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Sample records for pre-monsoon daily temperature

  1. Severe Hailstorm in Pre-monsoon: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, D.

    2016-12-01

    During the pre-monsoon months in Nepal, severe thunder and hailstorms cause significant property and agricultural damage in addition to loss of life. A severe hailstorm that took place in Nepal during the pre-monsoon month of May is investigated in this study. The storm occurred close to midnight on May 3, 2001 at Thori, 215m asl, a small village on the border with India. Giant 1kg hailstones destroyed 800 dwellings, most of the villagers' livestock (over 500 oxen and goats) and 200 hectare of crops. The primary data sources for this investigation included Infrared Satellite images, which illustrated the sequences of convective activity, and original archived ESRL India and China upper air data, which were used for synoptic and mesoscale analyses. The Thori hailstorm had its origins in a topographically induced lee-side convergence area in the deserts of Pakistan on May 2, 2001, from where it propagated eastwards into India and evolved into an eastwards travelling Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) reaching Thori near midnight on May 3. Atmospheric instability over the Gangetic Plains, fuelled by a very active surface heat low, cold temperatures and dynamic lifting mechanisms aloft, created a synoptic and mesoscale environment capable of generating a dangerous thunderstorm. Thori is known for frequent, severe hailstorms, owing to moisture convergence caused by the nature of its surroundings; an abnormally ample supply of moisture resulted in giant 1kg hailstones near midnight on May 3. This study calculated (Convective Available Potential Energy) CAPE values exceeding 8000J/kg for hailstorm resulting in intense updraft speeds capable of sustaining giant hail growth. This study attempts to isolate the specific and unique characteristics of the hailstorm that not only might explain their severity, but also suggest forecasting techniques for future forecasting in Nepal.

  2. Pre-Monsoon Drought and Heat Waves in India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-12

    In June 2015, news organizations around the world reported on a deadly heat wave in India that killed more than 2,300 people. Prior to the arrival of the summer monsoon in India, weather conditions had been extremely hot and dry. Such conditions can lead to economic and agricultural disaster, human suffering and loss of life. NASA satellite sensors are allowing scientists to characterize pre-monsoon droughts and heat waves and postulate their scientific cause. This figure shows the longitude-time variations, averaged between 21 and 22 degrees North, across the middle of the India subcontinent from mid-April to mid-June. Longitude from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal is represented on the horizontal axis; while the vertical axis shows the timeframe. Rainfall is shown on the left, soil moisture is in the center, and surface air temperature is on the right. For both years (2012 and 2015), the summer monsoon begins in June, with sharp rises in rainfall and soil moisture, and a sharp drop in air temperature. The hottest and driest weeks occurred just before the summer monsoon onsets. Similar dry and hot periods, varying from one to a few weeks, were observed in 2013 and 2014. Soil moisture as an indication of drought as measured by NASA's Aquarius mission was first available in 2012. Rainfall data are from NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), and surface air temperature is from NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite. The TRMM and Aquarius missions ended in April 2015, before the drought and heat waves. Their data were replaced by those presently available from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) and Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) to show the drought and heatwave in 2015. Scientists from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, have shown that during the summer monsoon season, moisture is transported into the India Subcontinent from the Arabian Sea and out to the Bay of Bengal

  3. Warmer daily temperatures since 1951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Days and nights have indeed become warmer over the past 60 years, a new study finds. Although several observation-based studies have shown that daily average temperatures as well as daily maximum and minimum temperatures have increased over the past few decades, controversy has remained as to how the observed trends in extreme and average temperatures are related to each other: Are the warming trends in extreme temperatures a result of a shifting mean climate, or have temperatures become more variable? Using a global observational data set of daily temperatures, Donat and Alexander compared the probability distributions of daily maximum and minimum temperatures over two 30-year periods, 1951-1980 and 1981-2010. The authors show that the maximum and minimum daily temperatures all over the globe have significantly shifted toward higher values during the latter period. They further show that the distributions have become skewed toward the hotter part of the distribution; changes are greater for daily minimum (nighttime) temperatures than for the daily maximum (daytime) temperatures. The authors conclude that the distribution of global daily temperatures has indeed become “more extreme” compared to the middle of the twentieth century. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2012GL052459, 2012)

  4. Tropospheric ozone pool over Arabian sea during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the remarkable and stable phenomenon-enhancement of the tropospheric ozone over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season. Satellite data (SCIAMACHY LNM, OMI/MLS and TES) showed a strong and clear ozone seasonality over AS with ~42 DU maxima in pre-monsoon season. With the help of MACC reanalysis data, our results showed that 3/4 of the enhanced ozone during this season is contributed at 0-8 km height. The main source of the ozone enhancement is believed to be a long range transport, together with a suitable meteorological condition for pollution accumulation. Local chemistry plays different roles over different altitudes. However we believe the contribution to the tropospheric ozone enhancement from the chemistry is low. The contribution of the STE is unclear. In addition, the interannual variation of the pre-monsoon tropospheric ozone enhancement over AS is discussed. The anomalies in 2005 and 2010 could be due to the dynamical variation of ozone caused by the El Niño events.

  5. Enhanced pre-monsoon warming over the Himalayan-Gangetic region from 1979 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, R.; Hsu, N. C.; Lau, K.-M.; Tsay, S.-C.; Kafatos, M.

    2009-04-01

    Fundamental to the onset of the Indian Summer Monsoon is the land-sea thermal gradient from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HTP). The timing of the onset is strongly controlled by the meridional tropospheric temperature gradient due to the rapid pre-monsoon heating of the HTP compared to the relatively cooler Indian Ocean. Analysis of tropospheric temperatures from the longest available record of microwave satellite measurements reveals widespread warming over the Himalayan-Gangetic region and consequent strengthening of the land-sea thermal gradient. This trend is most pronounced in the pre-monsoon season, resulting in a warming of 2.7°C in the 29-year record (1979-2007), when this region is strongly influenced by dust aerosols at elevated altitudes. The enhanced tropospheric warming is accompanied by increased atmospheric loading of absorbing aerosols, particularly vertically extended dust aerosols, raising the possibility that aerosol solar heating has amplified the seasonal warming and in turn strengthened the land-sea gradient.

  6. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-08

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  7. Possible role of pre-monsoon sea surface warming in driving the summer monsoon onset over the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuiping; Liu, Yanliang; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhi; Liu, Baochao; Xue, Liang; Yu, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) reaches its annual maximum just before the summer monsoon onset and collapses soon after in the central areas of the Bay of Bengal (BoB). Here, the impact of the peak in the pre-monsoon SST on triggering the earliest monsoon onset in the BoB is investigated, with a focus on the role they play in driving the first-branch northward-propagating intra-seasonal oscillations (FNISOs) over the equatorial Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO). During the calm pre-monsoon period, sea surface warming in the BoB could increase the surface equivalent potential temperature (θe) in several ways. Firstly, warming of the sea surface heats the surface air through sensible heating, which forces the air temperature to follow the SST. The elevated air surface temperature accounts for 30 % of the surface θe growth. Furthermore, the elevated air temperature raises the water vapor capacity of the surface air to accommodate more water vapor. Constrained by the observation that the surface relative humidity is maintained nearly constant during the monsoon transition period, the surface specific humidity exhibits a significant increase, according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Budget analysis indicates that the additional moisture is primarily obtained from sea surface evaporation, which also exhibits a weak increasing trend due to the sea surface warming. In this way, it contributes about 70 % to the surface θe growth. The rapid SST increase during the pre-monsoon period preconditions the summer monsoon onset over the BoB through its contributions to significantly increase the surface θe, which eventually establishes the meridional asymmetry of the atmospheric convective instability in the EIO. The pre-established greater convective instability leads to the FNISO convections, and the summer monsoon is triggered in the BoB region.

  8. Tropospheric ozone maxima observed over the Arabian Sea during the pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    An enhancement of the tropospheric ozone column (TOC) over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season is reported in this study. The potential sources of the AS spring ozone pool are investigated by use of multiple data sets (e.g., SCIAMACHY Limb-Nadir-Matching TOC, OMI/MLS TOC, TES TOC, MACC reanalysis data, MOZART-4 model and HYSPLIT model). Three-quarters of the enhanced ozone concentrations are attributed to the 0-8 km height range. The main source of the ozone enhancement is considered to be caused by long-range transport of ozone pollutants from India (˜ 50 % contributions to the lowest 4 km, ˜ 20 % contributions to the 4-8 km height range), the Middle East, Africa and Europe (˜ 30 % in total). In addition, the vertical pollution accumulation in the lower troposphere, especially at 4-8 km, was found to be important for the AS spring ozone pool formation. Local photochemistry, on the other hand, plays a negligible role in producing ozone at the 4-8 km height range. In the 0-4 km height range, ozone is quickly removed by wet deposition. The AS spring TOC maxima are influenced by the dynamical variations caused by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly during the El Niño period in 2005 and 2010 with a ˜ 5 DU decrease.

  9. Modeling the Influences of Aerosols on Pre-Monsoon Circulation and Rainfall over Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D.; Sud, Y. C.; Oreopoulos, L.; Kim, K.-M.; Lau, W. K.; Kang, I.-S.

    2014-01-01

    We conduct several sets of simulations with a version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5, (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) equipped with a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme to understand the role of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) emissions in Southeast Asia (SEA) in the pre-monsoon period of February-May. Our experiments are designed so that both direct and indirect aerosol effects can be evaluated. For climatologically prescribed monthly sea surface temperatures, we conduct sets of model integrations with and without biomass burning emissions in the area of peak burning activity, and with direct aerosol radiative effects either active or inactive. Taking appropriate differences between AGCM experiment sets, we find that BBA affects liquid clouds in statistically significantly ways, increasing cloud droplet number concentrations, decreasing droplet effective radii (i.e., a classic aerosol indirect effect), and locally suppressing precipitation due to a deceleration of the autoconversion process, with the latter effect apparently also leading to cloud condensate increases. Geographical re-arrangements of precipitation patterns, with precipitation increases downwind of aerosol sources are also seen, most likely because of advection of weakly precipitating cloud fields. Somewhat unexpectedly, the change in cloud radiative effect (cloud forcing) at surface is in the direction of lesser cooling because of decreases in cloud fraction. Overall, however, because of direct radiative effect contributions, aerosols exert a net negative forcing at both the top of the atmosphere and, perhaps most importantly, the surface, where decreased evaporation triggers feedbacks that further reduce precipitation. Invoking the approximation that direct and indirect aerosol effects are additive, we estimate that the overall precipitation reduction is about 40% due to the direct effects of absorbing aerosols, which stabilize the atmosphere and reduce

  10. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  11. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  12. Statistical Analysis of daily mean temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Data of daily mean temperatures recorded at the Kennedy Center during the period of 1957-1977 were analyzed to forecast daily mean temperatures and their thirty-day moving averages for a period of ten to fifteen days in a given month. Since it is found that the standard deviation is linear in the mean, a logarithmic transformation of the data is used for finding an integrated moving average process IMA by the Box-Jenkins aproach. The first differences of the transformed data seem to fit a moving average model with parameter value 2, MA(2). The consideration of seasonality factor makes the fit worse.

  13. On the association between pre-monsoon aerosol and all-India summer monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, S. D.; Preethi, B.; Bansod, S. D.; Singh, H. N.; Revadekar, J. V.; Munot, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Summer monsoon rainfall which gives 75-90% of the annual rainfall plays vital role in Indian economy as the food grain production in India is very much dependent on the summer monsoon rainfall. It has been suggested by recent studies that aerosol loading over the Indian region plays significant role in modulating the monsoon circulation and consequent rainfall distribution over the Indian sub-continent. Increased industrialization and the increasing deforestation over past few decades probably cause a gradual increase in the aerosol concentration. A significant negative relationship between pre-monsoon (March-May i.e. MAM) aerosol loading over BOB and IGP regions and the forthcoming monsoon rainfall have been observed from the thorough analysis of the fifteen years (1997-2011) monthly Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) and All-India Summer Monsoon Rainfall (AISMR) data. Composite analysis revealed that AI anomalies during pre-monsoon season are negative for excess year and positive for deficient monsoon years over the Indian subcontinent, with strong variation over Bay of Bengal (BOB) and Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) regions from the month of March onwards. The correlation coefficients between AISMR and pre-monsoon AI over BOB and IGP regions are found to be negative and significant at 5% level. The study clearly brings out that the pre-monsoon aerosol loading over the BOB and IGP regions has a significant correlational link with the forthcoming monsoon intensity; however a further study of the aerosol properties and their feedback to the cloud microphysical properties is asked for establishing their causal linkage.

  14. Heterogeneity in pre-monsoon aerosol characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2013-10-01

    Heterogeneity in aerosol characteristics was studied at five different locations over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during the pre-monsoon period (April-June 2011) using concurrent measurements from sun/sky radiometer, which is hypothesized to affect the Indian monsoon circulation and also the global climate system. Based on the measured aerosol products, distribution of aerosols and the associated optical properties were examined over the entire region. The pre-monsoon mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found to be maximum at Lahore (0.78) and Kanpur (0.68); however, a minimum AOD (∼0.6) was observed at Karachi, Jaipur and Gandhi College, with relatively high variability at Karachi and low at Gandhi College. On the other hand, a significant gradient in Angstrom exponent (AE) from Karachi (0.30) in the west to Gandhi College (0.98) in the east IGB region suggests relative dominance of coarse particles over the western part and fine particles at the eastern part of the IGB. Results are confirmed with the aerosol size distribution and the air mass back-trajectory analysis at all the stations. The corresponding pre-monsoon mean single scattering albedo (SSA) shows relatively higher value at Karachi (0.94), suggests relative dominance of scattering type particles. On the other hand, lower SSA, ranging from 0.85 to 0.92, was observed at the other stations, with the lowest value at Gandhi College (0.85), which suggests absorbing aerosol distributions over the region.

  15. Regional behaviour of atmospheric aerosols over Indo-Gangetic Basin during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S.; Singh, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospherics aerosols play a vital role in the field of study of Earth's radiation budget and their impact on climate change. The present study was carried out for the study of variation of aerosol characteristics during pre-monsoon season 2011 at different locations, (a) Jaipur (26.900 N, 75.900E), (b) Kanpur (26.40 N, 80.40 E) and (c) Gandhi College, Ballia (25.8° N, 84.2°E) over Indo Gangetic Basin (IGB) using AERONET level 1.5 data. Various interesting results are discussed in present paper in terms of aerosol optical and radiative properties.

  16. A Comparison of Pre-monsoonal and Monsoonal Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols over South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Cohen, J. B.; Wang, C.

    2012-12-01

    Radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols after monsoon onset is often considered unimportant compared to forcing during the pre-monsoonal period, due to precipitation scavenging. We tested this assumption for the South Asian monsoon using three model runs with forcing prescribed during the pre-monsoonal period (March-May), monsoon period (June-September) and both periods. The forcing represents the direct radiative effects of sulfate, organic carbon and black carbon. It was derived from a set of Kalman filter-optimised black carbon emissions from a modelling system based on the CAM3 GCM, a two-moment multi-scheme aerosol and radiation model, and a coupled urban scale processing package; we expect it to be reliable within its given error bounds. The monthly climatological forcing values were prescribed over South Asia every year for 100 years to CESM 1.0.4, a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. We shall compare the three resultant climatologies with climatologies from a no aerosol model and a full aerosol model.

  17. Pre-monsoon aerosol characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to climatic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Tiwari, S.; Devara, P. C. S.; Bisht, D. S.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Tripathi, S. N.; Goloub, P.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-05-01

    Sun/sky radiometer observations over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during pre-monsoon (from April-June 2009) have been processed to analyze various aerosol characteristics in the central and eastern IGB region, represented by Kanpur and Gandhi College, respectively, and their impacts on climate in terms of radiative forcing. Monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD at 500 nm) and corresponding Angstrom Exponent (AE at 440-870 nm, given within the brackets) was observed to be about 0.50 (0.49) and 0.51 (0.65) in April, 0.65 (0.74) and 0.67 (0.91) in May and 0.69 (0.45) and 0.77 (0.71) in June at Kanpur and Gandhi College, respectively. Results show a positive gradient in AOD and AE from central to eastern IGB region with the advancement of the pre-monsoon, which may be caused due to diverse geographical location of the stations having different meteorological conditions and emission sources. Relatively lower SSA was observed at the eastern IGB (0.89) than the central IGB (0.92) region during the period, which suggests relative dominance of absorbing aerosols at the eastern IGB as compared to central IGB region. The absorbing aerosol optical properties over the station suggest that the atmospheric absorption over central IGB region is mainly due to dominance of coarse-mode dust particles; however, absorption over eastern IGB region is mainly due to dominance of fine-particle pollution. The derived properties from sun/sky radiometer during pre-monsoon period are used in a radiative-transfer model to estimate aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface over the IGB region. Relatively large TOA and surface cooling was observed at the eastern IGB as compared to the central IGB region. This translates into large heating of the atmosphere ranging from 0.45 to 0.55 K day-1 at Kanpur and from 0.45 to 0.59 K day-1 at Gandhi College.

  18. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  19. Bay of Bengal: coupling of pre-monsoon tropical cyclones with the monsoon onset in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosu, Boniface O.; Wang, Shih-Yu Simon

    2015-08-01

    The pre-monsoon tropical cyclone (TC) activity and the monsoon evolution in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are both influenced by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), but the two do not always occur in unison. This study examines the conditions that allow the MJO to modulate the monsoon onset in Myanmar and TC activity concurrently. Using the APHRODITE gridded precipitation and the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets, composite evolutions of monsoon rainfall and TC genesis are constructed for the period of 1979-2010. It is found that the MJO exhibits a strong interannual variability in terms of phase and intensity, which in some years modulate the conditions for BoB TCs to shortly precede or form concurrently with the monsoon onset in Myanmar. Such a modulation is absent in years of weaker MJO events. Further understanding of the interannual variability of MJO activity could facilitate the prediction of the monsoon onset and TC formation in the BoB.

  20. Possible development mechanisms of pre-monsoon thunderstorms over northeast and east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sunanda; Vishwanathan, Gokul; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    Thunderstorms are mesoscale convective systems of towering cumulonimbus clouds of high vertical and horizontal extent lasting from a few minutes to several hours. Pre-monsoon thundershowers over the past 10 years have been analyzed to understand the organization, horizontal and vertical development and dissipation of such severe events. Kalbaisakhi's/ Norwester's over north east and East India is given preference in this study, while some of the other extreme events are also analyzed due to their severity. The meteorological parameters like horizontal and vertical wind, precipitable water etc., and derived variables such as Severe Weather Threat (SWEAT) Index, Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), and Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE) of the identified cases are analyzed using observations from NCEP and IMD. Satellite observations from IMD and TRMM are also used to analyze the development and moisture flow of such systems. The analysis shows that some of the parameters display a clear signature of developing thunderstorms. It is also seen that cloud parameters such as convective precipitation rate and convective cloud cover from NCEP FNL didn't show much variation during the development of storms, which may be attributed to the limitation of spatial and temporal resolution. The parameters which showed indications of a developing thunderstorm were studied in detail in order to understand the possible mechanisms behind the development and organization of thunderstorm cells.

  1. Chemical composition of aerosols over Bay of Bengal during pre-monsoon: Dominance of anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Prabha R.; George, Susan K.; Aryasree, S.; Jacob, Salu

    2014-03-01

    Total suspended particulates were collected from the marine boundary layer of Bay of Bengal (BoB) as part of the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols gases & Radiation Budget (ICARB) conducted under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of Indian Space Research Organisation during pre-monsoon period. These samples were analyzed to quantify various chemical species and to bring out a comprehensive and quantitative picture of the chemical composition of aerosols in the marine environment of Bay of Bengal. Almost all the species showed highest mass concentration over north/head BoB. On the other hand, their mass fractions were high over mid/south BoB which has implications on the radiative forcing in this region. The source characteristics of various species were identified using specific chemical components as tracers. Presence of significant amount of non-sea-salt aerosols (~7-8 times of sea-salt) and several trace species like Ni, Pb, Zn, etc were observed in this marine environment indicating significant continental/anthropogenic influence. An approximate estimate of the contributions of anthropogenic and natural aerosols to the total aerosol mass loading showed prominence of anthropogenic component over mid and south BoB also. Based on this study first-cut aerosol chemical models were evolved for BoB region.

  2. [Body temperature measurement in daily practice].

    PubMed

    Sermet-Gaudelus, I; Chadelat, I; Lenoir, G

    2005-08-01

    The use of rectal mercury thermometer has long been the standard method for measurement of body temperature. The restriction of mercury use since 1996 has led to development of other devices. The liquid crystal strip thermometer held against the forehead has a low sensitivity. The single-use chemical thermometer measures oral temperature. Its accuracy must be evaluated. Infrared ear thermometers are routinely used because it is convenient and fast to use. However, numerous studies have shown that it does not show sufficient correlation with rectal temperature, leading to the risk to miss cases of true fever. Rectal temperature remains the gold standard in case of fever. Rectal temperature measurement with an electronic device is well correlated with the glass mercury standard. Galistan thermometer accuracy must be evaluated because of sterilization of the whole device, which is not the case for the electronic thermometer. A pediatric study is necessary to evaluate the performance of this device in comparison with the electronic thermometer.

  3. Influence of lunar phase on daily global temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.; Cerveny, R.S.

    1995-03-10

    A newly available data set of daily satellite-derived, lower-tropospheric global temperature anomalies provides an opportunity to assess the influence of lunar phase on planetary temperature. These results reveal a statistically significant 0.02 K modulation between new moon and full moon, with the warmest daily global temperatures over a synodic month coincident with the occurrence of the full moon. Spectral analysis of the daily temperature record confirms the presence of a periodicity that matches the lunar synodic (29-53-day) cycle. The precision of the satellite-based daily temperature record allows verification that the moon exerts a discernible influence on the short-term, global temperature record. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  4. On the asymmetry of the urban daily air temperature cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yuguo; Wang, Yi; Yang, Xinyan

    2017-06-01

    The asymmetry phenomenon in daily temperature cycle refers to the smaller and decreasing diurnal temperature range, which resulted from much faster rise of the daily minimum temperature than that of the maximum temperature. The asymmetry is known to have occurred in greater magnitude in cities than rural sites. Spatially, the diurnal temperature range is much smaller in urban areas than in the surrounding rural areas. Temporally, the urban diurnal temperature range decreases much faster than that in the rural areas. Here, we demonstrate a new approach in understanding the spatial and temporal asymmetries in the urban daily air temperature cycle. Both asymmetries can be explained by a simple combination of a reduction in amplitudes with a rise in mean temperature, which are governed by difference factors. Our study provides new insights that increase our understanding of the mechanisms of urban warming.

  5. Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Han; Deng, Xinwei; Kim, Dong-Yun; Smith, Eric P.

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature. A good predictive model for daily maximum temperature is required because daily maximum temperature is an important measure for predicting survival of temperature sensitive fish. To appropriately model the strong relationship between water and air temperatures at a daily time step, it is important to incorporate information related to the time of the year into the modeling. In this work, a time-varying coefficient model is used to study the relationship between air temperature and water temperature. The time-varying coefficient model enables dynamic modeling of the relationship, and can be used to understand how the air-water temperature relationship varies over time. The proposed model is applied to 10 streams in Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia using daily maximum temperatures. It provides a better fit and better predictions than those produced by a simple linear regression model or a nonlinear logistic model.

  6. Modeling maximum daily temperature using a varying coefficient regression model

    Treesearch

    Han Li; Xinwei Deng; Dong-Yum Kim; Eric P. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between stream water and air temperatures are often modeled using linear or nonlinear regression methods. Despite a strong relationship between water and air temperatures and a variety of models that are effective for data summarized on a weekly basis, such models did not yield consistently good predictions for summaries such as daily maximum temperature...

  7. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to

  8. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  9. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; ...

    2016-01-18

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profilesmore » averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48% more heating in the atmosphere and 21% more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  10. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; ...

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AODmore » and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  11. Characteristics of Daily and Extreme Temperatures over Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsal, B. R.; Zhang, X.; Vincent, L. A.; Hogg, W. D.

    2001-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that, since 1900, mean annual temperature over southern Canada has increased by an average of 0.9°C, with the largest warming during winter and early spring. Every season was associated with greater increases in minimum temperature as opposed to maximum, thus resulting in a significant decrease in the daily temperature range (DTR). The second half of the twentieth century was associated with significant winter and spring warming in the south and west, and cooling in the northeast. However, no significant changes in DTR were observed during this period. This investigation goes beyond the annual/seasonal scales by examining trends and variability in daily minimum and maximum temperature with particular emphasis on extremes. Using recently updated, homogenized daily data, spatial and temporal characteristics of daily and extreme temperature-related variables are analyzed on a seasonal basis for the periods of 1900-98 (southern Canada), and 1950-98 (the entire country). From 1900 to 1998, the majority of southern Canada shows significantly increasing trends to the lower and higher percentiles of the daily minimum and maximum temperature distribution. The findings translate into fewer days with extreme low temperature during winter, spring, and summer and more days with extreme high temperature during winter and spring. No consistent trends are found for the higher percentiles of summer daily maximum temperature, indicating little change to the number of extreme hot summer days. Over the southwest, increases are larger to the left-hand side of the daily minimum and maximum temperature distribution, resulting in significant decreases to the intraseasonal standard deviation of daily temperature. The 1950-98 results are somewhat different from the entire century, especially, during winter and spring. This result includes significant increases to the low and high percentiles over the west, and decreases over the east. This analysis reveals that

  12. Estimation of Daily Stream Temperatures in a Mountain River Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Benjankar, R. M.; Isaak, D.; Wenger, S.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature plays an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, water and spawning habitat quality, growth of fish populations are functions of stream temperature. Therefore, accurate estimates of daily stream temperatures can provide beneficial information for water resource managers and decision makers. Here, we develop a model for precise daily water temperature estimates that is applicable even in places lacking various meteorological and hydrological data. The water temperature model in this study is a piecewise model that considers both linear and non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables including maximum and minimum temperature (meteorological derivers) and precipitation (hydrological deriver). We demonstrated the model in the Boise River Basin, in central Idaho, USA. The hydrology of this basin is snow-dominated and complex due to the mountainous terrain. We predicted daily stream temperature at 34 sites using 12 weather and Snowtel stations for deriving variables. Results of the stream temperature model indicate average Root Mean Square Error of 1.28 degree of Celsius along with average 0.91 of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for all stations. Comparison of the results of this study to Mohseni et al.'s model (1998), which is widely applied in water temperature studies, shows better performance of the model presented in this study. Our approach can be used to provide historical reconstructions of daily stream temperatures or projections of stream temperatures under climate change scenarios in any location with at least one year of daily stream temperature observations and with contemporaneous regional air temperature and precipitation data.

  13. Spatial distribution of aerosol black carbon over India during pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum, S. Naseema; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh; Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Badarinath, K. V. S.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Singh, Sacchidanand; Vinod; Dumka, U. C.; Pant, P.

    Aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations ([BC]), measured continuously during a mutli-platform field experiment, Integrated Campaign for Aerosols gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB, March-May 2006), from a network of eight observatories spread over geographically distinct environments of India, (which included five mainland stations, one highland station, and two island stations (one each in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal)) are examined for their spatio-temporal characteristics. During the period of study, [BC] showed large variations across the country, with values ranging from 27 μg m -3 over industrial/urban locations to as low as 0.065 μg m -3 over the Arabian Sea. For all mainland stations, [BC] remained high compared to highland as well as island stations. Among the island stations, Port Blair (PBR) had higher concentration of BC, compared to Minicoy (MCY), implying more absorbing nature of Bay of Bengal aerosols than Arabian Sea. The highland station Nainital (NTL), in the central Himalayas, showed low values of [BC], comparable or even lower than that of the island station PBR, indicating the prevalence of cleaner environment over there. An examination of the changes in the mean temporal features, as the season advances from winter (December-February) to pre-monsoon (March-May), revealed that: (a) Diurnal variations were pronounced over all the mainland stations, with an afternoon low and a nighttime high; (b) At the islands, the diurnal variations, though resembled those over the mainlands, were less pronounced; and (c) In contrast to this, highland station showed an opposite pattern with an afternoon high and a late night or early morning low. The diurnal variations at all stations are mainly caused by the dynamics of local Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). At the entire mainland as well as island stations (except HYD and DEL), [BC] showed a decreasing trend from January to May. This is attributed to the increased convective mixing and to the

  14. Discontinuous daily temperatures in the WATCH forcing data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Henning; Kruschke, Tim; Dobler, Andreas; Fischer, Madlen; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2015-04-01

    The WATCH forcing data sets have been created to support the use of hydrological and land surface models for the assessment of the water cycle within climate change studies. They are based on ECMWF reanalysis products (ERA-40 or ERA-Interim) with temperature (among other variables) adjusted such that their monthly means match the monthly temperature data set from the Climatic Research Unit. To this end, daily minimum, maximum and mean temperatures within one calendar month have been subjected to a correction involving monthly means of the respective month. As these corrections can be largely different for adjacent months this procedure is potentially leading to unplausible differences in daily temperatures across the boundaries of calendar months. We analyze day-to-day temperature fluctuations within and across months and find that across months differences are significantly larger, mostly in the tropics and frigid zones. Average across-months differences in daily mean temperature are typically between 10% to 40% larger than their corresponding average within-months temperature differences. However, regions with differences up to 200% can be found in the tropical Africa. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the same regions but in a less sever way.

  15. Urban impact on the daily cycle of air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yuguo

    2017-04-01

    Understanding and preventing urban warming is vital in urban climate research, but the main anthropogenic factors behind the phenomenon are very complex. Previous studies mostly focused on the urban heat island and larger warming trend of mean temperature, neglected the basic periodic variations of the climate. The daily and annual cycles of the surface air temperature are the two fundamental climate variations. A typical temperature cycle has three characteristics; mean, amplitude and phase. We hypothesize that an analysis of the changes in the characteristics of the whole daily and annual temperature cycles, including not only the mean temperature and temperature ranges (amplitudes), but also the maximum, minimum temperatures and the phases, can provide more information concerning the urban warming. Through a detailed analysis of long-term observations in Hong Kong, we found that the daily phase has shifted a total of 1.77 hours later over the last 130 years (1.36 hours per century) in the urban area of Hong Kong as represented by the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) data. The annual phase change in HKO reflects the phenomenon that globally observed annual phase advances or seasons onset earlier. Similar results are revealed by studying 670 long-term stations worldwide. The average daily phase delay in the identified large city stations is 3 times larger than that observed in the rural stations. Such a daily phase delay phenomenon can be explained by the increase in effective daily thermal storage in cities due to human-made structures; the change in annual thermal storage is much smaller. The results can help determine the extent of the urban impact on different temperature cycles, and provide more information on how human activities impact on the climate.

  16. Possible impacts of the pre-monsoon dry line and sea breeze front on nocturnal rainfall over northeast Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller-Reeve, Mathew; Toniazzo, Thomas; Kolstad, Erik; Spengler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The northeast region of Bangladesh receives a large amount of rainfall before the large-scale monsoon circulation begins. For example, in April (a "pre-monsoon" month) 2010, 804 mm of rain fell in the regional capital Sylhet. It was the second wettest month of the entire year. From our conversations with the local people, we know that this pre-monsoon rainfall is extremely important to their livelihoods. We therefore need to understand it's triggering mechanisms. Several theories have been published, all of which are likely to be at play. However, in this work we look more closely at how the sea breeze front and prominent pre-monsoonal dry line in this region may play a role. If these mechanisms play a role in the convection, then it is likely that they trigger convection further afield, and then the resulting systems then propagate towards northeast Bangladesh. We believe this because rainfall associated with dry line/sea-breeze front convection often occurs during the late afternoon, but the rainfall over northeast Bangladesh shows a clear late-night/early-morning maxima. At present, the temporal and spatial resolution of the regional observations is inappropriate for examining these possible mechanisms. We therefore use a numerical model (WRF) to investigate the possible links between the convection and the sea breeze front and dry line. We use April 2010 as a case study since it was such a wet pre-monsoon month. The simulation shows that a sea breeze circulation often develops during the day in the coastal zone of Bangladesh and northeast India. After sunset the sea breeze front propagates inland pushing back the hot, dry air over India. On several days during the simulation, convection is triggered along the sea breeze front, which then propagates towards northeast Bangladesh and intensifies across the topography surrounding the Sylhet region. From our simulations, it appears that nocturnal convection over northeast Bangladesh is triggered by several

  17. On estimating total daily evapotranspiration from remote surface temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Toby N.; Buffum, Martha J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for calculating daily evapotranspiration from the daily surface energy budget using remotely sensed surface temperature and several meteorological variables is presented. Vaules of the coefficients are determined from simulations with a one-dimensional boundary layer model with vegetation cover. Model constants are obtained for vegetation and bare soil at two air temperature and wind speed levels over a range of surface roughness and wind speeds. A different means of estimating the daily evapotranspiration based on the time rate of increase of surface temperature during the morning is also considered. Both the equations using our model-derived constants and field measurements are evaluated, and a discussion of sources of error in the use of the formulation is given.

