-study comparisons difficult. This study aimed to develop a consensus-based functional criterion standard definition of trauma center need. Local and national experts were recruited for participation. Blinded key informant interviews were conducted in order of availability until no new themes emerged. Themes identified during the interviews were used to develop a Modified Delphi survey, which was electronically delivered via Survey Monkey. The trauma center need criteria were refined iteratively based on participant responses. Participants completed additional surveys until there was at least 80% agreement for each criterion. Fourteen experts were recruited. Five participated in key informant interviews. A Modified Delphi survey was administered five times (four modifications based on the expert's responses). After the fifth round, there was at least 82% agreement on each criterion. The final definition included 10 time-specific indicators: major surgery, advanced airway, blood products, admission for spinal cord injury, thoracotomy, pericardiocentesis, cesarean delivery, intracranial pressure monitoring, interventional radiology, and in-hospital death. We developed a consensus-based functional criterion standard definition of needing the resources of a trauma center, which may help to standardize field triage research and quality assurance in trauma systems as well as allow for cross study comparisons.

  11. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum of Airway Smooth Muscle. Implications for Airway Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Daniel P.; Rector, Michael V.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Michalski, Andrew S.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Li, Xiaopeng; Stroik, Mallory R.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Thompson, Michael A.; Prakash, Y. S.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Meyerholz, David K.; Seow, Chun Y.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: An asthma-like airway phenotype has been described in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Whether these findings are directly caused by loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function or secondary to chronic airway infection and/or inflammation has been difficult to determine. Objectives: Airway contractility is primarily determined by airway smooth muscle. We tested the hypothesis that CFTR is expressed in airway smooth muscle and directly affects airway smooth muscle contractility. Methods: Newborn pigs, both wild type and with CF (before the onset of airway infection and inflammation), were used in this study. High-resolution immunofluorescence was used to identify the subcellular localization of CFTR in airway smooth muscle. Airway smooth muscle function was determined with tissue myography, intracellular calcium measurements, and regulatory myosin light chain phosphorylation status. Precision-cut lung slices were used to investigate the therapeutic potential of CFTR modulation on airway reactivity. Measurements and Main Results: We found that CFTR localizes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum compartment of airway smooth muscle and regulates airway smooth muscle tone. Loss of CFTR function led to delayed calcium reuptake following cholinergic stimulation and increased myosin light chain phosphorylation. CFTR potentiation with ivacaftor decreased airway reactivity in precision-cut lung slices following cholinergic stimulation. Conclusions: Loss of CFTR alters porcine airway smooth muscle function and may contribute to the airflow obstruction phenotype observed in human CF. Airway smooth muscle CFTR may represent a therapeutic target in CF and other diseases of airway narrowing. PMID:26488271

  12. Recommendations on pre-hospital & early hospital management of acute heart failure: a consensus paper from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology, the European Society of Emergency Medicine and the Society of Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mebazaa, Alexandre; Yilmaz, M Birhan; Levy, Phillip; Ponikowski, Piotr; Peacock, W Frank; Laribi, Said; Ristic, Arsen D; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Masip, Josep; Riley, Jillian P; McDonagh, Theresa; Mueller, Christian; deFilippi, Christopher; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Thiele, Holger; Piepoli, Massimo F; Metra, Marco; Maggioni, Aldo; McMurray, John; Dickstein, Kenneth; Damman, Kevin; Seferovic, Petar M; Ruschitzka, Frank; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Bellou, Abdelouahab; Anker, Stefan D; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Acute heart failure is a fatal syndrome. Emergency physicians, cardiologists, intensivists, nurses and other health care providers have to cooperate to provide optimal benefit. However, many treatment decisions are opinion-based and few are evidenced-based. This consensus paper provides guidance to practicing physicians and nurses to manage acute heart failure in the pre-hospital and hospital setting. Criteria of hospitalization and of discharge are described. Gaps in knowledge and perspectives in the management of acute heart failure are also detailed. This consensus paper on acute heart failure might help enable contiguous practice.

  13. [Orthodontics and the upper airway].

    PubMed

    Cobo Plana, J; de Carlos Villafranca, F; Macías Escalada, E

    2004-03-01

    One of the general aims of orthodontic treatment and of the combination of orthodontics and orthognathic surgery is to achieve good occlusion and aesthetic improvement, especially in cases of severe dentoskeletal deformities. However, on many occasions, the parameters of the upper airways are not taken into account when the aims of conventional treatment are fulfilled. Patients with obstructive alterations during sleep represent for the orthodontist a type of patient who differs from the normal; for them, treatment should include the objective of improving oxygen saturation. Here, functional considerations should outweigh purely aesthetic ones. It is important, when making an orthodontic, surgical or combined diagnosis for a patient, to bear in mind the impact that treatment may have on the upper airways. Good aesthetics should never be achieved for some of our patients at the expense of diminishing the capacity of their upper airways.

