Science.gov

Sample records for pre-imaginal life expression

  1. The putative-farnesoic acid O-methyl transferase (FAMeT) gene of Ceratitis capitata: characterization and pre-imaginal life expression.

    PubMed

    Vannini, Laura; Ciolfi, Silvia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Panti, Cristina; Frati, Francesco; Dallai, Romano

    2010-02-01

    Farnesoic acid O-methyl transferase (FAMeT) is the enzyme involved in the penultimate step of insect juvenile hormone (JH) biosynthesis and is thus a key regulator in insect development and reproduction. We report the characterization of the putative-FAMeT in the medfly or Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. This gene was identified by suppressive subtractive hybridization and completely sequenced by the screening of a medfly cDNA library. The obtained sequence was analyzed for conserved protein domain identification and its expression profile was evaluated by quantitative Real-Time PCR in medfly pre-imaginal life. The tissue expression of the isolated gene was verified by in situ hybridization on third instar larvae sections. The characterization of the isolated gene pointed out several typical features of methyl transferase genes. The pre-imaginal putative-FAMeT expression levels were consistent with JH titer change in Diptera. As recognized in some crustaceans, this gene seems to be widely expressed in the medfly as well. Ceratitis capitata is one of the most relevant agricultural pests against which insecticides and the sterile insect technique (SIT) are extensively used in spite of the well-known limitations of these approaches. Although results are not conclusive for the physiological role of the isolated gene, they suggest the characterization of a new gene in the Mediterranean fruit fly potentially involved in JH biosynthesis and may, therefore, have implications for pest control.

  2. Carabus of Subgenus Cathoplius C.G. Thomson, 1875, with description of their life-way, life-cycle and pre-imaginal morphology (Coleoptera: Carabidae) .

    PubMed

    Busato, Enrico; Ghittino, Claudio; Casale, Achille

    2014-09-25

    According to current taxonomy, Subgenus Cathoplius C.G. Thomson, 1875, within the Genus Carabus Linnaeus, 1758 (in the broad sense), includes two species: C. (Cathoplius) asperatus (Dejean, 1826), monotypic with a northern distribution, and the southern polytypic substitutive species C. (Cathoplius) stenocephalus Lucas, 1866. The authors describe the life-way, life-cycle and pre-imaginal characters of the taxa currently ascribed to Subgenus Cathoplius, with details never provided before. Cathoplius are ground beetles adapted to live in arid environments and extreme habitats such as sub-desert areas. All of them are strictly helicophagous, both during the pre-imaginal stages and as adults, and are localized in a narrow fringe along the Atlantic coast of northwestern Africa. Several data and observations on the eco-ethology of the different taxa, obtained both in field and in laboratory, are reported. The life-cycle of Cathoplius belongs to the winter breeding type, with an extremely high fecundity rate concentrated in a very short period of time, that has no similarity to any other Carabus species. Eggs, larvae and pupae of the different species and subspecies of Cathoplius are described and illustrated. Larval characters clearly place Subgenus Cathoplius into the lineage of Neocarabi, confirming it as a monophyletic and homogeneous assemblage. Hybridization trials between some taxa led to a reduced survival rate of the progeny, thus confirming their specific or subspecific differentiation as proposed by classical taxonomy. Furthermore, hybridization results suggest that C. (Cathoplius) stenocephalus aliai could be considered as a distinct species. Notes about the origin, biogeography and phylogeny of Cathoplius are also provided.

  3. Pre-pupation behaviour of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Haliday) and its consequences for pre-imaginal learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Villagra, Cristian A.; Niemeyer, Hermann M.

    2007-07-01

    Olfactory learning may occur at different stages of insect ontogeny. In parasitoid wasps, it has been mostly shown at adult emergence, whilst it remains controversial at pre-imaginal stages. We followed larval growth of the parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi Haliday, inside the host aphid, Acyrthosiphom pisum Harris, and characterised in detail the behaviour of third instar larvae. We found that just before cocoon spinning begins, the third instar larva bites a hole through the ventral side of the mummified aphid exoskeleton. We then evaluated whether this period of exposure to the external environment represented a sensitive stage for olfactory learning. In our first experiment, the third instar larvae were allowed to spin their cocoon on the host plant ( Vicia faba L.) surface or on a plastic plate covering the portion of the host plant exposed to the ventral opening. Recently emerged adults of the first group showed a preference for plant volatiles in a glass Y-olfactometer, whereas no preference was found in adults of the second group. In a second experiment, during the period in which the aphid carcass remains open or is being sealed by cocoon spinning, third instar larvae were exposed for 24 h to either vanilla odours or water vapours as control. In this experiment, half of the parasitoid larvae were later excised from the mummy to avoid further exposure to vanilla. Adult parasitoids exposed to vanilla during the larval ventral opening of the mummy showed a significant preference for vanilla odours in the olfactometer, regardless of excision from the mummy. The larval behaviour described and the results of the manipulations performed are discussed as evidences for the acquisition of olfactory memory during the larval stage and its persistence through metamorphosis.

  4. The genus Gymnetron from China with description of pre-imaginal stages of G. miyoshii, G. auliense and G. vittipenne (Coleoptera,Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There are four species of Gymnetron in China recorded to date including Gymnetron miyoshii Miyoshi, 1922, Gymnetron villosipenne Roelofs, 1875, Gymnetron auliense Reitter, 1907 and Gymnetron vittipenne Marseul, 1876, of which the last two are new country records. The pre-imaginal stages including eggs, mature larvae and pupae of Gymnetron miyoshii, Gymnetron auliense and Gymnetron vittipenne are described and illustrated. In addition, their diagnostic characters (larvae and pupae) are discussed and differentiated, and notes on some of their biological parameters are provided. Potential ecological impacts between Gymnetron weevils and their host Veronica spp. also are provided. PMID:26668548

  5. Toxicity and residual action of the photoactivated compound, cyano-alpha-terthienyl, and its efficacy for reducing pre-imaginal populations of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dosdall, L M; Galloway, M M; Arnason, J T

    1992-06-01

    The photoactivated compound, cyano-alpha-terthienyl (cyano-alpha-T), was highly toxic to pre-imagines of the mosquitoes Culex restuans, Cx. tarsalis and Culiseta inornata when synergized with piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Lethal concentrations for 50% mortality, determined during an outdoor trial using caged fourth-instar Culex spp. larvae, were 19.4, 15.4 and 12.9 g/ha at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment, respectively. No residual activity of cyano-alpha-T was observed beyond 24 h following treatment. In artificial pool tests, greatest population reductions were achieved using dosages of 20 and 40 g/ha; statistically significant reductions were not observed following applications of 5 g/ha. Cyano-alpha-T plus PBO was more effective for reducing mosquito populations than alpha-terthienyl (alpha-T) plus PBO at comparable dosages, although it exhibited slightly lower insecticidal activity at a dosage of 20 g/ha than a formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Vectobac 12 AS, 0.12 ml/m2). Greatest effectiveness of cyano-alpha-T plus PBO was observed in pools with low organic content relative to pools high in organic content.

  6. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon's plastic life cycle.

    PubMed

    Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Letcher, Benjamin H; Hofmann, Hans A

    2009-09-15

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators.

  7. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon's plastic life cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pre-imaginal Stages of the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae: Agrilinae): An invasive species of Ash (Fraxinus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1 Accurate identification of all life stages is essential to detect and successfully control and contain the spread of invasive forest pests. Despite its economic importance as an invasive species, the pre–imaginal stages of the wood–boring beetle, Agrilus planipennis, remain poorly described. 2 T...

  9. Expressed Attitudes of Adolescents toward Marriage and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paige D.; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2003-01-01

    Study examined attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While about one third expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage or had engaged in sex. The adolescents…

  10. Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies: expressions and applications.

    PubMed

    Missov, Trifon I; Lenart, Adam

    2013-12-01

    In a population of individuals, whose mortality is governed by a Gompertz-Makeham hazard, we derive closed-form solutions to the life-expectancy integral, corresponding to the cases of homogeneous and gamma-heterogeneous populations, as well as in the presence/absence of the Makeham term. Derived expressions contain special functions that aid constructing high-accuracy approximations, which can be used to study the elasticity of life expectancy with respect to model parameters. Knowledge of Gompertz-Makeham life expectancies aids constructing life-table exposures.

  11. Gene expression during the life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Arbeitman, Michelle N; Furlong, Eileen E M; Imam, Farhad; Johnson, Eric; Null, Brian H; Baker, Bruce S; Krasnow, Mark A; Scott, Matthew P; Davis, Ronald W; White, Kevin P

    2002-09-27

    Molecular genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster have led to profound advances in understanding the regulation of development. Here we report gene expression patterns for nearly one-third of all Drosophila genes during a complete time course of development. Mutations that eliminate eye or germline tissue were used to further analyze tissue-specific gene expression programs. These studies define major characteristics of the transcriptional programs that underlie the life cycle, compare development in males and females, and show that large-scale gene expression data collected from whole animals can be used to identify genes expressed in particular tissues and organs or genes involved in specific biological and biochemical processes.

  12. Gene Expression During the Life Cycle of Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeitman, Michelle N.; Furlong, Eileen E. M.; Imam, Farhad; Johnson, Eric; Null, Brian H.; Baker, Bruce S.; Krasnow, Mark A.; Scott, Matthew P.; Davis, Ronald W.; White, Kevin P.

    2002-09-01

    Molecular genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster have led to profound advances in understanding the regulation of development. Here we report gene expression patterns for nearly one-third of all Drosophila genes during a complete time course of development. Mutations that eliminate eye or germline tissue were used to further analyze tissue-specific gene expression programs. These studies define major characteristics of the transcriptional programs that underlie the life cycle, compare development in males and females, and show that large-scale gene expression data collected from whole animals can be used to identify genes expressed in particular tissues and organs or genes involved in specific biological and biochemical processes.

  13. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression

    PubMed Central

    Etges, William J.; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2015-01-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behavior have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg to adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analyzed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodeling, and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis, and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status, and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg to adult development time, and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  14. Preadult life history variation determines adult transcriptome expression.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; de Oliveira, Cássia; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G

    2016-02-01

    Preadult determinants of adult fitness and behaviour have been documented in a variety of organisms with complex life cycles, but little is known about expression patterns of genes underlying these adult traits. We explored the effects of differences in egg-to-adult development time on adult transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in order to understand the nature of the genetic correlation between preadult development time and premating isolation between populations of Drosophila mojavensis reared in different host cactus environments. Transcriptome variation was analysed separately in flies reared on each host and revealed that hundreds of genes in adults were differentially expressed (FDR P < 0.05) due to development time differences. For flies reared on pitaya agria cactus, longer preadult development times caused increased expression of genes in adults enriched for ribosome production, protein metabolism, chromatin remodelling and regulation of alternate splicing and transcription. Baja California flies reared on organ pipe cactus showed fewer differentially expressed genes in adults due to longer preadult development time, but these were enriched for ATP synthesis and the TCA cycle. Mainland flies reared on organ pipe cactus with shorter development times showed increased transcription of genes enriched for mitochondria and energy production, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism: adults with longer development times had increased expression of genes enriched for adult life span, cuticle proteins and ion binding, although most differentially expressed genes were unannotated. Differences due to population, sex, mating status and their interactions were also assessed. Adult cuticular hydrocarbon profiles also showed shifts due to egg-to-adult development time and were influenced by population and mating status. These results help to explain why preadult life history variation determines subsequent expression of the adult transcriptome along with

  15. Control of Emotional Expressivity in the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendersky, Margaret; And Others

    Evidence suggests that the neurological substrate of emotional behavior is lateralized by brain hemisphere early in life. A study examined the emotional expressions of preterm infants, some of whom had unilateral periventrical echodensities (PVE), as a model for addressing this issue. The study population of 25 preterm infants was videotaped at 3…

  16. Expressed attitudes of adolescents toward marriage and family life.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paige D; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2003-01-01

    In the U.S., modifications in family structure and in attitudes concerning marriage and family life have been numerous. Areas such as sexual behavior and alternative living arrangements have become highly varied and nontraditional compared to past generations. This study examined the attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority of adolescents expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While only about a third of the adolescents expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage in sexual intercourse before marriage, or already have. Interestingly, about half of the adolescents held positive attitudes toward cohabitation. Lastly, the adolescents demonstrated a growing acceptance of premarital counseling and psychoeducational interventions regarding marriage and family life.

  17. Expression of schizophrenia-spectrum personality traits in daily life.

    PubMed

    Chun, Charlotte A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Sheinbaum, Tamara; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the expression of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) schizotypal, schizoid, and paranoid personality disorder (PD) traits in daily life using experience sampling methodology in 206 nonclinically ascertained Spanish young adults oversampled for risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. This study examined the overlap and differentiation of pathological personality traits in daily life settings, according to both diagnostic and multidimensional models. Daily life outcomes differentiated among schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The assignment of Cluster A personality traits to positive, negative, paranoid, and disorganized dimensions provided an alternative to the traditional PD diagnoses. Positive, disorganized, and paranoid schizotypy were associated with elevated stress reactivity, whereas negative schizotypy was associated with diminished reactivity in daily life. The current diagnostic model is limited by the considerable overlap among the PD traits. Nonetheless, experience sampling methodology is sensitive enough to detect differences in day-to-day impairment and can be a powerful research tool for the examination of dynamic constructs such as personality pathology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Silkworm expression system as a platform technology in life science.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Kajikawa, Mizuho; Maenaka, Katsumi; Park, Enoch Y

    2010-01-01

    Many recombinant proteins have been successfully produced in silkworm larvae or pupae and used for academic and industrial purposes. Several recombinant proteins produced by silkworms have already been commercialized. However, construction of a recombinant baculovirus containing a gene of interest requires tedious and troublesome steps and takes a long time (3-6 months). The recent development of a bacmid, Escherichia coli and Bombyx mori shuttle vector, has eliminated the conventional tedious procedures required to identify and isolate recombinant viruses. Several technical improvements, including a cysteine protease or chitinase deletion bacmid and chaperone-assisted expression and coexpression, have led to significantly increased protein yields and reduced costs for large-scale production. Terminal N-acetyl glucosamine and galactose residues were found in the N-glycan structures produced by silkworms, which are different from those generated by insect cells. Genomic elucidation of silkworm has opened a new chapter in utilization of silkworm. Transgenic silkworm technology provides a stable production of recombinant protein. Baculovirus surface display expression is one of the low-cost approaches toward silkworm larvae-derived recombinant subunit vaccines. The expression of pharmaceutically relevant proteins, including cell/viral surface proteins, membrane proteins, and guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors, using silkworm larvae or cocoons has become very attractive. Silkworm biotechnology is an innovative and easy approach to achieve high protein expression levels and is a very promising platform technology in the field of life science. Like the "Silkroad," we expect that the "Bioroad" from Asia to Europe will be established by the silkworm expression system.

  19. Life History Consequences of the Facultative Expression of a Dispersal Life Stage in the Phoretic Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus robini)

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Jacques A.; Coulson, Tim; Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2015-01-01

    Life history traits play an important role in population dynamics and correlate, both positively and negatively, with dispersal in a wide range of taxa. Most invertebrate studies on trade-offs between life history traits and dispersal have focused on dispersal via flight, yet much less is known about how life history trade-offs influence species that disperse by other means. In this study, we identify effects of investing in dispersal morphology (dispersal expression) on life history traits in the male dimorphic bulb mite (Rhizoglyphus robini). This species has a facultative juvenile life stage (deutonymph) during which individuals can disperse by phoresy. Further, adult males are either fighters (which kill other mites) or benign scramblers. Here, in an experiment, we investigate the effects of investing in dispersal on size at maturity, sex and male morph ratio, and female lifetime reproductive success. We show that life history traits correlate negatively with the expression of the dispersal stage. Remarkably, all males that expressed the dispersal life stage developed into competitive fighters and none into scramblers. This suggests that alternative, male reproductive strategies and dispersal should not be viewed in isolation but considered concurrently. PMID:26325395

  20. Genomic and proteomic expression analysis of Leishmania promastigote and amastigote life stages: the Leishmania genome is constitutively expressed.

    PubMed

    Leifso, Kirk; Cohen-Freue, Gabriela; Dogra, Nisha; Murray, Angus; McMaster, W Robert

    2007-03-01

    Leishmania are protozoan parasites that cause a wide spectrum of clinical diseases in humans and are a major public health risk in several countries. Leishmania life cycle consists of an extracellular flagellated promastigote stage within the midgut of a sandfly vector, and a morphological distinct intracellular amastigote stage within macrophages of a mammalian host. This study reports the use of DNA oligonucleotide genome microarrays representing 8160 genes to analyze the mRNA expression profiles of L. major promastigotes and lesion derived amastigotes. Over 94% of the genes were expressed in both life stages. Advanced statistical analysis identified a surprisingly low degree of differential mRNA expression: 1.4% of the total genes in amastigotes and 1.5% in promastigotes. These microarray results demonstrate that the L. major genome is essentially constitutively expressed in both life stages and suggest that Leishmania is constitutively adapted for survival and replication in either the sandfly vector or macrophage host utilizing an appropriate set of genes for each vastly different environment. Quantitative proteomics, using the isotope coded affinity tag (ICAT) technology and mass spectrometry, was used to identify L. infantum promastigote and axenic amastigote differentially expressed proteins. Of the 91 distinct proteins identified, 8% were differentially expressed in the amastigote stage, 20% were differentially expressed in the promastigote stage, and the remaining 72% were considered constitutively expressed. The differential expression was validated by the identification of previously reported stage specific proteins and identified several amastigote and promastigote novel stage specific proteins.

  1. Poetry Efforts by Aged Deaf: Expression of Life Cycle Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, Teena M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a day-long Aging Awareness workshop in which a group of 12 elderly were involved in a poetry-writing exercise focusing on meaningful life change. Ramifications of this positive experience are discussed in view of the cultural/language barrier and traditional aging awareness issues such as reminiscence. (JAC)

  2. Expressing death risk as condensed life experience and death intensity.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A

    2013-08-01

    Some risk exposures, including many medical and surgical procedures, typically carry hazards of death that are difficult to convey and appreciate in absolute terms. I propose presenting the death risk as a condensed life experience (i.e., the equivalent amount of life T that would carry the same cumulative mortality hazard for a person of the same age and sex based on life tables). For example, if the risk of death during an elective 1-hour procedure is 0.01%, and same-age and same-sex people have a 0.01% death risk over 1 month, one can inform the patient that "this procedure carries the same death risk as living 1 month of normal life." Comparative standards from other risky activities or from a person with the same disease at the same stage and same predictive profile could also be used. A complementary metric that may be useful to consider is the death intensity. The death intensity λ is the hazard function that shows the fold-risk estimate of dying compared with the reference person. The death intensity can vary substantially for different phases of the event, operation, or procedure (e.g., intraoperative, early postoperative, late postoperative), and this variability may also be useful to convey. T will vary depending on the time window for which it is computed. I present examples for calculating T and λ using literature data on accidents, ascent to Mount Everest, and medical and surgical procedures.

  3. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon’s plastic life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Letcher, Benjamin H.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2009-01-01

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated - at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction - in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. PMID:19401203

  4. Expressive Arts Therapy: Creative Process in Art and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Sally; Adams, Marianne; McKinney, Cathy; McKinney, Harold; Rose, Liz; Wentworth, Jay; Woodworth, Joan

    This book is written for therapists and for students who are becoming therapists. It offers insights to artists, teachers, and others interested in exploring the power of expressive arts for growth and healing. It provides theoretical grounding and practical applications from the collective experience of the authors who share their own immersion…

  5. Global Gene Expression Profiling through the Complete Life Cycle of Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew P; Goyard, Sophie; Xia, Dong; Foth, Bernardo J; Sanders, Mandy; Wastling, Jonathan M; Minoprio, Paola; Berriman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic flagellate Trypanosoma vivax is a cause of animal trypanosomiasis across Africa and South America. The parasite has a digenetic life cycle, passing between mammalian hosts and insect vectors, and a series of developmental forms adapted to each life cycle stage. Each point in the life cycle presents radically different challenges to parasite metabolism and physiology and distinct host interactions requiring remodeling of the parasite cell surface. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies of the related parasites T. brucei and T. congolense have shown how gene expression is regulated during their development. New methods for in vitro culture of the T. vivax insect stages have allowed us to describe global gene expression throughout the complete T. vivax life cycle for the first time. We combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of each life stage using RNA-seq and mass spectrometry respectively, to identify genes with patterns of preferential transcription or expression. While T. vivax conforms to a pattern of highly conserved gene expression found in other African trypanosomes, (e.g. developmental regulation of energy metabolism, restricted expression of a dominant variant antigen, and expression of 'Fam50' proteins in the insect mouthparts), we identified significant differences in gene expression affecting metabolism in the fly and a suite of T. vivax-specific genes with predicted cell-surface expression that are preferentially expressed in the mammal ('Fam29, 30, 42') or the vector ('Fam34, 35, 43'). T. vivax differs significantly from other African trypanosomes in the developmentally-regulated proteins likely to be expressed on its cell surface and thus, in the structure of the host-parasite interface. These unique features may yet explain the species differences in life cycle and could, in the form of bloodstream-stage proteins that do not undergo antigenic variation, provide targets for therapy.

  6. Global Gene Expression Profiling through the Complete Life Cycle of Trypanosoma vivax

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew P.; Goyard, Sophie; Xia, Dong; Foth, Bernardo J.; Sanders, Mandy; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Minoprio, Paola; Berriman, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic flagellate Trypanosoma vivax is a cause of animal trypanosomiasis across Africa and South America. The parasite has a digenetic life cycle, passing between mammalian hosts and insect vectors, and a series of developmental forms adapted to each life cycle stage. Each point in the life cycle presents radically different challenges to parasite metabolism and physiology and distinct host interactions requiring remodeling of the parasite cell surface. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies of the related parasites T. brucei and T. congolense have shown how gene expression is regulated during their development. New methods for in vitro culture of the T. vivax insect stages have allowed us to describe global gene expression throughout the complete T. vivax life cycle for the first time. We combined transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of each life stage using RNA-seq and mass spectrometry respectively, to identify genes with patterns of preferential transcription or expression. While T. vivax conforms to a pattern of highly conserved gene expression found in other African trypanosomes, (e.g. developmental regulation of energy metabolism, restricted expression of a dominant variant antigen, and expression of ‘Fam50’ proteins in the insect mouthparts), we identified significant differences in gene expression affecting metabolism in the fly and a suite of T. vivax-specific genes with predicted cell-surface expression that are preferentially expressed in the mammal (‘Fam29, 30, 42’) or the vector (‘Fam34, 35, 43’). T. vivax differs significantly from other African trypanosomes in the developmentally-regulated proteins likely to be expressed on its cell surface and thus, in the structure of the host-parasite interface. These unique features may yet explain the species differences in life cycle and could, in the form of bloodstream-stage proteins that do not undergo antigenic variation, provide targets for therapy. PMID:26266535

  7. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression Through the Life Stages of the Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been ca...

  8. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression Through the Life Stages of the Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been ca...

  9. Gene expression patterns and life cycle responses of toxicant-exposed chironomids.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Marino; de Leeuw, Wim C; Ensink, Wim A; de Jong, Mark; Breit, Timo M; Admiraal, Wim; Kraak, Michiel H S; Jonker, Martijs J

    2012-11-20

    Cellular stress responses are frequently presumed to be more sensitive than traditional ecotoxicological life cycle end points such as survival and growth. Yet, the focus to reduce test duration and to generate more sensitive end points has caused transcriptomics studies to be performed at low doses during short exposures, separately and independently from traditional ecotoxicity tests, making comparisons with life cycle end points indirect. Therefore we aimed to directly compare the effects on growth, survival, and gene expression of the nonbiting midge Chironomus riparius. To this purpose, we simultaneously analyzed life cycle and transcriptomics responses of chironomid larvae exposed to four model toxicants. We observed that already at the lowest test concentrations many transcripts were significantly differentially expressed, while the life cycle end points of C. riparius were hardly affected. Analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts showed that at the lowest test concentrations substantial and biologically relevant cellular stress was induced and that many transcripts responded already maximally at these lowest test concentrations. The direct comparison between molecular end life cycle responses after fourteen days of exposure revealed that gene expression is more sensitive to toxicant exposure than life cycle end points, underlining the potential of transcriptomics for ecotoxicity testing and environmental risk assessment.

  10. Life cycle analysis of kidney gene expression in male F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Kwekel, Joshua C; Desai, Varsha G; Moland, Carrie L; Vijay, Vikrant; Fuscoe, James C

    2013-01-01

    Age is a predisposing condition for susceptibility to chronic kidney disease and progression as well as acute kidney injury that may arise due to the adverse effects of some drugs. Age-related differences in kidney biology, therefore, are a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of genes expressed in the kidney at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Therefore, establishing changes in baseline expression data between these life stages is the first and necessary step in evaluating this hypothesis. Untreated male F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Kidneys were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Agilent whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. An ANOVA (p<0.01) coupled with a fold-change>1.5 in relative mRNA expression, was used to identify 3,724 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Principal component analyses of these DEGs revealed three major divisions in life-cycle renal gene expression. K-means cluster analysis identified several groups of genes that shared age-specific patterns of expression. Pathway analysis of these gene groups revealed age-specific gene networks and functions related to renal function and aging, including extracellular matrix turnover, immune cell response, and renal tubular injury. Large age-related changes in expression were also demonstrated for the genes that code for qualified renal injury biomarkers KIM-1, Clu, and Tff3. These results suggest specific groups of genes that may underlie age-specific susceptibilities to adverse drug reactions and disease. This analysis of the basal gene expression patterns of renal genes throughout the life cycle of the rat will improve the use of current and future renal biomarkers and inform our assessments of kidney injury and disease.

  11. Regulation of core expression during the hepatitis C virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Sohail; Alsaleh, Khaled; Farhat, Rayan; Belouzard, Sandrine; Danneels, Adeline; Descamps, Véronique; Duverlie, Gilles; Wychowski, Czeslaw; Zaidi, Najam us Sahar Sadaf; Dubuisson, Jean; Rouillé, Yves

    2015-02-01

    Core plays a critical role during hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly, not only as a structural component of the virion, but also as a regulator of the formation of assembly sites. In this study, we observed that core is expressed later than other HCV proteins in a single viral cycle assay, resulting in a relative increase of core expression during a late step of the viral life cycle. This delayed core expression results from an increase of core half-life, indicating that core is initially degraded and is stabilized at a late step of the HCV life cycle. Stabilization-mediated delayed kinetics of core expression were also observed using heterologous expression systems. Core stabilization did not depend on its interaction with non-structural proteins or lipid droplets but was correlated with its expression levels and its oligomerization status. Therefore in the course of a HCV infection, core stabilization is likely to occur when the prior amplification of the viral genome during an initial replication step allows core to be synthesized at higher levels as a stable protein, during the assembly step of the viral life cycle. © 2015 The Authors.

  12. Expression of olfactory receptors in different life stages and life histories of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Johnstone, K A; Lubieniecki, K P; Koop, B F; Davidson, W S

    2011-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that salmonids use olfactory cues to return to their natal rivers and streams. However, the key components of the molecular pathway involved in imprinting and homing are still unknown. If odorants are involved in salmon homing migration, then olfactory receptors should play a critical role in the dissipation of information from the environment to the fish. Therefore, we examined the expression profiles of a suite of genes encoding olfactory receptors and other olfactory-related genes in the olfactory rosettes of different life stages in two anadromous and one non-anadromous wild Atlantic salmon populations from Newfoundland, Canada. We identified seven differentially expressed OlfC genes in juvenile anadromous salmon compared to returning adults in both populations of anadromous Atlantic salmon. The salmon from the Campbellton River had an additional 10 genes that were differentially expressed in juveniles compared to returning adults. There was no statistically significant difference in gene expression of any of the genes in the non-anadromous population (P < 0.01). The function of the OlfC gene products is not clear, but they are predicted to be amino acid receptors. Other studies have suggested that salmon use amino acids for imprinting and homing. This study, the first to examine the expression of olfactory-related genes in wild North American Atlantic salmon, has identified seven OlfC genes that may be involved in the imprinting and homeward migration of anadromous Atlantic salmon.

  13. Childhood and later life stressors and increased inflammatory gene expression at older ages.

    PubMed

    Levine, M E; Cole, S W; Weir, D R; Crimmins, E M

    2015-04-01

    Adverse experiences in early life have the ability to "get under the skin" and affect future health. This study examined the relative influence of adversities during childhood and adulthood in accounting for individual differences in pro-inflammatory gene expression in late life. Using a pilot-sample from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 114) aged from 51 to 95, OLS regression models were run to determine the association between a composite score from three proinflammatory gene expression levels (PTGS2, ILIB, and IL8) and 1) childhood trauma, 2) childhood SES, 3) childhood health, 4) adult traumas, and 5) low SES in adulthood. Our results showed that only childhood trauma was found to be associated with increased inflammatory transcription in late life. Furthermore, examination of interaction effects showed that childhood trauma exacerbated the influence of low SES in adulthood on elevated levels of inflammatory gene expression-signifying that having low SES in adulthood was most damaging for persons who had experienced traumatic events during their childhood. Overall our study suggests that traumas experienced during childhood may alter the stress response, leading to more sensitive reactivity throughout the lifespan. As a result, individuals who experienced greater adversity in early life may be at higher risk of late life health outcomes, particularly if adulthood adversity related to SES persists. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Dynamics of Wolbachia pipientis Gene Expression Across the Drosophila melanogaster Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gutzwiller, Florence; Carmo, Catarina R.; Miller, Danny E.; Rice, Danny W.; Newton, Irene L. G.; Hawley, R. Scott; Teixeira, Luis; Bergman, Casey M.

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic interactions between microbes and their multicellular hosts have manifold biological consequences. To better understand how bacteria maintain symbiotic associations with animal hosts, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression for the endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis across the entire life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. We found that the majority of Wolbachia genes are expressed stably across the D. melanogaster life cycle, but that 7.8% of Wolbachia genes exhibit robust stage- or sex-specific expression differences when studied in the whole-organism context. Differentially-expressed Wolbachia genes are typically up-regulated after Drosophila embryogenesis and include many bacterial membrane, secretion system, and ankyrin repeat-containing proteins. Sex-biased genes are often organized as small operons of uncharacterized genes and are mainly up-regulated in adult Drosophila males in an age-dependent manner. We also systematically investigated expression levels of previously-reported candidate genes thought to be involved in host-microbe interaction, including those in the WO-A and WO-B prophages and in the Octomom region, which has been implicated in regulating bacterial titer and pathogenicity. Our work provides comprehensive insight into the developmental dynamics of gene expression for a widespread endosymbiont in its natural host context, and shows that public gene expression data harbor rich resources to probe the functional basis of the Wolbachia-Drosophila symbiosis and annotate the transcriptional outputs of the Wolbachia genome. PMID:26497146

  15. Dynamics of Wolbachia pipientis Gene Expression Across the Drosophila melanogaster Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Florence; Carmo, Catarina R; Miller, Danny E; Rice, Danny W; Newton, Irene L G; Hawley, R Scott; Teixeira, Luis; Bergman, Casey M

    2015-10-23

    Symbiotic interactions between microbes and their multicellular hosts have manifold biological consequences. To better understand how bacteria maintain symbiotic associations with animal hosts, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression for the endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria Wolbachia pipientis across the entire life cycle of Drosophila melanogaster. We found that the majority of Wolbachia genes are expressed stably across the D. melanogaster life cycle, but that 7.8% of Wolbachia genes exhibit robust stage- or sex-specific expression differences when studied in the whole-organism context. Differentially-expressed Wolbachia genes are typically up-regulated after Drosophila embryogenesis and include many bacterial membrane, secretion system, and ankyrin repeat-containing proteins. Sex-biased genes are often organized as small operons of uncharacterized genes and are mainly up-regulated in adult Drosophila males in an age-dependent manner. We also systematically investigated expression levels of previously-reported candidate genes thought to be involved in host-microbe interaction, including those in the WO-A and WO-B prophages and in the Octomom region, which has been implicated in regulating bacterial titer and pathogenicity. Our work provides comprehensive insight into the developmental dynamics of gene expression for a widespread endosymbiont in its natural host context, and shows that public gene expression data harbor rich resources to probe the functional basis of the Wolbachia-Drosophila symbiosis and annotate the transcriptional outputs of the Wolbachia genome. Copyright © 2015 Gutzwiller et al.

  16. Differential dissolved protein expression throughout the life cycle of Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Lingdan, Li; Pengtao, Gong; Wenchao, Li; Jianhua, Li; Ju, Yang; Chengwu, Liu; He, Li; Guocai, Zhang; Wenzhi, Ren; Yujiang, Chen; Xichen, Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) has a simple life cycle that alternates between a cyst and a trophozoite, and this parasite is an important human and animal pathogen. To increase our understanding of the molecular basis of the G. lamblia encystment, we have analyzed the soluble proteins expressed by trophozoites and cysts extracted from feces by quantitative proteomic analysis. A total of 63 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, and were categorized as cytoskeletal proteins, a cell-cycle-specific kinase, metabolic enzymes and stress resistance proteins. Importantly, we demonstrated that the expression of seven proteins differed significantly between trophozoites and cysts. In cysts, the expression of three proteins (one variable surface protein (VSP), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), β-tubulin) increased, whereas the expression of four proteins (14-3-3 protein, α-tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein disulfide isomerase 2 (PDI-2)) decreased significantly when compared with the levels of these proteins in trophozoites. The mRNA expression patterns of four of these proteins (OTC, α-tubulin, GAPDH, VSP) were similar to the expression levels of the proteins. These seven proteins appear to play an important role in the completion of the life cycle of G. lamblia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between heat shock protein 70 expression and life span in Daphnia

    PubMed Central

    Schumpert, Charles; Handy, Indhira; Dudycha, Jeffry L.; Patel, Rekha C.

    2014-01-01

    The longevity of an organism is directly related to its ability to effectively cope with cellular stress. Heat shock response (HSR) protects the cells against accumulation of damaged proteins after exposure to elevated temperatures and also in ageing cells. To understand the role of Hsp70 in regulating life span of Daphnia, we examined the expression of Hsp70 in two ecotypes that exhibit strikingly different life spans. D. pulicaria, the long lived ecotype, showed a robust Hsp70 induction as compared to the shorter lived D. pulex. Interestingly, the short-lived D. pulex isolates showed no induction of Hsp70 at the mid point in their life span. In contrast to this, the long-lived D. pulicaria continued to induce Hsp70 expression at an equivalent age. We further show that the Hsp70 expression was induced at transcriptional level in response to heat shock. The transcription factor responsible for Hsp70 induction, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), although present in aged organisms did not exhibit DNA-binding capability. Thus, the decline of Hsp70 induction in old organisms could be attributed to a decline in HSF-1’s DNA-binding activity. These results for the first time, present a molecular analysis of the relationship between HSR and life span in Daphnia. PMID:24814302

  18. Relationship between heat shock protein 70 expression and life span in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Schumpert, Charles; Handy, Indhira; Dudycha, Jeffry L; Patel, Rekha C

    2014-07-01

    The longevity of an organism is directly related to its ability to effectively cope with cellular stress. Heat shock response (HSR) protects the cells against accumulation of damaged proteins after exposure to elevated temperatures and also in aging cells. To understand the role of Hsp70 in regulating life span of Daphnia, we examined the expression of Hsp70 in two ecotypes that exhibit strikingly different life spans. Daphnia pulicaria, the long lived ecotype, showed a robust Hsp70 induction as compared to the shorter lived Daphnia pulex. Interestingly, the short-lived D. pulex isolates showed no induction of Hsp70 at the mid point in their life span. In contrast to this, the long-lived D. pulicaria continued to induce Hsp70 expression at an equivalent age. We further show that the Hsp70 expression was induced at transcriptional level in response to heat shock. The transcription factor responsible for Hsp70 induction, heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1), although present in aged organisms did not exhibit DNA-binding capability. Thus, the decline of Hsp70 induction in old organisms could be attributed to a decline in HSF-1's DNA-binding activity. These results for the first time, present a molecular analysis of the relationship between HSR and life span in Daphnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Power semiconductors empirical diagrams expressing life as a function of temperature excursion

    SciTech Connect

    Somos, I.L. ); Piccone, D.E.; Willinger, L.J.; Tobin, W.H. )

    1993-01-01

    Solid state switches are being actively pursued to replace thyratons, ignitrons and triggered spark gaps in various pulse power applications. These include electric gun development for tanks such as the EM gun (electromagnetic) and the ETC gun (electrothermal) and electromechanical launcher for aircraft. High power thyristors and rectifier diodes have been applied in stringent power cycling applications in the past with predictable life assurance. The validity of a simple mathematical concept expression life in terms of numbers of power cycles versus temperature excursion is explained and supported by examples of empirical tests data.

  20. Age and sex dependent changes in liver gene expression during the life cycle of the rat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Age- and sex-related susceptibility to adverse drug reactions and disease is a key concern in understanding drug safety and disease progression. We hypothesize that the underlying suite of hepatic genes expressed at various life cycle stages will impact susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Understanding the basal liver gene expression patterns is a necessary first step in addressing this hypothesis and will inform our assessments of adverse drug reactions as the liver plays a central role in drug metabolism and biotransformation. Untreated male and female F344 rats were sacrificed at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 52, 78, and 104 weeks of age. Liver tissues were collected for histology and gene expression analysis. Whole-genome rat microarrays were used to query global expression profiles. Results An initial list of differentially expressed genes was selected using criteria based upon p-value (p < 0.05) and fold-change (+/- 1.5). Three dimensional principal component analyses revealed differences between males and females beginning at 2 weeks with more divergent profiles beginning at 5 weeks. The greatest sex-differences were observed between 8 and 52 weeks before converging again at 104 weeks. K-means clustering identified groups of genes that displayed age-related patterns of expression. Various adult aging-related clusters represented gene pathways related to xenobiotic metabolism, DNA damage repair, and oxidative stress. Conclusions These results suggest an underlying role for genes in specific clusters in potentiating age- and sex-related differences in susceptibility to adverse health effects. Furthermore, such a comprehensive picture of life cycle changes in gene expression deepens our understanding and informs the utility of liver gene expression biomarkers. PMID:21118493

  1. Differential gene expression in seasonal sympatry: mechanisms involved in diverging life histories

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark P.; Greives, Timothy J.; Atwell, Jonathan W.; Bridge, Eli S.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    In an era of climate change, understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying flexibility in phenology and life history has gained greater importance. These mechanisms can be elucidated by comparing closely related populations that differ in key behavioural and physiological traits such as migration and timing of reproduction. We compared gene expression in two recently diverged dark-eyed Junco ( Junco hyemalis) subspecies that live in seasonal sympatry during winter and early spring, but that differ in behaviour and physiology, despite exposure to identical environmental cues. We identified 547 genes differentially expressed in blood and pectoral muscle. Genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism were highly expressed in migrant juncos, while genes involved in reproductive processes were highly expressed in resident breeders. Seasonal differences in gene expression in closely related populations residing in the same environment provide significant insights into mechanisms underlying variation in phenology and life history, and have potential implications for the role of seasonal timing differences in gene flow and reproductive isolation. PMID:26979563

  2. Differential gene expression in seasonal sympatry: mechanisms involved in diverging life histories.

    PubMed

    Fudickar, Adam M; Peterson, Mark P; Greives, Timothy J; Atwell, Jonathan W; Bridge, Eli S; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2016-03-01

    In an era of climate change, understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying flexibility in phenology and life history has gained greater importance. These mechanisms can be elucidated by comparing closely related populations that differ in key behavioural and physiological traits such as migration and timing of reproduction. We compared gene expression in two recently diverged dark-eyed Junco ( Junco hyemalis) subspecies that live in seasonal sympatry during winter and early spring, but that differ in behaviour and physiology, despite exposure to identical environmental cues. We identified 547 genes differentially expressed in blood and pectoral muscle. Genes involved in lipid transport and metabolism were highly expressed in migrant juncos, while genes involved in reproductive processes were highly expressed in resident breeders. Seasonal differences in gene expression in closely related populations residing in the same environment provide significant insights into mechanisms underlying variation in phenology and life history, and have potential implications for the role of seasonal timing differences in gene flow and reproductive isolation. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Anger expression, negative life events and violent behaviour among male college students in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelaye, Bizu; Philpart, Marc; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Williams, Michelle A

    2008-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of violent behaviour and to identify risk factors associated with violent behaviour among male college students in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study among 1294 male college students in Awassa, Ethiopia was conducted in June 2006. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information concerning violent acts, anger expression, and sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). More than half of the students (54.3%) reported committing at least one act of physical violence during the current academic year. Academic year of studies, use of khat, a natural stimulant with amphetamine-like effects, anger proneness and stressful life events were statistically significant covariates associated with committing acts of violence. Seniors, as compared with freshmen, were less likely to admit violent behaviour (OR=0.46; 95% CI 0.30-0.71). Those who reported using khat were more likely to report committing violent acts (OR=1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.08) than were non-users. Students with moderate levels of anger expression (scores of 11- 14) were 3.40 times more likely to report committing acts of violence (OR=3.40; 95% CI 2.42-4.79) than were those with low levels of anger expression (scores v11). For students with high levels of anger expression (> or = 15 scores), the corresponding OR was 7.62 (95% CI 5.15-11.29). Participants who had experienced > or = 4 negative life events during the current academic year were more likely (OR=2.41; 95% CI 1.58-3.69) to report violent behaviour than were those with fewer stressful life events. Screening for violent behaviour and violence prevention programmes, particularly those in educational settings, should include strategies that address students' stressful life events, anger management, and substance use.

  4. Sex differences in kidney gene expression during the life cycle of F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Kwekel, Joshua C; Desai, Varsha G; Moland, Carrie L; Vijay, Vikrant; Fuscoe, James C

    2013-07-31

    The kidney functions in key physiological processes to filter blood and regulate blood pressure via key molecular transporters and ion channels. Sex-specific differences have been observed in renal disease incidence and progression, as well as acute kidney injury in response to certain drugs. Although advances have been made in characterizing the molecular components involved in various kidney functions, the molecular mechanisms responsible for sex differences are not well understood. We hypothesized that the basal expression levels of genes involved in various kidney functions throughout the life cycle will influence sex-specific susceptibilities to adverse renal events. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis was performed on kidney samples collected from untreated male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats at eight age groups between 2 and 104 weeks of age. A combined filtering approach using statistical (ANOVA or pairwise t test, FDR 0.05) and fold-change criteria (>1.5 relative fold change) was used to identify 7,447 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the 7,447 DEGs revealed sex-related differences in mRNA expression at early (2 weeks), middle (8, 15, and 21 weeks), and late (104 weeks) ages in the rat life cycle. Functional analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) of these sex-different genes indicated over-representation of specific pathways and networks including renal tubule injury, drug metabolism, and immune cell and inflammatory responses. The mRNAs that code for the qualified urinary protein kidney biomarkers KIM-1, Clu, Tff3, and Lcn2 were also observed to show sex differences. These data represent one of the most comprehensive in-life time course studies to be published, assessing sex differences in global gene expression in the F344 rat kidney. PCA and Venn analyses reveal specific periods of sexually dimorphic gene expression which are associated with functional categories (xenobiotic

  5. Sex differences in kidney gene expression during the life cycle of F344 rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The kidney functions in key physiological processes to filter blood and regulate blood pressure via key molecular transporters and ion channels. Sex-specific differences have been observed in renal disease incidence and progression, as well as acute kidney injury in response to certain drugs. Although advances have been made in characterizing the molecular components involved in various kidney functions, the molecular mechanisms responsible for sex differences are not well understood. We hypothesized that the basal expression levels of genes involved in various kidney functions throughout the life cycle will influence sex-specific susceptibilities to adverse renal events. Methods Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis was performed on kidney samples collected from untreated male and female Fischer 344 (F344) rats at eight age groups between 2 and 104 weeks of age. Results A combined filtering approach using statistical (ANOVA or pairwise t test, FDR 0.05) and fold-change criteria (>1.5 relative fold change) was used to identify 7,447 unique differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Principal component analysis (PCA) of the 7,447 DEGs revealed sex-related differences in mRNA expression at early (2 weeks), middle (8, 15, and 21 weeks), and late (104 weeks) ages in the rat life cycle. Functional analysis (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) of these sex-different genes indicated over-representation of specific pathways and networks including renal tubule injury, drug metabolism, and immune cell and inflammatory responses. The mRNAs that code for the qualified urinary protein kidney biomarkers KIM-1, Clu, Tff3, and Lcn2 were also observed to show sex differences. Conclusions These data represent one of the most comprehensive in-life time course studies to be published, assessing sex differences in global gene expression in the F344 rat kidney. PCA and Venn analyses reveal specific periods of sexually dimorphic gene expression which are associated with

  6. Habitats for life in the Venusian Environment? Can the VENUS EXPRESS payload answer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, C.

    2003-04-01

    The Venusian conditions are unique in the solar system. Venus abounds in molecules which could feed a life form except that the usual missing factor, energy, is present in excessive amounts from both active geothermic phenomena and from the nearby solar radiation trapped in a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Its surface conditions are hotter than the best practiced in hospital sterilisation; volcanism injects highly toxic gases which in the absence of water can accumulate in the atmosphere. Its upper atmosphere lays bare to solar radiation with only carbon dioxide to act as a confirmed EUV filter, so any consideration of life might seem excessive compared to what was known from life on earth before extremophile bacterias were discovered in dark undersea high temperature sulphur rich volcanic vents. However, some regions of the atmosphere might show conditions similar to the earth surface and could be a habitat of earth like microbial life. A synergy between the different atmospheric instruments of the VENUS-Express payload: SPICAM, VIRTIS and PFS can provide the way to probe the actual environmental conditions of this region and to check its capabilities of preserving an extant life or providing nutrients to a new one.

  7. Alternative life histories shape brain gene expression profiles in males of the same population.

    PubMed

    Aubin-Horth, Nadia; Landry, Christian R; Letcher, Benjamin H; Hofmann, Hans A

    2005-08-22

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) undergo spectacular marine migrations before homing to spawn in natal rivers. However, males that grow fastest early in life can adopt an alternative 'sneaker' tactic by maturing earlier at greatly reduced size without leaving freshwater. While the ultimate evolutionary causes have been well studied, virtually nothing is known about the molecular bases of this developmental plasticity. We investigate the nature and extent of coordinated molecular changes that accompany such a fundamental transformation by comparing the brain transcription profiles of wild mature sneaker males to age-matched immature males (future large anadromous males) and immature females. Of the ca. 3000 genes surveyed, 15% are differentially expressed in the brains of the two male types. These genes are involved in a wide range of processes, including growth, reproduction and neural plasticity. Interestingly, despite the potential for wide variation in gene expression profiles among individuals sampled in nature, consistent patterns of gene expression were found for individuals of the same reproductive tactic. Notably, gene expression patterns in immature males were different both from immature females and sneakers, indicating that delayed maturation and sea migration by immature males, the 'default' life cycle, may actually result from an active inhibition of development into a sneaker.

  8. Alternative life histories shape brain gene expression profiles in males of the same population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Landry, C.R.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) undergo spectacular marine migrations before homing to spawn in natal rivers. However, males that grow fastest early in life can adopt an alternative 'sneaker' tactic by maturing earlier at greatly reduced size without leaving freshwater. While the ultimate evolutionary causes have been well studied, virtually nothing is known about the molecular bases of this developmental plasticity. We investigate the nature and extent of coordinated molecular changes that accompany such a fundamental transformation by comparing the brain transcription profiles of wild mature sneaker males to age-matched immature males (future large anadromous males) and immature females. Of the ca. 3000 genes surveyed, 15% are differentially expressed in the brains of the two male types. These genes are involved in a wide range of processes, including growth, reproduction and neural plasticity. Interestingly, despite the potential for wide variation in gene expression profiles among individuals sampled in nature, consistent patterns of gene expression were found for individuals of the same reproductive tactic. Notably, gene expression patterns in immature males were different both from immature females and sneakers, indicating that delayed maturation and sea migration by immature males, the 'default' life cycle, may actually result from an active inhibition of development into a sneaker. ?? 2005 The Royal Society.

  9. Reported Expressive Suppression in Daily Life Is Associated with Slower Action Planning.

    PubMed

    Niermeyer, Madison A; Franchow, Emilie I; Suchy, Yana

    2016-07-01

    Objectives Growing evidence demonstrates that (a) executive functioning (EF) becomes deleteriously affected by engagement in the emotion regulation strategy known as expressive suppression and (b) EF shows considerable functional and neuroanatomical overlap with motor output. The current study aimed to bridge these two literatures by examining the relationships between naturally occurring expressive suppression and several different aspects of motor output, including action planning, action learning, and motor-control speed and accuracy. In addition, we investigated whether any identified relationships could be explained by EF. Methods Fifty-one healthy young adults completed selected subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System as indices of EF, a self-report measure of expressive suppression, and a computerized motor sequencing task (Push Turn Taptap task; PTT) designed to assess action planning, action learning, and motor control speed and accuracy. Results Hierarchical regressions using each aspect of PTT performance as the dependent variable revealed that higher than usual self-reported expressive suppression on the day of testing (relative to the 2 weeks preceding testing) was associated with longer action-planning latencies. This relationship was fully explained by EF. No other PTT variables related to expressive suppression on the day of testing. Conclusions These results suggest that increased expressive suppression in daily life is associated with slower action planning, an aspect of motor output that is reliant on EF, highlighting the importance of factors that lead to intra-individual fluctuations in EF and motor performance. (JINS, 2016, 22, 671-681).

  10. Organic carbon source in formulated sediments influences life traits and gene expression of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Julia; Menzel, Ralph; Höss, Sebastian; Claus, Evelyn; Steinberg, Christian E W

    2012-03-01

    River water quality is strongly influenced by their sediments and their associated pollutants. To assess the toxic potential of sediments, sediment toxicity tests require reliable control sediments, potentially including formulated control sediments as one major option. Although some standardization has been carried out, one critical issue still remains the quality of sediment organic matter (SOM). Organic carbon not only binds hydrophobic contaminants, but may be a source of mild toxicity, even if the SOM is essentially uncontaminated. We tested two different sources of organic carbon and the mixture of both (Sphagnum peat (P) and one commercial humic substances preparation-HuminFeed(®), HF) in terms of life trait variables and expression profiles of selected life performance and stress genes of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In synchronous cultures, gene expression profiling was done after 6 and 48 h, respectively. The uncontaminated Sphagnum P reduced growth, but increased numbers of offspring, whereas HF did not significantly alter life trait variables. The 6 h expression profile showed most of the studied stress genes repressed, except for slight to strong induction in cyp-35B1 (all exposures), gst-38 (only mixture), and small hsp-16 genes (all exposures). After 48 h, the expression of almost all studied genes increased, particularly genes coding for antioxidative defense, multiple xenobiotic resistance, vitellogenin-like proteins, and genes regulating lifespan. Overall, even essentially uncontaminated SOM may induce several modes of action on the molecular level in C. elegans which may lead to false results if testing synthetic xenobiotics. This contribution is a plea for a strict standardization of the SOM quality in formulated sediments and to check for corresponding effects in other model sediment organisms, especially if using molecular toxicity endpoints.

  11. Global gene expression profiles for life stages of the deadly amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Stajich, Jason E.; Maddox, Nicole; Eisen, Michael B.