  18. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950-2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  19. Pre-monsoon air quality over Lumbini, a world heritage site along the Himalayan foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Kang, Shichang; Singh Mahata, Khadak; Naja, Manish; Zhang, Qianggong; Panday, Arnico Kumar; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2017-09-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. We present here results from measurements of ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (PM, BC, CO, O3) in Lumbini, first of its kind for Lumbini, conducted during an intensive measurement period of 3 months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). The main objective of this work is to understand and document the level of air pollution, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini. The hourly average concentrations during the entire measurement campaign ranged as follows: BC was 0.3-30.0 µg m-3, PM1 was 3.6-197.6 µg m-3, PM2. 5 was 6.1-272.2 µg m-3, PM10 was 10.5-604.0 µg m-3, O3 was 1.0-118.1 ppbv and CO was 125.0-1430.0 ppbv. These levels are comparable to other very heavily polluted sites in South Asia. Higher fraction of coarse-mode PM was found as compared to other nearby sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain region. The ΔBC / ΔCO ratio obtained in Lumbini indicated considerable contributions of emissions from both residential and transportation sectors. The 24 h average PM2. 5 and PM10 concentrations exceeded the WHO guideline very frequently (94 and 85 % of the sampled period, respectively), which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. These air pollutants exhibited clear diurnal cycles with high values in the morning and evening. During the study period, the worst air pollution episodes were mainly due to agro-residue burning and regional forest fires combined with meteorological conditions conducive of

  20. Potential modulations of pre-monsoon aerosols during El Niño: impact on Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadnavis, S.; Roy, Chaitri; Sabin, T. P.; Ayantika, D. C.; Ashok, K.

    2016-11-01

    The potential role of aerosol loading on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall during the El Niño years are examined using satellite-derived observations and a state of the art fully interactive aerosol-chemistry-climate model. The Aerosol Index (AI) from TOMS (1978-2005) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from MISR spectroradiometer (2000-2010) indicate a higher-than-normal aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) during the pre-monsoon season with a concurrent El Niño. Sensitivity experiments using ECHAM5-HAMMOZ climate model suggests that this enhanced loading of pre-monsoon absorbing aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic plain can reduce the drought during El Niño years by invoking the `Elevated-Heat-Pump' mechanism through an anomalous aerosol-induced warm core in the atmospheric column. This anomalous heating upshot the relative strengthening of the cross-equatorial moisture inflow associated with the monsoon and eventually reduces the severity of drought during El Niño years. The findings are subject to the usual limitations such as the uncertainties in observations, and limited number of El Niño years (during the study period).

  1. Analysis of stability parameters in relation to precipitation associated with pre-monsoon thunderstorms over Kolkata, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, H. P.; Mandal, M.

    2014-06-01

    The upper air RS/RW (Radio Sonde/Radio Wind) observations at Kolkata (22.65N, 88.45E) during pre-monsoon season March-May, 2005-2012 is used to compute some important dynamic/thermodynamic parameters and are analysed in relation to the precipitation associated with the thunderstorms over Kolkata, India. For this purpose, the pre-monsoon thunderstorms are classified as light precipitation (LP), moderate precipitation (MP) and heavy precipitation (HP) thunderstorms based on the magnitude of associated precipitation. Richardson number in non-uniformly saturated ( R i *) and saturated atmosphere ( R i ); vertical shear of horizontal wind in 0-3, 0-6 and 3-7 km atmospheric layers; energy-helicity index (EHI) and vorticity generation parameter (VGP) are considered for the analysis. The instability measured in terms of Richardson number in non-uniformly saturated atmosphere ( well indicate the occurrence of thunderstorms about 2 hours in advance. Moderate vertical wind shear in lower troposphere (0-3 km) and weak shear in middle troposphere (3-7 km) leads to heavy precipitation thunderstorms. The wind shear in 3-7 km atmospheric layers, EHI and VGP are good predictors of precipitation associated with thunderstorm. Lower tropospheric wind shear and Richardson number is a poor discriminator of the three classified thunderstorms.

  2. Environmental status of groundwater affected by chromite ore processing residue (COPR) dumpsites during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.

    PubMed

    Matern, Katrin; Weigand, Harald; Singh, Abhas; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) is generated by the roasting of chromite ores for the extraction of chromium. Leaching of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from COPR dumpsites and contamination of groundwater is a key environmental risk. The objective of the study was to evaluate Cr(VI) contamination in groundwater in the vicinity of three COPR disposal sites in Uttar Pradesh, India, in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Groundwater samples (n = 57 pre-monsoon, n = 70 monsoon) were taken in 2014 and analyzed for Cr(VI) and relevant hydrochemical parameters. The site-specific ranges of Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater were <0.005 to 34.8 mg L(-1) (Rania), <0.005 to 115 mg L(-1) (Chhiwali), and <0.005 to 2.0 mg L(-1) (Godhrauli). Maximum levels of Cr(VI) were found close to the COPR dumpsites and significantly exceeded safe drinking water limits (0.05 mg L(-1)). No significant dependence of Cr(VI) concentration on monsoons was observed.

  3. Statistical Modeling of Daily Stream Temperature for Mitigating Fish Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Water allocations in the Central Valley Project (CVP) of California require the consideration of short- and long-term needs of many socioeconomic factors including, but not limited to, agriculture, urban use, flood mitigation/control, and environmental concerns. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) ensures that the decision-making process provides sufficient water to limit the impact on protected species, such as salmon, in the Sacramento River Valley. Current decision support tools in the CVP were deemed inadequate by the National Marine Fisheries Service due to the limited temporal resolution of forecasts for monthly stream temperature and fish mortality. Finer scale temporal resolution is necessary to account for the stream temperature variations critical to salmon survival and reproduction. In addition, complementary, long-range tools are needed for monthly and seasonal management of water resources. We will present a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework of maximum daily stream temperatures and related attributes, such as: daily stream temperature range, exceedance/non-exceedance of critical threshold temperatures, and the number of hours of exceedance. A suite of predictors that impact stream temperatures are included in the models, including current and prior day values of streamflow, water temperatures of upstream releases from Shasta Dam, air temperature, and precipitation. Monthly models are developed for each stream temperature attribute at the Balls Ferry gauge, an EPA compliance point for meeting temperature criteria. The statistical framework is also coupled with seasonal climate forecasts using a stochastic weather generator to provide ensembles of stream temperature scenarios that can be used for seasonal scale water allocation planning and decisions. Short-term weather forecasts can also be used in the framework to provide near-term scenarios useful for making water release decisions on a daily basis. The framework can be easily translated to other

  4. Daily rhythms of activity and temperature of Macaca nemestrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Sickles, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The activity and temperature rhythms of pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) maintained in LD 16:8 at 25 C in specially designed restraint chairs have been examined. Activity was monitored via a sensor that was attached to the restraint chair. Temperature was monitored at the axilla, ankle and ear. All variables showed prominent day-night variations, and except for ankle temperature, had highest values during the daytime. These results show that the regulation of the daily rhythm of body temperature involves anatomical sites that are utilized in a temporally distinct fashion.

  5. A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.

  6. Homogenization of daily Spanish temperatures using SNHT and HOM methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, E.; Rodrigo, F. S.; Fernández-Montes, S.; Luna, M. Y.; Rasilla, D.; Sigró, J.; Brunet, M.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years, in connection with the need to improve our knowledge about climatic extremes, the homogenization community has focused on the adjustment of daily climatological data. The Spanish funded projects EXPICA (Spanish grant CGL2007-65546-C03) and its coordinated project CAFIDEXPI (Spanish grant CGL2007-65546-C03-02) is devoted to analyze changes in extremes over the Iberian Peninsula, thus needing daily homogeneous data suitable for such purposes. As daily resolution would increase the problems encountered by homogenizers to apply the different detection/correction methods, a widely used approach (as demonstrated by the survey conducted in the framework of the Working Group I of the COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach-HOME) is to combine a detection approach based on lower resolution data (monthly, seasonal, annual) and a correction method specifically designed for daily data. In this work, we present the results of the homogenization of a subset of 28 daily temperature stations, centered around the Iberian Peninsula, which were subsequently used to derive a basic climatology for the above mentioned projects. All stations are almost complete for the 1971-2000 reference period and many of them go back to the 19th century. The procedure detects potential breaks applying the SNHT test to annual and quarterly data, using additional support station as references and the limited available metadata. Daily adjustments were calculated using the HOM method and covering the longest possible period (variable for each station), allowed by available, well correlated, overlapping data. Trends before and after homogenization were assessed by calculating a set of climate change indices.

  7. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  8. New developments on the homogenization of Canadian daily temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lucie A.; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2010-05-01

    Long-term and homogenized surface air temperature datasets had been prepared for the analysis of climate trends in Canada (Vincent and Gullett 1999). Non-climatic steps due to instruments relocation/changes and changes in observing procedures were identified in the annual mean of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures using a technique based on regression models (Vincent 1998). Monthly adjustments were derived from the regression models and daily adjustments were obtained from an interpolation procedure using the monthly adjustments (Vincent et al. 2002). Recently, new statistical tests have been developed to improve the power of detecting changepoints in climatological data time series. The penalized maximal t (PMT) test (Wang et al. 2007) and the penalized maximal F (PMF) test (Wang 2008b) were developed to take into account the position of each changepoint in order to minimize the effect of unequal and small sample size. A software package RHtestsV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) has also been developed to implement these tests to homogenize climate data series. A recursive procedure was developed to estimate the annual cycle, linear trend, and lag-1 autocorrelation of the base series in tandem, so that the effect of lag-1 autocorrelation is accounted for in the tests. A Quantile Matching (QM) algorithm (Wang 2009) was also developed for adjusting Gaussian daily data so that the empirical distributions of all segments of the detrended series match each other. The RHtestsV3 package was used to prepare a second generation of homogenized temperatures in Canada. Both the PMT test and the PMF test were applied to detect shifts in monthly mean temperature series. Reference series was used in conducting a PMT test. Whenever possible, the main causes of the shifts were retrieved through historical evidence such as the station inspection reports. Finally, the QM algorithm was used to adjust the daily temperature series for the artificial shifts identified from the respective

  9. Observations of Daily Temperature Patterns in the Southern Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, R.W.; Jenter, H.L.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor affecting key hydrological and ecological processes within the subtropical wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Comprehensive measurements are being made to quantify the temporal and spatial variability of the water-temperature regime. Data collected in 2000 at a location near the central flow pathway of the ecosystem showed both daily repetitive cycles and dynamic fluctuations in response to meteorological forces. Time-series data collected at spatial intervals throughout the water column, in the air, and in the underlying plant-litter layer revealed the dynamic nature of the temperature structure, e.g., uniformly well-mixed periods, stratified conditions, inversions, changing vertical gradients, and other characteristics important to understanding ecosystem processes.

  10. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  11. US daily temperature records past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Tebaldi, Claudia; Adams-Smith, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Observed temperature extremes over the continental United States can be represented by the ratio of daily record high temperatures to daily record low minimum temperatures, and this ratio has increased to a value of about 2 to 1, averaged over the first decade of the 21st century, albeit with large interannual variability. Two different versions of a global coupled climate model (CCSM4), as well as 23 other coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, show larger values of this ratio than observations, mainly as a result of greater numbers of record highs since the 1980s compared with observations. This is partly because of the “warm 1930s” in the observations, which made it more difficult to set record highs later in the century, and partly because of a trend toward less rainfall and reduced evapotranspiration in the model versions compared with observations. We compute future projections of this ratio on the basis of its estimated dependence on mean temperature increase, which we find robustly at play in both observations and simulations. The use of this relation also has the advantage of removing dependence of a projection on a specific scenario. An empirical projection of the ratio of record highs to record lows is obtained from the nonlinear relationship in observations from 1930 to 2015, thus correcting downward the likely biased future projections of the model. For example, for a 3 °C warming in US temperatures, the ratio of record highs to lows is projected to be ∼15 ± 8 compared to the present average ratio of just over 2. PMID:27872294

  12. US daily temperature records past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Meehl, Gerald A; Tebaldi, Claudia; Adams-Smith, Dennis

    2016-12-06

    Observed temperature extremes over the continental United States can be represented by the ratio of daily record high temperatures to daily record low minimum temperatures, and this ratio has increased to a value of about 2 to 1, averaged over the first decade of the 21st century, albeit with large interannual variability. Two different versions of a global coupled climate model (CCSM4), as well as 23 other coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5) models, show larger values of this ratio than observations, mainly as a result of greater numbers of record highs since the 1980s compared with observations. This is partly because of the "warm 1930s" in the observations, which made it more difficult to set record highs later in the century, and partly because of a trend toward less rainfall and reduced evapotranspiration in the model versions compared with observations. We compute future projections of this ratio on the basis of its estimated dependence on mean temperature increase, which we find robustly at play in both observations and simulations. The use of this relation also has the advantage of removing dependence of a projection on a specific scenario. An empirical projection of the ratio of record highs to record lows is obtained from the nonlinear relationship in observations from 1930 to 2015, thus correcting downward the likely biased future projections of the model. For example, for a 3 °C warming in US temperatures, the ratio of record highs to lows is projected to be ∼15 ± 8 compared to the present average ratio of just over 2.

  13. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Linkages between longer term warming of the climate, related changes in the cryosphere, and destabilisation of high mountain rockwalls have been documented in several studies. Although understanding is far from complete, a range of physical processes related to longer term warming are understood to have an effect on slope stability. More recently, some attention has turned to the possible influence of much shorter periods of extremely warm temperatures, as a contributing factor, or even trigger of slope failures. So far, studies have not extended beyond highlighting one or a few individual events, and no common approach to quantifying the 'extremity' of the prevailing temperatures has been used. In the current study, we integrate established practices used in the climatology community in the analyses of climate extremes, together with an inventory of ca. 20 recent rock failures (1987 - 2010) in the central European Alps, to assess temporal relationships between daily air temperature extremes and rock failure occurrence. Using data from three high elevation recording sites across Switzerland, we focus on daily maximum temperatures in the 4 weeks immediately prior to each rockfall occurrence, where an extremely warm day is defined as exceeding the 95th percentile during the climatological reference period of 1971 - 2000. The 95th percentile is calculated in a 21 day moving window, so that extreme temperatures are considered relative to the time of year, and not on an annual basis. In addition, rock failures from the Southern Alps of New Zealand are analysed, although high elevation climate data are limited from this region. Results from the European Alps show that a majority of recent slope failures have been preceded by one or more extreme, unseasonably warm days, most notably in the week immediately prior to the failure. For example, for 9 slope failures in the Valais - Mt Blanc region (based on Grand St Bernhard climate data), 6 were proceeded by extremely warm

  14. Benchmarking the performance of daily temperature homogenisation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor; Jolliffe, Ian; Willett, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This work explores the creation of realistic synthetic data and its use as a benchmark for comparing the performance of different homogenisation algorithms on daily temperature data. Four different regions in the United States have been selected and three different inhomogeneity scenarios explored for each region. These benchmark datasets are beneficial as, unlike in the real world, the underlying truth is known a priori, thus allowing definite statements to be made about the performance of the algorithms run on them. Performance can be assessed in terms of the ability of algorithms to detect changepoints and also their ability to correctly remove inhomogeneities. The focus is on daily data, thus presenting new challenges in comparison to monthly data and pushing the boundaries of previous studies. The aims of this work are to evaluate and compare the performance of various homogenisation algorithms, aiding their improvement and enabling a quantification of the uncertainty remaining in the data even after they have been homogenised. An important outcome is also to evaluate how realistic the created benchmarks are. It is essential that any weaknesses in the benchmarks are taken into account when judging algorithm performance against them. This information in turn will help to improve future versions of the benchmarks. I intend to present a summary of this work including the method of benchmark creation, details of the algorithms run and some preliminary results. This work forms a three year PhD and feeds into the larger project of the International Surface Temperature Initiative which is working on a global scale and with monthly instead of daily data.

  15. Trends in Observed Summer Daily Temperature Maximum Across Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Arvidson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing are expected to increase the tendency for longer and stronger heat waves in summer. We examine if there is a trend in the observed daytime extreme temperature (Tmax) during summer between 1900-2014 at select high quality stations (n=9) across Colorado. We compile daily observations of Tmax and other variables during summer (JJA), and derive and analyze trends in five different extreme metrics from this data that include the maximum five-day Tmax average, warm spell duration index, and the number of days when Tmax exceeds the 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentile conditions. We find that the 1930s and 2000s in Colorado had some outstandingly hot years, when we also find exceptionally high count of summer Tmax extremes. Five out of the nine stations show increases in extreme temperature indicators in the more recent decades. The variability in trends in the daily summer Tmax extremes across the nine stations correspond with the mean annual warming trends at those stations. We also find that wetter summers have much smaller instances of Tmax extremes as compared to drier summers.

  16. Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data for 518 Russian Meteorological Stations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bulygina, O. N. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre; Razuvaev, V. N. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, many climate datasets have been exchanged directly between the principal climate data centers of the United States (NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC)) and the former-USSR/Russia (All-Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Center (RIHMI-WDC)). This data exchange has its roots in a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment (Tatusko 1990). CDIAC has partnered with NCDC and RIHMI-WDC since the early 1990s to help make former-USSR climate datasets available to the public. The first former-USSR daily temperature and precipitation dataset released by CDIAC was initially created within the framework of the international cooperation between RIHMI-WDC and CDIAC and was published by CDIAC as NDP-040, consisting of data from 223 stations over the former USSR whose data were published in USSR Meteorological Monthly (Part 1: Daily Data). The database presented here consists of records from 518 Russian stations (excluding the former-USSR stations outside the Russian territory contained in NDP-040), for the most part extending through 2010. Records not extending through 2010 result from stations having closed or else their data were not published in Meteorological Monthly of CIS Stations (Part 1: Daily Data). The database was created from the digital media of the State Data Holding. The station inventory was arrived at using (a) the list of Roshydromet stations that are included in the Global Climate Observation Network (this list was approved by the Head of Roshydromet on 25 March 2004) and (b) the list of Roshydromet benchmark meteorological stations prepared by V.I. Kodratyuk, Head of the Department at Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory.

  17. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  18. Distribution, sources and biogeochemistry of organic matter in a mangrove dominated estuarine system (Indian Sundarbans) during the pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R.; Rixen, T.; Baum, A.; Malik, A.; Gleixner, G.; Jana, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    The sources and distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Indian Sundarbans mangrove and Hooghly estuarine system were examined during the pre-monsoon (summer) 2014. DOC is the dominant form of organic matter (OM) in the studied estuarine waters and represents a mixture of mangrove and riverine sources. Microbial degradation of land derived OM results in a high pCO2 in the Hooghly estuarine waters while enrichment in δ13C-DIC ascribes to CO2 uptake by phytoplankton in the Sundarbans water. Higher δ15N in the particulate organic nitrogen (PON) of the mangrove and marine zone could be associated with enhanced phytoplankton production sustained by nitrate from mangrove derived OM decomposition and/or nitrate imported from the Bay of Bengal. Low organic carbon contents and elemental ratios (TN/TOC) indicate an intense mineralization and transformation of OM in the sediments, resulting insignificantly different OM compositions compared to those of the three major sources: land derived OM, mangrove leaf litter (Avicennia marina) and in situ phytoplankton production.

  19. MJO modulation on diurnal rainfall over West Java during pre-monsoon and strong El Niño periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulihastin, E.; Trismidianto; Satyawardhana, H.; Nugroho, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the MJO modulation ondiurnal rainfall in West Java during the pre-monsoon and strong El Niño periods in 2015 over West Java. The data used is a combination of satellite data, reanalysis data, radar stations data, and numerical weather prediction of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) data with spatial resolution of 5 km. The results confirmed that the strong MJO in 4 and 5 phases has modulated the amplitude of diurnal rainfall increase significantly over West Java in phase of lag+1. Modulation on diurnal cycle of rainfall was also indicated by the persistence of the rainfall and the formation of two peaks of maximum rainfall in the afternoon and early morning. In addition, modulation of rainfall for the southern part of Java was 50% greater than the north. Moreover, the MJO modulation mechanism was characterized by the formation of an active and extending of Meso-scale Convective System (MCS) which has a cycle of up to 12 hours and persistent from November 7-9 over West Java.

  20. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  1. Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kalpesh; Deo, Makaranad Chintamani

    2017-02-01

    Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs. A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. With this in mind, we propose the use of wavelet neural networks (WNNs) for prediction of daily SST values. The prediction of daily SST values was carried out using WNN over 5 days into the future at six different locations in the Indian Ocean. First, the accuracy of site-specific SST values predicted by a numerical model, ROMS, was assessed against the in situ records. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0.18 to 0.32 °C for a 5-day-ahead forecast. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

  2. Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kalpesh; Deo, Makaranad Chintamani

    2017-04-01

    Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs. A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. With this in mind, we propose the use of wavelet neural networks (WNNs) for prediction of daily SST values. The prediction of daily SST values was carried out using WNN over 5 days into the future at six different locations in the Indian Ocean. First, the accuracy of site-specific SST values predicted by a numerical model, ROMS, was assessed against the in situ records. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0.18 to 0.32 °C for a 5-day-ahead forecast. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

  3. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  4. Trend of monthly temperature and daily extreme temperature during 1951-2012 in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caloiero, Tommaso

    2017-07-01

    Among several variables affecting climate change and climate variability, temperature plays a crucial role in the process because its variations in monthly and extreme values can impact on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. In this study, an analysis of temperature data has been performed over 22 series observed in New Zealand. In particular, to detect possible trends in the time series, the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test was first applied at monthly scale and then to several indices of extreme daily temperatures computed since 1951. The results showed a positive trend in both the maximum and the minimum temperatures, in particular, in the autumn-winter period. This increase has been evaluated faster in maximum temperature than in minimum one. The trend analysis of the temperature indices suggests that there has been an increase in the frequency and intensity of hot extremes, while most of the cold extremes showed a downward tendency.

  5. Atmospheric aerosols size distribution properties in winter and pre-monsoon over western Indian Thar Desert location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Chhagan; Vyas, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    The first ever experimental results over Indian Thar Desert region concerning to height integrated aerosols size distribution function in particles size ranging between 0.09 to 2 µm such as, aerosols columnar size distribution (CSD), effective radius (Reff), integrated content of total aerosols (Nt), columnar content of accumulation and coarse size aerosols particles concentration (Na) (size < 0.5 µm) and (Nc) (size between 0.5 to 2 µm) have been described specifically during winter (a stable weather condition and intense anthropogenic pollution activity period) and pre-monsoon (intense dust storms of natural mineral aerosols as well as unstable atmospheric weather condition period) at Jaisalmer (26.90°N, 69.90°E, 220 m above surface level (asl)) located in central Thar desert vicinity of western Indian site. The CSD and various derived other aerosols size parameters are retrieved from their average spectral characteristics of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from UV to Infrared wavelength spectrum measured from Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR). The natures of CSD are, in general, bio-modal character, instead of uniformly distributed character and power law distributions. The observed primary peaks in CSD plots are seen around about 1013 m2 μm-1 at radius range 0.09-0.20 µm during both the seasons. But, in winter months, secondary peaks of relatively lower CSD values of 1010 to 1011 m2/μm-1 occur within a lower radius size range 0.4 to 0.6 µm. In contrast to this, while in dust dominated and hot season, the dominated secondary maxima of the higher CSD of about 1012 m2μm-3 is found of bigger aerosols size particles in a rage of 0.6 to 1.0 µm which is clearly demonstrating the characteristics of higher aerosols laden of bigger size aerosols in summer months relative to their prevailed lower aerosols loading of smaller size aerosols particles (0.4 to 0.6 µm) in cold months. Several other interesting features of changing nature of monthly spectral AOT

  6. Effects of dust aerosols on tropospheric chemistry during a typical pre-monsoon season dust storm in northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Madronich, S.; Naja, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Pfister, G. G.; Knote, C.; Brasseur, G. P.; Ojha, N.; Sarangi, T.

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the effect of a typical pre-monsoon season dust storm on tropospheric chemistry through a case study in northern India. Dust can alter photolysis rates by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and provide surface area for heterogeneous reactions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to simulate the dust storm that occurred during 17-22 April 2010 and investigate the contribution of different processes on mixing ratios of several key trace gases including ozone, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen oxides, methanol, acetic acid and formaldehyde. We revised the Fast Troposphere Ultraviolet Visible (F-TUV) photolysis scheme to include effects of dust aerosols on photolysis rates in a manner consistent with the calculations of aerosol optical properties for feedback to the meteorology radiation schemes. In addition, we added 12 heterogeneous reactions on the dust surface, for which 6 reactions have relative-humidity-dependent reactive uptake coefficients (γ). The inclusion of these processes in WRF-Chem is found to reduce the difference between observed and modeled O3 from 16 ± 9 to 2 ± 8 ppbv and that in NOy from 2129 ± 1425 to 372 ± 1225 pptv compared to measurements at the high-altitude site Nainital in the central Himalayas, and reduce biases by up to 30% in tropospheric column NO2 compared to OMI retrievals. The simulated dust storm acted as a sink for all the trace gases examined here and significantly perturbed their spatial and vertical distributions. The reductions in these gases are estimated as 5-100%, and more than 80% of this reduction was due to heterogeneous chemistry. The RH dependence of γ is also found to have substantial impact on the distribution of trace gases, with changes of up to 20-25% in O3 and HO2, 50% in H2O2 and 100% in HNO3. A set of sensitivity analyses revealed that dust aging could change H2O2 and CH3COOH levels by up to 50% but has a relatively small impact on other gases.

  7. Atmospheric aerosols size distribution properties in winter and pre-monsoon over western Indian Thar Desert location

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Chhagan Vyas, B. M.

    2016-05-06

    The first ever experimental results over Indian Thar Desert region concerning to height integrated aerosols size distribution function in particles size ranging between 0.09 to 2 µm such as, aerosols columnar size distribution (CSD), effective radius (R{sub eff}), integrated content of total aerosols (N{sub t}), columnar content of accumulation and coarse size aerosols particles concentration (N{sub a}) (size < 0.5 µm) and (N{sub c}) (size between 0.5 to 2 µm) have been described specifically during winter (a stable weather condition and intense anthropogenic pollution activity period) and pre-monsoon (intense dust storms of natural mineral aerosols as well as unstable atmospheric weather condition period) at Jaisalmer (26.90°N, 69.90°E, 220 m above surface level (asl)) located in central Thar desert vicinity of western Indian site. The CSD and various derived other aerosols size parameters are retrieved from their average spectral characteristics of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from UV to Infrared wavelength spectrum measured from Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR). The natures of CSD are, in general, bio-modal character, instead of uniformly distributed character and power law distributions. The observed primary peaks in CSD plots are seen around about 10{sup 13} m{sup 2} μm{sup −1} at radius range 0.09-0.20 µm during both the seasons. But, in winter months, secondary peaks of relatively lower CSD values of 10{sup 10} to 10{sup 11} m{sup 2}/μm{sup −1} occur within a lower radius size range 0.4 to 0.6 µm. In contrast to this, while in dust dominated and hot season, the dominated secondary maxima of the higher CSD of about 10{sup 12} m{sup 2}μm{sup −3} is found of bigger aerosols size particles in a rage of 0.6 to 1.0 µm which is clearly demonstrating the characteristics of higher aerosols laden of bigger size aerosols in summer months relative to their prevailed lower aerosols loading of smaller size aerosols particles (0

  8. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  9. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place.

  10. Verification of pre-monsoon temperature forecasts over India during 2016 with a focus on heatwave prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harvir; Arora, Kopal; Ashrit, Raghavendra; Rajagopal, Ekkattil N.

    2017-09-01

    The operational medium-range weather forecasting based on numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are complemented by the forecast products based on ensemble prediction systems (EPSs). This change has been recognised as an essentially useful tool for medium-range forecasting and is now finding its place in forecasting the extreme events. Here we investigate extreme events (heatwaves) using a high-resolution NWP model and its ensemble models in union with the classical statistical scores to serve verification purposes. With the advent of climate-change-related studies in the recent past, the rising number of extreme events and their plausible socio-economic effects have encouraged the need for forecasting and verification of extremes. Applying the traditional verification scores and associated methods to both the deterministic and the ensemble forecast, we attempted to examine the performance of the ensemble-based approach in comparison to the traditional deterministic method. The results indicate an appreciable competence of the ensemble forecast at detecting extreme events compared to the deterministic forecast. Locations of the events are also better captured by the ensemble forecast. Further, it is found that the EPS smoothes down the unexpectedly increasing signals, thereby reducing the false alarms and thus proving to be more reliable than the deterministic forecast.

  11. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part I: maximum temperatures in summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of summer maximum temperatures is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, summer maximum daily temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent heat-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict heat-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that high temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily maximum temperatures during summer over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the summer forecast period of 1 June - 30 September, 2007. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated maximum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme heat episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  12. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  13. A comparison of climatological observing windows and their impact on detecting daily temperature extrema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žaknić-Ćatović, Ana; Gough, William A.

    2017-02-01

    Climatological observing window (COW) is defined as a time frame over which continuous or extreme air temperature measurements are collected. A 24-h time interval, ending at 00UTC or shifted to end at 06UTC, has been associated with difficulties in characterizing daily temperature extrema. A fixed 24-h COW used to obtain the temperature minima leads to potential misidentification due to fragmentation of "nighttime" into two subsequent nighttime periods due to the time discretization interval. The correct identification of air temperature extrema is achievable using a COW that identifies daily minimum over a single nighttime period and maximum over a single daytime period, as determined by sunrise and sunset. Due to a common absence of hourly air temperature observations, the accuracy of the mean temperature estimation is dependent on the accuracy of determination of diurnal air temperature extrema. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to examine the impact of the COW on detecting daily air temperature extrema. The timing of the 24-h observing window occasionally affects the determination of daily extrema through a mischaracterization of the diurnal minima and by extension can lead to errors in determining daily mean temperature. Hourly air temperature data for the time period from year 1987 to 2014, obtained from Toronto Buttonville Municipal Airport weather station, were used in analysis of COW impacts on detection of daily temperature extrema and calculation of annual temperature averages based on such extrema.

  14. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  15. Effects of repeated surgical stress on daily changes of body core temperature in mice.

    PubMed

    Kanizsai, P; Vámos, Z; Solymár, M; Garami, A; Szelényi, Z

    2010-06-01

    Daily body core temperature rhythm has been known to become blunted for several days following intra-abdominal implantation of biotelemetry transmitters in small rodents and about a week is required for re-establishment of stable body core temperature oscillation. In the present study carried out on mice it was found that a repetition of the same minor surgical intervention (laparotomy) several days apart could speed up the stabilization of body temperature oscillations. Melatonin supplied with the drinking water continuously was found to speed up the return of stable daily body temperature rhythm further on consecutive laparotomies, while daily injections of methylprednisolone resulted in some delay in the development of stable body core temperature oscillations. It is concluded that in C57BL/6 mice possessing low plasma levels of melatonin exhibit an adaptive response to repeated stresses influencing the dynamics of daily body temperature rhythm.

  16. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  17. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  18. Physiological responses of ectotherms to daily temperature variation.

    PubMed

    Kern, Pippa; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E

    2015-10-01

    Daily thermal fluctuations (DTFs) impact the capacity of ectotherms to maintain performance and energetic demands because of thermodynamic effects on physiological processes. Mechanisms that reduce the thermal sensitivity of physiological traits may buffer ectotherms from the consequences of DTFs. Species that experience varying degrees of DTFs in their environments may differ in their responses to thermally variable conditions, if thermal performance curves reflect environmental conditions. We tested the hypothesis that in response to DTFs, tadpoles from habitats characterised by small DTFs would show greater plasticity in the thermal sensitivity of physiological processes than tadpoles from environments characterised by large DTFs. We tested the thermal sensitivity of physiological traits in tadpoles of three species that differ naturally in their exposure to DTFs, raised in control (24°C) and DTF treatments (20-30°C and 18-38°C). DTFs reduced growth in all species. Development of tadpoles experiencing DTFs was increased for tadpoles from highly thermally variable habitats (∼15%), and slower in tadpoles from less thermally variable habitats (∼30%). In general, tadpoles were unable to alter the thermal sensitivity of physiological processes, although DTFs induced plasticity in metabolic enzyme activity in all species, although to a greater extent in species from less thermally variable environments. DTFs increased upper thermal limits in all species (between 0.89 and 1.6°C). Our results suggest that the impact of increased thermal variability may favour some species while others are negatively impacted. Species that cannot compensate for increased variability by buffering growth and development will probably be most affected. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Daily oscillations of skin temperature in military personnel using thermography.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Sillero-Quintana, M; Piñonosa Cano, S; Moreira, D G; Brito, C J; Fernandes, A A; Pussieldi, G A; Marins, J C B

    2016-10-01

    The human body makes many physiological adjustments throughout the day, including adjustments to body temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine oscillations in the skin temperature (Tsk-1-Tsk-25) at 25 body regions of interest (ROIs) over 1 day using infrared thermography. Tsk values of 31 male (age 22.9±3.0 years) Brazilian Air Force members were evaluated from five thermograms collected at 7, 11, 15, 19 and 23 h (Tsk7,11,15,19,23) by a Fluke imager. We applied one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures for the different times of the day and Tukey's post hoc test to determine significant Tsk differences between ROIs (α=0.05), and the cosinor analysis was used to determine the midline estimating statistic of rhythm, amplitude and acrophase of Tsk during the 24 h period. The anterior hands showed the greatest Tsk variations throughout the day. In the lower limbs, scapula, abdomen, chest and lower back, Tsk-11, Tsk-15, Tsk-19 and Tsk-23 were significantly different (p<0.05) from Tsk-7. The lowest Tsk values were obtained in the early morning, with increases in the afternoon and levelling after 15:00. The Tsk at all ROIs and the averaged Tsk showed oscillations throughout the day, with the lowest values in the early morning (07:00). Temperature fluctuations depended on the specific ROI, with thermal stabilisation in some regions in the afternoon and a central upward trend throughout the day in the hands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  1. Simulation of mosquitoes population dynamic based on rainfall and average daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widayani, H.; Seprianus, Nuraini, N.; Arum, J.