  14. Toxicological screening in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Carrigan, T; Field, H; Illingworth, R; Gaffney, P; Hamer, D

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To determine the prevalence and patterns of alcohol and drug use in patients with major trauma. Methods—Consecutive trauma patient enrolment, 24 hours a day, was envisaged with anonymised patient data on gender, age band, and mechanism of injury collected. The study group had surplus plasma quantitatively analysed for ethanol concentration, and urine samples were initially screened, via immunoassay, for opiates, cannabinoids, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and methadone. Confirmation and specification of individual positive results was then performed using thin layer or gas-liquid chromatography. Drugs of treatment given in the resuscitation room, if subsequently detected in the urine samples, were excluded from the final results. Results—There were 116 eligible trauma patients assessed and treated in the resuscitation room over a six month period, of which 93 (80%) were enrolled. Altogether 27% of this trauma population had plasma ethanol concentrations greater than 80 mg/dl. There was a significantly higher prevalence of alcohol intoxication in the group not involved in a road traffic accident (RTA) compared with the group who were involved in a RTA. Initial screening of urine for drugs revealed a prevalence of 51%. After 12 exclusions due to iatrogenic administration of opiates, the final confirmed prevalence was 35% in this trauma population. The individual drug prevalence was 13% for cannabinoids, 11% for codeine, 8% for morphine, 6% for amphetamine, 6% for benzodiazepines, 3% for cocaine, 1% for dihydrocodeine, and 1% for methadone. Conclusions—There is a notable prevalence of drug and alcohol use in this British accident and emergency trauma population. A significantly higher prevalence for alcohol intoxication was found in the non-RTA group compared with the RTA group. The patterns of drug usage detected reflect local influences and less cocaine use is seen compared with American studies. The association between alcohol, drugs

  15. Trauma in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Haywood L

    2009-07-01

    Acute traumatic injury during pregnancy is a significant contributor to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the United States. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of injury-related maternal death, followed by violence and assault. Lack of seat belts or other restraints increases the risks of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends proper seat belt use by all pregnant women and screening for domestic abuse. Maternal injury and death from physical abuse is prevalent, and in some communities, homicide is a major cause of pregnancy-associated maternal death. Blunt trauma most often occurs as a result of motor vehicle accidents, whereas penetrating trauma results from gunshots or stabbings. Blunt trauma to the abdomen increases the risk for placental abruption, and direct fetal injury is more likely with penetrating trauma. Management strategies in acute maternal trauma must focus on a thorough assessment of the mother. A coordinated team effort that includes the obstetrician is essential to ensure optimal maternal and fetal outcomes. Imaging studies should not be delayed because of concerns of fetal radiation exposure, because the risk is minimal with usual imaging procedures, especially in mid-to-late pregnancy. The obstetrician should serve in a consultative role if nonobstetric surgical care is required and must also be prepared to intervene on behalf of the mother and the fetus if trauma care is compromised by the pregnancy. Perimortem cesarean delivery should be considered early in the resuscitation of a pregnant trauma victim, especially when fetal viability is a concern. Once the mother is stabilized in the emergency setting, she should be transported for appropriate maternal and fetal observation until both mother and fetus are clear of danger. It is essential that the clinician and staff maintain thorough and accurate documentation and recording of the chronology of

  16. Maxillofacial Fractures and Dental Trauma in a High School Soccer Goalkeeper: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mihalik, Jason P; Myers, Joseph B; Sell, Timothy C; Anish, Eric J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of a 17-year-old male soccer goalkeeper who sustained maxillofacial fractures and dental trauma after being struck in the face by an opponent's knee. Background: Because of the nature of the sport and a lack of protective headgear, soccer players are at risk for sustaining maxillofacial trauma. Facial injuries can complicate the routine management of on-field medical emergencies often encountered by certified athletic trainers. The appropriate management of maxillofacial trauma on the playing field may help to reduce both the immediate and long-term morbidity and mortality associated with these injuries. Differential Diagnosis: Lacerated superior labial artery, lacerated upper lip, dental fractures, maxillofacial fractures, orbital blowout fracture, closed head injury, cervical spine injury, cerebrovascular accident. Treatment: The athlete received immediate on-field medical care and was subsequently transported to the hospital, where diagnostic testing was performed and further treatment was provided. Hospital inpatient management included dental and plastic surgery. After discharge from the hospital, the athlete underwent several additional dental procedures, including gingival surgery and nonsurgical endodontic treatments. The fractures were followed closely to assure that adequate healing had occurred. The athlete did not return to soccer. Uniqueness: Certified athletic trainers need to be prepared for on-field medical emergencies. Bleeding associated with maxillofacial trauma can complicate basic medical interventions such as airway maintenance. Inappropriate on-field management may result in unnecessary morbidity and mortality for the injured athlete. Therefore, immediate recognition of the severity of the injury is needed in order to institute appropriate airway-management strategies. Conclusions: It is sometimes necessary to consider nonstandard methods of airway management in order to first address heavy bleeding that may be

  17. Airway management in the hospital environment.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Ray; Parry, Andy; Williams, Meirion

    In the hospital environment, patients can deteriorate rapidly and for many different reasons. Maintaining a patient's breathing is the main priority in any emergency situation, although achieving airway control can be difficult. All health professionals need to be able to undertake airway management safely. The key is a thorough assessment to ensure first of all whether the airway is patent (open and clear) or not. This article will discuss airway management, both acute and chronic, as well as associated nursing care.

  18. Mechanotransduction, asthma, and airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fabry, Ben; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    Excessive force generation by airway smooth muscle is the main culprit in excessive airway narrowing during an asthma attack. The maximum force the airway smooth muscle can generate is exquisitely sensitive to muscle length fluctuations during breathing, and is governed by complex mechanotransduction events that can best be studied by a hybrid approach in which the airway wall is modeled in silico so as to set a dynamic muscle load comparable to that experienced in vivo. PMID:18836522

  19. Helicopter Evacuation Following a Rural Trauma: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario Using Innovative Simulation Technology

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Ravalia, Mohamed; Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Brown, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of simulation as a teaching tool for medical professionals working in rural and remote contexts is apparent when low-frequency, high-risk situations are considered. Simulation training has been shown to enhance learning and improve patient outcomes in urban settings. However, there are few simulation scenarios designed to teach rural trauma management during complex medical transportation. In this technical report, we present a scenario using a medevac helicopter (Replica of Sikorsky S-92 designed by Virtual Marine Technology, St. John's, NL) at a rural community. This case can be used for training primary care physicians who are working in a rural or remote setting, or as an innovative addition to emergency medicine and pre-hospital care training programs. PMID:27081585