    2008-01-01

    Amphibians around the world are being threatened by an emerging pathogen, the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite intensive ecological study in the decade since Bd was discovered, little is known about the mechanism by which Bd kills frogs. Here, we compare patterns of global gene expression in controlled laboratory conditions for the two phases of the life cycle of Bd: the free-living zoospore and the substrate-embedded sporangia. We find zoospores to be transcriptionally less complex than sporangia. Several transcripts more abundant in zoospores provide clues about how this motile life stage interacts with its environment. Genes with higher levels of expression in sporangia provide new hypotheses about the molecular pathways involved in metabolic activity, flagellar function, and pathogenicity in Bd. We highlight expression patterns for a group of fungalysin metallopeptidase genes, a gene family thought to be involved in pathogenicity in another group of fungal pathogens that similarly cause cutaneous infection of vertebrates. Finally we discuss the challenges inherent in developing a molecular toolkit for chytrids, a basal fungal lineage separated by vast phylogenetic distance from other well characterized fungi. PMID:18852473

  12. Global gene expression profiles for life stages of the deadly amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Stajich, Jason E; Maddox, Nicole; Eisen, Michael B

    2008-11-04

    Amphibians around the world are being threatened by an emerging pathogen, the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite intensive ecological study in the decade since Bd was discovered, little is known about the mechanism by which Bd kills frogs. Here, we compare patterns of global gene expression in controlled laboratory conditions for the two phases of the life cycle of Bd: the free-living zoospore and the substrate-embedded sporangia. We find zoospores to be transcriptionally less complex than sporangia. Several transcripts more abundant in zoospores provide clues about how this motile life stage interacts with its environment. Genes with higher levels of expression in sporangia provide new hypotheses about the molecular pathways involved in metabolic activity, flagellar function, and pathogenicity in Bd. We highlight expression patterns for a group of fungalysin metallopeptidase genes, a gene family thought to be involved in pathogenicity in another group of fungal pathogens that similarly cause cutaneous infection of vertebrates. Finally we discuss the challenges inherent in developing a molecular toolkit for chytrids, a basal fungal lineage separated by vast phylogenetic distance from other well characterized fungi.

  13. Infusion of Life: patient perceptions of expressive therapy during chemotherapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Vianna, D; Claro, L L; Mendes, A A; da Silva, A N; Bucci, D A; de Sá, P T; Rocha, V S; Pincer, J S; de Barros, I M F; Silva, P R

    2013-05-01

    Through a quanti-qualitative study, we observed the effects of group expressive therapy (ET) sessions on patients' feelings and sense of well-being, as part of the Infusion of Life project. This project is part of a broader programme to improve integral care, developed by an interdisciplinary team headed by a medical doctor who is also an artist and expert in ET. We offered 48 group ET sessions to a total of 253 outpatients with cancer or autoimmune disorders receiving venous infusions in the chemotherapy room of University Hospital Antonio Pedro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The qualitative analysis showed that the programme was a pleasant way to spend time, revived their sense of humour, relieved symptoms, provided meaningful experiences, improved their relationships with staff, enabled expression of their feelings, stimulated them to be creative, improved coping resources and reorganisation of the psyche, and renewed their perspective on life. Family and spirituality were major sources of support. Expressive therapy was shown to be flexible and applicable in small spaces, using recycled materials, even with patients with restrained movements; it can also offer great benefits with relatively small investments if a qualified team is in charge of planning, executing, and auditing the work.

  14. Regulatory focus in the life story: prevention and promotion as expressed in three layers of personality.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Erika M; Zapata-Gietl, Claudia; McAdams, Dan P

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory Focus Theory (Higgins, 1997) outlines the ways in which people attempt to achieve the presence of positive outcomes (promotion) or preserve the absence of negative outcomes (prevention), suggesting that individuals may differ in chronic orientations. The present work examines regulatory outlooks within a multilayered model of personality composed of dispositional traits, characteristic goals, and life stories (narrative identity). Foregrounding the concept of narrative identity, the current study investigates how narrative themes of prevention and promotion relate to regulatory focus as expressed in dispositional traits and characteristic goals and explores the relative contribution of each layer of personality to psychological well-being and physical health. The findings suggest that dispositional traits, personal goals, and life narratives cohere loosely around the central themes of prevention and promotion. Moreover, promotion focus across layers of personality was related to higher levels of self-reported quality of life, compared to prevention focus. Illustrating the incremental validity of different layers of personality, promotion focus in life stories independently predicted psychological health above and beyond promotion focus in dispositional traits.

  15. Expression of a Single-Copy hsp-16.2 Reporter Predicts Life span

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Patricia M.; Taylor, Larry D.; Lowe, Anita; Cypser, James R.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    The level of green fluorescent protein expression from an hsp-16.2–based transcriptional reporter predicts life span and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. The initial report used a high-copy number reporter integrated into chromosome IV. There was concern that the life-span prediction power of this reporter was not attributable solely to hsp-16.2 output. Specifically, prediction power could stem from disruption of some critical piece of chromatin on chromosome IV by the gpIs1 insertion, a linked mutation from the process used to create the reporter, or from an artifact of transgene regulation (multicopy transgenes are subject to regulation by C elegans chromatin surveillance machinery). Here we determine if the ability to predict life span and thermotolerance is specific to the gpIs1 insertion or a general property of hsp-16.2–based reporters. New single-copy hsp-16.2–based reporters predict life span and thermotolerance. We conclude that prediction power of hsp-16.2–based transcriptional reporters is not an artifact of any specific transgene configuration or chromatin surveillance mechanism. PMID:22227523

  16. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Is Expressed in Germ Cells throughout the Murine Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Natsumi; Davy, Philip M C; Gardner, Lauren H; Mathews, Juanita; Yamazaki, Yuki; Allsopp, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo, and germ line cells, are essential to ensure uncompromised development to adulthood as well as species propagation, respectively. Recently, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) has been shown to have important roles in embryonic stem cells; in particular, regulation of conversion to glycolytic metabolism and, as we have shown, maintenance of functional levels of telomerase. In the present study, we sought to assess whether Hif1α was also expressed in the primitive cells of the murine embryo. We observed expression of Hif1α in pre-implantation embryos, specifically the 2-cell stage, morula, and blastocyst. Robust Hif1α expression was also observed in male and female primordial germ cells. We subsequently assessed whether Hif1α was expressed in adult male and female germ cells. In the testis, Hif1α was robustly expressed in spermatogonial cells, in both juvenile (6-week old) and adult (3-month old) males. In the ovaries, Hif1α was expressed in mature oocytes from adult females, as assessed both in situ and in individual oocytes flushed from super-ovulated females. Analysis of Hif1α transcript levels indicates a mechanism of regulation during early development that involves stockpiling of Hif1α protein in mature oocytes, presumably to provide protection from hypoxic stress until the gene is re-activated at the blastocyst stage. Together, these observations show that Hif1α is expressed throughout the life-cycle, including both the male and female germ line, and point to an important role for Hif1α in early progenitor cells.

  17. Signal and Noise in the Perception of Facial Emotion Expressions: From Labs to Life.

    PubMed

    Hess, Ursula; Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Mauersberger, Heidi; Blaison, Christophe; Kessler, Carolin-Louisa

    2016-08-01

    Human interactions are replete with emotional exchanges, and hence, the ability to decode others' emotional expressions is of great importance. The present research distinguishes between the emotional signal (the intended emotion) and noise (perception of secondary emotions) in social emotion perception and investigates whether these predict the quality of social interactions. In three studies, participants completed laboratory-based assessments of emotion recognition ability and later reported their perceptions of naturally occurring social interactions. Overall, noise perception in the recognition task was associated with perceiving more negative emotions in others and perceiving interactions more negatively. Conversely, signal perception of facial emotion expressions was associated with higher quality in social interactions. These effects were moderated by relationship closeness in Greece but not in Germany. These findings suggest that emotion recognition as assessed in the laboratory is a valid predictor of social interaction quality. Thus, emotion recognition generalizes from the laboratory to everyday life.

  18. Older adults and the arts: the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in later life.

    PubMed

    Wikström, Britt-Maj

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of aesthetic forms of expression in a randomly selected Swedish population age 65 to 89. Data were based on semi-structured interviews with 166 participants. Results revealed dance, music, literature, and pictures were important for this group of elderly individuals in promoting successful aging, and the connection to their everyday life was apparent. Participants considered viewing natural scenes and looking in a photo album as important aesthetic activities. The aesthetic forms of expression contributed to physical and intellectual activities, as well as to interaction with other individuals. Aesthetic experiences were related to feelings of timelessness and spacelessness, and served as sources of gratification.

  19. Plant origin and ploidy influence gene expression and life cycle characteristics in an invasive weed.

    PubMed

    Broz, Amanda K; Manter, Daniel K; Bowman, Gillianne; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2009-03-23

    Ecological, evolutionary and physiological studies have thus far provided an incomplete picture of why some plants become invasive; therefore we used genomic resources to complement and advance this field. In order to gain insight into the invasive mechanism of Centaurea stoebe we compared plants of three geo-cytotypes, native Eurasian diploids, native Eurasian tetraploids and introduced North American tetraploids, grown in a common greenhouse environment. We monitored plant performance characteristics and life cycle habits and characterized the expression of genes related to constitutive defense and genome stability using quantitative PCR. Plant origin and ploidy were found to have a significant effect on both life cycle characteristics and gene expression, highlighting the importance of comparing appropriate taxonomic groups in studies of native and introduced plant species. We found that introduced populations of C. stoebe exhibit reduced expression of transcripts related to constitutive defense relative to their native tetraploid counterparts, as might be expected based on ideas of enemy release and rapid evolution. Measurements of several vegetative traits were similar for all geo-cytotypes; however, fecundity of tetraploids was significantly greater than diploids, due in part to their polycarpic nature. A simulation of seed production over time predicts that introduced tetraploids have the highest fecundity of the three geo-cytotypes. Our results suggest that characterizing gene expression in an invasive species using populations from both its native and introduced range can provide insight into the biology of plant invasion that can complement traditional measurements of plant performance. In addition, these results highlight the importance of using appropriate taxonomic units in ecological genomics investigations.

  20. Plant origin and ploidy influence gene expression and life cycle characteristics in an invasive weed

    PubMed Central

    Broz, Amanda K; Manter, Daniel K; Bowman, Gillianne; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2009-01-01

    Background Ecological, evolutionary and physiological studies have thus far provided an incomplete picture of why some plants become invasive; therefore we used genomic resources to complement and advance this field. In order to gain insight into the invasive mechanism of Centaurea stoebe we compared plants of three geo-cytotypes, native Eurasian diploids, native Eurasian tetraploids and introduced North American tetraploids, grown in a common greenhouse environment. We monitored plant performance characteristics and life cycle habits and characterized the expression of genes related to constitutive defense and genome stability using quantitative PCR. Results Plant origin and ploidy were found to have a significant effect on both life cycle characteristics and gene expression, highlighting the importance of comparing appropriate taxonomic groups in studies of native and introduced plant species. We found that introduced populations of C. stoebe exhibit reduced expression of transcripts related to constitutive defense relative to their native tetraploid counterparts, as might be expected based on ideas of enemy release and rapid evolution. Measurements of several vegetative traits were similar for all geo-cytotypes; however, fecundity of tetraploids was significantly greater than diploids, due in part to their polycarpic nature. A simulation of seed production over time predicts that introduced tetraploids have the highest fecundity of the three geo-cytotypes. Conclusion Our results suggest that characterizing gene expression in an invasive species using populations from both its native and introduced range can provide insight into the biology of plant invasion that can complement traditional measurements of plant performance. In addition, these results highlight the importance of using appropriate taxonomic units in ecological genomics investigations. PMID:19309502

  1. Abnormal energy regulation in early life: childhood gene expression may predict subsequent chronic mountain sickness

    PubMed Central

    Huicho, Luis; Xing, Guoqiang; Qualls, Clifford; Rivera-Ch, María; Gamboa, Jorge L; Verma, Ajay; Appenzeller, Otto

    2008-01-01

    Background Life at altitude depends on adaptation to ambient hypoxia. In the Andes, susceptibility to chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a clinical condition that occurs to native highlanders or to sea level natives with prolonged residence at high altitude, remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia-associated gene expression in children of men with CMS might identify markers that predict the development of CMS in adults. We assessed distinct patterns of gene expression of hypoxia-responsive genes in children of highland Andean men, with and without CMS. Methods We compared molecular signatures in children of highland (HA) men with CMS (n = 10), without CMS (n = 10) and in sea level (SL) children (n = 20). Haemoglobin, haematocrit, and oxygen saturation were measured. Gene expression in white cells was assessed at HA and then, in the same subjects, within one hour of arrival at sea level. Results HA children showed higher expression levels of genes regulated by HIF (hypoxia inducible factor) and lower levels of those involved in glycolysis and in the tricarboxilic acid (TCA) cycle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK1) and HIF prolyl hydroxylase 3 (HPH3) mRNA expressions were lowest in children of CMS fathers at altitude. At sea level the pattern of gene expression in the 3 children's groups was indistinguishable. Conclusion The molecular signatures of children of CMS patients show impaired adaptation to hypoxia. At altitude children of CMS fathers had defective coupling between glycolysis and mitochondria TCA cycle, which may be a key mechanism/biomarker for adult CMS. Early biologic markers of disease susceptibility in Andeans might impact health services and social planning. PMID:18954447

  2. A complex life cycle in a warming planet: gene expression in thermally stressed sponges.

    PubMed

    Webster, N; Pantile, R; Botté, E; Abdo, D; Andreakis, N; Whalan, S

    2013-04-01

    Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important components of aquatic biotopes with crucial associations for many reef fish and invertebrates. Sponges have strict temperature optima, and mass mortality events have occurred after unusually high temperatures. To assess how sponges may adapt to thermal stress associated with a changing climate, we applied gene expression profiling to both stages of their bipartite life cycles. Adult Rhopaloeides odorabile are highly sensitive to thermal stress (32 °C), yet their larvae can withstand temperatures up to 36 °C. Here, we reveal the molecular mechanisms that underpin these contrasting thermal tolerances, which may provide sponges with a means to successfully disperse into cooler waters. Heat shock protein 70 was induced by increasing temperature in adult sponges, and genes involved in important biological functions including cytoskeleton rearrangement, signal transduction, protein synthesis/degradation, oxidative stress and detoxification were all negatively correlated with temperature. Conversely, gene expression in larvae was not significantly affected until 36 °C when a stress response involving extremely rapid activation of heat shock proteins occurred. This study provides the first transcriptomic assessment of thermal stress on both life history stages of a marine invertebrate facilitating better predictions of the long-term consequences of climate change for sponge population dynamics.

  3. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2012-01-01

    Centenarians have been reported to share particular personality traits including low neuroticism and high extraversion and conscientiousness. Since these traits have moderate to high heritability and are associated with various health outcomes, personality appears linked to bio-genetic mechanisms which may contribute to exceptional longevity. Therefore, the present study sought to detect genetically-based personality phenotypes in a genetically homogeneous sample of centenarians through developing and examining psychometric properties of a brief measure of the personality of centenarians, the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS). The results generated two personality characteristics/domains, Positive Attitude Towards Life (PATL: optimism, easygoing, laughter, and introversion/outgoing) and Emotional Expression (EE: expressing emotions openly and not bottling up emotions). These domains demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with two established personality measures, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Life Orientation Test-Revised. Additionally, centenarians in both groups had lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness than the US adult population. Findings suggest that the POPS is a psychometrically sound measure of personality in centenarians and capture personality aspects of extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, as well as dispositional optimism which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:22626632

  4. Positive attitude towards life and emotional expression as personality phenotypes for centenarians.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2012-05-01

    Centenarians have been reported to share particular personality traits including low neuroticism and high extraversion and conscientiousness. Since these traits have moderate to high heritability and are associated with various health outcomes, personality appears linked to bio-genetic mechanisms which may contribute to exceptional longevity. Therefore, the present study sought to detect genetically-based personality phenotypes in a genetically homogeneous sample of centenarians through developing and examining psychometric properties of a brief measure of the personality of centenarians, the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS). The results generated two personality characteristics/domains, Positive Attitude Towards Life (PATL: optimism, easygoing, laughter, and introversion/outgoing) and Emotional Expression (EE: expressing emotions openly and not bottling up emotions). These domains demonstrated acceptable concurrent validity with two established personality measures, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory and Life Orientation Test-Revised. Additionally, centenarians in both groups had lower neuroticism and higher conscientiousness than the US adult population. Findings suggest that the POPS is a psychometrically sound measure of personality in centenarians and capture personality aspects of extraversion, neuroticism, and conscientiousness, as well as dispositional optimism which may contribute to successful aging.

  5. A comparison of Frost expression among species and life stages of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bing, X; Zhang, J; Sinclair, Brent J

    2012-02-01

    Frost (Fst) is a gene associated with cold exposure in Drosophila melanogaster. We used real-time PCR to assess whether cold exposure induces expression of Fst in 10 different life stages of D. melanogaster, and adults of seven other Drosophila species. We exposed groups of individuals to 0 °C (2 h), followed by 1 h recovery (22 °C). Frost was significantly upregulated in response to cold in eggs, third instar larvae, and 2- and 5-day-old male and female adults in D. melanogaster. Life stages in which cold did not upregulate Fst had high constitutive expression. Frost is located on the opposite strand of an intron of Diuretic hormone (DH), but cold exposure did not upregulate DH. Frost orthologues were identified in six other species within the Melanogaster group (Drosophila sechellia, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila yakuba, Drosophila erecta, Drosophila ananassae and Drosophila mauritiana). Frost orthologues were upregulated in response to cold exposure in both sexes in adults of all of these species. The predicted structure of a putative Frost consensus protein shows highly conserved tandem repeats of motifs involved in cell signalling (PEST and TRAF2), suggesting that Fst might encode an adaptor protein involved in acute stress or apoptosis signalling in vivo.

  6. Characterization of the Impact of Life Stage on Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Expression and Gene -Chemical Interactions in the Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs thro...

  7. Characterization of the Impact of Life Stage on Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Expression and Gene -Chemical Interactions in the Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs thro...

  8. Musical expressions of life: a look at the 18th and 19th century from a human becoming perspective.

    PubMed

    Jonas-Simpson, Christine

    2004-10-01

    What follows is an exploration of 18th and 19th century music of the Western world through a nursing science lens, specifically that of the human becoming theory. This article was written while I was enrolled in a music history course, which afforded me the opportunity to explore music as musical expressions of life. Rooted in the human becoming philosophical perspective, which focuses on unitary human experience and the quality of human life, I discuss musical expressions of life with examples from various composers throughout the 18th and 19th century. This article concludes with a reflection on musical expressions and their contribution to the enhancement of the quality of human life, a focus of nursing from a human becoming perspective.

  9. Variation of expression levels of seven housekeeping genes at different life-history stages in Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojie; Huang, Aiyou; Xu, Meiling; Wang, Chao; Jia, Zhaojun; Wang, Guangce; Niu, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the optimal internal control for relative real-time PCR when studying target gene expression in the red alga Porphyra yezoensis, we quantified the expression of seven housekeeping genes (18S ribosomal RNA, 30S ribosomal protein S8, Polyubiquitin-2, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Elongation factor 1-alpha, Beta-tubulin and Actin 3) at different life-history stages. Absolute quantification was done by normalization to total RNA quantity and by normalization to genomic DNA quantity. We used these two normalization approaches, comparing the differences of expression levels of all candidate housekeeping genes between any two generations and across three life-history stages (filamentous sporophytes, leafy gametophytes and conchospores). We found GAPDH had the best stability in all cases and we recommend that GAPDH be considered as a potential internal control for gene expression studies at different life-history stages in P. yezoensis.

  10. A transgenic Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain that expresses GFP-luciferase throughout the parasite life cycle.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Ashley M; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Camargo, Nelly; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Kennedy, Mark; Lindner, Scott E; Miller, Jessica L; Hume, Jen C C; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2012-12-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is the pathogenic agent of the most lethal of human malarias. Transgenic P. falciparum parasites expressing luciferase have been created to study drug interventions of both asexual and sexual blood stages but luciferase-expressing mosquito stage and liver stage parasites have not been created which has prevented the easy quantification of mosquito stage development (e.g. for transmission blocking interventions) and liver stage development (for interventions that prevent infection). To overcome this obstacle, we have created a transgenic P. falciparum NF54 parasite that expresses a GFP-luciferase transgene throughout the life cycle. Luciferase expression is robust and measurable at all life cycle stages, including midgut oocyst, salivary gland sporozoites and liver stages, where in vivo development is easily measurable using humanized mouse infections in conjunction with an in vivo imaging system. This parasite reporter strain will accelerate testing of interventions against pre-erythrocytic life cycle stages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Life spanning murine gene expression profiles in relation to chronological and pathological aging in multiple organs.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Martijs J; Melis, Joost Pm; Kuiper, Raoul V; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; Wackers, P F K; Robinson, Joke; van der Horst, Gijsbertus Tj; Dollé, Martijn Et; Vijg, Jan; Breit, Timo M; Hoeijmakers, Jan Hj; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-10-01

    Aging and age-related pathology is a result of a still incompletely understood intricate web of molecular and cellular processes. We present a C57BL/6J female mice in vivo aging study of five organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung, and brain), in which we compare genome-wide gene expression profiles during chronological aging with pathological changes throughout the entire murine life span (13, 26, 52, 78, 104, and 130 weeks). Relating gene expression changes to chronological aging revealed many differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and altered gene sets (AGSs) were found in most organs, indicative of intraorgan generic aging processes. However, only ≤ 1% of these DEGs are found in all organs. For each organ, at least one of 18 tested pathological parameters showed a good age-predictive value, albeit with much inter- and intraindividual (organ) variation. Relating gene expression changes to pathology-related aging revealed correlated genes and gene sets, which made it possible to characterize the difference between biological and chronological aging. In liver, kidney, and brain, a limited number of overlapping pathology-related AGSs were found. Immune responses appeared to be common, yet the changes were specific in most organs. Furthermore, changes were observed in energy homeostasis, reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, cell motility, and DNA damage. Comparison of chronological and pathology-related AGSs revealed substantial overlap and interesting differences. For example, the presence of immune processes in liver pathology-related AGSs that were not detected in chronological aging. The many cellular processes that are only found employing aging-related pathology could provide important new insights into the progress of aging. © 2013 The Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Exposure to Early Life Stress Results in Epigenetic Changes in Neurotrophic Factor Gene Expression in a Parkinsonian Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Mpofana, Thabisile; Daniels, Willie M. U.; Mabandla, Musa V.

    2016-01-01

    Early life adversity increases the risk of mental disorders later in life. Chronic early life stress may alter neurotrophic factor gene expression including those for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) that are important in neuronal growth, survival, and maintenance. Maternal separation was used in this study to model early life stress. Following unilateral injection of a mild dose of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), we measured corticosterone (CORT) in the blood and striatum of stressed and nonstressed rats; we also measured DNA methylation and BDNF and GDNF gene expression in the striatum using real time PCR. In the presence of stress, we found that there was increased corticosterone concentration in both blood and striatal tissue. Further to this, we found higher DNA methylation and decreased neurotrophic factor gene expression. 6-OHDA lesion increased neurotrophic factor gene expression in both stressed and nonstressed rats but this increase was higher in the nonstressed rats. Our results suggest that exposure to early postnatal stress increases corticosterone concentration which leads to increased DNA methylation. This effect results in decreased BDNF and GDNF gene expression in the striatum leading to decreased protection against subsequent insults later in life. PMID:26881180

  13. Expressions of ecological identity across the life span of eight environmental exemplars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydel, Jennifer

    While there is a substantial body of literature looking at various aspects of ecological identity and factors that influence it, there has been less work done on how an individual's ecological identity changes with time. Much of that work is limited to short segments of the life span (e.g. the impact of wilderness experiences). This dissertation attempts to address this perceived gap by investigating how the ecological identity of eight environmental exemplars changed during the course of his or her life. What has emerged from this qualitative grounded theory investigation of the lives and works of Charles Darwin, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Hazel Wolf, Rachel Carson, James Lovelock and E.O. Wilson are five sequential expressions of ecological identity. These 'stages' serve as a framework to explain ecological identity as a developmental process, both fluid and continuous, rather than at) end product. The development of an ecological identity is traced, through the development of five cognitive foundations and their alignment with five emotional foundations that reflect a progression from a sensory interaction and a kinship bond with nature into a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of all aspects of the planet. The findings reveal the evolution of an ecological identity and suggest the importance of looking beyond content knowledge in the nurturing of ecological attitudes, values, and lifestyles.

  14. Temperature treatments during larval development reveal extensive heritable and plastic variation in gene expression and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Jouni; Wheat, Christopher W; Kallioniemi, Eveliina; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Hanski, Ilkka; Frilander, Mikko J

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about variation in gene expression that affects life history traits in wild populations of outcrossing species. Here, we analyse heritability of larval development traits and associated variation in gene expression in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) across three ecologically relevant temperatures. We studied the development of final-instar larvae, which is greatly affected by temperature, and during which stage larvae build up most of the resources for adult life. Larval development time and weight gain varied significantly among families sampled from hundreds of local populations, indicating substantial heritable variation segregating in the large metapopulation. Global gene expression analysis using common garden-reared F2 families revealed that 42% of the >8000 genes surveyed exhibited significant variation among families, 39% of the genes showed significant variation between the temperature treatments, and 18% showed a significant genotype-by-environment interaction. Genes with large family and temperature effects included larval serum protein and cuticle-binding protein genes, and the expression of these genes was closely correlated with the rate of larval development. Significant expression variation in these same categories of genes has previously been reported among adult butterflies originating from newly established versus old local populations, supporting the notion of a life history syndrome put forward based on ecological studies and involving larval development and adult dispersal capacity. These findings suggest that metapopulation dynamics in heterogeneous environments maintain heritable gene expression variation that affects the regulation of life history traits.

  15. Expression and ambivalence over expression of negative emotion: cross-sectional associations with psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Michael, Yvonne L; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Perrin, Nancy; Bowen, Deborah; Cochrane, Barbara B; Brzyski, Robert; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Inhibition of emotional expression has been associated with the incidence and progression of breast cancer and other chronic illnesses. The important health-related factor, however, may be ambivalence about the expression of emotions rather than repression itself. This cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 159,557 participants in the Women's Health Initiative examined the influence of expression of negative emotion and ambivalence about expression of emotion on psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-form 36 (SF-36). Overall, observed correlations were modest but in the expected direction; that is, greater ambivalence about negative emotional expression was associated with worse general health and poorer psychosocial risk profile. Ambivalence about expressing negative emotion was more highly correlated with psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life than emotional expression. In general, our analysis supports prior studies suggesting that ambivalence may be more important to consider in studies of health-related outcomes than expression.

  16. Alteration of Drosophila life span using conditional, tissue-specific expression of transgenes triggered by doxycyline or RU486/Mifepristone.

    PubMed

    Ford, Daniel; Hoe, Nicholas; Landis, Gary N; Tozer, Kevin; Luu, Allan; Bhole, Deepak; Badrinath, Ananth; Tower, John

    2007-06-01

    The conditional systems Tet-on and Geneswitch were compared and optimized for the tissue-specific expression of transgenes and manipulation of life span in adult Drosophila. Two versions of Tet-on system reverse-tetracycline-Trans-Activator (rtTA) were compared: the original rtTA, and rtTAM2-alt containing mutations designed to optimize regulation and expression. The rtTAM2-alt version gave less leaky expression of target constructs in the absence of doxycyline, however the absolute level of expression that could be achieved was less than that produced by rtTA, in contrast to a previous report. Existing UAS-rtTAM2-alt insertions were re-balanced, and combined with several tissue-general and tissue-specific GAL4 driver lines to yield tissue-specific, doxycyline-inducible transgene expression over three orders of magnitude. The Geneswitch (GS) system also had low background, but the absolute level of expression was low relative to Tet-on. Consequently, actin5C-GS multi-insert chromosomes were generated and higher-level expression was achieved without increased background. Moderate level over-expression of MnSOD has beneficial effects on life span. Here high-level over-expression of MnSOD was found to have toxic effects. In contrast, motor-neuron-specific over-expression of MnSOD had no detectable effect on life span. The results suggest that motor-neuron tissue is not the essential tissue for either MnSOD induced longevity or toxicity in adult males.

  17. A tree of life based on ninety-eight expressed genes conserved across diverse eukaryotic species

    PubMed Central

    Jayaswal, Pawan Kumar; Dogra, Vivek; Shanker, Asheesh; Sharma, Tilak Raj

    2017-01-01

    Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technologies have resulted in the accumulation of large data sets in the public domain, facilitating comparative studies to provide novel insights into the evolution of life. Phylogenetic studies across the eukaryotic taxa have been reported but on the basis of a limited number of genes. Here we present a genome-wide analysis across different plant, fungal, protist, and animal species, with reference to the 36,002 expressed genes of the rice genome. Our analysis revealed 9831 genes unique to rice and 98 genes conserved across all 49 eukaryotic species analysed. The 98 genes conserved across diverse eukaryotes mostly exhibited binding and catalytic activities and shared common sequence motifs; and hence appeared to have a common origin. The 98 conserved genes belonged to 22 functional gene families including 26S protease, actin, ADP–ribosylation factor, ATP synthase, casein kinase, DEAD-box protein, DnaK, elongation factor 2, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, phosphatase 2A, ras-related protein, Ser/Thr protein phosphatase family protein, tubulin, ubiquitin and others. The consensus Bayesian eukaryotic tree of life developed in this study demonstrated widely separated clades of plants, fungi, and animals. Musa acuminata provided an evolutionary link between monocotyledons and dicotyledons, and Salpingoeca rosetta provided an evolutionary link between fungi and animals, which indicating that protozoan species are close relatives of fungi and animals. The divergence times for 1176 species pairs were estimated accurately by integrating fossil information with synonymous substitution rates in the comprehensive set of 98 genes. The present study provides valuable insight into the evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:28922368

  18. Is fear in your head? A comparison of instructed and real-life expressions of emotion in the face and body.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Lior; Marom, Inbal; Petranker, Rotem; Aviezer, Hillel

    2016-12-08

    The majority of emotion perception studies utilize instructed and stereotypical expressions of faces or bodies. While such stimuli are highly standardized and well-recognized, their resemblance to real-life expressions of emotion remains unknown. Here we examined facial and body expressions of fear and anger during real-life situations and compared their recognition to that of instructed expressions of the same emotions. In order to examine the source of the affective signal, expressions of emotion were presented as faces alone, bodies alone, and naturally, as faces with bodies. The results demonstrated striking deviations between recognition of instructed and real-life stimuli, which differed as a function of the emotion expressed. In real-life fearful expressions of emotion, bodies were far better recognized than faces, a pattern not found with instructed expressions of emotion. Anger reactions were better recognized from the body than from the face in both real-life and instructed stimuli. However, the real-life stimuli were overall better recognized than their instructed counterparts. These results indicate that differences between instructed and real-life expressions of emotion are prevalent and raise caution against an overreliance of researchers on instructed affective stimuli. The findings also demonstrate that in real life, facial expression perception may rely heavily on information from the contextualizing body. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions.

  20. Changes in language use mediate expressive writing's benefits on health-related quality of life following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Hevey, David; Wilczkiewicz, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed linguistic mediators on the effects of expressive writing on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), depression and anxiety following myocardial infarction (MI). One hundred and twenty-one cardiac patients were randomised (expressive writing = 61; control = 60), 98 (expressive writing = 47; control = 51) provided pre- and post-data, with 89 (expressive writing = 43; control = 46) completing the three-month follow-up. The expressive writing group wrote (20 mins/day for three consecutive days) about their thoughts and feelings regarding their MI, and the control group wrote (20 mins/day for three consecutive days) about daily events that occurred during the year prior to the MI. The outcome measures of depression, anxiety and HRQOL were completed pre-randomisation, post-intervention and three months post-intervention; the mediating variables assessed were changes in (a) positive emotion words, (b) negative emotion words and (c) cognitive-processing words. Three months post-intervention, the expressive writing group had significantly higher HRQOL. The positive effects of expressive writing were significantly associated with increases in both positive emotion words and cognitive-processing words across the three days of expressive writing. Expressive writing is a beneficial intervention that may enhance HRQOL among cardiac patients. PMID:25750834

  1. Serotonin Transporter Expression is Predicted by Early Life Stress and is Associated with Disinhibited Behavior in Infant Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kinnally, E. L.; Tarara, E. R.; Mason, W.A.; Mendoza, S.P.; Abel, K.; Lyons, L.A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) expression patterns may contribute to the risk for adverse psychological outcomes following early life stress. The present study investigated whether two types of early life stress, maternal and social aggression, and the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) predicted lower post-stressor PBMC 5-HTT expression in infant rhesus macaques. We further probed the relationships among these factors and infant behavioral disinhibition within a stressful situation. Fifty-three infants residing with mothers in large, complex social groups were observed over the first 12 postnatal weeks, during which time the rate of aggression received by the infant from their mothers and social group members was recorded. At 90- 120 days of age, infants underwent a 25-hour maternal separation/biobehavioral assessment, which included standardized behavioral assessments and blood sampling. Infants' rh5-HTTLPR genotypes were determined, and infant 5-HTT expression was quantified from PBMCs collected eight hours after separation. Receipt of aggression from the mother, but not from social group members, was associated with lower post-stressor 5-HTT expression. Lower post-stressor 5-HTT expression, but not receipt of aggression, was associated with disinhibited behavior during assessment. Rh5-HTTLPR genotype was unrelated to any measure. We conclude that 5-HTT regulation is linked with specific, presumably stressful early experiences in infant rhesus macaques. Further, 5-HTT expression may be a better predictor of behavioral disinhibition than genotype or experiences, presumably via parallel processes that operate in the brain. PMID:19817873

  2. HBV life cycle is restricted in mouse hepatocytes expressing human NTCP

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanjie; Zhuang, Qiuyu; Wang, Yuze; Zhang, Tianying; Zhao, Jinghua; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Junfang; Lin, Yi; Yuan, Quan; Xia, Ningshao; Han, Jiahuai

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that human sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (SLC10A1 or NTCP) is a functional cellular receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether human NTCP can support HBV infection in mouse hepatocyte cell lines has not been clarified. Because an HBV-permissible mouse model would be helpful for the study of HBV pathogenesis, it is necessary to investigate whether human NTCP supports the susceptibility of mouse hepatocyte cell lines to HBV. The results show that exogenous human NTCP expression can render non-susceptible HepG2 (human), Huh7 (human), Hepa1–6 (mouse), AML-12 (mouse) cell lines and primary mouse hepatocyte (PMH) cells susceptible to hepatitis D virus (HDV) which employs HBV envelope proteins. However, human NTCP could only introduce HBV susceptibility in human-derived HepG2 and Huh7 cells, but not in mouse-derived Hepa1–6, AML-12 or PMH cells. These data suggest that although human NTCP is a functional receptor that mediates HBV infection in human cells, it cannot support HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Our study indicated that the restriction of HBV in mouse hepatocytes likely occurs after viral entry but prior to viral transcription. We have excluded the role of mouse hepatocyte nuclear factors in the restriction of the HBV life cycle and showed that knockdown or inhibition of Sting, TBK1, IRF3 or IRF7, the components of the anti-viral signaling pathways, had no effect on HBV infection in mouse hepatocytes. Therefore, murine restriction factors that limit HBV infection need to be identified before a HBV-permissible mouse line can be created. PMID:24509445

  3. Sex steroid and thyroid hormone receptor expressions in the thyroid of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) during different life stages.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Dieldrich S; Skotko, Jeremy P; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Boggs, Ashley S P; Iguchi, Taisen; Guillette, Louis J

    2011-06-01

    The expression of estrogen receptors, ESR1 (ERα) and ESR2 (ERβ), and androgen receptors (AR) in the thyroid gland has been reported in few vertebrate species other than a few mammals. This study reports the presence of sex steroid hormone receptors and thyroid receptors (ERα, ERβ, AR, TRα, and TRβ) in the thyroid gland of the American alligator at several life stages. It provides a semiquantification and distribution of ERα in the thyroid follicle cells using an immunohistochemical approach as well as reports quantitative differences in mRNA expression of ERα, ERβ, TRα, TRβ, and AR in the same tissue using quantitative real time-PCR (Q-PCR) with primers designed specifically for alligators. The thyroid tissue of the American alligator expresses ERα, ERβ, and AR at all of the life stages examined here although no statistically significant differences were observed between male and female in thyroid mRNA expression for any of the genes analyzed. No sexual dimorphism was observed in ERα immunostaining. No statistical analysis across life stages were performed due to confounding factor of season. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Individual Variations in Maternal Care Early in Life Correlate with Later Life Decision-Making and c-Fos Expression in Prefrontal Subregions of Rats

    PubMed Central

    van Hasselt, Felisa N.; de Visser, Leonie; Tieskens, Jacintha M.; Cornelisse, Sandra; Baars, Annemarie M.; Lavrijsen, Marla; Krugers, Harm J.; van den Bos, Ruud; Joëls, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity affects hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, alters cognitive functioning and in humans is thought to increase the vulnerability to psychopathology–e.g. depression, anxiety and schizophrenia- later in life. Here we investigated whether subtle natural variations among individual rat pups in the amount of maternal care received, i.e. differences in the amount of licking and grooming (LG), correlate with anxiety and prefrontal cortex-dependent behavior in young adulthood. Therefore, we examined the correlation between LG received during the first postnatal week and later behavior in the elevated plus maze and in decision-making processes using a rodent version of the Iowa Gambling Task (rIGT). In our cohort of male and female animals a high degree of LG correlated with less anxiety in the elevated plus maze and more advantageous choices during the last 10 trials of the rIGT. In tissue collected 2 hrs after completion of the task, the correlation between LG and c-fos expression (a marker of neuronal activity) was established in structures important for IGT performance. Negative correlations existed between rIGT performance and c-fos expression in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, prelimbic cortex, infralimbic cortex and insular cortex. The insular cortex correlations between c-fos expression and decision-making performance depended on LG background; this was also true for the lateral orbitofrontal cortex in female rats. Dendritic complexity of insular or infralimbic pyramidal neurons did not or weakly correlate with LG background. We conclude that natural variations in maternal care received by pups may significantly contribute to later-life decision-making and activity of underlying brain structures. PMID:22693577

  5. Increased Calcium Levels and Prolonged Shelf Life in Tomatoes Expressing Arabidopsis H+/Ca2+ Transporters1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunghun; Cheng, Ning Hui; Pittman, Jon K.; Yoo, Kil Sun; Park, Jungeun; Smith, Roberta H.; Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2005-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that fruit from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants expressing Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) H+/cation exchangers (CAX) have more calcium (Ca2+) and prolonged shelf life when compared to controls. Previously, using the prototypical CAX1, it has been demonstrated that, in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, CAX transporters are activated when the N-terminal autoinhibitory region is deleted, to give an N-terminally truncated CAX (sCAX), or altered through specific manipulations. To continue to understand the diversity of CAX function, we used yeast assays to characterize the putative transport properties of CAX4 and N-terminal variants of CAX4. CAX4 variants can suppress the Ca2+ hypersensitive yeast phenotypes and also appear to be more specific Ca2+ transporters than sCAX1. We then compared the phenotypes of sCAX1- and CAX4-expressing tomato lines. The sCAX1-expressing tomato lines demonstrate increased vacuolar H+/Ca2+ transport, when measured in root tissue, elevated fruit Ca2+ level, and prolonged shelf life but have severe alterations in plant development and morphology, including increased incidence of blossom-end rot. The CAX4-expressing plants demonstrate more modest increases in Ca2+ levels and shelf life but no deleterious effects on plant growth. These findings suggest that CAX expression may fortify plants with Ca2+ and may serve as an alternative to the application of CaCl2 used to extend the shelf life of numerous agriculturally important commodities. However, judicious regulation of CAX transport is required to assure optimal plant growth. PMID:16244156

  6. Use of expression-enhancing terminators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase mRNA half-life and improve gene expression control for metabolic engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kathleen A; Karim, Ashty S; Gupta, Akash; Alper, Hal S

    2013-09-01

    Control of gene and protein expression of both endogenous and heterologous genes is a key component of metabolic engineering. While a large amount of work has been published characterizing promoters for this purpose, less effort has been exerted to elucidate the role of terminators in yeast. In this study, we characterize over 30 terminators for use in metabolic engineering applications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determine mRNA half-life changes to be the major cause of the varied protein and transcript expression level. We demonstrate that the difference in transcript level can be over 6.5-fold even for high strength promoters. The influence of terminator selection is magnified when coupled with a low-expression promoter, with a maximum difference in protein expression of 11-fold between an expression-enhancing terminator and the parent plasmid terminator and over 35-fold difference when compared with a no-terminator baseline. This is the first time that terminators have been investigated in the context of multiple promoters spanning orders of magnitude in activity. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of terminator selection for metabolic engineering by using a mutant xylose isomerase gene as a proof-of-concept. Through pairing an expression-enhancing terminator with a low-expression promoter, we were able to achieve the same phenotypic result as with a promoter considerably higher in strength. Moreover, we can further boost the phenotype of the high-strength promoter by pairing it with an expression-enhancing terminator. This work highlights how terminator elements can be used to control metabolic pathways in the same way that promoters are traditionally used in yeast. Together, this work demonstrates that terminators will be an important part of heterologous gene expression and metabolic engineering for yeast in the future.

  7. Differential protein expression throughout the life cycle of Trypanosoma congolense, a major parasite of cattle in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Eyford, Brett A.; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Smith, Derek; Loveless, Bianca; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Donelson, John E.; Inoue, Noboru; Pearson, Terry W.

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma congolense is an important pathogen of livestock in Africa. To study protein expression throughout the T. congolense life cycle, we used culture-derived parasites of each of the three main insect stages and bloodstream stage parasites isolated from infected mice, to perform differential protein expression analysis. Three complete biological replicates of all four life cycle stages were produced from T. congolense IL3000, a cloned parasite that is amenable to culture of major life cycle stages in vitro. Cellular proteins from each life cycle stage were trypsin digested and the resulting peptides were labeled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ). The peptides were then analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). This method was used to identify and relatively quantify proteins from the different life cycle stages in the same experiment. A search of the Wellcome Trust's Sanger Institute's semi-annotated T. congolense database was performed using the MS/MS fragmentation data to identify the corresponding source proteins. A total of 2088 unique protein sequences were identified, representing 23% of the ∼9000 proteins predicted for the T. congolense proteome. The 1291 most confidently identified proteins were prioritized for further study. Of these, 784 yielded annotated hits while 501 were described as “hypothetical proteins”. Six proteins showed no significant sequence similarity to any known proteins (from any species) and thus represent new, previously uncharacterized T. congolense proteins. Of particular interest among the remainder are several membrane molecules that showed drastic differential expression, including, not surprisingly, the well-studied variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), invariant surface glycoproteins (ISGs) 65 and 75, congolense epimastigote specific protein (CESP), the surface protease GP63, an amino acid transporter, a pteridine transporter and a haptoglobin–hemoglobin receptor. Several of

  8. Moral Distress in Family Health Strategy: experiences expressed by daily life.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Cecília Maria Lima; Pereira, Maria Odete; Moreira, Danielle de Araújo; Tibães, Hanna Beatriz Bacelar; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Brito, Maria José Menezes

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the Moral Suffering experiences expressed in the daily life of the Family Health Strategy. This is a case study with a qualitative approach, conducted between August and October 2014 in a municipality of Minas Gerais. The sample was represented by 28 professionals of family health teams. Data were collected through interviews with semi-structured questionnaires, observation, projective technique and submitted to thematic content analysis. The results indicate that routine issues of the health care system lead professionals to experience a challenging practice in dealing with daily situations that contradict their ethical precepts and can compromise the quality of work, becoming triggers of Moral Distress. Social vulnerabilities such as domestic violence, poor socioeconomic conditions and organizational weaknesses of the health system were the main triggers of Moral Distress. Therefore, it is necessary to amplify this reflection by workers of the Family Health Strategy, aiming to encourage the minimization of suffering experiences, considering their ethical values. Compreender as vivências de Sofrimento Moral expressas no cotidiano da Estratégia de Saúde da Família. Trata-se de um estudo de caso com abordagem qualitativa, realizado entre os meses de agosto a outubro de 2014, cujo cenário foi um município de Minas Gerais. Participaram 28 profissionais das equipes de saúde da família. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas com roteiro semiestruturado, observação, técnica projetiva e, submetidos à análise de conteúdo temática. Os resultados apontaram que as questões rotineiras do serviço de saúde levam os profissionais a vivenciarem uma prática desafiadora ao lidarem diariamente com situações que contradizem seus preceitos éticos capazes de comprometer a qualidade do trabalho tornando-se disparadores de Sofrimento Moral. As vulnerabilidades sociais, como violência doméstica e condições socioeconômicas precárias, al

  9. Supplementation of essential fatty acids to Holstein calves during late uterine life and first month of life alters hepatic fatty acid profile and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Greco, L F; Lock, A L; Block, E; Santos, J E P; Thatcher, W W; Staples, C R

    2016-09-01

    Linoleic acid is an essential dietary fatty acid (FA). However, how the supplementation of linoleic acid during uterine and early life may modify the FA profile and transcriptome regulation of the liver, and performance of preweaned dairy calves is unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of essential FA to Holstein calves during late uterine and early life on their hepatic FA profile and global gene expression at 30 d of age. During the last 8 wk of pregnancy, Holstein cattle (n=96) were fed either no fat supplement (control), a saturated FA supplement enriched with C18:0, or an unsaturated FA supplement enriched with linoleic acid. Male calves (n=40) born from these dams were fed a milk replacer (MR) with either low (LLA) or high linoleic acid (HLA) concentration as the sole feedstuff during the first 30 d. Liver biopsy was performed at 30 d of age, and microarray analysis was performed on 18 liver samples. Total concentration of FA in liver were greater in calves fed LLA compared with those fed HLA MR (8.2 vs. 7.1%), but plasma concentrations of total FA did not differ due to MR diets. The FA profiles of plasma and liver of calves were affected differently by the prepartum diets. Specifically, the FA profile in liver was affected moderately by the feeding of fat prepartum, but the profiles did not differ due to the type of FA fed prepartum. The type of MR fed during the first 30 d of life had major effects on both plasma and liver FA profiles, resembling the type of fat fed. Plasma and liver of calves fed LLA MR had greater percentage of medium-chain FA (C12:0 and C14:0), whereas plasma and liver from calves fed HLA MR had greater percentages of linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Dams fed fat or a specific type of FA modified the expression of some genes in liver of calves, particularly those genes involved in biological functions and pathways related to upregulation of lipid metabolism and downregulation of inflammatory responses

  10. Interspecific Differential Expression Analysis of RNA-Seq Data Yields Insight into Life Cycle Variation in Hydractiniid Hydrozoans.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Steven M; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-08-06

    Hydrozoans are known for their complex life cycles, which can alternate between an asexually reproducing polyp stage and a sexually reproducing medusa stage. Most hydrozoan species, however, lack a free-living medusa stage and instead display a developmentally truncated form, called a medusoid or sporosac, which generally remains attached to the polyp. Although evolutionary transitions in medusa truncation and loss have been investigated phylogenetically, little is known about the genes involved in the development and loss of this life cycle stage. Here, we present a new workflow for evaluating differential expression (DE) between two species using short read Illumina RNA-seq data. Through interspecific DE analyses between two hydractiniid hydrozoans, Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus and Podocoryna carnea, we identified genes potentially involved in the developmental, functional, and morphological differences between the fully developed medusa of P. carnea and reduced sporosac of H. symbiolongicarpus. A total of 10,909 putative orthologs of H. symbiolongicarpus and P. carnea were identified from de novo assemblies of short read Illumina data. DE analysis revealed 938 of these are differentially expressed between P. carnea developing and adult medusa, when compared with H. symbiolongicarpus sporosacs, the majority of which have not been previously characterized in cnidarians. In addition, several genes with no corresponding ortholog in H. symbiolongicarpus were expressed in developing medusa of P. carnea. Results presented here show interspecific DE analyses of RNA-seq data to be a sensitive and reliable method for identifying genes and gene pathways potentially involved in morphological and life cycle differences between species.

  11. Mild prenatal protein malnutrition increases alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the rat cerebral cortex during postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Walter; Hernández, Alejandro; Valladares, Luis; Pérez, Hernán; Mondaca, Mauricio; Soto-Moyano, Rubén

    2006-05-15

    Mild reduction in the protein content in the diet of pregnant rats from 25 to 8% casein, calorically compensated by carbohydrates, does not alter body and brain weights of rat pups at birth, but results in significant changes of the concentration and release of cortical noradrenaline during postnatal life, together with impaired long-term potentiation and memory formation. Since some central noradrenergic receptors are critically involved in neuroplasticity, the present study evaluated, by utilizing immunohistochemical methods, the effect of mild prenatal protein malnutrition on the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in the frontal and occipital cortices of 8- and 60-day-old rats. At day 8 of postnatal age, prenatally malnourished rats exhibited a three-fold increase of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in both the frontal and the occipital cortices, as compared to well-nourished controls. At 60 days of age, prenatally malnourished rats showed normal expression levels scores of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor in the neocortex. Results suggest that overexpression of neocortical alpha 2C-adrenoceptors during early postnatal life, subsequent to mild prenatal protein malnutrition, could in part be responsible for neural and behavioral disturbances showing prenatally malnourished animals during the postnatal life.

  12. Interactions between Early Life Stress, Nucleus Accumbens MeCP2 Expression, and Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Candace R; Bastle, Ryan M; Manning, Tawny B; Himes, Sarah M; Fennig, Paulette; Conrad, Phoebe R; Colwell, Jenna; Pagni, Broc A; Hess, Lyndsay A; Matekel, Caitlin G; Newbern, Jason M; Olive, M Foster

    2016-11-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is highly related to the development of psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, including substance use disorders. A recent body of literature suggests that long-lasting changes in the epigenome may be a mechanism by which experiences early in life can alter neurobiological and behavioral phenotypes in adulthood. In this study, we replicate our previous findings that ELS, in the form of prolonged maternal separation, increases adult methamphetamine self-administration (SA) in male rats as compared with handled controls. In addition, we show new evidence that both ELS and methamphetamine SA alter the expression of the epigenetic regulator methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) in key brain reward regions, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core. In turn, viral-mediated knockdown of MeCP2 expression in the NAc core reduces methamphetamine SA, as well as saccharin intake. Furthermore, NAc core MeCP2 knockdown reduces methamphetamine, but not saccharin, SA on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. These data suggest that NAc core MeCP2 may be recruited by both ELS and methamphetamine SA and promote the development of certain aspects of drug abuse-related behavior. Taken together, functional interactions between ELS, methamphetamine SA, and the expression of MeCP2 in the NAc may represent novel mechanisms that can ultimately be targeted for intervention in individuals with adverse early life experiences who are at risk for developing substance use disorders.

  13. Expression stability and selection of optimal reference genes for gene expression normalization in early life stage rainbow trout exposed to cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Shekh, Kamran; Tang, Song; Niyogi, Som; Hecker, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Gene expression analysis represents a powerful approach to characterize the specific mechanisms by which contaminants interact with organisms. One of the key considerations when conducting gene expression analyses using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the selection of appropriate reference genes, which is often overlooked. Specifically, to reach meaningful conclusions when using relative quantification approaches, expression levels of reference genes must be highly stable and cannot vary as a function of experimental conditions. However, to date, information on the stability of commonly used reference genes across developmental stages, tissues and after exposure to contaminants such as metals is lacking for many vertebrate species including teleost fish. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the stability of expression of 8 reference gene candidates in the gills and skin of three different early life-stages of rainbow trout after acute exposure (24h) to two metals, cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) using qPCR. Candidate housekeeping genes were: beta actin (b-actin), DNA directed RNA polymerase II subunit I (DRP2), elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1a), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), ribosomal protein L8 (RPL8), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S). Four algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method were employed to systematically evaluate the expression stability of these candidate genes under control and exposed conditions as well as across three different life-stages. Finally, stability of genes was ranked by taking geometric means of the ranks established by the different methods. Stability of reference genes was ranked in the following order (from lower to higher stability): HPRT

  14. A Single-Expression Formula for Inverting Strain-Life and Stress-Strain Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. S.; Muralidharan, U.

    1981-01-01

    Starting with the basic fatigue lift formula, an inversion formula is derived. The inversion formula is valid over the entire life range of engineering interest for all materials examined. Conformity between the two equations is extremely close, suitable for all engineering problems. The approach used to invert the life relation is also suitable for the inversion of other formulas involving the sum of two power-law terms.