    2014-02-01

    This paper proposed rainfall and average daily temperature approximation functions using least square method with trigonometry polynomial. Error value from this method is better than Fast Fourier Transform method. This approximation is used to accommodate climatic factors into deterministic model of mosquitoes population by constructing a carrying capacity function which contains rainfall and average daily temperature functions. We develop a mathematical model for mosquitoes population dynamic which formulated by Yang et al (2010) with dynamic parameter of a daily rainfall as well as temperature on that model. Two fixed points, trivial and non-trivial, are obtained when constant entomological parameters assumed. Basic offspring number, Q0 as mosquitoes reproduction parameter is constructed. Non-trivial fixed point is stable if and only if Q0 > 1. Numerical simulation shown the dynamics of mosquitoes population significantly affected by rainfall and average daily temperature function.

  2. Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data for 223 Former-USSR Stations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Razuvaev, V. N. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre; Apasova, E. B. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre; Martuganov, R. A. [All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information-World Data Centre

    1990-01-01

    The stations in this dataset are considered by RIHMI to comprise one of the best networks suitable for temperature and precipitation monitoring over the the former-USSR. Factors involved in choosing these 223 stations included length or record, amount of missing data, and achieving reasonably good geographic coverage. There are indeed many more stations with daily data over this part of the world, and hundreds more station records are available through NOAA's Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCND) database. The 223 stations comprising this database are included in GHCND, but different data processing, updating, and quality assurance methods/checks mean that the agreement between records will vary depending on the station. The relative quality and accuracy of the common station records in the two databases also cannot be easily assessed. As of this writing, most of the common stations contained in the GHCND have more recent records, but not necessarily records starting as early as the records available here. This database contains four variables: daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature, and daily total precipitation (liquid equivalent). Temperature were taken three times a day from 1881-1935, four times a day from 1936-65, and eight times a day since 1966. Daily mean temperature is defined as the average of all observations for each calendar day. Daily maximum/minimum temperatures are derived from maximum/minimum thermometer measurements. See the measurement description file for further details. Daily precipitation totals are also available (to the nearest tenth of a millimeter) for each station. Throughout the record, daily precipitation is defined as the total amount of precipitation recorded during a 24-h period, snowfall being converted to a liquid total by melting the snow in the gauge. From 1936 on, rain gauges were checked several times each day; the cumulative total of all observations during a calendar day was presumably used as the

  3. Estimation of daily mean air temperature from satellite derived radiometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) at JSC utilizes satellite derived estimates of daily mean air temperature (DMAT) to monitor the effect of temperature on screwworm populations. The performance of the SEDS screwworm growth potential predictions depends in large part upon the accuracy of the DMAT estimates.

  4. Estimation of body temperature rhythm based on heart activity parameters in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sooyoung Sim; Heenam Yoon; Hosuk Ryou; Kwangsuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature contains valuable health related information such as circadian rhythm and menstruation cycle. Also, it was discovered from previous studies that body temperature rhythm in daily life is related with sleep disorders and cognitive performances. However, monitoring body temperature with existing devices during daily life is not easy because they are invasive, intrusive, or expensive. Therefore, the technology which can accurately and nonintrusively monitor body temperature is required. In this study, we developed body temperature estimation model based on heart rate and heart rate variability parameters. Although this work was inspired by previous research, we originally identified that the model can be applied to body temperature monitoring in daily life. Also, we could find out that normalized Mean heart rate (nMHR) and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability showed better performance than other parameters. Although we should validate the model with more number of subjects and consider additional algorithms to decrease the accumulated estimation error, we could verify the usefulness of this approach. Through this study, we expect that we would be able to monitor core body temperature and circadian rhythm from simple heart rate monitor. Then, we can obtain various health related information derived from daily body temperature rhythm.

  5. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  6. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we are developing an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project: 1. providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; 2. identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; 3. estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; 4. using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  7. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghent, D.; Rayner, N. A.

    2016-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018, https://www.eustaceproject.eu) we are developing an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals is used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods. We will present recent progress along this road in the EUSTACE project, i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.

  8. A Time Series Analysis of Associations between Daily Temperature and Crime Events in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Schinasi, Leah H; Hamra, Ghassan B

    2017-07-07

    Urban crime may be an important but overlooked public health impact of rising ambient temperatures. We conducted a time series analysis of associations between temperature and crimes in Philadelphia, PA, for years 2006-2015. We obtained daily crime data from the Philadelphia Police Department, and hourly temperature and dew point data from the National Centers for Environmental Information. We calculated the mean daily heat index and daily deviations from each year's seasonal mean heat index value. We used generalized additive models with a quasi-Poisson distribution, adjusted for day of the week, public holiday, and long-term trends and seasonality, to estimate relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals. We found that the strongest associations were with violent crime and disorderly conduct. For example, relative to the median of the distribution of mean daily heat index values, the rate of violent crimes was 9% (95% CI 6-12%) higher when the mean daily heat index was at the 99th percentile of the distribution. There was a positive, linear relationship between deviations of the daily mean heat index from the seasonal mean and rates of violent crime and disorderly conduct, especially in cold months. Overall, these analyses suggest that disorderly conduct and violent crimes are highest when temperatures are comfortable, especially during cold months. This work provides important information regarding the temporal patterns of crime activity.

  9. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-22

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  10. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-01

    The Markov chain's first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  11. Latitudinal variation in the response of tidepool copepods to mean and daily range in temperature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Brian C; Shurin, Jonathan B

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the evolutionary potential of organisms to adapt to a changing climate, and the fitness consequences of temperature fluctuations, are critical to forecasting the future of biodiversity. Geographic variation among populations in life history response to temperature mean and variability offers one view of the potential for local adaptation to broaden the thermal niche. We used laboratory growth experiments to examine the effects of temperatures between 13 degrees C and 30 degrees C on five life history traits and the intrinsic rate of increase for 15 Tigriopus californicus populations distributed over 17 degrees of latitude. Different life history stages showed distinct latitudinal shifts in thermal response, while the temperature of peak population growth consistently declined with increasing latitude. In addition, high-latitude populations grew faster at optimal temperatures but showed steeper fitness declines at high temperature. To test geographic population variation in response to the amplitude of daily thermal fluctuations, we grew three northern and three southern populations and manipulated nightly low and daily high temperatures. We found the lowest fitness overall in the treatment with the highest mean temperature, and the treatment with the greatest variability showed high fitness despite an 80C greater daily range. Population responses to daily thermal variability were unrelated to latitude of origin. Our results indicate that trade-offs between adaptation to high vs. low temperature, and between growth and maturation vs. survival and fecundity, govern local adaptation along the latitudinal gradient. They also indicate that, T. californicus populations can maintain fitness over a wide range of daily variability but are more sensitive to small changes in the mean temperature.

  12. Fine-Resolution Satellite-Based Daily Sea Surface Temperatures over the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    MODAS with latitudinal extent limited to ±80. Note that only the RTG product includes SST in the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov . The plot masks SST...Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean A. B. Kara1 and C. N. Barron1 Received 18 November 2006; revised...13 February 2007; accepted 27 February 2007; published 22 May 2007. [1] The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface

  13. A predictive model relating daily fluctuations in summer temperatures and mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Fouillet, Anne; Rey, Grégoire; Jougla, Eric; Frayssinet, Philippe; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Hémon, Denis

    2007-06-19

    In the context of climate change, an efficient alert system to prevent the risk associated with summer heat is necessary. The authors' objective was to describe the temperature-mortality relationship in France over a 29-year period and to define and validate a combination of temperature factors enabling optimum prediction of the daily fluctuations in summer mortality. The study addressed the daily mortality rates of subjects aged over 55 years, in France as a whole, from 1975 to 2003. The daily minimum and maximum temperatures consisted in the average values recorded by 97 meteorological stations. For each day, a cumulative variable for the maximum temperature over the preceding 10 days was defined. The mortality rate was modelled using a Poisson regression with over-dispersion and a first-order autoregressive structure and with control for long-term and within-summer seasonal trends. The lag effects of temperature were accounted for by including the preceding 5 days. A "backward" method was used to select the most significant climatic variables. The predictive performance of the model was assessed by comparing the observed and predicted daily mortality rates on a validation period (summer 2003), which was distinct from the calibration period (1975-2002) used to estimate the model. The temperature indicators explained 76% of the total over-dispersion. The greater part of the daily fluctuations in mortality was explained by the interaction between minimum and maximum temperatures, for a day t and the day preceding it. The prediction of mortality during extreme events was greatly improved by including the cumulative variables for maximum temperature, in interaction with the maximum temperatures. The correlation between the observed and estimated mortality ratios was 0.88 in the final model. Although France is a large country with geographic heterogeneity in both mortality and temperatures, a strong correlation between the daily fluctuations in mortality and the

  14. Effects of temperature seasonality on tundra vegetation productivity using a daily vegetation dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Erler, A.; Frazier, J.; Bhatt, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the seasonality of air temperature will elicit interacting effects on the dynamics of snow cover, nutrient availability, vegetation growth, and other ecosystem properties and processes in arctic tundra. Simulation models often do not have the fine temporal resolution necessary to develop theory and propose hypotheses for the effects of daily and weekly timescale changes on ecosystem dynamics. We therefore developed a daily version of an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model (ArcVeg) to simulate how changes in the seasonality of air temperatures influences the dynamics of vegetation growth and carbon sequestration across regions of arctic tundra. High temporal-resolution air and soil temperature data collected from field sites across the five arctic tundra bioclimate subzones were used to develop a daily weather generator operable for sites throughout the arctic tundra. Empirical relationships between temperature and soil nitrogen were used to generate daily dynamics of soil nitrogen availability, which drive the daily uptake of nitrogen and growth among twelve tundra plant functional types. Seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and remotely sensed land surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) GIMMS 3g dataset were used to investigate constraints on the start of the growing season, although there was no indication of any spatially consistent temperature or day-length controls on greening onset. Because of the exponential nature of the relationship between soil temperature and nitrogen mineralization, temperature changes during the peak of the growing season had greater effects on vegetation productivity than changes earlier in the growing season. However, early season changes in temperature had a greater effect on the relative productivities of different plant functional types, with potential influences on species composition.

  15. [Association between temperature and daily mortality in Guangzhou, 2006-2009: a time-series study].

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing-hua; Zhang, Yong-hui; Ma, Wen-jun; Xu, Yan-jun; Xu, Xiao-jun; Cai, Qiu-mao; Pan, Bo; Zeng, Si-qing

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between temperature and daily mortality from June 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009 in Guangzhou. Time series approach was used to estimate the impact of temperature on the rates of total and cause-specific daily mortality. We fitted generalized additive Poisson regression using non-parametric smooth functions to control for the long-term time trend, day of week, air pollution and other weather variables. A slight sloping U-like relationship between the total mortality and temperature was found, with an optimum average temperature (temperature with lowest mortality risk) value of 19.7°C in Guangzhou. For temperature above the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality increased by 3.0% (RR=1.030, 95%CI: 1.011-1.050) for each increase of degree in Celsius. For average temperature below the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality and diseases of circulatory system had a 3.3% (RR=0.967, 95%CI: 0.936-0.997) decrease and a 3.6% (RR=0.964, 95%CI: 0.935-0.994) increase, for each degree of Celsius increase, respectively. Our findings showed that the temperature had an impact on the daily mortality in Guangzhou. Countermeasures needed to be taken to reduce the temperature related mortality.

  16. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  17. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  18. A Mesoscale Analysis of Column-Integrated Aerosol Properties in Northern India During the TIGERZ 2008 Pre-Monsoon Period and a Comparison to MODIS Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Tripathi, S. N.; Eck, T. F.; Newcomb, W. W.; Slutsker, I.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Wang, S.-H.; Singh, R. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    opportunity to measure the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol loading in the IGP. The strong aerosol absorption derived from ground-based sun/sky radiometer measurements suggested the presence of a predominately black carbon and dust mixture during the pre-monsoon period. Consistent with the elevated heat-pump hypothesis, these absorbing aerosols found across Kanpur and the greater IGP region during the pre-monsoon period likely induced regional atmospheric warming, which lead to a more rapid advance of the southwest Asian monsoon and above normal precipitation over northern India in June 2008.

  19. How do GCMs represent daily maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    This work focuses on southern La Plata Basin region which is one of the most important agriculture and hydropower producing regions worldwide. Extreme climate events such as cold and heat waves and frost events have a significant socio-economic impact. It is a big challenge for global climate models (GCMs) to simulate regional patterns, temporal variations and distribution of temperature in a daily basis. Taking into account the present and future relevance of the region for the economy of the countries involved, it is very important to analyze maximum and minimum temperatures for model evaluation and development. This kind of study is aslo the basis for a great deal of the statistical downscaling methods in a climate change context. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of the GCMs to reproduce the observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures in the southern La Plata Basin region. To this end, daily fields of maximum and minimum temperatures from a set of 15 GCMs were used. The outputs corresponding to the historical experiment for the reference period 1979-1999 were obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 (World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). In order to compare daily temperature values in the southern La Plata Basin region as generated by GCMs to those derived from observations, daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used from the gridded dataset generated by the Claris LPB Project ("A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin"). Additionally, reference station data was included in the study. The analysis was focused on austral winter (June, July, August) and summer (December, January, February). The study was carried out by analyzing the performance of the 15 GCMs , as well as their ensemble mean, in simulating the probability distribution function (pdf) of maximum and minimum temperatures which include mean values, variability, skewness, et c, and regional

  20. Daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence in Guangzhou, China: a time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Wan, Yue; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Few previous studies have examined the association between temperature and renal colic in developing regions, especially in China, the largest developing country in the world. We collected daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for renal colic from Guangzhou Emergency Center from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. We used a distributed-lag nonlinear model in addition to the over-dispersed generalized additive model to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence after controlling for seasonality, humidity, public holidays, and day of the week. We identified 3158 EADs for renal colic during the study period. This exposure-response curve was almost flat when the temperature was low and moderate and elevated when the temperature increased over 21 °C. For heat-related effects, the significant risk occurred on the concurrent day and diminished until lag day 7. The cumulative relative risk of hot temperatures (90th percentile) and extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) over lag days 0-7 was 1.92 (95 % confidence interval, 1.21, 3.05) and 2.45 (95 % confidence interval, 1.50, 3.99) compared with the reference temperature of 21 °C. This time-series analysis in Guangzhou, China, suggested a nonlinear and lagged association between high outdoor temperatures and daily EADs for renal colic. Our findings might have important public health significance to prevent renal colic.

  1. Daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence in Guangzhou, China: a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Wan, Yue; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Few previous studies have examined the association between temperature and renal colic in developing regions, especially in China, the largest developing country in the world. We collected daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for renal colic from Guangzhou Emergency Center from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. We used a distributed-lag nonlinear model in addition to the over-dispersed generalized additive model to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence after controlling for seasonality, humidity, public holidays, and day of the week. We identified 3158 EADs for renal colic during the study period. This exposure-response curve was almost flat when the temperature was low and moderate and elevated when the temperature increased over 21 °C. For heat-related effects, the significant risk occurred on the concurrent day and diminished until lag day 7. The cumulative relative risk of hot temperatures (90th percentile) and extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) over lag days 0-7 was 1.92 (95 % confidence interval, 1.21, 3.05) and 2.45 (95 % confidence interval, 1.50, 3.99) compared with the reference temperature of 21 °C. This time-series analysis in Guangzhou, China, suggested a nonlinear and lagged association between high outdoor temperatures and daily EADs for renal colic. Our findings might have important public health significance to prevent renal colic.

  2. [The effect of daily exposure to low hardening temperature on plant vital activity].

    PubMed

    Markovskaia, E F; Sysoeva, M I; Sherudilo, E G

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological responses of plants to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature was studied under chamber and field conditions. Experiments were carried out on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), marigolds (Tagetes L.), and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants. The obtained data demonstrated a similar pattern of response in all studied plant species to different variants of exposure to low hardening temperature. The main features of plant response to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature include: a higher rate of increase in cold tolerance (cf. two- or threefold increase relative to constant low hardening temperature) that peaked on day 5 (cf. day 2 at constant low hardening temperature) and was maintained for 2 weeks (cf. 3-4 days at constant low hardening temperature); a simultaneous increase in heat tolerance (cf. twofold relative to constant low hardening temperature) maintained over a long period (cf. only in the beginning of the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a sharp drop in the subsequent cold tolerance after plant incubation in the dark (cf. a very low decrease in cold tolerance following the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a combination of high cold tolerance and high photochemical activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (cf. a low non-photochemical quenching at constant low hardening temperature); and the capacity to rapidly increase cold tolerance in response to repeated short-term exposures to low hardening temperature in plants grown outdoors (cf. a gradual increase after repeated exposure to constant low hardening temperature). Possible methods underlying the plant response to daily short-term exposure to low temperature are proposed.

  3. Spatiotemporal variations in the difference between satellite-observed daily maximum land surface temperature and station-based daily maximum near-surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xu; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Yao, Yitong; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Kaicun; Piao, Shilong

    2017-02-01

    There is an increasing demand to integrate land surface temperature (LST) into climate research due to its global coverage, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of its distinctive characteristics compared to near-surface air temperature (Tair). Using satellite observations and in situ station-based data sets, we conducted a global-scale assessment of the spatial and seasonal variations in the difference between daily maximum LST and daily maximum Tair (δT, LST - Tair) during 2003-2014. Spatially, LST is generally higher than Tair over arid and sparsely vegetated regions in the middle-low latitudes, but LST is lower than Tair in tropical rainforests due to strong evaporative cooling, and in the high-latitude regions due to snow-induced radiative cooling. Seasonally, δT is negative in tropical regions throughout the year, while it displays a pronounced seasonality in both the midlatitudes and boreal regions. The seasonality in the midlatitudes is a result of the asynchronous responses of LST and Tair to the seasonal cycle of radiation and vegetation abundance, whereas in the boreal regions, seasonality is mainly caused by the change in snow cover. Our study identified substantial spatial heterogeneity and seasonality in δT, as well as its determinant environmental drivers, and thus provides a useful reference for monitoring near-surface air temperature changes using remote sensing, particularly in remote regions.

  4. Kinetics of the Daily Rate of Photosynthesis at Low Temperatures for two Conifers 1

    PubMed Central

    Pharis, R. P.; Hellmers, H.; Schuurmans, E.

    1967-01-01

    The daily course of photosynthesis at low temperatures in 2 coniferous species, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, were studied using controlled environment facilities. After having been grown at a 23° day, and 19° night for a year, seedlings were acclimatized for 4 months to either a 3°, 7° or 11° day all under 1200 ft-c of light and followed by a 16-hour night at 3°. Measurement of photosynthesis at 1200 ft-c revealed 3 separate responses. First, the rapidity at which the plants attained their maximum photosynthesis when the lights were turned on depended upon the species, the current temperature, and the previous temperature condition to which the plants had become acclimatized. The warmer the day temperature the sooner the daily maximum was reached. Second, fluctuations in the rate of photosynthesis during the day varied with the species and the day temperature. Photosynthesis in both fir and pine kept at an 11° day and pines kept at a 7° day attained a daily peak rate followed by a decline. This decline occurred even though temperature and light were kept constant, the CO2 level was returned to 320 ppm from 290 ppm, and the plants were kept well watered. At a 3° day neither species showed this decline. Third, a plant transferred to another temperature acquired a new stable daily photosynthetic pattern. The number of days required for stabilization depended upon the previous temperature history of the plant. The adjustment rate was faster when the temperature was raised than when it was lowered. PMID:16656533

  5. Kinetics of the Daily Rate of Photosynthesis at Low Temperatures for two Conifers.

    PubMed

    Pharis, R P; Hellmers, H; Schuurmans, E

    1967-04-01

    The daily course of photosynthesis at low temperatures in 2 coniferous species, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, were studied using controlled environment facilities. After having been grown at a 23 degrees day, and 19 degrees night for a year, seedlings were acclimatized for 4 months to either a 3 degrees , 7 degrees or 11 degrees day all under 1200 ft-c of light and followed by a 16-hour night at 3 degrees . Measurement of photosynthesis at 1200 ft-c revealed 3 separate responses. First, the rapidity at which the plants attained their maximum photosynthesis when the lights were turned on depended upon the species, the current temperature, and the previous temperature condition to which the plants had become acclimatized. The warmer the day temperature the sooner the daily maximum was reached. Second, fluctuations in the rate of photosynthesis during the day varied with the species and the day temperature. Photosynthesis in both fir and pine kept at an 11 degrees day and pines kept at a 7 degrees day attained a daily peak rate followed by a decline. This decline occurred even though temperature and light were kept constant, the CO(2) level was returned to 320 ppm from 290 ppm, and the plants were kept well watered. At a 3 degrees day neither species showed this decline. Third, a plant transferred to another temperature acquired a new stable daily photosynthetic pattern. The number of days required for stabilization depended upon the previous temperature history of the plant. The adjustment rate was faster when the temperature was raised than when it was lowered.

  6. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  7. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data (1871-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.R.

    2002-10-28

    This document describes a database containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amount, snowfall amount, and snow depth from 1062 observing stations across the contiguous US. This database is an expansion and update of the original 138-station database previously released by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as CDIAC numeric data package NDP-042. These 1062 stations are a subset of the 1221-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), a monthly database compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) that has been widely used in analyzing US climate. Data from 1050 of these daily records extend into the 1990s, while 990 of these extend through 1997. Most station records are essentially complete for at least 40 years; the latest beginning year of record is 1948. Records from 158 stations begin prior to 1900, with that of Charleston, South Carolina beginning the earliest (1871). The daily resolution of these data makes them extremely valuable for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ''event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. The data are also valuable in areas such as regional climate model validation and climate change impact assessment. This database is available free of charge from CDIAC as a numeric data package (NDP).

  8. The daily rhythm of body temperature, heart and respiratory rate in newborn dogs.

    PubMed

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2010-08-01

    We asked whether, during the postnatal period, the daily patterns of body temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR) and breathing frequency (f) begin and develop in synchrony. To this end, measurements of HR, f and Tb were performed weekly, on two consecutive days, for the first two postnatal months on puppies of three breeds of dogs (Rottweiler, Cocker Spaniel and Carlino dogs) with very different birth weights and postnatal growth patterns. Ambient conditions and feeding habits were constant for all puppies. The results indicated that (1) the 24-h average Tb increased and average HR and f decreased with growth, (2) the daily rhythms in Tb were apparent by 4 weeks, irrespective of the puppy's growth pattern, (3) the daily rhythm of Tb in the puppy was not necessarily following that of the mother; in fact, it could anticipate it. (4) The daily rhythms in HR and f were not apparent for the whole study period. We conclude that in neonatal dogs the onset of the daily rhythms of Tb has no obvious relationship with body size or rate of growth and is not cued by the maternal Tb rhythm. The daily rhythms of HR and f do not appear before 2 months of age. Hence, they are not in synchrony with those of Tb.

  9. High-resolution daily gridded data sets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Sven; Krähenmann, Stefan; Bissolli, Peter

    2016-10-01

    New high-resolution data sets for near-surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D data set (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data. By spatial interpolation of these station observations, grid data in a resolution of 0.044° (≈ 5km) on a rotated grid with virtual North Pole at 39.25° N, 162° W are derived. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al.(2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are used for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA-Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Variance explained by the regression ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 K and 1-1.5 ms-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters

  10. High-resolution daily gridded datasets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, S.; Krähenmann, S.; Bissolli, P.

    2015-08-01

    New high-resolution datasets for near surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are hourly SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D dataset (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data and various kinds of inhomogeneities. Grids in a resolution of 0.044° (5 km) are derived by spatial interpolation of these station data into the CORDEX area. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al. (2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are chosen for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Explained variance ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 °C and 1-1.5 m s-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters and daily mean wind speed, respectively. The datasets presented in this article are published at http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_CDC/DECREG0110v1.

  11. Influence of temperature on daily locomotor activity in the crab Uca pugilator

    PubMed Central

    Dunster, Gideon P.; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Aguzzi, Jacopo; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.

    2017-01-01

    Animals living in the intertidal zone are exposed to prominent temperature changes. To cope with the energetic demands of environmental thermal challenges, ectotherms rely mainly on behavioral responses, which may change depending on the time of the day and seasonally. Here, we analyze how temperature shapes crabs’ behavior at 2 different times of the year and show that a transition from constant cold (13.5°C) to constant warm (17.5°C) water temperature leads to increased locomotor activity levels throughout the day in fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) collected during the summer. In contrast, the same transition in environmental temperature leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the daily locomotor activity rhythm in crabs collected during the winter. In other words, colder temperatures during the cold season favor a more prominent diurnal behavior. We interpret this winter-summer difference in the response of daily locomotor activity to temperature changes within the framework of the circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis, which predicts that a less favorable energetic balance would promote a more diurnal activity pattern. During the winter, when the energetic balance is likely less favorable, crabs would save energy by being more active during the expected high-temperature phase of the day—light phase—and less during the expected low-temperature phase of the day—dark phase. Our results suggest that endogenous rhythms in intertidal ectotherms generate adaptive behavioral programs to cope with thermoregulatory demands of the intertidal habitat. PMID:28445533

  12. Influence of temperature on daily locomotor activity in the crab Uca pugilator.

    PubMed

    Mat, Audrey M; Dunster, Gideon P; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Aguzzi, Jacopo; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2017-01-01

    Animals living in the intertidal zone are exposed to prominent temperature changes. To cope with the energetic demands of environmental thermal challenges, ectotherms rely mainly on behavioral responses, which may change depending on the time of the day and seasonally. Here, we analyze how temperature shapes crabs' behavior at 2 different times of the year and show that a transition from constant cold (13.5°C) to constant warm (17.5°C) water temperature leads to increased locomotor activity levels throughout the day in fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator) collected during the summer. In contrast, the same transition in environmental temperature leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the daily locomotor activity rhythm in crabs collected during the winter. In other words, colder temperatures during the cold season favor a more prominent diurnal behavior. We interpret this winter-summer difference in the response of daily locomotor activity to temperature changes within the framework of the circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis, which predicts that a less favorable energetic balance would promote a more diurnal activity pattern. During the winter, when the energetic balance is likely less favorable, crabs would save energy by being more active during the expected high-temperature phase of the day-light phase-and less during the expected low-temperature phase of the day-dark phase. Our results suggest that endogenous rhythms in intertidal ectotherms generate adaptive behavioral programs to cope with thermoregulatory demands of the intertidal habitat.

  13. Nicotine-induced perturbations on heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity daily rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, A L; Gantenbein, M; Bruguerolle, B

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nicotine on the daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in unrestrained rats by use of implanted radiotelemetry transmitters. The study was divided into three seven-day periods: a control period, a treatment period and a recovery period. The control period was used for baseline measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. During the treatment period three rats received nicotine (1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) at 0900 h. Three rats received saline under the same experimental conditions. Heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were continuously monitored and plotted every 10 min. During the three periods a power spectrum analysis was used to determine the dominant period of rhythmicity. If daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were detected, the characteristics of these rhythms, i.e. the mesors, amplitudes and acrophases, were determined by cosinor analysis, expressed as means +/- s.e.m. and compared by analysis of variance. Nicotine did not suppress daily rhythmicity but induced decreases of amplitudes and phase-advances of acrophases for heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. These perturbations might result from the effects of nicotine on the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the hypothalamic clock that co-ordinates biological rhythms.

  14. Post-processing GCM daily rainfall and temperature forecasts for applications in water management and agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepen, Andrew; Wang, Qj; Everingham, Yvette; Zhao, Tongtiegang

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble time series forecasts of rainfall and temperature up to six months ahead are sought for applications in water management and agricultural production. Raw GCM forecasts are generally not suitable for direct use in hydrological models or agricultural production simulators and must be post-processed first, to ensure they are reliable, as skilful as possible, and have realistic temporal patterns. In this study, we test two post-processing approaches to produce daily forecasts for cropping regions and water supply catchments in Australia. In the first approach, we apply the calibration, bridging and merging (CBaM) method to produce statistically reliable monthly forecasts based on GCM outputs of rainfall, temperature and sea surface temperatures. We then disaggregate the monthly forecasts to obtain realistic daily time series forecasts that can be used as inputs to crop and hydrological models. In the second approach, we develop a method for directly post-processing daily GCM forecasts using a Bayesian joint probability (BJP) model. We demonstrate and evaluate the two approaches through a case study for the Tully sugar region in north-eastern Australia. The daily post-processed forecasts will benefit applications in streamflow forecasting and crop yield forecasting.

  15. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  16. Forecasting daily emergency department visits using calendar variables and ambient temperature readings.

    PubMed

    Marcilio, Izabel; Hajat, Shakoor; Gouveia, Nelson

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to develop different models to forecast the daily number of patients seeking emergency department (ED) care in a general hospital according to calendar variables and ambient temperature readings and to compare the models in terms of forecasting accuracy. The authors developed and tested six different models of ED patient visits using total daily counts of patient visits to an ED in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010. The first 33 months of the data set were used to develop the ED patient visits forecasting models (the training set), leaving the last 3 months to measure each model's forecasting accuracy by the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Forecasting models were developed using three different time-series analysis methods: generalized linear models (GLM), generalized estimating equations (GEE), and seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA). For each method, models were explored with and without the effect of mean daily temperature as a predictive variable. The daily mean number of ED visits was 389, ranging from 166 to 613. Data showed a weekly seasonal distribution, with highest patient volumes on Mondays and lowest patient volumes on weekends. There was little variation in daily visits by month. GLM and GEE models showed better forecasting accuracy than SARIMA models. For instance, the MAPEs from GLM models and GEE models at the first month of forecasting (October 2012) were 11.5 and 10.8% (models with and without control for the temperature effect, respectively), while the MAPEs from SARIMA models were 12.8 and 11.7%. For all models, controlling for the effect of temperature resulted in worse or similar forecasting ability than models with calendar variables alone, and forecasting accuracy was better for the short-term horizon (7 days in advance) than for the longer term (30 days in advance). This study indicates that time-series models can be developed to provide forecasts of daily ED patient

  17. Rainfall Prediction using Soil and Air Temperature in a Tropical Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Tessy P.; Renuka, G.

    2007-07-01

    An attempt is made to establish a linkage between soil and air temperature and south-west monsoon rainfall at Pillicode (12°12'N,75°10'E) a tropical station in north Kerala. The dependence of monsoon rainfall on pre-monsoon soil temperature decreases as the depth of the soil increases. A regression equation has been developed for the estimation of monsoon rainfall using pre-monsoon soil and air temperature. The results show that sub soil temperature along with air temperature can be used for forecasting the monsoon level.

  18. Effects of daily fluctuating temperatures on the Drosophila-Leptopilina boulardi parasitoid association.

    PubMed

    Delava, Emilie; Fleury, Frédéric; Gibert, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoid insects, which maintain intimate and long-term relationships with their arthropod hosts, constitute an association of ectothermic organisms that is particularly sensitive to temperature variations. Because temperature shows pronounced natural daily fluctuations, we examined if experiments based on a constant temperature range can mask the real effects of the thermal regime on host-parasitoid interactions. The effects of two fluctuating thermal regimes on several developmental parameters of the Drosophila larval parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi were analyzed in this study. Regime 1 included a range of 16-23-16°C and regime 2 included a range of 16-21-26-21-16°C (mean temperature 20.1°C) compared to a 20.1°C constant temperature. Under an average temperature of 20.1°C, which corresponds to a cold condition of L. boulardi development, we showed that the success of parasitism is significantly higher under a fluctuating temperature regime than at constant temperature. A fluctuating regime also correlated with a reduced development time of the parasitoids. In contrast, the thermal regime did not affect the ability of Drosophila to resist parasitoid infestation. Finally, we demonstrated that daily temperature fluctuation prevented the entry into diapause for this species, which is normally observed at a constant temperature of 21°C. Overall, the results reveal that constant temperature experiments can produce misleading results, highlighting the need to study the thermal biology of organisms under fluctuating regimes that reflect natural conditions as closely as possible. This is particularly a major issue in host-parasitoid associations, which constitute a good model to understand the effect of climate warming on interacting species.

  19. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines

    PubMed Central

    Cober, Elroy R.; Curtis, Daniel F.; Stewart, Douglas W.; Morrison, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R2 = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE) = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R2 = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode). The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. PMID:27135515

  20. Effects of fluctuating daily temperatures at critical thermal extremes on Aedes aegypti life-history traits.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Lauren B; Armijos, M Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W

    2013-01-01

    The effect of temperature on insect biology is well understood under constant temperature conditions, but less so under more natural, fluctuating conditions. A fluctuating temperature profile around a mean of 26°C can alter Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue viruses as well as numerous life-history traits, however, the effect of fluctuations on mosquitoes at critical thermal limits is unknown. We investigated the effects of large and small daily temperature fluctuations at low (16°C) and high (35-37°C) mean temperatures, after we identified these temperatures as being thresholds for immature development and/or adult reproduction under constant temperature conditions. We found that temperature effects on larval development time, larval survival and adult reproduction depend on the combination of mean temperature and magnitude of fluctuations. Importantly, observed degree-day estimates for mosquito development under fluctuating temperature profiles depart significantly (around 10-20%) from that predicted by constant temperatures of the same mean. At low mean temperatures, fluctuations reduce the thermal energy required to reach pupation relative to constant temperature, whereas at high mean temperatures additional thermal energy is required to complete development. A stage-structured model based on these empirical data predicts that fluctuations can significantly affect the intrinsic growth rate of mosquito populations. Our results indicate that by using constant temperatures, one could under- or over-estimate values for numerous life-history traits compared to more natural field conditions dependent upon the mean temperature. This complexity may in turn reduce the accuracy of population dynamics modeling and downstream applications for mosquito surveillance and disease prevention.