  20. Helicopter Evacuation Following a Rural Trauma: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario Using Innovative Simulation Technology.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Desmond; Harty, Chris; Ravalia, Mohamed; Renouf, Tia; Alani, Sabrina; Brown, Robert; Dubrowski, Adam

    2016-03-08

    The relevance of simulation as a teaching tool for medical professionals working in rural and remote contexts is apparent when low-frequency, high-risk situations are considered. Simulation training has been shown to enhance learning and improve patient outcomes in urban settings. However, there are few simulation scenarios designed to teach rural trauma management during complex medical transportation. In this technical report, we present a scenario using a medevac helicopter (Replica of Sikorsky S-92 designed by Virtual Marine Technology, St. John's, NL) at a rural community. This case can be used for training primary care physicians who are working in a rural or remote setting, or as an innovative addition to emergency medicine and pre-hospital care training programs.

  1. Airway Assessment for Office Sedation/Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Morton B; Phero, James C

    2015-01-01

    Whenever a patient is about to receive sedation or general anesthesia, no matter what the technique, the preoperative assessment of the airway is one of the most important steps in ensuring patient safety and positive outcomes. This article, Part III in the series on airway management, is directed at the ambulatory office practice and focuses on predicting the success of advanced airway rescue techniques.

  2. Comments to Role of upper airway ultrasound in airway management.

    PubMed

    Lien, Wan-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal ultrasound can be an alternative diagnostic tool in airway management, besides traditional confirmatory methods such as capnography and auscultation. The standard image is a hyperechoic air-mucosa (A-M) interface with a reverberation artifact posteriorly (comet-tail artifact). If the second A-M interface appears, which we call a "double-tract sign," esophageal intubation is considered.

  3. Disseminated pneumocephalus secondary to an unusual facial trauma.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Altan; Duce, Meltem Nass; Ozer, Caner; Apaydin, F Demir; Eğilmez, Hulusi; Kara, Engin

    2002-04-01

    Pneumocephalus can be secondary to a postintrathecal procedure, sinus fracture, basilar skull fracture, congenital skull defect, neoplasm, gas producing organism, barotrauma, neurosurgery, paranasal sinus surgery, mask or nasal continuous positive-airway pressure. Unusual facial traumas can also be rare causes of pneumocephalus. Here, we present such a case in whom an air compressor tip injury to both eyes led to the disseminated pneumocephalus. We report this rare case with the computed tomography findings and try to explain the possible mechanism of the pnemocephalus.

  4. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides cause airway contraction and lung neutrophil infiltration via formyl peptide receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; Szasz, Theodora; McCarthy, Cameron G; Baban, Babak; NeSmith, Elizabeth; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory failure is a common characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MITs) are DAMPs that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides, and are potent immune system activators. Recently, we observed that hemorrhagic shock-induced increases in plasma levels of F-MITs associated with lung damage, and that antagonism of formyl peptide receptors (FPR) ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury in rats. Corroborating these data, in the present study, it was observed that F-MITs expression is higher in plasma samples from trauma patients with SIRS or sepsis when compared to control trauma group. Therefore, to better understand the role of F-MITs in the regulation of lung and airway function, we studied the hypothesis that F-MITs lead to airway contraction and lung inflammation. We observed that F-MITs induced concentration-dependent contraction in trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. However, pre-treatment with mast cells degranulator or FPR antagonist decreased this response. Finally, intratracheal challenge with F-MITs increased neutrophil elastase expression in lung and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cell division control protein 42 expression in all airway segments. These data suggest that F-MITs could be a putative target to treat respiratory failure in trauma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Male genital trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references.

  6. Ultrasonography in ocular trauma.

    PubMed

    Dastevska-Djosevska, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, simple and effective diagnostic method which enables visualization and evaluation of intraocular injury degree in cloudy eye media. The basic aim of this investigation was to find out the frequency of various types of ocular injuries using ultrasonography and to make an analysis of their frequency in relation to gender and age. This retrospective study included 182 patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Ophthalmology in Skopje due to mechanical eye trauma. The patients underwent ultrasonography on the Alcon Ultrascan Imagining System apparatus and Sonomed EZ Scan AB 5500+. B scan technique was used primarily, while the A scan had a positive and correlative role. Ocular trauma was more present in males (85.2%) compared to females (14.8%). 49.5% of the patients had open, and 50.5% had closed globe injuries. The most represented age group in ocular injuries was the age ranged from 51 to 60 years. There was no significant difference between the type of mechanical injury and the age (Chi-Squares=5.52 p=0.47895025). Ultrasonography showed that the most frequent pathologic result, both in open and closed globe injuries, was vitreous hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has an irreplaceable role in the clinical evaluation and management of ocular trauma. It showed that the most frequent finding in ocular trauma was vitreous haemorrhage, and the male gender was more frequently exposed to ocular trauma.

  7. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.

  8. Trauma quiz. Terribly troublesome, trauma teeth.

    PubMed

    Feiglin, B

    1998-08-01

    Unfortunately, we come across many traumatised teeth during our practising career. Some of these traumatic injuries are rather simple to treat whereas others provide us with a real challenge. It is absolutely essential that the diagnosis of the injury be known before any treatment is attempted. When it comes to trauma, however, defining the exact form of treatment can often be very difficult. In this paper I will discuss some of the cases that I have managed and leave it up to YOU to decide whether my treatment has been correct, incorrect or whether there is some other form of treatment that we have at our disposal that could have been attempted.