  15. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic influences on life history expression: metabolism and parentally induced temperature influences on embryo development rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Ton, Riccardo; Nikilson, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsic processes are assumed to underlie life history expression and trade-offs, but extrinsic inputs are theorised to shift trait expression and mask trade-offs within species. Here, we explore application of this theory across species. We do this based on parentally induced embryo temperature as an extrinsic input, and mass-specific embryo metabolism as an intrinsic process, underlying embryonic development rate. We found that embryonic metabolism followed intrinsic allometry rules among 49 songbird species from temperate and tropical sites. Extrinsic inputs via parentally induced temperatures explained the majority of variation in development rates and masked a relationship with metabolism; metabolism explained a minor proportion of the variation in development rates among species, and only after accounting for temperature effects. We discuss evidence that temperature further obscures the expected interspecific trade-off between development rate and offspring quality. These results demonstrate the importance of considering extrinsic inputs to trait expression and trade-offs across species.

  16. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic influences on life history expression: metabolism and parentally induced temperature influences on embryo development rate.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E; Ton, Riccardo; Niklison, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Intrinsic processes are assumed to underlie life history expression and trade-offs, but extrinsic inputs are theorised to shift trait expression and mask trade-offs within species. Here, we explore application of this theory across species. We do this based on parentally induced embryo temperature as an extrinsic input, and mass-specific embryo metabolism as an intrinsic process, underlying embryonic development rate. We found that embryonic metabolism followed intrinsic allometry rules among 49 songbird species from temperate and tropical sites. Extrinsic inputs via parentally induced temperatures explained the majority of variation in development rates and masked a relationship with metabolism; metabolism explained a minor proportion of the variation in development rates among species, and only after accounting for temperature effects. We discuss evidence that temperature further obscures the expected interspecific trade-off between development rate and offspring quality. These results demonstrate the importance of considering extrinsic inputs to trait expression and trade-offs across species.

  17. Close Companion Friends, Self-Expression, and Psychological Well-Being in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    This study has two central aims. Both are associated with self-expression, which is defined as the ability to fully utilize one's own talents and abilities. The first goal is to see if self-expression reduces depressive symptoms over time whereas the second aim is to see whether close companion friends help older people more fully utilize their…

  18. Close Companion Friends, Self-Expression, and Psychological Well-Being in Late Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    This study has two central aims. Both are associated with self-expression, which is defined as the ability to fully utilize one's own talents and abilities. The first goal is to see if self-expression reduces depressive symptoms over time whereas the second aim is to see whether close companion friends help older people more fully utilize their…

  19. The Assessment of Expressive and Instrumental Power Value Orientations in Sport and in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredemeier, B. J.

    A typical assumption has been that women and men possess distinct power orientations: women have expressive characteristics, such as interdependence and cooperativeness, while men have instrumental characteristics, such as self reliance and competitiveness. An inventory assessing expressive and instrumental power orientations (PVO's) was developed…

  20. Comparing anger, anger expression, life stress and social support between Korean female nursing and general university students.

    PubMed

    Jun, Won Hee; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2017-05-30

    To compare anger, anger expression, life stress and social support among female students at a nursing university and a general university and to examine factors affecting anger in each group. University students typically experience constant stress resulting from factors like academic requirements, personal relationships and career decisions; this tends to promote anger. Particularly, nursing students' anger can negatively affect the quality of care that they provide, and also their mental health. Therefore, anger management of nursing students is very important in the training and development of future nurses. Nursing education needs to confirm factors associated with anger of nursing students compared with general university students to develop specific intervention programs for decreasing their anger levels. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. Participants were 286 female students (146 from a nursing university and 140 from a general university); they completed self-report surveys examining anger, anger expression, life stress and social support. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to identify factors affecting anger. Data were collected from 15 May-10 June 2016. In the stepwise multiple regression analysis, we entered three anger expression factors, eight life stress factors and social support as explanatory variables; factors affecting anger among nursing students were anger-out and same-sex peer relationship stress. In general university students, anger-out, anger-control and anger-in were identified as factors affecting anger. Becoming proficient in beneficial anger expression techniques and reducing stress from same-sex peer relationships will reduce anger among female nursing students. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The effect of social environment during ontogeny on life history expression in the guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Magellan, K; Magurran, A E

    2009-07-01

    The effects of the social environment during development on life-history decisions and adult behaviour were assessed using male guppies Poecilia reticulata. Males raised with adults developed secondary sexual characteristics later than males raised either singly or with four of their siblings indicating social inhibition of maturation was evident in P. reticulata. There was no effect, however, of rearing environment on male behaviour. The results reveal that social environment during development can influence life-history decisions but is less important than immediate social context in determining male behavioural phenotype in P. reticulata.

  2. Visualizing Changes in Cdkn1c Expression Links Early-Life Adversity to Imprint Mis-regulation in Adults.

    PubMed

    Van de Pette, Mathew; Abbas, Allifia; Feytout, Amelie; McNamara, Gráinne; Bruno, Ludovica; To, Wilson K; Dimond, Andrew; Sardini, Alessandro; Webster, Zoe; McGinty, James; Paul, Eleanor J; Ungless, Mark A; French, Paul M W; Withers, Dominic J; Uren, Anthony; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Merkenschlager, Matthias; John, Rosalind M; Fisher, Amanda G

    2017-01-31

    Imprinted genes are regulated according to parental origin and can influence embryonic growth and metabolism and confer disease susceptibility. Here, we designed sensitive allele-specific reporters to non-invasively monitor imprinted Cdkn1c expression in mice and showed that expression was modulated by environmental factors encountered in utero. Acute exposure to chromatin-modifying drugs resulted in de-repression of paternally inherited (silent) Cdkn1c alleles in embryos that was temporary and resolved after birth. In contrast, deprivation of maternal dietary protein in utero provoked permanent de-repression of imprinted Cdkn1c expression that was sustained into adulthood and occurred through a folate-dependent mechanism of DNA methylation loss. Given the function of imprinted genes in regulating behavior and metabolic processes in adults, these results establish imprinting deregulation as a credible mechanism linking early-life adversity to later-life outcomes. Furthermore, Cdkn1c-luciferase mice offer non-invasive tools to identify factors that disrupt epigenetic processes and strategies to limit their long-term impact.

  3. Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor and Early Growth Response Gene 1 during Postnatal Development of Two Inbred Strains of Mice Exposed to Early Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent

  4. Positive attitude toward life, emotional expression, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms among centenarians and near-centenarians.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Schechter, Clyde B; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2016-09-01

    Favorable attitudes, emotions, personality characteristics, and self-rated health have been associated with successful aging in late life. However, less is known regarding these constructs and their relationships to mental health outcomes in the oldest old persons. This study examined cross-sectional relationships of these psychological factors to depressive symptoms in centenarians and near-centenarians. A selected sample of Ashkenazi Jewish older adults aged 98-107 (n = 54, 78% female) without significant cognitive impairment participated. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental Status Examination, positive attitude toward life and emotional expression by the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS), self-rated health by participants' subjective rating of their present health, and depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results demonstrated inverse associations of the positive attitude toward life domain of the POPS and self-rated health with participants' levels of depressive symptoms even after adjusting for the effects of history of medical illnesses, cognitive function, and demographic variables. Additionally, participants with high levels of care showed higher levels of depressive symptoms. Path analysis supported the partially mediating role of positive attitude toward life in the relationship between self-rated health and depressive symptoms. These findings emphasized the important roles of positive attitudes and emotions as well as self-rated health in mental health outcomes in the oldest old. Although, limited by its cross-sectional design, findings suggest these psychological factors may exert protective effects on mental health outcomes in advanced age.

  5. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From egg to adult, all life history stages of house flies associate with septic environments teeming with bacteria. House fly lysozyme was first identified in the larval midgut, where it is used for digestion of microbe-rich meals due to its broad-spectrum activity against Gram positive and Gram neg...

  6. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  7. Expressions of Identity and Self in Daily Life at a Group Home for Older Persons With Dementia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Anbäcken, Els-Marie; Minemoto, Kayoko; Fujii, Miwa

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on expressions of identity and self among residents at a group home for older persons with dementia in Japan--a study, which started as an explorative study on spirituality--and how residents make meaning of life. Although aware of stages of dementia illness and briefly commenting on these, the analysis does not make any specific point of it. This article views dementia from a sociocultural perspective and is based on participant observations at a group home with 19 residents, combined with interviews with 6 of them. Two central concepts for the study are discussed and drawn on in the analysis: ie, meaning home and family, and dementia and boke, senility. The study examines how the group home is ie and concludes that it is "home enough" in the sense that one's identity and self are honored here. The old word boke represents a state in which one has "given up" any attempts to keep one's mental health. This concept was used by some residents to mark the line between those who were "helpless" with boke and those who could manage by themselves without boke. Identities are analyzed in different terms: as profession, as feeling secure, as being physically close, in social interactions, and as being cared for properly also after death. The analysis of self and identity showed that contentment in life was expressed in various ways, as a whole or as a patchwork with light and dark colors, and that it is still in process. Here, the supportive but discreet scaffolding of staff seems to matter. Life is lived until death, and the farewell ceremonies are analyzed as existential closures for many--and for life finalized here at Ie, the group home.

  8. Interspecific Differential Expression Analysis of RNA-Seq Data Yields Insight into Life Cycle Variation in Hydractiniid Hydrozoans

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Steven M.; Cartwright, Paulyn

    2015-01-01

    Hydrozoans are known for their complex life cycles, which can alternate between an asexually reproducing polyp stage and a sexually reproducing medusa stage. Most hydrozoan species, however, lack a free-living medusa stage and instead display a developmentally truncated form, called a medusoid or sporosac, which generally remains attached to the polyp. Although evolutionary transitions in medusa truncation and loss have been investigated phylogenetically, little is known about the genes involved in the development and loss of this life cycle stage. Here, we present a new workflow for evaluating differential expression (DE) between two species using short read Illumina RNA-seq data. Through interspecific DE analyses between two hydractiniid hydrozoans, Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus and Podocoryna carnea, we identified genes potentially involved in the developmental, functional, and morphological differences between the fully developed medusa of P. carnea and reduced sporosac of H. symbiolongicarpus. A total of 10,909 putative orthologs of H. symbiolongicarpus and P. carnea were identified from de novo assemblies of short read Illumina data. DE analysis revealed 938 of these are differentially expressed between P. carnea developing and adult medusa, when compared with H. symbiolongicarpus sporosacs, the majority of which have not been previously characterized in cnidarians. In addition, several genes with no corresponding ortholog in H. symbiolongicarpus were expressed in developing medusa of P. carnea. Results presented here show interspecific DE analyses of RNA-seq data to be a sensitive and reliable method for identifying genes and gene pathways potentially involved in morphological and life cycle differences between species. PMID:26251524

  9. Interspecies systems biology uncovers metabolites affecting C. elegans gene expression and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Watson, Emma; MacNeil, Lesley T; Ritter, Ashlyn D; Yilmaz, L Safak; Rosebrock, Adam P; Caudy, Amy A; Walhout, Albertha J M

    2014-02-13

    Diet greatly influences gene expression and physiology. In mammals, elucidating the effects and mechanisms of individual nutrients is challenging due to the complexity of both the animal and its diet. Here, we used an interspecies systems biology approach with Caenorhabditis elegans and two of its bacterial diets, Escherichia coli and Comamonas aquatica, to identify metabolites that affect the animal's gene expression and physiology. We identify vitamin B12 as the major dilutable metabolite provided by Comamonas aq. that regulates gene expression, accelerates development, and reduces fertility but does not affect lifespan. We find that vitamin B12 has a dual role in the animal: it affects development and fertility via the methionine/S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) cycle and breaks down the short-chain fatty acid propionic acid, preventing its toxic buildup. Our interspecies systems biology approach provides a paradigm for understanding complex interactions between diet and physiology.

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi: Molecular characterization of an RNA binding protein differentially expressed in the parasite life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Díaz, Leticia; Duhagon, María Ana; Smircich, Pablo; Sotelo-Silveira, José; Robello, Carlos; Krieger, Marco Aurelio; Goldenberg, Samuel; Williams, Noreen; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Garat, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Molecular studies have shown several peculiarities in the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression in trypanosomatids. Protein coding genes are organized in long polycistronic units that seem to be constitutively transcribed. Therefore, post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is considered to be the main point for control of transcript abundance and functionality. Here we describe the characterization of a 17 kDa RNA-binding protein from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcRBP19) containing an RNA recognition motive (RRM). This protein is coded by a single copy gene located in a high molecular weight chromosome of T. cruzi. Orthologous genes are present in the TriTryp genomes. TcRBP19 shows target selectivity since among the different homoribopolymers it preferentially binds polyC. TcRBP19 is a low expression protein only barely detected at the amastigote stage localizing in a diffuse pattern in the cytoplasm. PMID:17475252

  11. Effects of polyploidy and reproductive mode on life history trait expression.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Katelyn; Tucci, Claire; Neiman, Maurine

    2016-02-01

    Ploidy elevation is increasingly recognized as a common and important source of genomic variation. Even so, the consequences and biological significance of polyploidy remain unclear, especially in animals. Here, our goal was to identify potential life history costs and benefits of polyploidy by conducting a large multiyear common garden experiment in Potamopyrgus antipodarum, a New Zealand freshwater snail that is a model system for the study of ploidy variation, sexual reproduction, host-parasite coevolution, and invasion ecology. Sexual diploid and asexual triploid and tetraploid P. antipodarum frequently coexist, allowing for powerful direct comparisons across ploidy levels and reproductive modes. Asexual reproduction and polyploidy are very often associated in animals, allowing us to also use these comparisons to address the maintenance of sex, itself one of the most important unresolved questions in evolutionary biology. Our study revealed that sexual diploid P. antipodarum grow and mature substantially more slowly than their asexual polyploid counterparts. We detected a strong negative correlation between the rate of growth and age at reproductive maturity, suggesting that the relatively early maturation of asexual polyploid P. antipodarum is driven by relatively rapid growth. The absence of evidence for life history differences between triploid and tetraploid asexuals indicates that ploidy elevation is unlikely to underlie the differences in trait values that we detected between sexual and asexual snails. Finally, we found that sexual P. antipodarum did not experience discernable phenotypic variance-related benefits of sex and were more likely to die before achieving reproductive maturity than the asexuals. Taken together, these results suggest that under benign conditions, polyploidy does not impose obvious life history costs in P. antipodarum and that sexual P. antipodarum persist despite substantial life history disadvantages relative to their asexual

  12. Putative nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits express differentially through the life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica A; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-04-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Orchardists in Washington State are concerned about the possibility of codling moth field populations developing resistance to these two insecticides. In an effort to help mitigate this issue, we initiated a project to identify and characterize codling moth nAChR subunits expressed in heads. This study had two main goals; (i) identify transcripts from a codling moth head transcriptome that encode for nAChR subunits, and (ii) determine nAChR subunit expression profiles in various life stages of codling moth. From a codling moth head transcriptome, 24 transcripts encoding for 12 putative nAChR subunit classes were identified and verified by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequence determination. Characterization of the deduced protein sequences encoded by putative nAChR transcripts revealed that they share the distinguishing features of the cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily with 9 α-type subunits and 3 β-type subunits identified. Phylogenetic analysis comparing these protein sequences to those of other insect nAChR subunits supports the identification of these proteins as nAChR subunits. Stage expression studies determined that there is clear differential expression of many of these subunits throughout the codling moth life cycle. The information from this study will be used in the future to monitor for potential target-site resistance mechanisms to neonicotinoids and spinosads in tolerant codling moth populations.

  13. Vitamins, stress and growth: the availability of antioxidants in early life influences the expression of cryptic genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-Y; Noguera, J C; Tato, A; Velando, A

    2013-06-01

    Environmental inputs during early development can shape the expression of phenotypes, which has long-lasting consequences in physiology and life history of an organism. Here, we study whether experimentally manipulated availability of dietary antioxidants, vitamins C and E, influences the expression of genetic variance for antioxidant defence, endocrine signal and body mass in yellow-legged gull chicks using quantitative genetic models based on full siblings. Our experimental study in a natural population reveals that the expression of genetic variance in total antioxidant capacity in plasma increased in chicks supplemented with vitamins C and E despite the negligible effects on the average phenotype. This suggests that individuals differ in their ability to capture and transport dietary antioxidants or to respond to these extra resources, and importantly, this ability has a genetic basis. Corticosterone level in plasma and body mass were negatively correlated at the phenotypic level. Significant genetic variance of corticosterone level appeared only in control chicks nonsupplemented with vitamins, suggesting that the genetic variation of endocrine system, which transmits environmental cues to adaptively control chick development, appeared in stressful conditions (i.e. poor antioxidant availability). Therefore, environmental inputs may shape evolutionary trajectories of antioxidant capacity and endocrine system by affecting the expression of cryptic genetic variation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. The Development of Emotion Expression during the First Two Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malatesta, Carol Z.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the course of emotion expression development during the first 2 years of 58 full-term and preterm children through videotapes of mother/infant pairs. Mothers' contingency behavior appeared to have an effect on emotional development, as did birth status and gender. Prematurity was associated with differential socioemotional development.…

  15. Randomised controlled trial of expressive writing and quality of life in men and women treated for colon or rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stephen J; Revenson, Tracey A; Roberts, Katherine J; Pranikoff, Julie R; Davey, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This randomised trial tested (i) whether a home-based expressive writing (EW) intervention improves quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and (ii) whether the intervention is more beneficial for men or for people who feel constrained in disclosing cancer-related concerns and feelings. Patients treated for CRC were randomised to an EW (n = 101) or control writing (CW; n = 92) group. Assessments were completed at 1 month pre- and post-intervention. Sex and perceived social constraints on disclosure were evaluated as moderators. Primary outcomes were depressive symptoms, sleep problems and quality of life indicators. Eighty-one per cent of participants completed all writing assignments. Consistent with hypotheses, relative to the CW group, participants in the EW group expressed more negative emotion in writing and rated their writings as more meaningful, personal and emotionally revealing. There were no significant main effects of EW or moderating effects of sex or social constraints on outcomes. Although EW is feasible to use with persons who have CRC, it was not effective as a stand-alone psychotherapeutic intervention. Neither was it more effective for men nor for people who felt they could not freely disclose cancer-related concerns and feelings.

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial of Expressive Writing and Quality of Life in Men and Women Treated for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Revenson, Tracey A.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Pranikoff, Julie R.; Davey, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial tested (1) whether a home-based expressive writing (EW) intervention improves quality of life in patients with colorectal cancer and (2) whether the intervention is more beneficial for men or for people who feel constrained in disclosing cancer-related concerns and feelings. Design Patients treated for colorectal cancer were randomized to an EW (n = 101) or control writing (CW; n = 92) group. Assessments were completed at 1 month pre- and post-intervention. Sex and perceived social constraints on disclosure were evaluated as moderators. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were depressive symptoms, sleep problems and quality of life indicators. Results 81% of participants completed all writing assignments. Consistent with hypotheses, relative to the CW group, participants in the EW group expressed more emotion in writing and rated their writings as more meaningful, personal, and emotionally revealing. There were no significant main effects of EW or moderating effects of sex or social constraints on outcomes. Conclusions Although EW is feasible to use with persons who have colorectal cancer, it was not effective as a stand-alone psychotherapeutic intervention. Nor was it more effective for men or for people who felt they could not freely disclose cancer-related concerns and feelings. PMID:25271396

  17. Modulation of Methuselah Expression Targeted to Drosophila Insulin-producing Cells Extends Life and Enhances Oxidative Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gimenez, Luis E. D.; Ghildyal, Parakashtha; Fischer, Kathleen E.; Hu, Hongxiang; Ja, William W.; Eaton, Benjamin A.; Wu, Yimin; Austad, Steven N.; Ranjan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitously reduced signaling via Methuselah (MTH), a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) required for neurosecretion, has previously been reported to extend life and enhance stress resistance in flies. Whether these effects are due to reduced MTH signaling only in specific tissue(s) and through with signaling effects reduced MTH might produce these phenotypes remains unknown. We determined that reduced expression of mth targeted only to the insulin-producing cells (IPCs) of the fly brain was sufficient to extend life and enhance oxidative stress resistance. Paradoxically, we discovered that overexpression of mth targeted to the same cells has similar phenotypic effects to reduced expression due to MTH’s interaction with β-arrestin, which uncouples GPCRs from their G-proteins. We confirmed the functional relationship between MTH and β-arrestin by finding that IPC-targeted overexpression of β-arrestin alone mimics the longevity phenotype of reduced MTH signaling. As reduced MTH signaling also inhibits insulin secretion from the IPCs, the most parsimonious mechanistic explanation for its longevity and stress resistance enhancement might be through reduced insulin/IGF signaling (IIS). However, examination of phenotypic features of long-lived IPC-mth modulated flies as well as several downstream IIS targets implicates enhanced activity of the JNK stress resistance pathway more directly than insulin signaling in the longevity and stress resistance phenotypes. PMID:23121290

  18. Inflammatory Urinary Cytokine Expression and Quality of Life in Patients With Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Pillalamarri, Nirmala; Shalom, Dara F; Pilkinton, Marjorie L; Winkler, Harvey A; Chatterjee, Prodyot K; Solanki, Malvika; Metz, Christine N

    2017-09-25

    The aims of this study were to analyze levels of selected inflammatory urinary cytokines/chemokines in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) and to determine if cytokine/chemokine levels correlate with quality of life and symptom distress. This prospective, case-control pilot analysis included 23 women with OAB and 22 control subjects. Overactive bladder subjects were enrolled if they had symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, or urge incontinence for more than 3 months and urodynamic evidence of detrusor overactivity. Control subjects denied urinary symptoms. Subjects and control subjects were excluded if they had known inflammatory bladder or systemic conditions, cystitis, stones, or recent anticholinergic use. Urine samples were collected from each subject and control. Subjects filled out the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Urinary Distress Inventory Questionnaire 6. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined using the multiplexed Meso Scale Discovery Platform and were corrected for urinary creatinine concentrations. Statistical analysis comparing cytokine/chemokine levels was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test; relationships between cytokine/chemokine and questionnaire scores were calculated with Spearman correlation coefficient. Subjects with OAB had significantly lower urinary interleukin 10 (IL-10), IL-12-p70, and IL-13 levels compared with control subjects. Interleukin 1 correlated with worsening symptom distress on Urinary Distress Inventory Questionnaire 6. To our knowledge, this is at present the only study correlating inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels in women with OAB with quality of life and distress. Interleukin 1 signified worsening distress, whereas IL-10, IL-12p70, and IL-13 were the only cytokines found at different levels in subjects. Our findings support a larger study in order to evaluate the value of urinary cytokines/chemokines as potential biomarkers.

  19. Expression of insecticide resistance in immature life stages of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Roca-Acevedo, Gonzalo; Picollo, María Inés; Santo-Orihuela, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility to the insecticide deltamethrin and the expression of resistance to this insecticide in developing eggs and neonate nymphs of Triatoma infestans from two areas of Argentina (Campo Largo) and Bolivia (Entre Ríos), where resistance to this pyrethroid is suspected. Both nymphal populations showed resistance to deltamethrin, with lower resistance ratio for Entre Ríos (173X) than Campo Largo (1108X). Efficacy of deltamethrin on 4-, 7-, and 12-d-old eggs for both field populations were significantly lower than efficacy on eggs of the susceptible strain. This is the first documented evidence of the expression of pyrethroid resistance during the embryonic development of Chagas Disease vectors.

  20. Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes were discovered as a consequence of their marked upregulation of expression in response to seemingly innocuous stimuli such as touch. Further analyses have indicated that these genes are upregulated by a variety of diverse stimuli. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to changing environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicate that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  1. Life in a changing world: TCH gene regulation of expression and responses to environmental signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; Sistrunk, M. L.; Polisensky, D. H.; Xu, W.; Purugganan, M. M.; Antosiewicz, D. M.; Campbell, P.; Johnson, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    The Arabidopsis TCH genes were discovered as a consequence of their marked upregulation of expression in response to seemingly innocuous stimuli such as touch. Further analyses have indicated that these genes are upregulated by a variety of diverse stimuli. Understanding the mechanism(s) and factors that control TCH gene regulation will shed light on the signaling pathways that enable plants to respond to changing environmental conditions. The TCH proteins include calmodulin, calmodulin-related proteins and a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase. Expression analyses and localization of protein accumulation indicate that the potential sites of TCH protein function include expanding cells and tissues under mechanical strain. We hypothesize that the TCH proteins may collaborate in cell wall biogenesis.

  2. The expression pattern and cellular localisation of Myosin VI during the Drosophila melanogaster life cycle.

    PubMed

    Millo, Hadas; Bownes, Mary

    2007-02-01

    Myosin VI is a motor protein which is necessary for the morphogenesis of epithelial tissues during Drosophila development. The spatial and temporal expression of Myosin VI was examined by expressing a GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) tagged Myosin VI molecule (PGM), under the control of a Myosin VI-Gal4 line. PGM was present in tissues that were shown previously to express Myosin VI, such as the ovarian follicle epithelium, and the individualization complex; and in other tissues, including the trachea, the midgut, the salivary glands and the imaginal discs. The GFP-tagged Myosin V1 rescued the male sterile phenotype of Jaguar showing it is functional in vivo. Within individual cells, the role of the head and neck domain and the tail domain in targeting of the Myosin V1 molecule was examined by investigating the localisation of the separate domains tagged to GFP. In salivary glands and follicle cells the head and neck domains were concentrated in the cell nucleus, where the minus end of each actin filament is located. We found that the tail domain anchors the whole molecule outside of the nucleus. Similarly, in the individualization complex in the testes, the tail anchors the whole molecule to the base of the complex while the separated head with neck domain becomes scattered along the entire actin molecule suggesting the cellular location may be determined by cargo proteins that bind to the tail domain rather than by the movement of Myosin VI along the actin filaments.

  3. Daily life in very old age: everyday activities as expression of successful living.

    PubMed

    Horgas, A L; Wilms, H U; Baltes, M M

    1998-10-01

    The goals of this article are (a) to describe the daily life of the very old in terms of frequency, duration, variety, and social and physical contexts of activities, and (b) to examine the effects of background variables (e.g., age, sex, residential and marital status, income, and education) on late life activity engagement. A representative sample of 516 adults aged 70-105 was interviewed about their activities using the Yesterday Interview. In contrast to most research on activity engagement, this measurement approach allows for assessment of both the type and context of activities engaged in during the day preceding the interview. The results indicated high frequencies of obligatory activities but also showed substantial time spent in discretionary activities, with television viewing occupying most of the participants' leisure time. Most activities were done alone and at home. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses, age and residential status had the strongest association with activity frequency, duration, and variety; the oldest-old and those residing in long-term care facilities had lower levels of activity engagement. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for successful aging.

  4. Comparative analysis of expressed sequence tags from three castes and two life stages of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Termites (Isoptera) are eusocial insects whose colonies consist of morphologically and behaviorally specialized castes of sterile workers and soldiers, and reproductive alates. Previous studies on eusocial insects have indicated that caste differentiation and behavior are underlain by differential gene expression. Although much is known about gene expression in the honey bee, Apis mellifera, termites remain relatively understudied in this regard. Therefore, our objective was to assemble an expressed sequence tag (EST) data base for the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes, for future gene expression studies. Results Soldier, worker, and alate caste and two larval cDNA libraries were constructed, and approximately 15,000 randomly chosen clones were sequenced to compile an EST data base. Putative gene functions were assigned based on a BLASTX Swissprot search. Categorical in silico expression patterns for each library were compared using the R-statistic. A significant proportion of the ESTs of each caste and life stages had no significant similarity to those in existing data bases. All cDNA libraries, including those of non-reproductive worker and soldier castes, contained sequences with putative reproductive functions. Genes that showed a potential expression bias among castes included a putative antibacterial humoral response and translation elongation protein in soldiers and a chemosensory protein in alates. Conclusions We have expanded upon the available sequences for R. flavipes and utilized an in silico method to compare gene expression in different castes of an eusocial insect. The in silico analysis allowed us to identify several genes which may be differentially expressed and involved in caste differences. These include a gene overrepresented in the alate cDNA library with a predicted function of neurotransmitter secretion or cholesterol absorption and a gene predicted to be involved in protein biosynthesis and ligase activity

  5. Early life ozone exposure results in dysregulated innate immune function and altered microRNA expression in airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Clay, Candice C; Maniar-Hew, Kinjal; Gerriets, Joan E; Wang, Theodore T; Postlethwait, Edward M; Evans, Michael J; Fontaine, Justin H; Miller, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ozone has been associated with increased incidence of respiratory morbidity in humans; however the mechanism(s) behind the enhancement of susceptibility are unclear. We have previously reported that exposure to episodic ozone during postnatal development results in an attenuated peripheral blood cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that persists with maturity. As the lung is closely interfaced with the external environment, we hypothesized that the conducting airway epithelium of neonates may also be a target of immunomodulation by ozone. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated primary airway epithelial cell cultures derived from juvenile rhesus macaque monkeys with a prior history of episodic postnatal ozone exposure. Innate immune function was measured by expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in primary cultures established following in vivo LPS challenge or, in response to in vitro LPS treatment. Postnatal ozone exposure resulted in significantly attenuated IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in primary cultures from juvenile animals; IL-8 mRNA was also significantly reduced. The effect of antecedent ozone exposure was modulated by in vivo LPS challenge, as primary cultures exhibited enhanced cytokine expression upon secondary in vitro LPS treatment. Assessment of potential IL-6-targeting microRNAs miR-149, miR-202, and miR-410 showed differential expression in primary cultures based upon animal exposure history. Functional assays revealed that miR-149 is capable of binding to the IL-6 3' UTR and decreasing IL-6 protein synthesis in airway epithelial cell lines. Cumulatively, our findings suggest that episodic ozone during early life contributes to the molecular programming of airway epithelium, such that memory from prior exposures is retained in the form of a dysregulated IL-6 and IL-8 response to LPS; differentially expressed microRNAs such as miR-149 may play a role in the persistent modulation of the epithelial innate

  6. Early Life Ozone Exposure Results in Dysregulated Innate Immune Function and Altered microRNA Expression in Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Gerriets, Joan E.; Wang, Theodore T.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Evans, Michael J.; Fontaine, Justin H.; Miller, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ozone has been associated with increased incidence of respiratory morbidity in humans; however the mechanism(s) behind the enhancement of susceptibility are unclear. We have previously reported that exposure to episodic ozone during postnatal development results in an attenuated peripheral blood cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that persists with maturity. As the lung is closely interfaced with the external environment, we hypothesized that the conducting airway epithelium of neonates may also be a target of immunomodulation by ozone. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated primary airway epithelial cell cultures derived from juvenile rhesus macaque monkeys with a prior history of episodic postnatal ozone exposure. Innate immune function was measured by expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in primary cultures established following in vivo LPS challenge or, in response to in vitro LPS treatment. Postnatal ozone exposure resulted in significantly attenuated IL-6 mRNA and protein expression in primary cultures from juvenile animals; IL-8 mRNA was also significantly reduced. The effect of antecedent ozone exposure was modulated by in vivo LPS challenge, as primary cultures exhibited enhanced cytokine expression upon secondary in vitro LPS treatment. Assessment of potential IL-6-targeting microRNAs miR-149, miR-202, and miR-410 showed differential expression in primary cultures based upon animal exposure history. Functional assays revealed that miR-149 is capable of binding to the IL-6 3′ UTR and decreasing IL-6 protein synthesis in airway epithelial cell lines. Cumulatively, our findings suggest that episodic ozone during early life contributes to the molecular programming of airway epithelium, such that memory from prior exposures is retained in the form of a dysregulated IL-6 and IL-8 response to LPS; differentially expressed microRNAs such as miR-149 may play a role in the persistent modulation of the epithelial innate

  7. Positive Attitude Towards Life, Emotional Expression, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms among centenarians and near-centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kaori; Zweig, Richard; Schechter, Clyde B.; Barzilai, Nir; Atzmon, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Favorable attitudes, emotions, personality characteristics, and self-rated health have been associated with successful aging in late life. However, less is known regarding these constructs and their relationships to mental health outcomes in the oldest old persons. This study examined cross-sectional relationships of these psychological factors to depressive symptoms in centenarians and near-centenarians. Methods A selected sample of Ashkenazi Jewish older adults ages 98 to 107 (n = 54, 78% female) without significant cognitive impairment participated. Cognitive function was assessed by Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE), Positive Attitude Towards Life and Emotional Expression by the Personality Outlook Profile Scale (POPS), self-rated health by participants’ subjective rating of their present health, and depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Results demonstrated inverse associations of the Positive Attitude Towards Life domain of the POPS and self-rated health with participants’ levels of depressive symptoms even after adjusting for the effects of history of medical illnesses, cognitive function, and demographic variables. Additionally, participants with high levels of care showed higher levels of depressive symptoms. Path analysis supported the partially mediating role of Positive Attitude Towards Life in the relationship between self-rated health and depressive symptoms. Conclusion These findings emphasized the important roles of positive attitudes and emotions as well as self-rated health in mental health outcomes in the oldest old. Although, limited by its cross-sectional design, findings suggest these psychological factors may exert protective effects on mental health outcomes in advanced age. PMID:26114814

  8. Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase decreases throughout the life.

    PubMed

    Radu, D L; Kodera, T; Bona, C

    2003-01-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an RNA editing enzyme, which contributes to generation of new functional genes from a restricted number of genes of plant and animal genome. This enzyme was involved in the process of somatic mutation and class switching in vertebrate. Since the rate of somatic mutations is variable throughout ontogeny, we have studied the transcription of AID in 3 to 24 month-old Balb/c mice. Our results demonstrate a significant decrease of the transcription of the AID gene with aging. The decreased AID activity is not related to variation of phenotypic and functional properties of B cells throughout the life. This observation can explain the low rate of somatic mutation in aged animals.

  9. The expression of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression in daily life: a French-American study.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, J D; Compagnone, P

    2000-06-01

    This prospective study provided a direct comparison of French and American samples concerning a cognitive diathesis for depression. Using the Experience Sampling Method and identical measures across sites, subjects were signaled five times daily by electronic devices to provide in vivo reports of negative events, attributions, and depressed moods. After controlling for effects associating clinical and demographic variables, and despite differences attributable to national origin, attributional style emerged as a highly significant predictor of the numerous specific attributions made to negative events within the course of daily life. However, consistent with the cognitive mediation hypothesis, attributional style did not directly explain depression levels. The results are discussed in terms of the predictive power of cognitive and personality assessments in understanding the day-to-day experience of depression.

  10. Analytical expression for the α-decay half-life and understanding the data including very long life-times and superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Basudeb

    2008-10-01

    An analytically solvable composite potential that can closely reproduce the combined potential of an α+nucleus system consisting of attractive nuclear and repulsive electrostatic potentials is developed. The exact s-wave solution of the Schrödinger equation with this potential in the interior region and the outside Coulomb wave function are used to give a heuristic expression for the width or half-life of the quasibound state at the accurately determined resonance energy, called the Q value of the decaying system. By using the fact that for a relatively low resonance energy, the quasibound state wave function is quite similar to the bound state wave function where the amplitude of the wave function in the interaction region is very large as compared to the amplitude outside, the resonance energy could easily be calculated from the variation of relative probability densities of inside and outside waves as a function of energy. By considering recent α-decay systems, the applicability of the model is demonstrated with excellent explanations being found for the experimental data of Q values and half-lives of a vast range of masses including superheavy nuclei and nuclei with very long lifetimes (of order 1022 s). Throughout the application, by simply varying the value of a single potential parameter describing the flatness of the barrier, we obtain successful results in cases with as many as 70 pairs of α+daughter nucleus systems.

  11. Impact of gender on COPD expression in a real-life cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Reports regarding gender-related differences in COPD expression have provided conflicting results. In the French Initiatives BPCO real-world cohort, which contained 688 patients (146 women) when data were extracted, women were matched with men (1:3 ratio: n = 107:275) on age (5-year intervals) and FEV1 (5% predicted intervals) and comparisons were performed using univariate logistic regressions. For a given age and level of airflow obstruction, women with COPD had higher BOD scores due to more pronounced dyspnea and lower BMI, suggesting worse prognosis, and were more likely to exhibit anxiety, suggesting the need for specific assessment and care. PMID:24533770

  12. Intestinal expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) at different life stages of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyojin; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Akihiro; Tsukamoto, Katsumi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Watanabe, Soichi

    2013-10-01

    The expression of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) was investigated at the different life stages of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. The cDNA encoding Japanese eel PEPT1 was cloned and sequenced. The hydrophilicity plot analysis of its deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarities with topological features of known PEPT1 molecules in other species. Tissue distribution analysis confirmed that PEPT1 mRNA was detected specifically in the anterior and posterior intestines of adult eel. In eel larvae at 13days post hatching (dph), PEPT1 mRNA expression was mainly detected in the intestinal tract regions. The trypsinogen mRNA was only detected in the gastric region including the pancreas. Intense immunoreaction for PEPT1 was observed in the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelial cells of both larval and adult eel. These results indicated that PEPT1 was an intestine-specific transporter, which was localized at the luminal side of the epithelial cells, suggesting that di/tri-peptide absorption via PEPT1 takes place in the eel intestine. According to the ontogenetic analyses by quantitative PCR, PEPT1 and trypsinogen mRNA expressions were simultaneously increased at 5-7 dph. It is thus assumed that nutrient absorption systems in the intestinal tracts of larvae become functional at this age.

  13. Integrating early life experience, gene expression, brain development, and emergent phenotypes: unraveling the thread of nature via nurture.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation to environmental changes is based on the perpetual generation of new phenotypes. Modern biology has focused on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in facilitating the adaptation of organisms to changing environments through alterations in gene expression. Inherited and/or acquired epigenetic factors are relatively stable and have regulatory roles in numerous genomic activities that translate into phenotypic outcomes. Evidence that dietary and pharmacological interventions have the potential to reverse environment-induced modification of epigenetic states (e.g., early life experience, nutrition, medication, infection) has provided an additional stimulus for understanding the biological basis of individual differences in cognitive abilities and disorders of the brain. It has been suggested that accurate quantification of the relative contribution of heritable genetic and epigenetic variation is essential for understanding phenotypic divergence and adaptation in changing environments, a process requiring stable modulation of gene expression. The main challenge for epigenetics in psychology and psychiatry is to determine how experiences and environmental cues, including the nature of our nurture, influence the expression of neuronal genes to produce long-term individual differences in behavior, cognition, personality, and mental health. To this end, focusing on DNA and histone modifications and their initiators, mediators and readers may provide new inroads for understanding the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity and disorders of the brain. In this chapter, we review recent discoveries highlighting epigenetic aspects of normal brain development and mental illness, as well as discuss some future directions in the field of behavioral epigenetics.

  14. Estrogens maintain bone mass by regulating expression of genes controlling function and life span in mature osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yuuki; Youn, Ming-Young; Kondoh, Shino; Nakamura, Takashi; Kouzmenko, Alexander; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Takada, Ichiro; Takaoka, Kunio; Kato, Shigeaki

    2009-09-01

    Estrogens play a key role in regulation of bone mass and strength by controlling activity of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Cellular effects of estrogens are mediated predominantly by the action of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). In earlier studies, ablation of the ERalpha gene in mice did not result in osteoporotic phenotypes due to systemic endocrine disturbance and compensatory effects of elevated levels of testosterone. Despite the relatively well-established effects in osteoblasts, little is known about the direct action of estrogen in osteoclasts. Development in the last decade of more sophisticated genetic manipulation approaches opened new possibilities to explore cell-specific roles of nuclear receptors in bone tissue. Recently, we have generated osteoclast-specific ERalpha gene knockout mice and shown that in vivo estrogens directly regulate the life span of mature osteoclasts by inducing the expression of pro-apoptotic Fas ligand (FasL). Inhibitory effects of estrogens on osteoclast function were further studied in vitro. We observed sufficiently detectable ERalpha expression in osteoclasts differentiating from primary bone marrow cells or RAW264 cells, although levels of ERalpha were decreasing during progression of the differentiation into mature osteoclasts. Treatment with estrogens led to reduction in expression of osteoclast-specific genes controlling bone resorption activity. However, estrogens did not affect the size of multinucleated osteoclasts or number of nuclei in a mature osteoclast. In conclusion, in osteoclasts, estrogens function to inhibit bone resorption activity and vitality rather than differentiation.

  15. Effects of a natural toxin on life history and gene expression of Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    van Ommen Kloeke, A E Elaine; Gong, Ping; Ellers, Jacintha; Roelofs, Dick

    2014-02-01

    Earthworms perform key functions for a healthy soil ecosystem, such as bioturbation. The soil ecosystem can be challenged by natural toxins such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), produced by many commercial crops. Therefore, the effects of 2-phenylethyl ITC were investigated on the earthworm Eisenia andrei using an ecotoxicogenomics approach. Exposure to 2-phenylethyl ITC reduced both survival and reproduction of E. andrei in a dose-dependent manner (median effective concentration [EC50] = 556 nmol/g). Cross-species comparative genomic hybridization validated the applicability of an existing 4 × 44,000 Eisenia fetida microarray to E. andrei. Gene expression profiles revealed the importance of metallothionein (MT) as an early warning signal when E. andrei was exposed to low concentrations of 2-phenylethyl ITC. Alignment of these MT genes with the MT-2 gene of Lumbricus rubellus showed that at least 2 MT gene clusters are present in the Eisenia sp. genome. At high-exposure concentrations, gene expression was mainly affected by inhibiting chitinase activity, inducing an oxidative stress response, and stimulating energy metabolism. Furthermore, analysis by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway implied that the high concentration may have caused impaired light sensitivity, angiogenesis, olfactory perception, learning, and memory. Increased levels of ITCs may be found in the field in the near future. The results presented call for a careful investigation to quantify the risk of such compounds before allowing them to enter the soil on a large scale.

  16. Broad Shifts in Gene Expression during Early Postnatal Life Are Associated with Shifts in Histone Methylation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Julian C.; Chen, Weiping; Cheung, Crystal S. F.; Baron, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    During early postnatal life, extensive changes in gene expression occur concomitantly in multiple major organs, indicating the existence of a common core developmental genetic program. This program includes hundreds of growth-promoting genes that are downregulated with age in liver, kidney, lung, and heart, and there is evidence that this component of the program drives the widespread decline in cell proliferation that occurs in juvenile life, as organs approach adult sizes. To investigate epigenetic changes that might orchestrate this program, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-promoter tiling array to assess temporal changes in histone H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation (me3) at promoter regions throughout the genome in kidney and lung, comparing 1- to 4-wk-old mice. We found extensive genome-wide shifts in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 occurring with age in both kidney and lung. The number of genes with concordant changes in the two organs was far greater than expected by chance. Temporal changes in H3K4me3 showed a strong, positive association with changes in gene expression, assessed by microarray, whereas changes in H3K27me3 showed a negative association. Gene ontology analysis indicated that shifts in specific histone methylation marks were associated with specific developmental functions. Of particular interest, genes with decreases in H3K4me3 with age in both organs were strongly implicated in cell cycle and cell proliferation functions. Taken together, the findings suggest that the common core developmental program of gene expression which occurs in multiple organs during juvenile life is associated with a common core developmental program of histone methylation. In particular, declining H3K4me3 is strongly associated with gene downregulation and occurs in the promoter regions of many growth-regulating genes, suggesting that this change in histone methylation may contribute to the component of the genetic program that drives juvenile body growth deceleration

  17. Life after Venus Express: Science goals for a European Venus radar orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Colin; Ghail, Richard

    ESA’s Venus Express mission has led to a renaissance of Venus science, following a dearth of Venus missions in the previous 15 years. Venus Express has made many discoveries in atmospheric science, for which its payload was optimised; however it has also provided tantalising hints about the geological activity of the planet. Mesospheric sulphur dioxide abundances vary by 1000% on decadal timescales, in a pattern which suggests episodic volcanic injections [Marcq et al. Nature Geosci 2013; Esposito, Science 1984]; anomalous emissivity near suggest volcanic hotspots implies geologically recent, as-yet-unweathered lava flows [Smrekar et al., Science 2010]; and recent results, if confirmed, show temporal evolution of thermal emission from some regions of the surface may be direct evidence of volcanic activity during the duration of the VEx mission [Shalygin et al., LPSC 2014]. While there are more results to be obtained yet from the Venus Express dataset, further investigation of these phenomena will require a new Venus mission. We therefore propose an orbiter mission focussed on characterising the geological activity of Venus. The key instrument would be a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). Why a radar mission following NASA’s Magellan mission? Radar capabilities are vastly improved in the last 30 years and a modern radar would be capable of spatial resolution approaching two orders of magnitude better than that from Magellan; this enables a wide range of investigations, from detailed study of tectonic, volcanic and Aeolian features, to stratigraphy for better reconstruction of geological epochs. Interferometric SAR could also be used to study the centimetre-scale surface deformations due to current volcanic or tectonic activity. Constraints on interior structure can be obtained not only from improved gravity mapping (from spacecraft tracking) but also by studying the spin state of Venus from high-resolution radar measurements. The radar measurements will be

  18. Oracle Database 10g: a platform for BLAST search and Regular Expression pattern matching in life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Susie M.; Chen, Jake Y.; Davidson, Marcel G.; Thomas, Shiby; Trute, Barry M.

    2005-01-01

    As database management systems expand their array of analytical functionality, they become powerful research engines for biomedical data analysis and drug discovery. Databases can hold most of the data types commonly required in life sciences and consequently can be used as flexible platforms for the implementation of knowledgebases. Performing data analysis in the database simplifies data management by minimizing the movement of data from disks to memory, allowing pre-filtering and post-processing of datasets, and enabling data to remain in a secure, highly available environment. This article describes the Oracle Database 10g implementation of BLAST and Regular Expression Searches and provides case studies of their usage in bioinformatics. http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/index.html PMID:15608287

  19. Oracle Database 10g: a platform for BLAST search and Regular Expression pattern matching in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Susie M; Chen, Jake Y; Davidson, Marcel G; Thomas, Shiby; Trute, Barry M

    2005-01-01

    As database management systems expand their array of analytical functionality, they become powerful research engines for biomedical data analysis and drug discovery. Databases can hold most of the data types commonly required in life sciences and consequently can be used as flexible platforms for the implementation of knowledgebases. Performing data analysis in the database simplifies data management by minimizing the movement of data from disks to memory, allowing pre-filtering and post-processing of datasets, and enabling data to remain in a secure, highly available environment. This article describes the Oracle Database 10g implementation of BLAST and Regular Expression Searches and provides case studies of their usage in bioinformatics. http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/index.html.

  20. Temporal and spatial expression of the E5a protein during the differentiation-dependent life cycle of human papillomavirus type 31b.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T J; Meyers, C

    1998-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are epitheliotropic viruses, and their life cycle is intimately linked to the stratification and differentiation state of the host epithelial tissues. Defining a role for the E5 gene product in the differentiation-dependent viral life cycle has been difficult due to the lack of a suitable culture system. We used the organotypic (raft) culture system to investigate the spatial and temporal expression pattern of the E5 protein during the differentiation-dependent life cycle of HPV-31b. We report the generation of antisera specific to the HPV-31b E5a protein. The HPV-31b E5a protein was detected throughout the viral life cycle in raft cultures as determined by immunostaining analyses, and the protein was localized predominantly to the basal and granular layers. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptor or platelet-derived growth factor receptors, two proteins with which E5 has been shown to interact in cell culture, did not specifically colocalize with E5a expression. However, HPV-31b E5a expression did colocalize with the epithelial differentiation-specific marker filaggrin. The kinetics of E5a protein expression during the complete viral life cycle was analyzed by immunoblotting, and the highest level was found to be coincidental with the onset of virion morphogenesis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  1. Life History Responses and Gene Expression Profiles of the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus Cultured on Cryptococcus Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Gaurav V.; Baskaran, Praveen; Röseler, Waltraud; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2016-01-01

    Nematodes, the earth’s most abundant metazoa are found in all ecosystems. In order to survive in diverse environments, they have evolved distinct feeding strategies and they can use different food sources. While some nematodes are specialists, including parasites of plants and animals, others such as Pristionchus pacificus are omnivorous feeders, which can live on a diet of bacteria, protozoans, fungi or yeast. In the wild, P. pacificus is often found in a necromenic association with beetles and is known to be able to feed on a variety of microbes as well as on nematode prey. However, in laboratory studies Escherichia coli OP50 has been used as standard food source, similar to investigations in Caenorhabditis elegans and it is unclear to what extent this biases the obtained results and how relevant findings are in real nature. To gain first insight into the variation in traits induced by a non-bacterial food source, we study Pristionchus-fungi interactions under laboratory conditions. After screening different yeast strains, we were able to maintain P. pacificus for at least 50–60 generations on Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus curvatus. We describe life history traits of P. pacificus on both yeast strains, including developmental timing, survival and brood size. Despite a slight developmental delay and problems to digest yeast cells, which are both reflected at a transcriptomic level, all analyses support the potential of Cryptococcus strains as food source for P. pacificus. In summary, our work establishes two Cryptococcus strains as alternative food source for P. pacificus and shows change in various developmental, physiological and morphological traits, including the transcriptomic profiles. PMID:27741297

  2. Life History Responses and Gene Expression Profiles of the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus Cultured on Cryptococcus Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Sanghvi, Gaurav V; Baskaran, Praveen; Röseler, Waltraud; Sieriebriennikov, Bogdan; Rödelsperger, Christian; Sommer, Ralf J

    2016-01-01

    Nematodes, the earth's most abundant metazoa are found in all ecosystems. In order to survive in diverse environments, they have evolved distinct feeding strategies and they can use different food sources. While some nematodes are specialists, including parasites of plants and animals, others such as Pristionchus pacificus are omnivorous feeders, which can live on a diet of bacteria, protozoans, fungi or yeast. In the wild, P. pacificus is often found in a necromenic association with beetles and is known to be able to feed on a variety of microbes as well as on nematode prey. However, in laboratory studies Escherichia coli OP50 has been used as standard food source, similar to investigations in Caenorhabditis elegans and it is unclear to what extent this biases the obtained results and how relevant findings are in real nature. To gain first insight into the variation in traits induced by a non-bacterial food source, we study Pristionchus-fungi interactions under laboratory conditions. After screening different yeast strains, we were able to maintain P. pacificus for at least 50-60 generations on Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus curvatus. We describe life history traits of P. pacificus on both yeast strains, including developmental timing, survival and brood size. Despite a slight developmental delay and problems to digest yeast cells, which are both reflected at a transcriptomic level, all analyses support the potential of Cryptococcus strains as food source for P. pacificus. In summary, our work establishes two Cryptococcus strains as alternative food source for P. pacificus and shows change in various developmental, physiological and morphological traits, including the transcriptomic profiles.

  3. The SnSAG merozoite surface antigens of Sarcocystis neurona are expressed differentially during the bradyzoite and sporozoite life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Gautam, A; Dubey, J P; Saville, W J; Howe, D K

    2011-12-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is a two-host coccidian parasite whose complex life cycle progresses through multiple developmental stages differing at morphological and molecular levels. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple, related glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG)/SAG1-related sequence (SRS) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. Expression of the SAG/SRS proteins in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum is life-cycle stage specific and seems necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. In the present study, the expression of S. neurona merozoite surface antigens (SnSAGs) was evaluated in the sporozoite and bradyzoite stages. Western blot analysis was used to compare SnSAG expression in merozoites versus sporozoites, while immunocytochemistry was performed to examine expression of the SnSAGs in merozoites versus bradyzoites. These analyses revealed that SnSAG2, SnSAG3 and SnSAG4 are expressed in sporozoites, while SnSAG5 was appeared to be downregulated in this life cycle stage. In S. neurona bradyzoites, it was found that SnSAG2, SnSAG3, SnSAG4 and SnSAG5 were either absent or expression was greatly reduced. As shown for T. gondii, stage-specific expression of the SnSAGs may be important for the parasite to progress through its developmental stages and complete its life cycle successfully. Thus, it is possible that the SAG switching mechanism by these parasites could be exploited as a point of intervention. As well, the alterations in surface antigen expression during different life cycle stages may need to be considered when designing prospective approaches for protective vaccination.

  4. The ETRAMP family member SEP2 is expressed throughout Plasmodium berghei life cycle and is released during sporozoite gliding motility.