  1. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle. © 2014 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  3. A stage structured mosquito model incorporating effects of precipitation and daily temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2016-12-21

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong province in 2014 was the most serious outbreak ever recorded in China. Given the known positive correlation between the abundance of mosquitoes and the number of dengue fever cases, a stage structured mosquito model was developed to investigate the cause of the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 and its implications for outbreaks of the disease. Data on the Breteau index (number of containers positive for larvae per 100 premises investigated), temperature and precipitation were used for model fitting. The egg laying rate, the development rate and the mortality rates of immatures and adults were obtained from the estimated parameters. Moreover, effects of daily fluctuations of temperature on these parameters were obtained and the effects of temperature and precipitation were analyzed by simulations. Our results indicated that the abundance of mosquitoes depended not only on the total annual precipitation but also on the distribution of the precipitation. The daily mean temperature had a nonlinear relationship with the abundance of mosquitoes, and large diurnal temperature differences can reduce the abundance of mosquitoes. In addition, effects of increasing precipitation and temperature were interdependent. Our findings suggest that the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 was mainly caused by the distribution of the precipitation. In the perspective of mosquito control, our results reveal that it is better to clear water early and spray insecticide between April and August in case of limited resources.

  4. Estimated range of black carbon dry deposition and the related snow albedo reduction over Himalayan glaciers during dry pre-monsoon periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunari, Teppei J.; Tan, Qian; Lau, K.-M.; Bonasoni, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Laj, Paolo; Ménégoz, Martin; Takemura, Toshihiko; Chin, Mian

    2013-10-01

    One of the major factors attributed to the accelerated melting of Himalayan glaciers is the snow darkening effect of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The BC is the result of incomplete fossil fuel combustion from sources such as open biomass burning and wood burning cooking stoves. One of the key challenges in determining the darkening effect is the estimation uncertainty of BC deposition (BCD) rate on surface snow cover. Here we analyze the variation of BC dry deposition in seven different estimates based on different dry deposition methods which include different atmospheric forcings (observations and global model outputs) and different spatial resolutions. The seven simulations are used to estimate the uncertainty range of BC dry deposition over the southern Himalayas during pre-monsoon period (March-May) in 2006. Our results show BC dry deposition rates in a wide range of 270-4700 μg m-2 during the period. Two global models generate higher BC dry deposition rates due to modeled stronger surface wind and simplification of complicated sub-grid surface conditions in this region. Using ice surface roughness and observation-based meteorological data, we estimate a better range of BC dry deposition rate of 900-1300 μg m-2. Under dry and highly polluted conditions, aged snow and sulfate-coated BC are expected to possibly reduce visible albedo by 4.2-5.1%. Our results suggest that for estimating aerosol-induced snow darkening effects of Himalaya snowpacks using global and regional models, realistic physical representation of ice or snow surface roughness and surface wind speed are critical in reducing uncertainties on the estimate of BC deposition over snow surface.

  5. Case study of a tropical-extratropical interaction and associated heat low development during the AMMA SOP 2006 pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, A. H.; Pohle, S.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical Extra-tropical Interactions (TEIs) are often observed in association with an upper-level subtropical trough that penetrates into the tropics and, therefore, interacts with the tropical circulation. As a visible sign, a mid- to upper-level cloud band at the eastern flank of the trough and its related Subtropical Jet, named Tropical Plume (TP), is identifiable in infrared satellite imagery. McGuirk et al. (1987) gave a definition of Tropical Plumes and described the cloud bands as a northern hemisphere winter time phenomena. Previous studies identified TPs throughout the year with being rare in the June-mid- September period. Results of convection dynamics influenced/caused by TEIs during a pre-monsoon season event between 19 and 30 May 2006 will be presented. This case is characterized by two different investigation regions affected by TEI: During the first half of the event high precipitation amounts south-east of the cloud band over Burkina Faso, Benin, Togo, and Ivory Coast are observed caused by thermal forcing and dynamical maintenance by trough related good upper-level outflow conditions due to ageostrophic acceleration towards the trough and low inertial stability, or even inertial instability. This presentation is focused on the second half of this TEI event, which is characterized by the development of a pronounced heat low (HL) south-east of the upper-level trough over tropical West Africa, followed by convection south-east of the low pressure centre. A modified form of the pressure tendency equation (PTE) used by Knippertz and Fink (2008) is a diagnostic tool to investigate, which processes cause pressure drop near the Mali-Burkina Faso border by using both, the operational ECMWF Analysis and the AMMA EU re-analysis. The latter contains additionally the diabatic heating tendencies. Therefore, all terms of the PTE were calculated and will be discussed.

  6. Spatio-temporal variation in physicochemical properties of coastal waters off Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India, during summer, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Kamala Kanta; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Sahu, Gouri; Sarguru, S; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Natesan, Usha

    2011-09-01

    Seasonal observations on water-quality parameters and chlorophyll-a in the coastal waters off Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India, was carried out covering an area of about 30 km(2) to find out the variations in physicochemical properties during a monsoonal cycle of the year. Most of the parameters exhibited a significant spatial and seasonal variation. It revealed that the coastal water was significantly influenced by freshwater input from the nearby backwaters during North-east monsoon and post-monsoon periods. A marginal increase in pH from coast towards offshore was noticed during the observation. Relatively low salinity values were observed during pre and post monsoon when compared to summer. Bottom water was found to be highly turbid during summer and pre-monsoon conditions when compared to surface. This could be attributed to the strong northerly wind and northward current prior to the onset of southwest monsoon. N, P and Si based nutrients are relatively high in their concentration in the bottom water. Nitrate was significantly high during post-monsoon and contributed greatly towards total nitrogen as evident from the statistical correlation. Ammonia concentration was relatively high in the bottom samples during all the seasons except on a few occasions during post-monsoon. In general, phosphate and total phosphorous values remained low and particularly so in the surface water. Higher silicate concentration was observed in the bottom water, and there was a reducing trend towards offshore. High chlorophyll-a values were observed during summer and surface water was found to have higher pigment concentrations as compared to the bottom. Results show that phosphate acts as the limiting factor for phytoplankton production particularly during post-monsoon period whereas; none of the nutrients were found to be limiting the phytoplankton growth during other seasons.

  7. Interaction of Mean Temperature and Daily Fluctuation Influences Dengue Incidence in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2015-01-01

    Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation), population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control.

  8. Interaction of Mean Temperature and Daily Fluctuation Influences Dengue Incidence in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2015-01-01

    Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation), population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control. PMID:26161895

  9. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  10. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  11. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  12. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  13. Estimating daily air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau by dynamically integrating MODIS LST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Fan; Ye, Ming; Che, Tao; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) data have been used to estimate air temperatures because of the sparseness of station measurements in remote mountainous areas. Due to the availability and accuracy of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data, the use of a single term or a fixed combination of terms (e.g., Terra/Aqua night and Terra/Aqua day), as used in previous estimation methods, provides only limited practical application. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy may be affected by different combinations and variable data quality among the MODIS LST terms and models. This study presents a method that dynamically integrates the available LST terms to estimate the daily mean air temperature and simultaneously considers model selection, data quality, and estimation accuracy. The results indicate that the differences in model performance are related to the combinations of LST terms and their data quality. The spatially averaged cloud cover of 14% for the developed product between 2003 and 2010 is much lower than the 35-54% for single LST terms. The average cross-validation root-mean-square difference values are approximately 2°C. This study identifies the best LST combinations and statistical models and provides an efficient method for daily air temperature estimation with low cloud blockage over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The developed data set and the method proposed in this study can help alleviate the problem of sparse air temperature data over the TP.