  9. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults†

    PubMed Central

    Frerk, C.; Mitchell, V. S.; McNarry, A. F.; Mendonca, C.; Bhagrath, R.; Patel, A.; O'Sullivan, E. P.; Woodall, N. M.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team. PMID:26556848

  10. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Neil R; Shaykhiev, Renat; Walters, Matthew S; Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G

    2011-05-04

    The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  11. The Human Airway Epithelial Basal Cell Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Zwick, Rachel K.; Ferris, Barbara; Witover, Bradley; Salit, Jacqueline; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    Background The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. Methodology/Principal Findings Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the “human airway basal cell signature” as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. Conclusion/Significance The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem

  12. Trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Godier, A; Susen, S

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhage is the leading cause of death in trauma patients who arrive alive at hospital. This type of hemorrhage has a "coagulopathic" component, specific to major trauma and associated with poor outcomes. Over the last decade, a better understanding of this trauma-induced coagulopathy lead to a new therapeutic approach requiring earlier and more aggressive management. This hemostatic resuscitation includes early activation of massive transfusion protocols with: 1) immediate delivery of blood packs with high ratios for RBC units: fresh frozen plasma: platelet-concentrates; 2) antifibrinolytics; 3) substitution of coagulation factors. However, early identification of coagulopathic patients requiring aggressive hemostatic resuscitation remains challenging, with an increasing role of point of care devices for hemostatic diagnosis and monitoring. Efforts have to be focused on the early diagnosis of coagulopathy for immediate delivery of blood products and coagulation factors to the right, accurately screened patients through pre-established protocols within the golden hour. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Mucormycosis in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Cocanour, C S; Miller-Crotchett, P; Reed, R L; Johnson, P C; Fischer, R P

    1992-01-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare but often fatal infection in trauma patients. We retrospectively reviewed a 9-year experience with mucormycosis among injured patients. Eleven patients had biopsy- or culture-proven mucormycosis. Nine patients were victims of blunt trauma, two patients had burns measuring greater than 50% TBSA. No patient was at increased risk because of underlying disease or immunosuppression prior to injury. All 11 patients had open wounds on admission. Four patients died of mucormycosis. All nonsurvivors had phycomycotic gangrenous cellulitis of the head, the trunk, or both. In contrast, survivors had involvement of only the extremities. Because of underlying disease, contaminating wounds, antibiotic use, or immunocompromise secondary to shock and sepsis, trauma patients are at risk of developing mucormycosis. To successfully treat mucormycosis, diagnosis must be prompt and accompanied by aggressive debridement and parenteral administration of amphotericin B.

  14. Transfusion practices in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, V Trichur; Cattamanchi, Srihari

    2014-01-01

    Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs) and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury. PMID:25535424

  15. Paediatric Blunt Torso Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Khalid M.; Taqi, Kadhim M.; Al-Harthy, Ahmed Z. S.; Hamid, Rana S.; Al-Balushi, Zainab N.; Sankhla, Dilip K.; Al-Qadhi, Hani A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Trauma is the greatest cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric/adolescent populations worldwide. This study aimed to describe trauma mechanisms, patterns and outcomes among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) in Muscat, Oman. Methods: This retrospective single-centre study involved all children ≤12 years old with blunt torso trauma admitted for paediatric surgical care at SQUH between January 2009 and December 2013. Medical records were analysed to collect demographic and clinical data. Results: A total of 70 children were admitted with blunt torso trauma during the study period, including 39 (55.7%) male patients. The mean age was 5.19 ± 2.66 years. Of the cohort, 35 children (50.0%) received their injuries after having been hit by cars as pedestrians, while 19 (27.1%) were injured by falls, 12 (17.1%) during car accidents as passengers and four (5.7%) by falling heavy objects. According to computed tomography scans, thoracic injuries were most common (65.7%), followed by abdominal injuries (42.9%). The most commonly involved solid organs were the liver (15.7%) and spleen (11.4%). The majority of the patients were managed conservatively (92.9%) with a good outcome (74.3%). The mortality rate was 7.1%. Most deaths were due to multisystem involvement. Conclusion: Among children with blunt torso trauma admitted to SQUH, the main mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accidents. As a result, parental education and enforcement of infant car seat/child seat belt laws are recommended. Conservative management was the most successful approach. PMID:27226913

  16. The Effect of Availability of Manpower on Trauma Resuscitation Times in a Tertiary Academic Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Nathaniel Xin Ern; Koh, Zhi Xiong; Nadkarni, Nivedita; Singaram, Kanageswari; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Background For trauma patients, delays to assessment, resuscitation, and definitive care affect outcomes. We studied the effects of resuscitation area occupancy and trauma team size on trauma team resuscitation speed in an observational study at a tertiary academic institution in Singapore. Methods From January 2014 to January 2015, resuscitation videos of trauma team activated patients with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or more were extracted for review within 14 days by independent reviewers. Exclusion criteria were patients dead on arrival, inter-hospital transfers, and up-triaged patients. Data captured included manpower availability (trauma team size and resuscitation area occupancy), assessment (airway, breathing, circulation, logroll), interventions (vascular access, imaging), and process-of-care time intervals (time to assessment/intervention/adjuncts, time to imaging, and total time in the emergency department). Clinical data were obtained by chart review and from the trauma registry. Results Videos of 70 patients were reviewed over a 13-month period. The median time spent in the emergency department was 154.9 minutes (IQR 130.7–207.5) and the median resuscitation team size was 7, with larger team sizes correlating with faster process-of-care time intervals: time to airway assessment (p = 0.08) and time to disposition (p = 0.04). The mean resuscitation area occupancy rate (RAOR) was 1.89±2.49, and the RAOR was positively correlated with time spent in the emergency department (p = 0.009). Conclusion Our results suggest that adequate staffing for trauma teams and resuscitation room occupancy are correlated with faster trauma resuscitation and reduced time spent in the emergency department. PMID:27136299