    PubMed

    Currà, Chiara; Di Luca, Marco; Picci, Leonardo; de Sousa Silva Gomes dos Santos, Carina; Siden-Kiamos, Inga; Pace, Tomasino; Ponzi, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The early transcribed membrane proteins ETRAMPs belong to a family of small, transmembrane molecules unique to Plasmodium parasite, which share a signal peptide followed by a short lysine-rich stretch, a transmembrane domain and a variable, highly charged C-terminal region. ETRAMPs are usually expressed in a stage-specific manner. In the blood stages they localize to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane and, in described cases, to vesicle-like structures exported to the host erythrocyte cytosol. Two family members of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei, uis3 and uis4, localize to secretory organelles of sporozoites and to the parasitophorous membrane vacuole of the liver stages. By the use of specific antibodies and the generation of transgenic lines, we showed that the P. berghei ETRAMP family member SEP2 is abundantly expressed in gametocytes as well as in mosquito and liver stages. In intracellular parasite stages, SEP2 is routed to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane while, in invasive ookinete and sporozoite stages, it localizes to the parasite surface. To date SEP2 is the only ETRAMP protein detected throughout the parasite life cycle. Furthermore, SEP2 is also released during gliding motility of salivary gland sporozoites. A limited number of proteins are known to be involved in this key function and the best characterized, the CSP and TRAP, are both promising transmission-blocking candidates. Our results suggest that ETRAMP members may be viewed as new potential candidates for malaria control.

  5. Differential Expression of Metallothionein Isoforms in Terrestrial Snail Embryos Reflects Early Life Stage Adaptation to Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; de Vaufleury, Annette; Niederwanger, Michael; Capelli, Nicolas; Scheifler, Renaud; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of three metallothionein (MT) isoform genes (CdMT, CuMT and Cd/CuMT), already known from adults, in the Early Life Stage (ELS) of Cantareus aspersus. This was accomplished by detection of the MT isoform-specific transcription adopting Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR of the three MT genes. Freshly laid eggs were kept for 24 hours under control conditions or exposed to three cadmium (Cd) solutions of increasing concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg Cd/L). The transcription of the three MT isoform genes was detected via PCR in 1, 6 and 12-day-old control or Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, the transcription of this isoform genes during development was followed by qRT-PCR in 6 and 12-day-old embryos. Our results showed that the CdMT and Cd/CuMT genes, but not the CuMT gene, are expressed in embryos at the first day of development. The transcription of the 3 MT genes in control embryos increased with development time, suggesting that the capacities of metal regulation and detoxification may have gradually increased throughout embryogenesis. However in control embryos, the most highly expressed MT gene was that of the Cd/CuMT isoform, whose transcription levels greatly exceeded those of the other two MT genes. This contrasts with the minor significance of this gene in adult snails and suggests that in embryos, this isoform may play a comparatively more important role in metal physiology compared to adult individuals. This function in adult snails appears not to be related to Cd detoxification. Instead, snail embryos responded to Cd exposure by over-expression of the CdMT gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the expression of the Cd/CuMT gene remained unaffected. Moreover, our study demonstrates the ability of snail embryos to respond very early to Cd exposure by up-regulation of the CdMT gene. PMID:25706953

  6. Differential expression of metallothionein isoforms in terrestrial snail embryos reflects early life stage adaptation to metal stress.

    PubMed

    Baurand, Pierre-Emmanuel; Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; de Vaufleury, Annette; Niederwanger, Michael; Capelli, Nicolas; Scheifler, Renaud; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of three metallothionein (MT) isoform genes (CdMT, CuMT and Cd/CuMT), already known from adults, in the Early Life Stage (ELS) of Cantareus aspersus. This was accomplished by detection of the MT isoform-specific transcription adopting Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification and quantitative Real Time (qRT)-PCR of the three MT genes. Freshly laid eggs were kept for 24 hours under control conditions or exposed to three cadmium (Cd) solutions of increasing concentration (5, 10, and 15 mg Cd/L). The transcription of the three MT isoform genes was detected via PCR in 1, 6 and 12-day-old control or Cd-exposed embryos. Moreover, the transcription of this isoform genes during development was followed by qRT-PCR in 6 and 12-day-old embryos. Our results showed that the CdMT and Cd/CuMT genes, but not the CuMT gene, are expressed in embryos at the first day of development. The transcription of the 3 MT genes in control embryos increased with development time, suggesting that the capacities of metal regulation and detoxification may have gradually increased throughout embryogenesis. However in control embryos, the most highly expressed MT gene was that of the Cd/CuMT isoform, whose transcription levels greatly exceeded those of the other two MT genes. This contrasts with the minor significance of this gene in adult snails and suggests that in embryos, this isoform may play a comparatively more important role in metal physiology compared to adult individuals. This function in adult snails appears not to be related to Cd detoxification. Instead, snail embryos responded to Cd exposure by over-expression of the CdMT gene in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the expression of the Cd/CuMT gene remained unaffected. Moreover, our study demonstrates the ability of snail embryos to respond very early to Cd exposure by up-regulation of the CdMT gene.

  7. Early life stress triggers sustained changes in histone deacetylase expression and histone H4 modifications that alter responsiveness to adolescent antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Amir; Worrell, Trent R.; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Early life stress can elicit long-lasting changes in gene expression and behavior. Recent studies on rodents suggest that these lasting effects depend on the genetic background. Whether epigenetic factors also play a role remains to be investigated. Here we exposed the stress-susceptible mouse strain Balb/c and the more resilient strain C57Bl/6 to a powerful early life stress paradigm, infant maternal separation. In Balb/c mice, infant maternal separation led to decreased expression of mRNA encoding the histone deacetylases (HDACs) 1, 3, 7, 8, and 10 in the forebrain neocortex in adulthood, an effect accompanied by increased expression of acetylated histone H4 proteins, especially acetylated H4K12 protein. These changes in HDAC expression and histone modifications were not detected in C57Bl/6 mice exposed to early life stress. Moreover, a reversal of the H4K12 hyperacetylation detected in infant maternally separated Balb/c mice (achieved with chronic adolescent treatment with a low dose of theophylline that only activates HDACs) worsened the abnormal emotional phenotype resulting from this early life stress exposure. In contrast, fluoxetine, a drug with potent antidepressant efficacy in infant maternally separated Balb/c mice, potentiated all histone modifications triggered by early life stress. Moreover, in non-stressed Balb/c mice, co-administration of an HDAC inhibitor and fluoxetine, but not fluoxetine alone, elicited antidepressant effects and also triggered changes in histone H4 expression that were similar to those provoked by fluoxetine treatment of mice exposed to early life stress. These results suggest that Balb/c mice develop epigenetic modifications after early life stress exposure that, in terms of the emotive phenotype, are of adaptive nature, and that enhance the efficacy of antidepressant drugs. PMID:21964251

  8. Experimental selection for body size at age modifies early life-history traits and muscle gene expression in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ian P G; Johnston, Ian A

    2012-11-15

    The short generation time of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) was exploited to investigate the effects of selection for body size at age on early life-history traits and on the transcriptional response to a growth stimulus in skeletal muscle of adult fish. Replicate populations were either unselected (U-lineage) or subjected to four generations of experimental selection for small (S-lineage) or large (L-lineage) body size at 90 days post-fertilization. Body mass was on average 16.3% and 41.0% higher in the L- than in the U- and S-lineages, respectively. Egg diameter was 6.4% lower with 13% less yolk in the S-lineage compared with the other lineages. Maternal transcripts for igf2r, bmpr1aa, igf1ar, igf2a, igfbp5a, ghra and igfbp3 in 2-4 cell stage embryos were higher in the L- than in the S-lineage. Larvae from the L-lineage were significantly larger, but survivorship at the end of the first month was similar between lineages. Gene expression was measured in the fast muscle of adult fish fasted for 7 days and then re-fed to satiation for 48 h. The expression of 11 insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and 12 other nutritionally responsive genes was similar for the S- and L-lineages as was gut fullness with feeding. Transcript abundance for four genes (igf1a, igf2r, igfbp1a and igfbp1b) showed either regulated or constitutive differences between the S- and L-lineages. For example, igf2 receptor transcript abundance was higher and igbp1a/b transcript abundance was lower in the L- than in the S-lineage, consistent with an effect of selection on insulin-like growth factor signalling.

  9. Environmental effects on the expression of life span and aging: an extreme contrast between wild and captive cohorts of Telostylinus angusticollis (Diptera: Neriidae).

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Noriyoshi; Brassil, Chad E; Brooks, Robert C; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2008-09-01

    Most research on life span and aging has been based on captive populations of short-lived animals; however, we know very little about the expression of these traits in wild populations of such organisms. Because life span and aging are major components of fitness, the extent to which the results of many evolutionary studies in the laboratory can be generalized to natural settings depends on the degree to which the expression of life span and aging differ in natural environments versus laboratory environments and whether such environmental effects interact with phenotypic variation. We investigated life span and aging in Telostylinus angusticollis in the wild while simultaneously estimating these parameters under a range of conditions in a laboratory stock that was recently established from the same wild population. We found that males live less than one-fifth as long and age at least twice as rapidly in the wild as do their captive counterparts. In contrast, we found no evidence of aging in wild females. These striking sex-specific differences between captive and wild flies support the emerging view that environment exerts a profound influence on the expression of life span and aging. These findings have important implications for evolutionary gerontology and, more generally, for the interpretation of fitness estimates in captive populations.

  10. Gene Expression Dynamics in Major Endocrine Regulatory Pathways along the Transition from Solitary to Social Life in a Bumblebee, Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Jedlička, Pavel; Ernst, Ulrich R.; Votavová, Alena; Hanus, Robert; Valterová, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the social evolution leading to insect eusociality requires, among other, a detailed insight into endocrine regulatory mechanisms that have been co-opted from solitary ancestors to play new roles in the complex life histories of eusocial species. Bumblebees represent well-suited models of a relatively primitive social organization standing on the mid-way to highly advanced eusociality and their queens undergo both, a solitary and a social phase, separated by winter diapause. In the present paper, we characterize the gene expression levels of major endocrine regulatory pathways across tissues, sexes, and life-stages of the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, with special emphasis on critical stages of the queen's transition from solitary to social life. We focused on fundamental genes of three pathways: (1) Forkhead box protein O and insulin/insulin-like signaling, (2) Juvenile hormone (JH) signaling, and (3) Adipokinetic hormone signaling. Virgin queens were distinguished by higher expression of forkhead box protein O and downregulated insulin-like peptides and JH signaling, indicated by low expression of methyl farnesoate epoxidase (MFE) and transcription factor Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1). Diapausing queens showed the expected downregulation of JH signaling in terms of low MFE and vitellogenin (Vg) expressions, but an unexpectedly high expression of Kr-h1. By contrast, reproducing queens revealed an upregulation of MFE and Vg together with insulin signaling. Surprisingly, the insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1) turned out to be a queen-specific hormone. Workers exhibited an expression pattern of MFE and Vg similar to that of reproducing queens. Males were characterized by high Kr-h1 expression and low Vg level. The tissue comparison unveiled an unexpected resemblance between the fat body and hypopharyngeal glands across all investigated genes, sexes, and life stages. PMID:27932998

  11. Environmental enrichment reverses the impaired exploratory behavior and altered gene expression induced by early-life seizures.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sookyong; Chung, Hyokwon; Xia, Hongjing; Mahadevia, Amit; Song, Youngju

    2005-10-01

    Behavioral problems, school failure, and memory impairment are common among children with epilepsy. Currently, no effective treatment exists to promote recovery and neuron regeneration after seizures. To investigate the efficacy of environmental enrichment in reversing early-life seizure-induced changes in exploratory behavior and gene expression, we injected postnatal day 20 to 25 rats with kainic acid or saline and placed them either singly in a cage or as a group of eight in an enriched environment for 7 to 10 days. Exploratory behavior was quantified in an open field, and hippocampal gene analysis was performed on oligonucleotide microarrays. Exploratory behavior in kainic acid isolated rats were decreased in open field, whereas kainic acid rats exposed to an enriched environment behaved similarly to controls (n = 37, analysis of variance, P < .001). Correlated with an improvement in behavior, genes involved in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation, such as Arc, Homer1a, and Egr1, were significantly increased in rats exposed to environmental enrichment. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction confirmed our microarray data on select genes. Our results provide an experimental basis for promoting enriching education programs for children with epilepsy.

  12. Effects of high temperature on life history traits and heat shock protein expression in chlorpyrifos-resistant Laodelphax striatella.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihua; Shan, Dan; Zhang, Yueliang; Liu, Xiangdong; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Zhichun; Fang, Jichao

    2017-03-01

    The resistance of the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatella, to insecticides has been widely found in China, and has posed serious problems to efforts to control the pest. To determine the costs and benefits of resistance, the life tables of chlorpyrifos-resistant and -susceptible strains were constructed at 24 and 30°C. The results showed the resistant SBPH (YN-CPF) had lower fitness at 24°C, but slightly higher fitness at 30°C compared to the susceptible SBPH. Transcriptomic analysis showed there are five heat shock protein genes changed their expression, and the up-regulated genes are LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2. The deduced amino acid sequences of LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 include three heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family signatures, but LsHSC70-1 has the conserved HSP70 carboxyl terminal region of the "EEVD" motif, while LsHSC70-2 has the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal of the "KDEL" motif. The phylogenetic tree further identified LsHsc70-1 has closer evolutionary distances to cytoplasmic/nuclear HSP70s from human and Drosophila melanogaster, while LsHsc70-2 has closer evolutionary distances to HSP70s localized to ER. After treatment at 30-44°C, the expression of LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 was slightly increased in YN-CPF. These results suggested that LsHsc70-1 and LsHsc70-2 are members of Hsc70 family, localized to the cytosol/nucleus and ER, respectively. The up-regulated expression of these genes may protect the chlorpyrifos-resistant pest against damage under high temperatures, increasing its relative fitness, but the lower relative fitness of this population under optimal temperature may be the trade-off.

  13. Free Improvisation; Life Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Hoon Hong

    2011-01-01

    This autoethnographic study seeks the value, position and possibilities of free improvisation in the musical field. It explores how embodied knowledge, dialectical exchanges, emotional and intellectual stimulation constructs and reconstructs experiences in various contexts for the free improviser, who is both researcher and actual piano performer.…

  14. Unraveling the estrogen receptor (er) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals expression differences between the two adult life stages but little impact from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hansson, Maria C

    2015-01-15

    Estrogen receptors (ers) not only are activated by hormones but also interact with many human-derived environmental contaminants. Here, we present evidence for four expressed er genes in Atlantic salmon cDNA - two more ers (erα2 and erβ2) than previously published. To determine if er gene expression differs between two adult life-stages we sampled 20 adult salmon from the feeding phase in the Baltic Sea and during migration in the River Mörrum, Sweden. Results show that all four er genes are present in the investigated tissues, except for erα2 not appearing in the spleen. Overall, a profile analysis reveals the erα1 gene to be the most highly expressed er gene in both female and male Baltic Sea salmon tissues, and also in female River Mörrum salmon. In contrast, this gene has the lowest gene expression level of the four er genes in male salmon from the River Mörrum. The erα2 gene is expressed at the lowest levels in both female/male Baltic Sea salmon and in female River Mörrum salmon. Statistical analyses indicate a significant and complex interaction where both sex and adult life stage can impact er gene expression. Regression analyses did not demonstrate any significant relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and er gene expression level, suggesting that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea may be deactivated inside the salmon's lipid tissues and have limited impact on er activity. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of four er gene expression levels in two wild salmon populations from two different adult life stages where information about PCB load is also available.

  15. Expression of three GnRH receptors in specific tissues in male and female sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus at three distinct life stages

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Jeffrey A.; Decatur, Wayne A.; Daukss, Dana M.; Hayes, Mary K.; Marquis, Timothy J.; Morin, Scott J.; Kelleher, Thomas F.; Sower, Stacia A.

    2013-01-01

    Two recently cloned gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors (lamprey GnRH-R-2 and lamprey GnRH-R-3) along with lamprey (l) GnRH-R-1 were shown to share similar structural features and amino acid motifs common to other vertebrate receptors. Here we report on our findings of RNA expression of these three GnRH receptors in the three major life stages (larval, parasitic, and adult phases) of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, a basal vertebrate. For each stage, we examined the expression of messenger RNA encoding the receptors in the brain, pituitary, gonad, heart, muscle, liver, eye, intestine, kidney, skin, thyroid, gill, and endostyle by RT-PCR. In adult lampreys, the spatial expression of the three receptors in the brain and pituitary was investigated by in situ hybridization. In general, the receptors were more widely expressed in adult tissues as compared to parasitic-phase tissues and least widely expressed in the larval tissues. There were noted differences in male and female lampreys in the adult and parasitic phases for all three receptors. The data showed the presence of all three receptor transcripts in brain tissues for adult and parasitic phases and all three receptor transcripts were expressed in the adult pituitaries, but not in the parasitic pituitaries. However, in the larval phase, only lGnRH-R-1 was expressed in the larval brain and pituitary. In situ hybridization revealed that lGnRH-R-2 and -3 were expressed in the pineal tissue of adult female lampreys while lGnRH-R-1 was expressed in the pineal in adult male lampreys, all restricted to the pineal pellucida. In summary, these data provide an initial comparative analysis of expression of three lamprey GnRH receptors suggesting differential regulation within males and females at three different life/reproductive stages. PMID:23754972

  16. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Sawney, Sharad; Arora, Rashi; Aggarwal, Kamal K; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21) translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21) translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application.

  17. Faces in the face of death: effects of exposure to life-threatening events and mortality salience on facial expression recognition in combat and noncombat military veterans.

    PubMed

    Anaki, David; Brezniak, Tamar; Shalom, Liron

    2012-08-01

    Soldiers in war zones often experience life-threatening events that put their lives at stake. The present study examined how these exposures shape soldiers' social behavior, manifested by recognition of facial expressions. In addition, we investigated how explicit awareness of one's eventual death affects sensitivity to facial expressions. Veterans of elite military combat units were exposed to conditions of mortality or pain salience and later requested to label the emotions depicted in threatening and nonthreatening faces. Combat veterans were more accurate than noncombat veterans in identifying threatening expressions, both in mortality or pain salience induction (experiment 1) or under no induction at all (experiment 2). In addition, noncombat veterans primed with mortality salience identified fear expressions more accurately than those primed with pain salience. Finally, mortality salience improved accuracy for nonthreatening expressions for all veterans. The present results demonstrate that fear of death, resulting from exposure to concrete life-endangering perils or from thoughts on human's inevitable death, influences perception of facial expressions, which is critical for successful interpersonal communication.

  18. Expression of an AtNAP gene homolog in senescing morning glory (Ipomoea nil) petals of two cultivars with a different flower life span.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Ogiwara, Isao; Kanekatsu, Motoki; van Doorn, Wouter G; Yamada, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    AtNAP, a NAC family transcription factor, has been shown to promote leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. We isolated an AtNAP homolog in morning glory (Ipomoea nil), designated InNAP, and investigated its expression during petal senescence. We used two cultivars, one showing a normal short flower life span (cv. Peking Tendan) and another a longer life span (cv. Violet). InNAP was highly expressed in both cultivars. Expression was high before that of the senescence marker gene InSAG12. InNAP and InSAG12 expression was high in cv. Peking Tendan before cv. Violet. The expression of both genes was therefore temporally related to the onset of the visible senescence symptoms. An inhibitor of ethylene action (silver thiosulphate, STS) delayed petal senescence in cv. Peking Tendan but had no effect in cv. Violet. STS treatment had no clear effect on the InNAP expression in petals of both cultivars, suggesting that endogenous ethylene may not be necessary for its induction. These data suggest the hypothesis that InNAP plays a role in petal senescence, independent of the role of endogenous ethylene.

  19. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Sawney, Sharad; Arora, Rashi; Aggarwal, Kamal K.; Saluja, Daman

    2015-01-01

    One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21) translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21) translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application. PMID:25861270

  20. Increased seizure susceptibility and up-regulation of nNOS expression in hippocampus following recurrent early-life seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doo-Kwun

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the long-term change of seizure susceptibility and the role of nNOS on brain development following recurrent early-life seizures in rats. Video-EEG recordings were conducted between postnatal days 50 and 60. Alterations in seizure susceptibility were assayed on day 22 or 50 using the flurothyl method. Changes in nNOS expression were determined by quantitative immunoblotting on day 50. On average, rats had 8.4+/-2.7 seizures during 10 daily 1 hr behavioral monitoring sessions. As adults (days 50-60), all rats displayed interictal spikes in the hippocampus and/or overlying cortex. Brief electrographic seizures were recorded in only one of five animals. Rats appeared to progress from a period of marked seizure susceptibility (day 22) to one of lessened seizure susceptibility (day 50). Up-regulation of nNOS expression following early-life recurrent seizures was observed on day 50. In conclusion, these data suggested that recurrent early-life seizures had the long-term effects on seizure susceptibility late in life and up-regulatory nNOS expression on the hippocampus during brain development, and nNOS appeared to contribute to the persistent changes in seizure susceptibility, and epileptogenesis.

  1. Patterns of proopiomelanotropin and proopiocortin gene expression and of immunohistochemistry for gonadotropin-releasing hormones (lGnRH-I and III) during the life cycle of a nonparasitic lamprey: relationship to this adult life history type.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H; Heinig, J A; Khanam, S F; Sower, S A; Kawauchi, H; Keeley, F W

    2006-08-01

    There are two adult life history types among lamprey species, nonparasitic and parasitic, with the former commencing the final interval of sexual maturation immediately after metamorphosis. There are no extensive studies that directly compare hormone profiles during the life cycles of nonparasitic and parasitic lamprey species, yet such data may explain differences in development, reproductive maturation, and feeding status. The present study uses immunohistochemistry to show the life cycle profiles for gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH-I and -III) in the brain of the nonparasitic species, the American brook lamprey, Lampetra appendix, for comparison with the extensive, published, immunohistochemical data on these hormones in the parasitic species, the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. The complete cDNAs for the two lamprey prohormones, proopiocortin (POC), and proopiomelanotropin (POM), were cloned for L. appendix and both nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were compared with those previously published for P. marinus. The POC and POM cDNAs for both species were used in expression studies, with Northern blotting, throughout their life cycles. Although GnRH-I and -III immunohistochemistry revealed a similar distribution of immunoreactive cells and fibers in the two species during the life cycles, a qualitative evaluation of staining intensity in L. appendix, implied early activity in the brains of metamorphosis of this species, particularly in GnRH-I. GnRH-III seems to be important in larval life and early metamorphosis in both species. A novel feature of this immunohistochemical study is the monthly observations of the distribution and relative intensity of the two GnRHs during the critical period of final sexual maturation that lead to spawning and then the spent animal. L. appendix POC and POM nucleotide sequences had 92.9 and 94.6% identity, respectively, with P. marinus POC and POM and there was an earlier increase in their expression during

  2. A Unique cis-Encoded Small Noncoding RNA Is Regulating Legionella pneumophila Hfq Expression in a Life Cycle-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Giulia; Sahr, Tobias; Rolando, Monica; Knoth, Maike; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2017-01-10

    Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium that parasitizes protozoa, but it may also infect humans, thereby causing a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. To cycle between the environment and a eukaryotic host, L. pneumophila is regulating the expression of virulence factors in a life cycle-dependent manner: replicating bacteria do not express virulence factors, whereas transmissive bacteria are highly motile and infective. Here we show that Hfq is an important regulator in this network. Hfq is highly expressed in transmissive bacteria but is expressed at very low levels in replicating bacteria. A L. pneumophila hfq deletion mutant exhibits reduced abilities to infect and multiply in Acanthamoeba castellanii at environmental temperatures. The life cycle-dependent regulation of Hfq expression depends on a unique cis-encoded small RNA named Anti-hfq that is transcribed antisense of the hfq transcript and overlaps its 5' untranslated region. The Anti-hfq sRNA is highly expressed only in replicating L. pneumophila where it regulates hfq expression through binding to the complementary regions of the hfq transcripts. This results in reduced Hfq protein levels in exponentially growing cells. Both the small noncoding RNA (sRNA) and hfq mRNA are bound and stabilized by the Hfq protein, likely leading to the cleavage of the RNA duplex by the endoribonuclease RNase III. In contrast, after the switch to transmissive bacteria, the sRNA is not expressed, allowing now an efficient expression of the hfq gene and consequently Hfq. Our results place Hfq and its newly identified sRNA anti-hfq in the center of the regulatory network governing L. pneumophila differentiation from nonvirulent to virulent bacteria.

  3. A Unique cis-Encoded Small Noncoding RNA Is Regulating Legionella pneumophila Hfq Expression in a Life Cycle-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Giulia; Sahr, Tobias; Rolando, Monica; Knoth, Maike

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium that parasitizes protozoa, but it may also infect humans, thereby causing a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires’ disease. To cycle between the environment and a eukaryotic host, L. pneumophila is regulating the expression of virulence factors in a life cycle-dependent manner: replicating bacteria do not express virulence factors, whereas transmissive bacteria are highly motile and infective. Here we show that Hfq is an important regulator in this network. Hfq is highly expressed in transmissive bacteria but is expressed at very low levels in replicating bacteria. A L. pneumophila hfq deletion mutant exhibits reduced abilities to infect and multiply in Acanthamoeba castellanii at environmental temperatures. The life cycle-dependent regulation of Hfq expression depends on a unique cis-encoded small RNA named Anti-hfq that is transcribed antisense of the hfq transcript and overlaps its 5′ untranslated region. The Anti-hfq sRNA is highly expressed only in replicating L. pneumophila where it regulates hfq expression through binding to the complementary regions of the hfq transcripts. This results in reduced Hfq protein levels in exponentially growing cells. Both the small noncoding RNA (sRNA) and hfq mRNA are bound and stabilized by the Hfq protein, likely leading to the cleavage of the RNA duplex by the endoribonuclease RNase III. In contrast, after the switch to transmissive bacteria, the sRNA is not expressed, allowing now an efficient expression of the hfq gene and consequently Hfq. Our results place Hfq and its newly identified sRNA anti-hfq in the center of the regulatory network governing L. pneumophila differentiation from nonvirulent to virulent bacteria. PMID:28074027

  4. Express

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Express ; CASRN 101200 - 48 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  5. Gene expression in bryozoan larvae suggest a fundamental importance of pre-patterned blastemic cells in the bryozoan life-cycle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bryozoa is a clade of aquatic protostomes. The bryozoan life cycle typically comprises a larval stage, which metamorphoses into a sessile adult that proliferates by asexual budding to form colonies. The homology of bryozoan larvae with other protostome larvae is enigmatic. Bryozoan larvae exhibit blastemic tissues that contribute to build the adult during morphogenesis. However, it remains unclear if the cells of these tissues are pre-determined according to their future fate or if the cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent stem cells. Gene expression studies can help to identify molecular patterning of larval and adult tissues and enlighten the evolution of bryozoan life cycle stages. Results We investigated the spatial expression of 13 developmental genes in the larval stage of the gymnolaemate bryozoan Bugula neritina. We found most genes expressed in discrete regions in larval blastemic tissues that form definitive components of the adult body plan. Only two of the 13 genes, BnTropomyosin and BnFoxAB, were exclusively expressed in larval tissues that are discarded during metamorphosis. Conclusions Our results suggest that the larval blastemas in Bugula are pre-patterned according to their future fate in the adult. The gene expression patterns indicate that some of the bryozoan blastemas can be interpreted to correspond to homologous adult tissues of other animals. This study challenges an earlier proposed view that metazoan larvae share homologous undifferentiated "set-aside cells", and instead points to an independent origin of the bryozoan larval stage with respect to other lophotrochozoans. PMID:21645327

  6. In vivo expression patterns of microRNAs of Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) during the virus life cycle and development of Marek's disease lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pu; Li, Xiu-Jie; Teng, Man; Dang, Lu; Yu, Zu-Hua; Chi, Jia-Qi; Su, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Gai-Ping; Luo, Jun

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, a large number of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in the viral genome of Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2), which is historically known as Marek's disease virus type 1. The biological role of most GaHV-2 miRNAs remains unclear. In the present study, we have performed an overall gene expression profile of GaHV-2 miRNAs during the virus life cycle at each phase of the developing disease, a highly contagious, lymphoproliferative disorder, and neoplastic immunosuppressive disease of poultry known as the Marek's disease. According to their distinct in vivo expression patterns, the GaHV-2 miRNAs can be divided into three groups: 12 miRNAs in group I, including miR-M4-5p, displayed a typical expression pattern potentially correlated to the latent, late cytolytic, and/or the proliferative phases in the cycle of GaHV-2 pathogenesis; group II consisting of another 12 miRNAs with expression correlated to the early cytolytic and/or latent phases in GaHV-2's life cycle; while the other two miRNAs in group III showed no identical expression features. Our findings may provide meaningful clues in the search for further potential functions of viral miRNAs in GaHV-2 biology.

  7. Methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression and juvenile hormone titers in the life cycle of a highly eusocial stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos Antônio Mendes; Silva, Renato Pereira; Borges, Naiara Araújo; de Carvalho, Washington João; Walter, S Leal; Simões, Zilá Luz Paulino; Bitondi, Marcia Maria Gentile; Ueira Vieira, Carlos; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    In social insects, juvenile hormone (JH) has acquired novel functions related to caste determination and division of labor among workers, and this is best evidenced in the honey bee. In contrast to honey bees, stingless bees are a much more diverse group of highly eusocial bees, and the genus Melipona has long called special attention due to a proposed genetic mechanism of caste determination. Here, we examined methyl farnesoate epoxidase (mfe) gene expression, encoding an enzyme relevant for the final step in JH biosynthesis, and measured the hemolymph JH titers for all life cycle stages of Melipona scutellaris queens and workers. We confirmed that mfe is exclusively expressed in the corpora allata. The JH titer is high in the second larval instar, drops in the third, and rises again as the larvae enter metamorphosis. During the pupal stage, mfe expression is initialy elevated, but then gradually drops to low levels before adult emergence. No variation was, however, seen in the JH titer. In adult virgin queens, mfe expression and the JH titer are significantly elevated, possibly associated with their reproductive potential. For workers we found that JH titers are lower in foragers than in nurse bees, while mfe expression did not differ. Stingless bees are, thus, distinct from honey bee workers, suggesting that they have maintained the ancestral gonadotropic function for JH. Hence, the physiological circuitries underlying a highly eusocial life style may be variable, even within a monophyletic clade such as the corbiculate bees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Children's Expressions of Positive Emotion are Sustained by Smiling, Touching, and Playing with Parents and Siblings: A Naturalistic Observational Study of Family Life

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.; Sperling, Jacqueline B.

    2015-01-01

    Research on family socialization of positive emotion has primarily focused on the infant and toddler stages of development, and relied on observations of parent-child interactions in highly structured laboratory environments. Little is known about how children's spontaneous expressions of positive emotion are maintained in the uncontrolled settings of daily life, particularly within the family and during the school-age years. This naturalistic observational study examines three family behaviors - mutual display of positive emotion, touch and joint leisure – that surround 8 to 12 year-old children's spontaneous expressions of positive emotion, and tests whether these behaviors help to sustain children's expressions. Recordings taken of 31 families in their homes and communities over two days were screened for moments when children spontaneously expressed positive emotion in the presence of at least one parent. Children were more likely to sustain their expressions of positive emotion when mothers, fathers or siblings showed positive emotion, touched, or participated in a leisure activity. There were few differences in the ways that mothers and fathers socialized their sons’ and daughters’ positive emotion expressions. This study takes a unique, ecologically valid approach to assess how family members connect to children's expressions of positive emotion in middle childhood. Future observational studies should continue to explore mechanisms of family socialization of positive emotion, in laboratory and naturalistic settings. PMID:26524382

  9. Children's expressions of positive emotion are sustained by smiling, touching, and playing with parents and siblings: A naturalistic observational study of family life.

    PubMed

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L; Sperling, Jacqueline B

    2016-01-01

    Research on family socialization of positive emotion has primarily focused on the infant and toddler stages of development, and relied on observations of parent-child interactions in highly structured laboratory environments. Little is known about how children's spontaneous expressions of positive emotion are maintained in the uncontrolled settings of daily life, particularly within the family and during the school-age years. This naturalistic observational study examines 3 family behaviors-mutual display of positive emotion, touch, and joint leisure-that surround 8- to 12-year-old children's spontaneous expressions of positive emotion, and tests whether these behaviors help to sustain children's expressions. Recordings taken of 31 families in their homes and communities over 2 days were screened for moments when children spontaneously expressed positive emotion in the presence of at least 1 parent. Children were more likely to sustain their expressions of positive emotion when mothers, fathers, or siblings showed positive emotion, touched, or participated in a leisure activity. There were few differences in the ways that mothers and fathers socialized their sons' and daughters' positive emotion expressions. This study takes a unique, ecologically valid approach to assess how family members connect to children's expressions of positive emotion in middle childhood. Future observational studies should continue to explore mechanisms of family socialization of positive emotion, in laboratory and naturalistic settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Maternal high-fat diet modulates hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis and gene expression in the PPAR pathway in the early life of offspring.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping; Wang, Zhixin

    2014-08-25

    Maternal dietary modifications determine the susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adult life. However, whether maternal high-fat feeding can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in the early life of offspring is less understood. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms that influence the phenotype. Using C57BL/6J mice, we examined the effects on the offspring at weaning from dams fed with a high-fat diet or normal chow diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Gene array experiments and quantitative real-time PCR were performed in the liver tissues of the offspring mice. The offspring of the dams fed the high-fat diet had a heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased serum cholesterol and hepatic steatosis at weaning. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that all differentially expressed genes of the offspring between the two groups were mapped to nine pathways. Genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway were verified by quantitative real-time PCR and these genes were significantly up-regulated in the high-fat diet offspring. A maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can modulate hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis, and gene expression in the PPAR signaling in the early life of offspring, and our results suggested that potential mechanisms that influences this phenotype may be related partially to up-regulate some gene expression in the PPAR signalling pathway.

  11. Increased fat and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in sow gestation diet has no effect on gene expression in progeny during the first 7 days of life.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, A; Bikker, P; Smit-Heinsbroek, A; Bruininx, E; Zwolschen, H; Fijten, H; Zetteler, P; Vastenhouw, S; Smits, M; Rebel, J

    2016-02-01

    The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis proposes not only that we are what we eat, but also that we could be what our parents ate. Here, we aimed to improve health and performance of young piglets via maternal diets based on the hypothesis that maternal nutritional interventions change metabolic programming in piglets, reflected by differential gene expression early in life. Therefore, sows were fed either a regular diet, based on barley, wheat and wheat by-products, sugar beet pulp, palm oil and oilseed meal, or a high-fat (HF) diet consisting of the regular diet supplemented with an additional amount of 3.5% soybean oil and 1% fish oil at the expense of palm oil and wheat. Performance results, physiological parameters and gene expression in liver of piglets and blood of piglets and sows at day 7 after farrowing from both diet groups were compared. The HF diet tended to enhance growth rate of the offspring in the first week of life. No significant differences in gene expression in liver tissue and blood could be detected between the two groups, neither with whole-genome microarray analysis, nor with gene specific qPCR analysis. In this study, the feeding of a high-fat diet with increased amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to gestating sows under practical farm settings did not induce significant changes in gene expression in sows and offspring. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genetic engineering: Baculoviruses as expression vectors. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of baculoviruses in genetic engineering. Baculoviruses produce large quantities of a specific gene. Topics include genetic replication, expression of selected genes in host cells, and protein expression using baculoviruses. Baculovirus introduction into mammals causing antibody expression is considered, and implications on vaccine programs are briefly discussed. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Adipocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression is associated with augmented PPARγ upregulation in early-life programming of later obesity

    PubMed Central

    Holness, Mark J.; Zariwala, Gulrez; Walker, Celia G.; Sugden, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied adipocytes from 8-week-old control rat offspring (CON) or rat offspring subjected to maternal low (8%) protein (MLP) feeding during pregnancy/lactation, a procedure predisposing to obesity. Acute exposure to isoproterenol or adenosine enhanced PDK4 and PPARγ mRNA gene expression in CON and MLP adipocytes. Enhanced adipocyte Pdk4 expression correlated with increased PPARγ expression. Higher levels of PDK4 and PPARγ were observed in MLP adipocytes. SCD1 is a PPARγ target. Isoproterenol enhanced adipocyte PDK4 and SCD1 gene expression in parallel. This could reflect augmented PPARγ expression together with enhanced lipolytic stimulation to supply endogenous PPARγ ligands, allowing enhanced adipocyte PDK4 and SCD1 expression via PPARγ activation. In contrast, the effect of adenosine to increase PDK4 expression is independent of stimulation of lipolysis and, as SCD1 expression was unaffected by adenosine, unlikely to reflect PPARγ activation. Increased adipocyte expression of both PDK4 and SCD1 in the MLP model could participate as components of a “thrifty” phenotype, favouring the development of obesity. PMID:23650578

  14. Differential gene expression in whitefly Bemisia tabaci-infested tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants at progressing developmental stages of the insect's life cycle.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Hernández, María Gloria; Valenzuela-Soto, José Humberto; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Délano-Frier, John Paul

    2009-09-01

    A suppression-subtractive-hybridization (SSH) strategy was used to identify genes whose expression was modified in response to virus-free whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Bt, biotype A) infestation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Thus, forward and reverse SSH gene libraries were generated at four points in the whitefly's life cycle, namely at (1) 2 days (adult feeding and oviposition: phase I); (2) 7 days (mobile crawler stage: phase II); (3) 12 days (second to third instar nymphal transition: phase III) and (4) 18 days (fourth instar nymphal stage: phase IV). The 169 genes with altered expression (up and downregulated) that were identified in the eight generated SSH libraries, together with 75 additional genes that were selected on the basis of their involvement in resistance responses against phytofagous insects and pathogens, were printed on a Nexterion(®) Slide MPX 16 to monitor their pattern of expression at the above phases. The results indicated that Bt infestation in tomato led to distinctive phase-specific expression/repression patterns of several genes associated predominantly with photosynthesis, senescence, secondary metabolism and (a)biotic stress. Most of the gene expression modifications were detected in phase III, coinciding with intense larval feeding, whereas fewer changes were detected in phases I and IV. These results complement previously reported gene expression profiles in Bt-infested tomato and Arabidopisis, and support and expand the opinion that Bt infestation leads to the downregulation of specific defense responses in addition to those controlled by jasmonic acid. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2009.

  15. Early-Life Exposure to Lead (Pb) Alters the Expression of microRNA that Target Proteins Associated with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Anwar M; Bihaqi, Syed W; Machan, Jason T; Zawia, Nasser H; Renehan, William E

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the impact of environmental toxins on the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, including the genes that play a critical role in neural development, neural function, and neurodegeneration. We have shown previously that exposure to the heavy metal lead (Pb) in early life results in a latent over-expression of AD-related proteins in rodents and primates. The present study provides evidence that early postnatal exposure to Pb also alters the expression of select miRNA. Mice were exposed to 0.2% Pb acetate from Postnatal Day 1 (PND 1, first 24 h after birth) to PND 20 via their mother's milk. Brain tissue was harvested at PND 20, 180, or 700, and miRNA were isolated and quantified by qPCR. This exposure produced a transient increase (relative to control) in the expression of miR-106b (binds to AβPP mRNA), miR-29b (targets the mRNA for the transcription factor SP1) and two miRNAs (miR-29b and miR-132) that have the ability to inhibit translation of proteins involved in promoter methylation. The expression of miR-106b decreased over time in the Pb-exposed animals and was significantly less than the levels exhibited by the control animals at PND700. The level of miR-124, which binds to SP1 mRNA, was also reduced (relative to controls) at PND700. In summary, we show that exposure to the heavy metal Pb in early life has a significant impact on the short- and long-term expression of miRNA that target epigenetic mediators and neurotoxic proteins.

  16. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2) treatment of wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) during early life development disrupts expression of genes directly involved in the feedback cycle of estrogen.

    PubMed

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hultin, Cecilia L; Hallgren, Per; Hansson, Maria C

    2016-02-01

    Fish are more sensitive to introduced disturbances from synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds during early life phases compared with mature stages. 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), which is the active compound in human oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapies, is today ever present in the effluents from sewage treatment plants. EE2 targets and interacts with the endogenous biological systems of exposed vertebrates resulting in to large extents unknown short- and long-term effects. We investigated how EE2 exposure affects expression profiles of a large number of target genes during early life of roach (Rutilus rutilus). We exposed fertilized roach eggs collected from a lake in Southern Sweden to EE2 for 12weeks together with 1+-year-old roach in aquaria. We measured the gene expression of the estrogen receptor (esr)1/2a/2b, androgen receptor (ar), vitellogenin, cytochrome P450 (cyp)19a1a/1b in fertilized eggs; newly hatched larvae; 12-week-old fry; and juvenile wild roach (1+-year-old). Results shows that an EE2 concentration as low as 0.5ng/L significantly affects gene expression during early development. Gene expression responses vary both among life stages and molecular receptors. We also show that the gene profile of the estrogen feedback cycle to a large extent depends on the relationship between the three esr genes and the two cyp19a1 genes, which are all up-regulated with age. Results indicate that a disruption of the natural activity of the dominant esr gene could lead to detrimental biological effects if EE2 exposure occurs during development, even if this exposure occurred for only a short period.

  17. HPA Axis Gene Expression and DNA Methylation Profiles in Rats Exposed to Early Life Stress, Adult Voluntary Ethanol Drinking and Single Housing

    PubMed Central

    Todkar, Aniruddha; Granholm, Linnea; Aljumah, Mujtaba; Nilsson, Kent W.; Comasco, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The neurobiological basis of early life stress (ELS) impact on vulnerability to alcohol use disorder is not fully understood. The effect of ELS, adult ethanol consumption and single housing, on expression of stress and DNA methylation regulatory genes as well as blood corticosterone levels was investigated in the hypothalamus and pituitary of adult out-bred Wistar rats subjected to different rearing conditions. A prolonged maternal separation (MS) of 360 min (MS360) was used to study the effect of ELS, and a short MS of 15 min (MS15) was used as a control. Voluntary ethanol drinking was assessed using a two-bottle free choice paradigm to simulate human episodic drinking. The effects of single housing and ethanol were assessed in conventional animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions. Single housing in adulthood was associated with lower Crhr1 and higher Pomc expression in the pituitary, whereas ethanol drinking was associated with higher expression of Crh in the hypothalamus and Crhr1 in the pituitary, accompanied by lower corticosterone levels. As compared to controls with similar early life handling, rats exposed to ELS displayed lower expression of Pomc in the hypothalamus, and higher Dnmt1 expression in the pituitary. Voluntary ethanol drinking resulted in lower Fkbp5 expression in the pituitary and higher Crh expression in the hypothalamus, independently of rearing conditions. In rats exposed to ELS, water and ethanol drinking was associated with higher and lower corticosterone levels, respectively. The use of conventionally reared rats as control group yielded more significant results than the use of rats exposed to short MS. Positive correlations, restricted to the hypothalamus and ELS group, were observed between the expression of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal receptor and the methylation-related genes. Promoter DNA methylation and expression of respective genes did not correlate suggesting that other loci are involved in transcriptional regulation

  18. Isolation and characterization of glutathione reductase from Physarum polycephalum and stage-specific expression of the enzyme in life-cycle stages with different oxidation-reduction levels.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yoshiko; Kohama, Takeshi; Sekimoto, Yu-Ji; Akasaka, Kenichi; Matsubara, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Physarum polycephalum has a life cycle with several distinct phases that have different oxidation-reduction requirements. To investigate the relationship between the life cycle and the oxidation-reduction state, we isolated glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) from Physarum microplasmodia. The enzyme was found to be a homodimer with a subunit M(r) of 49,000, and K(m) values for oxidized glutathione and NADPH of 40 and 28.6 microM, respectively. We then constructed a cDNA library from microplasmodium mRNA and cloned GR cDNA from the library. The isolated cDNA consisted of 1,475 bp encoding a polypeptide of 452 amino acids. The amino acid sequence similarity was about 50% with GRs of other organisms, and several conserved sequence motifs thought to be necessary for activity are evident in the Physarum enzyme. Escherichia coli transformed with an expression vector containing the cDNA synthesized the active GR. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicated that the GR gene is present as a single copy in the Physarum genome. Immunoblot analysis and RT-PCR analysis detected GR mRNA expression in the microplasmodium, plasmodium, and sclerotium, but not in the spore or flagellate. GR activity was low in the spore and flagellate. These results suggest that the glutathione oxidation-reduction system relates to the Physarum life cycle.

  19. A NGS approach to the encrusting Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida): transcriptome sequencing, characterization and overview of the gene expression along three life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Porro, A R; Navarro-Gómez, D; Uriz, M J; Giribet, G

    2013-05-01

    Sponges can be dominant organisms in many marine and freshwater habitats where they play essential ecological roles. They also represent a key group to address important questions in early metazoan evolution. Recent approaches for improving knowledge on sponge biological and ecological functions as well as on animal evolution have focused on the genetic toolkits involved in ecological responses to environmental changes (biotic and abiotic), development and reproduction. These approaches are possible thanks to newly available, massive sequencing technologies-such as the Illumina platform, which facilitate genome and transcriptome sequencing in a cost-effective manner. Here we present the first NGS (next-generation sequencing) approach to understanding the life cycle of an encrusting marine sponge. For this we sequenced libraries of three different life cycle stages of the Mediterranean sponge Crella elegans and generated de novo transcriptome assemblies. Three assemblies were based on sponge tissue of a particular life cycle stage, including non-reproductive tissue, tissue with sperm cysts and tissue with larvae. The fourth assembly pooled the data from all three stages. By aggregating data from all the different life cycle stages we obtained a higher total number of contigs, contigs with blast hit and annotated contigs than from one stage-based assemblies. In that multi-stage assembly we obtained a larger number of the developmental regulatory genes known for metazoans than in any other assembly. We also advance the differential expression of selected genes in the three life cycle stages to explore the potential of RNA-seq for improving knowledge on functional processes along the sponge life cycle.

  20. The molecular and immunochemical expression of innexins in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: insights into putative life stage- and tissue-specific functions of gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Calkins, Travis L.; Woods-Acevedo, Mikal A.; Hildebrandt, Oliver; Piermarini, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Gap junctions (GJ) mediate direct intercellular communication by forming channels through which certain small molecules and/or ions can pass. Connexins, the proteins that form vertebrate GJ, are well studied and known to contribute to neuronal, muscular and epithelial physiology. Innexins, the GJ proteins of insects, have only recently received much investigative attention and many of their physiological roles remain to be determined. Here we characterize the molecular expression of six innexin (Inx) genes in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeInx1, AeInx2, AeInx3, AeInx4, AeInx7, and AeInx8) and the immunochemical expression of one innexin protein, AeInx3, in the alimentary canal. We detected the expression of no less than four innexin genes in each mosquito life stage (larva, pupa, adult) and tissue/body region from adult males and females (midgut, Malpighian tubules, hindgut, head, carcass, gonads), suggesting a remarkable potential molecular diversity of GJ in mosquitoes. Moreover, the expression patterns of some innexins were life stage and/or tissue specific, suggestive of potential functional specializations. Cloning of the four full-length cDNAs expressed in the Malpighian tubules of adult females (AeInx1, AeInx2, AeInx3, and AeInx7) revealed evidence for 1) alternative splicing of AeInx1 and AeInx3 transcripts, and 2) putative N-glycosylation of AeInx3 and AeInx7. Finally, immunohistochemistry of AeInx3 in the alimentary canal of larval and adult female mosquitoes confirmed localization of this innexin to the intercellular regions of Malpighian tubule and hindgut epithelial cells, suggesting that it is an important component of GJ in these tissues. PMID:25585357

  1. Early-Life Experience Decreases Drug-Induced Reinstatement of Morphine CPP in Adulthood via Microglial-Specific Epigenetic Programming of Anti-Inflammatory IL-10 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with Ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene X early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation, and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099

  2. The Plasmodium serine-type SERA proteases display distinct expression patterns and non-essential in vivo roles during life cycle progression of the malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Putrianti, Elyzana D; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Arnold, Iris; Heussler, Volker T; Matuschewski, Kai; Silvie, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Parasite proteases play key roles in several fundamental steps of the Plasmodium life cycle, including haemoglobin degradation, host cell invasion and parasite egress. Plasmodium exit from infected host cells appears to be mediated by a class of papain-like cysteine proteases called ‘serine repeat antigens’ (SERAs). A SERA subfamily, represented by Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, contains an atypical active site serine residue instead of a catalytic cysteine. Members of this SERAser subfamily are abundantly expressed in asexual blood stages, rendering them attractive drug and vaccine targets. In this study, we show by antibody localization and in vivo fluorescent tagging with the red fluorescent protein mCherry that the two P. berghei serine-type family members, PbSERA1 and PbSERA2, display differential expression towards the final stages of merozoite formation. Via targeted gene replacement, we generated single and double gene knockouts of the P. berghei SERAser genes. These loss-of-function lines progressed normally through the parasite life cycle, suggesting a specialized, non-vital role for serine-type SERAs in vivo. Parasites lacking PbSERAser showed increased expression of the cysteine-type PbSERA3. Compensatory mechanisms between distinct SERA subfamilies may thus explain the absence of phenotypical defect in SERAser disruptants, and challenge the suitability to develop potent antimalarial drugs based on specific inhibitors of Plasmodium serine-type SERAs. PMID:20039882

  3. The Plasmodium serine-type SERA proteases display distinct expression patterns and non-essential in vivo roles during life cycle progression of the malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Putrianti, Elyzana D; Schmidt-Christensen, Anja; Arnold, Iris; Heussler, Volker T; Matuschewski, Kai; Silvie, Olivier

    2010-06-01

    Parasite proteases play key roles in several fundamental steps of the Plasmodium life cycle, including haemoglobin degradation, host cell invasion and parasite egress. Plasmodium exit from infected host cells appears to be mediated by a class of papain-like cysteine proteases called 'serine repeat antigens' (SERAs). A SERA subfamily, represented by Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, contains an atypical active site serine residue instead of a catalytic cysteine. Members of this SERAser subfamily are abundantly expressed in asexual blood stages, rendering them attractive drug and vaccine targets. In this study, we show by antibody localization and in vivo fluorescent tagging with the red fluorescent protein mCherry that the two P. berghei serine-type family members, PbSERA1 and PbSERA2, display differential expression towards the final stages of merozoite formation. Via targeted gene replacement, we generated single and double gene knockouts of the P. berghei SERAser genes. These loss-of-function lines progressed normally through the parasite life cycle, suggesting a specialized, non-vital role for serine-type SERAs in vivo. Parasites lacking PbSERAser showed increased expression of the cysteine-type PbSERA3. Compensatory mechanisms between distinct SERA subfamilies may thus explain the absence of phenotypical defect in SERAser disruptants, and challenge the suitability to develop potent antimalarial drugs based on specific inhibitors of Plasmodium serine-type SERAs.

  4. Lasting Effects on Body Weight and Mammary Gland Gene Expression in Female Mice upon Early Life Exposure to n-3 but Not n-6 High-Fat Diets

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Caleb A.; Westerman, Anja; Pisano, M. Michele; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Verhoef, Aart; Green, Maia L.; Piersma, Aldert H.; de Vries, Annemieke; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to an imbalance of nutrients prior to conception and during critical developmental periods can have lasting consequences on physiological processes resulting in chronic diseases later in life. Developmental programming has been shown to involve structural and functional changes in important tissues. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether early life diet has a programming effect on the mammary gland. Wild-type mice were exposed from 2 weeks prior to conception to 6 weeks of age to a regular low-fat diet, or to high-fat diets based on either corn oil or flaxseed oil. At 6 weeks of age, all mice were shifted to the regular low-fat diet until termination at 10 weeks of age. Early life exposure to a high-fat diet, either high in n-6 (corn oil) or in n-3 (flaxseed oil) polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not affect birth weight, but resulted in an increased body weight at 10 weeks of age. Transcriptome analyses of the fourth abdominal mammary gland revealed differentially expressed genes between the different treatment groups. Exposure to high-fat diet based on flaxseed oil, but not on corn oil, resulted in regulation of pathways involved in energy metabolism, immune response and inflammation. Our findings suggest that diet during early life indeed has a lasting effect on the mammary gland and significantly influences postnatal body weight gain, metabolic status, and signaling networks in the mammary gland of female offspring. PMID:23409006

  5. Modulation of mannose and asialoglycoprotein receptor expression determines glycoprotein hormone half-life at critical points in the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yiling; Lin, Angela; Fiete, Dorothy; Steirer, Lindsay; Baenziger, Jacques U

    2014-04-25

    The rate at which glycoproteins are cleared from the circulation has a critical impact on their biologic activity in vivo. We have shown that clearance rates for glycoproteins such as luteinizing hormone (LH) that undergo regulated release into the circulation determine their potency. Two highly abundant, carbohydrate-specific, endocytic receptors, the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGR) and the mannose receptor (ManR) are expressed in the liver by parenchymal and sinusoidal endothelial cells, respectively. We demonstrate that the ManR mediates the clearance of glycoproteins such as LH that bear N-linked glycans terminating with β1,4-linked GalNAc-4-SO4, as well as glycoproteins bearing glycans that terminate with Man. Steady state levels of mRNA encoding the ASGR and the ManR are regulated by progesterone in pregnant mice, reaching maximal levels on day 12.5 of pregnancy. Protein expression and glycan-specific binding activity also increase in the livers of pregnant mice. In contrast, ManR mRNA, but not ASGR mRNA, decreases in male mice at the time of sexual maturation. We show that levels of ManR and ASGR expression control the clearance rate for glycoproteins bearing recognized glycans. Thus, reduced expression of the ManR at the time of sexual maturation will increase the potency of LH in vivo, whereas increased expression during pregnancy will reduce LH potency until progesterone and receptor levels fall prior to parturition.