  14. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like changes in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether changing land use has led to detectable changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed changes of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic changes to changing land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28837902','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28837902"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum, maximum, and mean near surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using hybrid satellite models across Israel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenfeld, Adar; Dorman, Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Novack, Victor; Just, Allan C; Kloog, Itai</p> <p>2017-08-21</p> <p>Meteorological stations measure air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) accurately with high temporal resolution, but usually suffer from limited spatial resolution due to their sparse distribution across rural, undeveloped or less populated areas. Remote sensing satellite-based measurements provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) data in high spatial and temporal resolution and can improve the estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta. In this study we developed spatiotemporally resolved models which allow us to predict three <span class="hlt">daily</span> parameters: Ta Max (day time), 24h mean, and Ta Min (night time) on a fine 1km grid across the state of Israel. We used and compared both the Aqua and Terra MODIS satellites. We used linear mixed effect models, IDW (inverse distance weighted) interpolations and thin plate splines (using a smooth nonparametric function of longitude and latitude) to first calibrate between Ts and Ta in those locations where we have available data for both and used that calibration to fill in neighboring cells without surface monitors or missing Ts. Out-of-sample ten-fold cross validation (CV) was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with and without available Ts observations for both Aqua and Terra (CV Aqua R(2) results for min 0.966, mean 0.986, and max 0.967; CV Terra R(2) results for min 0.965, mean 0.987, and max 0.968). Our research shows that <span class="hlt">daily</span> min, mean and max Ta can be reliably predicted using <span class="hlt">daily</span> MODIS Ts data even across Israel, with high accuracy even for days without Ta or Ts data. These predictions can be used as three separate Ta exposures in epidemiology studies for better diurnal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.waterrights.utah.gov/cgi-bin/docview.exe?Folder=TP21-1-370&Title=Basic+Data+Report+19','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://www.waterrights.utah.gov/cgi-bin/docview.exe?Folder=TP21-1-370&Title=Basic+Data+Report+19"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> water-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for Utah streams, 1944-68</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Whitaker, G.L.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is an important and sometimes critical factor for many uses of water. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> affects the usefulness of the water for recreation, fish and wildlife propagation, industrial cooling, food processing, and manufacturing. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> also affects the ability of the water to accommodate biologic and vegetative types of life.The purpose of this report is to summarize in tabular form the water- <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data that have been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis for streams in Utah. A few stream sites near the boundaries of Utah in neighboring States have been included. These sites are on streams which either flow out of or into Utah, and they may provide information of value in studies dealing with water quality in the State.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432"><span>Effect of constant and fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> melatonin production by eyecups from Rana perezi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valenciano, A I; Alonso-Gómez, A L; Alonso-Bedate, M; Delgado, M J</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>We analysed the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in relation to constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on day/night melatonin synthesis in frog eyecups in culture. Eyecups were cultured for 24 h under 12L:12D photoperiod and two thermal regimes, constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25, 15 and 5 degrees C) and thermoperiod (WL/CD, thermophase coinciding with photophase and cryophase coinciding with scotophase; and CL/WD, cryophase coinciding with photophase and thermophase coinciding with scotophase). A negative correlation between ocular serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for both diurnal and nocturnal activities has been observed. This effect of increased ocular activity at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more pronounced than the well-known stimulatory effect of darkness, and it does not depend on the photoperiod phase. The lack of interactions between the phase of photoperiod and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicates that the effects of both factors are independent. Night-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the key factor in determining the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the Rana perezi retina. However, daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can not counteract the inhibitory effect of light on ocular melatonin synthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4346C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4346C"><span>Statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and subdaily stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: Application to the Methow River Basin, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caldwell, R. J.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Bountry, J.; Lai, Y.; Elsner, M. M.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Management of water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Columbia River Basin (Washington) is critical because water projects have substantially altered the habitat of Endangered Species Act listed species, such as salmon, throughout the basin. This is most important in tributaries to the Columbia, such as the Methow River, where the spawning and rearing life stages of these cold water fishes occurs. Climate change projections generally predict increasing air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the western United States, with less confidence regarding shifts in precipitation. As air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise, we anticipate a corresponding increase in water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which may alter the timing and availability of habitat for fish reproduction and growth. To assess the impact of future climate change in the Methow River, we couple historical climate and future climate projections with a statistical modeling framework to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. A K-nearest neighbor algorithm is also employed to: (i) adjust the climate projections for biases compared to the observed record and (ii) provide a reference for performing spatiotemporal disaggregation in future hydraulic modeling of stream habitat. The statistical models indicate the primary drivers of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stream flow and show reasonable skill in predictability. When compared to the historical reference time period of 1916-2006, we conclude that increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected to occur at each subsequent time horizon representative of the year 2020, 2040, and 2080, with an increase of 0.8 ± 1.9°C by the year 2080.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr42W1....3B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr42W1....3B"><span>Contribution of Modis Satellite Image to Estimate the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in the Casablanca City, Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahi, Hicham; Rhinane, Hassan; Bensalmia, Ahmed</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is considered to be an essential variable for the study and analysis of meteorological regimes and chronics. However, the implementation of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> monitoring of this variable is very difficult to achieve. It requires sufficient of measurements stations density, meteorological parks and favourable logistics. The present work aims to establish relationship between day and night land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from MODIS data and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acquired between [2011-20112] and provided by the Department of National Meteorology [DMN] of Casablanca, Morocco. The results of the statistical analysis show significant interdependence during night observations with correlation coefficient of R2=0.921 and Root Mean Square Error RMSE=1.503 for Tmin while the physical magnitude estimated from daytime MODIS observation shows a relatively coarse error with R2=0.775 and RMSE=2.037 for Tmax. A method based on Gaussian process regression was applied to compute the spatial distribution of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from MODIS throughout the city of Casablanca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1378974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1378974"><span>Attributing Historical Changes in Probabilities of Record-Breaking <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extreme Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shiogama, Hideo; Imada, Yukiko; Mori, Masato; Mizuta, Ryo; Stone, Dáithí; Yoshida, Kohei; Arakawa, Osamu; Ikeda, Mikiko; Takahashi, Chiharu; Arai, Miki; Ishii, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kimoto, Masahide</p> <p>2016-08-07</p> <p>Here, we describe two unprecedented large (100-member), longterm (61-year) ensembles based on MRI-AGCM3.2, which were driven by historical and non-warming climate forcing. These ensembles comprise the "Database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF)". We compare these ensembles to large ensembles based on another climate model, as well as to observed data, to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on historical changes in the numbers of record-breaking events, including: the annual coldest <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn), the annual warmest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx) and the annual most intense <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation event (Rx1day). These two climate model ensembles indicate that human activity has already had statistically significant impacts on the number of record-breaking extreme events worldwide mainly in the Northern Hemisphere land. Specifically, human activities have altered the likelihood that a wider area globally would suffer record-breaking TNn, TXx and Rx1day events than that observed over the 2001- 2010 period by a factor of at least 0.6, 5.4 and 1.3, respectively. However, we also find that the estimated spatial patterns and amplitudes of anthropogenic impacts on the probabilities of record-breaking events are sensitive to the climate model and/or natural-world boundary conditions used in the attribution studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1378974-attributing-historical-changes-probabilities-record-breaking-daily-temperature-precipitation-extreme-events','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1378974-attributing-historical-changes-probabilities-record-breaking-daily-temperature-precipitation-extreme-events"><span>Attributing Historical Changes in Probabilities of Record-Breaking <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extreme Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Shiogama, Hideo; Imada, Yukiko; Mori, Masato; ...</p> <p>2016-08-07</p> <p>Here, we describe two unprecedented large (100-member), longterm (61-year) ensembles based on MRI-AGCM3.2, which were driven by historical and non-warming climate forcing. These ensembles comprise the "Database for Policy Decision making for Future climate change (d4PDF)". We compare these ensembles to large ensembles based on another climate model, as well as to observed data, to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities on historical changes in the numbers of record-breaking events, including: the annual coldest <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn), the annual warmest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx) and the annual most intense <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation event (Rx1day). These two climate model ensembles indicatemore » that human activity has already had statistically significant impacts on the number of record-breaking extreme events worldwide mainly in the Northern Hemisphere land. Specifically, human activities have altered the likelihood that a wider area globally would suffer record-breaking TNn, TXx and Rx1day events than that observed over the 2001- 2010 period by a factor of at least 0.6, 5.4 and 1.3, respectively. However, we also find that the estimated spatial patterns and amplitudes of anthropogenic impacts on the probabilities of record-breaking events are sensitive to the climate model and/or natural-world boundary conditions used in the attribution studies.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28470122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28470122"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cycles in Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in a Songbird Change with Photoperiod and Are Weakly Circadian.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dawson, Alistair</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Although it is well known that body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) is higher during the day in diurnal birds than at night, no data are available regarding exactly how Tb varies during a 24-h period, how this differs under different photoperiods, and how it responds to a change in photoperiod. This study used implanted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> loggers in starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris) to address these questions. The duration of elevated Tb was directly related to photoperiod, but the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle was significantly greater under shorter photoperiods. Under all photoperiods, Tb started to increase before dawn and continued to increase after dawn; there was no sudden change associated with dawn. In contrast, Tb decreased immediately and rapidly at dusk (significantly by 15 min). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in Tb rapidly adjusted to a change in photoperiod. Following an acute increase in photoperiod, Tb increased immediately at the new earlier dawn but did not decrease until the new later dusk. Following a decrease in photoperiod, Tb did not increase after the time of the missed dawn; it only increased after the new later dawn. It decreased at the new earlier dusk. Following transfer to constant darkness, there was a moderate increase in Tb around the missed dawn, but then Tb gradually decreased before the missed dusk to lower values than during the previous night. The results suggest that the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in Tb is weakly circadian and may be entrained by dusk rather than dawn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..959F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..959F"><span>Trends in indices of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitations extremes in Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filahi, S.; Tanarhte, M.; Mouhir, L.; El Morhit, M.; Tramblay, Y.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of Morocco's climate extreme trends during the last four decades. Indices were computed based on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using a consistent approach recommended by the ETCCDI. Trends in these indices were calculated at 20 stations from 1970 to 2012. Twelve indices were considered to detect trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A large number of stations have significant trends and confirm an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, showing increased warming during spring and summer seasons. The results also show a decrease in the number of cold days and nights and an increase in the number of warm days and nights. Increasing trends have also been found in the absolute warmest and coldest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the year. A clear increase is detected for warm nights and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Eight indices for precipitation were also analyzed, but the trends for these precipitation indices are much less significant than for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices and show more mixed spatial patterns of change. Heavy precipitation events do not exhibit significant trends except at a few locations, in the north and central parts of Morocco, with a general tendency towards drier conditions. The correlation between these climate indices and the large-scale atmospheric circulations indices such as the NAO, MO, and WEMO were also analyzed. Results show a stronger relationship with these climatic indices for the precipitation indices compared to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. The correlations are more significant in the Atlantic regions, but they remain moderate at the whole country scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960038336&hterms=temperature+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtemperature%2Bnear%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960038336&hterms=temperature+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtemperature%2Bnear%2Bwater"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-dependent <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of precipitable water in special sensor microwave/imager observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gutowski, William J.; Lindemulder, Elizabeth A.; Jovaag, Kari</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>We use retrievals of atmospheric precipitable water from satellite microwave observations and analyses of near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to examine the relationship between these two fields on <span class="hlt">daily</span> and longer time scales. The retrieval technique producing the data used here is most effective over the open ocean, so the analysis focuses on the southern hemisphere's extratropics, which have an extensive ocean surface. For both the total and the eddy precipitable water fields, there is a close correspondence between local variations in the precipitable water and near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The correspondence appears particularly strong for synoptic and planetary scale transient eddies. More specifically, the results support a typical modeling assumption that transient eddy moisture fields are proportional to transient eddy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields under the assumption f constant relative humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H43C1438S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H43C1438S"><span>A Novel Method for Simulating Stochastic Simulations of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> at Multiple Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, K.; Strong, C.; Rassoul-Agha, F.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A parametric stochastic weather generator (SWG) is introduced that simulates trended, nonstationary precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values directly, circumventing the conventional approach of adding simulated standardized anomalies of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to a prescribed cyclostationary mean. The model mean makes autocorrelated transitions between wet- and dry-state values, and its parameters are determined by optimizing harmonic and trend terms. If the stochastic ("noise") term is assumed to have constant amplitude, analytical results are available via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and are equivalent to least squares estimation (LSE). Where observations motivate a seasonally-varying noise coefficient, MLE becomes nonlinear, and we formulate an analytical solution via LSE. For illustration, the SWG is shown to produce realistic representations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at multiple sites, which for the study includes the eastern Great Basin in Northern Utah.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605046"><span>A <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based model for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are readily available around the world, the models based on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are available in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485867"><span>Entrainment of the circadian clock by <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El Allali, Khalid; Achaâban, Mohamed R; Bothorel, Béatrice; Piro, Mohamed; Bouâouda, Hanan; El Allouchi, Morad; Ouassat, Mohammed; Malan, André; Pévet, Paul</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In mammals the light-dark (LD) cycle is known to be the major cue to synchronize the circadian clock. In arid and desert areas, the camel (Camelus dromedarius) is exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Since wide oscillations of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are a major factor in this environment, we wondered whether cyclic Ta fluctuations might contribute to synchronization of circadian rhythms. The rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) was selected as output of the circadian clock. After having verified that Tb is synchronized by the LD and free runs in continuous darkness (DD), we submitted the animals to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles of Ta in LL and in DD. In both cases, the Tb rhythm was entrained to the cycle of Ta. On a 12-h phase shift of the Ta cycle, the mean phase shift of the Tb cycle ranged from a few hours in LD (1 h by cosinor, 4 h from curve peaks) to 7-8 h in LL and 12 h in DD. These results may reflect either true synchronization of the central clock by Ta <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles or possibly a passive effect of Ta on Tb. To resolve the ambiguity, melatonin rhythmicity was used as another output of the clock. In DD melatonin rhythms were also entrained by the Ta cycle, proving that the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta cycle is able to entrain the circadian clock of the camel similar to photoperiod. By contrast, in the presence of a LD cycle the rhythm of melatonin was modified by the Ta cycle in only 2 (or 3) of 7 camels: in these specific conditions a systematic effect of Ta on the clock could not be evidenced. In conclusion, depending on the experimental conditions (DD vs. LD), the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta cycle can either act as a zeitgeber or not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H12B..02W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H12B..02W"><span>From Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> to Lake Evaporation on a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Time Step: A New Empirical Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Welch, C.; Holmes, T. L.; Stadnyk, T. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Lake evaporation is a key component of the water balance in much of Canada due to the vast surface area covered by open water. Hence, incorporating this flux effectively into hydrological simulation frameworks is essential to effective water management. Inclusion has historically been limited by the intensive data required to apply the energy budget methods previously demonstrated to most effectively capture the timing and volume of the evaporative flux. Widespread, consistent, lake water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and net radiation data are not available across much of Canada, particularly the sparsely populated boreal shield. We present a method to estimate lake evaporation on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step that consists of a series of empirical equations applicable to lakes of widely varying morphologies. Specifically, estimation methods that require the single meteorological variable of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are presented for lake water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, net radiation, and heat flux. The methods were developed using measured data collected at two small Boreal shield lakes, Lake Winnipeg North and South basins, and Lake Superior in 2008 and 2009. The mean average error (MAE) of the lake water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates is generally 1.5°C, and the MAE of the heat flux method is 50 W m-2. The simulated values are combined to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake evaporation using the Priestley-Taylor method. Heat storage within the lake is tracked and limits the potential heat flux from a lake. Five-day running averages compare well to measured evaporation at the two small shield lakes (Bowen Ratio Energy Balance) and adequately to Lake Superior (eddy covariance). In addition to air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the method requires a mean depth for each lake. The method demonstrably improves the timing and volume of evaporative flux in comparison to existing evaporation methods that depend only on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The method will be further tested in a semi-distributed hydrological model to assess the cumulative effects across a lake</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod on <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. Methods We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). Results L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Conclusions Herein, we showed that light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1015629S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1015629S"><span>Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.; Khlystov, A.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season (May-June). This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevation in the Middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14~340 nm), and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC) and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening), during the transitional period of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak period was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope) mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to rise. The mountain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907851"><span>Climate change uncertainty for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: a model inter-comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobell, D; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P</p> <p>2006-11-09</p> <p>Several impacts of climate change may depend more on changes in mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (T{sub min}) or maximum (T{sub max}) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than <span class="hlt">daily</span> averages. To evaluate uncertainties in these variables, we compared projections of T{sub min} and T{sub max} changes by 2046-2065 for 12 climate models under an A2 emission scenario. Average modeled changes in T{sub max} were slightly lower in most locations than T{sub min}, consistent with historical trends exhibiting a reduction in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges. However, while average changes in T{sub min} and T{sub max} were similar, the inter-model variability of T{sub min} and T{sub max} projections exhibited substantial differences. For example, inter-model standard deviations of June-August T{sub max} changes were more than 50% greater than for T{sub min} throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia. Model differences in cloud changes, which exert relatively greater influence on T{sub max} during summer and T{sub min} during winter, were identified as the main source of uncertainty disparities. These results highlight the importance of considering separately projections for T{sub max} and T{sub min} when assessing climate change impacts, even in cases where average projected changes are similar. In addition, impacts that are most sensitive to summertime T{sub min} or wintertime T{sub max} may be more predictable than suggested by analyses using only projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hocking, Daniel J.; O’Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O’Donnell, Matthew J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662"><span>A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019969','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019969"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dodson, R.; Marks, D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Two methods are investigated for interpolating <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equations to convert measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and elevations to sea-level potential <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The potential <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L"><span>Spatial modeling of the highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Korea via max-stable processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Youngsaeng; Yoon, Sanghoo; Murshed, Md. Sharwar; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, ChunHo; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jeong-Soo</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>This paper examines the annual highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DMT) in Korea by using data from 56 weather stations and employing spatial extreme modeling. Our approach is based on max-stable processes (MSP) with Schlather’s characterization. We divide the country into four regions for a better model fit and identify the best model for each region. We show that regional MSP modeling is more suitable than MSP modeling for the entire region and the pointwise generalized extreme value distribution approach. The advantage of spatial extreme modeling is that more precise and robust return levels and some indices of the highest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be obtained for observation stations and for locations with no observed data, and so help to determine the effects and assessment of vulnerability as well as to downscale extreme events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CG....105...10S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CG....105...10S"><span>Reconstructing <span class="hlt">daily</span> clear-sky land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for cloudy regions from MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Liang; Chen, Zhongxin; Gao, Feng; Anderson, Martha; Song, Lisheng; Wang, Limin; Hu, Bo; Yang, Yun</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) is a critical parameter in environmental studies and resource management. The MODIS LST data product has been widely used in various studies, such as drought monitoring, evapotranspiration mapping, soil moisture estimation and forest fire detection. However, cloud contamination affects thermal band observations and will lead to inconsistent LST results. In this study, we present a new Remotely Sensed <span class="hlt">DAily</span> land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> reconstruction (RSDAST) model that recovers clear sky LST for pixels covered by cloud using only clear-sky neighboring pixels from nearby dates. The reconstructed LST was validated using the original LST pixels. Model shows high accuracy for reconstructing one masked pixel with R2 of 0.995, bias of -0.02 K and RMSE of 0.51 K. Extended spatial reconstruction results show a better accuracy for flat areas with R2 of 0.72‒0.89, bias of -0.02-0.21 K, and RMSE of 0.92-1.16 K, and for mountain areas with R2 of 0.81-0.89, bias of -0.35-1.52 K, and RMSE of 1.42‒2.24 K. The reconstructed areas show spatial and temporal patterns that are consistent with the clear neighbor areas. In the reconstructed LST and NDVI triangle feature space which is controlled by soil moisture, LST values distributed reasonably and correspond well to the real soil moisture conditions. Our approach shows great potential for reconstructing clear sky LST under cloudy conditions and provides consistent <span class="hlt">daily</span> LST which are critical for <span class="hlt">daily</span> drought monitoring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3338621','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3338621"><span>Seasonal Patterns of Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms in Group-Living Cape Ground Squirrels Xerus inauris</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E.; Waterman, Jane M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta). We measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta provided the greatest explanatory power for mean Tb whereas sunrise had greatest power for Tb acrophase. There were significant changes in mean Tb and Tb acrophase over time with mean Tb increasing and Tb acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in Tb, sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which Tb remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to ‘offload’ heat. In addition, greater Tb amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their Ta-Tb gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on Tb with a lower and less variable Tb in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile Tb which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable environment. PMID:22558324</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17553537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17553537"><span>Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kinahan, A A; Inge-moller, R; Bateman, P W; Kotze, A; Scantlebury, M</p> <p>2007-11-23</p> <p>The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the T(b) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in savanna elephants. Our results showed that elephants had lower mean T(b) values (36.2 +/- 0.49 degrees C) than smaller ungulates inhabiting similar environments but did not have larger or smaller amplitudes of T(b) variation (0.40 +/- 0.12 degrees C), as would be predicted by their exposure to large fluctuations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or their large size. No difference was found between the <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(b) rhythms measured under different conditions of water stress. Peak T(b)'s occurred late in the evening (22:10) which is generally later than in other large mammals ranging in similar environmental conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.5921S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.5921S"><span>Chemical composition of <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> air in the Indo-Gangetic Plain measured using a new air quality facility and PTR-MS: high surface ozone and strong influence of biomass burning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>One seventh of the world's population lives in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and the fertile region sustains agricultural food crop production for much of South Asia, yet it remains one of the most under-studied regions of the world in terms of atmospheric composition and chemistry. In particular, the emissions and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that form surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol through photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides are not well understood. In this study, ambient levels of VOCs such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and isoprene were measured for the first time in the IGP. A new atmospheric chemistry facility that combines India's first high-sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, an ambient air quality station and a meteorological station, was used to quantify in situ levels of several VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 at a suburban site in Mohali (northwest IGP). Westerly winds arriving at high wind speeds (5-20 m s-1) in the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season at the site were conducive for chemical characterization of regional emission signatures. Average levels of VOCs and air pollutants in May~2012 ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 nmol mol-1 for aromatic VOCs, 5.9 to 37.5 nmol mol-1 for the oxygenated VOCs, 1.4 nmol mol-1 for acetonitrile, 1.9 nmol mol-1 for isoprene, 567 nmol mol-1 for carbon monoxide, 57.8 nmol mol-1 for ozone, 11.5 nmol mol-1 for nitrogen oxides, 7.3 nmol mol-1 for sulfur dioxide, 104 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 276 μg m-3 for PM10. By analyzing the one-minute in situ data with meteorological parameters and applying chemical tracers (e.g., acetonitrile for biomass burning) and inter-VOC correlations, we were able to constrain major emission source activities on both temporal and diel scales. Wheat residue burning caused massive increases (> 3 times the baseline values) for all the measured VOCs and primary pollutants. Other forms of biomass burning at night were also a significant</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1331761S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1331761S"><span>Chemical composition of <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> air in the Indo-Gangetic Plain measured using a new PTR-MS and air quality facility: high surface ozone and strong influence of biomass burning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>One seventh of the world population lives in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and the fertile region sustains agricultural food crop production for much of South Asia. Yet it remains one of the most under-studied regions of the world in terms of atmospheric composition and chemistry. In particular, the emissions and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that form surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol through photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides is not well understood. In this study, ambient levels of VOCs such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and isoprene were measured for the first time in the IGP. A new atmospheric chemistry facility that combines India's first high sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, an ambient air quality station and meteorological station, was used to quantify in-situ levels of several VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 at a suburban site in Mohali (N. W. IGP). Westerly winds arriving at high wind speeds (5-20 m s-1) in the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season at the site, were conducive for chemical characterization of regional emission signatures. Average levels of VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 ranged from 1.2-1.7 nmol mol-1 for aromatic VOCs, 5.9-37.4 nmol mol-1 for the oxygenated VOCs, 1.4 nmol mol-1 for acetonitrile, 1.9 nmol mol-1 for isoprene, 567 nmol mol-1 for carbon monoxide, 57.8 nmol mol-1 for ozone, 11.5 nmol mol-1 for nitrogen oxides, 7.3 nmol mol-1 for sulphur dioxide, 104 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 276 μg m-3 for PM10. By analyzing the one minute in-situ data with meteorological parameters and applying chemical tracers (e.g. acetonitrile for biomass burning) and inter-VOC correlations, we were able to constrain major emission source activities on both temporal and diel scales. Wheat residue burning activity caused massive increases (> 3 times of baseline values) for all the measured VOCs and primary pollutants. Other forms of biomass burning at night were also a significant source</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571674"><span>[Interpolation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by using geographically weighted regression-Kriging].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guo-feng; Yang, Li-rong; Qu, Ming-kai; Chen, Hui-lin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the input variable of numerous models in agriculture, hydrology, climate, and ecology. Currently, in study areas where the terrain is complex, methods taking into account correlation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and environment variables and autocorrelation of regression residual (e.g., regression Kriging, RK) are mainly adopted to interpolate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, such methods are based on the global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression technique, without taking into account the spatial nonstationary relationship of environment variables. Geographically weighted regression-Kriging (GWRK) is a kind of method that takes into account spatial nonstationarity relationship of environment variables and spatial autocorrelation of regression residuals of environment variables. In this study, according to the results of correlation and stepwise regression analysis, RK1 (covariates only included altitude), GWRK1 (covariates only included altitude), RK2 (covariates included latitude, altitude and closest distance to the seaside) and GWRK2 (co-variates included altitude and closest distance to the seaside) were compared to predict the spatial distribution of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on Hainan Island on December 18, 2013. The prediction accuracy was assessed using the maximum positive error, maximum negative error, mean absolute error and root mean squared error based on the 80 validation sites. The results showed that GWRK1's four assessment indices were all closest to 0. The fact that RK2 and GWRK2 were worse than RK1 and GWRK1 implied that correlation among covariates reduced model performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B"><span>Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Few sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16753947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16753947"><span>The circadian body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm in the elderly: effect of single <span class="hlt">daily</span> melatonin dosing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gubin, D G; Gubin, G D; Waterhouse, J; Weinert, D</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The present study is part of a more extensive investigation dedicated to the study and treatment of age-dependent changes/disturbances in the circadian system in humans. It was performed in the Tyumen Elderly Veteran House and included 97 subjects of both genders, ranging from 63 to 91 yrs of age. They lived a self-chosen sleep-wake regimen to suit their personal convenience. The experiment lasted 3 wks. After 1 control week, part of the group (n=63) received 1.5 mg melatonin (Melaxen) <span class="hlt">daily</span> at 22:30 h for 2 wks. The other 34 subjects were given placebo. Axillary <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured using calibrated mercury thermometers at 03:00, 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, and 23:00 h each of the first and third week. Specially trained personnel took the measurements, avoiding disturbing the sleep of the subjects. To evaluate age-dependent changes, data obtained under similar conditions on 58 young adults (both genders, 17 to 39 yrs of age) were used. Rhythm characteristics were estimated by means of cosinor analyses, and intra- and inter-individual variability by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In both age groups, the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> underwent <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes. The MESOR (36.38+/-0.19 degrees C vs. 36.17+/-0.21 degrees C) and circadian amplitude (0.33+/-0.01 degrees C vs. 0.26+/-0.01 degrees C) were slightly decreased in the elderly compared to the young adult subjects (p<0.001). The mean circadian acrophase was similar in both age groups (17.19+/-1.66 vs. 16.93+/-3.08 h). However, the inter-individual differences were higher in the older group, with individual values varying between 10:00 and 23:00 h. It was mainly this phase variability that caused a decrease in the inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm stability and lower group amplitude. With melatonin treatment, the MESOR was lower by 0.1 degrees C and the amplitude increased to 0.34+/-0.01 degrees C, a similar value to that found in young adults. This was probably due to the increase of the inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm stability. The mean acrophase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z"><span>On the use of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to calculate the extended spring indices phenological models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zurita-Milla, Raul; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Batarseh, Sana; Ault, Toby; Schwartz, Mark D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Models that predict the timing of recurrent biological events play an important role in supporting the systematic study of phenological changes at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. One set of such models are the extended Spring indices (SI-x). These models predicts a suite of phenological metrics ("first leaf" and "first bloom," "last freeze" and the "damage index") from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data and geographic location (to model the duration of the day). The SI-x models were calibrated using historical phenological and weather observations from the continental US. In particular, the models relied on first leaf and first bloom observations for lilac and honeysuckle and on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values from a number of weather stations located near to the sites where phenological observations were made. In this work, we study the use of DAYMET (http://daymet.ornl.gov/) to calculate the SI-x models over the continental USA. DAYMET offers <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values for the period 1980 to 2012. Using an automatic downloader, we downloaded complete DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series for the over 1100 geographic locations where historical lilac observations were made. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values were parsed and, using the recently available MATLAB code, the SI-x indices were calculated. Subsequently, the predicted first leaf and first bloom dates were compared with historical lilac observations. The RMSE between predicted and observed lilac leaf/bloom dates was calculated after identifying data from the same geographic location and year. Results were satisfactory for the lilac observations in the Eastern US (e.g. the RMSE for the blooming date was of about 5 days). However, the correspondence between the observed and predicted lilac values in the West was rather week (e.g. RMSE for the blooming date of about 22 days). This might indicate that DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data in this region of the US might contain larger uncertainties due to a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3461P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3461P"><span>Monthly analysis of indices based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Serbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Putnikovic, Suzana; Tosic, Ivana; Unkasevic, Miroslava</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The following climate indices were analyzed: frost days (FD), cold nights (TN10p), warm nights (TN90p), minimum value of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TNn), and tropical nights (TR). Monthly analysis was performed for indices based on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at eight stations in Serbia during the period 1950-2009. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine whether the trends were statistically significant. It was found that the trends of FD and TN10p were negative for all the months except for November and December. The significant negative trend of TN10p during the period 1950-2009 was recorded in March, May, August, September and October. There was a positive trend of TN90p, TR for all months and TNn except for October, November and December. The significant positive trend of TN90p was observed in March, May, during the summer months and October, while for TR in July and August, i.e., in the two hottest months. The negative minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly of about -5.7 °C in February 1956 was obtained for the negative values of the East Atlantic index (EAI) and North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAOI). The positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly of about 3.0 °C in November 2009 was recorded for the positive value of the EAI and small negative value of the NAOI. Hence, the negative/positive anomalies prevailed for the negative/positive values of the EAI. In order to investigate the impact of the low-frequency large-scale variability pattern on the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, EAI was compared through a correlation analysis with the time series of the climate indices. It was found that the monthly coefficient of correlation between the EAI and climate indices was negative for FD and TN10p, and positive one for TN90p and TR. The highest monthly correlation was found for FD and TN90p in February and for TN10p and TR in August. Since the highest correlation in value of about 0.7 is obtained in February, it could be concluded that the EA can explain about 50% of the total</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> grids for Austria since 1961—concept, creation and applicability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiebl, Johann; Frei, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Current interest into past climate change and its potential role for changes in the environment call for spatially distributed climate datasets of high temporal resolution and extending over several decades. To foster such research, we present a new gridded dataset of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> covering Austria at 1-km resolution and extending back till 1961 at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time resolution. To account for the complex and highly variable thermal distributions in this high-mountain region, we adapt and employ a recently published interpolation method that estimates nonlinear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with altitude and accounts for the non-Euclidean spatial representativity of station measurements. The spatial analysis builds upon 150 station series in and around Austria (homogenised where available), all of which extend over or were gap-filled to cover the entire study period. The restriction to (almost) complete records shall avoid long-term inconsistencies from changes in the station network. Systematic leave-one-out cross-validation reveals interpolation errors (mean absolute error) of about 1 °C. Errors are relatively larger for minimum compared to maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, for the interior of the Alps compared to the flatland and for winter compared to summer. Visual comparisons suggest that valley-scale inversions and föhn are more realistically captured in the new compared to existing datasets. The usefulness of the presented dataset (SPARTACUS) is illustrated in preliminary analyses of long-term trends in climate impact indices. These reveal spatially variable and eventually considerable changes in the thermal climate in Austria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...42D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...42D"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.128..983D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.128..983D"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357"><span>Influence of repeated <span class="hlt">daily</span> menthol exposure on human <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation and perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillis, D Jason; Weston, Neil; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A single exposure to menthol can, depending on concentration, enhance both cool sensations and encourage body heat storage. This study tested whether there is an habituation in either response after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures. Twenty-two participants were assigned to one of three spray groups: Control (CON; n=6), 0.05% L-menthol (M(0.05%); n=8), and 0.2% L-menthol (M(0.2%); n=8). On Monday (20°C, 50% rh) participants were sprayed with 100 mL of solution and undertook 40 min of cycling at 45% of their peak power (Ex1), from Tuesday to Thursday (30°C, 50% rh) they were sprayed twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> whilst resting (R1 to R6), Friday was a repeat of Monday (Ex2). Thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort, perceived exertion, irritation, rectal and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tsk), skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were monitored. A two-way ANOVA (alpha=0.05) compared responses from the beginning (Ex1, R1) and end (Ex2, R5) of the testing week. M(0.2%) induced significantly (P<0.05) cooler TS at the beginning of the week (Ex1, R1) compared to the end (Ex2, R5), indicating habituation of TS; this was not observed in M(0.05%). No other perceptual or physiological responses habituated. 0.2% Menthol caused a heat storage response, mediated by vasoconstriction, at the beginning and end of the week, suggesting the habituation of TS occurred in a pathway specific to sensation. In summary, the cooling influence of 0.2% menthol habituates after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures, but with no habituation in heat storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1011605S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1011605S"><span>Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.; Khlystov, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season (May-June). This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevations in the middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14-340 nm), and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC) and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening), during the transitional periods of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak periods was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope) mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to rise. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.4537L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.4537L"><span>Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5177L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5177L"><span>Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M"><span>Ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability from in-situ and satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST variability on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical variability. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA Glob<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> project which aims at applying surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in models in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S"><span>Transient 21st Century Changes in <span class="hlt">Daily</span>-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A key question for policy and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We therefore use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment driven by the A1B emission scenario to investigate the transient changes in the frequency, duration and magnitude of six <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale hot and cold extreme indices throughout the 21st century in the United States. We evaluate these changes within a time of emergence framework and calculate the emergence of a permanent exceedence above the colder part of the current (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and further analyze whether a new norm, with the distribution centered on the current distribution's maxima/minima, emerges. We find that hot extremes will permanently exceed the current distribution's colder half in large parts of the U.S. during the 21st century, along with the emergence of a new hot extremes norm. The changes are particularly robust for tropical nights in the Eastern U.S. and for the exceedence of the 95th <span class="hlt">daily-maximum-temperature</span> percentile in the West and the Northeast. Conversely, no widespread emergence for a permanent exceedence or a new norm is found for cold extremes, with the exception of cold spell duration and frost day frequency. Accordingly, our analysis implies unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S. by the mid century under increase radiative forcing, as well as cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at least occasionally as long and as severe as in the current climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324"><span>Seasonal patterns of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in group-living Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W; Bennett, Nigel C; Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E; Waterman, Jane M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(a)). We measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(a) provided the greatest explanatory power for mean T(b) whereas sunrise had greatest power for T(b) acrophase. There were significant changes in mean T(b) and T(b) acrophase over time with mean T(b) increasing and T(b) acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in T(b), sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which T(b) remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to 'offload' heat. In addition, greater T(b) amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their T(a)-T(b) gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on T(b) with a lower and less variable T(b) in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile T(b) which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pulido, Jose E.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Landis, J. Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: High ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Methods: Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005–2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure–response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, in most cases RRs increased for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ≤ 3 days. Conclusions: In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.5697S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.5697S"><span>Testing the <span class="hlt">daily</span> PRISM air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model on semiarid mountain slopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strachan, Scotty; Daly, Christopher</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Studies in mountainous terrain related to ecology and hydrology often use interpolated climate products because of a lack of local observations. One data set frequently used to develop plot-to-watershed-scale climatologies is PRISM (Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model) <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Benefits of this approach include geographically weighted station observations and topographic positioning modifiers, which become important factors for predicting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in complex topography. Because of the paucity of long-term climate records in mountain environments, validation of PRISM algorithms across diverse regions remains challenging, with end users instead relying on atmospheric relationships derived in sometimes distant geographic settings. Presented here are results from testing observations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maximum (TMAX) and minimum (TMIN) on 16 sites in the Walker Basin, California-Nevada, located on open woodland slopes ranging from 1967 to 3111 m in elevation. Individual site mean absolute error varied from 1.1 to 3.7°C with better performance observed during summertime as opposed to winter. We observed a consistent cool bias in TMIN for all seasons across all sites, with cool bias in TMAX varying with season. Model error for TMIN was associated with elevation, whereas model error for TMAX was associated with topographic radiative indices (solar exposure and heat loading). These results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions across mountain woodland slopes are more heterogeneous than interpolated models (such as PRISM) predict, that drivers of these differences are complex and localized in nature, and that scientific application of atmospheric/climate models in mountains requires additional attention to model assumptions and source data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12011862G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..12011862G"><span>Toward <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate scenarios for Canadian Arctic coastal zones with more realistic <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation interdependence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gennaretti, Fabio; Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Grenier, Patrick</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The interdependence between climatic variables should be taken into account when developing climate scenarios. For example, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation interdependence in the Arctic is strong and impacts on other physical characteristics, such as the extent and duration of snow cover. However, this interdependence is often misrepresented in climate simulations. Here we use two two-dimensional (2-D) methods for statistically adjusting climate model simulations to develop plausible local <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmean) and precipitation (Pr) scenarios. The first 2-D method is based on empirical quantile mapping (2Dqm) and the second on parametric copula models (2Dcopula). Both methods are improved here by forcing the preservation of the modeled long-term warming trend and by using moving windows to obtain an adjustment specific to each day of the year. These methods were applied to a representative ensemble of 13 global climate model simulations at 26 Canadian Arctic coastal sites and tested using an innovative cross-validation approach. Intervariable dependence was evaluated using correlation coefficients and empirical copula density plots. Results show that these 2-D methods, especially 2Dqm, adjust individual distributions of climatic time series as adequately as one common one-dimensional method (1Dqm) does. Furthermore, although 2Dqm outperforms the other methods in reproducing the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation interdependence over the calibration period, both 2Dqm and 2Dcopula perform similarly over the validation periods. For cases where <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-precipitation interdependence is important (e.g., characterizing extreme events and the extent and duration of snow cover), both 2-D methods are good options for producing plausible local climate scenarios in Canadian Arctic coastal zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266078','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16266078"><span>[Comparative study of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum exposure to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during hot summer days in 3 Japanese cities].