  17. The Effect of Availability of Manpower on Trauma Resuscitation Times in a Tertiary Academic Hospital.

    PubMed

    Tan, Timothy Xin Zhong; Quek, Nathaniel Xin Ern; Koh, Zhi Xiong; Nadkarni, Nivedita; Singaram, Kanageswari; Ho, Andrew Fu Wah; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Wong, Ting Hway

    2016-01-01

    For trauma patients, delays to assessment, resuscitation, and definitive care affect outcomes. We studied the effects of resuscitation area occupancy and trauma team size on trauma team resuscitation speed in an observational study at a tertiary academic institution in Singapore. From January 2014 to January 2015, resuscitation videos of trauma team activated patients with an Injury Severity Score of 9 or more were extracted for review within 14 days by independent reviewers. Exclusion criteria were patients dead on arrival, inter-hospital transfers, and up-triaged patients. Data captured included manpower availability (trauma team size and resuscitation area occupancy), assessment (airway, breathing, circulation, logroll), interventions (vascular access, imaging), and process-of-care time intervals (time to assessment/intervention/adjuncts, time to imaging, and total time in the emergency department). Clinical data were obtained by chart review and from the trauma registry. Videos of 70 patients were reviewed over a 13-month period. The median time spent in the emergency department was 154.9 minutes (IQR 130.7-207.5) and the median resuscitation team size was 7, with larger team sizes correlating with faster process-of-care time intervals: time to airway assessment (p = 0.08) and time to disposition (p = 0.04). The mean resuscitation area occupancy rate (RAOR) was 1.89±2.49, and the RAOR was positively correlated with time spent in the emergency department (p = 0.009). Our results suggest that adequate staffing for trauma teams and resuscitation room occupancy are correlated with faster trauma resuscitation and reduced time spent in the emergency department.

  18. Airway nerves: in vitro electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Fox, Alyson

    2002-06-01

    Recording the activity of single airway sensory fibres or neuronal cell bodies in vitro has allowed detailed characterisation of fibre types and membrane properties. Fibre types can be identified by their conduction velocities and further studied by the application of drugs to their receptive field. C-fibres are sensitive to mechanical stimuli and a range of irritant chemicals (bradykinin, capsaicin, low pH, platelet-activating factor), whereas Adelta-fibres are relatively insensitive to chemical stimuli and appear to correlate to the rapidly adapting receptors identified in airways in vivo. Their site of origin also differs: upper airway C-fibres arise predominantly from the jugular ganglion and Adelta-fibres from the jugular and nodose ganglia. Intracellular recording from cell bodies in the ganglia has revealed a calcium-dependent potassium current common to many putative C-fibre cell bodies. This slow after hyperpolarisation current may be inhibited by stimuli that excite and sensitise C-fibres - this could be an important mechanism underlying the sensitisation of C-fibres in airway irritability.

  19. A novel trauma model: naturally occurring canine trauma.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kelly E; Sharp, Claire R; Adams, Cynthia R; Beilman, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    In human trauma patients, most deaths result from hemorrhage and brain injury, whereas late deaths, although rare, are the result of multiple organ failure and sepsis. A variety of experimental animal models have been developed to investigate the pathophysiology of traumatic injury and evaluate novel interventions. Similar to other experimental models, these trauma models cannot recapitulate conditions of naturally occurring trauma, and therefore therapeutic interventions based on these models are often ineffective. Pet dogs with naturally occurring traumatic injury represent a promising translational model for human trauma that could be used to assess novel therapies. The purpose of this article was to review the naturally occurring canine trauma literature to highlight the similarities between canine and human trauma. The American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Veterinary Committee on Trauma has initiated the establishment of a national network of veterinary trauma centers to enhance uniform delivery of care to canine trauma patients. In addition, the Spontaneous Trauma in Animals Team, a multidisciplinary, multicenter group of researchers has created a clinical research infrastructure for carrying out large-scale clinical trials in canine trauma patients. Moving forward, these national resources can be utilized to facilitate multicenter prospective studies of canine trauma to evaluate therapies and interventions that have shown promise in experimental animal models, thus closing the critical gap in the translation of knowledge from experimental models to humans and increasing the likelihood of success in phases 1 and 2 human clinical trials.

  20. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will this in some way impair their responding to current or ongoing trauma? The paper addresses practical strategies for implementing one evidence-based treatment, Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth with ongoing traumas. Collaboration with local therapists and families participating in TF-CBT community and international programs elucidated effective strategies for applying TF-CBT with these youth. These strategies included: 1) enhancing safety early in treatment; 2) effectively engaging parents who experience personal ongoing trauma; and 3) during the trauma narrative and processing component focusing on a) increasing parental awareness and acceptance of the extent of the youths’ ongoing trauma experiences; b) addressing youths’ maladaptive cognitions about ongoing traumas; and c) helping youth differentiate between real danger and generalized trauma reminders. Case examples illustrate how to use these strategies in diverse clinical situations. Through these strategies TF-CBT clinicians can effectively improve outcomes for youth experiencing ongoing traumas. PMID:21855140

  1. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  2. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases.

    PubMed

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-09-14

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact.