  6. The Expression Pattern of Melatonin Receptor 1a Gene during Early Life Stages in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ye Hwa; Park, Jin Woo; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2013-01-01

    The action of melatonin within the body of animals is known to be mediated by melatonin receptors. Three different types of melatonin receptors have been identified so far in fish. However, which of these are specifically involved in puberty onset is not known in fish. We cloned and analyzed the sequence of melatonin receptor 1a (mel 1a) gene in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In addition, we examined the tissue distribution of gene expressions for three types of receptors, mel 1a, 1b and lc and investigated which of them is involved in the onset of puberty by comparing their expression with that of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor I (GnRHr I) gene using quantitative real-time PCR from 1 week post hatch (wph) to 24 wph. The mel 1a gene of Nile tilapia consisted of two exons and one bulky intron between them. Mel 1a gene was found to be highly conserved gene showing high homology with the corresponding genes from different teleost. All three types of melatonin receptor genes were expressed in the brain, eyes and ovary in common. Expression of mel 1a gene was the most abundant and ubiquitous among 3 receptors in the brain, liver, gill, ovary, muscle, eye, heart, intestine, spleen and kidney. Mel 1b and mel 1c genes were, however, expressed in fewer tissues at low level. During the development post hatch, expressions of both mel 1a and GnRHr I genes significantly increased at 13 wph which was close to the putative timing of puberty onset in this species. These results suggest that among three types of receptors mel 1a is most likely associated with the action of melatonin in the onset of puberty in Nile tilapia. PMID:25949120

  7. Dual expression of hTERT and VEGF prolongs life span and enhances angiogenic ability of aged BMSCs

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Hao; Xiang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xiaodan; Ke, Yiquan; Xiao, Zongyu; Guo, Yang; Wang, Qiujing; Du, Mouxuan; Qin, Linsha; Zou, Yuxi; Cai, Yingqian; Chen, Zhenzhou; Xu, Ruxiang

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •Expression of hTERT and VEGF changed the lifespan and morphology of hBMSCs. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET promoted angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. •The expression of VEGF and hTRET in hBMSCs had few effects on tumorigenicity. -- Abstract: Previous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation on cerebral ischemia. However, the proliferative, differentiative, and homing capacity of BMSC from the elderly are significantly reduced, especially after several passages expansion in vitro. In this study, by introducing lentivirus-mediated hTERT and VEGF genes to modify human BMSCs from aged donors, we observed extended lifespan, promoted angiogenic capacity while less enhanced tumorigenicity of the genetically engineering BMSCs. These results therefore suggest that the modification of aged BMSCs by dual expression of hTERT and VEGF may be used for autologous cell replacement for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients.

  8. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYMES (XMES) THROUGH THE LIFE STAGES OF THE MALE C57BL/6 MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of foreign compounds, metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver's ability to detoxify and eliminate these xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will...

  9. Effects of competition and life history stage on the expression of local adaptation in two native bunchgrasses

    Treesearch

    Rice Kevin J.; Knapp Eric E.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the use of genetically appropriate material in restoration often focus on questions of local adaptation. Many reciprocal transplant studies have demonstrated local adaptation in native plant species, but very few have examined how interspecific competition affects the expression of adaptive variation. Our study examined...

  10. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYMES (XMES) THROUGH THE LIFE STAGES OF THE MALE C57BL/6 MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of foreign compounds, metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver's ability to detoxify and eliminate these xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will...

  11. Progenitor potential of nkx6.1-expressing cells throughout zebrafish life and during beta cell regeneration.

    PubMed

    Ghaye, Aurélie P; Bergemann, David; Tarifeño-Saldivia, Estefania; Flasse, Lydie C; Von Berg, Virginie; Peers, Bernard; Voz, Marianne L; Manfroid, Isabelle

    2015-09-02

    In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. Using novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic nkx6.1 and ascl1b reporter lines, we established that nkx6.1-positive cells give rise to all the pancreatic cell types and ascl1b-positive cells give rise to all the endocrine cell types in the zebrafish embryo. These two genes are initially co-expressed in the pancreatic primordium and their domains segregate, not as a result of mutual repression, but through the opposite effects of Notch signaling, maintaining nkx6.1 expression while repressing ascl1b in progenitors. In the adult zebrafish, nkx6.1 expression persists exclusively in the ductal tree at the tip of which its expression coincides with Notch active signaling in centroacinar/terminal end duct cells. Tracing these cells reveals that they are able to differentiate into other ductal cells and into insulin-expressing cells in normal (non-diabetic) animals. This capacity of ductal cells to generate endocrine cells is supported by the detection of ascl1b in the nkx6.1:GFP ductal cell transcriptome. This transcriptome also reveals, besides actors of the Notch and Wnt pathways, several novel markers such as id2a. Finally, we show that beta cell ablation in the adult zebrafish triggers proliferation of ductal cells and their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. We have shown that, in the zebrafish embryo, nkx6.1+ cells are bona fide multipotent pancreatic progenitors, while ascl1b+ cells represent committed endocrine precursors. In

  12. Gene expression during ovarian differentiation in parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys: implications for fecundity and life history types.

    PubMed

    Spice, Erin K; Whyard, Steven; Docker, Margaret F

    2014-11-01

    Lampreys diverged from the jawed vertebrate lineage approximately 500million years ago. Lampreys undergo sex differentiation much later than most other vertebrates, and ovarian differentiation occurs several years before testicular differentiation. The genetic basis of lamprey sex differentiation is of particular interest both because of the phylogenetic importance of lampreys and because of their unusual pattern of sex differentiation. As well, differences between parasitic and non-parasitic lampreys may first become evident at ovarian differentiation. However, nothing is known about the genetic basis of ovarian differentiation in lampreys. This study examined potential differences in gene expression before, during, and after ovarian differentiation in parasitic chestnut lamprey Ichthyomyzon castaneus and non-parasitic northern brook lamprey Ichthyomyzonfossor. Eight target genes (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, germ cell-less, estrogen receptor β, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, daz-associated protein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, and dehydrocholesterol reductase 7) were examined. Northern brook lamprey displayed higher expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III, whereas chestnut lamprey displayed higher expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; these genes may be involved in apoptosis and oocyte growth, respectively. Presumptive male larvae had higher expression of Wilms' tumour suppressor protein 1, which may be involved in the undifferentiated gonad and/or later testicular development. Differentiated females had higher expression of 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and daz-associated protein 1, which may be involved in female development. This study is the first to identify genes that may be involved in ovarian differentiation and fecundity in lampreys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term consequences of variation in timing and manner of fry introduction on juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) growth, survival, and life-history expression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.; Dubreuil, T.; O'Donnell, M. J.; Obedzinski, M.; Griswold, K.; Nislow, K.H.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the influence of introduction time and the manner of introduction on growth, survival, and life-history expression of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Introduction treatments included three fry stocking times and stream rearing of embryos. Despite poor growth conditions during the early stocking period, early-stocked fish were larger throughout the entire study period, likely the result of prior residence advantage. This interpretation was reinforced by the laboratory study, where early-stocked fish outgrew late-stocked fish when reared together, but not when they were reared separately. In contrast to growth, abundance of stocked fish was greatest for fish stocked during the middle period, and this stocking group produced the greatest number of smolts. Despite smaller size, survival of stream-incubated fish was generally greater than survival of stocked fish. Introduction timing had a pronounced effect on smolt age but a weak effect on extent of parr maturation. Overall, these observations indicate that small differences (???2 weeks) in introduction time can have long-term effects on size, survival, and life-history expression. Results suggest stabilizing selection on introduction times, mediated by the interaction between prior residence (advantage to fish introduced earlier) and habitat suitability (advantage to fish introduced later). ?? 2004 NRC Canada.

  14. Effects of a creative expression intervention on emotions, communication, and quality of life in persons with dementia.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Lorraine J; Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A; Pak, Youngju

    2010-01-01

    Effective nonpharmacological interventions are needed to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms and to improve quality of life for the 5.3 million Americans affected by dementia. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of a storytelling program, TimeSlips, on communication, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in long-term care residents with dementia. A quasi-experimental, two-group, repeated measures design was used to compare persons with dementia who were assigned to the twice-weekly, 6-week TimeSlips intervention group (n = 28) or usual care group (n = 28) at baseline and postintervention at Weeks 7 and 10. Outcome measures included the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version, the Functional Assessment of Communication Skills, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease, and the Observed Emotion Rating Scale (this last measure was collected also at Weeks 3 and 6 during TimeSlips for the treatment group and during mealtime for the control group). Compared with the control group, the treatment group exhibited significantly higher pleasure at Week 3 (p < .001), Week 6 (p < .001), and Week 7 (p < .05). Small to moderate treatment effects were found for Week 7 social communication (d = .49) and basic needs communication (d = .43). A larger effect was found for pleasure at Week 7 (d = .58). As expected, given the engaging nature of the TimeSlips creative storytelling intervention, analyses revealed increased positive affect during and at 1 week postintervention. In addition, perhaps associated with the intervention's reliance on positive social interactions and verbal communication, participants evidenced improved communication skills. However, more frequent dosing and booster sessions of TimeSlips may be needed to show significant differences between treatment and control groups on long-term effects and other outcomes.

  15. Early stress causes sex-specific, life-long changes in behaviour, levels of gonadal hormones, and gene expression in chickens.

    PubMed

    Elfwing, Magnus; Nätt, Daniel; Goerlich-Jansson, Vivian C; Persson, Mia; Hjelm, Jonas; Jensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Early stress can have long-lasting phenotypic effects. Previous research shows that male and female chickens differ in many behavioural aspects, and respond differently to chronic stress. The present experiment aimed to broadly characterize long-term sex differences in responses to brief events of stress experienced during the first weeks of life. Chicks from a commercial egg-laying hybrid were exposed to stress by inducing periods of social isolation during their first three weeks of life, followed by a broad behavioural, physiological and genomic characterization throughout life. Early stressed males, but not females, where more anxious in an open field-test, stayed shorter in tonic immobility and tended to have delayed sexual maturity, as shown by a tendency for lower levels of testosterone compared to controls. While early stressed females did not differ from non-stressed in fear and sexual maturation, they were more socially dominant than controls. The differential gene expression profile in hypothalamus was significantly correlated from 28 to 213 days of age in males, but not in females. In conclusion, early stress had a more pronounced long-term effect on male than on female chickens, as evidenced by behavioral, endocrine and genomic responses. This may either be attributed to inherent sex differences due to evolutionary causes, or possibly to different stress related selection pressures on the two sexes during commercial chicken breeding.

  16. Early life stress and post-weaning high fat diet alter tyrosine hydroxylase regulation and AT1 receptor expression in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Maniam, Jayanthi; Ong, Lin Kooi; Dunkley, Peter R; Morris, Margaret J

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that early life stress induced by maternal separation or non-handling can lead to behavioural deficits in rats and that these deficits can be alleviated by providing palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). In these studies we investigated the effects of maternal separation or non-handling and HFD on tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and TH phosphorylation at Ser40 (pSer40TH) and the expression of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) protein in the adrenal gland as markers of sympatho-adrenomedullary activation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to short maternal separation, S15 (15 min), prolonged maternal separation, S180 (180 min) daily from postnatal days 2-14 or were non-handled (NH) until weaning. Siblings were exposed to HFD or chow from day 21 until 19 weeks when adrenals were harvested. Maternal separation and non-handling had no effects on adrenal TH protein in both sexes. We found an effect of HFD only in the females; HFD significantly increased TH levels in NH rats and pSer40TH in S180 rats (relative to corresponding chow-fed groups), but had no effect on AT1R expression in any group. In contrast, in male rats HFD had no effect on TH protein levels, but significantly increased pSer40TH across all treatment groups. There was no effect of HFD on AT1R expression in male rats; however, maternal separation (for 15 or 180 min) caused significant increases in AT1R expression (relative to NH group regardless of diet). This is the first study to report that early life stress and diet modulate TH protein, pSer40TH and AT1R protein levels in the adrenal gland in a sex dependent manner. These results are interpreted in respect to the potential adverse effects that these changes in the adrenal gland may have in males and females in adult life.

  17. cDNA cloning and life-cycle stage-specific expression of coronin from Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Minami, Yoshiko; Ishihara, Masaaki; Hayase, Masato; Sakaguchi, Tomohisa; Yubisui, Toshitsugu

    2009-03-23

    Coronin cDNA was cloned from the plasmodia of Physarum polycephalum. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was comprised of 449 residues and showed 60% identity to that of Dictyostelium discoideum coronin. Southern blot analysis suggested that the coronin gene present in the P. polycephalum genome might be a single copy. Coronin was expressed in diploid plasmodia, while it was not detected in haploid amoebae or spores.

  18. Life-spanning murine gene expression profiles in relation to chronological and pathological aging in multiple organs

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Raoul V; van der Hoeven, Tessa V; Wackers, P.F.K.; Robinson, Joke; van der Horst, Gijsbertus TJ; Dollé, Martijn ET; Vijg, Jan; Breit, Timo M; Hoeijmakers, Jan HJ; van Steeg, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aging and age-related pathology is a result of a still incompletely-understood intricate web of molecular and cellular processes. We present a C57BL/6J female mice in vivo aging study of five organs (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain), in which we compare genome-wide gene expression profiles during chronological aging with pathological changes throughout the entire murine lifespan (13, 26, 52, 78, 104 and 130 weeks). Relating gene expression changes to chronological aging revealed many differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and altered gene-sets (AGSs) were found in most organs, indicative of intra-organ generic aging processes. However, only ≤ 1% of these DEGs are found in all organs. For each organ, at least one of 18 tested pathological parameters showed a good age-predictive value, albeit with much inter- and intra-individual (organ) variation. Relating gene expression changes to pathology-related aging revealed correlated genes and gene-sets, which made it possible to characterize the difference between biological and chronological aging. In liver, kidney and brain, a limited number of overlapping pathology-related AGSs were found. Immune responses appeared to be common, yet the changes were specific in most organs. Furthermore, changes were observed in energy homeostasis, reactive oxygen species, cell cycle, cell motility and DNA damage. Comparison of chronological and pathology-related AGSs revealed substantial overlap and interesting differences. For example, the presence of immune processes in liver pathology-related AGSs which were not detected in chronological aging. The many cellular processes that are only found employing aging–related pathology could provide important new insights into the progress of aging. PMID:23795901

  19. Toxic effects of diclofenac on life history parameters and the expression of detoxification-related genes in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Lan; Pan, Benben; Wang, Chao; Bao, Shuang; Nie, Xiangping

    2017-02-01

    Diclofenac (DCF), as a widely used drug, has been detected in various environmental media such as municipal wastewater effluent. However, there is little information on the effects of DCF on freshwater invertebrates potentially exposing to its residues in surface water. In the present study, we investigated the toxic effects of DCF on the physiological parameters (e.g., survival, growth rate, and reproduction) of a crustacean, Daphnia magna, via a 21-d chronic toxicity test, and we also evaluated the effects of DCF on the expression of the genes related to the detoxification metabolism, growth, development and reproduction (e.g., HR96, P-gp, CYP360A8, CYP314, GST, EcR and Vtg) in acute exposure (up to 96h) with RT-PCR. Significant toxic effects of DCF to D. magna were observed at 50μgL(-1), the expression of these selected genes was inhibited with 24h of exposure, and induced after 48h to some extents. The expression of Vtg was induced at high concentrations of DCF (500μgL(-1) and 5000μgL(-1)) after 24h and 48h of exposure, but also significantly induced at low concentration (50μgL(-1)) after 96h of exposure. Dose- and time-dependent relationships were observed for gene expression of the seven selected genes. In the 21-d chronic toxicity test, the days to the first brood and the days to the first egg production were both significantly delayed at 50μgL(-1). However, there were no significant differences observed among the molting frequency, number of eggs produced in the first brood, total number of eggs per individual, total number of broods per individual, body length and intrinsic growth rate. Our results suggested that the reproduction parameters are more sensitive endpoints than the survival and growth for evaluating the toxicity of DCF to aquatic invertebrates.

  20. Gene duplication in trypanosomatids - two DED1 paralogs are functionally redundant and differentially expressed during the life cycle.

    PubMed

    Zinoviev, Alexandra; Akum, Yael; Yahav, Tal; Shapira, Michal

    2012-10-01

    DED1/VAS belong to the DEAD-box family of RNA helicases that are associated with translation initiation in higher eukaryotes. Here we report on two DED1/VAS homologs that were identified in the genome of Leishmania. The two paralogs include all the domains that are typical of DEAD-box proteins and a phylogenetic analysis suggests that their duplication predates the branching of DED1 and VAS, which took place along with the appearance of early metazoans. The two Leishmania DED1 paralogs complement a yeast strain that fails to express the endogenous DED1, suggesting that they are responsible for a similar function. This is also supported by RNAi-mediated silencing experiments performed in Trypanosoma brucei. The two proteins are functionally redundant, since defects in protein synthesis and cell growth arrest were observed only when both paralogs were eliminated. A partial stage-specific specialization is observed, as LeishDED1-2 is more abundant in promastigotes, whereas expression of LeishDED1-1 increases in amastigotes. Duplication of an essential gene usually offers a safety net against mutations but in this case it also generated two proteins with stage specific expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression patterns of cysteine peptidase genes across the Tribolium castaneum life cycle provide clues to biological function

    PubMed Central

    Elpidina, Elena N.; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major agricultural pest responsible for considerable loss of stored grain and cereal products worldwide. T. castaneum larvae have a highly compartmentalized gut, with cysteine peptidases mostly in the acidic anterior part of the midgut that are critical to the early stages of food digestion. In previous studies, we described 26 putative cysteine peptidase genes in T. castaneum (types B, L, O, F, and K) located mostly on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, and 10. In the present study, we hypothesized that specific cysteine peptidase genes could be associated with digestive functions for food processing based on comparison of gene expression profiles in different developmental stages, feeding and non-feeding. RNA-Seq was used to determine the relative expression of cysteine peptidase genes among four major developmental stages (egg, larvae, pupae, and adult) of T. castaneum. We also compared cysteine peptidase genes in T. castaneum to those in other model insects and coleopteran pests. By combining transcriptome expression, phylogenetic comparisons, response to dietary inhibitors, and other existing data, we identified key cysteine peptidases that T. castaneum larvae and adults use for food digestion, and thus new potential targets for biologically-based control products. PMID:26819843

  2. Sparing of the Extraocular Muscles in mdx Mice with Absent or Reduced Utrophin Expression: A Life Span Analysis

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Abby A.; Hebert, Sadie L.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2015-01-01

    Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin+/− and mdx:utrophin−/− mice were examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span. Known to be spared in the mdx mouse, and contrary to previous reports, the extraocular muscles from both the mdx:utrophin+/− and mdx:utrophin−/− mice were also morphologically spared. In the mdx:utrophin+/− mice, which have a normal life span compared to the mdx:utrophin−/− mice, the myofibers were larger at 3 and 12 months than the wild type age-matched eye muscles. While there was a significant increase in central nucleation in the extraocular muscles from all mdx:utrophin+/− mice, the levels were still very low compared to age-matched limb skeletal muscles. Pax7- and MyoD-positive myogenic precursor cell populations were retained and similar to age-matched wild type controls. These results support the hypothesis that utrophin is not involved in extraocular muscle sparing in these genotypes. In addition, it appears these muscles retain the myogenic precursors that would allow them to maintain their regenerative capacity and normal morphology over a lifetime even in these more severe models of muscular dystrophy. PMID:26429098

  3. Sparing of the extraocular muscles in mdx mice with absent or reduced utrophin expression: A life span analysis.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Abby A; Hebert, Sadie L; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-11-01

    Sparing of the extraocular muscles in muscular dystrophy is controversial. To address the potential role of utrophin in this sparing, mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were examined for changes in myofiber size, central nucleation, and Pax7-positive and MyoD-positive cell density at intervals over their life span. Known to be spared in the mdx mouse, and contrary to previous reports, the extraocular muscles from both the mdx:utrophin(+/-) and mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice were also morphologically spared. In the mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, which have a normal life span compared to the mdx:utrophin(-/-) mice, the myofibers were larger at 3 and 12 months than the wild type age-matched eye muscles. While there was a significant increase in central nucleation in the extraocular muscles from all mdx:utrophin(+/)(-) mice, the levels were still very low compared to age-matched limb skeletal muscles. Pax7- and MyoD-positive myogenic precursor cell populations were retained and were similar to age-matched wild type controls. These results support the hypothesis that utrophin is not involved in extraocular muscle sparing in these genotypes. In addition, it appears that these muscles retain the myogenic precursors that would allow them to maintain their regenerative capacity and normal morphology over a lifetime even in these more severe models of muscular dystrophy.

  4. Asthma-Related Immune Responses in Youth With Asthma: Associations With Maternal Responsiveness and Expressions of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Erin T.; Kane, Heidi S.; Saleh, Daniel J.; Wildman, Derek E.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Secord, Elizabeth; Slatcher, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Stressful family environments early in life have negative effects on physical health. However, less is known about the health effects of positive aspects of families. We examined the associations between maternal responsiveness and immune markers among youth with asthma and identified youth expressions of positive affect as a potential mechanism of these associations. Methods Forty-three youths with asthma (26 males; aged 10-17) wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) for four days to assess maternal responsiveness and youth expressions of affect from audio-recordings of daily life. Trained coders rated EAR sound files for expressions of maternal responsiveness and affect displayed by the youth. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, cultured, and assayed to determine stimulated levels of interleukin(IL)-5, IL-13, and interferon(IFN)- γ. Results Greater maternal responsiveness was associated with decreased stimulated production of IL-5 (r = −.38, p = .012) and IL-13 (r = −.33, p = .031). Greater total positive affect in youth was linked with decreased stimulated production of IL-5 (r = −.46, p = .002) and IL-13 (r = −.37, p = .014). Total negative affect among youth was unrelated to immune responses. There was a significant indirect effect of maternal responsiveness via positive affect in youth on lower levels of IL-5 (95% CI = −3.41, −.03) and IL-13 (95% CI = −2.34, −.01) when adjusting for caregiver-youth conflict and negative affect among youth. Conclusions These results indicate the importance of positive family interactions for youth and provide preliminary evidence for a mechanism through which parenting can influence immune responses in youths with asthma. PMID:26407226

  5. Sex-dependent effects of early life inflammatory pain on sucrose intake and sucrose-associated hippocampal Arc expression in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Yoko O; Nalloor, Rebecca; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Murphy, Anne Z; Parent, Marise B

    2017-05-01

    We hypothesize that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) neurons, which are critical for episodic memory, form a memory of a meal and inhibit the initiation of the next meal and the amount ingested during that meal. In support, we showed previously that (1) consuming a sucrose meal induces expression of the synaptic plasticity marker activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in dHC neurons and (2) reversible inactivation of these neurons immediately following a sucrose meal accelerates the onset of the next meal and increases the size of that meal. These data suggest that hippocampal-dependent memory inhibits intake; therefore, the following experiments were conducted to determine whether hippocampal-dependent memory impairments are associated with increased intake. We reported recently that one episode of early life inflammatory pain impairs dHC-dependent memory in adult rats. The present study determined whether neonatal inflammatory pain also increases sucrose intake and attenuates sucrose-associated Arc expression. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given an intraplantar injection of the inflammatory agent carrageenan (1%) on the day of birth and sucrose intake and sucrose-associated dHC Arc expression were measured in adulthood. Neonatal inflammatory pain increased sucrose intake in adult female and male rats, decreased sucrose-associated dHC Arc expression in female rats, and tended to have a similar effect on Arc expression in male rats. Neonatal inflammatory pain significantly decreased the interval between two sucrose meals in female but not in male rats. Morphine administration at the time of insult attenuated the effects of injury on sucrose intake. Collectively, these findings indicate that one brief episode of inflammatory pain on the day of birth has a long long-lasting, sex-dependent impact on intake of a palatable food in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The exogenous opioid peptides and DPPIV serum activity in infants with apnoea expressed as apparent life threatening events (ALTE).

    PubMed

    Wasilewska, Jolanta; Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, Edyta; Kuźbida, Ewa; Jarmołowska, Beata; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Kostyra, Elżbieta

    2011-06-01

    Casein-derived peptides have been suggested to play a role in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). In this study, we have determined the content of bovine β-casomorphin-7 (bBCM-7) and the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) in sera of infants with apparent life threatening events (ALTE syndromes, 'near miss SIDS'). We have found that the sera of some infants after an apnoea event contained more β-casomorphin-7 than that of the healthy infants in the same age. In all the children after an apnoea event, however, a lowered DPPIV was detected. We suspect that the low activity of that peptidase may be responsible for opioid-induced respiratory depression, induced by bBCM-7 in the general circulation.

  7. Genome-wide gene expression and RNA half-life measurements allow predictions of regulation and metabolic behavior in Methanosarcina acetivorans

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Joseph R.; Thor, ShengShee; Kohler, Lars; Kohler, Petra R. A.; Metcalf, William W.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2016-11-16

    Here, while a few studies on the variations in mRNA expression and half-lives measured under different growth conditions have been used to predict patterns of regulation in bacterial organisms, the extent to which this information can also play a role in defining metabolic phenotypes has yet to be examined systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive study for a model methanogen. As a result, we use expression and half-life data for the methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans growing on fast- and slow-growth substrates to examine the regulation of its genes. Unlike Escherichia coli where only small shifts in half-lives were observed, we found that most mRNA have significantly longer half-lives for slow growth on acetate compared to fast growth on methanol or trimethylamine. Interestingly, half-life shifts are not uniform across functional classes of enzymes, suggesting the existence of a selective stabilization mechanism for mRNAs. Using the transcriptomics data we determined whether transcription or degradation rate controls the change in transcript abundance. Degradation was found to control abundance for about half of the metabolic genes underscoring its role in regulating metabolism. Genes involved in half of the metabolic reactions were found to be differentially expressed among the substrates suggesting the existence of drastically different metabolic phenotypes that extend beyond just the methanogenesis pathways. By integrating expression data with an updated metabolic model of the organism (iST807) significant differences in pathway flux and production of metabolites were predicted for the three growth substrates. In conclusion, this study provides the first global picture of differential expression and half-lives for a class II methanogen, as well as provides the first evidence in a single organism that drastic genome-wide shifts in RNA half-lives can be modulated by growth substrate. We determined which genes in each metabolic

  8. Genome-wide gene expression and RNA half-life measurements allow predictions of regulation and metabolic behavior in Methanosarcina acetivorans

    DOE PAGES

    Peterson, Joseph R.; Thor, ShengShee; Kohler, Lars; ...

    2016-11-16

    Here, while a few studies on the variations in mRNA expression and half-lives measured under different growth conditions have been used to predict patterns of regulation in bacterial organisms, the extent to which this information can also play a role in defining metabolic phenotypes has yet to be examined systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive study for a model methanogen. As a result, we use expression and half-life data for the methanogen Methanosarcina acetivorans growing on fast- and slow-growth substrates to examine the regulation of its genes. Unlike Escherichia coli where only small shifts in half-lives were observed, wemore » found that most mRNA have significantly longer half-lives for slow growth on acetate compared to fast growth on methanol or trimethylamine. Interestingly, half-life shifts are not uniform across functional classes of enzymes, suggesting the existence of a selective stabilization mechanism for mRNAs. Using the transcriptomics data we determined whether transcription or degradation rate controls the change in transcript abundance. Degradation was found to control abundance for about half of the metabolic genes underscoring its role in regulating metabolism. Genes involved in half of the metabolic reactions were found to be differentially expressed among the substrates suggesting the existence of drastically different metabolic phenotypes that extend beyond just the methanogenesis pathways. By integrating expression data with an updated metabolic model of the organism (iST807) significant differences in pathway flux and production of metabolites were predicted for the three growth substrates. In conclusion, this study provides the first global picture of differential expression and half-lives for a class II methanogen, as well as provides the first evidence in a single organism that drastic genome-wide shifts in RNA half-lives can be modulated by growth substrate. We determined which genes in each metabolic pathway

  9. Effects of a Creative Expression Intervention on Emotions, Communication, and Quality of Life in Persons with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lorraine J.; Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Pak, Youngju

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective nonpharmacological interventions are needed to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms and improve quality of life for the 5.3 million Americans affected by dementia. Objective To test the effect of a storytelling program, TimeSlips, on communication, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in long-term care residents with dementia. Method A quasi-experimental, two-group, repeated measures design was used to compare persons with dementia who were assigned to the twice-weekly, 6-week TimeSlips intervention (n = 28) or usual care (n = 28) group at baseline and postintervention at Weeks 7 and 10. Outcome measures included the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version, Functional Assessment of Communication Skills, Quality of Life–AD, and Observed Emotion Rating Scale (this last measure was collected also at Weeks 3 and 6 during TimeSlips for the treatment group and during mealtime for the control group). Results Compared to the control group, the treatment group exhibited significantly higher pleasure at Week 3 (p < .001), Week 6 (p < .001), and Week 7 (p < .05). Small to moderate treatment effects were found for Week 7 Social Communication (d = .49) and Basic Needs Communication (d = .43). A larger effect was found for pleasure at Week 7 (d = .58). Discussion As expected given the engaging nature of the TimeSlips creative story-telling intervention, analyses revealed increased positive affect during and at 1-week post-intervention. In addition, perhaps associated with the intervention’s reliance on positive social interactions and verbal communication, participants evidenced improved communication skills. However, more frequent dosing and booster sessions of TimeSlips may be needed to show significant differences between treatment and control groups on long-term effects and other outcomes. PMID:21048483

  10. RNA interference of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO1 and ACO2) genes expression prolongs the shelf life of Eksotika (Carica papaya L.) papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Sekeli, Rogayah; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Muda, Pauziah; Abu Bakar, Umi Kalsom; Yeong, Wee Chien; Pillai, Vilasini

    2014-06-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using RNA interference in down regulating the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene in Eksotika papaya. One-month old embryogenic calli were separately transformed with Agrobacterium strain LBA 4404 harbouring the three different RNAi pOpOff2 constructs bearing the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase gene. A total of 176 putative transformed lines were produced from 15,000 calli transformed, selected, then regenerated on medium supplemented with kanamycin. Integration and expression of the targeted gene in putatively transformed lines were verified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confined field evaluation of a total of 31 putative transgenic lines planted showed a knockdown expression of the targeted ACO1 and ACO2 genes in 13 lines, which required more than 8 days to achieve the full yellow colour (Index 6). Fruits harvested from lines pRNAiACO2 L2-9 and pRNAiACO1 L2 exhibited about 20 and 14 days extended post-harvest shelf life to reach Index 6, respectively. The total soluble solids contents of the fruits ranged from 11 to 14° Brix, a range similar to fruits from non-transformed, wild type seed-derived plants.

  11. Green tea component epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreases expression of osteopontin via a decrease in mRNA half-life in cell lines of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zapf, Matthew A. C.; Kothari, Anai N.; Weber, Cynthia E.; Arffa, Matthew L.; Wai, Phillip Y.; Driver, Joseph; Gupta, Gopal N.; Kuo, Paul C.; Mi, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Osteopontin (OPN) mediates metastasis and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), found in green tea, suppresses HCC tumor growth in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of EGCG in modulating OPN in cell lines of metastatic HCC. Methods Experimental HCC cell lines included HepG2 and MHCC-97H HCC cells, which express high levels of OPN, and the Hep3B cells, which express lesser levels of OPN. Cells were treated with EGCG (0.02–20 μg/mL) before measurement of OPN with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Scratch assay measured cell migration. Binding of the OPN promoter to RNA pol II was evaluated by the use of Chromatin-IP assay after EGCG treatment. Transcriptional regulation of OPN was investigated with luciferase reporter plasmids containing various deletion fragments of the human OPN promoter. Measurement of the half-life of OPN mRNA was conducted using actinomycin D. Results Treatment of MHCC-97H and HepG2 cells with 2 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL EGCG caused a ~6-fold and ~90-fold decrease in secreted protein levels of OPN (All P < .001). OPN mRNA was decreased with EGCG concentrations of 0.2–20 μg/ml (All P < .001). The 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (ie, MTT) assay revealed that differences in OPN expression were not due to viability of the HCC cell lines. Promoter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed no effect of EGCG on the transcriptional regulation of OPN. Posttranscriptionally, EGCG decreased the half-life of OPN mRNA from 16.8 hours (95% confidence interval 9.0–125.1) to 2.5 hours (95% confidence interval 2.1–3.2) (P < .001). Migration was decreased in EGCG treated cells at 24 hours (8.0 ± 2.4% vs 21.2 ± 10.8%, P < .01) and at 48 hours (13.2 ± 3.6% vs 53.5 ± 19.8%, P < .001). Conclusion We provide evidence that EGCG decreases OPN mRNA and secreted OPN protein levels by decreasing the half-life

  12. Dual expression of hTERT and VEGF prolongs life span and enhances angiogenic ability of aged BMSCs.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Xiang, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xiaodan; Ke, Yiquan; Xiao, Zongyu; Guo, Yang; Wang, Qiujing; Du, Mouxuan; Qin, Linsha; Zou, Yuxi; Cai, Yingqian; Chen, Zhenzhou; Xu, Ruxiang

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have confirmed the therapeutic effects of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation on cerebral ischemia. However, the proliferative, differentiative, and homing capacity of BMSC from the elderly are significantly reduced, especially after several passages expansion in vitro. In this study, by introducing lentivirus-mediated hTERT and VEGF genes to modify human BMSCs from aged donors, we observed extended lifespan, promoted angiogenic capacity while less enhanced tumorigenicity of the genetically engineering BMSCs. These results therefore suggest that the modification of aged BMSCs by dual expression of hTERT and VEGF may be used for autologous cell replacement for ischemic cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early life stage trimethyltin exposure induces ADP-ribosylation factor expression and perturbs the vascular system in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangfei; Huang, Changjiang; Truong, Lisa; La Du, Jane; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lin, Kuanfei; Tanguay, Robert L; Dong, Qiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Trimethyltin chloride (TMT) is an organotin contaminant, widely detected in aqueous environments, posing potential human and environmental risks. In this study, we utilized the zebrafish model to investigate the impact of transient TMT exposure on developmental progression, angiogenesis, and cardiovascular development. Embryos were waterborne exposed to a wide TMT concentration range from 8 to 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). The TMT concentration that led to mortality in 50% of the embryos (LC50) at 96 hpf was 8.2 μM; malformations in 50% of the embryos (EC50) was 2.8 μM. The predominant response observed in surviving embryos was pericardial edema. Additionally, using the Tg (fli1a: EGFP) y1 transgenic zebrafish line to non-invasively monitor vascular development, TMT exposure led to distinct disarrangements in the vascular system. The most susceptible developmental stage to TMT exposure was between 48–72 hpf. High density whole genome microarrays were used to identify the early transcriptional changes following TMT exposure from 48 to 60 hpf or 72 hpf. In total, 459 transcripts were differentially expressed at least 2-fold (P < 0.05) by TMT compared to control. Using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) tools, it was revealed that the transcripts misregulated by TMT exposure were clustered in numerous categories including metabolic and cardiovascular disease, cellular function, cell death, molecular transport, and physiological development. In situ localization of highly elevated transcripts revealed intense staining of ADP-ribosylation factors arf3 and arf5 in the head, trunk, and tail regions. When arf5 expression was blocked by morpholinos, the zebrafish did not display the prototypical TMT-induced vascular deficits, indicating that the induction of arf5 was necessary for TMT-induced vascular toxicity. PMID:23000284

  14. Time-dependent expression and activity of cytochrome P450 1s in early life-stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Bräunig, Jennifer; Schiwy, Sabrina; Broedel, Oliver; Müller, Yvonne; Frohme, Marcus; Hollert, Henner; Keiter, Steffen H

    2015-11-01

    Zebrafish embryos are being increasingly used as model organisms for the assessment of single substances and complex environmental samples for regulatory purposes. Thus, it is essential to fully understand the xenobiotic metabolism during the different life-stages of early development. The aim of the present study was to determine arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity during selected times of early development using qPCR, enzymatic activity through measurement of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, and protein expression analysis. In the present study, gene expression of cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1, cyp1c2, and ahr2 as well as EROD activity were investigated up to 120 h postfertilization (hpf) after exposure to either β-naphthoflavone (BNF) or a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-contaminated sediment extract from Vering Kanal in Hamburg (VK). Protein expression was measured at 72 hpf after exposure to 20 μg/L BNF. Altered proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide mass fingerprinting. Distinct patterns of basal messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were found for each of the cyp1 genes, suggesting specific roles during embryonic development. All transcripts were induced by BNF and VK. ahr2 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated after exposure to VK. All cyp1 genes investigated showed a temporal decline in expression at 72 hpf. The significant decline of Hsp 90β protein at 72 hpf after exposure to BNF may suggest an explanation for the decline of cyp1 genes at this time point as Hsp 90β is of major importance for the functioning of the Ah-receptor. EROD activity measured in embryos was significantly induced after 96 hpf of exposure to BNF or VK. Together, these results demonstrate distinct temporal patterns of cyp1 genes and protein activities in zebrafish embryos as well as show a need to investigate further the xenobiotic biotransformation system during early development of

  15. Compositional and expression analyses of the glideosome during the Plasmodium life cycle reveal an additional myosin light chain required for maximum motility.

    PubMed

    Green, Judith L; Wall, Richard J; Vahokoski, Juha; Yusuf, Noor A; Ridzuan, Mohd A Mohd; Stanway, Rebecca R; Stock, Jessica; Knuepfer, Ellen; Brady, Declan; Martin, Stephen R; Howell, Steven A; Pires, Isa P; Moon, Robert W; Molloy, Justin E; Kursula, Inari; Tewari, Rita; Holder, Anthony A

    2017-09-11

    Myosin A (MyoA) is a Class XIV myosin implicated in gliding motility and host cell and tissue invasion by malaria parasites. MyoA is part of a membrane-associated protein complex called the glideosome, which is essential for parasite motility and includes the MyoA light chain MTIP, and several glideosome-associated proteins (GAPs). However, most studies of MyoA have focused on single stages of the parasite life cycle. We examined MyoA expression throughout the Plasmodium berghei life cycle in both mammalian and insect hosts. In extracellular ookinetes, sporozoites and merozoites, MyoA was located at the parasite periphery. In the sexual stages, zygote formation and initial ookinete differentiation precede MyoA synthesis and deposition, which occurred only in the developing protuberance. In developing intracellular asexual blood stages, MyoA was synthesized in mature schizonts and was located at the periphery of segmenting merozoites, where it remained throughout maturation, merozoite egress and host cell invasion. Besides the known GAPs in the malaria parasite, the complex included GAP40, an additional myosin light chain designated essential light chain (ELC) and several other candidate components. This ELC bound the MyoA neck region adjacent to the MTIP binding site, and both myosin light chains co-located to the glideosome. Co-expression of MyoA with its two light chains revealed that the presence of both light chains enhances MyoA-dependent actin motility. In conclusion, we have established a system to study the interplay and function of the three glideosome components, enabling the assessment of inhibitors that target this motor complex to block host cell invasion. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  16. Influence of early life status epilepticus on the developmental expression profile of the GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Szczurowska, E; Ergang, P; Kubová, H; Druga, R; Salaj, M; Mareš, P

    2016-09-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are responsible for fast excitatory neurotransmission, and their prolonged activation can result in the generation and spread of epileptic seizures. At early stages of postnatal development, the majority of AMPARs are permeable to both Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions. This permeability, which increases neuronal excitability, is due to the lack of the GluA2 subunit, encoded by the GRIA2A gene, and/or the presence of an unedited GluA2 subunit Q/R site (glutamine instead of arginine). Lithium chloride- and pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (LiCl/Pilo-SE) in rodents represents a model of severe seizures that result in development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The aim of this study was to determine how LiCl/Pilo-SE induced early in life (at postnatal day 12; P12) alters normal expression of the GRIA2A gene and GluA2 protein. SE was interrupted by an injection of paraldehyde (Para). Control groups were 1) naïve animals, and 2) siblings of SE rats receiving only LiCl and paraldehyde (LiCl/Para). The expression profile of GRIA2A mRNA was determined via qPCR, and GluA2 protein levels were measured by western blotting. The analysis was performed at 3h (protein levels), and then 3-, 6-, 13-, and 60days, following LiCl/Pilo-SE or LiCl/Para injection (i.e. at P12, P15, P18, P25, P72 respectively). Six different brain regions were analyzed: frontal (CXFR), parietal (CXPAR), and occipital (CXOC) cortex, dorsal (HD) and ventral (HV) hippocampus, and thalamus (TH). There was a significant increase in GRIA2A mRNA expression in the CXFR, CXPAR, and CXOC of P18 SE animals. In CXFR and HD, increased expression of GluA2 AMPAR subunit protein was detected, as well as a surge in GRIA2A mRNA and GluA2 protein expression especially at P18. In HD the surge was detected not only during development (P18), but also later in life (P72). Since high levels of GluA2 can be neuroprotective (by decreasing Ca(2+) permeability), our data suggest that the neocortex and dorsal

  17. Genome-wide patterns of expression in Drosophila pure species and hybrid males. II. Examination of multiple-species hybridizations, platforms, and life cycle stages.

    PubMed

    Moehring, Amanda J; Teeter, Katherine C; Noor, Mohamed A F

    2007-01-01

    Species often produce sterile hybrids early in their evolutionary divergence, and some evidence suggests that hybrid sterility may be associated with deviations or disruptions in gene expression. In support of this idea, many studies have shown that a high proportion of male-biased genes are underexpressed, compared with non-sex-biased genes, in sterile F1 male hybrids of Drosophila species. In this study, we examined and compared patterns of misexpression in sterile F1 male hybrids of Drosophila simulans and 2 of its sibling species, Drosophila mauritiana and Drosophila sechellia, at both the larval and adult life stages. We analyzed hybrids using both commercial Drosophila melanogaster microarrays and arrays we developed from reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions of spermatogenesis and reproduction-related transcripts from these species (sperm array). Although the majority of misexpressed transcripts were underexpressed, a disproportionate number of the overexpressed transcripts were located on the X chromosome. We detected a high overlap in the genes misexpressed between the 2 species pairs, and our sperm array was better at detecting such misexpression than the D. melanogaster array, suggesting possible weaknesses in the use of an array designed from another species. We found only minimal misexpression in the larval samples with the sperm array, suggesting that disruptions in spermatogenesis occur after this life stage. Further study of these misexpressed loci may allow us to identify precisely where disruptions in the spermatogenesis pathway occur.

  18. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life. PMID:27558543

  19. Early-life stress changes expression of GnRH and kisspeptin genes and DNA methylation of GnRH3 promoter in the adult zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Khor, Yee Min; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2016-02-01

    Early-life stress can cause long-term effects in the adulthood such as alterations in behaviour, brain functions and reproduction. DNA methylation is a mechanism of epigenetic change caused by early-life stress. Dexamethasone (DEX) was administered to zebrafish larvae to study its effect on reproductive dysfunction. The level of GnRH2, GnRH3, Kiss1 and Kiss2 mRNAs were measured between different doses of DEX treatment groups in adult zebrafish. Kiss1 and GnRH2 expression were increased in the 200mg/L DEX treated while Kiss2 and GnRH3 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the 2mg/L DEX-treated zebrafish. The up-regulation may be related to programming effect of DEX in the zebrafish larvae, causing overcompensation mechanism to increase the mRNA levels. Furthermore, DEX treatment caused negative impact on the development and maturation of the testes, in particular spermatogenesis. Therefore, immature gonadal development may cause positive feedback by increasing GnRH and Kiss. This indicates that DEX can alter the regulation of GnRH2, GnRH3, Kiss1 and Kiss2 in adult zebrafish, which affects maturation of gonads. Computer analysis of 1.5 kb region upstream of the 5' UTR of Kiss1, Kiss2, GnRH2 and GnRH3 promoter showed that there are putative binding sites of glucocorticoid response element and transcription factors involved in stress response. GnRH3 promoter analysed from pre-optic area, ventral telencephalon and ventral olfactory bulb showed higher methylation at CpG residues located on -1410, -1377 and -1355 between control and 2mg/L DEX-treated groups. Hence, early-life DEX treatment can alter methylation of GnRH3 gene promoter, which subsequently affects gene regulation and reproductive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal separation in early life modifies anxious behavior and Fos and glucocorticoid receptor expression in limbic neurons after chronic stress in rats: effects of tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Verónica; Durando, Patricia E; Suárez, Marta M

    2016-01-01

    Early-life adversity can lead to long-term consequence persisting into adulthood. Here, we assess the implications of an adverse early environment on vulnerability to stress during adulthood. We hypothesized that the interplay between early and late stress would result in a differential phenotype regarding the number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptor (GR-ir) and neuronal activity as assessed by Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in brain areas related to stress responses and anxiety-like behavior. We also expected that the antidepressant tianeptine could correct some of the alterations induced in our model. Male Wistar rats were subjected to daily maternal separation (MS) for 4.5 h during the first 3 weeks of life. As adults, the rats were exposed to chronic stress for 24 d and they were treated daily with tianeptine (10 mg/kg intraperitoneal) or vehicle (isotonic saline). Fos-ir was increased by MS in all structures analyzed. Chronic stress reduced Fos-ir in the hippocampus, but increased it in the paraventricular nucleus. Furthermore, chronic stress increased GR-ir in hippocampus (CA1) and amygdala in control non-MS rats. By contrast, when MS and chronic stress were combined, GR-ir was decreased in these structures. Additionally, whereas tianeptine did not affect Fos-ir, it regulated GR-ir in a region-dependent manner, in hippocampus and amygdala opposing in some cases the stress or MS effects. Furthermore, tianeptine reversed the MS- or stress-induced anxious behavior. The interplay between MS and chronic stress observed indicates that MS rats have a modified phenotype, which is expressed when they are challenged by stress in later life.

  1. Maternal Low-Protein Diet Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Hepatic MicroRNAs Expression in the Early Life of Offspring †

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Tong; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from maternal low-protein diet (LPD) is associated with perturbed miRNAs expression in offspring as early as the weaning age. We examined the metabolic effects on the C57BL/6J mice male offspring at weaning from dams fed with LPD or normal chow diet (NCD) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Maternal LPD feeding impaired metabolic health in offspring. Microarray profiling indicated that mmu-miR-615, mmu-miR-124, mmu-miR-376b, and mmu-let-7e were significantly downregulated, while, mmu-miR-708 and mmu-miR-879 were upregulated in LPD offspring. Bioinformatic analysis showed target genes were mapped to inflammatory-related pathways. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were higher and interleukin 6 (IL-6) had a tendency to be elevated in the LPD group. Finally, both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in the LPD group. Our findings provide novel evidence that maternal LPD can regulate miRNAs expression, which may be associated with chronic inflammation status and metabolic health in offspring as early as the weaning age. PMID:28264458

  2. Maternal Low-Protein Diet Modulates Glucose Metabolism and Hepatic MicroRNAs Expression in the Early Life of Offspring †.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Xiao, Xinhua; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Tong; Yu, Miao; Xu, Jianping

    2017-02-27

    Emerging studies revealed that maternal protein restriction was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, the mechanisms of its effects on offspring, especially during early life of offspring, are poorly understood. Here, it is hypothesized that impaired metabolic health in offspring from maternal low-protein diet (LPD) is associated with perturbed miRNAs expression in offspring as early as the weaning age. We examined the metabolic effects on the C57BL/6J mice male offspring at weaning from dams fed with LPD or normal chow diet (NCD) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Maternal LPD feeding impaired metabolic health in offspring. Microarray profiling indicated that mmu-miR-615, mmu-miR-124, mmu-miR-376b, and mmu-let-7e were significantly downregulated, while, mmu-miR-708 and mmu-miR-879 were upregulated in LPD offspring. Bioinformatic analysis showed target genes were mapped to inflammatory-related pathways. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were higher and interleukin 6 (IL-6) had a tendency to be elevated in the LPD group. Finally, both mRNA and protein levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in the LPD group. Our findings provide novel evidence that maternal LPD can regulate miRNAs expression, which may be associated with chronic inflammation status and metabolic health in offspring as early as the weaning age.

  3. Early-life iron deficiency anemia alters the development and long-term expression of parvalbumin and perineuronal nets in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Liam S N; Thibert, Kathryn A; Wobken, Jane D; Georgieff, Michael K

    2013-01-01

    Early-life iron deficiency anemia (IDA) alters the expression of critical genes involved in neuronal dendritic structural plasticity of the hippocampus, thus contributing to delayed maturation of electrophysiology, and learning and memory behavior in rats. Structural maturity in multiple cortical regions is characterized by the appearance of parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) GABAergic interneurons and perineuronal nets (PNNs). Appearance of PV(+) interneurons and PNNs can serve as cellular markers for the beginning and end of a critical developmental period, respectively. During this period, the system progresses from an immature yet highly plastic condition, to a more mature and efficient state that is however less flexible and may exhibit poorer potential for recovery from injury. To test if fetal-neonatal IDA alters parvalbumin (PV) mRNA expression, protein levels, and the number of PV(+) interneurons and PNNs in the male rat hippocampus, pregnant dams were given an iron-deficient (ID) diet (3 mg iron/kg chow) from gestational day 2 to postnatal day (P) 7 and then placed on an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (198 mg/kg) for the remainder of the experiment. On this regimen, formerly ID animals become fully iron-replete by P56. Minimal levels of PV (mRNA and protein), PV(+) interneurons, and PNNs were found in IS and ID P7 rats. By P15, and continuing through P30 and P65, ID rats had reduced PV mRNA expression and protein levels compared to IS controls. While there were no differences in the number of PV(+) neurons at either P30 or P65, the percentage of PV(+) cells surrounded by PNNs was slightly greater in ID rats as compared to IS controls. The lower levels of these acknowledged critical period biomarkers in the ID group are consistent with studies that demonstrate later maturation of the acutely ID hippocampus and lower plasticity in the adult formerly ID hippocampus. The findings provide additional potential cellular bases for previously described electrophysiologic and

  4. Nitrogen excretion and expression of urea cycle enzymes in the atlantic cod (Gadus morhua l.): a comparison of early life stages with adults

    PubMed

    Chadwick; Wright

    1999-10-01

    For many years, the urea cycle was considered to be relatively unimportant in the life history of most teleost fishes. In previous studies, we were surprised to find that newly hatched freshwater rainbow trout embryos had relatively high activities of the key urea cycle enzyme, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPSase III), and other enzymes in the pathway, whereas adult trout had much lower or non-detectable activities. The present study tested the hypothesis that urea cycle enzyme expression is unique to early stages of rainbow trout. In marine Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) embryos, CPSase III, ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase), glutamine synthetase (GSase) and arginase activities were all expressed prior to hatching. Urea excretion was detected shortly after fertilization and rates were high relative to those of ammonia excretion (50-100 % of total nitrogen excreted as urea nitrogen; total=ammonia+urea). Urea concentration was relatively constant in embryos, but ammonia concentration increased by about fourfold during embryogenesis. Two populations of cod embryos were studied (from Newfoundland and New Brunswick), and significant differences in enzyme activities and excretion rates were detected between the two populations. In adult cod, CPSase III was not detectable in liver, white muscle, intestine and kidney tissues, but OTCase, GSase and arginase were present. Adult cod excreted about 17 % of nitrogenous waste as urea. Taken together, these data indicate that early urea cycle enzyme expression is not unique to rainbow trout but is also a feature of Atlantic cod development, and possibly other teleosts. The relatively high urea excretion rates underline the importance of urea as the primary nitrogen excretory product in Atlantic cod during early embryogenesis.