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kabuto, Michinori; Honda, Yasushi; Todoriki, Hidemi</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>Health risk assessment and developing measures to deal with global warming (including increased heat waves) have become urgent global issues. In the present study, we measured the personally exposed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tp) during summer among residents in major Japanese cities to investigate the relation to <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), which is generally been used as an index of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure in epidemiological studies. Personal exposures to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tp) were measured for a week with portable monitors (HOBO H8 Loggers, Onset Computer Corporation) for 194 subjects (101 males and 93 females, aged 21-82 years) in 3 cities, i.e., Sapporo, Tokyo and Naha (Okinawa), from July to September, 2003 (73 days). Even on days with a Tmax of 30-35 degrees C, associated with significantly increased risk of mortality in Tokyo, neither average Tp for 7-19 o'clock nor the value for 13-15 o'clock appeared to rise beyond 30 degrees C in Tokyo and 31 degrees C in Naha. It was, thus, apparent that Tp's are generally controlled to not exceed these values at least during daytime, suggesting that they could be regarded as a threshold for heat stress tolerance. On the other hand, although average Tp's for night time (0-7 o'clock) were also found to be asymptomatic at 29 degrees C in Tokyo and 30 degrees C in Naha, they were generally too high to be free from heat stress including sleep disturbance in both cities as indicated in our questionnaire study. For both cities, in days with the Tmax above 30 degrees C, the average Tmin was 26 degrees C, while average and minimum Tp's during the night time were 28 degrees C and 27 degrees C, respectively. The correlation coefficients with Tmax were generally low; 0.35 for average Tp during daytime, 0.42 for Tmin and 0.27 and 0.19 for average and minimum night time Tp, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813125R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813125R"><span>The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, <span class="hlt">daily</span> information on surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rayner, Nick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Day-to-day variations in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements are not available everywhere. A global <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements and retrievals of surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L"><span>An empirical method for estimating probability density functions of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lussana, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The presented work focuses on the investigation of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (TN) and maximum (TX) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability density functions (PDFs) with the intent of both characterising a region and detecting extreme values. The empirical PDFs estimation procedure has been realised using the most recent years of gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis fields available at ARPA Lombardia, in Northern Italy. The spatial interpolation is based on an implementation of Optimal Interpolation using observations from a dense surface network of automated weather stations. An effort has been made to identify both the time period and the spatial areas with a stable data density otherwise the elaboration could be influenced by the unsettled station distribution. The PDF used in this study is based on the Gaussian distribution, nevertheless it is designed to have an asymmetrical (skewed) shape in order to enable distinction between warming and cooling events. Once properly defined the occurrence of extreme events, it is possible to straightforwardly deliver to the users the information on a local-scale in a concise way, such as: TX extremely cold/hot or TN extremely cold/hot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S"><span>Transient twenty-first century changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068"><span>Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The variability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed by the China Meteorological Administ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615588Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615588Y"><span>APHRODITE <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset: Development, QC, Homogenization and Spatial Correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yatagai, Akiyo; Zhao, Tianbao</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded precipitation dataset for the period 1951-2007 was created by collecting and analyzing rain-gauge observation data across Asia through the activities of the Asian Precipitation - Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE) of water resources project. They are available at http://www.chikyu.ac.jp/precip/. Utilization of station data is ideal for analyses of climatic trends, especially for those of extreme events. However, there was an increasing demand for accurate high-resolution gauge-based precipitation analyses. Rain-gauge based products are sometimes used for assessing trends of climate models or that of river runoff through driving hydrological models, because they are convenient and long records. On the other hand, some information is lost during the gridding process. Hence, in-house results of testing interpolation scheme, quality control and homogenization may give important information for the users. We will present such results as well as our quality control (QC) in the APHRODITE project activities. Before gridding, 14 objective QC steps were applied to the rain-gauge data, which mainly includes position checking, duplicate data checking and inhomogeneity and spatiotemporal isolation etc. Details are described in Hamada et al. (2011). For Chinese data, basic QC steps such as duplicate checking and position checking have been made by the local meteorological agency. Hence we made homogenization test and spatial correlation analyses separately. For 756 Chinese <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stations, we applied Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) developed by Szentimrey (1999, 2008). The results show this statistical method we used has a good performance to detect the discontinuities in climate series caused by station relocation, instrument change etc. regardless of the absence of metadata. Through the homogenization, most of discontinuities existed in original <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data can be removed, and the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..247D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..247D"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using MODIS data in southern Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Didari, Shohreh; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh; Khanbilvardi, Reza</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LSAT) is a key variable in agricultural, climatological, hydrological, and environmental studies. Many of their processes are affected by LSAT at about 5 cm from the ground surface (LSAT5cm). Most of the previous studies tried to find statistical models to estimate LSAT at 2 m height (LSAT2m) which is considered as a standardized height, and there is not enough study for LSAT5cm estimation models. Accurate measurements of LSAT5cm are generally acquired from meteorological stations, which are sparse in remote areas. Nonetheless, remote sensing data by providing rather extensive spatial coverage can complement the spatiotemporal shortcomings of meteorological stations. The main objective of this study was to find a statistical model from the previous day to accurately estimate spatial <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum LSAT5cm, which is very important in agricultural frost, in Fars province in southern Iran. Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) data were obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra satellites at daytime and nighttime periods with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. These data along with geometric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevation information were used in a stepwise linear model to estimate minimum LSAT5cm during 2003-2011. The results revealed that utilization of MODIS Aqua nighttime data of previous day provides the most applicable and accurate model. According to the validation results, the accuracy of the proposed model was suitable during 2012 (root mean square difference (RMSD) = 3.07 °C, {R}_{adj}^2 = 87 %). The model underestimated (overestimated) high (low) minimum LSAT5cm. The accuracy of estimation in the winter time was found to be lower than the other seasons (RMSD = 3.55 °C), and in summer and winter, the errors were larger than in the remaining seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25009122','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25009122"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and clinical kidney stone presentation in five U.S. metropolitan areas: a time-series analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tasian, Gregory E; Pulido, Jose E; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S; Horton, Benjamin P; Landis, J Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>High ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Our objective was to estimate associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005-2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, in most cases RRs increased for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ≤ 3 days. In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an adverse effect of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on nephrolithiasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S"><span>Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stephenson, Tannecia; Vincent, Lucie; Allen, Theodore; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric; McLean, Natalie</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.95°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 7% fewer cool days and 10% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986-2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A"><span>Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S"><span>Observed Trends in Indices of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A"><span>A physics-based correction model for homogenizing sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auchmann, R.; BröNnimann, S.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A new physics-based technique for correcting inhomogeneities present in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records is proposed. The approach accounts for changes in the sensor-shield characteristics that affect the energy balance dependent on ambient weather conditions (radiation, wind). An empirical model is formulated that reflects the main atmospheric processes and can be used in the correction step of a homogenization procedure. The model accounts for short- and long-wave radiation fluxes (including a snow cover component for albedo calculation) of a measurement system, such as a radiation shield. One part of the flux is further modulated by ventilation. The model requires only cloud cover and wind speed for each day, but detailed site-specific information is necessary. The final model has three free parameters, one of which is a constant offset. The three parameters can be determined, e.g., using the mean offsets for three observation times. The model is developed using the example of the change from the Wild screen to the Stevenson screen in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record of Basel, Switzerland, in 1966. It is evaluated based on parallel measurements of both systems during a sub-period at this location, which were discovered during the writing of this paper. The model can be used in the correction step of homogenization to distribute a known mean step-size to every single measurement, thus providing a reasonable alternative correction procedure for high-resolution historical climate series. It also constitutes an error model, which may be applied, e.g., in data assimilation approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T"><span>Merging <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from multiple satellites using a Bayesian maximum entropy method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Shaolei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Di; Li, Ziwei</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) is an important variable for understanding interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. SST fusion is crucial for acquiring SST products of high spatial resolution and coverage. This study introduces a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method for blending <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSTs from multiple satellite sensors. A new spatiotemporal covariance model of an SST field is built to integrate not only single-day SSTs but also time-adjacent SSTs. In addition, AVHRR 30-year SST climatology data are introduced as soft data at the estimation points to improve the accuracy of blended results within the BME framework. The merged SSTs, with a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 24 hours, are produced in the Western Pacific Ocean region to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed methodology. Comparisons with in situ drifting buoy observations show that the merged SSTs are accurate and the bias and root-mean-square errors for the comparison are 0.15°C and 0.72°C, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28786933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28786933"><span>Diurnal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range in Relation to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mortality and Years of Life Lost in Wuhan, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yunquan; Yu, Chuanhua; Yang, Jin; Zhang, Lan; Cui, Fangfang</p> <p>2017-08-08</p> <p>Diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) is an important meteorological indicator associated with global climate change, and has been linked with mortality and morbidity in previous studies. To date, however, little evidence has been available regarding the association of DTR with years of life lost (YLL). This study aimed to evaluate the DTR-related burden on both YLL and mortality. We collected individual records of all registered deaths and <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological data in Wuhan, central China, between 2009 and 2012. For the whole population, every 1 °C increase in DTR at a lag of 0-1 days was associated with an increase of 0.65% (95% CI: 0.08-1.23) and 1.42 years (-0.88-3.72) for mortality and YLL due to non-accidental deaths, respectively. Relatively stronger DTR-mortality/YLL associations were found for cardiovascular deaths. Subgroup analyses (stratified by gender, age, and education level) showed that females, the elderly (75+ years old), and those with higher education attainment (7+ years) suffered more significantly from both increased YLL and mortality due to large DTR. Our study added additional evidence that short-term exposure to large DTR was associated with increased burden of premature death using both mortality incidence and YLL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495"><span>R-vine models for spatial time series with an application to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erhardt, Tobias Michael; Czado, Claudia; Schepsmeier, Ulf</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We introduce an extension of R-vine copula models to allow for spatial dependencies and model based prediction at unobserved locations. The proposed spatial R-vine model combines the flexibility of vine copulas with the classical geostatistical idea of modeling spatial dependencies using the distances between the variable locations. In particular, the model is able to capture non-Gaussian spatial dependencies. To develop and illustrate our approach, we consider <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data observed at 54 monitoring stations in Germany. We identify relationships between the vine copula parameters and the station distances and exploit these in order to reduce the huge number of parameters needed to parametrize a 54-dimensional R-vine model fitted to the data. The new distance based model parametrization results in a distinct reduction in the number of parameters and makes parameter estimation and prediction at unobserved locations feasible. The prediction capabilities are validated using adequate scoring techniques, showing a better performance of the spatial R-vine copula model compared to a Gaussian spatial model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707326"><span>Metabolism and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in the smallest primate, the pygmy mouse lemur (Microcebus myoxinus) in Madagascar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, J; Ruf, T; Heldmaier, G</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Thermoregulation, energetics and patterns of torpor in the pygmy mouse lemur, Microcebus myoxinus, were investigated under natural conditions of photoperiod and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Kirindy/CFPF Forest in western Madagascar. M. myoxinus entered torpor spontaneously during the cool dry season. Torpor only occurred on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis and torpor bout duration was on average 9.6 h, and ranged from 4.6 h to 19.2 h. Metabolic rates during torpor were reduced to about 86% of the normothermic value. Minimum body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor was 6.8 degrees C at an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 6.3 degrees C. Entry into torpor occurred randomly between 2000 and 0620 hours, whereas arousals from torpor were clustered around 1300 hours within a narrow time window of less than 4 h. Arousal from torpor was a two-step process with a first passive climb of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to a mean of 27 degrees C, carried by the <span class="hlt">daily</span> increase of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when oxygen consumption remained more or less constant, followed by a second active increase of oxygen consumption to further raise the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to normothermic values. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythms in M. myoxinus further reduce the energetic costs of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor seen in other species: they extend to unusually low body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and consequently low metabolic rates in torpor, and they employ passive warming to reduce the energetic costs of arousal. Thus, these energy-conserving adaptations may represent an important energetic aid to the pygmy mouse lemur and help to promote their individual fitness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915717P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915717P"><span>Analysing the <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity differences between downtown and suburban environment in Budapest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pongracz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Dezso, Zsuzsanna; Dian, Csenge; Incze, Dora; Kurcsics, Mate</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>, continuous 3-day-long <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity measurements were recorded during 4-6 July 2016. Moreover, new measuring instruments were used during this summer measurements with more accurate sensors and data loggers. After the summer measuring campaign the whole measurement program continued in autumn (6 days starting at 14 pm Thursdays and lasting 24 hours). Thus, summer and autumn <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles can be compared in the different types of the urban environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859"><span>High-frequency <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in China and its relationship to large-scale circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Fu-Ting; Fu, Congbin; Qian, Yun; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shu-Yu</p> <p>2016-04-18</p> <p>Two measures of intra-seasonal variability, indicated respectively by standard deviations (SD) and day-to-day (DTD) fluctuations denoted by absolute differences between adjacent 2-day periods, as well as their relationships with large-scale circulation patterns were investigated in China during 1962–2008 on the basis of homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from 549 local stations and reanalysis data. Our results show that both the SD and DTD of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin) in summer as well as the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter have been decreasing, while the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) variability in summer is fluctuating more, especially over southern China. In summer, an attribution analysis indicates that the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and high-level East Asian Subtropical Jet stream (EASJ) are positively correlated with both SD and DTD, but the correlation coefficients are generally greater with the SD than with the DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tmax. In contrast, the location of the EASJ shows the opposite correlation pattern, with intensity regarding the correlation with both SD and DTD. In winter, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is negatively correlated with both the SD and DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but its intra-seasonal variability exhibits good agreement with the SD of the Tmin. The Siberian High acts differently with respect to the SD and DTD of the Tmin, demonstrating a regionally consistent positive correlation with the SD. Overall, the large-scale circulation can well explain the intra-seasonal SD, but DTD fluctuations may be more local and impacted by local conditions, such as changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> itself, the land surface, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R"><span>Use of Sharpened Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Evapotranspiration Estimation over Irrigated Crops in Arid Lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosas Aguilar, J.; McCabe, M. F.; Houborg, R.; Gao, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Satellite remote sensing provides data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Land-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. This study applies the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which sharpens the 1 km thermal data down to the resolution of the optical data (250-500 m) based on functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. The DMS approach adopted here has been enhanced/refined for application over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The sharpened LST data is input to an integrated modeling system that uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of evapotranspiration. Results are evaluated against available flux tower observations over irrigated maize near Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Successful monitoring of field-scale changes in surface fluxes are of importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly monitored. Gao, F.; Kustas, W.P.; Anderson, M.C. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 3287-3319.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011"><span>Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and average <span class="hlt">daily</span> gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gain (ADG) and Tympanic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..92..145L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..92..145L"><span>A general model for estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and site geographic parameters in Southwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs using routinely measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C"><span>The creation of future <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded datasets of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a spatial weather generator, Cyprus 2020-2050</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Pashiardis, Stelios; Lange, Manfred</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets are essential for natural resource management and the analysis of climate changes and their effects. This study aimed to create gridded datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, for the future (2020-2050). The horizontal resolution of the developed datasets is 1 x 1 km2, covering the area under control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study is divided into two parts. The first consists of the evaluation of the performance of different interpolation techniques for <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1980-2010) for the creation of the gridded datasets. Rainfall data recorded at 145 stations and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 34 stations were used. For precipitation, inverse distance weighting (IDW) performs best for local events, while a combination of step-wise geographically weighted regression and IDW proves to be the best method for large scale events. For minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a combination of step-wise linear multiple regression and thin plate splines is recognized as the best method. Six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the A1B SRES emission scenario from the EU ENSEMBLE project database were selected as sources for future climate projections. The RCMs were evaluated for their capacity to simulate Cyprus climatology for the period 1980-2010. Data for the period 2020-2050 from the three best performing RCMs were downscaled, using the change factors approach, at the location of observational stations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> time series were created with a stochastic rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator. The RainSim V3 software (Burton et al., 2008) was used to generate spatial-temporal coherent rainfall fields. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator was developed in R and modeled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a weakly stationary process with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and standard deviation conditioned on the wet and dry state of the day (Richardson, 1981). Finally gridded datasets depicting projected future climate conditions were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38101','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/38101"><span>Empirical downscaling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at very fine resolutions in complex terrain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Zachary A. Holden; John T. Abatzoglou; Charles H. Luce; L. Scott Baggett</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Available air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> models do not adequately account for the influence of terrain on nocturnal air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. An empirical model for night time air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was developed using a network of one hundred and forty inexpensive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors deployed across the Bitterroot National Forest, Montana. A principle component analysis (PCA) on minimum...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oscillation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increased suspended sediment on growth and smolting in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shrimpton, J.M.; Zydlewski, J.D.; Heath, J.W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation and increased suspended sediment concentration on growth and smolting in juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish were ponded on February 26; each treatment group had three replicates of 250 fish. Mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the entire experiment were 12.3????C for all tanks with a total of 1348 and 1341 degree days for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oscillating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tanks, respectively. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> fluctuation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averaged 7.5????C in the variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> groups and less than 1????C for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group. Starting on April 5, bentonite clay was added each day to tanks as a pulse event to achieve a suspended sediment concentration of 200??mg l- 1; clay cleared from the tanks within approximately 8??h. Fish were sampled at approximately two??week intervals from ponding until mid-June. On the last sample date, June 12, a single gill arch was removed and fixed for histological examination of gill morphology. By early May, significant differences were seen in size between the groups; control > <span class="hlt">temperature</span> = sediment > (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ?? sediment). This relationship was consistent throughout the experiment except for the last sample date when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group had a mean weight significantly greater than the sediment group. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was not affected by <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations, but groups subjected to increased suspended sediment had significantly lower enzyme activities compared to controls. Mean cell size for gill chloride cells did not differ between groups. Plasma cortisol increased significantly during the spring, but there were no significant differences between groups. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43A1162Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43A1162Y"><span>Trends in extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and humidex index in the United Arab Emirates over 1948-2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, H. W.; Ouarda, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study deals with the analysis of the characteristics of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in the Middle East, using NCEP reanalysis gridded data, for the summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) seasons. Trends in the occurrences of three types of heat spells during 1948-2014 are studied by both Linear Regression (LR) and Mann-Kendall (MK) test. Changes in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) are also investigated. To better understand the effects of heat spells on public health, the Humidex, a combination index of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity, is also used. Using percentile threshold, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Humidex) Type-A and Type-B heat spells are defined respectively by <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Humidex). Type-C heat spells are defined as the joint occurrence of Type-A and Type-B heat spells at the same time. In the Middle East, it is found that no coherent trend in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Type-A heat spells is observed. However, the occurrences of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Type-B and C heat spells have consistently increased since 1948. For Humidex heat spells, coherently increased activities of all three types of heat spells are observed in the area. During the summer, the magnitude of the positive trends in Humidex heat spells are generally stronger than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> heat spells. More than half of the locations in the area show significantly negative DTR trends in the summer, but the trends vary according to the region in the winter. Annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has increased an average by 0.5°C, but it is mainly associated with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which has warmed up by 0.84°C.<span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed no significant trends. The warming is hence stronger in minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than in maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> resulting in a decrease in DTR by 0.16 °C per decade. This study indicates hence that the UAE has not become hotter, but it has become less cold during 1948 to 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811202L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811202L"><span>The physical basis of enhanced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index ice melt parameterizations in the Nepal Himalaya.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Litt, Maxime; Shea, Joseph; Koch, Inka; Wagnon, Patrick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Glacier melt is an important component of seasonal water flows in the Himalayas. Due to scarce data availability and computational convenience, most glaciological projections in the Himalayan region derive ice melt from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index (TI) or enhanced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index (ETI) parameterizations, which require only <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar radiation as inputs. Still, the processes linking these variables to melt remain poorly documented under high-altitude climates, where the air is cold, and the main input is shortwave radiation. In this study, we question the physical basis of enhanced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index (ETI) melt parameterizations in the Nepal Himalayas. Using atmospheric weather station (AWS) installed on Yala glacier at 5090 m a.s.l and Mera glaciers at 6350 m a.s.l., we study the surface energy balance (SEB) during one melt season, i.e, the monsoon and surrounding weeks, in 2014. The SEB estimates provide insights into the atmospheric controls on the glaciers. We study the variability of correlation coefficients linking <span class="hlt">daily</span> means of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, SEB and SEB components. On Yala at 5090 m a.s.l, energy inputs are high during the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> due to low surface albedo and strong incoming solar radiation near the solstice, and melt is strong. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlates moderately with the SEB (R = 0.58) mainly through sublimation and net longwave radiation. During the monsoon snow deposition reduces the magnitude of net shortwave radiation, thus dampening the melt rates. Strong longwave emission from clouds compensates for the surface emission, and the correlation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with the SEB, mainly explained through net shortwave radiation, decreases (R = 0.49). During the post-monsoon, high albedo, heat losses through sublimation and clear-skies favoring longwave losses at the surface lead to a near zero SEB, and reduced melt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> correlates well with the SEB (R = 0.88) through net longwave radiation. On Mera at 6300 m a.s.l, high surface albedo and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3523651','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3523651"><span>Clarifying the role of fire heat and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations as germination cues for Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Blanes, M. Carmen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims This study aims to determine the role that both direct effects of fire and subsequent <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations play in the seed bank dynamics of obligate seeders from the Mediterranean Basin. The short yet high soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced due to passage of fire are conflated with the lower, but longer, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced by <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations which occur after removing vegetation. These germination cues are able to break seed dormancy, but it is difficult to assess their specific level of influence because they occur consecutively after summer fires, just before the flush of germination in the wet season (autumn). Methods By applying experimental fires, seed treatments were imposed that combined fire exposure/non-fire exposure with exposure to microhabitats under a gradient of disturbance (i.e. gaps opened by fire, mechanical brushing and intact vegetation). The seeds used were representative of the main families of obligate seeders (Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus and Rosmarinus officinalis). Specifically, an assessment was made of (1) the proportion of seeds killed by fire, (2) seedling emergence under field conditions and (3) seeds which remained ungerminated in soil. Key Results For the three species studied, the factors that most influenced seedling emergence and seeds remaining ungerminated were microhabitats with higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations after fire (gaps opened by fire and brushing treatments). The direct effect of fire decreased the seedling emergence of U. parviflorus and reduced the proportion of seeds of R. officinalis remaining ungerminated. Conclusions The relevance of depleting vegetation (and subsequent <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuation in summer) suggests that studies focusing on lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds for breaking seed dormancy are required. This fact also supports the hypothesis that the seeding capacity in Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders may have evolved as a response to a wide range of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19687288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19687288"><span>Acclimation to heat during incubation: 4. Blood hormones and metabolites in broilers exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yalçin, S; Bruggeman, V; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Cabuk, M; Siegel, P B</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The objective of the present experiment was to study the effects of parental age and heat acclimation of embryos on blood metabolites and hormones of broilers exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cyclic ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from d 21 to 42. Eggs obtained from 32 (younger), 42 (middle-aged), and 65 wk (older) breeders were divided into 2 groups. One group of eggs was incubated at control incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ITCONT), whereas the second group was heat-acclimated at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h/d from d 10 to 18 of incubation (ITHA). Chicks were reared at standard brooding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 1 to 21 d. From d 21 to 42, half of broilers/incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/parental age was kept as the control (ATCONT), whereas the other half was exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cyclic heat treatment (ATHIGH) to impose a stress response. There was a reduction in plasma triiodothyronine (T3) levels in ITHA broilers. On d 28, plasma T3 levels were similar regardless of parental age of eggs incubated at ITCONT, whereas ITHA resulted in lower levels of T3 in broilers from 65 wk parents. At the same age, ATHIGH reduced plasma triglycerides with the effect greater for ITHA than ITCONT broilers. Plasma uric acid was also lower for ITHA than ITCONT broilers for the offspring of 65 wk parents on d 28. There was an increase in plasma creatine kinase activity on d 42 in ATHIGH broilers regardless of parental age and incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Plasma corticosterone was consistently lower for the ITHA than ITCONT treatment, being significant on d 21 and 42. It was concluded that these changes in blood metabolites and hormones may enhance the thermoregulatory ability of ITHA broilers when exposed posthatch to <span class="hlt">daily</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014281','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014281"><span>Preliminary Estimation of Black Carbon Deposition from Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid Data and Its Possible Impact on Snow Albedo Changes Over Himalayan Glaciers During the <span class="hlt">Pre-Monsoon</span> Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yasunari, T. J.; Bonasoni, P.; Laj, P.; Fujita, K.; Vuillermoz, E.; Marinoni, A.; Cristofanelli, P.; Duchi, R.; Tartari, G.; Lau, K.-M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The possible minimal range of reduction in snow surface albedo due to dry deposition of black carbon (BC) in the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> period (March-May) was estimated as a lower bound together with the estimation of its accuracy, based on atmospheric observations at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) sited at 5079 m a.s.l. in the Himalayan region. We estimated a total BC deposition rate of 2.89 g m-2 day-1 providing a total deposition of 266 micrograms/ square m for March-May at the site, based on a calculation with a minimal deposition velocity of 1.0 10(exp -4) m/s with atmospheric data of equivalent BC concentration. Main BC size at NCO-P site was determined as 103.1-669.8 nm by correlation analysis between equivalent BC concentration and particulate size distribution in the atmosphere. We also estimated BC deposition from the size distribution data and found that 8.7% of the estimated dry deposition corresponds to the estimated BC deposition from equivalent BC concentration data. If all the BC is deposited uniformly on the top 2-cm pure snow, the corresponding BC concentration is 26.0-68.2 microgram/kg assuming snow density variations of 195-512 kg/ cubic m of Yala Glacier close to NCO-P site. Such a concentration of BC in snow could result in 2.0-5.2% albedo reductions. From a simple numerical calculations and if assuming these albedo reductions continue throughout the year, this would lead to a runoff increases of 70-204 mm of water drainage equivalent of 11.6-33.9% of the annual discharge of a typical Tibetan glacier. Our estimates of BC concentration in snow surface for <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season can be considered comparable to those at similar altitude in the Himalayan region, where glaciers and perpetual snow region starts in the vicinity of NCO-P. Our estimates from only BC are likely to represent a lower bound for snow albedo reductions, since a fixed slower deposition velocity was used and atmospheric wind and turbulence effects, snow aging, dust deposition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A11B0083C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A11B0083C"><span>A Statistical Resampling Technique for Conditioning Simulated <span class="hlt">Daily</span> European Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> on the North Atlantic Oscillation Index</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cook, B. I.; Mann, M.; Smith, T.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>We describe a technique for simulating the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on <span class="hlt">daily</span> winter surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the European sector. The approach itself is general enough that it could easily beÿ applied to other climate variables (e.g., <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation) and indices (e.g., the Southern Oscillation Index). The technique employs a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to represent the spatial structure in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field, by retaining only the leading, statistically significant empirical eigenvectors, and modeling any residual variance as spatially-uncorrelated noise. The associated principal components time series and noise residuals are modeled as AR(1) autoregressive processes. For those principal component time series which exhibit a statistically significant seasonal relationship with the NAO index, the parameters of the AR(1) model (mean, innovation variance, and lag-one autocorrelation) are then conditioned on the phase (high, neutral, or low) of the NAO. This process allows for realistic simulations of synoptic-scale surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability over Europe as it is influence by the NAO index.ÿ Use of these simulations for the investigation of climate change scenarios,ÿ with applications to changing phenological patterns, will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K"><span>Evaluation of Downscaled CMIP5 Model Skill in Simulating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Over the Southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keellings, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Downscaled CMIP5 climate projections of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the Downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections archive are examined regionally over the southeastern U.S. Three measures of model skill (means-based, distribution-based, extreme-based) are utilized to assess the ability of 15 downscaled models to simulate <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations. A new test is proposed to determine statistical significance of the probability density function based skill measures. Skill scores are found to be generally high for all three measures throughout the study region, but lower scores are present in coastal and mountainous areas. Application of the significance test shows that while the skill scores may be high they are not significantly higher than could be expected at random in some areas. The distribution-based skill scores are not significant in much of Florida and the Appalachians. The extreme-based skill scores are not significant in more than 90% of the region for all models investigated. The findings suggest that although the downscaled models have simulated observed means well and are a good match to the entire distribution of observations, they are not simulating the occurrence of extreme (above 90th percentile) maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23B1142R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23B1142R"><span>Predicting Snow-To-Rain Transitions Across The Western U.S.: When Is <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sufficient?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajagopal, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The phase of precipitation at the land surface is critical for determining the timing and amount of water available for hydrological and ecological systems. Natural variability in precipitation phase due to elevation, micro-climate, and storm characteristics make it a challenge to predict phase. In addition, regional warming is expected to move the snow-rain elevation higher in the future, which has the potential to alter water availability. Despite this, there are few techniques for direct observation of precipitation phase and many predictive techniques apply simple <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds (i.e. 0 degree Celsius) to determine spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we asked two questions: 1) what is the optimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for predicting snow-rain transitions in the mountains of the Western U.S.? and 2) what errors in precipitation phase estimation are associated with common <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds? We use 502 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations with data from 2004 to 2014 to determine rain versus snow using a combination of precipitation, snow depth, and SWE observations. From the observations, we determined that <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a better predictor of rain and snow events than average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from -2.0 to 3 C, with an average of 0.3 C across ecoregions. The Northern Basin and Northern Cascades with lower average elevations had higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds and the Southern Rockies with highest elevations had the lowest thresholds. Developing a relationship based on station elevation improved the RMSE by 12%, whereas using an optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> developed for each station improved the RMSE by 34% on average. While using optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds reduce error in prediction, they do not eliminate misclassification of rain-show transitions. These results highlight a current weakness in our ability to predict the effects of regional warming that could have uneven impacts on water and ecological resource management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/06/d04/tm6d4.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/tm/06/d04/tm6d4.pdf"><span>Documentation of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> module—An enhancement to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sanders, Michael J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Regan, R. Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight</p> <p>2017-09-15</p> <p>A module for simulation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a network of stream segments has been developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This new module is based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> model, a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport model. The new module is integrated in PRMS. Stream-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulation is activated by selection of the appropriate input flags in the PRMS Control File and by providing the necessary additional inputs in standard PRMS input files.This report includes a comprehensive discussion of the methods relevant to the stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> calculations and detailed instructions for model input preparation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...92T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...92T"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region derived from the BaltAn65+ reanalysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Toll, Velle; Post, Piia</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> 2-m <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region for the time period of 1965-2005 is studied based on data from the BaltAn65 + high resolution atmospheric reanalysis. Moreover, the ability of regional reanalysis to capture extremes is analysed by comparing the reanalysis data to gridded observations. The shortcomings in the simulation of the minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the northern part of the region and in the simulation of the extreme precipitation over the Scandinavian mountains in the BaltAn65+ reanalysis data are detected and analysed. Temporal trends in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes in the Baltic Sea region, with the largest increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in winter, are detected based on both gridded observations and the BaltAn65+ reanalysis data. However, the reanalysis is not able to capture all of the regional trends in the extremes in the observations due to the shortcomings in the simulation of the extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446212"><span>Part 2. Association of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Wuhan, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Fewer studies have been published on the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to all natural causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the association between air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to all natural causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESSDD...8.1021B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESSDD...8.1021B"><span>CPLFD-GDPT5: high-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset for two largest Polish river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezowski, T.; Szcześniak, M.; Kardel, I.; Michałowski, R.; Okruszko, T.; Mezghani, A.; Piniewski, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The CHASE-PL Forcing Data-Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations from Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), ECAD and NOAA-NCDC (Slovak, Ukrainian and Belarus stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of Vistula and Odra basin and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in time from about 100 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 300 for precipitation in 1950 up to about 180 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 700 for precipitation in 1990. The precipitation dataset was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were: kriging with elevation as external drift for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross-validation revealed low root mean squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 0.88 for maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Vistula and Odra basins. Link to the dataset: <a href="http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07" target=_blank>http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESSD....8..127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESSD....8..127B"><span>CPLFD-GDPT5: High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set for two largest Polish river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezowski, Tomasz; Szcześniak, Mateusz; Kardel, Ignacy; Michałowski, Robert; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Piniewski, Mikołaj</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland) Forcing Data-Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation & <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), and European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECAD) and National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration-National Climatic Data Center (NOAA-NCDC) (Slovak, Ukrainian, and Belarusian stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of the Vistula and Oder basins and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in time from about 100 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 300 for precipitation in the 1950s up to about 180 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 700 for precipitation in the 1990s. The precipitation data set was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were kriging with elevation as external drift for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross validation revealed low root-mean-squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively, and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 0.88 for maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28693637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28693637"><span>The effects of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heatwaves on <span class="hlt">daily</span> Campylobacter cases in Adelaide, Australia, 1990-2012.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Milazzo, A; Giles, L C; Zhang, Y; Koehler, A P; Hiller, J E; Bi, P</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Campylobacter spp. is a commonly reported food-borne disease with major consequences for morbidity. In conjunction with predicted increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, proliferation in the survival of microorganisms in hotter environments is expected. This is likely to lead, in turn, to an increase in contamination of food and water and a rise in numbers of cases of infectious gastroenteritis. This study assessed the relationship of Campylobacter spp. with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heatwaves, in Adelaide, South Australia. We estimated the effect of (i) maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and (ii) heatwaves on <span class="hlt">daily</span> Campylobacter cases during the warm seasons (1 October to 31 March) from 1990 to 2012 using Poisson regression models. There was no evidence of a substantive effect of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> per 1 °C rise (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·995, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0·993-0·997) nor heatwaves (IRR 0·906, 95% CI 0·800-1·026) on Campylobacter cases. In relation to heatwave intensity, which is the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during a heatwave, notifications decreased by 19% within a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of 39-40·9 °C (IRR 0·811, 95% CI 0·692-0·952). We found little evidence of an increase in risk and lack of association between Campylobacter cases and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or heatwaves in the warm seasons. Heatwave intensity may play a role in that notifications decreased with higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Further examination of the role of behavioural and environmental factors in an effort to reduce the risk of increased Campylobacter cases is warranted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..225L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.121..225L"><span>Fractal structure and predictive strategy of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> residuals at Fabra Observatory (NE Spain, years 1917-2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>A compilation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> recorded at the Fabra Observatory (Catalonia, NE Spain) since 1917 up to 2005 has permitted an exhaustive analysis of the fractal behaviour of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> residuals, DTR, defined as the difference between the observed <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average value. The lacunarity characterises the lag distribution on the residual series for several thresholds. Hurst, H, and Hausdorff, Ha, exponents, together with the exponent β of the decaying power law, describing the evolution of power spectral density with frequency, permit to characterise the persistence, antipersistence or randomness of the residual series. The self-affine character of DTR series is verified, and additionally, they are simulated by means of fractional Gaussian noise, fGn. The reconstruction theorem leads to the quantification of the complexity (correlation dimension, μ*, and Kolmogorov entropy, κ) and predictive instability (Lyapunov exponents, λ, and Kaplan-Yorke dimension, D KY) of the residual series. All fractal parameters are computed for consecutive and independent segments of 5-year lengths. This strategy permits to obtain a high enough number of fractal parameter samples to estimate time trends, including their statistical significance. Comparisons are made between results of predictive algorithms based on fGn models and an autoregressive autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) process, with the latter leading to slightly better results than the former. Several dynamic atmospheric mechanisms and local effects, such as local topography and vicinity to the Mediterranean coast, are proposed to explain the complex and instable predictability of DTR series. The memory of the physical system (Kolmogorov entropy) would be attributed to the interaction with the Mediterranean Sea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3358D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3358D"><span>Regional projection of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the 21st Century over the Eastern India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhage, Pradnya; Singh Raghuwanshi, Narendra; Singh, Rajendra</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global as well as regional climate has changed due to human activities like land use changes, production of industrial effluents and other developmental activities of the society. The consequences of these changes have a massive impact on atmospheric events like precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> etc. The rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are intrinsic parameters of hydrologic cycle. Consequently, these are also the major driving factors of change in hydrologic response due to climate change. Future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information is required at regional and basin scales for climate change studies. Therefore, in present study, <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> scenarios were developed from Multi-GCM ensemble (CanESM2, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MPI-ESM-LR, and CNRM-CM5 GCMs) using bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) method at station scale for Kangsabati reservoir catchment and command, West Bengal, India. Subsequently, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intensity and frequency indices like extremes of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, consecutive hot days, consecutive cold days, and warming nights were analyzed. The GCM data for all the requisite variables corresponding to historic run (1971-2005) and future climate (2006-2100) were used under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) emission scenarios. The results indicate significant increase in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in all seasons (<span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span>, monsoon, and post-monsoon), with the most significant increase occurring in <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season, and for all the stations of the study area. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Kangsabati command area are projected as 0.20 and 0.22 °C/decade under RCP4.5, and 0.54 and 0.59 °C/decade under RCP8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. Further, it is found that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intensity and frequency indices will increase (maximum value of Tmax and Tmin, and minimum value of Tmax and Tmin, consecutive hot days, and warming nights) while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.129.1227K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.129.1227K"><span>Spatial and temporal variation in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in summer and winter seasons over India (1969-2012)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Naresh; Jaswal, A. K.; Mohapatra, M.; Kore, P. A.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Spatial and temporal variations in summer and winter extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices are studied by using <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> data from 227 surface meteorological stations well distributed over India for the period 1969-2012. For this purpose, time series for six extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices namely, hot days (HD), very hot days (VHD), extremely hot days (EHD), cold nights (CN), very cold nights (VCN), and extremely cold nights (ECN) are calculated for all the stations. In addition, time series for mean extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices of summer and winter seasons are also analyzed. Study reveals high variability in spatial distribution of threshold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices over the country. In general, increasing trends are observed in summer hot days indices and decreasing trends in winter cold night indices over most parts of the country. The results obtained in this study indicate warming in summer maximum and winter minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over India. Averaged over India, trends in summer hot days indices HD, VHD, and EHD are significantly increasing (+1.0, +0.64, and +0.32 days/decade, respectively) and winter cold night indices CN, VCN, and ECN are significantly decreasing (-0.93, -0.47, and -0.15 days/decade, respectively). Also, it is observed that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is higher along the west coast for summer and east coast for winter.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28432370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28432370"><span>The Threshold <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Lag Effects on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Excess Mortality in Harbin, China: A Time Series Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Hanlu; Lan, Li; Yang, Chao; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Yashuang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>A large number of studies have reported the relationship between ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality. However, few studies have focused on the effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on cardio-cerebrovascular diseases mortality (CCVDM) and their acute events (ACCVDM). To assess the threshold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and time lag effects on <span class="hlt">daily</span> excess mortality in Harbin, China. A generalized additive model (GAM) with a Poisson distribution was used to investigate the relative risk of mortality for each 1 °C increase above the threshold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and their time lag effects in Harbin, China. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold was 26 °C in Harbin. Heat effects were immediate and lasted for 0-6 and 0-4 days for CCVDM and ACCVDM, respectively. The acute cardiovascular disease mortality (ACVDM) seemed to be more sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than cardiovascular disease mortality (CVDM) with higher death risk and shorter time lag effects. The lag effects lasted longer for cerebrovascular disease mortality (CBDM) than CVDM; so did ACBDM compared to ACVDM. Hot <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased CCVDM and ACCVDM in Harbin, China. Public health intervention strategies for hot <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> adaptation should be concerned.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N"><span>Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira</p> <p></p> <p>This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL). Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05) of 0.25 (SD 0.61) °C in the morning and 0.24 (SD 0.50) °C in the afternoon. Differences between oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer and winter tended to be greater in subjects with low ADL scores, even when their room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was well-controlled. In conclusion, the oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly are lower in winter than summer, particularly in physically inactive people. It appears that those with low levels of ADL are more vulnerable to large changes in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.9208S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.9208S"><span>Combined impacts of land cover changes and large-scale forcing on Southern California summer <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sequera, Pedro; González, Jorge E.; McDonald, Kyle; Bornstein, Robert; Comarazamy, Daniel</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>California near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are influenced by large-scale, regional and local factors. In that sense, a numerical model experiment was carried out to analyze the contribution of large-scale (changes in atmospheric and oceanic conditions) and regional (increased urbanization) factors on the observed California South Coast Air Basin regional summer <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> warming pattern from 1950 to 2013. The simulations were performed with past (1950-1954) and present (2009-2013) land cover and climate conditions. The past land cover was derived from historical digital maps, and the present land cover was updated with high-resolution airborne remote sensing data. Results show that both factors contribute to the total change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Changes due to large-scale climate conditions dominate in coastal (due to warming sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) and nonurban regions, while changes due to urbanization have an impact mainly in urban areas, especially inland where large-scale warming weakens. Increased urbanization has also reduced sea-breeze intensity due to changes in surface roughness. The model was able to reproduce the regional observed warming pattern, as it incorporates urban heat island effects, otherwise underestimated by large-scale climate change only.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5404D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5404D"><span>Use of a Weather Generator for analysis of projections of future <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its validation with climate change indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Piazza, A.; Cordano, E.; Eccel, E.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The issue of climate change detection is considered a major challenge. In particular, high temporal resolution climate change scenarios are required in the evaluation of the effects of climate change on agricultural management (crop suitability, yields, risk assessment, etc.) energy production and water management. In this work, a "Weather Generator" technique was used for downscaling climate change scenarios for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. An R package (RMAWGEN, Cordano and Eccel, 2011 - available on http://cran.r-project.org) was developed aiming to generate synthetic <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather conditions by using the theory of vectorial auto-regressive models (VAR). The VAR model was chosen for its ability in maintaining the temporal and spatial correlations among variables. In particular, observed time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are transformed into "new" normally-distributed variable time series which are used to calibrate the parameters of a VAR model by using ordinary least square methods. Therefore the implemented algorithm, applied to monthly mean climatic values downscaled by Global Climate Model predictions, can generate several stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> scenarios where the statistical consistency among series is saved. Further details are present in RMAWGEN documentation. An application is presented here by using a dataset with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series recorded in 41 different sites of Trentino region for the period 1958-2010. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> time series were pre-processed to fill missing values (by a site-specific calibrated Inverse Distance Weighting algorithm, corrected with elevation) and to remove inhomogeneities. Several climatic indices were taken into account, useful for several impact assessment applications, and their time trends within the time series were analyzed. The indices go from the more classical ones, as annual mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, seasonal mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and their anomalies (from the reference period 1961-1990) to the climate change indices</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397999','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3397999"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Scheduled High Fat Meals Moderately Entrain Behavioral Anticipatory Activity, Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, and Hypothalamic c-Fos Activation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gallardo, Christian M.; Gunapala, Keith M.; King, Oliver D.; Steele, Andrew D.