  4. The Lung Microbiome and Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Susan V

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has demonstrated relationships between the composition of the airway microbiota (mixed-species communities of microbes that exist in the respiratory tract) and critical features of immune response and pulmonary function. These studies provide evidence that airway inflammatory status and capacity for repair are coassociated with specific taxonomic features of the airway microbiome. Although directionality has yet to be established, the fact that microbes are known drivers of inflammation and tissue damage suggests that in the context of chronic inflammatory airway disease, the composition and, more importantly, the function, of the pulmonary microbiome represent critical factors in defining airway disease outcomes.

  5. Coagulopathy of Trauma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mitchell J; Christie, S Ariane

    2017-01-01

    Coagulopathy is common after injury and develops independently from iatrogenic, hypothermic, and dilutional causes. Despite considerable research on the topic over the past decade, trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) continues to portend poor outcomes, including decreased survival. We review the current evidence regarding the diagnosis and mechanisms underlying trauma induced coagulopathy and summarize the debates regarding optimal management strategy including product resuscitation, potential pharmacologic adjuncts, and targeted approaches to hemostasis. Throughout, we will identify areas of continued investigation and controversy in the understanding and management of TIC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chest Wall Trauma.

    PubMed

    Majercik, Sarah; Pieracci, Fredric M

    2017-05-01

    Chest wall trauma is common, and contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality of trauma patients. Early identification of major chest wall and concomitant intrathoracic injuries is critical. Generalized management of multiple rib fractures and flail chest consists of adequate pain control (including locoregional modalities); management of pulmonary dysfunction by invasive and noninvasive means; and, in some cases, surgical fixation. Multiple studies have shown that patients with flail chest have substantial benefit (decreased ventilator and intensive care unit days, improved pulmonary function, and improved long-term functional outcome) when they undergo surgery compared with nonoperative management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Airway management in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Ashok R

    2008-07-01

    In patients who present with advanced anaplastic thyroid cancer, airway management is difficult because of bilateral vocal cord paralysis or tracheal invasion by the tumor. Airway management can be extremely complex in these patients. This is the author's 25 year experience with 30 patients who presented with anaplastic thyroid cancer and acute airway problems. The patients' airway issues developed soon after presentation or a few months after treatment. Ten patients presented with initial symptoms of acute airway distress. All of these patients were treated with tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy. The 10 patients who presented with initial symptoms of acute airway distress died within 4 months. Eight of the remaining 20 patients developed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Airway management for these patients depended on the extent of distant disease and the family's understanding of the advanced nature of the disease and the palliative efforts. The remaining patients had a palliative and supportive approach. Airway management was the most critical issue in patients who presented with anaplastic thyroid cancer and initial airway distress. Cricothyrotomy was helpful in avoiding acute airway catastrophe. It is important to distinguish between poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer and lymphoma for appropriate airway management.

  8. Airway malacia in children with achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Dessoffy, Kimberly E; Modaff, Peggy; Pauli, Richard M

    2014-02-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the frequency of airway malacia in infants and young children with achondroplasia, a population well known to be at risk for a variety of respiratory problems. We also wished to evaluate what, if any, contribution airway malacia makes to the complex respiratory issues that may be present in those with achondroplasia. Retrospective chart review of all infants and young children with achondroplasia who were assessed through the Midwest Regional Bone Dysplasia Clinics from 1985 through 2012 (n = 236) was completed. Records of comprehensive clinical examinations, polysomnographic assessments, and airway visualization were reviewed and abstracted using a data collection form. Analyses were completed comparing the group with and those without evidence for airway malacia. Thirteen of 236 patients (5.5%) were found to have airway malacia. Most of those affected had lower airway involvement (9/13). The presence of airway malacia was correlated with an increased occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea as well as need for oxygen supplementation, airway surgeries and tracheostomy placement. Although estimates of the frequency of airway malacia in the general population are limited, its frequency in children with achondroplasia appears to be much higher than any published general population estimate. The presence of airway malacia appears to confound other breathing abnormalities in this population and results in the need for more invasive airway treatments.

  9. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidity in CF. We used a novel, mini-Ussing chamber system to investigate the properties of HCO3− transport in native porcine small airways (∼ 1 mm φ). We assayed HCO3− transport across small airway epithelia as reflected by the transepithelial voltage, conductance, and equivalent short-circuit current with bilateral 25-mM HCO3− plus 125-mM NaGlu Ringer’s solution in the presence of luminal amiloride (10 μM). Under these conditions, because no major transportable anions other than HCO3− were present, we took the equivalent short-circuit current to be a direct measure of active HCO3− secretion. Applying selective agonists and inhibitors, we show constitutive HCO3− secretion in small airways, which can be stimulated significantly by β-adrenergic– (cAMP) and purinergic (Ca2+) -mediated agonists, independently. These results indicate that two separate components for HCO3− secretion, likely via CFTR- and calcium-activated chloride channel–dependent processes, are physiologically regulated for likely roles in mucus clearance and antimicrobial innate defenses of small airways. PMID:24224935

  10. Effect of direct and indirect transfer status on trauma mortality in sub Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Boschini, Laura P; Lu-Myers, Yemeng; Msiska, Nelson; Cairns, Bruce; Charles, Anthony G