  5. Neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide enhances accumulation of α-synuclein aggregation and dopamine transporter protein expression in the substantia nigra in responses to rotenone challenge in later life

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Lu-Tai; Kaizaki, Asuka; Pang, Yi; Cai, Zhengwei; Bhatt, Abhay J; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2013-01-01

    Brain inflammation in early life may enhance adult susceptibility to develop neurodegenerative disorders triggered by environmental toxins. Our previous studies show that perinatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure enhances adult susceptibility to rotenone-induced injury to the dopaminergic system in the substantia nigra (SN) of the adult rat brain. To further investigate the enhanced adult susceptibility by neonatal LPS exposure to rotenone neurotoxicity, we used our neonatal rat model of LPS exposure (1 mg/kg, intracerebral injection in postnatal day 5, P5, neonatal rats) to examine the protein levels of α-synuclein and dopamine transporters (DAT) in the adult rat. By P70, rats from the saline- or LPS-exposed group were challenged with rotenone, a commonly used pesticide, through subcutaneous mini-pump infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day for 14 days. The accumulation of α-synuclein aggregation and increment of DAT protein content were found in the SN of LPS-exposed rats. Neonatal LPS exposure enhanced rotenone-stimulated accumulation of α-synuclein aggregation and increment in DAT protein expression in the cytoplasmic compartment of the SN, and in the synaptosomal compartment of the striatum of adult rats. Rotenone treatment also resulted in reduction of [3H]dopamine uptake and mitochondrial complex I activity in the striatum of rats with neonatal LPS exposure, but not in those without this exposure. The current study suggests possible roles of α-synuclein aggregate and DAT distribution in the cytoplasm and synaptosome triggered by environmental toxins in later life in the development of neurodegenerative disorders. Our model may be useful in studying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonfamilial Parkinson's disease and for developing potential therapeutic treatments for this disease. PMID:23567316

  6. Effects of trimethoprim on life history parameters, oxidative stress, and the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Park, Jun Chul; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic that has been detected in various environments including marine habitats; however, the toxic effects of TMP are poorly understood in non-target marine organisms. In this study, the effects of TMP on mortality, development, reproduction, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and transcription levels of antioxidant and xenobiotic detoxification-related enzyme genes were investigated in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The TMP half lethal dose at 48 h (LC50-48 h) in nauplius and TMP LC50-96 h in adult T. japonicus copepods was determined as 156 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. In TMP-exposed T. japonicus, delayed developmental time and impaired reproduction were observed as harmful effects on the life history parameters. Increased ROS levels were also shown in response to TMP exposure at the highest concentration (100 mg/L TMP) and the expression of antioxidant- (e.g. GST-kappa, GST-sigma) and xenobiotic detoxification (e.g. CYPs)-related genes were upregulated in a time and/or dose-dependent manner in response to TMP. Particularly, significant upregulation of three CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) were examined, suggesting that these CYP genes are likely playing an important role in the TMP detoxification metabolism in T. japonicus. In summary, we found that TMP induced oxidative stress via the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant- and xenobiotic detoxification-related genes, leading to changes in life history parameters such as developmental delay and reproduction impairment. Three Tj-CYP genes (Tj-CYP3024A2, Tj-CYP3024A3 and Tj-CYP3027C2) could be useful as potential T. japonicus biomarkers in response to antibiotics.

  7. Creative musical expression as a catalyst for quality-of-life improvement in inner-city adolescents placed in a court-referred residential treatment program.

    PubMed

    Bittman, Barry; Dickson, Larry; Coddington, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Obstacles to effectively rehabilitate inner-city adolescents in staff-secure residential treatment centers should not be underestimated. Effective evidence-based protocols are lacking to help juveniles who are often angry, detached, frustrated, and in direct conflict with their peers. Facing a myriad of issues ranging from youth delinquency offenses to trauma, abuse, drug/alcohol use, peer pressure/gang-related activities, lack of structure in home environments, mental health diagnoses, and cognitive functioning difficulties, these adolescents present extraordinary challenges to an over-stressed juvenile justice system. A randomized controlled crossover study is utilized to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of a novel creative musical expression protocol as a catalyst for nonverbal and verbal disclosure leading to improvements in quality of life for inner-city youth in a court-referred residential treatment program. A total of 52 (30 females and 22 males) African-American, Asian, Caucasian, and Puerto Rican subjects ranging in age from 12 to 18 (mean age 14.5) completed the study. Dependent variable measures included the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS), the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS), the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, 2nd edition (RADS 2), and the Adolescent Visual-Analog Recreational Music Making Assessment (A-VARMMA). Statistically significant (experimental vs control) improvements in multiple parameters include school/work role performance, total depression, anhedonia/negative affect, negative self-evaluation, and instrumental anger. In addition, extended impact (experimental vs control) is characterized by statistically significant improvements 6 weeks after completion of the protocol, for school/work role performance, behavior toward others, anhedonia/negative affect, total anger, instrumental anger, anger, and interpersonal problems. The primary limitations of this

  8. Identification of a novel leptin receptor duplicate in Atlantic salmon: Expression analyses in different life stages and in response to feeding status.

    PubMed

    Angotzi, Anna R; Stefansson, Sigurd O; Nilsen, Tom O; Øvrebø, Jan I; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir L; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2016-09-01

    In recent years rapidly growing research has led to identification of several fish leptin orthologs and numerous duplicated paralogs possibly arisen from the third and fourth round whole genome duplication (3R and 4R WGD) events. In this study we identify in Atlantic salmon a duplicated LepRA gene, named LepRA2, that further extend possible evolutionary scenarios of the leptin and leptin receptor system. The 1121 amino acid sequence of the novel LepRA2 shares 80% sequence identity with the LepRA1 paralog, and contains the protein motifs typical of the functional (long form) leptin receptor in vertebrates. In silico predictions showed similar electrostatic properties of LepRA1 and LepRA2 and high sequence conservation at the leptin interaction surfaces within the CHR/leptin-binding and FNIII domains, suggesting conserved functional specificity between the two duplicates. Analysis of temporal expression profiles during pre-hatching stages indicate that both transcripts are involved in modulating leptin developmental functions, although the LepRA1 paralog may play a major role as the embryo complexity increases. There is ubiquitous distribution of LepRs underlying pleiotropism of leptin in all tissues investigated. LepRA1 and LepRA2 are differentially expressed with LepRA1 more abundant than LepRA2 in most of the tissues investigated, with the only exception of liver. Analysis of constitutive LepRA1 and LepRA2 expression in brain and liver at parr, post-smolt and adult stages reveal striking spatial divergence between the duplicates at all stages investigated. This suggests that, beside increased metabolic requirements, leptin sensitivity in the salmon brain might be linked to important variables such as habitat, ecology and life cycle. Furthermore, leptins and LepRs mRNAs in the brain showed gene-specific variability in response to long term fasting, suggesting that leptin's roles as modulator of nutritional status in Atlantic salmon might be governed by distinct

  9. Regulation of human papillomavirus type 31 gene expression during the differentiation-dependent life cycle through histone modifications and transcription factor binding.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Tonia R; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2008-05-10

    The life cycle of high-risk human papillomaviruses is linked to epithelial differentiation with virion production restricted to highly differentiated suprabasal cells. Two major viral promoters direct high-risk HPV gene expression and their activities are dependent upon differentiation. The early promoter controls initiation of transcripts at sites upstream of the E6 open reading frame and is active in both undifferentiated as well as differentiated cells. The late viral promoter directs transcription from a series of heterogeneous start sites in E7 and is activated upon differentiation. In this study, the state of histones as well as the spectrum of transcription factors bound to the two major HPV 31 viral promoters in undifferentiated and differentiated cells were examined using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our studies indicate that, in undifferentiated cells, the chromatin surrounding both promoter regions is in an open, transcriptionally active state as indicated by the presence of dimethylated forms of histone H3 K4 as well as acetylated H3 and acetylated H4. Upon differentiation, there was an increase of four to six fold in the levels of dimethylated H3K4 and acetylated H3 respectively around both promoter regions as well as an increase of approximately nine fold in acetylated H4 at the early promoter. This suggests that nucleosomes of both promoter regions are further activated through histone modifications during differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were also used to examine the binding of transcription factors to the keratinocyte enhancer (KE)/early promoter region in the upstream regulatory region (URR) and late promoter sequences throughout differentiation. Our results suggest that a dynamic change in transcription factor binding occurs in both regions upon differentiation; most notably a significant increase in C/EBP-beta binding to the KE/early promoter region as well as C/EBP-alpha binding to the late promoter region upon

  10. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  11. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  12. Prefrontal mRNA expression of long and short isoforms of D2 dopamine receptor: Possible role in delayed learning deficit caused by early life interleukin-1β treatment.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Alexander P; Trofimov, Alexander N; Zubareva, Olga E; Lioudyno, Victoria I; Kosheverova, Vera V; Ischenko, Alexander M; Klimenko, Victor M

    2017-08-30

    Long (D2L) and short (D2S) isoform of the D2 dopamine receptor are believed to play different roles in behavioral regulation. However, little is known about differential regulation of these isoforms mRNA expression during the process of learning in physiological and pathological states. In this study, we have investigated the combined effect of training in active avoidance (AA) paradigm and chronic early life treatment with pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β (1μg/kg i.p., P15-21) on D2S and D2L dopamine receptor mRNA expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult rats. We have shown differential regulation of D2 short and long mRNA isoform expression in the mPFC. There was no effect of AA-training on D2S mRNA expression, while D2L mRNA was downregulated in AA-trained control (intact and saline-treated) animals, and this effect was not observed in rats treated with IL-1β. D2S mRNA expression level negatively correlated with learning ability within control (saline-treated and intact) groups but not in IL-1β-treated animals. Thus, prefrontal expression of distinct D2 dopamine receptor splice variants is supposed to be implicated in cognitive decline caused by early life immune challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between leaf litter identity, expression of cytochrome P450 genes and life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2012-04-01

    The role of toxic component of leaf litter in mediating the outcome of mosquito species interactions is not well documented. To examine the effect of leaf litter toxins on mosquito performance and interspecific interactions, we reared monospecific and heterospecific cultures of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae in microcosms with one of five leaf species and measured the expression of five cytochrome P450 genes and life history traits of the two mosquito species. For both mosquito species, survival to adulthood was significantly higher in black alder, black walnut, and cypress infusion compared to sugar maple and eastern white pine infusion. In pine but not in other leaf treatments, the presence of A. albopictus had significant positive effects on A. aegypti wing length and development time to adulthood. A. albopictus from heterospecific cultures were larger than those from monospecific cultures and were smaller and took longer to develop in pine and sugar maple infusions than in the other infusions. Up regulation of CYP6Z6 and CYP9M9 in A. aegypti and A. albopictus respectively appeared to be closely associated with the deleterious effects of sugar maple infusion on mosquito performance as was the down regulation of CYP6N12 (in A. aegypti) and lack of induction of CYP6Z6 and CYP9M9 (in A. aegypti and A. albopictus respectively) in pine infusion. Results suggest that metabolic capabilities that enable the two species to tolerate natural xenobiotics are associated with a fitness cost. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Using whole mount in situ hybridization to examine thyroid hormone deiodinase expression in embryonic and larval zebrafish: a tool for examining OH-BDE toxicity to early life stages.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wu; Macaulay, Laura J; Kwok, Kevin W H; Hinton, David E; Stapleton, Heather M

    2013-05-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their oxidative metabolites (hydroxylated PBDEs; OH-BDEs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants that have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone regulation both in mammals and in fish. The purpose of this study was to determine the precise organ and tissue locations that express genes critical to thyroid hormone regulation in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio), and to determine the effects of an OH-BDE on their expression. While RT-PCR can provide quantitative data on gene expression, it lacks spatial sensitivity to examine localized gene expression; and, isolation of organs from zebrafish embryos is technically difficult, if not impossible. For this reason, the present study used whole mount in situ hybridization to simultaneously localize and quantify gene expression in vivo. While PBDEs and OH-BDEs have been shown to inhibit the activity and expression of deiodionases, a family of enzymes that regulate thyroid hormone concentrations intracellularly, it is unclear whether or not they can affect regional expression of the different isoforms during early development. In this study we investigated deiodinase 1 (Dio1), deiodinase 2 (Dio2), and deiodinase 3 (Dio3) mRNA expression at the following life stages (2, 8, and 1k-cells; 50%-epiboly, 6 and 18-somites, 22, 24, 48, 72 hpf and/or 10 dpf) in zebrafish and found life stage specific expression of these genes that were highly localized. To demonstrate the use of this technique for investigating potential endocrine disrupting effects, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 1, 10 and 100nM 6-OH-BDE-47. Significant increases in mean intensity of Dio1 and Dio3 expression in the periventricular zone of brain and pronephric duct, respectively (quantified by measuring intensity of coloration using ImageJ analysis software) were observed, suggesting localized response at the HPT axis with the possibility of impacting neurodevelopment. Our results demonstrate effects of OH-BDEs on

  15. Temporal and spatial expression of Drosophila Neurexin during the life cycle visualized using a DNRX-Gal4/UAS-reporter.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingkuan; Zeng, Xiankun; Xie, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila neurexin (DNRX) plays a critical role in proper architecture development and synaptic function in vivo. However, the temporal and spatial expression pattern of DNRX still remains unclear. For this study, we generated a novel Drosophila transgenic strain termed the DNRX-Gal4 transgenic line, with characteristic features in agreement with the endogenous DNRX expression pattern. DNRX expression was examined by driving the expression of a GFP reporter (nuclear-localized and membrane- localized GFP) using the DNRX-Gal4 promoter. We found that DNRX was expressed preferentially in central and motor neurons in embryos, larvae and adults, but not in glial cells. DNRX was expressed in pre- and post-synaptic areas in third instar larvae neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Reporter expression was also observed in the salivary glands, guts, wings and legs of adult flies. In the adult brain, reporter expression was observed throughout several brain regions, including the mushroom body (MBs), antennal lobe (AL) and optic lobe neurons, which is consistent with endogenous DNRX expression via antibody staining. Interestingly, DNRX was also expressed in clock neurons. Meanwhile, we found that DNRX expression in the MBs was required for olfactory learning and memory.

  16. Sex-specific gene expression in early life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) throughout development and after exposure to synthetic hormones

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during early life stages can alter sex differentiation in fishes. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish species in endocrine disruption studies. However, limited knowledge...

  17. Lasting Effects on Body Weight and Mammary Gland Gene Expression in Female Mice upon Early Life Exposure to n-3 but Not n-6 High-Fat Diets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to an imbalance of nutrients prior to conception and during critical developmental periods can have lasting consequences on physiological processes resulting in chronic diseases later in life. Developmental programming has been shown to involve structural and functional ...

  18. Lasting Effects on Body Weight and Mammary Gland Gene Expression in Female Mice upon Early Life Exposure to n-3 but Not n-6 High-Fat Diets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to an imbalance of nutrients prior to conception and during critical developmental periods can have lasting consequences on physiological processes resulting in chronic diseases later in life. Developmental programming has been shown to involve structural and functional ...

  19. Sex-specific gene expression in early life stage fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) throughout development and after exposure to synthetic hormones

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during early life stages can alter sex differentiation in fishes. Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) are commonly used as a model fish species in endocrine disruption studies. However, limited knowledge...

  20. Life's Still Lifes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Harold V.

    The de Bruijn diagram describing those decompositions of the neighborhoods of a one dimensional cellular automaton which conform to predetermined requirements of periodicity and translational symmetry shows how to construct extended configurations satisfying the same requirements. Similar diagrams, formed by stages, describe higher dimensional automata, although they become more laborious to compute with increasing neighborhood size. The procedure is illustrated by computing some still lifes for Conway's game of Life, a widely known two dimensional cellular automaton. This paper is written in September 10, 1988.

  1. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies'.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-04-19

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies', to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental 'law of mortality' has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  2. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2015-01-01

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental ‘law of mortality’ has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

  3. Coordinated changes in xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) gene expression through the life stages of the male C57BL/6 mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver's ability to detoxify and eliminate xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will result in toxicity. Some evidence indicates...

  4. Coordinated changes in xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) gene expression through the life stages of the male C57BL/6 mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver's ability to detoxify and eliminate xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will result in toxicity. Some evidence indicates...

  5. Characteristics of an infinite life span diploid human fibroblast cell strain and a near-diploid strain arising from a clone of cells expressing a transfected v-myc oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.; Dajun Yang; Fry, D.G.; Hurlin, P.J.; Kohler, S.K.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. )

    1991-11-01

    Diploid human fibroblasts were transfected with a plasmid carrying a v-myc oncogene linked to the neo gene or with a vector control carrying a neo gene. Drug-resistant clones were isolated and subcultured as needed. All populations went into crisis and eventually senesced. But while they were senescing, viable-appearing clones were noted among the progeny of a transfected population that expressed the v-myc oncogene. After several months, these cells began replicating more rapidly. Karyotype analysis indicated that they were clonally derived since all of them had 45 chromosomes, including 2 marker chromosomes. This cell strain was designated MSU-1.1. Similar analysis showed that cells from an earlier passage were diploid. These cells were designated MSU-1.0. The expression of v-myc is probably required for acquisition of an infinite life span, since this phenotype did not develop in populations not expressing this oncogene. However, expression of v-myc is clearly not sufficient, since all of the progeny of the clone that gave rise to the MSU-1.0 cells expressed this oncogene, but the vast majority of them senesced.

  6. Early-life exposure to high-fat diet may predispose rats to gender-specific hepatic fat accumulation by programming Pepck expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Wang, Huan; Cui, Hemiao; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) produces phosphoenolpyruvate during glyceroneogenesis. We previously demonstrated that a high-fat diet during pregnancy induced Pepck mRNA expression in neonatal rat pups, which is characterized by histone modifications in specific regions of the gene (Strakovsky RS, Zhang X, Zhou D, Pan YX. Gestational high fat diet programs hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression and histone modification in neonatal offspring rats. The Journal of Physiology 2011;589:2707-17). In the present study, we investigated whether these alterations persistent in adult offspring. Dams were fed either control or high-fat diet throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring were placed on control diet after weaning, generating C/C and HF/C groups. Liver was collected at 12 weeks of age. Hepatic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced) (NADH) level was increased in both genders, but fat accumulation occurred only in liver of female offspring in HF/C group. This was accompanied by a significant increase of Pepck and fatty acid synthase (Fasn) mRNA expression in only female liver. The induction of Pepck gene expression in females was associated with increased dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 level in multiple regions of the gene. Meanwhile, acetylated histone H3 and trimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 were induced at a specific coding region in HF/C, accompanied by decreased trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 level at the promoter of female offspring. In conclusion, maternal high-fat diet programs Pepck expression through histone modifications in adult female offspring. Persistent Pepck induction in females may contribute to increased triglyceride synthesis, together with induced Fasn expression and NADH levels, which may lead to increased fat deposition in a gender-specific manner.

  7. Children's Expressions of Positive Emotion Are Sustained by Smiling, Touching, and Playing with Parents and Siblings: A Naturalistic Observational Study of Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.; Sperling, Jacqueline B.

    2016-01-01

    Research on family socialization of positive emotion has primarily focused on the infant and toddler stages of development, and relied on observations of parent-child interactions in highly structured laboratory environments. Little is known about how children's spontaneous expressions of positive emotion are maintained in the uncontrolled…

  8. Children's Expressions of Positive Emotion Are Sustained by Smiling, Touching, and Playing with Parents and Siblings: A Naturalistic Observational Study of Family Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.; Sperling, Jacqueline B.

    2016-01-01

    Research on family socialization of positive emotion has primarily focused on the infant and toddler stages of development, and relied on observations of parent-child interactions in highly structured laboratory environments. Little is known about how children's spontaneous expressions of positive emotion are maintained in the uncontrolled…

  9. Profiles of Emotional Development: Individual Differences in Facial and Vocal Expression of Emotion during the Second and Third Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malatesta-Magai, Carol

    1994-01-01

    A third-year follow-up investigation of socioemotional behaviors of preterm and full-term infants videotaped mother-child and child-peer play sessions. Contributions of gender, birth status, attachment classification, and maternal contingency behavior to children's expressive development were examined. Results suggest that children learn greater…

  10. Metabolic programming of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression by moderate energy restriction during gestation in rats may be related to obesity susceptibility in later life.

    PubMed

    Palou, Mariona; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2013-02-28

    In rats, 20% gestational energy restriction programmes offspring for higher food intake, which in adulthood results in higher body weight in males but not in females. Here, we aimed to assess whether the effects of moderate energy restriction during gestation and the sex-related outcomes on adult body weight may be related to the metabolic programming of sirtuin expression in different tissues. For this purpose, 25-d-old offspring of control and 20% energy-restricted (ER) rats (from days 1-12 of pregnancy) were studied. Body weight and the weight of white adipose tissue (WAT) depots and liver were recorded and mRNA expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and selected genes in the WAT, liver, muscle and hypothalamus were analysed. No differences were found in body weight or the weight of WAT and liver between the control and ER animals. A similar pattern of SIRT1 mRNA expression was found in the WAT, liver and skeletal muscle of ER animals, but in a sex-dependent manner: ER males showed lower SIRT1 mRNA levels than the controls, while no differences were found in females. A sex-different pattern was also observed in the hypothalamus. ER males, but not females, also showed lower mRNA levels of adipose TAG lipase (ATGL) and uncoupling protein 2 in WAT and of sterol response element binding protein 1c and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 in the liver. Both sexes of ER animals showed lower mRNA levels of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and ATGL in the liver. In conclusion, moderate maternal energy restriction during gestation programmes a particular, sex-dependent gene expression profile of SIRT1 in different peripheral tissues, which may be related to obesity predisposition in adulthood; therefore SIRT1 expression emerges as a potential early biomarker of obesity susceptibility.

  11. Decreased IDE and IGF2 expression but increased Aβ40 in the cerebral cortex of mouse pups by early life lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Yang, Guojun; Wang, Yueying; Qiao, Mingwu; Zhang, Pingan; Shao, Jianfeng; Yang, Guoyu

    2016-03-01

    As the abbreviation of plumbum and a chemical symbol for lead, Pb produces neurotoxic effects, which result into an impairment of learning and memory and other neurological dysfunctions. However, the mechanism of neurotoxicity of Pb exposure is unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on expression of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE),insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and beta amyloid protein 40 (Aβ40) in the cerebral cortex of mice offspring. Lead exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Lead acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.5% groups respectively. On the 21st postnatal day, On the PND21, the learning and memory ability were tested by water maze test and the Pb levels were also determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The expression of IDE, IGF2 and Aβ40 in cerebral cortex was examined by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and western blotting. The lead levels in blood and cerebral cortex of all lead exposure groups were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). In water maze test, the performances of 0.5% and 1% lead exposure groups were worse than that of the control group (P<0.05).The expression of IDE and IGF2 was decreased, but Aβ40 was increased in lead exposed groups than that of the control group (P<0.05). The decreased expression of IDE and IGF2 and increased expression of Aβ40 in the cerebral cortex of pups may contribute to the neurotoxicity associated with maternal Pb exposure.

  12. Glucose metabolism and gene expression in juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) challenged with a high carbohydrate diet: effects of an acute glucose stimulus during late embryonic life.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Filipa; Dias, Jorge; Engrola, Sofia; Gavaia, Paulo; Geurden, Inge; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Panserat, Stephane

    2015-02-14

    Knowledge on the role of early nutritional stimuli as triggers of metabolic pathways in fish is extremely scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the long-term effects of glucose injection in the yolk (early stimulus) on carbohydrate metabolism and gene regulation in zebrafish juveniles challenged with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HC) diet. Eggs were microinjected at 1 d post-fertilisation (dpf) with either glucose (2 M) or saline solutions. Up to 25 dpf, fish were fed a low-carbohydrate high-protein (LC) control diet, which was followed by a challenge with the HC diet. Survival and growth of 35 dpf juveniles were not affected by injection or the HC diet. Glucose stimulus induced some long-term metabolic changes in the juveniles, as shown by the altered expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism. On glycolysis, the expression levels of hexokinase 1 (HK1) and phosphofructokinase-6 (6PFK) were up-regulated in the visceral and muscle tissues, respectively, of juveniles exposed to the glucose stimulus, indicating a possible improvement in glucose oxidation. On gluconeogenesis, the inhibition of the expression levels of PEPCK in fish injected with glucose suggested lower production of hepatic glucose. Unexpectedly, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) expression was induced and 6PFK expression reduced by glucose stimulus, leaving the possibility of a specific regulation of the FBP-6PFK metabolic cycle. Glucose metabolism in juveniles was estimated using a [¹⁴C]glucose tracer; fish previously exposed to the stimulus showed lower retention of [¹⁴C]glucose in visceral tissue (but not in muscle tissue) and, accordingly, higher glucose catabolism, in comparison with the saline group. Globally, our data suggest that glucose stimulus at embryo stage has the potential to alter particular steps of glucose metabolism in zebrafish juveniles.

  13. Effects of intrauterine infusion of Trueperella pyogenes on endometrial mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and luteolytic cascade genes and their association with luteal life span in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Bisinotto, R S; Ribeiro, E S; Martinez, N M; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P; Reinhard, M K; Galvão, K N

    2015-11-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of intrauterine infusion (IUI) of Trueperella pyogenes on endometrial expression of proinflammatory cytokines and luteal life span. Holstein cows (n = 32) were allocated randomly, in two replicates (15 then 17 cows), to receive one of three treatments on Day 5 of the estrous cycle: TP (n = 13), IUI containing 10(9) colony-forming units/mL of T. pyogenes; tumor necrosis factor (TNF; n = 9), IUI containing 1 μg of TNFα; and control (n = 10), IUI of saline solution. Five cows per treatment had uterine biopsies collected at 6, 12, and 24 hours after treatment to evaluate the endometrial messenger RNA expression of TNFα (TNF), interleukin-1β (IL1B), IL6, IL8, prostaglandin E synthase (PGES), prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS), and oxytocin receptor (OXR), and histologic evidence of inflammation. Messenger RNA expression was measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The remaining cows had ovaries scanned and blood collected for progesterone evaluation; however, only seven, four, and three cows in the TP, TNF, and control groups were used for comparison in replicate 2. The GLIMMIX procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis. All TP and TNF cows had moderate to severe endometrial inflammation, whereas only one control had mild inflammation. Premature luteolysis occurred in three, one, and zero cows in the TP, TNF and control groups, respectively. Delayed luteolysis occurred in one TP and one TNF cow. Interleukin-1β expression was greater in the TP cows than in the TNF cows at 24 hours after IUI. Moreover, IL6 expression tended to be greater for the TP cows than for the control cows at 12 hours after IUI. Interleukin 8 expression was greater in the TP cows than in the control and TNF cows at 24 hours after IUI. Oxytocin receptor expression tended to be greater for the TP cows and was greater for the TNF cows than for the control cows at 12 hours. The messenger RNA expressions of TNF, PGES

  14. Transcriptomic data analysis and differential gene expression of antioxidant pathways in king penguin juveniles (Aptenodytes patagonicus) before and after acclimatization to marine life.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Dégletagne, Cyril; Duchamp, Claude

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we present differentially expressed gene profiles in the pectoralis muscle of wild juvenile king penguins that were either naturally acclimated to cold marine environment or experimentally immersed in cold water as compared with penguin juveniles that never experienced cold water immersion. Transcriptomic data were obtained by hybridizing penguins total cDNA on Affymetrix GeneChip Chicken Genome arrays and analyzed using maxRS algorithm, "Transcriptome analysis in non-model species: a new method for the analysis of heterologous hybridization on microarrays" (Dégletagne et al., 2010) [1]. We focused on genes involved in multiple antioxidant pathways. For better clarity, these differentially expressed genes were clustered into six functional groups according to their role in controlling redox homeostasis. The data are related to a comprehensive research study on the ontogeny of antioxidant functions in king penguins, "Hormetic response triggers multifaceted anti-oxidant strategies in immature king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus)" (Rey et al., 2016) [2]. The raw microarray dataset supporting the present analyses has been deposited at the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository under accessions GEO: GSE17725 and GEO: GSE82344.

  15. Life's crucible.

    PubMed

    Radetsky, P

    1998-02-01

    Research by German chemists Gunter Wachtershauser and Claudia Huber about the origins of life is reviewed. Other theories about the beginning of life on Earth are examined with comments by noted researchers.

  16. Differential modulation of expression of nuclear receptor mediated genes by tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) on early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyuan; Yu, Yijun; Tang, Song; Liu, Hongling; Su, Guanyong; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Yu, Hongxia

    2015-12-01

    As one substitute for phased-out brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) is frequently detected in aquatic organisms. However, knowledge about endocrine disrupting mechanisms associated with nuclear receptors caused by TBOEP remained restricted to results from in vitro studies with mammalian cells. In the study, results of which are presented here, embryos/larvae of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 0.02, 0.1 or 0.5μM TBOEP to investigate expression of genes under control of several nuclear hormone receptors (estrogen receptors (ERs), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and pregnane×receptor (P×R)) pathways at 120hpf. Exposure to 0.5μM TBOEP significantly (p<0.05, one-way analysis of variance) up-regulated expression of estrogen receptors (ERs, er1, er2a, and er2b) genes and ER-associated genes (vtg4, vtg5, pgr, ncor, and ncoa3), indicating TBOEP modulates the ER pathway. In contrast, expression of most genes (mr, 11βhsd, ube2i,and adrb2b) associated with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) pathway were significantly down-regulated. Furthermore, in vitro mammalian cell-based (MDA-kb2 and H4IIE-luc) receptor transactivation assays, were also conducted to investigate possible agonistic or antagonistic effects on AR- and AhR-mediated pathways. In mammalian cells, none of these pathways were affected by TBOEP at the concentrations studied. Receptor-mediated responses (in vivo) and mammalian cell lines receptor binding assay (in vitro) combined with published information suggest that TBOEP can modulate receptor-mediated, endocrine process (in vivo/in vitro), particularly ER and MR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycomic Analysis of Life Stages of the Human Parasite Schistosoma mansoni Reveals Developmental Expression Profiles of Functional and Antigenic Glycan Motifs*

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Cornelis H.; van Diepen, Angela; Nguyen, D. Linh; Wuhrer, Manfred; Hoffmann, Karl F.; Deelder, André M.; Hokke, Cornelis H.

    2015-01-01

    Glycans present on glycoproteins and glycolipids of the major human parasite Schistosoma mansoni induce innate as well as adaptive immune responses in the host. To be able to study the molecular characteristics of schistosome infections it is therefore required to determine the expression profiles of glycans and antigenic glycan-motifs during a range of critical stages of the complex schistosome lifecycle. We performed a longitudinal profiling study covering schistosome glycosylation throughout worm- and egg-development using a mass spectrometry-based glycomics approach. Our study revealed that during worm development N-glycans with Galβ1–4(Fucα1–3)GlcNAc (LeX) and core-xylose motifs were rapidly lost after cercariae to schistosomula transformation, whereas GalNAcβ1–4GlcNAc (LDN)-motifs gradually became abundant and predominated in adult worms. LeX-motifs were present on glycolipids up to 2 weeks of schistosomula development, whereas glycolipids with mono- and multifucosylated LDN-motifs remained present up to the adult worm stage. In contrast, expression of complex O-glycans diminished to undetectable levels within days after transformation. During egg development, a rich diversity of N-glycans with fucosylated motifs was expressed, but with α3-core fucose and a high degree of multifucosylated antennae only in mature eggs and miracidia. N-glycan antennae were exclusively LDN-based in miracidia. O-glycans in the mature eggs were also diverse and contained LeX- and multifucosylated LDN, but none of these were associated with miracidia in which we detected only the Galβ1–3(Galβ1–6)GalNAc core glycan. Immature eggs also exhibited short O-glycan core structures only, suggesting that complex fucosylated O-glycans of schistosome eggs are derived primarily from glycoproteins produced by the subshell envelope in the developed egg. Lipid glycans with multifucosylated GlcNAc repeats were present throughout egg development, but with the longer highly

  18. Tax1-expressing feline 8C cells are useful to monitor the life cycle of human T-cell leukemia virus type I.

    PubMed

    Mori, Takahisa; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shinagawa, Masahiko; Tokizawa, Shigemi; Akagi, Tsuyoshi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2012-03-01

    Extremely low infectivity has hampered direct (cell-free) infection studies of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). In order to break through this barrier, we examined the susceptibility of many kinds of cells to HTLV-I and found a feline kidney cell line, 8C, that is highly susceptible to HTLV-I and produced remarkable amounts of infectious progeny viruses. Tax1 protein encoded by HTLV-I is known as a transcription activator for viral and cellular genes. We found that the 8C cells expressing the Tax1 protein (8C/TaxWT cells) can produce more progeny viruses than 8C cells when the cells were exposed to cell-free HTLV-I. A large number of syncytia were also induced in these cells. Here, we propose 8C/TaxWT cells as a useful tool to study the cell-free HTLV-I infection.

  19. Early Life Exposure to Fructose Alters Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Hepatic Gene Expression and Leads to Sex-Dependent Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Zoe E.; Vickers, Mark H.; Bernal, Angelica; Yap, Cassandra; Sloboda, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Fructose consumption is associated with altered hepatic function and metabolic compromise and not surprisingly has become a focus for perinatal studies. We have previously shown that maternal fructose intake results in sex specific changes in fetal, placental and neonatal outcomes. In this follow-up study we investigated effects on maternal, fetal and neonatal hepatic fatty acid metabolism and immune modulation. Methods Pregnant rats were randomised to either control (CON) or high-fructose (FR) diets. Fructose was given in solution and comprised 20% of total caloric intake. Blood and liver samples were collected at embryonic day 21 (E21) and postnatal day (P)10. Maternal liver samples were also collected at E21 and P10. Liver triglyceride and glycogen content was measured with standard assays. Hepatic gene expression was measured with qPCR. Results Maternal fructose intake during pregnancy resulted in maternal hepatic ER stress, hepatocellular injury and increased levels of genes that favour lipogenesis. These changes were associated with a reduction in the NLRP3 inflammasome. Fetuses of mothers fed a high fructose diet displayed increased hepatic fructose transporter and reduced fructokinase mRNA levels and by 10 days of postnatal age, also have hepatic ER stress, and elevated IL1β mRNA levels. At P10, FR neonates demonstrated increased hepatic triglyceride content and particularly in males, associated changes in the expression of genes regulating beta oxidation and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Further, prenatal fructose results in sex-dependant changes in levels of key clock genes. Conclusions Maternal fructose intake results in age and sex-specific alterations in maternal fetal and neonatal free fatty acid metabolism, which may be associated in disruptions in core clock gene machinery. How these changes are associated with hepatic inflammatory processes is still unclear, although suppression of the hepatic inflammasome, as least in mothers and male neonates may

  20. Early Life Exposure to Fructose Alters Maternal, Fetal and Neonatal Hepatic Gene Expression and Leads to Sex-Dependent Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Zoe E; Vickers, Mark H; Bernal, Angelica; Yap, Cassandra; Sloboda, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    Fructose consumption is associated with altered hepatic function and metabolic compromise and not surprisingly has become a focus for perinatal studies. We have previously shown that maternal fructose intake results in sex specific changes in fetal, placental and neonatal outcomes. In this follow-up study we investigated effects on maternal, fetal and neonatal hepatic fatty acid metabolism and immune modulation. Pregnant rats were randomised to either control (CON) or high-fructose (FR) diets. Fructose was given in solution and comprised 20% of total caloric intake. Blood and liver samples were collected at embryonic day 21 (E21) and postnatal day (P)10. Maternal liver samples were also collected at E21 and P10. Liver triglyceride and glycogen content was measured with standard assays. Hepatic gene expression was measured with qPCR. Maternal fructose intake during pregnancy resulted in maternal hepatic ER stress, hepatocellular injury and increased levels of genes that favour lipogenesis. These changes were associated with a reduction in the NLRP3 inflammasome. Fetuses of mothers fed a high fructose diet displayed increased hepatic fructose transporter and reduced fructokinase mRNA levels and by 10 days of postnatal age, also have hepatic ER stress, and elevated IL1β mRNA levels. At P10, FR neonates demonstrated increased hepatic triglyceride content and particularly in males, associated changes in the expression of genes regulating beta oxidation and the NLRP3 inflammasome. Further, prenatal fructose results in sex-dependant changes in levels of key clock genes. Maternal fructose intake results in age and sex-specific alterations in maternal fetal and neonatal free fatty acid metabolism, which may be associated in disruptions in core clock gene machinery. How these changes are associated with hepatic inflammatory processes is still unclear, although suppression of the hepatic inflammasome, as least in mothers and male neonates may point to impaired immune sensing.

  1. High-resolution mapping of Martian water ice clouds using Mars Express OMEGA observations - Derivation of the diurnal cloud life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szantai, Andre; Audouard, Joachim; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Forget, Francois; Pottier, Alizée; Millour, Ehouarn; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    The mapping in space and time of water ice clouds can help to explain the Martian water cycle and atmospheric circulation. For this purpose, an ice cloud index (ICI) corresponding to the depth of a water ice absorption band at 3.4 microns is derived from a series of OMEGA images (spectels) covering 5 Martian years. The ICI values for the corresponding pixels are then binned on a high-resolution regular grid (1° longitude x 1° latitude x 5° Ls x 1 h local time) and averaged. Inside each bin, the cloud cover is calculated by dividing the number of pixels considered as cloudy (after comparison to a threshold) to the number of all (valid) pixelsWe compare the maps of clouds obtained around local time 14:00 with collocated TES cloud observations (which were only obtained around this time of the day). A good agreement is found.Averaged ICI compared to the water ice column variable from the Martian Climate Database (MCD) show a correct correlation (~0.5) , which increases when values limited to the tropics only are compared.The number of gridpoints containing ICI values is small ( ~1%), but by taking several neighbor gridpoints and over longer periods, we can observe a cloud life cycle during daytime. An example in the the tropics, around the northern summer solstice, shows a decrease of cloudiness in the morning followed by an increase in the afternoon.

  2. Loss and Transcendence Life Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weenolsen, Patricia

    Psychologists have often observed an underlying pattern or theme in the accounts that individuals give of their lives. To test a humanistic-existential approach to human development, 48 women were interviewed with the Loss and Transcendence (L/T) Life History Form. The L/T Life Theme is expressed in two ways: the expanded version includes the…

  3. Stage specific expression of poly(malic acid)-affiliated genes in the life cycle of Physarum polycephalum. Spherulin 3b and polymalatase.

    PubMed

    Pinchai, Nadthanan; Lee, Bong-Seop; Holler, Eggehard

    2006-03-01

    Polymalic acid is receiving interest as a unique biopolymer of the plasmodia of mycetozoa and recently as a biogenic matrix for the synthesis of devices for drug delivery. The acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum is characterized by two distinctive growth phases: uninucleated amoebae and multinucleated plasmodia. In adverse conditions, plasmodia reversibly transform into spherules. Only plasmodia synthesize poly(malic acid) (PMLA) and PMLA-hydrolase (polymalatase). We have performed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) of cDNA from amoebae and plasmodia to identify plasmodium-specific genes involved in PMLA metabolism. We found cDNA encoding a plasmodium-specific, spherulin 3a-like polypeptide, NKA48 (spherulin 3b), but no evidence for a PMLA-synthetase encoding transcript. Inhibitory RNA (RNAi)-induced knockdown of NKA48-cDNA generated a severe reduction in the level of PMLA suggesting that spherulin 3b functioned in regulating the level of PMLA. Unexpectedly, cDNA of polymalatase was not SSH-selected, suggesting its presence also in amoebae. Quantitative PCR then revealed low levels of mRNA in amoebae, high levels in plasmodia, and also low levels in spherules, in agreement with the expression under transcriptional regulation in these cells.

  4. In situ expression of heat-shock proteins and 3-nitrotyrosine in brains of young rats exposed to a WiFi signal in utero and in early life.

    PubMed

    Aït-Aïssa, Saliha; de Gannes, Florence Poulletier; Taxile, Murielle; Billaudel, Bernard; Hurtier, Annabelle; Haro, Emmanuelle; Ruffié, Gilles; Athané, Axel; Veyret, Bernard; Lagroye, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    The bioeffects of exposure to Wireless High-Fidelity (WiFi) signals on the developing nervous systems of young rodents was investigated by assessing the in vivo and in situ expression levels of three stress markers: 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT), an oxidative stress marker and two heat-shock proteins (Hsp25 and Hsp70). These biomarkers were measured in the brains of young rats exposed to a 2450 MHz WiFi signal by immunohistochemistry. Pregnant rats were first exposed or sham exposed to WiFi from day 6 to day 21 of gestation. In addition three newborns per litter were further exposed up to 5 weeks old. Daily 2-h exposures were performed blind in a reverberation chamber and whole-body specific absorption rate levels were 0, 0.08, 0.4 and 4 W/kg. 3-NT and stress protein expression was assayed in different areas of the hippocampus and cortex. No significant difference was observed among exposed and sham-exposed groups. These results suggest that repeated exposure to WiFi during gestation and early life has no deleterious effects on the brains of young rats.

  5. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  6. Life sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  7. Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

  8. Embryonic life and human life.

    PubMed

    Shea, M C

    1985-12-01

    A new human life comes into being not when there is mere cellular life in a human embryo, but when the newly developing body organs and systems begin to function as a whole, the author argues. This is symmetrical with the dealth of an existing human life, which occurs when its organs and systems have permanently ceased to function as a whole. Thus a new human life cannot begin until the development of a functioning brain which has begun to co-ordinate and organise the activities of the body as a whole.

  9. Defining life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A

    2010-12-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected "theories of life." These include certain "list" definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." We then act as "anthropologists," studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures.

  10. Family Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Family and Friends Talking About Cancer Family Life Parenting While Living With Cancer How A Child Understands ... Learn more about how to get support for parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication ...

  11. Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Extraterrestrial Intelligence is intelligent life that developed somewhere other than the earth. Such life has not yet been discovered. However, scientific research, including astronomy, biology, planetary science and studies of fossils here on earth have led many scientists to conclude that such life may exist on planets orbiting at least some of the hundreds of billions of stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Today, some researchers are trying to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence. This effort is often called SETI, which stands for Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence. SETI researchers decided that looking for evidence of their technology might be the best way to discover other intelligent life in the Galaxy. They decided to use large radio telescopes to search the sky over a wide range of radio frequencies...

  12. Defining Life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected “theories of life.” These include certain “list” definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a “self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution.” We then act as “anthropologists,” studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures. Key Words: Evolution—Life—Life detection—Biosignatures. Astrobiology 10, 1021–1030. PMID:21162682

  13. Deciphering life history transcriptomes in different environments

    PubMed Central

    Etges, William J.; Trotter, Meredith V.; de Oliveira, Cássia C.; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G.; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2014-01-01

    We compared whole transcriptome variation in six preadult stages and seven adult female ages in two populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis reared on two host plants in order to understand how differences in gene expression influence standing life history variation. We used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to identify dominant trajectories of life cycle gene expression variation, performed pair-wise comparisons of stage and age differences in gene expression across the life cycle, identified when genes exhibited maximum levels of life cycle gene expression, and assessed population and host cactus effects on gene expression. Life cycle SVD analysis returned four significant components of transcriptional variation, revealing functional enrichment of genes responsible for growth, metabolic function, sensory perception, neural function, translation and aging. Host cactus effects on female gene expression revealed population and stage specific differences, including significant host plant effects on larval metabolism and development, as well as adult neurotransmitter binding and courtship behavior gene expression levels. In 3 - 6 day old virgin females, significant up-regulation of genes associated with meiosis and oogenesis was accompanied by down-regulation of genes associated with somatic maintenance, evidence for a life history tradeoff. The transcriptome of D. mojavensis reared in natural environments throughout its life cycle revealed core developmental transitions and genome wide influences on life history variation in natural populations. PMID:25442828

  14. Deciphering life history transcriptomes in different environments.

    PubMed

    Etges, William J; Trotter, Meredith V; de Oliveira, Cássia C; Rajpurohit, Subhash; Gibbs, Allen G; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2015-01-01

    We compared whole transcriptome variation in six pre-adult stages and seven adult female ages in two populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis reared on two host plants to understand how differences in gene expression influence standing life history variation. We used singular value decomposition (SVD) to identify dominant trajectories of life cycle gene expression variation, performed pairwise comparisons of stage and age differences in gene expression across the life cycle, identified when genes exhibited maximum levels of life cycle gene expression, and assessed population and host cactus effects on gene expression. Life cycle SVD analysis returned four significant components of transcriptional variation, revealing functional enrichment of genes responsible for growth, metabolic function, sensory perception, neural function, translation and ageing. Host cactus effects on female gene expression revealed population- and stage-specific differences, including significant host plant effects on larval metabolism and development, as well as adult neurotransmitter binding and courtship behaviour gene expression levels. In 3- to 6-day-old virgin females, significant upregulation of genes associated with meiosis and oogenesis was accompanied by downregulation of genes associated with somatic maintenance, evidence for a life history trade-off. The transcriptome of D. mojavensis reared in natural environments throughout its life cycle revealed core developmental transitions and genome-wide influences on life history variation in natural populations.

  15. Morphology of the pre-imaginal stages of Lasioptera Donacis Coutin(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a candidate biocontrol agent of giant arundo cane

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The larval stages of Lasioptera donacis Coutin consists of three instars, which develop within the mesophyll of the leaf sheaths of Arundo donax (L.) They feed aggregatively on mycelia of an endophytic fungus. The larval instars are similar to other members of the genus except for a three pronged sp...

  16. Impact of metarhizium brunneum petch clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) on pre-imaginal Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) within and on the surface of orchard soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When last instar laboratory-reared Rhagoletis indifferens were allowed to pupate within non-sterile orchard soil containing Metarhizium brunneum isolate F52 conidia, a dose related proportion died from developmental abnormalities and mycosis. Similarly, when last instar larvae entered soil that was ...

  17. Impact of Metarhizium brunneum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on pre-imaginal Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) within and on the surface of orchard soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When last instar laboratory-reared Rhagoletis indifferens (Cherry Fruit Fly) were allowed to pupate within non-sterile orchard soil containing incorporated Metarhizium brunneum isolate F52 conidia, a dose-related proportion died from developmental abnormalities and mycosis. Similarly, when prepupal ...

  18. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  19. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Martin-Brennan, Cindy; Joshi, Jitendra

    2003-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for 2003. Many life sciences experiments were lost with the tragic loss of STS-107. Life sciences experiments continue to fly as small payloads to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Russian Progress vehicle. Health-related studies continue with the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) aboard the Odyssey spacecraft, collecting data on the radiation environment in Mars orbit. NASA Ames increased nanotechnology research in all areas, including fundamental biology, bioastronautics, life support systems, and homeland security. Plant research efforts continued at NASA Kennedy, testing candidate crops for ISS. Research included plant growth studies at different light intensities, varying carbon dioxide concentrations, and different growth media. Education and outreach efforts included development of a NASA/USDA program called Space Agriculture in the Classroom. Canada sponsored a project called Tomatosphere, with classrooms across North America exposing seeds to simulated Mars environment for growth studies. NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research released an updated strategic research plan.

  20. Expression, Purification and Characterization of GMZ2'.10C, a Complex Disulphide-Bonded Fusion Protein Vaccine Candidate against the Asexual and Sexual Life-Stages of the Malaria-Causing Plasmodium falciparum Parasite.

    PubMed

    Mistarz, Ulrik H; Singh, Susheel K; Nguyen, Tam T T N; Roeffen, Will; Yang, Fen; Lissau, Casper; Madsen, Søren M; Vrang, Astrid; Tiendrebeogo, Régis W; Kana, Ikhlaq H; Sauerwein, Robert W; Theisen, Michael; Rand, Kasper D

    2017-09-01

    Production and characterization of a chimeric fusion protein (GMZ2'.10C) which combines epitopes of key malaria parasite antigens: glutamate-rich protein (GLURP), merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3), and the highly disulphide bonded Pfs48/45 (10C). GMZ2'.10C is a potential candidate for a multi-stage malaria vaccine that targets both transmission and asexual life-cycle stages of the parasite. GMZ2'.10C was produced in Lactococcus lactis and purified using either an immunoaffinity purification (IP) or a conventional purification (CP) method. Protein purity and stability was analysed by RP-HPLC, SEC-HPLC, 2-site ELISA, gel-electrophoresis and Western blotting. Structural characterization (mass analysis, peptide mapping and cysteine connectivity mapping) was performed by LC-MS/MS. CP-GMZ2'.10C resulted in similar purity, yield, structure and stability as compared to IP-GMZ2'.10C. CP-GMZ2'.10C and IP-GMZ2'.10C both elicited a high titer of transmission blocking (TB) antibodies in rodents. The intricate disulphide-bond connectivity of C-terminus Pfs48/45 was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry and was established for GMZ2'.10C and two reference fusion proteins encompassing similar parts of Pfs48/45. GMZ2'.10C, combining GMZ2' and correctly-folded Pfs48/45 can be produced by the Lactoccus lactis P170 based expression system in purity and quality for pharmaceutical development and elicit high level of TB antibodies. The cysteine connectivity for the 10C region of Pfs48/45 was revealed experimentally, providing an important guideline for employing the Pfs48/45 antigen in vaccine design.

  1. A-TWinnipeg: Pathogenesis of rare ATM missense mutation c.6200C>A with decreased protein expression and downstream signaling, early-onset dystonia, cancer, and life-threatening radiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kotoka; Fike, Francesca; Haghayegh, Sara; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Dawson, Angelika J; Dörk, Thilo; Gatti, Richard A

    2014-07-01

    We studied 10 Mennonite patients who carry the c.6200C>A missense mutation (p.A2067D) in the ATM gene, all of whom exhibited a phenotypic variant of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) that is characterized by early-onset dystonia and late-onset mild ataxia, as previously described. This report provides the pathogenetic evidence for this mutation on cellular functions. Several patients have developed cancer and subsequently experienced life-threatening adverse reactions to radiation (radiotoxicity) and/or chemotherapy. As the c.6200C>A mutation is, thus far, unique to the Mennonite population and is always associated with the same haplotype or haplovariant, it was important to rule out any possible confounding DNA variant on the same haplotype. Lymphoblastoid cells derived from Mennonite patients expressed small amounts of ATM protein, which had no autophosphorylation activity at ATM Ser1981, and trace-to-absent transphosphorylation of downstream ATM targets. A-T lymphoblastoid cells stably transfected with ATM cDNA which had been mutated for c.6200C>A did not show a detectable amount of ATM protein. The same stable cell line with mutated ATM cDNA also showed a trace-to-absent transphosphorylation of downstream ATM targets SMC1pSer966 and KAP1pSer824. From these results, we conclude that c.6200A is the disease-causing ATM mutation on this haplotype. The presence of at least trace amounts of ATM kinase activity on some immunoblots may account for the late-onset, mild ataxia of these patients. The cause of the dystonia remains unclear. Because this dystonia-ataxia phenotype is often encountered in the Mennonite population in association with cancer and adverse reactions to chemotherapy, an early diagnosis is important.

  2. A-TWinnipeg: Pathogenesis of rare ATM missense mutation c.6200C>A with decreased protein expression and downstream signaling, early-onset dystonia, cancer, and life-threatening radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kotoka; Fike, Francesca; Haghayegh, Sara; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Dawson, Angelika J; Dörk, Thilo; Gatti, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    We studied 10 Mennonite patients who carry the c.6200C>A missense mutation (p.A2067D) in the ATM gene, all of whom exhibited a phenotypic variant of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) that is characterized by early-onset dystonia and late-onset mild ataxia, as previously described. This report provides the pathogenetic evidence for this mutation on cellular functions. Several patients have developed cancer and subsequently experienced life-threatening adverse reactions to radiation (radiotoxicity) and/or chemotherapy. As the c.6200C>A mutation is, thus far, unique to the Mennonite population and is always associated with the same haplotype or haplovariant, it was important to rule out any possible confounding DNA variant on the same haplotype. Lymphoblastoid cells derived from Mennonite patients expressed small amounts of ATM protein, which had no autophosphorylation activity at ATM Ser1981, and trace-to-absent transphosphorylation of downstream ATM targets. A-T lymphoblastoid cells stably transfected with ATM cDNA which had been mutated for c.6200C>A did not show a detectable amount of ATM protein. The same stable cell line with mutated ATM cDNA also showed a trace-to-absent transphosphorylation of downstream ATM targets SMC1pSer966 and KAP1pSer824. From these results, we conclude that c.6200A is the disease-causing ATM mutation on this haplotype. The presence of at least trace amounts of ATM kinase activity on some immunoblots may account for the late-onset, mild ataxia of these patients. The cause of the dystonia remains unclear. Because this dystonia-ataxia phenotype is often encountered in the Mennonite population in association with cancer and adverse reactions to chemotherapy, an early diagnosis is important. PMID:25077176

  3. Composing life

    PubMed Central

    Segré, Daniel; Lancet, Doron

    2000-01-01

    Textbooks often assert that life began with specialized complex molecules, such as RNA, that are capable of making their own copies. This scenario has serious difficulties, but an alternative has remained elusive. Recent research and computer simulations have suggested that the first steps toward life may not have involved biopolymers. Rather, non-covalent protocellular assemblies, generated by catalyzed recruitment of diverse amphiphilic and hydrophobic compounds, could have constituted the first systems capable of information storage, inheritance and selection. A complex chain of evolutionary events, yet to be deciphered, could then have led to the common ancestors of today’s free-living cells, and to the appearance of DNA, RNA and protein enzymes. PMID:11256602

  4. Cosmic life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, H.

    1980-01-01

    The existence and detection of extraterrestrial life are discussed. The evolution of life on earth is not considered possible if earth were 5% closer (runaway greenhouse effect) or 1% farther (runaway glaciation) from the sun, or if the sun were slightly more or less massive or hot. The Space Telescope and a possible interferometer search at infrared wavelengths, which offers a 100,000 times advantage over the visible in the ratio of planetary to stellar power, are proposed to help detect planetary systems about stars such as Barnard's star. The proposed NASA-Ames Project Cyclops, consisting of a 10 km phased array of 1026 dishes (perhaps on the back side of the moon), as well as a Soviet proposal to assemble 2 similar telescopes at the orbit of Saturn, would search in the radio frequency range for planets 100 light years or more distant.

  5. Life lessons

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reminiscing about his younger self: “I mean I can’t very well just 86 [in American slang, to “86” is to eject, remove, or discard someone or something, J.R.N.] this guy from my life. On the other hand, if through some as yet undeveloped technology I were to run into him today, how comfortable would I feel about lending him money, or for that matter even stepping down the street to have a beer and talk over old times?” ― Thomas Pynchon, Slow Learner PMID:26734084

  6. SKNy worms and long life.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Heinrich

    2008-03-21

    Interactions between insulin signaling and stress-response pathways can markedly impact life span. In this issue, Tullet et al. (2008) demonstrate that the worm homolog of Nrf2, called SKN-1, a transcription factor that switches on expression of antioxidant genes, is an important component of such signaling interactions.

  7. Life sciences.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gregory K

    2002-12-01

    Space life sciences research activities are reviewed for the year. Highlights of animal studies were the first long-term flight of an animal enclosure module and an avian development facility on STS-108. Plant research efforts focused on a biomass production system for eventual use on the International Space Station (ISS), the PESTO experiment on ISS, and screening of several salad crop varieties for potential use in space. Health-related studies included the Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE) on the Mars Odyssey mission, presentation of results from NASA's Biomolecular Physics and Chemistry Program, and research related to human liver cell function in space through an agreement with StelSys. In industry and academia, a memorandum of understanding was signed between NASA and the biotechnology industry to enhance communication between NASA and the industry, expand commercial biotechnology space research and development, and expand formal and informal education of industry and the public regarding biotechnology and space research. NASA selected Purdue University to lead an NSCORT for advanced life support research to develop technologies to enable long-duration planetary mission and sustain human space colonies.

  8. Humor and creative life styles.

    PubMed

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  9. The Creative Pathways of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however,…

  10. Current Research Trends in Residential Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Thomas E., Jr.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper reviews the literature on the role that campus residential life plays in the life of college students. While some researchers have concluded that living on-campus or off-campus has little affect on student academic achievement (Bliming, 1989; Bowman and Partin, 1993), others have expressed that on-campus living produces students with…

  11. The Creative Pathways of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents two studies of how the conduct of life in itself can be a creative act. Very often, creativity research is concerned with the study of what enables people to express themselves creatively or aesthetically or to produce creative ideas and products. Creativity as it arises in the mundane processes of everyday life is, however,…

  12. Quality of Life Measurement and Analysis (QUAILMAN).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    satisfaction for the total Army popalation in the area of government housing quality over 2-1/2 years. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES quality of life ...Army may have declined recently, while the quality of life cost per soldier has increased. (2) There is about a 10 percent drop in the satisfaction of...selected for this study which seemed to relate to quality of life issues. Items selected either (1) expressed satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a

  13. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2004-11-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  14. Life's Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Simon Conway

    2003-09-01

    Life's Solution builds a persuasive case for the predictability of evolutionary outcomes. The case rests on a remarkable compilation of examples of convergent evolution, in which two or more lineages have independently evolved similar structures and functions. The examples range from the aerodynamics of hovering moths and hummingbirds to the use of silk by spiders and some insects to capture prey. Going against the grain of Darwinian orthodoxy, this book is a must read for anyone grappling with the meaning of evolution and our place in the Universe. Simon Conway Morris is the Ad Hominen Professor in the Earth Science Department at the University of Cambridge and a Fellow of St. John's College and the Royal Society. His research focuses on the study of constraints on evolution, and the historical processes that lead to the emergence of complexity, especially with respect to the construction of the major animal body parts in the Cambrian explosion. Previous books include The Crucible of Creation (Getty Center for Education in the Arts, 1999) and co-author of Solnhofen (Cambridge, 1990). Hb ISBN (2003) 0-521-82704-3

  15. Seniors' life histories and perceptions of illness.

    PubMed

    Montbriand, Muriel J

    2004-03-01

    This life history research examined seniors' life experiences and perceived connections to illnesses. From a randomly selected sample of 190 seniors'interviews, 107 deemed to be the most expressive life stories were selected as the focus for this analysis. All seniors lived independently in a Canadian prairie city, were 60 years of age or older, Caucasian, European decent, had a chronic illness, and told of lives touched by the Great Depression and World War II. Given the paucity of research exploring seniors' life histories, these findings increase understanding of how life experiences shape seniors' identities. Four main themes emerged to describe seniors' lives: chaos, tragedy, quest, and romance. Findings reported here show that seniors with optimistic perceptions do not connect their life experiences with illnesses. Seniors with pessimistic perceptions frequently connect their life experiences with present illnesses and are most likely to remember past abuse and coping with abuse.

  16. The Effects of Early Life Lead Exposure on the Expression of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor in the Hippocampus of Mouse Pups.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Qiao, MingWu; Zhang, PingAn; Li, Xing; Li, Li; Yu, ZengLi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of maternal lead exposure on expression of GSK-3β and IGF1R in the hippocampus of mice offspring. Lead exposure initiated from beginning of gestation to weaning. Lead acetate administered in drinking solutions was dissolved in distilled deionized water at the concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1%, respectively. On the 21st postnatal day, the Pb levels were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The expression of GSK-3β and IGF1R in hippocampus was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The lead levels in blood and hippocampus of all lead exposure groups were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the expression of GSK-3β was increased in lead-exposed groups (P < 0.05), but the expression of IGF1R was decreased (P < 0.05). The high expression of GSK-3β and low expression of IGF1R in the hippocampus of pups may contribute to the neurotoxicity associated with maternal Pb exposure.

  17. Sexual behavior in later life.

    PubMed

    DeLamater, John; Moorman, Sara M

    2007-12-01

    This research tests the influences of age, biological, and psychosocial factors on sexual expression in later life. The American Association of Retired Persons Modern Maturity Sexuality Survey collected data on diagnosed illnesses, treated illnesses, sexual desire, sexual attitudes, partner circumstances, and sexual behavior from 1,384 persons ages 45 and older. Ordered logistic regression models estimate the associations of age, biological, and psychosocial factors with the frequency of five sexual behaviors. Diagnosed illnesses and treatments are generally unrelated to frequency of sexual activity. Sexual attitudes are related to frequency of partnered behavior and sexual desire is related to frequency of masturbation among both women and men. Satisfaction with the physical relationship with a partner is strongly related to behavior. Age remains significant after all other factors are controlled. The authors conclude that the nature of sexual expression in later life reflects the interplay of body, mind, and social context.

  18. The beginning of human life

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The Jewish religion is characterized by a strict association between faith and practical precept. Jewish law has two sections, the written and the oral tradition. The foundation of the written law and the origin of authority is the Torah, the first five books of the Scripture. It is an expression of God’s revelation, teaching and guiding humanity. The oral laws interpret, expand, and elucidate the written Torah and behavior patterns regulate new rules and customs. The main parts of the oral law are as follows: the Mishnah, the Talmud, Post-Talmudic Codes and. Responsa Literature. Discussion Life is a process that has a beginning and an end. The consensus about the time when human life really begins is still not reached among scientists, philosophers, ethicists, sociologists and theologizes. The scientific data suggested that a single developmental moment marking the beginning of human life does not exist. Current biological perspectives on when human life begins range through fertilization, gastrulation, to birth and even after. The development of a newborn is a smoothly continuous process. Results Procreation is acknowledged in the Bible to be the gift of God. The (Halachic) Jewish interpretation of when human life begins is extracted predominantly from procreation is acknowledged in the Bible to be the gift of God. The Jewish interpretation of when human life begins is extracted predominantly from The Halachic sources. The Bible does not make any other direct references regarding the beginning of human life. Conclusion While the Talmud gives the full status of humanness to a child at birth, the rabbinical writings have partially extended the acquisition of humanness to the 13th postnatal day of life for full-term infants. The Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 69b states that: “the embryo is considered to be mere water until the fortieth day.” Afterwards, it is considered subhuman until it is born. The issues of abortion, embryo research, multifetal

  19. "What is the Meaning of Life?": Selections from "Zhongguo Qingnian."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinese Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on letters to the editor of the magazine "Chinese Youth" on the topic of personal reactions to modern life in China. Among opinions expressed are some despairing over the meaninglessness and hypocrisy of Chinese life, some expressing cynicism over official values, and some indicating appreciation of socialist values. (AM)

  20. Complement regulatory proteins in early human fetal life: CD59, membrane co-factor protein (MCP) and decay-accelerating factor (DAF) are differentially expressed in the developing liver.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, K L; Houlihan, J M; Holmes, C H

    1993-01-01

    The human fetus appears to be capable of protecting itself from maternal complement (C) from an early stage in development by expressing the C regulatory proteins decay-accelerating factor (DAF), membrane co-factor protein (MCP) and CD59 on fetally derived trophoblast at the feto-maternal interface. In this study we have examined the ontogeny of these proteins within the fetus itself and have focused on the liver which represents a major site of haemopoiesis during development. Immunostaining revealed that DAF, MCP and CD59 are all expressed from at least 6 weeks of gestation in the liver but that these proteins display distinct distribution patterns. CD59 was broadly distributed both within the epithelial and haemopoietic compartments, but expression of C3 convertase regulators was more restricted. DAF expression was limited to isolated cells within haemopoietic nests and the epithelium was DAF-negative. Although MCP expression on haemopoietic cells was also limited, by contrast with DAF the developing hepatic epithelium was strongly MCP-positive. Typical CD59 and MCP components were observed in fetal liver extracts by immunoblotting, although liver MCP components consistently migrated 4000-5000 MW ahead of those observed on placental trophoblast. Differences in the distribution of these proteins were also observed between the fetal and adult liver. In particular, by comparison with fetal hepatic epithelium, there was an apparent loss of MCP expression from adult hepatocytes. Thus, MCP appears to be developmentally regulated in the human liver and is expressed in the absence of DAF on the early hepatic epithelium. Overall, this study suggests that C regulatory proteins, and in particular CD59 and MCP, are required from the very early stages of gestation within the fetus itself. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7505254

  1. Choosing Life: Fromm's Clinical Values.

    PubMed

    Buechler, Sandra

    2017-08-01

    This paper explores some of the human values expressed in Erich Fromm's writing. Fromm passionately advocated for the importance of courage, integrity, self-actualization, freedom, the cherishing of truth, and a fully alive presence in one's daily life. Some of the clinical implications of these values are discussed. The application of Fromm's beliefs to analytically oriented treatment is illustrated in a case vignette from the author's practice.

  2. Is the Good Life the Easy Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scollon, Christie Napa; King, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies examined folk concepts of the good life. Participants rated the desirability and moral goodness of a life as a function of the happiness, meaning, and effort experienced. Happiness and meaning were solid predictors of the good life, replicating King and Napa (1998). Study 1 (N = 381) included wealth as an additional factor. Results…

  3. Cultural Intersections: The Life Story of a Roma Cultural Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobbo, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the life story of a young Roma cultural mediator who narrates (1) her life and professional decisions, still rather uncommon among young Roma women, and (2) the impact of her education and work experiences and achievements on her self perception. The narratives, from which the life story emerges, express the young Roma's…

  4. Sex-Specific Changes in Renal Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Gene Expression and Enzyme Activity at Birth and Over the First Year of Life.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai; Bi, Jianli; Su, Yixin; Chappell, Mark C; Rose, James C

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are key enzymes of the renin-angiotensin system. We investigated developmental changes in renal ACE and ACE2 gene expression and activity in both male and female sheep. Three groups of sheep (fetus, newborn, and adult) were used. Renal ACE and ACE2 activities, messenger RNA (mRNA), and protein expression were studied. Renal ACE and ACE2 activities increased at 1 year in males, while there were no changes throughout development in females. Renal ACE and ACE2 mRNA and protein showed no sex differences but increased by 1 year of age. There are sex-related differences in the development of renal-converting enzyme activities that may have functional implications in terms of the regulation of blood pressure and renal function in men and women. The difference in the patterns of gene expression and enzyme activity indicates that changes in gene expression may not accurately reflect changes in activity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Life is pretty meaningful.

    PubMed

    Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    The human experience of meaning in life is widely viewed as a cornerstone of well-being and a central human motivation. Self-reports of meaning in life relate to a host of important functional outcomes. Psychologists have portrayed meaning in life as simultaneously chronically lacking in human life as well as playing an important role in survival. Examining the growing literature on meaning in life, we address the question "How meaningful is life, in general?" We review possible answers from various psychological sources, some of which anticipate that meaning in life should be low and others that it should be high. Summaries of epidemiological data and research using two self-report measures of meaning in life suggest that life is pretty meaningful. Diverse samples rate themselves significantly above the midpoint on self-reports of meaning in life. We suggest that if meaning in life plays a role in adaptation, it must be commonplace, as our analysis suggests.

  6. Maintaining integrity in the face of death: a grounded theory to explain the perspectives of people affected by lung cancer about the expression of wishes for end of life care.

    PubMed

    Horne, Gillian; Seymour, Jane; Payne, Sheila

    2012-06-01

    An emphasis on patient choice in health and social care underpins a growing interest in advance care planning. Few studies have explored the views and experiences of people with advanced lung cancer about discussing their wishes or preferences for end of life care. Evidence suggests that some people may want nurses and other health professionals to initiate discussions about the future. However, there is a lack of evidence about what priority patients facing death give to their preferences and wishes, and how these shape their views about end of life. To explore the views and experiences of people affected by lung cancer about discussing preferences and wishes for end of life care and treatment. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and constant comparative method of analysis to develop a grounded theory. One multi-cultural city and one post-industrial town in northern England, UK. Data were collected between 2006 and 2008. Interviews took place with 25 patients with lung cancer and 19 family members. Qualitative constructivist grounded theory study. The study found that preferences and wishes for future care and treatment were not the main concern of people with cancer; rather, any concerns for the future were about the social aspects of death. A theory 'maintaining integrity in the face of death' is proposed. This theory purports that patients with advanced lung cancer and their families focus on acting and talking as 'normal' to help them balance living in the present whilst facing death. Participants talked about their experiences of facing death whilst striving to live in the present. Planning for one's own dying and eventual death was not something that people with lung cancer reported having discussed, except when, out of concern for their families, practical arrangements needed to be made following death. The study suggests that people facing the end of their life primarily focus on living in the present. The findings suggest that nurses need

  7. Expression of UGT2B7 is driven by two mutually exclusive promoters and alternative splicing in human tissues: changes from prenatal life to adulthood and in kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Vincent; Lévesque, Eric; Chen, Sylvia; Eap, Olivier; Joy, Melanie S; Ekström, Lena; Rane, Anders; Guillemette, Chantal

    2013-12-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) plays a major detoxification role in commonly prescribed drugs and endogenous lipophilic molecules. Additional exons and multiple alternative splicing events (ASEs) at the UGT2B7 locus were recently discovered. Novel and classical ASEs were quantified in 27 human tissues, as well as in fetal and tumoral tissues. The activity of the alternative UGT2B7 promoters was studied in cell lines. UGT2B7 expression is driven by an alternate promoter 1a associated with transcripts containing exon 1b, which is located ∼44 kb upstream of the known promoter 1 associated with transcripts containing exon 1 required for enzyme activity. The exon 1 was expressed most abundantly in the liver and gastrointestinal tract, whereas exon 1b was expressed predominantly in other extrahepatic tissues. Experimental evidence indicated endogenous translation that yields alternative UGT2B7s derived from the use of exon 1b are enzymatically inactive. Alternate 5' ASE predominates in fetal tissues (kidney, lung) and kidney tumor samples compared with normal adult kidney. These changes further correlate with reduced glucuronidation in neoplastic kidneys. This differential expression pattern was further confirmed using four liver and kidney cell lines and was consistent with the differential usage of alternate promoters in hepatic (promoter 1) and kidney cells (1a). UGT2B7 is characterized by two mutually exclusive exons 1, both flanked by a unique 5' promoter region. Data also indicated a switch toward functional enzyme upon maturation in the kidney and reversal of this process in neoplastic cells, considerably modifying the glucuronidation potential across human tissues and cells.

  8. Who's Expressing in "Expressive Writing"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Janine

    In an attempt to understand what expressive writing means to themselves and to their students, teachers should explore and reflect on various questions regarding expressive writing theories and practices. For many, self-expression is the basis of all serious writing and an important stage in any act of learning, so it is essential to uncover the…

  9. Towards an Autopoietic Redefinition of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, Luisa; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we develop the autopoietic approach to the definition of the living developed by Maturana and Varela in the Seventies. Starting from very simple observations concerning the phenomenology of life, we propose a reformulation of the autopoietic original definition of life which integrates some of the contemporary criticism to it. Our definitional proposal, aiming to stimulate the further development of the autopoietic approach, expresses what remains implicit in the definition of the living originally given by Maturana and Varela: life, as self-production, is a process of cognitive coupling with the environment.

  10. Defending definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life.

  11. [Living, life and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Ferrer Santos, Urbano

    2008-01-01

    Human life and quality of life are approached unitarily from their common root in living person, since only the person can claim them as rights and observe them as duties. The passage from the natural inclination to live towards the moral order is fulfilled from the ethical-ontological bridge-concept of human dignity. The absolute character of dignity means that life appears in the ethical realm as a duty prior to a right, both with regard to its care by the subject itself and its respect by others. This right-duty extends from life to the quality of life, since the living person always has a margin between personal living and the vital achievements it is capable of: this margin must be respected and promoted.

  12. Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

  13. Symbiotic Expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernecky, Robert; Herhut, Stephan; Scholz, Sven-Bodo

    We introduce symbiotic expressions, a method for algebraic simplification within a compiler, in lieu of an SMT solver, such as Yices or the Omega Calculator. Symbiotic expressions are compiler-generated expressions, temporarily injected into a program's abstract syntax tree (AST). The compiler's normal optimizations interpret and simplify those expressions, making their results available for the compiler to use as a basis for decisions about further optimization of the source program. The expressions are symbiotic, in the sense that both parties benefit: an optimization benefits, by using the compiler itself to simplify expressions that have been attached, lamprey-like, to the AST by the optimization; the program being compiled benefits, from improved run-time in both serial and parallel environments.

  14. Express yourself.

    PubMed

    Percival, Jennifer

    2001-04-04

    Robin Norwood, well known for her bestseller Women Who Love Too Much, offers a revolutionary perspective on adversity that addresses people's deepest and most disturbing questions. Why is this happening to me? Why now? What does my life mean?

  15. The hnRNP F/H homologue of Trypanosoma brucei is differentially expressed in the two life cycle stages of the parasite and regulates splicing and mRNA stability

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin Kumar; Kosti, Idit; Plaut, Guy; Pivko, Asher; Tkacz, Itai Dov; Cohen-Chalamish, Smadar; Biswas, Dipul Kumar; Wachtel, Chaim; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Carmi, Shai; Glaser, Fabian; Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cycle between a mammalian host (bloodstream form) and an insect host, the Tsetse fly (procyclic stage). In trypanosomes, all mRNAs are trans-spliced as part of their maturation. Genome-wide analysis of trans-splicing indicates the existence of alternative trans-splicing, but little is known regarding RNA-binding proteins that participate in such regulation. In this study, we performed functional analysis of the Trypanosoma brucei heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) F/H homologue, a protein known to regulate alternative splicing in metazoa. The hnRNP F/H is highly expressed in the bloodstream form of the parasite, but is also functional in the procyclic form. Transcriptome analyses of RNAi-silenced cells were used to deduce the RNA motif recognized by this protein. A purine rich motif, AAGAA, was enriched in both the regulatory regions flanking the 3′ splice site and poly (A) sites of the regulated genes. The motif was further validated using mini-genes carrying wild-type and mutated sequences in the 3′ and 5′ UTRs, demonstrating the role of hnRNP F/H in mRNA stability and splicing. Biochemical studies confirmed the binding of the protein to this proposed site. The differential expression of the protein and its inverse effects on mRNA level in the two lifecycle stages demonstrate the role of hnRNP F/H in developmental regulation. PMID:23666624

  16. Differential Expression Analysis for Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Winston A.; Higdon, Roger; Stanberry, Larissa; Collins, Dwayne; Kolker, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Life science technologies generate a deluge of data that hold the keys to unlocking the secrets of important biological functions and disease mechanisms. We present DEAP, Differential Expression Analysis for Pathways, which capitalizes on information about biological pathways to identify important regulatory patterns from differential expression data. DEAP makes significant improvements over existing approaches by including information about pathway structure and discovering the most differentially expressed portion of the pathway. On simulated data, DEAP significantly outperformed traditional methods: with high differential expression, DEAP increased power by two orders of magnitude; with very low differential expression, DEAP doubled the power. DEAP performance was illustrated on two different gene and protein expression studies. DEAP discovered fourteen important pathways related to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interferon treatment that existing approaches omitted. On the interferon study, DEAP guided focus towards a four protein path within the 26 protein Notch signalling pathway. PMID:23516350

  17. What influence do major events in life have on our later quality of life? A retrospective study on life events and associated emotions.

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

    2006-02-01

    To examine associations between global quality of life (QOL) and major life events. This was a retrospective study using the self-administrated expanded SEQOL questionnaire with questions on life events and connected emotions. Seven hundred forty-six people, 55-66 years old, from a representative sample of the Danish population participated. Global QOL was measured by SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life), containing eight global QOL measures: well-being, life-satisfaction, happiness, fulfillment of needs, experience of temporal and spatial domains, expression of life's potentials, and objective factors. Life events related to health such as restraints of movement or psychological illness showed a major association with the quality of life. Most other associations between quality of life and life events were intermediate or minor. Quality of life cannot simply be determined by life events. Actual quality of life is determined by how all the events of life have been processed and integrated in the consciousness. The results seem to support the idea that global QOL can be efficiently improved by integrating the painful events of the past. Since several studies have shown correlations between QOL and health, it is likely that such an improvement in QOL will also cause improved health and ability.

  18. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  19. Lanthanides: New life metals?

    PubMed

    Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2016-08-01

    Lanthanides (Ln(3+)) that are Rare Earth Elements, until recently thought to be biologically inert, have recently emerged as essential metals for activity and expression of a special type of methanol dehydrogenase, XoxF. As XoxF enzyme homologs are encoded in a wide variety of microbes, including microbes active in important environmental processes such as methane and methanol metabolism, Ln(3+) may represent some of the key biogeochemical drivers in cycling of carbon and other elements. However, significant gaps in understanding the role of Ln(3+) in biological systems remain as the functions of most of the proteins potentially dependent of Ln(3+) and their roles in specific metabolic networks/respective biogeochemical cycles remain unknown. Moreover, enzymes dependent on Ln(3+) but not related to XoxF enzymes may exist, and these so far have not been recognized. Through connecting the recently uncovered genetic divergence and phylogenetic distribution of XoxF-like enzymes and through elucidation of their activities, metal and substrate specificities, along with the biological contexts of respective biochemical pathways, most parsimonious scenarios for their evolution could be uncovered. Generation of such data will firmly establish the role of Ln(3+) in the biochemistry of Life inhabiting this planet.

  20. Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction.

    PubMed

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The life course has become a topic of growing interest within the social sciences. Attempts to link this sub-discipline with life span developmental psychology have been called for but with little sign of success. In this paper, we seek to address three interlinked issues concerning the potential for a more productive interchange between life course sociology and life span psychology. The first is to try to account for the failure of these two sub-disciplines to achieve any deepening engagement with each other, despite the long-expressed desirability of that goal; the second is to draw attention to the scope for enriching the sociology of the life course through Erik Erikson's model of life span development; and the last is the potential for linking Eriksonian theory with current debates within mainstream sociology about the processes involved in 'individualisation' and 'self-reflexivity' as an alternative entry point to bring together these two fields of work.

  1. Effects of gut microbiota disturbance induced in early life on the expression of extrasynaptic GABA-A receptor α5 and δ subunits in the hippocampus of adult rat.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liang; Yuan, Jingping; Zhang, Shiying; Wu, Hao

    2017-09-27

    Previous studies have demonstrated that gut microbiota disturbance significantly increases the risk of emotional disorders via gut-brain axis, but the mechanism is unclear. Furthermore, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits were reported to be implicated in development of depression and amnesia, but the alterations of GABA-A receptor subunits in pathogenetic process have not been fully elucidated. This study used juvenile rats fed with amplin-Na in order to result in degree III of dysbiosis of intestinal flora and examined their emotional change using tail suspension test, forced swim test and Morris water maze. And our study investigated the expression of GABA-A receptor α5 and δ subunits in the hippocampus in the adulthood using q-pcr and immunohistochemistry. We aimed to observe the role of GABA-A receptor α5 and δ subunits changes induced by juvenile gut microbiota disturbance in the pathogenesis of emotional disorders in adulthood. In addition, we investigated the protective effects of probiotics and benzodiazepine (clonazepam). This finding showed that juvenile gut microbiota disturbance induced chronic depression and memory loss, and reduced expression of GABA-A receptor α5 and δ subunits in the hippocampus of adult rat. Furthermore, moderate probiotics administration led to significant improvement as compared to short-term BZ treatment. However, We are aware that these results have been established with single animal experiment and will require further confirmation with a larger group of individuals. Future direction for exploration of the effects of gut microbiota disturbance on GABA-A receptor α5 and δ subunits are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Target-specific cytotoxic effects on HER2-expressing cells by the tripartite fusion toxin ZHER2:2891-ABD-PE38X8, including a targeting affibody molecule and a half-life extension domain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Seijsing, Johan; Frejd, Fredrik Y; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Gräslund, Torbjörn

    2015-08-01

    Development of cancer treatment regimens including immunotoxins is partly hampered by their immunogenicity. Recently, deimmunized versions of toxins have been described, potentially being better suited for translation to the clinic. In this study, a recombinant tripartite fusion toxin consisting of a deimmunized version of exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PE38) genetically fused to an affibody molecule specifically interacting with the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and also an albumin binding domain (ABD) for half-life extension, has been produced and characterized in terms of functionality of the three moieties. Biosensor based assays showed that the fusion toxin was able to interact with human and mouse serum albumin, but not with bovine serum albumin and that it interacted with HER2 (KD=5 nM). Interestingly, a complex of the fusion toxin and human serum albumin also interacted with HER2 but with a somewhat weaker affinity (KD=12 nM). The IC50-values of the fusion toxin ranged from 6 to 300 pM on SKOV-3, SKBR-3 and A549 cells and was lower for cells with higher surface densities of HER2. The fusion toxin was found specific for HER2 as shown by blocking available HER2 receptors with free affibody molecule before subjecting the cells to the toxin. Analysis of contact time showed that 10 min was sufficient to kill 50% of the cells. In conclusion, all three regions of the fusion toxin were found to be functional.

  3. Better Diet, Longer Life?

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_167146.html Better Diet, Longer Life? A large study suggests you're never too ... show that sustained diet changes -- even later in life -- might extend people's lives, the researchers said. "A ...

  4. Life Cycle Costing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCraley, Thomas L.

    1985-01-01

    Life cycle costing establishes a realistic comparison of the cost of owning and operating products. The formula of initial cost plus maintenance plus operation divided by useful life identifies the best price over the lifetime of the product purchased. (MLF)

  5. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  6. Education and Life's Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders; De Ruyter, Doret J.; Aviram, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    There are deep connections between education and the question of life's meaning, which derive, ultimately, from the fact that, for human beings, how to live--and therefore, how to raise one's children--is not a given but a question. One might see the meaning of life as constitutive of the meaning of education, and answers to the question of life's…

  7. Life Skills Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Jan P.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, Bates, the Inmate Programs Manager of the Hillsborough County Sheriff's Office in Tampa, Florida, describes her office's Life Skills Project, a comprehensive program that has significantly enhanced three existing programs by adding extensive life skills components. The added life skills modules reinforce the importance of…

  8. Education and Life's Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinkel, Anders; De Ruyter, Doret J.; Aviram, Aharon

    2016-01-01

    There are deep connections between education and the question of life's meaning, which derive, ultimately, from the fact that, for human beings, how to live--and therefore, how to raise one's children--is not a given but a question. One might see the meaning of life as constitutive of the meaning of education, and answers to the question of life's…

  9. Life Among the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  10. Advanced Life Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems are presented. The topics include: 1) Fundamental Need for Advanced Life Support; 2) ALS organization; 3) Requirements and Rationale; 4) Past Integrated tests; 5) The need for improvements in life support systems; 6) ALS approach to meet exploration goals; 7) ALS Projects showing promise to meet exploration goals; and 9) GRC involvement in ALS.

  11. Life Chances Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Margaret A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a life chances exercise that helps students identify the life chances that they and society value. Explains that students learn that the attainment of important life chances is related to the family into which one is born. Discusses John Rawls' social theory. Suggests that participants may need to consider alternative systems of economic…

  12. Life Among the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Explores possibility of extra-terrestrial life, reviewing current hypotheses regarding where in space life would most likely occur. Discusses astrometry and spectroscopy as methods for determining stellar motions. Describes United States and Soviet projects for receiving stellar communications. Relates origin of life on earth to observed high…

  13. Life without Carbon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, Manfred; Williams, Peter E.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon is the centerpiece of all life on Earth and one of the most abundant elements in the Solar System and Sun-like stars. Yet alien biochemistries and one's choice of a definition of life offer possibility for other forms of life.

  14. Engaging with Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Margaret J.

    1997-01-01

    Explores an ancient world view rediscovered through modern science: the world is essentially cooperative and systems-seeking; relationships are a requirement for existence; life is a great experimenter; the processes of life are redundant and messy but ultimately self-organizing; and life supports uniqueness and is unpredictable. Relates these…

  15. Expressing the Tradition in an Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Being born into a religious tradition, remaining within it and making one's life an expression of it as a chaplain in a faith-based college is not necessarily an unimaginative choice. A culture has some enduring characteristics but to survive meaningfully it has to be relevant to contemporary life. Thus, there is a necessity to question what is to…

  16. An Astrobiological View on Sustainable Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naganuma, Takeshi

    2009-10-01

    Life on a global biosphere basis is substantiated in the form of organics and organisms, and defined as the intermediate forms (briefly expressed as CH2O) hovering between the reduced (CH4, methane) and (CO2, carbon dioxide) ends, different from the classical definition of life as a complex organization maintaining ordered structure and information. Both definitions consider sustenance of life meant as protection of life against chaos through an input of external energy. The CH2O-life connection is maintained as long as the supply of H and O lasts, which is in turn are provided by the splitting of the water molecule H2O. Water is split by electricity, as well-known from school-level experiments, and by solar radiation and geothermal heat on a global scale. In other words, the Sun's radiation and the Earth's heat as well as radioactivity split water to supply H and O for continued existence of life on the Earth. These photochemical, radiochemical and geothermal processes have influences on the evolution and current composition of the Earth's atmosphere, compared with those of Venus and Mars, and influences on the planetary climatology. This view of life may be applicable to the "search-for-life in space" and to sustainability assessment of astrobiological habitats.

  17. "Lands for Life": Reading between the Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Ontario provincial government's "Lands for Life" program, which will allocate 46 million hectares of public lands to four uses: intensive forestry, multiple use, tourism, and protected areas. Expresses skepticism about government statements by juxtaposing the rhetoric with the record, with regard to environmental…

  18. "Lands for Life": Reading between the Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Ontario provincial government's "Lands for Life" program, which will allocate 46 million hectares of public lands to four uses: intensive forestry, multiple use, tourism, and protected areas. Expresses skepticism about government statements by juxtaposing the rhetoric with the record, with regard to environmental…

  19. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  20. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  1. Interstellar molecules and the origin of life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhl, D.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1971-01-01

    Synopsis of the various views expressed at the conference held at NASA Ames Research Center in February 1971 on the relationship of interstellar molecules to the origin of life, intended to provide a basis for future discussion and work in this area. The topics covered include: a summary of molecules discovered, the interstellar environment, laboratory measurements, chemical evolution, and exobiology.

  2. A life with prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Fine, David Roger

    2012-01-01

    The author gives an anecdotal account of his life with developmental prosopagnosia (DP). He was not formally diagnosed until the age of 53 and has evolved a complicated strategy for recognizing people based on non-facial physical features and context. He describes his experiences through infancy, school, university life and courtship, work and family life. He believes that he has lived a full and successful life despite DP but that some aspects of his social and work life were impaired by face-blindness. In his experience people react positively and helpfully if the consequences of DP are explained to them, and this improves social interactions and communications.

  3. Definition of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    The definition of life is a long-standing debate with no general scientific consensus to be expected any time soon. The underlying problem is that living systems use compounds that are abundant in the surrounding environment and processes that are not intrinsically different from reactions that occur abiologically. There does not appear to exist a single characteristic property that is both intrinsic and unique to life. Rather we have to argue that life meets certain standards, or that it qualifies by the collective presence of a certain set of characteristics. The threshold for meeting this standard sounds arbitrary, and may well be arbitrary in the sense that life presumably arose through a long sequence of "emergent events", each at a greater level of molecular complexity and order (Hazen 2002). If that notion is correct, any rigid distinction between life and non-life is a matter of subjective judgment. While our everyday experience with life on Earth makes the distinction between the living and non-living for the most part unambiguous, a consideration of life on other worlds, where conditions may be different, and/or where life may have evolved from its inorganic precedents to a lesser degree, requires us to formulate a more formal and objective definition for life. Before doing so, we will first address the limitations of commonplace assumptions about what constitutes life.

  4. Short-term caloric restriction, resveratrol, or combined treatment regimens initiated in late-life alter mitochondrial protein expression profiles in a fiber-type specific manner in aged animals.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Anna-Maria; Malamo, Angelina G; Silvestre, Jason; Wawrzyniak, Nick; Carey-Love, Sean; Nguyen, Linda M-D; Dutta, Debapriya; Xu, Jinze; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Adhihetty, Peter J

    2013-09-01

    Aging is associated with a loss in muscle known as sarcopenia that is partially attributed to apoptosis. In aging rodents, caloric restriction (CR) increases health and longevity by improving mitochondrial function and the polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to have similar benefits. In the present study, we investigated the potential efficacy of using short-term (6 weeks) CR (20%), RSV (50 mg/kg/day), or combined CR+ RSV (20% CR and 50 mg/kg/day RSV), initiated at late-life (27 months) to protect muscle against sarcopenia by altering mitochondrial function, biogenesis, content, and apoptotic signaling in both glycolytic white and oxidative red gastrocnemius muscle (WG and RG, respectively) of male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats. CR but not RSV attenuated the age-associated loss of muscle mass in both mixed gastrocnemius and soleus muscle, while combined treatment (CR + RSV) paradigms showed a protective effect in the soleus and plantaris muscle (P < 0.05). Sirt1 protein content was increased by 2.6-fold (P < 0.05) in WG but not RG muscle with RSV treatment, while CR or CR + RSV had no effect. PGC-1α levels were higher (2-fold) in the WG from CR-treated animals (P < 0.05) when compared to ad-libitum (AL) animals but no differences were observed in the RG with any treatment. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were significantly higher (1.6-fold) in the WG muscle of RSV and CR + RSV groups compared to AL (P < 0.05) but tended to occur coincident with elevations in the pro-apoptotic protein Bax so that the apoptotic susceptibility as indicated by the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio was unchanged. There were no alterations in DNA fragmentation with any treatment in muscle from older animals. Additionally, mitochondrial respiration measured in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged in any treatment group and this paralleled the lack of change in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. These data suggest that short-term moderate CR, RSV, or CR + RSV tended to

  5. Studies of the inner life: the impact of spirituality on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Baker, David C

    2003-01-01

    This article defines spirituality and relates the importance of spirituality to understanding quality of life. Spirituality is examined through organizational religious activities, non-organizational activities and/or as an expression of faith. Spirituality as a variable in the study of quality of life is not a new concept; however, it has returned to the scene during recent years, and has gone through an evolutionary process.

  6. Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 4: intercellular bridges, mitochondria, nuclear envelope, apoptosis, ubiquitination, membrane/voltage-gated channels, methylation/acetylation, and transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Hermo, Louis; Pelletier, R-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Smith, Charles E

    2010-04-01

    As germ cells divide and differentiate from spermatogonia to spermatozoa, they share a number of structural and functional features that are common to all generations of germ cells and these features are discussed herein. Germ cells are linked to one another by large intercellular bridges which serve to move molecules and even large organelles from the cytoplasm of one cell to another. Mitochondria take on different shapes and features and topographical arrangements to accommodate their specific needs during spermatogenesis. The nuclear envelope and pore complex also undergo extensive modifications concomitant with the development of germ cell generations. Apoptosis is an event that is normally triggered by germ cells and involves many proteins. It occurs to limit the germ cell pool and acts as a quality control mechanism. The ubiquitin pathway comprises enzymes that ubiquitinate as well as deubiquitinate target proteins and this pathway is present and functional in germ cells. Germ cells express many proteins involved in water balance and pH control as well as voltage-gated ion channel movement. In the nucleus, proteins undergo epigenetic modifications which include methylation, acetylation, and phosphorylation, with each of these modifications signaling changes in chromatin structure. Germ cells contain specialized transcription complexes that coordinate the differentiation program of spermatogenesis, and there are many male germ cell-specific differences in the components of this machinery. All of the above features of germ cells will be discussed along with the specific proteins/genes and abnormalities to fertility related to each topic. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Protein expression in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, T; Nierhaus, K H; Luisi, P L

    1999-08-02

    Compartmentalization is one of the key steps in the evolution of cellular structures and, so far, only few attempts have been made to model this kind of "compartmentalized chemistry" using liposomes. The present work shows that even such complex reactions as the ribosomal synthesis of polypeptides can be carried out in liposomes. A method is described for incorporating into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes the ribosomal complex together with the other components necessary for protein expression. Synthesis of poly(Phe) in the liposomes is monitored by trichloroacetic acid of the (14)C-labelled products. Control experiments carried out in the absence of one of the ribosomal subunits show by contrast no significant polypeptide expression. This methodology opens up the possibility of using liposomes as minimal cell bioreactors with growing degree of synthetic complexity, which may be relevant for the field of origin of life as well as for biotechnological applications. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  8. Betanodavirus: Dissection of the viral life cycle.

    PubMed

    Low, C-F; Syarul Nataqain, B; Chee, H-Y; Rozaini, M Z H; Najiah, M

    2017-04-27

    Progressive research has been recently made in dissecting the molecular biology of Betanodavirus life cycle, the causative pathogen of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in economic important marine fish species. Establishment of betanodavirus infectious clone allows the manipulation of virus genome for functional genomic study, which elucidates the biological event of the viral life cycle at molecular level. The betanodavirus strategizes its replication by expressing anti-apoptosis/antinecrotic proteins to maintain the cell viability during early infection. Subsequently utilizes and controls the biological machinery of the infected cells for viral genome replication. Towards the late phase of infection, mass production of capsid protein for virion assembly induces the activation of host apoptosis pathway. It eventually leads to the cell lysis and death, which the lysis of cell contributes to the accomplishment of viral shedding that completes a viral life cycle. The recent efforts to dissect the entire betanodavirus life cycle are currently reviewed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Institutionalization of Catholic Culture through the Student Life Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtz, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    The main research question of this study was: How do student life offices at four diverse Catholic colleges and universities create an environment that is expressive of a Catholic way of life? This research question was operationalized by two research sub questions: How do senior student affairs officers, mid-level student affairs officers, and…

  10. The Institutionalization of Catholic Culture through the Student Life Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtz, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    The main research question of this study was: How do student life offices at four diverse Catholic colleges and universities create an environment that is expressive of a Catholic way of life? This research question was operationalized by two research sub questions: How do senior student affairs officers, mid-level student affairs officers, and…

  11. Life in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, there is direct geomorphological evidence that, in the past, Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface - possibly due to a thicker atmosphere. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. One of the martian meteorites dates back to this early period and may contain evidence consistent with life. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils.

  12. Olfaction, pheromones and life.

    PubMed

    Hoskison, E E

    2013-12-01

    From an evolutionary standpoint, olfaction is one of the oldest senses, and one that affects all aspects of life. This review discusses the influence of olfaction and pheromones on life. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1966-2012), Embase (1988-2012), The Cochrane Library (1993-2013) and Ovid (1966-2012). Olfaction plays an important role in life, from infancy through to adulthood and declining health in old age. Culture, memories and emotions, which add to life's complexity and overall enjoyment, are also influenced by olfaction. Olfaction has a chronological influence on life, affecting all aspects from the cradle to the grave; it plays a role in the quality of life as a key ingredient of human evolution, survival and enjoyment.

  13. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  14. Religious activity, life expectancy, and disability-free life expectancy in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hidajat, Mira; Zimmer, Zachary; Saito, Yasuhiko; Lin, Hui-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    Research has implicated religious activity as a health determinant, but questions remain, including whether associations persist in places where Judeo-Christian religions are not the majority; whether public versus private religious expressions have equivalent impacts, and the precise advantage expressed as years of life. This article addresses these issues in Taiwan. 3,739 Taiwanese aged 53+ were surveyed in 1999, 2003, and 2007. Mortality and disability were recorded. Religious activities in public and private settings were measured at baseline. Multistate life-tables produced estimates of total life expectancy and activity of daily living (ADL) disability-free life expectancy across levels of public and private religious activity. There is a consistent positive gradient between religious activity and expectancy with greater activity related to longer life and more years without disability. Life and ADL disability-free life expectancies for those with no religious affiliation fit in between the lowest and highest religious activity groups. Results corroborate evidence in the West. Mechanisms that intervene may be similar in Eastern religions despite differences in the ways in which popular religions are practiced. Results for those with no affiliation suggest benefits of religion can be accrued in alternate ways.

  15. Shaping adult phenotypes through early life environments.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ian C G

    2009-12-01

    A major question in the biology of stress and environmental adaptation concerns the neurobiological basis of how neuroendocrine systems governing physiological regulatory mechanisms essential for life (metabolism, immune response, organ function) become harmful. The current view is that a switch from protection to damage occurs when vulnerable phenotypes are exposed to adverse environmental conditions. In accordance with this theory, sequelae of early life social and environmental stressors, such as childhood abuse, neglect, poverty, and poor nutrition, have been associated with the emergence of mental and physical illness (i.e., anxiety, mood disorders, poor impulse control, psychosis, and drug abuse) and an increased risk of common metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Evidence from animal and human studies investigating the associations between early life experiences (including parent-infant bonding), hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, brain development, and health outcome provide important clues into the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the contribution of stressful experiences to personality development and the manifestation of illness. This review summarizes our current molecular understanding of how early environment influences brain development in a manner that persists through life and highlights recent evidence from rodent studies suggesting that maternal care in the first week of postnatal life establishes diverse and stable phenotypes in the offspring through epigenetic modification of genes expressed in the brain that shape neuroendocrine and behavioral stress responsivity throughout life.

  16. The quantum life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Paul

    2009-07-01

    To a physicist, life seems little short of miraculous-all those stupid atoms getting together to perform such clever tricks! For centuries, living organisms were regarded as some sort of magic matter. Today, we know that no special "life force" is at work in biology; there is just ordinary matter doing extraordinary things, all the while obeying the familiar laws of physics. What, then, is the secret of life's remarkable properties?

  17. Life-history data.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-07-15

    Life-history data are quantitative, retrospective and autobiographical data collected through event-history calendars. By mimicking the structure of our memories, these instruments can gather reliable information on different dimensions of the lifecourse. Life-history data enable the duration, timing and ordering of events to be brought to the foreground of analysis. Extending the scope of lifecourse research, life-history data make it possible to examine the long-term effects of past policies with more precision and detail.

  18. Artificial life and Piaget.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrich; Grobman, K H.

    2003-04-01

    Artificial life provides important theoretical and methodological tools for the investigation of Piaget's developmental theory. This new method uses artificial neural networks to simulate living phenomena in a computer. A recent study by Parisi and Schlesinger suggests that artificial life might reinvigorate the Piagetian framework. We contrast artificial life with traditional cognitivist approaches, discuss the role of innateness in development, and examine the relation between physiological and psychological explanations of intelligent behaviour.

  19. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of 'artificial life,' and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  1. Origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Cleaves, H. J.

    2003-10-01

    Deciphering the origin of life requires some knowledge of the early planetary environment. Unfortunately, we lack definitive evidence of the atmospheric composition, surface temperature, oceanic pH, and other environmental conditions that may have been important for the appearance of the first living systems on Earth. The rock remnants of the early Archean are extremely scarce and most of the record has been lost. The first indications of life from carbon inclusions in rocks and the oldest fossil record are currently under debate but there is a consensus that life started during the first billion years after the Earth formed. Life as we know it is a chemical phenomenon. The chemistry that could have produced self-organizing systems is the central problem in the origin of life. There are several competing theories for how this chemistry may have arisen. In spite of their diversity, proposals for a prebiotic "soup", for the role of submarine hydrothermal vents, or for the extraterrestrial origin of organic compounds have as a common background assumption the idea that abiotic organic compounds were necessary for the emergence of life. It is possible that a combination of these sources - exogenous and endogenous - contributed building blocks for the origin of life on Earth. In this paper we provide a review of the main ideas on the origin of life from the astrobiological perspective and discuss the probability of life on extrasolar planets.

  2. [Regional disparity on life expectancy, active life expectancy in the elderly from Beijing].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-ying; Tang, Zhe; Feng, Ming

    2011-09-01

    To explore the regional disparity in life expectancy (LE), active life expectancy (ALE), active life expectancy/life expectancy (ALE/LE) of the elderly in Beijing and to express the impact of hypertension upon those indices. The sample was derived from a "Beijing multidimensional longitudinal study on aging", including those from urban district (Xuanwu), rural district (Daxing and Huairou) by well-established statistical sampling techniques. Baseline survey comprised 1847 people aged 60 years or over, living in the communities in Beijing in 2004. The subjects under research were investigated with questionnaires at home by well-trained interviews and the contents would include: degree of education, occupation, medical history of hypertension together with repeated blood pressure measurements. Someone being "active" was defined as the ability in performing activities of daily life (ADL). IMaCH software for multi-state life table method was used to calculate the life expectancy (LE), active life expectancy (ALE) and active life expectancy/life expectancy (ALE/LE) in different district and the hypertensive exert influence on those indices. Data from the study showed that people inhabited in the rural district had lower LE, ALE and degree of education (illiteracy account for 66.2 percentage), but with more physical activities (account for 95.5 percentage) and higher ALE/LE than urban district people. Regional disparity in Females was obvious than in males while hypertension would exert more influence on LE of the urban women, which widened the gap in LE, ALE of males and ALE of females between the urban and rural areas. Regional disparity was found existing in LE, ALE, ALE/LE of the elderly from Beijing, particularly in females. Hypertension widened the gap and decreased the quality of life on senior citizens in the rural areas. This finding underlined the influence of habitation on the quality of life which manifested the importance of prevention regarding high blood

  3. WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

    This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

  4. WOWBugs: New Life for Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Robert W.; And Others

    This book of life science activities introduces a new experimental animal--the WOWBug, "Melittobia digitata"--that is commonly found in nature but has never before been used in the precollege classroom. It includes 20 activities and experiments for grades 5-12, that cover topics from basic orientation to ecological interactions, from physical…

  5. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. RESULTS: Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD) 19), neonatal (postnatal day (PND) 7), prepubescent (PND32), middle age (12 months), and old age (18 and 24 months) in the C57BL/6J (C57) mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I), conjugation (Phase II) and excretion (Phase III). In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs w

  6. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  7. Life sciences report 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Highlighted here are the major research efforts of the NASA Life Sciences Division during the past year. Topics covered include remote health care delivery in space, space biomedical research, gravitational biology, biospherics (studying planet Earth), the NASA Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), exobiology, flight programs, international cooperation, and education programs.

  8. The life instinct.

    PubMed

    Abel-Hirsch, Nicola

    2010-10-01

    In psychoanalytic writing an oversimplified interpretation of Freud's concept of the life and death instincts sometimes colours the presentation. Roughly, there is an implication that the life instinct is 'good' and the death instinct 'bad'. Freud however is clear that: "Neither of these instincts is any less essential than the other; the phenomena of life arise from the concurrent or mutually opposing action of both"(1933b, p. 209). In this paper I look in detail at the characteristics of the life instinct as conceptualized by Freud, and draw on Bion's work 'on linking' to elaborate Freud's view that binding is the life instinct's key characteristic. I suggest that there are pathological forms of both the life and death instinct if defused (separated off) from the other, and I explore a pathological variation of the life instinct in which binding is without the negation, rest, limit or end provided by the 'opposing action' of the death instinct. I consider an instance of the kind that any analyst might meet clinically, in which an inhibited patient experiences severe anxiety that life-giving connections threaten to proliferate indiscriminately and to an overwhelming intensity and size. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  9. Life in the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The belief that life exists in the universe is an optimism shared by many. With several manned missions expected to be carried out in the future, the possibility of discovering life in outer space will revolutionize the field of astrobiology. In this article, the author presents a summary of recent developments and discoveries made in the search…

  10. It's a Frog's Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  11. Limited life item management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaglen, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Plans are available for age-sensitive hardware management. Control plan identifies shelf life or age control requirements for materials considered age sensitive, use sensitive, or time service or shelf life controlled items, and describes methods of arriving at age controls through adherence to detailed specifications.

  12. It's a Frog's Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Audrey L.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2003-01-01

    When a preschool teacher unexpectedly found tadpoles in the school's outdoor baby pool, she recognized an unusual opportunity for her students to study pond life up close. By following the tadpoles' development, students learned about frogs, life cycles, habitats. (Contains 1 resource.)