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic injuries account for the greatest portion of global surgical burden particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To assess effectiveness of a developing trauma system, we hypothesize that there are survival differences between direct and indirect transfer of trauma patients to a tertiary hospital in sub Saharan Africa. Retrospective analysis of 51,361 trauma patients within the Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH) trauma registry from 2008 to 2012 was performed. Analysis of patient characteristics and logistic regression modelling for in-hospital mortality was performed. The primary study outcome is in hospital mortality in the direct and indirect transfer groups. There were 50,059 trauma patients were included in this study. 6578 patients transferred from referring facilities and 43,481 patients transported from the scene. The indirect and direct transfer cohorts were similar in age and sex. The mechanism of injury for transferred patients was 78.1% blunt, 14.5% penetrating, and 7.4% other, whereas for the scene group it was 70.7% blunt, 24.0% penetrating, and 5.2% other. Median times to presentation were 13 (4-30) and 3 (1-14)h for transferred and scene patients, respectively. Mortality rate was 4.2% and 1.6% for indirect and direct transfer cohorts, respectively. A total of 8816 patients were admitted of which 3636 and 5963 were in the transfer and scene cohort, respectively. After logistic regression analysis, the adjusted in-hospital mortality odds ratio was 2.09 (1.24-3.54); P=0.006 for indirect transfer versus direct transfer cohort, after controlling for significant covariates. Direct transfer of trauma patients from the scene to the tertiary care centre is associated with a survival benefit. Our findings suggest that trauma education and efforts directed at regionalization of trauma care, strengthening pre-hospital care and timely transfer from district hospitals could mitigate trauma-related mortality in a resource-poor setting. Copyright

  11. Sarcoidosis of the upper and lower airways.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Teirstein, Alvin S

    2011-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease. It is one of a few interstitial lung diseases that affects the entire length of the respiratory tract - from the nose to the terminal bronchioles - and causes a broad spectrum of airways dysfunction. This article examines airway dysfunction in sarcoidosis. The anatomical structure of the airways is the organizational framework for our discussion. We discuss sarcoidosis involving the nose, sinuses, nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi and small airways. Common complications of airways disease, such as, atelectasis, fibrosis, bullous leions, bronchiectasis, cavitary lesions and mycetomas, are also reviewed.

  12. Penetrating cardiac trauma: analysis of 240 cases from a hospital in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Isaza-Restrepo, Andres; Bolívar-Sáenz, Dínimo José; Tarazona-Lara, Marcos; Tovar, José Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Trauma characteristics and its management is influenced by socioeconomic context. Cardiac trauma constitutes a challenge for surgeons, and outcomes depend on multiple factors including initial care, characteristics of the wounds, and surgical management. This is a retrospective cross-sectional case series of patients with penetrating cardiac injuries (PCI) from January 1999 to October 2009 who underwent surgery in a trauma referral center in Bogotá, Colombia. Demographic variables, trauma characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were analyzed. The study included 240 cases: 96.2% males, mean age of 27.8 years. Overall mortality was 14.6%: 11.7% from stab wounds and 41.2% from gunshot wounds. Upon admission, 44% had a normal hemodynamic status and 67% had cardiac tamponade. About 32% had Grade II injuries and 29% Grade IV injuries. In 85% of the cases, there were ventricular compromise and 55% of patients had associated lesions. In 150 cases, a pericardial window was performed. Highest mortality occurred in wounds to the right atrium. In tamponade patients, mortality was 20% being higher for gunshot wounds (54.5%) than for stab wounds (18%) (p = 0.0120). The study evidenced predominance of stab wounds. Based on characteristics of the trauma, patients, and survival rate, there is most likely a high pre-hospitalization mortality rate. The difference in mortality due to stab wounds and those produced by gunshots was more related to technical difficulties of the surgical repair than with the type of injury established by the Injury Grading Scale. Mortality was higher in patients with cardiac tamponade. Surgical management was satisfactory using pericardial window as the diagnostic method and sternotomy as the surgical approach.

  13. Airway remodeling in asthma: what really matters.

    PubMed

    Fehrenbach, Heinz; Wagner, Christina; Wegmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Airway remodeling is generally quite broadly defined as any change in composition, distribution, thickness, mass or volume and/or number of structural components observed in the airway wall of patients relative to healthy individuals. However, two types of airway remodeling should be distinguished more clearly: (1) physiological airway remodeling, which encompasses structural changes that occur regularly during normal lung development and growth leading to a normal mature airway wall or as an acute and transient response to injury and/or inflammation, which ultimately results in restoration of a normal airway structures; and (2) pathological airway remodeling, which comprises those structural alterations that occur as a result of either disturbed lung development or as a response to chronic injury and/or inflammation leading to persistently altered airway wall structures and function. This review will address a few major aspects: (1) what are reliable quantitative approaches to assess airway remodeling? (2) Are there any indications supporting the notion that airway remodeling can occur as a primary event, i.e., before any inflammatory process was initiated? (3) What is known about airway remodeling being a secondary event to inflammation? And (4), what can we learn from the different animal models ranging from invertebrate to primate models in the study of airway remodeling? Future studies are required addressing particularly pheno-/endotype-specific aspects of airway remodeling using both endotype-specific animal models and "endotyped" human asthmatics. Hopefully, novel in vivo imaging techniques will be further advanced to allow monitoring development, growth and inflammation of the airways already at a very early stage in life.

  14. Guided insertion of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway is superior to conventional tracheal intubation by first-month anesthesia residents after brief manikin-only training.