  13. Thrust chamber life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reusable life of the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) is influenced by the cyclic life of the regeneratively liquid cooled main combustion chamber (MCC). During an operational duty cycle the MCC liner is subjected to a large transient thermal gradient that imparts a high thermal cyclic strain to the liner hot gas wall. Life predictions of such chambers have usually been based on low cycle fatigue (LCF) evaluations. Hot-fire testing, however, has shown significant mid-channel wall deformation and thinning during accrued cyclic testing. This phenomenon is termed cyclic creep and appears to be significantly accelerated at elevated temperatures. An analytical method that models the cyclic creep phenomenon and its application to thrust chamber life prediction is presented. The chamber finite element geometry is updated periodically to account for accrued wall thinning and distortion. Failure is based on the tensile instability failure criterion. Cyclic life results for several chamber life enhancing coolant channel designs are compared to the typically used LCF analysis that neglects cyclic creep. The results show that the usable cyclic creep life is approximately 30 to 50% of the commonly used LCF life.

  14. Empowering Students for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

  15. The Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Kenneth E. F.

    1973-01-01

    The origin of our quality of life problems is explained within a historical and international perspective. Two sample problems are analyzed to illustrate the effects of the causes of quality of life problems and to propose solutions to these problems. (KM)

  16. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  17. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  18. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  19. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  20. Is Life Unique?

    PubMed Central

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  1. Empowering Students for Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the new Occupational & Life Skills (OLS) program at Bellevue Community College in Bellevue, Washington. The OLS-Venture program, as it is now called, grew out of a series of continuing education classes in personal finance, cooking, and related life skills for people with autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder and other…

  2. Psychosis, Trauma, and Ordinary Mental Life.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Psychotherapy has gained wide acceptance as a primary treatment for nonpsychotic psychological disorders but has yet to find the same acceptance in the treatment of psychosis. One reason for this is the idea that schizophrenia is a genetically determined brain disease unlikely to respond to psychological treatments. A second reason is the difficulty most people have in relating the symptoms of psychosis such as hallucinations and delusions to their own mental processes. This paper relates the manifestations of psychosis to ordinary mental life, and describes how psychotic symptoms arise as meaningful expressions of unbearable psychological pain in the aftermath of adverse life events.

  3. Planets and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III; Baross, John

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Contributors; Prologue; Part I. History: 1. History of astrobiological ideas W. T. Sullivan and D. Carney; 2. From exobiology to astrobiology S. J. Dick; Part II. The Physical Stage: 3. Formation of Earth-like habitable planets D. E. Brownlee and M. Kress; 4. Planetary atmospheres and life D. Catling and J. F. Kasting; Part III. The Origin of Life on Earth: 5. Does 'life' have a definition? C.E. Cleland and C. F. Chyba; 6. Origin of life: crucial issues R. Shapiro; 7. Origin of proteins and nucleic acids A. Ricardo and S. A. Benner; 8. The roots of metabolism G.D. Cody and J. H. Scott; 9. Origin of cellular life D. W. Deamer; Part IV. Life on Earth: 10. Evolution: a defining feature of life J. A. Baross; 11. Evolution of metabolism and early microbial communities J. A. Leigh, D. A. Stahl and J. T. Staley; 12. The earliest records of life on Earth R. Buick; 13. The origin and diversification of eukaryotes M. L. Sogin, D. J. Patterson and A. McArthur; 14. Limits of carbon life on Earth and elsewhere J. A. Baross, J. Huber and M. Schrenk; 15. Life in ice J. W. Deming and H. Eicken; 16. The evolution and diversification of life S. Awramik and K. J. McNamara; 17. Mass extinctions P. D. Ward; Part V. Potentially Habitable Worlds: 18. Mars B. M. Jakosky, F. Westall and A. Brack; 19. Europa C. F. Chyba and C. B. Phillips; 20. Titan J. I. Lunine and B. Rizk; 21. Extrasolar planets P. Butler; Part VI. Searching for Extraterrestrial Life: 22. How to search for life on other worlds C. P. McKay; 23. Instruments and strategies for detecting extraterrestrial life P. G. Conrad; 24. Societial and ethical concerns M. S. Race; 25. Planetary protection J. D. Rummel; 26. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence J. C. Tarter; 27. Alien biochemistries P. D. Ward and S. A. Benner; Part VII. Future of the Field: 28. Disciplinary and educational opportunities L. Wells, J. Armstrong and J. Huber; Epilogue C. F. Chyba; Appendixes: A. Units and usages; B. Planetary

  4. Life in Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn; Bram, James A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the solar system has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the last few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harboring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modeling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we critically examine what it means to be an extremophile, the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology, and especially the search for life in the cosmos.

  5. Life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of space life sciences and current research on the physiology of man in space are reviewed by examining Spacelab SLS-1. Milestones of space life sciences are discussed, with emphasis on the Skylab facility, the Space Shuttle program, and the Soviet Mir space station. Attention is given to the topic of the origins of life as it relates to space life sciences. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites and the question of whether the earth was seeded with life from space are discussed. A brief overview of efforts in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is presented. Consideration is also given to the effects of gravity on cells, the effects of radiation, plant biology, CELSS, and the effects of gravity on humans.

  6. Life in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, L J; Mancinelli, R L

    2001-02-22

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harbouring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modelling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we examine critically what it means to be an extremophile, and the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology and especially the search for life in the Universe.

  7. Life in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of space life sciences and current research on the physiology of man in space are reviewed by examining Spacelab SLS-1. Milestones of space life sciences are discussed, with emphasis on the Skylab facility, the Space Shuttle program, and the Soviet Mir space station. Attention is given to the topic of the origins of life as it relates to space life sciences. The discovery of amino acids in meteorites and the question of whether the earth was seeded with life from space are discussed. A brief overview of efforts in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence is presented. Consideration is also given to the effects of gravity on cells, the effects of radiation, plant biology, CELSS, and the effects of gravity on humans.

  8. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  9. Life in extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2001-02-01

    Each recent report of liquid water existing elsewhere in the Solar System has reverberated through the international press and excited the imagination of humankind. Why? Because in the past few decades we have come to realize that where there is liquid water on Earth, virtually no matter what the physical conditions, there is life. What we previously thought of as insurmountable physical and chemical barriers to life, we now see as yet another niche harbouring 'extremophiles'. This realization, coupled with new data on the survival of microbes in the space environment and modelling of the potential for transfer of life between celestial bodies, suggests that life could be more common than previously thought. Here we examine critically what it means to be an extremophile, and the implications of this for evolution, biotechnology and especially the search for life in the Universe.

  10. Emergence of Life.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2011-09-29

    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of

  11. Deciding about treatments that prolong life

    MedlinePlus

    Palliative care - treatments that prolong life; Palliative care - life support; End-of-life-treatments that prolong life; Ventilator - treatments that prolong life; Respirator - treatments that prolong life; Life-support - ...

  12. Life on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, Oleksandr

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through the life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life - most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective “search for life” are Enceladus, Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter’s satellites, Saturn’s satellites and first of all - Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity - from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active - mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet - like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn’t lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or

  13. Defining Life or Bringing Biology to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called ‘omics’ revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough—but also encompassing enough—terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  14. Defining life or bringing biology to life.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Mirazo, Kepa; Peretó, Juli; Moreno, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    In the present, post-genomic times, systemic or holistic approaches to living phenomena are compulsory to overcome the limits of traditional strategies, such as the methodological reductionism of molecular biology. In this paper, we propose that theoretical and philosophical efforts to define life also contribute to those integrative approaches, providing a global theoretical framework that may help to deal with or interpret the huge amount of data being collected by current high-throughput technologies, in this so-called 'omics' revolution. We claim that two fundamental notions can capture the core of the living, (basic) autonomy and open-ended evolution, and that only the complementary combination of these two theoretical constructs offers an adequate solution to the problem of defining the nature of life in specific enough-but also encompassing enough-terms. This tentative solution should also illuminate, in its most elementary version, the leading steps towards living beings on Earth.

  15. Breathing fresh life into life science education.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cyrus

    2014-12-15

    In the US, higher education in the life sciences is being overhauled. There is now a move both to change the way we teach biology students, emphasizing more engaging approaches, and to clearly define what it is a student should know. And for advanced degrees, there is a push to prepare students for a range of possible career paths, not just the tenure track. Cyrus Martin reports.

  16. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  17. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  18. Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  19. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  20. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  1. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  2. Life and evolution as physics

    PubMed Central

    Bejan, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT What is evolution and why does it exist in the biological, geophysical and technological realms — in short, everywhere? Why is there a time direction — a time arrow — in the changes we know are happening every moment and everywhere? Why is the present different than the past? These are questions of physics, about everything, not just biology. The answer is that nothing lives, flows and moves unless it is driven by power. Physics sheds light on the natural engines that produce the power destroyed by the flows, and on the free morphing that leads to flow architectures naturally and universally. There is a unifying tendency across all domains to evolve into flow configurations that provide greater access for movement. This tendency is expressed as the constructal law of evolutionary flow organization everywhere. Here I illustrate how this law of physics accounts for and unites the life and evolution phenomena throughout nature, animate and inanimate. PMID:27489579

  3. Life and evolution as physics.

    PubMed

    Bejan, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    What is evolution and why does it exist in the biological, geophysical and technological realms - in short, everywhere? Why is there a time direction - a time arrow - in the changes we know are happening every moment and everywhere? Why is the present different than the past? These are questions of physics, about everything, not just biology. The answer is that nothing lives, flows and moves unless it is driven by power. Physics sheds light on the natural engines that produce the power destroyed by the flows, and on the free morphing that leads to flow architectures naturally and universally. There is a unifying tendency across all domains to evolve into flow configurations that provide greater access for movement. This tendency is expressed as the constructal law of evolutionary flow organization everywhere. Here I illustrate how this law of physics accounts for and unites the life and evolution phenomena throughout nature, animate and inanimate.

  4. Opinion Elicitation in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Marijn; Neviarouskaya, Alena; Prendinger, Helmut

    The paper describes a novel method for opinion elicitation, which is based on the popular 3D online world of “Second Life”. Here people, as avatars, are put into a somewhat realistic context related to the topic for which opinions are sought. We hypothesize that this kind of concrete, interactive context supports the evocation of opinions better than non-context methods, e.g. only showing related images. To confirm our hypothesis, we conducted a small pilot study, which compares the influence of static and interactive context methods on the opinions expressed by subjects. The opinion elicitation scenario in Second Life is supported by the automatic retrieval of opinions from the web. The results of a study indicate that subjects show more reasoned opinions in the interactive condition. A demo illustrating the content of this paper is available.

  5. End of life care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-01-26

    The combination of an ageing population and increasing numbers of prisoners means delivering end of life care in prisons is inevitable. To this end the National End of Life Programme has published a practical guide, aimed at health and social care workers, and prison staff. The guide outlines the six steps of the end of life care pathway in detail, from initiating discussions to care after death. It also includes case studies highlighting best practice. To read the guide, visit http://tinyurl.com/ndoflifeinprison.

  6. Potential alternate life biochemistries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konesky, Gregory

    2013-09-01

    While life on Earth continues to be discovered in unlikely environments, the underlying biochemistry is all very similar, based on the element carbon, and requiring liquid water. We consider alternate biochemistries based on elements other than carbon, including other group IVA elements, such as silicon and germanium, and solvents other than water. Terminal electron acceptors other than oxygen are also discussed. A fundamental issue is raised related to the detection of, and even the definition of life, whether it is carbon or non-carbon based. An extreme example of this issue would be in consideration of speculative life based on electrically charged dusty plasmas, which may have no physical body.

  7. Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    After a launch from the Baikonur cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, 9 November 2005 and a five-month cruise, the Venus Express spacecraft reached Venus on 11 April 2006. The spacecraft has now reached its final operational, 24 hour polar orbit, with apocentre altitude of 66000km and pericentre altitude of 250 km. During the first weeks of routine operation the spacecraft has already sent back a wealth of exiting information. Venus is thus again, after having been the `"forgotten planet" for more than a decade, target for intense studies to better understand the many problems not answered by the more than twenty US and Soviet probes launched in the previous decades. The objective of the Venus Express mission is to carry out a comprehensive study of the atmosphere of Venus, the plasma environment and its interaction with the solar wind, and to study certain aspects of the surface of the planet. A well optimised payload composed of two multi channel spectrometers, an IR-Vis-UV imaging spectrometer, a wide angle camera, a multi-sensor energetic particle instrument, a magnetometer, and a radio science experiment, allows all elements of the objectives to be addressed at a sufficient depth. Venus Express has been developed in record time, less than four years, using an efficient concept of re-using elements of recently developed spacecraft, mainly Mars Express and Rosetta. Significant savings for both the space and ground segments have been possible by using existing teams in industry, in ESA and in several of the science institutes involved. The first data has shown a highly dynamic atmosphere, including close-ups of the southern polar double vortex, indeed topics of high interest and among the top priority objectives. The high resolution spectrometers are finding several minor species at various depths of the atmosphere. Venus Express is the first mission fully exploiting the Infrared spectral windows, in order to map the atmosphere in three dimensions. The first data returned

  8. Social Expressivity During the First Year of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, David

    1978-01-01

    A number of infantile nonverbal behaviors are listed that can be interpreted as signs of a child's fundamental psychosocial orientations to others during the first year. Ethological studies of child and adult nonverbal communication suggest a considerable degree of neoteny in the human sign system. (SW)

  9. A New Malaysian Quality of Life Index Based on Fuzzy Sets and Hierarchical Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazim, M. Abdullah; Abu Osman, M. Tap

    2009-01-01

    The Malaysian Quality of Life Index (MQLI) released by the Economic Planning Unit (EPU), has led authors to search for alternative method of expressing this index. One of the limitations in MQLI computations is the failure to recognise unequal weights for each accounted component. This paper offers a new way of expressing the quality of life index…

  10. A New Malaysian Quality of Life Index Based on Fuzzy Sets and Hierarchical Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazim, M. Abdullah; Abu Osman, M. Tap

    2009-01-01

    The Malaysian Quality of Life Index (MQLI) released by the Economic Planning Unit (EPU), has led authors to search for alternative method of expressing this index. One of the limitations in MQLI computations is the failure to recognise unequal weights for each accounted component. This paper offers a new way of expressing the quality of life index…

  11. Life Options Rehabilitation Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... at our CE credit website . Free Life Options Materials Download our free print materials, research-based fact ... sheets are also available in Spanish! Vaccination Education Materials Easy-to-read patient education fact sheets will ...

  12. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  13. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  14. Aquatic Life Criteria - Atrazine

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Water Quality Aquatic Life Criteria for Atrazine (Freshwater and Salt Water). This document contains the safe levels of Atrazine in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  15. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... Feelings Having a baby is a major, life-changing experience. Don't be surprised to find that ...

  16. Suicides in late life.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  17. Suicides in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well. PMID:21369952

  18. Regenerative Life Support Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the development plan and design concept of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) planned for flight testing in the European Space Agency Spacelab. The development plan encompasses the ongoing advanced life support subsystem and a systems integration effort to evolve concurrently subsystem concepts that perform their function and can be integrated with other subsystems in a flight demonstration of a regenerative life support system. The design concept for RLSE comprises water-electrolysis O2 generation, electrochemically depolarized CO2 removal, and Sabatier CO2 reduction for atmosphere regeneration, urine vapor-compression distillation, and wash-water hyperfiltration for waste-water recovery. The flight demonstration by RLSE is an important step in qualifying the regenerative concepts for life support in space stations.

  19. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  20. Is life supernatural?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2015-09-01

    The big question of the origin of life is examined. The paradox created by Pasteur's resounding edict: Life only comes from life, pitted against the need for spontaneous generation is explored. This seemingly dead-end conundrum contrasts sharply with the great progress we have made in understanding the evolution of the species since Darwin's revolutionary insight. The conditions and sources of energy that might have promoted non-living molecules and compounds to cross the sharp line from inert to living are contemplated. Abiotic synthesis might help explain the origin, but still fails to explain the moment of vitalization. A different approach to discovering when the inert becomes alive is proposed. The need for, and a way to bring forth, a "Bio-Einstein" to solve this penultimate question of life's origin are presented.

  1. Life under alien skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis

    2012-04-01

    As the number of confirmed extrasolar planets increases, so does the likelihood that some of them will harbour life. Lewis Dartnell describes some preliminary - but increasingly well founded - efforts to predict what alien plants and animals might look like.

  2. Life on moduli space?

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2009-10-15

    While the number of metastable landscape vacua in string theory is vast, the number of supermoduli vacua which lead to distinct low-energy physics is even larger, perhaps infinitely so. From the anthropic perspective it is therefore important to understand whether complex life is possible on moduli space - i.e., in low-energy effective theories with (1) exact supersymmetry and (2) some massless multiplets (moduli). Unless life is essentially impossible on moduli space as a consequence of these characteristics, anthropic reasoning in string theory suggests that the overwhelming majority of sentient beings would observe 1-2. We investigate whether 1 and 2 are by themselves automatically inimical to life and conclude, tentatively, that they are not. In particular, we describe moduli scenarios in which complex life seems possible.

  3. LIFE Delivery Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T. M.

    2011-04-20

    The LIFE Delivery Plan describes the path from ignition on NIF to achieving the goal of an operational fusion power plant that demonstrates all the functions and performance characteristics required to underwrite the move to a commercial fleet.

  4. Aquatic Life Criteria - Cadmium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2016 Acute and Chronic Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Cadmium (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Cadmium in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  5. Diversity of Life Possible

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

  6. Aquatic Life Criteria - Carbaryl

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertaining to 2012 Final National Recommended Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Carbaryl (Freshwater, Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Carbaryl in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  7. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  8. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  9. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  10. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  11. Aquatic Life Criteria - Lead

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    References and documents pertaining to Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Lead. These documents include the safe levels of Lead in water that should protect the majority of species.

  12. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  13. Urbanism and life satisfaction among the aged.

    PubMed

    Liang, J; Warfel, B L

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the impact of urbanism on the causal mechanisms by which life satisfaction is determined. Although the links between the type of community and life satisfaction have been the foci of many studies, the findings are by no means conclusive. Some have found that the rural elderly express greater satisfaction, others have not. Such a discrepancy may be due to (a) the neglect of other variables, (b) a lack of explicit causal specifications, and (c) the failure to distinguish main effects from interaction effects. In this study a causal model that incorporates urbanism as a polytomous variable and its interaction effects has been proposed. The model was evaluated by using four data sets with sample sizes ranging from 961 to 3,996. Urbanism was found to have indirect main effects as well as interaction effects on life satisfaction.

  14. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  15. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  16. Life Satisfaction and the Pursuit of Happiness on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Life satisfaction refers to a somewhat stable cognitive assessment of one's own life. Life satisfaction is an important component of subjective well being, the scientific term for happiness. The other component is affect: the balance between the presence of positive and negative emotions in daily life. While affect has been studied using social media datasets (particularly from Twitter), life satisfaction has received little to no attention. Here, we examine trends in posts about life satisfaction from a two-year sample of Twitter data. We apply a surveillance methodology to extract expressions of both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with life. A noteworthy result is that consistent with their definitions trends in life satisfaction posts are immune to external events (political, seasonal etc.) unlike affect trends reported by previous researchers. Comparing users we find differences between satisfied and dissatisfied users in several linguistic, psychosocial and other features. For example the latter post more tweets expressing anger, anxiety, depression, sadness and on death. We also study users who change their status over time from satisfied with life to dissatisfied or vice versa. Noteworthy is that the psychosocial tweet features of users who change from satisfied to dissatisfied are quite different from those who stay satisfied over time. Overall, the observations we make are consistent with intuition and consistent with observations in the social science research. This research contributes to the study of the subjective well being of individuals through social media.

  17. Life Satisfaction and the Pursuit of Happiness on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    Life satisfaction refers to a somewhat stable cognitive assessment of one’s own life. Life satisfaction is an important component of subjective well being, the scientific term for happiness. The other component is affect: the balance between the presence of positive and negative emotions in daily life. While affect has been studied using social media datasets (particularly from Twitter), life satisfaction has received little to no attention. Here, we examine trends in posts about life satisfaction from a two-year sample of Twitter data. We apply a surveillance methodology to extract expressions of both satisfaction and dissatisfaction with life. A noteworthy result is that consistent with their definitions trends in life satisfaction posts are immune to external events (political, seasonal etc.) unlike affect trends reported by previous researchers. Comparing users we find differences between satisfied and dissatisfied users in several linguistic, psychosocial and other features. For example the latter post more tweets expressing anger, anxiety, depression, sadness and on death. We also study users who change their status over time from satisfied with life to dissatisfied or vice versa. Noteworthy is that the psychosocial tweet features of users who change from satisfied to dissatisfied are quite different from those who stay satisfied over time. Overall, the observations we make are consistent with intuition and consistent with observations in the social science research. This research contributes to the study of the subjective well being of individuals through social media. PMID:26982323

  18. Life on Mars: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Mars has evidence for past liquid water, presence of an atmosphere with CO2 and N2, and potential for preservation of evidence of life. Composition of the Martian atmosphere is 95.3% Carbon dioxide, 2.7% Nitrogen, 1.6% Argon, 0.3-0.1% Water Vapor, 0.13% Oxygen, and 0.07% Carbon Monoxide. Current Mars missions include: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter,

  19. Money for your life.

    PubMed

    Larson, P

    1997-01-01

    New HIV treatments are prohibitively expensive, and some patients sell their life insurance policies for financial relief in times of crisis. Viatication is a $400 million industry, and it works by calculating a patient's life expectancy and paying them a percentage of their insurance value, based on actuarial tables. Rates can vary greatly, however, and patients are advised to compare company policies. There are also tax implications for this income, and patients should seek financial advice before selling their policy.

  20. NASA Life Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This Life Science Program video examines the variety of projects that study both the physiological and psychological impacts on astronauts due to extended space missions. The hazards of space radiation and microgravity effects on the human body are described, along with these effects on plant growth, and the performance of medical procedures in space. One research technique, which is hoped to provide help for future space travel, is the study of aquanauts and their life habits underwater.

  1. Expressed Sequence Reference Standards for Evaluating Stage-specific Gene Expression in Southern Green Lacewings, Chrysoperla rufilabris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Five developmental stages of Chrysoperla rufilabris were tested using nine primer pairs. Three sequences were highly expressed at all life stages and six were differentially expressed. These primer pairs may be used as standards to quantitate functional gene expression associated with physiological ...

  2. Sex and life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Seifarth, Joshua E; McGowan, Cheri L; Milne, Kevin J

    2012-12-01

    A sexual dimorphism in human life expectancy has existed in almost every country for as long as records have been kept. Although human life expectancy has increased each year, females still live longer, on average, than males. Undoubtedly, the reasons for the sex gap in life expectancy are multifaceted, and it has been discussed from both sociological and biological perspectives. However, even if biological factors make up only a small percentage of the determinants of the sex difference in this phenomenon, parity in average life expectancy should not be anticipated. The aim of this review is to highlight biological mechanisms that may underlie the sexual dimorphism in life expectancy. Using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar, as well as cited and citing reference histories of articles through August 2012, English-language articles were identified, read, and synthesized into categories that could account for biological sex differences in human life expectancy. The examination of biological mechanisms accounting for the female-based advantage in human life expectancy has been an active area of inquiry; however, it is still difficult to prove the relative importance of any 1 factor. Nonetheless, biological differences between the sexes do exist and include differences in genetic and physiological factors such as progressive skewing of X chromosome inactivation, telomere attrition, mitochondrial inheritance, hormonal and cellular responses to stress, immune function, and metabolic substrate handling among others. These factors may account for at least a part of the female advantage in human life expectancy. Despite noted gaps in sex equality, higher body fat percentages and lower physical activity levels globally at all ages, a sex-based gap in life expectancy exists in nearly every country for which data exist. There are several biological mechanisms that may contribute to explaining why females live longer than men on average, but the complexity of the

  3. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: A multicultural study

    PubMed Central

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M.; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Design Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Outcome measures Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. Results People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to “Traditional”, “Universal”, and “Personal” life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. Conclusion It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values. PMID:23809526

  4. Causation and the origin of life. Metabolism or replication first?

    PubMed

    Pross, Addy

    2004-06-01

    The conceptual gulf that separates the 'metabolism first' and 'replication first' mechanisms for the emergence of life continues to cloud the origin of life debate. In the present paper we analyze this aspect of the origin of life problem and offer arguments in favor of the 'replication first' school. Utilizing Wicken's two-tier approach to causation we argue that a causal connection between replication and metabolism can only be demonstrated if replication would have preceded metabolism. In conjunction with existing empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning, our analysis concludes that there is no substantive evidence for a 'metabolism first' mechanism for life's emergence, while a coherent case can be made for the 'replication first' group of mechanisms. The analysis reaffirms our conviction that life is an extreme expression of kinetic control, and that the emergence of metabolic pathways can be understood by considering life as a manifestation of 'replicative chemistry'.

  5. From fatigue test life to structure safe life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwei

    1991-08-01

    According to Chinese military specifications a suitable fatigue life scatter factor must be used in determining aircraft safe life from fatigue test life. The relationship between the reliability and the life distribution scatter factor has been discussed. The difference between the life distribution scatter factor and the specification life scatter factor has been pointed out. The concept of spectrum variation factor has been emphasized. It is argued that the specification fatigue life scatter factor should be the product of the life distribution scatter factor and the spectrum variation factor. Determination of structure safe life from fatigue test results of used structures has also been considered. Two points are of significance: when converting used time to fatigue test life the time should be reduced instead of being increased, different specification fatigue life scatter factors should be chosen for service time and test time.

  6. Life without water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, Lois M.; Crowe, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Anhydrobiosis, or life without water is commonly demonstrated by a number of plants and animals. These organisms have the capacity to loose all body water, remain dry for various periods, and then be revived by rehydration. While in the anhydrobiotic state, these organisms become highly resistant to several environmental stresses such as extremely low temperatures, elevated temperatures, ionizing radiation, and high vacuum. Since water is commonly thought to be essential for life, survival of anhydrobiotic organisms with an almost total loss of water is examined. A search of literature reveal that many anhydrobiotic organisms make large quantities of trehalose or other carbohydrates. Laboratory experiments have shown that trehalose is able to stabilize and preserve microsomes of sarcoplasmic reticulum and artificial liposomes. It was demonstrated that trehalose and other disaccharides can interact directly with phosopipid headgroups and maintain membranes in their native configuration by replacing water in the headgroup region. Recent studies show that trehalose is an effective stabilizer of proteins during drying and that it does so by direct interaction with groups on the protein. If life that is able to withstand environmental extremes has ever developed on Mars, it is expected that such life would have developed some protective compounds which can stabilize macromolecular structure in the absence of water and at cold temperatures. On Earth, that role appears to be filled by carbohydrates that can stabilize both membrane and protein stuctures during freezing and drying. By analog with terrestrial systems, such life forms might develop resistance either during some reproductive stage or at any time during adult existence. If the resistant form is a developmental stage, the life cycle of the organism must be completed with a reasonable time period relative to time when environmental conditions are favorable. This would suggest that simple organisms with a short

  7. Life sciences recruitment objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, J. Richard

    1992-01-01

    The goals of the Life Sciences Division of the Office of Space Sciences and Application are to ensure the health, well being and productivity of humans in space and to acquire fundamental scientific knowledge in space life sciences. With these goals in mind Space Station Freedom represents substantial opportunities and significant challenges to the Life Sciences Division. For the first time it will be possible to replicate experimental data from a variety of simultaneously exposed species with appropriate controls and real-time analytical capabilities over extended periods of time. At the same time, a system for monitoring and ameliorating the physiological adaptations that occur in humans subjected to extended space flight must be evolved to provide the continuing operational support to the SSF crew. To meet its goals, and take advantage of the opportunities and overcome the challenges presented by Space Station Freedom, the Life Sciences Division is developing a suite of discipline-focused sequence. The research phase of the Life Sciences Space Station Freedom Program will commence with the utilization flights following the deployment of the U.S. laboratory module and achievement of Man Tended Capability. Investigators that want the Life Sciences Division to sponsor their experiment on SSF can do so in one of three ways: submitting a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA), submitting a proposal in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (AO), or submitting an unsolicited proposal. The scientific merit of all proposals will be evaluated by peer review panels. Proposals will also be evaluated based on relevance to NASA's missions and on the results of an Engineering and Cost Analyses. The Life Sciences Division expects that the majority of its funding opportunities will be announced through NRA's. It is anticipated that the first NRA will be released approximately three years before first element launch (currently scheduled for late 1995

  8. From Matter to Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imari Walker, Sara; Davies, Paul C. W.; Ellis, George F. R.

    2017-02-01

    1. Introduction Sara Imari Walker, Paul C. W. Davies and F. R. Ellis; Part I. Physics and Life: 2. The 'hard problem' of life Sara Imari Walker and Paul C. W. Davies; 3. Beyond initial conditions and laws of motion: constructor theory of information and life Chiara Marletto; Part II. Bio from Bit: 4. (How) did information emerge? Anne-Marie Grisogono; 5. On the emerging codes for chemical evolution Jillian E. Smith-Carpenter, Sha Li, Jay T. Goodwin, Anil K. Mehta and David G. Lynn; 6. Digital and analogue information in organisms Denis Noble; 7. From entropy to information: biased typewriters and the origin of life Christoph Adami and Thomas Labar; Part III. Life's Hidden Information: 8. Cryptographic nature David Krakauer; 9. Noise and function Steven Weinstein and Theodore Pavlic; 10. The many faces of state space compression David Wolpert, Eric Libby, Joshua Grochow and Simon DeDeo; 11. Causality, information and biological computation: an algorithmic software approach to life, disease and the immune system Hector Zenil, Angelika Schmidt and Jesper Tegnér; Part IV. Complexity and Causality: 12. Life's information hierarchy Jessica Flack; 13. Living through downward causation: from molecules to ecosystems Keith D. Farnsworth, George F. R. Ellis and Luc Jaeger; 14. Automata and animats: from dynamics to cause-effect structures Larissa Albantakis and Giulio Tononi; 15. Biological information, causality and specificity - an intimate relationship Karola Stotz and Paul Griffiths; Part V. From Matter to Mind: 16. Major transitions in political order Simon DeDeo; 17. Bits from biology for computational intelligence Michael Wibral, Joseph Lizier and Viola Priesemann; 18. Machine learning and the questions it raises G. Andrew D. Briggs and Dawid Potgieter.

  9. A Quantum Origin of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Paul C. W.

    The following sections are included: * Chemistry and Information * Q-life * The Problem of Decoherence * Life as the "Solution" of a Quantum Search Algorithm * Quantum Choreography * Acknowledgements * References

  10. Salamander paedomorphosis: linking thyroid hormone to life history and life cycle evolution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Carlena K; Voss, S Randal

    2013-01-01

    Many salamanders have biphasic life cycles with aquatic larval and terrestrial adult phases. In these species, the transition between phases-metamorphosis-requires thyroid hormone (TH) activation of transcriptional programs that cause regression of larval traits and development of adult traits. During salamander evolution, TH signaling pathways have been altered in biphasic species to yield paedomorphic salamanders that retain larval traits and attain sexual maturity in larval aquatic habitats. We review literature concerning the ecology, evolution, and hormonal regulation of metamorphic, paedomorphic, and facultative salamander life histories. We then discuss recent microarray results that detail gene expression signatures of metamorphosis and paedomorphosis, and genetic results that establish TH responsiveness as a continuous trait with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) basis. TH-responsive QTL from ambystomatid salamanders explain variation in metamorphic timing, expression of metamorphosis versus paedomorphosis, and adult fitness traits. We propose a model for salamander life history evolution that links adaptation to aquatic habitats with TH-responsive loci that pleiotropically alter metamorphic timing and adult body size. Future studies that adopt genetic and genomic approaches will further establish salamanders as ideal models for investigating TH signaling mechanisms that regulate postembryonic development and the expression of alternate life histories.

  11. Intelligent life in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    2003-04-01

    I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the modern synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Secondly, I shall develop the Fermi paradox: if they existed, they would be here. Thirdly, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.

  12. Comets and life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Berry, J. M.

    1987-01-01

    Some of the chemical species which have been detected in comets include H2O, HCN, CH3CN, CO, CO2, NH3, CS, C2 and C3. All of these have also been detected in the interstellar medium, indicating a probable relationship between interstellar dust and gas clouds and comets. Laboratory experiments carried out with different mixtures of these molecules give rise to the formation of the biochemical compounds which are necessary for life, such as amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, monosaccharides, etc. However, in spite of suggestions to the contrary, the presence of life in comets is unlikely. On the other hand, the capture of cometary matter by the primitive earth is considered essential for the development of life on this planet. The amount of cometary carbon-containing matter captured by the earth, as calcualted by different authors, is several times larger than the total amount of organic matter present in the biosphere (10 to the 18th g). The major classes of reactions which were probably involved in the formation of key biochemical compounds are discussed. The tentative conclusions are that: (1) comets played a predominant role in the emergence of life on earth, and (2) they are the cosmic connection with extraterrestrial life.

  13. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  14. Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Morris L.

    1980-01-01

    For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

  15. Chance of Necessity: Modeling Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental nature of processes that led to the emergence of life has been a subject of long-standing debate. One view holds that the origin of life is an event governed by chance, and the result of so many random events is unpredictable. This view was eloquently expressed by Jacques Monod in his book Chance or Necessity. In an alternative view, the origin of life is considered a deterministic event. Its details need not be deterministic in every respect, but the overall behavior is predictable. A corollary to the deterministic view is that the emergence of life must have been determined primarily by universal chemistry and biochemistry rather than by subtle details of environmental conditions. In my lecture I will explore two different paradigms for the emergence of life and discuss their implications for predictability and universality of life-forming processes. The dominant approach is that the origin of life was guided by information stored in nucleic acids (the RNA World hypothesis). In this view, selection of improved combinations of nucleic acids obtained through random mutations drove evolution of biological systems from their conception. An alternative hypothesis states that the formation of protocellular metabolism was driven by non-genomic processes. Even though these processes were highly stochastic the outcome was largely deterministic, strongly constrained by laws of chemistry. I will argue that self-replication of macromolecules was not required at the early stages of evolution; the reproduction of cellular functions alone was sufficient for self-maintenance of protocells. In fact, the precise transfer of information between successive generations of the earliest protocells was unnecessary and could have impeded the discovery of cellular metabolism. I will also show that such concepts as speciation and fitness to the environment, developed in the context of genomic evolution also hold in the absence of a genome.

  16. Chance of Necessity: Modeling Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental nature of processes that led to the emergence of life has been a subject of long-standing debate. One view holds that the origin of life is an event governed by chance, and the result of so many random events is unpredictable. This view was eloquently expressed by Jacques Monod in his book Chance or Necessity. In an alternative view, the origin of life is considered a deterministic event. Its details need not be deterministic in every respect, but the overall behavior is predictable. A corollary to the deterministic view is that the emergence of life must have been determined primarily by universal chemistry and biochemistry rather than by subtle details of environmental conditions. In my lecture I will explore two different paradigms for the emergence of life and discuss their implications for predictability and universality of life-forming processes. The dominant approach is that the origin of life was guided by information stored in nucleic acids (the RNA World hypothesis). In this view, selection of improved combinations of nucleic acids obtained through random mutations drove evolution of biological systems from their conception. An alternative hypothesis states that the formation of protocellular metabolism was driven by non-genomic processes. Even though these processes were highly stochastic the outcome was largely deterministic, strongly constrained by laws of chemistry. I will argue that self-replication of macromolecules was not required at the early stages of evolution; the reproduction of cellular functions alone was sufficient for self-maintenance of protocells. In fact, the precise transfer of information between successive generations of the earliest protocells was unnecessary and could have impeded the discovery of cellular metabolism. I will also show that such concepts as speciation and fitness to the environment, developed in the context of genomic evolution also hold in the absence of a genome.

  17. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  18. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  19. Life in the Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

  20. Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation is planned to be a 10-15 minute "catalytic" focused presentation to be scheduled during one of the working sessions at the TIM. This presentation will focus on Advanced Life Support technologies key to future human Space Exploration as outlined in the Vision, and will include basic requirements, assessment of the state-of-the-art and gaps, and include specific technology metrics. The presentation will be technical in character, lean heavily on data in published ALS documents (such as the Baseline Values and Assumptions Document) but not provide specific technical details or build to information on any technology mentioned (thus the presentation will be benign from an export control and a new technology perspective). The topics presented will be focused on the following elements of Advanced Life Support: air revitalization, water recovery, waste management, thermal control, habitation systems, food systems and bioregenerative life support.

  1. Life sciences accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    From its inception, the main charter of Life Sciences has been to define biomedical requirements for the design and development of spacecraft systems and to participate in NASA's scientific exploration of the universe. The role of the Life Sciences Division is to: (1) assure the health, well being and productivity of all individuals who fly in space; (2) study the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe; and (3) to utilize the space environment as a tool for research in biology and medicine. The activities, programs, and accomplishments to date in the efforts to achieve these goals are detailed and the future challenges that face the division as it moves forward from the shuttle era to a permanent manned presence in space space station's are examined.

  2. Stress and life history.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-05-19

    In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories.

  3. Life in the Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Wainwright, N. R.; Grasby, S. E.; Harvey, R. P.

    2003-01-01

    The current Martian surface environment is extremely hostile to any known form of life. The combination of subfreezing temperature, low atmospheric pressure and high ultraviolet flux, combined with desiccated and possibly oxidizing soil, could destroy even the hardiest microorganisms. The Viking biology experiments are generally interpreted to indicate that the surface of Mars is currently devoid of life and organic molecules at the part-per-billion level. Speculation on the possibility of extant or preserved microbial life on Mars thus centers on refuges in some manner protected from the current surface environment, either in space or time. Terrestrial analogs include hydrothermal systems, lakes, caves and subsurface aquifers as well as more clement conditions in the distant past. We are examining the evidence for microbiology in Earth's glaciated polar regions as analogs to the polar caps of Mars. This research concerns the detection of microorganisms or their preserved remains at the surface and within polar glacial ice.

  4. Life before LUCA.

    PubMed

    Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Cárdenas, María Luz

    2017-12-07

    We see the last universal common ancestor of all living organisms, or LUCA, at the evolutionary separation of the Archaea from the Eubacteria, and before the symbiotic event believed to have led to the Eukarya. LUCA is often implicitly taken to be close to the origin of life, and sometimes this is even stated explicitly. However, LUCA already had the capacity to code for many proteins, and had some of the same bioenergetic capacities as modern organisms. An organism at the origin of life must have been vastly simpler, and this invites the question of how to define a living organism. Even if acceptance of the giant viruses as living organisms forces the definition of LUCA to be revised, it will not alter the essential point that LUCA should be regarded as a recent player in the evolution of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  6. Habitats of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  7. Life events in bipolar disorder: towards more specific models.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sheri L

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews the evidence concerning life events as a predictor of symptoms within bipolar disorder. First, key methodological issues in this area are described, and criteria used for including studies in this review are defined. Then findings that negative life events predict worse outcomes within bipolar disorder are reviewed. Beyond general studies on relapse, it is important to differentiate predictors of depression from predictors of mania. When severe negative life events occur, they appear to trigger increases in bipolar depression. Nonetheless, many depressions are unrelated to negative life events and appear to be triggered by other variables. The strongest evidence suggests that negative life events do not trigger mania, except perhaps in certain contexts. Retrospective findings for schedule-disrupting life events as a trigger for manic symptoms await further assessment within a longitudinal study. Life events involving goal attainment do appear to trigger manic symptoms. Overall, it is time to differentiate among specific types of life events, as these different forms of events point towards mechanisms linking stressors with symptom expression. These mechanisms provide clues into ways to integrate the social environment with biological vulnerability (see [Monroe, S.M., & Johnson, S.L. (1990)). the dimensions of life stress and the specificity of disorder. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 167-1694; Harris, T.O. (1991). Life stress and illness: the question of specificity. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 13, 211-219]).

  8. The MPI Facial Expression Database — A Validated Database of Emotional and Conversational Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kaulard, Kathrin; Cunningham, Douglas W.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Wallraven, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The ability to communicate is one of the core aspects of human life. For this, we use not only verbal but also nonverbal signals of remarkable complexity. Among the latter, facial expressions belong to the most important information channels. Despite the large variety of facial expressions we use in daily life, research on facial expressions has so far mostly focused on the emotional aspect. Consequently, most databases of facial expressions available to the research community also include only emotional expressions, neglecting the largely unexplored aspect of conversational expressions. To fill this gap, we present the MPI facial expression database, which contains a large variety of natural emotional and conversational expressions. The database contains 55 different facial expressions performed by 19 German participants. Expressions were elicited with the help of a method-acting protocol, which guarantees both well-defined and natural facial expressions. The method-acting protocol was based on every-day scenarios, which are used to define the necessary context information for each expression. All facial expressions are available in three repetitions, in two intensities, as well as from three different camera angles. A detailed frame annotation is provided, from which a dynamic and a static version of the database have been created. In addition to describing the database in detail, we also present the results of an experiment with two conditions that serve to validate the context scenarios as well as the naturalness and recognizability of the video sequences. Our results provide clear evidence that conversational expressions can be recognized surprisingly well from visual information alone. The MPI facial expression database will enable researchers from different research fields (including the perceptual and cognitive sciences, but also affective computing, as well as computer vision) to investigate the processing of a wider range of natural facial expressions

  9. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  10. The planets and life.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    It is pointed out that planetary exploration is not simply a program designed to detect life on another planet. A planet similar to earth, such as Mars, when studied for evidence as to why life did not arise, may turn out to be scientifically more important than a planet which has already produced a living system. Of particular interest after Mars are Venus and Jupiter. Jupiter has a primitive atmosphere which may well be synthesizing organic molecules today. Speculations have been made concerning the possibility of a bio-zone in the upper atmosphere of Venus.

  11. Space Life Sciences Lab

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-09

    The Space Life Sciences Lab (SLSL), formerly known as the Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL), is a state-of-the-art facility built for ISS biotechnology research. Developed as a partnership between NASA-KSC and the State of Florida, NASA’s life sciences contractor is the primary tenant of the facility, leasing space to conduct flight experiment processing and NASA-sponsored research. About 20 percent of the facility will be available for use by Florida’s university researchers through the Florida Space Research Institute.

  12. Earth before life.

    PubMed

    Marzban, Caren; Viswanathan, Raju; Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2014-01-09

    A recent study argued, based on data on functional genome size of major phyla, that there is evidence life may have originated significantly prior to the formation of the Earth. Here a more refined regression analysis is performed in which 1) measurement error is systematically taken into account, and 2) interval estimates (e.g., confidence or prediction intervals) are produced. It is shown that such models for which the interval estimate for the time origin of the genome includes the age of the Earth are consistent with observed data. The appearance of life after the formation of the Earth is consistent with the data set under examination.

  13. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Viking biology experiments are examined. It is noted that the Viking missions did not find a terrestrial type of life at either of the two landing sites. This evidence may suggest that Mars is lifeless, but science demands a more rigorous proof; thus, it is still not known whether life exists on Mars. It is suggested that the Martian polar regions must be explored before a conclusive answer is possible; the permanent polar caps of Mars are frozen water and would act as a 'cold finger' of the planet to trap organic molecules.

  14. Life after ANZUS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-25

    Th"s document may not be rasmed for open pubhcUo gad it has been deamed by dhe appropnata mditary servic or 3V’ernment agency. LIFE AFTER ANZUS BY...PROGRAM PROJECT TASK IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Life After ANZUS 12. PERSONAL AUTOR(S...Australia protested vigorously to New Zealand but to no avail. As a result the provisions of the ANZUS Treaty in relation to New Zealand were suspended

  15. Bioregenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems utilize plant growth for food, water, and atmosphere revitalization. Simulation studies of a simplified model are presented that suggest survivability in the face of partial plant growth chamber failure. Simulation studies demonstrate the potential for a bioregenerative life support system on an extended mission. In addition to robustness and survivability in terms of the food supply, the plant growth chamber produces exactly the right amount of oxygen for the crew's metabolic needs. The amount of water taken up by the plants during food production is balanced by the crew's metabolic water production.

  16. Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffen, G. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Viking biology experiments are examined. It is noted that the Viking missions did not find a terrestrial type of life at either of the two landing sites. This evidence may suggest that Mars is lifeless, but science demands a more rigorous proof; thus, it is still not known whether life exists on Mars. It is suggested that the Martian polar regions must be explored before a conclusive answer is possible; the permanent polar caps of Mars are frozen water and would act as a 'cold finger' of the planet to trap organic molecules.

  17. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

  18. Life among the axons.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Clay M

    2007-01-01

    A blink in history's eye has brought us an understanding of electricity, and with it a revolution in human life. From the frog leg twitch experiments of Galvani and the batteries of Volta, we have progressed to telegraphs, motors, telephones, computers, and the Internet. In the same period, the ubiquitous role of electricity in animal and plant life has become clear. A great milestone in this journey was the elucidation of electrical signaling by Hodgkin & Huxley in 1952. This chapter gives a personal account of a small part of this story, the transformation of the rather abstract electrical conductances of Hodgkin & Huxley into the more tangible gated ion channel.

  19. Fatigue life extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matejczyk, D. E.; Lin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Potential fatigue rejuvenation processes were carried out on fatigue-damaged material both with and without observable surface-connected fatigue cracks. The fatigue life of fatigue-damaged MAR-M246(Hf)(DS), a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy used in turbine airfoils, was extended by reheat treatment. The fatigue life of fatigue-cracked Inconel 718, a wrought nickel-base superalloy used in a wide variety of advanced rocket engine components, was extended by electron-beam welding to close off the surface-connected crack, followed by hot isostatic pressing and reheat treatment.

  20. Extending bearing life

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.

    1997-08-01

    Long-term bearing operation cannot be achieved unless proper handling, storage, installation, and maintenance procedures are followed. These factors can shorten--sometimes drastically--expected bearing service life. Failures are generally related to improper lubrication or installation and induced conditions. Most major bearing manufacturers offer technical assistance in inspection, evaluation, and reporting on bearings which have failed in service. Actual percentages associated with each failure category vary, depending on the source, but generally they are 70% from lubrication and installation, 20% from induced factors, and 10% from reaching their fatigue limit or design life. The paper describes lubricant-related failures and procedures for the correct handling, storage, installation, and maintenance.

  1. Life in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    Live Webcast from Europe's Leading Research Organisations Summary Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? Are we alone? These questions have always fascinated humanity and for more than 50 years, physicists, biologists, chemists, cosmologists, astronomers and other scientists have worked tirelessly to answer these fundamental questions. And now this November via webcast, all the world will have the opportunity to see and hear the latest news on extraterrestrial life from the most prestigious research centers and how for the past three months, European students have had the chance to jump into the scientists' shoes and explore these questions for themselves. The event is being sponsored by the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , in cooperation with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). "Life in the Universe" is being mounted in collaboration with the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission for the European Week of Science and Technology in November 2001 . "Life in the Universe" competitions are already underway in 23 European countries to find the best projects from school students between 14 and 18. Two winning teams from each country will be invited to a final event at CERN in Geneva on 8-11 November 2001 to present their projects and discuss them with a panel of International Experts at a special three-day event. They will also compete for the "Super Prize" - a free visit to ESA's and ESO's research and technology facilities at Kourou and Paranal in South America. Students participating in the programme are encouraged to present their views on extraterrestrial life creatively. The only requirement is that the views be based upon scientific evidence. Many projects are being submitted just now - among them are scientific essays

  2. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  3. Fingerprints of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Cheryl

    Pioneered by NASA-JSC scientists, Marilyn Lindstorm and Jaclyn Allen, the partnering of teachers with scientists has ventured into the realms of the extreme... extreme life, that is. In 1998, two years after the announcement that possible evidence of life had been discovered within a Martian rock, teachers from region served by JSC were brought together with the Mars Meteorite research team. The goal was to familiarize the teachers with research being done in the search for evidence of extra-terrestrial life and Earth analogues. The teachers would then design curriculum to translate the research into a format that could be utilized in the classroom. "Fingerprints of Life", a work-in-progress, is a CD-rom /web-based curriculum derived from that collaboration. Modeling the actual science being done, the CD contains laboratory and classroom activities utilizing Astrobiology as the 'hook' to teach basic science skills of observation, description, communication of ideas and laboratory techniques. In addition, electron microscopy images and video clips give background information for the uninitiated. From "Wold Trap", which is based upon an actual experiment designed for the Mars Viking missions, to "Creature Feature", which deals with observation and communication, the labs and activities are appropriate for multiple grade levels. Designed to be user-friendly and tested in the classroom, "Fingerprints" uses materials that can be purchased inexpensively at the grocery store, or recycled from other sources.

  4. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  5. Encaustic Still Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, Len

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used in an advanced high school art class where students used the encaustic painting technique by melting wax and combining various pigments. Explains that the students painted a still-life of flowers in the style of Vincent van Gogh. (CMK)

  6. Life after the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Laurel

    2009-01-01

    Sixty-eight percent of people who are approaching retirement age report that they intend to work full time or part time after retirement, mostly because they want to. With today's life span stretching to 80 years and beyond, turning 60 is no longer an end-stage event. Instead, it is the beginning of a new developmental phase. This article…

  7. Learning for Life Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varmecky, Jane Hyde

    2012-01-01

    Many adults return to formal learning situations to pursue lifelong learning goals because their lives are in transition from dealing with real-life problems such as divorce and re-marriage. The purpose of this study was to describe what couples learned that contributed to the success of their subsequent marriages and how they learned it. The…

  8. Life Change Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, William M.; And Others

    The amount of life stress, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Experience (SRE), has been shown to be related to the onset of illness. This instrument was originally developed with a civilian population, and it became apparent that some questions were inappropriate when it was to be applied to a military population. Furthermore, it was believed…

  9. It's a Salmon's Life!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. Jenice; Skochdopole, Laura Downey

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated science unit to help preservice teachers gain confidence in their abilities to learn and teach science. The teachers role played being salmon as they learned about the salmon's life cycle and the difficulties salmon encounter. The unit introduced the use of investigative activities that begin with questions and end with…

  10. Life! Through Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Anne, Nancy

    This speech presents a review of research concerning the nature of play. Some of the formal characteristics of play are: (a) it is distinct from ordinary life in its "temporariness" and its limitless location; (b) there is an element of tension in play that leads to uncertainty concerning the outcome but at the same time provides the opportunity…

  11. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  12. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  13. Aquatic Life Benchmarks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Aquatic Life Benchmarks is an EPA-developed set of criteria for freshwater species. These benchmarks are based on toxicity values reviewed by EPA and used in the Agency's risk assessments developed as part of the decision-making process for pesticide registration.

  14. LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Life Cycle Assessment, or LCA, is an environmental accounting and mangement approach that consider all the aspects of resource use and environmental releases associated with an industrial system from cradle-to-grave. Specifically, it is a holistic view of environmental interacti...

  15. Education for Interpersonal Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Higher education does not address the central challenges of daily interpersonal life--being a parent, spouse, friend, and offspring; dealing with change, loss, sickness, death. But education can instill "tacit knowing"--knowing in the bones, prior to conceptualization or verbalization. This knowing can be imparted by great literature. (MLW)

  16. Lungfish and Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the writings of Homer W. Smith, a physiologist who wrote novels, histories of religion, textbooks, and a book on the kidney for the general reader. Smith's writing skills remind students that biologists are as multidimensional as the rest of the population. Smith shows that all parts of life are interrelated as they enrich and shed light…

  17. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  18. Mosquito Life Cycle

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Knowing the stages of the mosquito's life will help you prevent mosquitoes around your home and help you choose the right pesticides for your needs, if you decide to use them. All mosquito species go through four distinct stages during their live cycle.

  19. How life shaped Earth.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2015-10-05

    Earth is much more complex than all the other solar system objects that we know. Thanks to its rich and diverse geology, our planet can offer habitats to a wide range of living species. Emerging insights suggest that this is not just a happy coincidence, but that life itself has in many ways helped to shape the planet.

  20. Investigations Into Life Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Dean Samuel

    This laboratory manual, containing 44 exercises, is intended to be used as part of an audio-tutorial approach to laboratory work in a life-science course for student nurses. Exercises include basic techniques of miscroscopy, microbiology, electrophysiology, routine biochemical analyses of blood and urine, and microscopic examination of prepared…