    PubMed

    Hohlrieder, Matthias; Brimacombe, Joseph; von Goedecke, Achim; Keller, Christian

    2006-08-01

    In the following pilot study, we compared conventional laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation (tracheal intubation) and laryngoscope-guided, gum elastic bougie-guided ProSeal laryngeal mask airway insertion (guided ProSeal) for airway management by first-month anesthesia residents after brief manikin-only training. Five first-month residents with no practical experience of airway management were observed performing these techniques in 200 ASA I-II anesthetized, paralyzed adults. Each resident managed 40 patients, 20 in each group, in random order. The number of insertion attempts, effective airway time, ventilatory capability during pressure-controlled ventilation set at 15 cm H2O, airway trauma, and skill acquisition were studied. Data were collected by unblinded observers. Insertion was more frequently successful (100% versus 65%) and effective airway time was shorter (41 +/- 24 s versus 89 +/- 62 s) in the guided ProSeal group (both P < 0.0001). Expired tidal volume was larger (730 +/- 170 mL versus 560 +/- 140 mL) and end-tidal CO(2) lower (33 +/- 4 mm Hg versus 37 +/- 5 mm Hg) in the guided ProSeal group during pressure controlled ventilation (both P < 0.0001). Blood staining was more frequent on the laryngoscope (24% versus 2%; P < 0.0001) in the tracheal intubation group. There was evidence for skill acquisition in both groups. We conclude that laryngoscope-guided, gum elastic bougie-guided insertion of the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway is superior to conventional laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation for airway management in terms of insertion success, expired tidal volume, and airway trauma by first-month anesthesia residents after brief manikin-only training. The guided ProSeal technique has potential for cardiopulmonary resuscitation by novices when conventional intubation fails.

  15. A case of a dermoid cyst compressing the airway.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rodriguez, Laura R; Pawar, Sachin; Michel, Michelle A; Campbell, Bruce H

    2012-12-01

    In this report we discuss the etiology, common locations, diagnostic approach, and treatment of a dermoid cyst. A 22-year-old man arrived at the emergency department complaining of submental fullness, an increase in snoring, choking, gagging, and difficulty breathing. The patient was taken to the operating room for a complete resection of a large dermoid cyst that was compressing his airway. Dermoid cysts are uncommon head and neck tumors mainly presenting in patients aged 15 to 35. The origin of dermoid cysts is thought to be congenital in most cases, but they can also develop from acquired factors such as trauma or surgical implantation that forces epithelial cells into deep tissues. Although benign and often asymptomatic, dermoid cysts may cause other associated symptoms due to compression of structures in the head and neck.

  16. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  17. Laparoscopy in Abdominal Trauma.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, Selman; Dorr, Katrin

    2010-02-01

    The decision in favor of surgery or nonoperative conservative treatment in blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma requires a precise diagnosis that is not always possible with imaging techniques, whereby there is great danger that an injury to the diaphragm or intestines may be overlooked. To avoid such oversights, indications for exploratory laparotomy have traditionally been generous, to the extent that up to 41% of exploratory laparotomies turn out to be nontherapeutic and could be, or could have been, avoided with laparoscopy. A diagnostic laparoscopy with therapeutic option should only be attempted in stable patients. Three trocars are usually used and the abdomen is explored systematically, beginning with the right upper quadrant and continuing clockwise. Hollow viscus injuries and injuries to the diaphragm and mesentery can be detected and sutured laparoscopically. Injuries to parenchymal organs are not a primary focus of laparoscopy, but with a laparoscopic approach, they usually no longer bleed in stable patients and can be sealed with tissue adhesive and collagen tamponade to prevent re-bleeding. The routine use of laparoscopy can achieve a sensitivity of 90-100% in abdominal trauma. This can reduce the number of unnecessary laparotomies and the related morbidity. Laparoscopy can be performed safely and effectively in stable patients with abdominal trauma. The most important advantages are reduction of the nontherapeutic laparotomy rate, morbidity, shortening of hospitalization, and cost-effectiveness. In the future, new developments in and the miniaturization of equipment can be expected to increase the use of minimally invasive techniques in abdominal trauma cases.

  18. Early Childhood Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  19. Ultrasound in cardiac trauma.

    PubMed

    Saranteas, Theodosios; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Mandila, Christina; Poularas, John; Panou, Fotios

    2017-04-01

    In the perioperative period, the emergency department or the intensive care unit accurate assessment of variable chest pain requires meticulous knowledge, diagnostic skills, and suitable usage of various diagnostic modalities. In addition, in polytrauma patients, cardiac injury including aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, acute myocardial infarction, and pericardial effusion should be immediately revealed and treated. In these patients, arrhythmias, mainly tachycardia, cardiac murmurs, or hypotension must alert physicians to suspect cardiovascular trauma, which would potentially be life threatening. Ultrasound of the heart using transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography are valuable diagnostic tools that can be used interchangeably in conjunction with other modalities such as the electrocardiogram and computed tomography for the diagnosis of cardiovascular abnormalities in trauma patients. Although ultrasound of the heart is often underused in the setting of trauma, it does have the advantages of being easily accessible, noninvasive, and rapid bedside assessment tool. This review article aims to analyze the potential cardiac injuries in trauma patients, and to provide an elaborate description of the role of echocardiography for their accurate diagnosis.

  20. Structured Sensory Trauma Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William; Kuban, Caelan

    2010-01-01

    This article features the National Institute of Trauma and Loss in Children (TLC), a program that has demonstrated via field testing, exploratory research, time series studies, and evidence-based research studies that its Structured Sensory Intervention for Traumatized Children, Adolescents, and Parents (SITCAP[R]) produces statistically…

  1. Obesity in pediatric trauma.

    PubMed

    Witt, Cordelie E; Arbabi, Saman; Nathens, Avery B; Vavilala, Monica S; Rivara, Frederick P

    2017-04-01

    The implications of childhood obesity on pediatric trauma outcomes are not clearly established. Anthropomorphic data were recently added to the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) Research Datasets, enabling a large, multicenter evaluation of the effect of obesity on pediatric trauma patients. Children ages 2 to 19years who required hospitalization for traumatic injury were identified in the 2013-2014 NTDB Research D