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>When fed in restricted amounts, rodents show robust activity in the hours preceding expected meal delivery. This process, termed food anticipatory activity (FAA), is independent of the light-entrained clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, yet beyond this basic observation there is little agreement on the neuronal underpinnings of FAA. One complication in studying FAA using a calorie restriction model is that much of the brain is activated in response to this strong hunger signal. Thus, <span class="hlt">daily</span> timed access to palatable meals in the presence of continuous access to standard chow has been employed as a model to study FAA in rats. In order to exploit the extensive genetic resources available in the murine system we extended this model to mice, which will anticipate rodent high fat diet but not chocolate or other sweet <span class="hlt">daily</span> meals (Hsu, Patton, Mistlberger, and Steele; 2010, PLoS ONE e12903). In this study we test additional fatty meals, including peanut butter and cheese, both of which induced modest FAA. Measurement of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> revealed a moderate preprandial increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in mice fed high fat diet but entrainment due to handling complicated interpretation of these results. Finally, we examined activation patterns of neurons by immunostaining for the immediate early gene c-Fos and observed a modest amount of entrainment of gene expression in the hypothalamus of mice fed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> fatty palatable meal. PMID:22815954</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858"><span>Differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Ordovás, J M; Smith, C E; Nicolás, F; Garaulet, M</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The circadian rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity patterns. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) (mean ± SEM). Skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373"><span>GSOD Based <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Global Mean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p>Xuan Shi, Dali Wang</p> <p>2014-05-05</p> <p>This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=Potatoes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPotatoes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=Potatoes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DPotatoes"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T W; Bennett, S M; Cao, W</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato"><span>Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526"><span>Control of Continuous Irradiation Injury on Potatoes with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Cycling 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Bennett, Susan M.; Cao, Weixing</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18°C and fluctuating 22°C/14°C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18°C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:11537703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A"><span>Multisite multivariate modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Canadian Prairie Provinces using generalized linear models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asong, Zilefac E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework, a multisite stochastic modelling approach is developed using <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is modeled using a two-stage normal-heteroscedastic model by fitting mean and variance components separately. Likewise, precipitation occurrence and conditional precipitation intensity processes are modeled separately. The relationship between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is accounted for by using transformations of precipitation as covariates to predict <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields. Large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are used to calibrate these models for the 1971-2000 period. Validation of the developed models is performed on both pre- and post-calibration period data. Results of the study indicate that the developed models are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields, such as inter-site and inter-variable correlation structure, and systematic regional variations present in observed sequences. A number of simulated weather statistics ranging from seasonal means to characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes and some of the commonly used climate indices are also found to be in close agreement with those derived from observed data. This GLM-based modelling approach will be developed further for multisite statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model outputs to explore climate variability and change in this region of Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050"><span>Water quality and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle affect biofilm formation in drip irrigation devices revealed by optical coherence tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Jueying; Horn, Harald; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona; Katz, Sagi; Wagner, Michael</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Drip irrigation is a water-saving technology. To date, little is known about how biofilm forms in drippers of irrigation systems. In this study, the internal dripper geometry was recreated in 3-D printed microfluidic devices (MFDs). To mimic the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in (semi-) arid areas, experiments were conducted in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled box between 20 and 50°C. MFDs were either fed with two different treated wastewater (TWW) or synthetic wastewater. Biofilm formation was monitored non-invasively and in situ by optical coherence tomography (OCT). 3-D OCT datasets reveal the major fouling position and illustrate that biofilm development was influenced by fluid dynamics. Biofilm volumetric coverage of the labyrinth up to 60% did not reduce the discharge rate, whereas a further increase to 80% reduced the discharge rate by 50%. Moreover, the biofilm formation rate was significantly inhibited in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle independent of the cultivation medium used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...67B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NHESS..14...67B"><span>Recent trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over southern Montenegro (1951-2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burić, D.; Luković, J.; Ducić, V.; Dragojlović, J.; Doderović, M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Montenegro so far has been poorly investigated in terms of climate extremes. The aim of this paper was to analyse the extreme ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in the Mediterranean region of Montenegro for the period of 1951-2010. Four stations in the coastal area of Montenegro have been analysed: Herceg Novi, Ulcinj, Budva and Bar. Two periods (before 1980 and after 1980) were separately investigated in this study due to a well-known climate shift that occurred in the late 1970s. Seven indices of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes have been chosen. The trend was analysed using a Mann-Kendall non-parametric test, while the slope was estimated using Sen's slope estimator. A negative trend has been calculated for cold nights and cold days at almost all stations. The most significant positive trends were obtained for warm conditions. The two separately investigated periods have shown contrasting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.5181B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NHESD...1.5181B"><span>Recent trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over southern Montenegro (1951-2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burić, D.; Luković, J.; Ducić, V.; Dragojlović, J.; Doderović, M.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Montenegro so far has been poorly investigated in terms of climate extremes. The aim of this paper was to analyse the extreme ETCCD <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in the Mediterranean region of Montenegro for the period of 1951-2010. Four stations in the coastal area of Montenegro have been analysed: Herceg Novi, Ulcinj, Budva and Bar. Two periods (before 1980 and after 1980) were separately investigated in this study due to a well known climate shift that occurred in the late 1970's. Seven indices of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes have been chosen. The trend was analysed using a Man-Kendall non parametric test while the slope was estimated using Sen's slope estimator. A negative trend has been calculated for cold nights and cold days at almost all stations. The most significant positive trends were obtained for warm conditions. Two separately investigated periods have shown contrasting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717080"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: A statistical modeling study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1km×1km) <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts-Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R(2) of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R(2) of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376°C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996"><span>The effect of physical exercise on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piccione, Giuseppe; Grasso, Fortunata; Fazio, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses. Blood samples from 12 Thoroughbred horses, six sedentary animals and six athletes (studied both before and after a period of inactivity) were collected at 4h intervals for 48h via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded every 4h for 48h with a rectal probe. Platelet aggregation was measured with an aggregometer. Collagen was used to test the aggregation of the plasma samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by single cosinor method. Cosinor analysis identified the periodic parameters and their acrophases (expressed in hours) during the 2 days of monitoring. On each single day, there was a highly significant effect of time in all the horses, with P values <0.05. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rhythms were unaffected by exercise. Platelet aggregation in exercising horses differed from the sedentary horses, and this difference disappeared after a 2-week period of rest. The results could be interpreted as indicating that physical exercise has an influence on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation in horses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761507','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761507"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: a statistical modeling study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1 km × 1 km) <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts to Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R2 of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R2 of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376 °C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. PMID:26717080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N"><span>Bias correction of global and regional simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia using quantile mapping method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A trend preserving quantile mapping (QM) method was applied to adjust the biases of the global and regional climate models (GCM and RCMs) simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia regions based on APHRODITE dataset. Output from four different RCMs as well as their driving GCM in CORDEX-EA archive were corrected to examine the added value of RCMs dynamical downscaling in the context of bias adjustment. The result shows that the RCM biases are comparable to that of the GCM biases. In some instances, RCMs amplified the GCM biases. Generally, QM method substantially improves the biases for both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, the bias adjustment method works better for surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and less so for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. The large inter-models variability is reduced remarkably after bias adjustment. Overall, study indicates no strong evident that RCMs downscaling as an immediate step before bias correction provides additional improvement to the sub-regional climate compared to the correction directly carried out on their forcing GCM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16520258','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16520258"><span>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidence of acute heart failure is correlated with low minimal night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: cold immersion pulmonary edema revisited?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Milo-Cotter, Olga; Setter, Ilan; Uriel, Nir; Kaluski, Edo; Vered, Zvi; Golik, Ahuva; Cotter, Gad</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Previous studies suggested a higher incidence of acute heart failure (AHF) during cold months in regions with cold climate. We examined the <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidence of AHF by same-day trough <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a warmer region. All admissions for AHF (340 patients) to a city hospital, providing the sole emergency medical care to a geographical region of approximately 500,000 people were recorded. Patients were followed through admission and for 6 months after discharge. Low minimal trough <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was associated with an increase in the same-day AHF incidence. Lowest tercile trough night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were associated with higher AHF incidence (3.5 +/- 2.1 versus 2.4 +/- 1.6, events/24 hours, P = .012). This association was mainly from increased AHF events in nights with the predetermined trough <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of <7 degrees C (4 +/- 2.1 versus 2.5 +/- 1.7, events/24 hours, P = .0013). This association persisted even after excluding the coldest consecutive 30 days from the analysis. Humidity was not associated with increased AHF event rate. In a post-hoc analysis we have observed doubling of 6-month mortality in patients admitted with AHF during days with lower trough night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, despite no apparent worse baseline characteristics or disease severity at admission. AHF rate is increased during days with lower trough night <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. If confirmed, these results may have implications on issues related to climate control in houses of the elderly or patients susceptible to heart failure.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329121','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=329121"><span>Reconstructing <span class="hlt">daily</span> clear-sky land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for cloudy regions from MODIS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) is a critical parameter in environmental studies and resource management. The MODIS LST data product has been widely used in various studies, such as drought monitoring, evapotranspiration mapping, soil moisture estimation and forest fire detection. However, cloud cont...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, not the circadian clock, regulate growth rate in Brachypodium distachyon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A; Cole, Benjamin J; Whitney, Ian P; MacKinnon, Kirk J-M; Kay, Steve A; Hazen, Samuel P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. Changes in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light changes, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced changes in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no change in growth rate under conditions of constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not change in response to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate changes in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C"><span>Trends and periodicity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, and the nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases faster than the daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality among the elderly: a meta-analysis and systematic review of epidemiological evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ye, Xiaofang; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The impact of climate change on the health of vulnerable groups such as the elderly has been of increasing concern. However, to date there has been no meta-analysis of current literature relating to the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations upon mortality amongst the elderly. We synthesised risk estimates of the overall impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on elderly mortality across different continents. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed to identify papers published up to December 2010. Selection criteria including suitable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicators, endpoints, study-designs and identification of threshold were used. A two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model was performed to summarise the percent increase in mortality with a 1°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase (or decrease) with 95% confidence intervals in hot (or cold) days, with lagged effects also measured. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria and almost 13 million elderly deaths were included in this meta-analysis. In total, there was a 2-5% increase for a 1°C increment during hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals, and a 1-2 % increase in all-cause mortality for a 1°C decrease during cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals. Lags of up to 9 days in exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals were substantially associated with all-cause mortality, but no substantial lagged effects were observed for hot intervals. Thus, both hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> substantially increased mortality among the elderly, but the magnitude of heat-related effects seemed to be larger than that of cold effects within a global context.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41A1063L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC41A1063L"><span>Extreme <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation in a Weather@home Superensemble for the Western United States: Model Performance and Projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, S.; Rupp, D. E.; Mote, P.; Massey, N.; Allen, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Making credible projections of future changes in extreme events has been challenging because it requires not only running climate models at high resolution to faithfully reproduce impact-relevant extreme events, but also ensemble sizes on the order of 10³ and greater to obtain reliable statistics on the intensity and frequency of extreme events. Due to sparsity of high-resolution data, most studies have used fitted analytical probability distributions to produce statistics for extreme events, which in itself has limitations and uncertainties. Here we present results of a superensemble of simulations generated by weather@home, a citizen science computing platform, where Western United States climate was simulated for the recent past (1985-2014) and future (2030-2059) using a coupled regional/global model (HadRM3P/HadAM3P) at 25-km resolution. The very large number of simulations permits the detection of robust spatial patterns of anthropogenically forced change, amidst the "noise" of natural variability, in extremes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. We investigate to what extent extreme events change in frequency and intensity, relative to changes in the means. Also, the physical mechanisms underlying such changes are explored. We also compare projected <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation from weather@home with those from regional/global coupled model parings from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), whereby statistics (e.g. 20-year, 50-year, etc., return values) are estimated from fitted extreme value distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..569R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..569R"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reference Evapotranspiration using <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Based Models and Remotely Sensed Data over Indian River Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>R, Shwetha H.; D, Nagesh Kumar</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is the most significant component of the hydrological budget. Accurate quantification of ETo is vital for proper water management, efficient agricultural activities, irrigation planning and irrigation scheduling. FAO Penman Montieth (FAO-PM) is the widely accepted and used method for the ETo estimation under all climatic conditions, but needs numerous inputs which are difficult to acquire in developing countries. In such conditions, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based models such as Hargreaves-Samani (HS) equation and Penman Montieth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (PMT) can be used, where only maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are required. Spatial interpolation of meteorological parameters to calculate spatial variation of ETo results in inaccurate estimations at lowly densed weather stations. Hence, there is a necessity of simple and easy method to estimate spatial distribution of ETo. In this regard, remotely sensed data provides viable alternative approach to obtain continuous spatio-temporal ETo. In this study, we used <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based ETo models with remotely sensed LST data to estimate spatio-temporal variation of ETo. Day and night LST (MYD11A1) data of the year 2010 for the Cauvery basin on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis were obtained from MODIS sensor of Aqua satellite. Firstly, day and night land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (LST) with HS and PMT methods were applied to estimate ETo. Secondly, maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were estimated from day and night LST respectively using simple linear regression and these air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were used to estimate ETo. Estimated results were validated with the ETo calculated using meteorological data obtained from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) by applying standard FAO-PM. The preliminary results revealed that, HS method with LST overestimated ETo in the study region. Statistical analysis showed PMT method with both LST and air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> performed better than the HS method. These two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based methods are often used for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814427B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814427B"><span>Statistical downscaling of sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (6-hour) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Romania, by means of artificial neural networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cǎrbunaru, Felicia</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The role of statistical downscaling is to model the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and climatic variables on a regional and sub-regional scale, making use of the predictions of future circulation generated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) in order to capture the effects of climate change on smaller areas. The study presents a statistical downscaling model based on a neural network-based approach, by means of multi-layer perceptron networks. Sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data series from 81 meteorological stations over Romania, with full data records are used as predictands. As large-scale predictor, the NCEP/NCAD air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 850 hPa over the domain 20-30E / 40-50N was used, at a spatial resolution of 2.5×2.5 degrees. The period 1961-1990 was used for calibration, while the validation was realized over the 1991-2010 interval. Further, in order to estimate future changes in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 850 hPa corresponding to the IPCC A1B scenario was extracted from the CNCM33 model (Meteo-France) and used as predictor. This work has been realized within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ESSD....9..293B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ESSD....9..293B"><span>The global SMOS Level 3 <span class="hlt">daily</span> soil moisture and brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bitar, Ahmad Al; Mialon, Arnaud; Kerr, Yann H.; Cabot, François; Richaume, Philippe; Jacquette, Elsa; Quesney, Arnaud; Mahmoodi, Ali; Tarot, Stéphane; Parrens, Marie; Al-Yaari, Amen; Pellarin, Thierry; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Nemesio; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to present the multi-orbit (MO) surface soil moisture (SM) and angle-binned brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TB) products for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission based on a new multi-orbit algorithm. The Level 3 algorithm at CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS) makes use of MO retrieval to enhance the robustness and quality of SM retrievals. The motivation of the approach is to make use of the longer temporal autocorrelation length of the vegetation optical depth (VOD) compared to the corresponding SM autocorrelation in order to enhance the retrievals when an acquisition occurs at the border of the swath. The retrieval algorithm is implemented in a unique operational processor delivering multiple parameters (e.g. SM and VOD) using multi-angular dual-polarisation TB from MO. A subsidiary angle-binned TB product is provided. In this study the Level 3 TB V310 product is showcased and compared to SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) TB. The Level 3 SM V300 product is compared to the single-orbit (SO) retrievals from the Level 2 SM processor from ESA with aligned configuration. The advantages and drawbacks of the Level 3 SM product (L3SM) are discussed. The comparison is done on a global scale between the two datasets and on the local scale with respect to in situ data from AMMA-CATCH and USDA ARS Watershed networks. The results obtained from the global analysis show that the MO implementation enhances the number of retrievals: up to 9 % over certain areas. The comparison with the in situ data shows that the increase in the number of retrievals does not come with a decrease in quality, but rather at the expense of an increased time lag in product availability from 6 h to 3.5 days, which can be a limiting factor for applications like flood forecast but reasonable for drought monitoring and climate change studies. The SMOS L3 soil moisture and L3 brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> products are delivered using an open licence and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJBm...50..121O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJBm...50..121O"><span>Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Marie S.; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0 14 years) and the elderly (ages ≥65 years). Predictors included mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [cold (10 11°C) for both cities and heat (35 36°C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each city (15°C in Mexico City, 25°C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15912362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15912362"><span>Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Marie S; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0-14 years) and the elderly (ages >or=65 years). Predictors included mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [cold (10-11 degrees C) for both cities and heat (35-36 degrees C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each city (15 degrees C in Mexico City, 25 degrees C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998"><span>Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on grizzly bear habitat selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pigeon, Karine E; Cardinal, Etienne; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Côté, Steeve D</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>To fulfill their needs, animals are constantly making trade-offs among limiting factors. Although there is growing evidence about the impact of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection in mammals, the role of environmental conditions and thermoregulation on apex predators is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection patterns of grizzly bears in the managed landscape of Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bear habitat selection followed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal pattern that was influenced by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with adult males showing stronger responses than females to warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Cutblocks aged 0-20 years provided an abundance of forage but were on average 6 °C warmer than mature conifer stands and 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks. When ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased, the relative change (odds ratio) in the probability of selection for 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks decreased during the hottest part of the day and increased during cooler periods, especially for males. Concurrently, the probability of selection for 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks increased on warmer days. Following plant phenology, the odds of selecting 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks also increased from early to late summer while the odds of selecting 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks decreased. Our results demonstrate that ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and therefore thermal requirements, play a significant role in habitat selection patterns and behaviour of grizzly bears. In a changing climate, large mammals may increasingly need to adjust spatial and temporal selection patterns in response to thermal constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901"><span>Variation in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): does water limitation drive heterothermy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, a variability in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> beyond the limits of homeothermy, has been advanced as a key adaptation of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) to their arid-zone life. We measured body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using implanted data loggers, for a 1-year period, in five oryx free-living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, during hot months compared to cooler months, not only were maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher (41.1 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.1°C, P = 0.0002) but minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also were lower (36.1 ± 0.3 vs. 36.8 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.04), resulting in a larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm (5.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.0007), while mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose by only 0.4°C. The maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm reached 7.7°C for two of our oryx during the hot-dry period, the largest amplitude ever recorded for a large mammal. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability was influenced not only by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but also water availability, with oryx displaying larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitudes of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm during warm-dry months compared to warm-wet months (3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3°C, P = 0.005), even though ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were the same. Free-living Arabian oryx therefore employ heterothermy greater than that recorded in any other large mammal, but water limitation, rather than high ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, seems to be the primary driver of this heterothermy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A"><span>Trends in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Extreme <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Indices for the Countries of the Western Indian Ocean, 1975-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguilar, Enric; Vincent, Lucie A.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In the framework of the project "Renforcement des Capacités des Pays de la COI dans le Domaine de l'Adaptation au Changement Climatique (ACCLIMATE)" (Comission de l'Ocean Indien, COI), a workshop on homogenization of climate data and climate change indices analysis was held in Mauritius in October 2009, using the successful format prepared by the CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices. Scientists from the five countries in Western Indian Ocean brought <span class="hlt">daily</span> climatological data from their region for a meticulous assessment of the data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices which can be used for analyses of changes in climate extremes. Although the period of analysis is very short, it represents a seminal step for the compilation of longer data set and allows us to examine the evolution of climate extremes in the area during the time period identified as the decades where anthropogenic warming es larger than natural forcings. This study first presents some results of the homogeneity assessment using the software package RHtestV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) which has been developed for the detection of changepoints in climatological datasets. Indices based on homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitations were also prepared for the analysis of trends at more than 50 stations across the region. The results show an increase in the percentage of warm days and warm nights over 1975-2008 while changes in extreme precipitations are not as consistent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904"><span>Polar microwave brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Nimbus-7 SMMR: Time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly maps from 1978 to 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.; Zwally, H. Jay</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gridded maps (October 25, 1978 through August 15, 1987) were generated from all ten channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer orbital data. This unique data set can be utilized in a wide range of applications including heat flux, ocean circulation, ice edge productivity, and climate studies. Two sets of data in polar stereographic format are created for the Arctic region: one with a grid size of about 30 km on a 293 by 293 array similar to that previously utilized for the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer, while the other has a grid size of about 25 km on a 448 by 304 array identical to what is now being used for the DMSP Scanning Multichannel Microwave Imager. Data generated for the Antaractic region are mapped using the 293 by 293 grid only. The general technique for mapping, and a quality assessment of the data set are presented. Monthly and yearly averages are also generated from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and sample geophysical ice images and products derived from the data are given. Contour plots of monthly ice concentrations derived from the data for October 1978 through August 1987 are presented to demonstrate spatial and temporal detail which this data set can offer, and to show potential research applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D"><span>Impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16718468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16718468"><span>Impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO(2) concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862828"><span>A model to approximate lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records and its application in risk assessment for the establishment of fish diseases in the UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thrush, M A; Peeler, E J</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Ambient water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a key factor controlling the distribution and impact of disease in fish populations, and optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges have been characterised for the establishment of a number important aquatic diseases exotic to the UK. This study presents a simple regression method to approximate <span class="hlt">daily</span> average surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in lakes of 0.5-15 ha in size across the UK using 5 km(2) gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> average air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provided by the UK Meteorological Office. A Geographic information system (GIS) is used to present thematic maps of relative risk scores established for each grid cell based on the mean number of days per year that water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> satisfied optimal criteria for the establishment of two economically important pathogens of cyprinid fish (koi herpesvirus (KHV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV)) and the distribution and density of fish populations susceptible to these viruses. High-density susceptible populations broadly overlap the areas where the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are optimal for KHV (central and south-east England); however, few fish populations occur in areas where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are most likely to result in the establishment of spring viremia of carp (SVC) (namely northern England and Scotland). The highest grid-cell risk scores for KHV and SVC were 7 and 6, respectively, out of a maximum score of 14. The proportion of grid cells containing susceptible populations with risk scores of 5 or more was 37% and 5% for KHV and SVC, respectively. This work demonstrates a risk-based approach to inform surveillance for exotic pathogens in aquatic animal health management, allowing efficient use of resources directed towards higher risk animals and geographic areas for early disease detection. The methodology could be used to examine the change in distribution of high-risk areas for both exotic and endemic fish diseases under different climate change scenarios. © 2012 Crown copyright Reproduced with the permission</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19038825','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19038825"><span>Acclimation to heat during incubation: 3. Body weight, cloacal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and blood acid-base balance in broilers exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yalçin, S; Cabuk, M; Bruggeman, V; Babacanoglu, E; Buyse, J; Decuypere, E; Siegel, P B</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of parental age and heat acclimation during incubation on BW, cloacal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and blood acid-base balance in fast-growing broilers exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cyclic high ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 21 to 42 d posthatch. Eggs obtained from 32- (younger), 42- (middle-aged), and 65-wk-old (older) breeders were divided into 2 groups. One group of eggs was incubated at the control incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (IT(CONT)) and the second group was heat acclimated at 38.5 degrees C for 6 h/d from d 10 to 18 of incubation (IT(HA)). Chicks were reared at standard brooding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from d 1 to 21. From d 21 to 42, half of the broilers per incubation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and parental age were kept as controls (AT(CONT)) and the other half were exposed to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cyclic heat treatment (AT(HIGH)) to impose a stress response. The reduction in BW at AT(HIGH) was more pronounced for progeny from older compared with younger parents. However, this reduction in BW was more or less abolished for broilers from eggs incubated at IT(HIGH), implying an increased tolerance to heat stress. Compared with IT(CONT,) IT(HA) reduced BW of broilers from 32- and 42-wk-old parents while having no effect on those from 65-wk-old parents when reared at AT(CONT). Higher blood pH, and lower partial pressure CO(2) and HCO(3)(-) at AT(HIGH) were associated with greater cloacal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> throughout the heat stress from d 21 to 42. Increases in cloacal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by AT(HIGH) were greater for IT(CONT) than for IT(HA) broilers. The AT(HIGH) and IT(HA) broilers had lesser blood partial pressure CO(2) concentrations than AT(CONT) and IT(CONT), respectively. Although at AT(HIGH), blood HCO(3)(-) was lower for broilers from all parental ages, it was more pronounced for those from 65-wk-old parents. It is concluded that these changes in blood acid-base balance reflected adaptive responses to heat stress, and incubating eggs at IT(HA) improved thermotolerance of fast</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L"><span>Comparison of two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum/mean/minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in China during 1960-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Cao, Lijuan; Zhu, Yani; Yan, Zhongwei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tm), and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) series in China have recently been developed. One is CHTM3.0, based on the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) method, and includes 753 stations for the period 1960-2013. The other is CHHTD1.0, based on the Relative Homogenization test (RHtest), and includes 2419 stations over the period 1951-2011. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tmax/Tm/Tmin series at 751 stations, which are in both datasets, are chosen and compared against the raw dataset, with regard to the number of breakpoints, long-term climate trends, and their geographical patterns. The results indicate that some robust break points associated with relocations can be detected, the inhomogeneities are removed by both the MASH and RHtest method, and the data quality is improved in both homogenized datasets. However, the differences between CHTM3.0 and CHHTD1.0 are notable. By and large, in CHHTD1.0, the break points detected are fewer, but the adjustments for inhomogeneities and the resultant changes of linear trend estimates are larger. In contrast, CHTM3.0 provides more reasonable geographical patterns of long-term climate trends over the region. The reasons for the differences between the datasets include: (1) different algorithms for creating reference series for adjusting the candidate series—more neighboring stations used in MASH and hence larger-scale regional signals retained; (2) different algorithms for calculating the adjustments—larger adjustments in RHtest in general, partly due to the individual local reference information used; and (3) different rules for judging inhomogeneity—all detected break points are adjusted in CHTM3.0, based on MASH, while a number of break points detected via RHtest but without supporting metadata are overlooked in CHHTD1.0. The present results suggest that CHTM3.0 is more suitable for analyses of large-scale climate change in China, while CHHTD1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24918585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24918585"><span>Increasing minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ziska, Lewis H</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (lowest 24 h recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4053339','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4053339"><span>Increasing Minimum <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Are Associated with Enhanced Pesticide Use in Cultivated Soybean along a Latitudinal Gradient in the Mid-Western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ziska, Lewis H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (lowest 24 h recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1999–2013) from −28.6°C (Minnesota) to −5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1977–2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5955G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5955G"><span>Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, Yinghui</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The variability of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes has been the focus of attention during the past several decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Using <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (TN), maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TX) and precipitation from 143 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), a suite of extreme climate indices recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices, which has rarely been applied in this region, were computed and analyzed during 1960-2012. The results show widespread significant changes in all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices associated with warming in the YRB during 1960-2012. On the whole, cold-related indices, i.e., cold nights, cold days, frost days, icing days and cold spell duration index significantly decreased by -3.45, -1.03, -3.04, -0.42 and -1.6 days/decade, respectively. In contrast, warm-related indices such as warm nights, warm days, summer days, tropical nights and warm spell duration index significantly increased by 2.95, 1.71, 2.16, 1.05 and 0.73 days/decade. Minimum TN, maximum TN, minimum TX and maximum TX increased significantly by 0.42, 0.18, 0.19 and 0.14 °C/decade. Because of a faster increase in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) exhibited a significant decreasing trend of -0.09 °C/decade for the whole YRB during 1960-2012. Geographically, stations in the eastern Tibet Plateau and northeastern YRB showed stronger trends in almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. Time series analysis indicated that the YRB was dominated by a general cooling trend before the mid-1980s, but a warming trend afterwards. For precipitation, simple <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity index, very wet day precipitation, extremely wet day precipitation, extremely heavy precipitation days, maximum 1-day precipitation, maximum 5-day precipitation and maximum consecutive dry days all increased significantly during 1960-2012. In</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771"><span>Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Acomys russatus: the response to chemical signals released by Acomys cahirinus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fluxman, S; Haim, A</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Two species of spiny mice of the genus Acomys--the golden spiny A. russatus and the common spiny A. cahirinus--are sympatric in the arid and hot parts of the Rift Valley in Israel. The coexistence of these two species is due to exclusion of A. russatus mice by A. cahirinus mice from nocturnal activity. The aim of this research was to study if odor signals released by A. cahirinus mice can play a role in the exclusion of A. russatus mice. A. russatus mice with an implanted transmitter recording body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) were kept alone in a metabolic chamber under constant conditions of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (27 degrees C) and photoperiod (12 h light:12 h dark). After 5 days of recording, chemical signals from an A. cahirinus mouse were added through the air tube going into the metabolic chamber of the A. russatus mice. This treatment caused a shift of approximately 2 h in Tb <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of the naive tested A. russatus mice, whereas no shift was observed in A. russatus mice that had been kept in the same room with the A. cahirinus mouse before measurements. These results strongly support the idea that chemical signals released by A. cahirinus mice can entrain the Tb rhythms of A. russatus mice. Therefore, it may be assumed that the exclusion of A. russatus mice from nocturnal activity by A. cahirinus mice could be achieved through the odor released by the latter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9630J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9630J"><span>Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a cross-scale information transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability has been observed in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613"><span>Strong impacts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the green-up date and summer greenness of the Tibetan Plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Fu, Yongshuo H; Wang, Shiping; Cong, Nan; Janssens, Ivan A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding vegetation responses to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) helps in elucidating the land-atmosphere energy exchange, which affects air mass movement over and around the TP. Although the TP is one of the world's most sensitive regions in terms of climatic warming, little is known about how the vegetation responds. Here, we focus on how spring phenology and summertime greenness respond to the asymmetric warming, that is, stronger warming during nighttime than during daytime. Using both in situ and satellite observations, we found that vegetation green-up date showed a stronger negative partial correlation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin ) than with maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax ) before the growing season ('preseason' henceforth). Summer vegetation greenness was strongly positively correlated with summer Tmin , but negatively with Tmax . A 1-K increase in preseason Tmin advanced green-up date by 4 days (P < 0.05) and in summer enhanced greenness by 3.6% relative to the mean greenness during 2000-2004 (P < 0.01). In contrast, increases in preseason Tmax did not advance green-up date (P > 0.10) and higher summer Tmax even reduced greenness by 2.6% K(-1) (P < 0.05). The stimulating effects of increasing Tmin were likely caused by reduced low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> constraints, and the apparent negative effects of higher Tmax on greenness were probably due to the accompanying decline in water availability. The dominant enhancing effect of nighttime warming indicates that climatic warming will probably have stronger impact on TP ecosystems than on apparently similar Arctic ecosystems where vegetation is controlled mainly by Tmax . Our results are crucial for future improvements of dynamic vegetation models embedded in the Earth System Models which are being used to describe the behavior of the Asian monsoon. The results are significant because the state of the vegetation on the TP plays an important role in steering the monsoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108"><span>Depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is specific for liver and correlates with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kutschke, Maria; Grimpo, Kirsten; Kastl, Anja; Schneider, Sandra; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation to save energy. Increasing evidence suggests depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster but tissue-specificity and relation to torpor depth is unknown. We first confirmed a previous study by Brown and colleagues reporting on the depressed substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor. Next, we show that mitochondrial respiration is not depressed in kidneys, skeletal muscle and heart. In liver mitochondria, we found that state 3 and state 4 respirations correlate with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting inhibition related to torpor depth and to metabolic rate. We conclude that molecular events leading to depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor are specific to liver and linked to a decrease in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Different tissue-specificity of mitochondrial depression may assist to compare and identify the molecular nature of mitochondrial alterations during torpor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161494','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27161494"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation between neighbouring days on <span class="hlt">daily</span> hospital visits for childhood asthma: a time-series analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, K; Ni, H; Yang, Z; Wang, Y; Ding, S; Wen, L; Yang, H; Cheng, J; Su, H</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>To identify the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation between neighbouring days (TVN) and hospital visits for childhood asthma in age- and sex-specific groups. An ecological design was used to explore the effect of TVN on hospital visits for childhood asthma. A Poisson generalised linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to analyse the association between TVN and hospital visits for childhood asthma. All hospital visits for childhood asthma from June 2010 to July 2013 were included (n = 17,022). <span class="hlt">Daily</span> climate data were obtained from Hefei Meteorological Bureau. A significant correlation was found between TVN and hospital visits for childhood asthma in age- and sex-specific groups. For different gender groups, the effect of TVN on childhood asthma was the greatest at 3 and 5 days lag for males and females. For different age groups, the effect of TVN on childhood asthma was the greatest at 1 and 5 days lag for 0-4 years and 5-14 years children, respectively. A 1 °C increase in TVN was associated with a 4.2% (95% confidence interval 0.9-7.6%) increase in hospital visits for childhood asthma. TVN is associated with hospital visits for childhood asthma. Once the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change rapidly, guardians will be urged to pay more attention to their children's health, which may reduce the morbidity of childhood asthma. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.3754O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.3754O"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> estimates of the migrating tide and zonal mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere derived from SABER data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortland, David A.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Satellites provide a global view of the structure in the fields that they measure. In the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, the dominant features in these fields at low zonal wave number are contained in the zonal mean, quasi-stationary planetary waves, and tide components. Due to the nature of the satellite sampling pattern, stationary, diurnal, and semidiurnal components are aliased and spectral methods are typically unable to separate the aliased waves over short time periods. This paper presents a data processing scheme that is able to recover the <span class="hlt">daily</span> structure of these waves and the zonal mean state. The method is validated by using simulated data constructed from a mechanistic model, and then applied to Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. The migrating diurnal tide extracted from SABER <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for 2009 has a seasonal variability with peak amplitude (20 K at 95 km) in February and March and minimum amplitude (less than 5 K at 95 km) in early June and early December. Higher frequency variability includes a change in vertical structure and amplitude during the major stratospheric warming in January. The migrating semidiurnal tide extracted from SABER has variability on a monthly time scale during January through March, minimum amplitude in April, and largest steady amplitudes from May through September. Modeling experiments were performed that show that much of the variability on seasonal time scales in the migrating tides is due to changes in the mean flow structure and the superposition of the tidal responses to water vapor heating in the troposphere and ozone heating in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.1969H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.1969H"><span>Comparing the skill of different reanalyses and their ensembles as predictors for <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a glaciated mountain (Peru)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hofer, Marlis; Marzeion, Ben; Mölg, Thomas</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>It is well known from previous research that significant differences exist amongst reanalysis products from different institutions. Here, we compare the skill of NCEP-R (reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NCEP), ERA-int (the European Centre of Medium-range Weather Forecasts Interim), JCDAS (the Japanese Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System reanalyses), MERRA (the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), CFSR (the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis by the NCEP), and ensembles thereof as predictors for <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a high-altitude glaciated mountain site in Peru. We employ a skill estimation method especially suited for short-term, high-resolution time series. First, the predictors are preprocessed using simple linear regression models calibrated individually for each calendar month. Then, cross-validation under consideration of persistence in the time series is performed. This way, the skill of the reanalyses with focus on intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability is quantified. The most important findings are: (1) ERA-int, CFSR, and MERRA show considerably higher skill than NCEP-R and JCDAS; (2) differences in skill appear especially during dry and intermediate seasons in the Cordillera Blanca; (3) the optimum horizontal scales largely vary between the different reanalyses, and horizontal grid resolutions of the reanalyses are poor indicators of this optimum scale; and (4) using reanalysis ensembles efficiently improves the performance of individual reanalyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T"><span>A Hybrid Framework to Bias Correct and Empirically Downscale <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, P.; Abraham, Z.; Winkler, J. A.; Perdinan, P.; Zhong, S. S.; Liszewska, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Bias correction and statistical downscaling are widely used approaches for postprocessing climate simulations generated by global and/or regional climate models. The skills of these approaches are typically assessed in terms of their ability to reproduce historical climate conditions as well as the plausibility and consistency of the derived statistical indicators needed by end users. Current bias correction and downscaling approaches often do not adequately satisfy the two criteria of accurate prediction and unbiased estimation. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid regression framework was developed to both minimize prediction errors and preserve the distributional characteristics of climate observations. Specifically, the framework couples the loss functions of standard (linear or nonlinear) regression methods with a regularization term that penalizes for discrepancies between the predicted and observed distributions. The proposed framework can also be extended to generate physically-consistent outputs across multiple response variables, and to incorporate both reanalysis-driven and GCM-driven RCM outputs into a unified learning framework. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated using <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Program (NARCCAP) . The accuracy of the framework is comparable to standard regression methods, but, unlike the standard regression methods, the proposed framework is able to preserve many of the distribution properties of the response variables, akin to bias correction approaches such as quantile mapping and bivariate geometric quantile mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W"><span>The influence of topographic setting and weather type on the correlation between elevation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures in mountainous terrain in the Canadian Rocky Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Wendy; Marshall, Shawn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates for hydrological and ecological studies in mountainous regions are often based on lapse rate adjustments using sparse low elevation measurements. These measurements may not be representative of the area where estimates are required. This study examines the effects varying topographic settings under different weather types have on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship. The Foothills Climate Array study recorded hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 2004 and 2010 at ˜230 weather stations over an area of approximately 24 000 km2 in the Canadian Rocky mountains, extending to the Canadian prairies. 132 sites are considered mountain sites, comprising a range of elevation values, surface types and varied terrain morphology. Correlations are calculated between all station pairs for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, grouped by weather type for the 2006 data. Topographic and surface type characteristics - horizontal and vertical separation, height above valley bottom, slope aspect and angle and land surface type - for the 10 highest correlated neighbours for each site are examined as a means of determining which of these measures drives a similar behavior in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results indicate a weak <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation correlation coefficient is -0.31 for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, varying from weaker than -0.2 for weather types where cold air pooling is a common occurrence to stronger than -0.6 for cool wet weather days. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have an average correlation coefficient of -0.78, but the correlation weakens to -0.4 for cold weather events. There is a nonlinear maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship, with weak correlations below 2000 m and stronger correlations at higher elevations. Choosing sites with similar topographic settings does strengthen the correlation coefficient, but the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship remains weak due to large day to day</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889"><span>Synergistic effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations and matching light-dark cycle enhances population growth and synchronizes oviposition behavior in a soil arthropod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liefting, Maartje; Cosijn, Jarno; Ellers, Jacintha</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rather than a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime. The benefit of fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations with light and dark phases e.g. to anticipate the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Such synergistic effects have primarily been studied in the light of activity patterns and gene expression, but have not yet been shown to extend to population dynamics and aspects of individual fitness like oviposition behavior. We therefore explored possible synergistic effects on life history traits of the springtail Orchesella cincta. We first test the primary effect of ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations of different amplitudes on population growth and total population mass. The slowest population growth was observed in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime treatment and the highest population growth in the regime with high amplitude fluctuations. In a second experiment, population growth and oviposition rhythm were measured under four different regimes; a constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime, thermoperiod only, photoperiod only and thermoperiod and photoperiod aligned as under natural conditions. The regime in which thermoperiod was aligned with photoperiod resulted in a higher population growth than could be realized by either factor alone. Also, significantly fewer eggs were laid in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/light regime than in the other three regimes, strongly suggesting that this regime is stressful to O. cincta. Additionally, the fraction of eggs laid at night was highest in the regime with the combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light cycle. In conclusion, our results show that under these experimental</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V"><span>Observed trends in indices of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for the countries of the western Indian Ocean, 1961-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, L. A.; Aguilar, E.; Saindou, M.; Hassane, A. F.; Jumaux, G.; Roy, D.; Booneeady, P.; Virasami, R.; Randriamarolaza, L. Y. A.; Faniriantsoa, F. R.; Amelie, V.; Seeward, H.; Montfraix, B.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A workshop on climate change indices was held at the Mauritius Meteorological Services in October 2009 to produce the first analysis of climate trends for the countries of the western Indian Ocean. Scientists brought their long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for a careful assessment of data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices. This paper reports on the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices for 1961-2008. The results indicate a definitive warming of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Annual means of the daytime and nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased at a similar rate, leading to no discernible change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Significant increasing trends were found in the frequency of warm days and warm nights, while decreasing trends were observed in the frequency of cold days and cold nights. Moreover, it seems that the warm extremes have changed more than the cold extremes in the western Indian Ocean region. Trends in precipitation indices are generally weak and show less spatial coherence. Regionally, a significant decrease was found in the annual total rainfall for the past 48 years. The results also show some increase in consecutive dry days, no change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity and consecutive wet days, and a decrease in extreme precipitation events. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> indices are highly correlated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the region, whereas weak correlations are found with the precipitation indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912249O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912249O"><span>An area-wide snow climatology for Austria since 1961 based on newly available <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> grids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olefs, Marc; Girstmair, Anna; Hiebl, Johann; Koch, Roland; Schoener, Wolfgang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We use the spatially distributed snow cover model SNOWGRID (Olefs et al., 2013) that is run in an operational now- and forecasting mode at the Austrian weather service ZAMG (Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik). A climate version of SNOWGRID is used to derive <span class="hlt">daily</span> grids of snow depth (sd) and snow water equivalent (swe) at a spatial resolution of 1x1 km for Austria since the year 1961 using recently created gridded datasets of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation at same temporal and spatial resolution that take into account the high variability of these variables in complex terrain (Hiebl and Frei, 2016). The model accounts for the shortwave radiation balance and uses a simple 2-layer scheme, considering settling, the heat and liquid water content of the snow cover and the energy added by rain. In a next step so called snow indicators (e.g. snow cover duration, max. 72-H snow amounts) are derived that allow a climatic characterization of the snow cover to finally calculate area-wide changes and long-term trends. Calibration and validation of the model results are realized using homogenized long-term time-series of total snow depth and new snow amounts, recent operational snow depth measurements using laser sensors, winter glacier mass balance measurements, cumulative runoff data and satellite products (MODIS fractional snow cover). Uncertainty of the final results compared to homogenized long-term time-series can be split into the effect coming from uncertain input data and from the model itself (using different model versions and parameterizations). The final product provides a great potential to further investigate past climate change in the Austrian hydroclimate for a broad community of scientists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..542..953K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..542..953K"><span>Long-term patterns of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5070748','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5070748"><span>Core Body and Skin <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Type 1 Narcolepsy in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life; Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Prediction of Sleep Attacks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>van der Heide, Astrid; Werth, Esther; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Reijntjes, Robert H.A.M.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van Someren, Eus J.W.; Baumann, Christian R.; Fronczek, Rolf</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Study Objectives: Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles in normal <span class="hlt">daily</span> life, and whether sleep attacks are heralded by changes in skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Furthermore, the effects of three months of treatment with sodium oxybate (SXB) were investigated. Methods: Twenty-five narcolepsy patients and 15 healthy controls were included. Core body, proximal and distal skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and sleep-wake state were measured simultaneously for 24 hours in ambulatory patients. This procedure was repeated in 16 narcolepsy patients after at least 3 months of stable treatment with SXB. Results: Increases in distal skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and distal-to-proximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient (DPG) strongly predicted daytime sleep attacks (P < 0.001). As compared to controls, patients had a higher proximal and distal skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the morning, and a lower distal skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the night (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, they had a higher core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the first part of the night (P < 0.05), which SXB decreased (F = 4.99, df = 1, P = 0.03) to a level similar to controls. SXB did not affect skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Conclusions: This ambulatory study demonstrates that daytime sleep attacks were preceded by clear changes in distal skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DPG. Furthermore, changes in core body and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in narcolepsy, previously only studied in laboratory settings, were partially confirmed. Treatment with SXB resulted in a normalisation of the core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Future studies should explore whether predictive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes can be used to signal or even prevent sleep attacks. Citation: van der Heide A, Werth E, Donjacour CE, Reijntjes RH, Lammers GJ, Van Someren EJ, Baumann CR, Fronczek R. Core body and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in type 1 narcolepsy in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life; effects of sodium</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T"><span>Error Correction of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Simulations in Europe and the Effects on Climate Change Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Heinrich, G.; Regional; Local Climate Modeling; Analysis Research Group</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>State-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) have shown their capability to reproduce mesoscale and even finer climate variability satisfactorily. However, considerable differences between model results and observational data remain, due to scale discrepancies and model errors. This limits the direct utilization of RCM results in climate change impact studies. Besides continuous climate model improvement, empirical-statistical post-processing approaches (model output statistics) offer an immediate pathway to mitigate these model problems and to provide better input data for climate change impact assessments. Among various statistical approaches, quantile mapping (QM) represents one powerful non-parametric technique to post-process RCM outputs. In this study, results from a transient regional climate simulation (period: 1951 to 2050; general circulation model: HadCM3; emission scenario: A1B; RCM: CLM) with horizontal grid spacing of 25 km is error corrected for entire Europe based on the E-OBS European <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded observational dataset (http://ensembles-eu.org). Firstly, the performance of QM for correcting <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for long-term simulations is evaluated in a decadal cross-validation framework between 1961 and 2000 and the error characteristics are discussed. In the case of precipitation amount a frequency adaptation tool is presented which deals with rare situations where the probability for non-precipitation days is lower in the observations than in the model. Secondly, the issue of generating new extremes in future scenarios is raised. For this purpose, the ERA-40 reanalysis driven hindcast is used to assure best possible temporal correlation between observations and model output. The hindcast is split such that the independent validation period contains observed extremes outside the range of the calibration period. Two extrapolation schemes at the tails of the calibrated correction functions are tested and compared to the simple</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26655018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26655018"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in relation to the risk of childhood bacillary dysentery among different age groups and sexes in a temperate city in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, K; Zhao, K; Shi, L; Wen, L; Yang, H; Cheng, J; Wang, X; Su, H</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In recent years, many studies have found that ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is significantly associated with bacillary dysentery (BD). However, there is limited evidence on the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and childhood BD in temperate areas. To investigate the relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT) and childhood BD in China. Data on <span class="hlt">daily</span> MT and childhood BD between 2006 and 2012 were collected from the Bureau of Meteorology and the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in Hefei, Anhui Province, China. A Poisson generalized linear regression model combined with a distributed lag non-linear model was used to analyse the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on childhood BD across different age and sex subgroups. An increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was significantly associated with childhood BD, and each 1 °C increase corresponded to an increase of 1.58% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-2.71%] in the number of cases of BD. Children aged 0-5 years and girls were particularly sensitive to the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. High <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may increase the risk of childhood BD in Hefei. Children aged 0-5 years and girls appear to be particularly sensitive to the effects of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..542..978K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..542..978K"><span>Long-term patterns of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..215L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..215L"><span>Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part III: reference evapotranspiration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobit, P.; Gómez Tagle, A.; Bautista, F.; Lhomme, J. P.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We evaluated two methods to estimate evapotranspiration (ETo) from minimal weather records (<span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) in Mexico: a modified reduced set FAO-Penman-Monteith method (Allen et al. 1998, Rome, Italy) and the Hargreaves and Samani (Appl Eng Agric 1(2): 96-99, 1985) method. In the reduced set method, the FAO-Penman-Monteith equation was applied with vapor pressure and radiation estimated from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data using two new models (see first and second articles in this series): mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as the average of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corrected for a constant bias and constant wind speed. The Hargreaves-Samani method combines two empirical relationships: one between diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range ΔT and shortwave radiation Rs, and another one between average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the ratio ETo/Rs: both relationships were evaluated and calibrated for Mexico. After performing a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of different approximations on the estimation of Rs and ETo, several model combinations were tested to predict ETo from <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone. The quality of fit of these models was evaluated on 786 weather stations covering most of the territory of Mexico. The best method was found to be a combination of the FAO-Penman-Monteith reduced set equation with the new radiation estimation and vapor pressure model. As an alternative, a recalibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S"><span>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using wavelet regression, ANN, GEP and empirical models: A comparative study of selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharifi, Sayed Saber; Rezaverdinejad, Vahid; Nourani, Vahid</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Although the sunshine-based models generally have a better performance than <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based models for estimating solar radiation, the limited availability of sunshine duration records makes the development of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based methods inevitable. This paper presents a comparative study between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Wavelet Regression (WR) and 5 selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based empirical models for estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation. A new combination of inputs including four readily accessible parameters have been employed: <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean clearness index (KT), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (ΔT), theoretical sunshine duration (N) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra). Ten statistical indicators in a form of GPI (Global Performance Indicator) is used to ascertain the suitability of the models. The performance of selected models across the range of solar radiation values, was depicted by the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. Comparing these plots makes it evident that ANNs can cover a broader range of solar radiation values. The results shown indicate that the performance of ANN model was clearly superior to the other models. The findings also demonstrated that WR model performed well and presented high accuracy in estimations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ranges and maximum ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges (ADT) and the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P < 0.01) for all traits. Narrower ranges of ADT3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, and PDL (P < 0.01), while higher PEAK3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, PDL, and LBA (P < 0.001). To reduce the risk of reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their <span class="hlt">temperature</span> management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590452"><span>Torpor expression in juvenile and adult Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) differs in frequency, duration and onset in response to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diedrich, Victoria; Bank, Jonathan H; Scherbarth, Frank; Steinlechner, Stephan</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In addition to morphological and physiological traits of short-day acclimatisation, Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) from Central Asia exhibit spontaneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor to decrease energy demands during winter. Environmental factors such as food scarcity and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been shown to facilitate the use of this temporal reduction in metabolism and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We investigated the effect of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on short-day acclimation and torpor expression in juvenile and adult Djungarian hamsters. The animals were exposed to a cold dark phase (6°C) and a warmer light phase (18°C) and were compared with control hamsters kept at a constant ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 18°C. Under constant conditions, torpor expression did not differ between adult and juvenile hamsters. Although the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle evoked an increased metabolic rate in adult and juvenile hamsters during the dark phase and strengthened the synchronization between torpor entrance and the beginning of the light phase, it did not induce the expected torpor facilitation. In adult hamsters, torpor expression profiles did not differ from those under constant conditions at all. In contrast, juvenile hamsters showed a delayed onset of torpor season, a decreased torpor frequency, depth and duration, as well as an increased number of early torpor terminations coinciding with the rise in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> after the beginning of the light phase. While the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> challenge appeared to be of minor importance for energy balance and torpor expression in adult hamsters, it profoundly influenced the overall energy saving strategy of juvenile hamsters, promoting torpor-alleviating active foragers over torpor-prone energy-savers. In addition, our data suggest a more efficient acclimation in juvenile hamsters under additional energy challenges, which reduces the need for torpor expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111078S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111078S"><span>Comparison of correction methods of inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data on example of Central European <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanek, P.; Gruber, Ch.; Zahradnicek, P.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for <span class="hlt">daily</span> data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods were investigated more deeply and their results were mutually compared. The methods used were HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM of Olivier Mestre and a new method of Petr Stepanek. For the calculation, the software ProClimDB has been combined with R software scripts containing HOM and SPLIDHOM and the different methodological approaches were applied to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of various meteorological elements measured in the area of the Czech Republic. The tool is open and freely available. Series were processed by means of the developed ProClimDB and AnClim software (www.climahom.eu).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27154303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27154303"><span>Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) Respond to Increased Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> with a Seasonal Shift in the Timing of Their <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Inactivity Patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davimes, Joshua G; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Gravett, Nadine; Bertelsen, Mads F; Mohammed, Osama B; Ismail, Khairy; Bennett, Nigel C; Manger, Paul R</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Arabian oryx inhabits an environment where summer ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can exceed 40 °C for extended periods of time. While the oryx uses a suite of adaptations that aid survival, the effects of this extreme environment on inactivity are unknown. To determine how the oryx manages inactivity seasonally, we measured the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and used fine-grain actigraphy, in 10 animals, to reveal when the animals were inactive in relation to ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod. We demonstrate that during the cooler winter months, the oryx was inactive during the cooler parts of the 24-h day (predawn hours), showing a nighttime (nocturnal) inactivity pattern. In contrast, in the warmer summer months, the oryx displayed a bimodal inactivity pattern, with major inactivity bouts (those greater than 1 h) occurring equally during both the coolest part of the night (predawn hours) and the warmest part of the day (afternoon hours). Of note, the timing of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not vary seasonally, although the amplitude did change, leading to a seasonal alteration in the phase relationship between inactivity and the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm. Because during periods of inactivity the oryx were presumably asleep for much of the time, we speculate that the daytime shift in inactivity may allow the oryx to take advantage of the thermoregulatory physiology of sleep, which likely occurs when the animal is inactive for more than 1 h, to mitigate environmentally induced increases in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=284758','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=284758"><span>Differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The circadian rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17388899"><span>Respiration as a percentage of <span class="hlt">daily</span> photosynthesis in whole plants is homeostatic at moderate, but not high, growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Atkin, O K; Scheurwater, I; Pons, T L</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Here, we investigated the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the carbon economy of two Plantago species from contrasting habitats. The lowland Plantago major and the alpine Plantago euryphylla were grown hydroponically at three constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: 13, 20 and 27 degrees C. Rates of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake (P) and respiratory CO(2) release (R) in shoots and R in roots were measured at the growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using intact plants. At each growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were changed to establish short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on the ratio of R to P (R/P). In both species, R/P was essentially constant in plants grown at 13 and 20 degrees C. However, R/P was substantially greater in 27 degrees C-grown plants, particularly in P. euryphylla. The increase in R/P at 27 degrees C would have been even greater had biomass allocation to roots not decreased with increasing growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Short-term increases in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased R/P in both species, with the effects of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> being most pronounced in 13 degrees C-grown plants. We conclude that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-mediated changes in biomass allocation play an important role in determining whole-plant R/P values, and, while homeostasis of R/P is achieved across moderate growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, homeostasis is not maintained when plants are exposed to growth <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher than usually experienced in the natural habitat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8175T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8175T"><span>Examining the Interaction Between the Sea Breeze and the Timing of the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Summer Season over the Mediterranean Region of Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tozcu, Sesil; Önol, Barış; Batıbeniz, Fulden</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In this study, sea-breeze and its effects on timing and severity of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been analyzed over the Mediterranean basin of Turkey for the period of the 2007-2013 summer season. The calculation of the extreme climate index TX35 (days of Tmax > 35 ° C) by using the station data indicated that TX35 is less than expected over southern coasts of Turkey. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to define days of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in terms of the sea-breeze phenomenon over the coastal region. Sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (hourly) observations for wind speed, direction frequencies and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the selected meteorological stations (totally 21) in Mugla, Antalya, Mersin, Adana and Hatay Provinces have been analyzed. Two of the five stations are located inland for Adana province. The sea breeze is observed in the coastal stations and the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurred before 13:00. However, the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is observed one hour later at 14:00 for inland stations in same province and it exceeds 35 ° C. We also examined the similar characteristics for the coastal and inland stations of Mugla province. In addition, the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from <span class="hlt">daily</span> high-resolution gridded data (E-OBS) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> 10-m surface wind from ERA-Interim dataset have investigated to define correlation between the wind speed-direction and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> analysis present that the days of the highest maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed in each summer months coherent the weak (or no) sea-breeze. The monthly means of summer months also indicate that the wind vectors at 12:00 GMT (3 pm at local) explains clearly the sea-breeze over the coast of Mediterranean basin, since prevailing wind is mainly from the southwest, meanwhile the surface wind over the Mediterranean Sea is mostly from the west. Consequently, the sea-breeze causes that the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> does not exceed 35 ° C after 12:00 for central provinces of the Mediterranean region of Turkey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912480I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912480I"><span>Frequency of extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (HadEX2) over Eurasia documented in a northern Red Sea coral oxygen isotope record during the last century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ionita-Scholz, Monica; Felis, Thomas; Rimbu, Norel; Lohmann, Gerrit</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The potential of a bimonthly-resolved northern Red Sea coral δ18O record as an archive for the occurrence of extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> phenomena over Eurasia during Northern Hemisphere winter is investigated for the 1901-1995 period using extreme indices provided by the HadEX2 dataset (e.g., frost days, ice days, cold nights and cold days). The coral δ18O record reflects a combined signal of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity variations in the surface waters of the northern Red Sea, and has been previously shown to provide a proxy for atmospheric circulation changes over the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes at interannual to decadal time scales. Here we show, by applying composite analysis, that cooler/more arid (warmer/less arid) winter conditions in the northern Red Sea region, indicated by positive (negative) coral δ18O anomalies (January-February), are related to a strong (weak) Northern Hemisphere polar vortex and, as a consequence, to a decreased (increased) number of days characterized by very cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and frost over Scandinavia and Central Europe. This situation is associated with an increased (decreased) number of days characterized by very cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and frost over the Balkan region. The occurrence of these <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes is modulated by the frequency of atmospheric blocking over the British Isles and Central Europe, and a shift in the direction of the North Atlantic storm tracks. Importantly, coral records provide a bimonthly to monthly resolution, compared to other high-resolution proxy records which have either an annual resolution (e.g., ice cores, varved sediments) or an annual resolution with a signal that is biased towards a specific season that in most cases is not winter (e.g., tree rings). We argue that bimonthly-resolved northern Red Sea coral δ18O records provide an archive of interannual to decadal variations in the occurrence of extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events over wintertime Eurasia prior to the start of instrumental</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..214L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..214L"><span>Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part II: radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobit, P.; López Pérez, L.; Lhomme, J. P.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>We propose a new model to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> global radiation from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range measurements. This model combines that of Majumdar et al. (Sol Energy 13(4):383-394, 1972) to estimate clear sky radiation with a Gompertz function to estimate the relation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range and cloud transmittance. Model parameters are estimated from historical weather data: maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and, if available, relative humidity; no other calibration is required. The model was parametrized and validated using 788 weather stations in Mexico. When calibrated using historical humidity data, <span class="hlt">daily</span> global radiation was estimated with a mean root mean square error of 3.06 MJ m-2 day-1. The model performed well in all situations, except for a few stations around the Gulf of Mexico and in mountain areas. When using estimated humidity, the root mean square error of prediction was only slightly degraded (3.07 MJ m-2 day-1). Possible theoretical basis and applicability of this model to other environments are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827148"><span>Direct and indirect toxicity of the fungicide pyraclostrobin to Hyalella azteca and effects on leaf processing under realistic <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willming, Morgan M; Maul, Jonathan D</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Fungicides in aquatic environments can impact non-target bacterial and fungal communities and the invertebrate detritivores responsible for the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter. Additionally, in some aquatic systems <span class="hlt">daily</span> water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations may influence these processes and alter contaminant toxicity, but such <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations are rarely examined in conjunction with contaminants. In this study, the shredding amphipod Hyalella azteca was exposed to the fungicide pyraclostrobin in three experiments. Endpoints included mortality, organism growth, and leaf processing. One experiment was conducted at a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (23 °C), a fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime (18-25 °C) based on field-collected data from the S. Llano River, Texas, or an adjusted fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime (20-26 °C) based on possible climate change predictions. Pyraclostrobin significantly reduced leaf shredding and increased H. azteca mortality at concentrations of 40 μg/L or greater at a constant 23 °C and decreased leaf shredding at concentrations of 15 μg/L or greater in the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. There was a significant interaction between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment and pyraclostrobin concentration on H. azteca mortality, body length, and dry mass under direct aqueous exposure conditions. In an indirect exposure scenario in which only leaf material was exposed to pyraclostrobin, H. azteca did not preferentially feed on or avoid treated leaf disks compared to controls. This study describes the influence of realistic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation on fungicide toxicity to shredding invertebrates, which is important for understanding how future alterations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes due to climate change may influence the assessment of ecological risk of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27568803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27568803"><span>Core Body and Skin <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Type 1 Narcolepsy in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life; Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Prediction of Sleep Attacks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van der Heide, Astrid; Werth, Esther; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Lammers, Gert Jan; Van Someren, Eus J W; Baumann, Christian R; Fronczek, Rolf</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Previous laboratory studies in narcolepsy patients showed altered core body and skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which are hypothesised to be related to a disturbed sleep wake regulation. In this ambulatory study we assessed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles in normal <span class="hlt">daily</span> life, and whether sleep attacks are heralded by changes in skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Furthermore, the effects of three months of treatment with sodium oxybate (SXB) were investigated. Twenty-five narcolepsy patients and 15 healthy controls were included. Core body, proximal and distal skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and sleep-wake state were measured simultaneously for 24 hours in ambulatory patients. This procedure was repeated in 16 narcolepsy patients after at least 3 months of stable treatment with SXB. Increases in distal skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and distal-to-proximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient (DPG) strongly predicted daytime sleep attacks (P < 0.001). As compared to controls, patients had a higher proximal and distal skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the morning, and a lower distal skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the night (all P < 0.05). Furthermore, they had a higher core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the first part of the night (P < 0.05), which SXB decreased (F = 4.99, df = 1, P = 0.03) to a level similar to controls. SXB did not affect skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This ambulatory study demonstrates that daytime sleep attacks were preceded by clear changes in distal skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and DPG. Furthermore, changes in core body and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in narcolepsy, previously only studied in laboratory settings, were partially confirmed. Treatment with SXB resulted in a normalisation of the core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Future studies should explore whether predictive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes can be used to signal or even prevent sleep attacks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816900I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816900I"><span>Interannual Variability and Trends in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extreme Indices in Finland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation Patterns, 1961-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irannezhad, Masoud; Kløve, Bjørn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (minimum and maximum) and precipitation datasets applied at regular grid points (10×10 km2) throughout Finland for 1961-2011 were analyzed with the aim to evaluate variability and trends in weather extremes on both national and spatial scale of the country and their relationships with atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs). Recommending by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), the extreme indices considered for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were frost days (FD), summer days (SD) and ice days (ID); and for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation were heavy precipitation days (R10), consecutive dry days (CDD), consecutive wet days (CWD), highest 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day), simple <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity index (SDII) and precipitation fraction due to 95th percentile of the reference period (R95pTOT). This study used the well-known influential ACPs for Finland climate variability: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), East Atlantic (EA), East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), Polar (POL), Scandinavia (SCA). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine significant historical trends in extreme indices, and the Spearman rank correlation (rho) to identify relationships between extreme indices and ACPs. For <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, statistically significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were found in ID (-0.40±0.34 days/year) and FD (-0.45±0.27 days/year) on a national scale of Finland during 1961-2011. The AO and EA/WR were most significant ACPs affecting variations in ID and FD, with rho = -0.73 and 0.42, respectively. For the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation extreme indices on the nation-wide of country over the study period (1961-2011), significant trends were only determined in SDII (0.01±0.00 mm/wet days year) and R95pTOT (0.19±0.09 %/year). Both of these indices (SDII and R95pTOT) showed the strongest correlations with the EA/WR pattern, with rho between from -0.42 to -0.34. The EA/WR pattern was also the most influential ACP for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164202','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26164202"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM10 exposures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Epidemiological investigations regarding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4739786','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4739786"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM10 exposures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological investigations regarding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. PMID:26164202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030124','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030124"><span>Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in complex terrain: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> variations and long-term change in the central Sierra Nevada, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lundquist, J.D.; Cayan, D.R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A realistic description of how <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> vary with elevation is crucial for ecosystem studies and for models of basin-scale snowmelt and spring streamflow. This paper explores surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from an array of 37 sensors, called the Yosemite network, which traverses both slopes of the Sierra Nevada in the vicinity of Yosemite National Park, California. These data indicate that a simple lapse rate is often a poor description of the spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure. Rather, the spatial pattern of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the Yosemite network varies considerably with synoptic conditions. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) were used to identify the dominant spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns and how they vary in time. Temporal variations of these surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns were correlated with large-scale weather conditions, as described by National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis data. Regression equations were used to downscale larger-scale weather parameters, such as Reanalysis winds and pressure, to the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure over the Yosemite network. These relationships demonstrate that strong westerly winds are associated with relatively warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the east slope and cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the west slope of the Sierra, and weaker westerly winds are associated with the opposite pattern. Reanalysis data from 1948 to 2005 indicate weakening westerlies over this time period, a trend leading to relatively cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the east slope over decadal timescale's. This trend also appears in long-term observations and demonstrates the need to consider topographic effects when examining long-term changes in mountain regions. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7665733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7665733"><span>Seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus) under semi-natural conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wollnik, F; Schmidt, B</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of five European hamsters exposed to semi-natural environmental conditions at 47 degrees N in Southern Germany was recorded over a 1.5-year period using intraperitoneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive radio transmitters. The animals showed pronounced seasonal changes in body weight and reproductive status. Euthermic body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changed significantly throughout the year reaching its maximum of 37.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C in April and its minimum of 36.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C in December. Between November and March the hamsters showed regular bouts of hibernation and a few bouts of shallow torpor. During hibernation body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlated with ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Monthly means of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during hibernation were highest in November (7.9 +/- 0.8 degrees C) and March (8.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C) and lowest in January (4.4 +/- 0.7 degrees C). Using periodogram analysis methods, a clear diurnal rhythm of euthermic body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could be detected between March and August, whereas no such rhythm could be found during fall and winter. During hibernation bouts, no circadian rhythmicity was evident for body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> apart from body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> following ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a time lag of 3-5 h. On average, hibernation bouts lasted 104.2 +/- 23.8 h with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> falling to 6.0 +/- 1.7 degrees C. When entering hibernation the animals cooled at a rate of -0.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C.h-1; when arousing from hibernation they warmed at a rate of 9.9 +/- 2.4 degrees C.h-1. Warming rates were significantly lower in November and December than in January and February, and correlated with ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (r = -0.46, P < 0.01) and hibernating body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (r = -0.47, P < 0.01). Entry into hibernation occurred mostly in the middle of the night (mean time of day 0148 hours +/- 3.4 h), while spontaneous arousals were widely scattered across day and night. For all animals regression analysis revealed free-running circadian rhythms for the timing of arousal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3653820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3653820"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant ranges of DTF compared with effects of constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66 hours of development in 12 different constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects over the distribution of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments at the same average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. At an average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF range and thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42..629F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42..629F"><span>Assessment of RegCM4 simulated inter-annual variability and <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale statistics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation over Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuentes-Franco, Ramón; Coppola, Erika; Giorgi, Filippo; Graef, Federico; Pavia, Edgar G.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The skill of a regional climate model (RegCM4) in capturing the mean patterns, interannual variability and extreme statistics of <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation events over Mexico is assessed through a comparison of observations and a 27-year long simulation driven by reanalyses of observations covering the Central America CORDEX domain. The analysis also includes the simulation of tropical cyclones. It is found that RegCM4 reproduces adequately the mean spatial patterns of seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, along with the associated interannual variability characteristics. The main model bias is an overestimation of precipitation in mountainous regions. The 5 and 95 percentiles of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as well as the maximum dry spell length are realistically simulated. The simulated distribution of precipitation events as well as the 95 percentile of precipitation shows a wet bias in topographically complex regions. Based on a simple detection method, the model produces realistic tropical cyclone distributions even at its relatively coarse resolution (dx = 50 km), although the number of cyclone days is underestimated over the Pacific and somewhat overestimated over the Atlantic and Caribbean basins. Overall, it is assessed that the performance of RegCM4 over Mexico is of sufficient quality to study not only mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns, but also higher order climate statistics.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1375762','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1375762"><span>Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951–2005 using a regional climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Chase, Thomas N.; Goswami, Bhupendra Nath</p> <p>2016-05-10</p> <p><p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1–1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over central India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by a maximum of 1–1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important implications of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20.1765H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20.1765H"><span>Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Chase, Thomas N.; Nath Goswami, Bhupendra</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over central India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by a maximum of 1-1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..12.6575H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..12.6575H"><span>Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halder, S.; Saha, S. K.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Chase, T. N.; Goswami, B. N.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> moderate rainfall events, that constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 till 2005. Mean and extreme near surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the monsoon season have also increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) with prescribed vegetation cover of 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the above observed changes in moderate rainfall events and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been caused by land-use land-cover change (LULCC) which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over central India coincides with the region of decreased (increased) forest (crop) cover. The results also show that land-use land-cover alone causes warming in the extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by maximum of 1-1.2 °C, that is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease (increase) in forest (crop) cover reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, apart from decreasing the moisture convergence. These factors act together not only in reducing the moderate rainfall events over central India but also the amount of rainfall in that category, significantly. This is the most interesting result of this study. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. As a result, there is enhanced warming at the surface and decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India. Results from the additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of land-use land-cover change on increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and decrease in moderate rainfall events. This study not only demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over India, but also shows the necessity for inclusion of projected anthropogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1375762-investigating-impact-land-use-land-cover-change-indian-summer-monsoon-daily-rainfall-temperature-during-using-regional-climate-model','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1375762-investigating-impact-land-use-land-cover-change-indian-summer-monsoon-daily-rainfall-temperature-during-using-regional-climate-model"><span>Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951–2005 using a regional climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; ...</p> <p>2016-05-10</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1–1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over centralmore » India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by a maximum of 1–1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28468072','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28468072"><span>[Impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality a multivariable Meta-analysis from 12 counties of Hubei province, China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y Q; Yu, C H; Bao, J Z</p> <p>2017-04-10</p> <p>Objective: To assess the acute effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cold spells, and heat waves on stroke mortality in 12 counties across Hubei province, China. Methods: Data related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality from stroke and meteorology in 12 counties across Hubei province during 2009-2012, were gathered. Distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was first used, to estimate the county-specific associations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, cold spells, heat waves and stroke mortality. Multivariate Meta-analysis was then applied to pool the community-specific relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stroke mortality (exposure-response relationship) as well as both cold- and- heat-associated risks on mortality at different lag days (lag-response relationship). Results: During 2009-2012, a total population of 6.7 million was included in this study with 42 739 persons died of stroke. An average of 2.7 (from 0.5 to 6.0) stroke deaths occurred <span class="hlt">daily</span> in each county, with annual average mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as 16.6 ℃ (from 14.7 ℃ to 17.4 ℃) during the study period. An inverse J-shaped association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stroke mortality was observed at the provincial level. Pooled mortality effect of cold spells showed a 2-3-day delay and lasted about 10 days, while effect of heat waves appeared acute but attenuated within a few days. The mortality risks on cold-spell days ranged from 0.968 to 1.523 in 12 counties at lag 3-14, with pooled effect as 1.180 (95%CI:1.043-1.336). The pooled mortality risk (ranged from 0.675 to 2.066) on heat-wave days at lag 0-2 was 1.114 (95%CI: 1.012-1.227). Conclusions: An inverse J-shaped association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stroke mortality was observed in Hubei province, China. Both cold spells and heat waves were associated with increased stroke mortality, while different lag patterns were observed in the mortality effects of heat waves and cold spells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements at the nearest weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10°N) to the Arctic (64°N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor, airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our results suggest that, depending on the measure, season, and location, outdoor weather measurements can be reliably used to represent indoor exposures and that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor exposure than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, absolute measures of water vapor should be examined in conjunction with other measures (e.g. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity) in studies of the effect of weather and climate on human health. PMID:26054827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.118...57J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.118...57J"><span>Variability and trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in January and May in case of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range has not changed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A21A..01F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A21A..01F"><span>Assessment of RegCM4 simulated tropical cyclones and <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale statistics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation over Mexico over the CORDEX Mexico and Central America domain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuentes-Franco, R.; Coppola, E.; Giorgi, F.; Graef, F.; Pavia, E. G.; Diro, G. T.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The skill of a regional climate model (RegCM4) in capturing the extreme statistics of <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation events over Mexico is assessed through a comparison of observations and a 27-year long simulation driven by reanalysis of observations covering the Central America CORDEX domain. The model reproduces suitably the intensity of precipitation events and the maximum dry spell length. The modeled 5th and 95th percentiles of minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> show a similar spatial pattern and intensity to the observations. Based on a simple detection method, the model produces realistic tropical cyclone distributions even at its relatively coarse resolution (dx=50 km), although the number of cyclone days is underestimated over the Pacific and somewhat overestimated over the Atlantic and Caribbean. The performance of RegCM4 over Mexico is of sufficient quality to study not only mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns, but also higher order climate statistics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23924206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23924206"><span>Adaptation of the pituitary-adrenal axis to <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated forced swim exposure in rats is dependent on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabasa, Cristina; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Comparison of exposure to certain predominantly emotional stressors reveals a qualitatively similar neuroendocrine response profile as well as a reduction of physiological responses after <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure (adaptation). However, particular physical components of the stressor may interfere with adaptation. As defective adaptation to stress can enhance the probability to develop pathologies, we studied in adult male rats (n = 10/group) swimming behavior (struggling, immobility and mild swim) and physiological responses (ACTH, corticosterone and rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) to <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure to forced swim (20 min, 13 d) at 25 or 36 °C (swim25 or swim36). Rats were repeatedly blood-sampled by tail-nick and hormones measured by radioimmunoassay. Some differences were observed between the two swim <span class="hlt">temperature</span> groups after the first exposure to forced swim: (a) active behaviors were greater in swim25 than swim36 groups; (b) swim25 but not swim36 caused hypothermia; and (c) swim36 elicited the same ACTH response as swim25, but plasma corticosterone concentration was lower for swim36 at 30 min post-swim. After <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure, adaptation in ACTH secretion was observed with swim36 already on day 4, whereas with swim25 adaptation was not observed until day 13 and was of lower magnitude. Nevertheless, after repeated exposure to swim25 a partial protection from hypothermia was observed and the two swim conditions resulted in progressive reduction of active behaviors. Thus, <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated swim at 25 °C impairs adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as compared to swim at 36 °C, supporting the hypothesis that certain physical components of predominantly emotional stressors can interfere with the process of adaptation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28915548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28915548"><span>A spatio-temporal statistical model of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> river <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to inform the management of Scotland's Atlantic salmon rivers under climate change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jackson, Faye L; Fryer, Robert J; Hannah, David M; Millar, Colin P; Malcolm, Iain A</p> <p>2017-09-14</p> <p>The thermal suitability of riverine habitats for cold water adapted species may be reduced under climate change. Riparian tree planting is a practical climate change mitigation measure, but it is often unclear where to focus effort for maximum benefit. Recent developments in data collection, monitoring and statistical methods have facilitated the development of increasingly sophisticated river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> models capable of predicting spatial variability at large scales appropriate to management. In parallel, improvements in temporal river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> models have increased the accuracy of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictions at individual sites. This study developed a novel large scale spatio-temporal model of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Twmax) for Scotland that predicts variability in both river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and climate sensitivity. Twmax was modelled as a linear function of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tamax), with the slope and intercept allowed to vary as a smooth function of day of the year (DoY) and further modified by landscape covariates including elevation, channel orientation and riparian woodland. Spatial correlation in Twmax was modelled at two scales; (1) river network (2) regional. Temporal correlation was addressed through an autoregressive (AR1) error structure for observations within sites. Additional site level variability was modelled with random effects. The resulting model was used to map (1) spatial variability in predicted Twmax under current (but extreme) climate conditions (2) the sensitivity of rivers to climate variability and (3) the effects of riparian tree planting. These visualisations provide innovative tools for informing fisheries and land-use management under current and future climate. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28649592','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28649592"><span>Fluoride concentration level in rural area in Poldasht city and <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluoride intake based on drinking water consumption with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mahvi, Amir Hossein</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Long-term exposure to high level of fluoride can caused several adverse effects on human health including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We investigated all the drinking water source located in rural areas of Poldasht city, west Azerbaijan Province, North West Iran between 2014 and 2015. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in the villages of Poldasht the average of fluoride concentration in drinking water sources (well, and the river) was in the range mg/l 0.28-10.23. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> received per 2 l of drinking water is in the range mg/l 0.7-16.6 per day per person. Drinking water demands cause fluorosis in the villages around the area residents and based on the findings of this study writers are announced suggestions below in order to take care of the health of area residents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860054410&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dplot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860054410&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dplot"><span>Analysis of a resistance-energy balance method for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat plots using one-time-of-day infrared <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of evaporation over field-scale or larger areas are needed in hydrologic studies, irrigation scheduling, and meteorology. Remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> might be used in a model to calculate evaporation. A resistance-energy balance model, which combines an energy balance equation, the Penman-Monteith (1981) evaporation equation, and van den Honert's (1948) equation for water extraction by plant roots, is analyzed for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat using postnoon canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. Additional data requirements are half-hourly averages of solar radiation, air and dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and wind speed, along with reasonable estimates of canopy emissivity, albedo, height, and leaf area index. Evaporation fluxes were measured in the field by precision weighing lysimeters for well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Errors in computed <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation were generally less than 10 percent, while errors in cumulative evaporation for 10 clear sky days were less than 5 percent for both well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Some results from sensitivity analysis of the model are also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5576856','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5576856"><span>Living on the edge: <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, seasonal and annual body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns of Arabian oryx in Saudi Arabia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lutermann, H.; Bennett, N. C.; Bertelsen, M. F.; Mohammed, O. B.; Manger, P. R.; Scantlebury, M.; Ismael, K.; Alagaili, A. N.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, the ability to allow body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) to fluctuate, has been proposed as an adaptive mechanism that enables large ungulates to cope with the high environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and lack of free water experienced in arid environments. By storing heat during the daytime and dissipating it during the night, arid-adapted ungulates may reduce evaporative water loss and conserve water. Adaptive heterothermy in large ungulates should be particularly pronounced in hot environments with severely limited access to free water. In the current study we investigated the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ambient, Ta and soil, Ts) and water stress on the Tb of wild, free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in two different sites in Saudi Arabia, Mahazat as-Sayd (MS) and Uruq Bani Ma’arid (UBM). Using implanted data loggers wet took continuous Tb readings every 10 minutes for an entire calendar year and determined the Tb amplitude as well as the heterothermy index (HI). Both differed significantly between sites but contrary to our expectations they were greater in MS despite its lower environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and higher rainfall. This may be partially attributable to a higher activity in an unfamiliar environment for translocated animals in UBM. As expected Tb amplitude and HI were greatest during summer. Only minor sex differences were apparent that may be attributable to sex-specific investment into reproduction (e.g. male-male competition) during rut. Our results suggest that the degree of heterothermy is not only driven by extrinsic factors (e.g. environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and water availability), but may also be affected by intrinsic factors (e.g. sex and/or behaviour). PMID:28854247</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28854247','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28854247"><span>Living on the edge: <span class="hlt">Daily</span>, seasonal and annual body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns of Arabian oryx in Saudi Arabia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Streicher, S; Lutermann, H; Bennett, N C; Bertelsen, M F; Mohammed, O B; Manger, P R; Scantlebury, M; Ismael, K; Alagaili, A N</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, the ability to allow body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) to fluctuate, has been proposed as an adaptive mechanism that enables large ungulates to cope with the high environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and lack of free water experienced in arid environments. By storing heat during the daytime and dissipating it during the night, arid-adapted ungulates may reduce evaporative water loss and conserve water. Adaptive heterothermy in large ungulates should be particularly pronounced in hot environments with severely limited access to free water. In the current study we investigated the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ambient, Ta and soil, Ts) and water stress on the Tb of wild, free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in two different sites in Saudi Arabia, Mahazat as-Sayd (MS) and Uruq Bani Ma'arid (UBM). Using implanted data loggers wet took continuous Tb readings every 10 minutes for an entire calendar year and determined the Tb amplitude as well as the heterothermy index (HI). Both differed significantly between sites but contrary to our expectations they were greater in MS despite its lower environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and higher rainfall. This may be partially attributable to a higher activity in an unfamiliar environment for translocated animals in UBM. As expected Tb amplitude and HI were greatest during summer. Only minor sex differences were apparent that may be attributable to sex-specific investment into reproduction (e.g. male-male competition) during rut. Our results suggest that the degree of heterothermy is not only driven by extrinsic factors (e.g. environmental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and water availability), but may also be affected by intrinsic factors (e.g. sex and/or behaviour).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26391383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26391383"><span>Seasonal microbial and nutrient responses during a 5-year reduction in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of soil in a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Gestel, Natasja C; Dhungana, Nirmala; Tissue, David T; Zak, John C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of soil (DTRsoil) negatively affects soil microbial biomass and activity, but its interaction with seasonal soil moisture in regulating ecosystem function remains unclear. For our 5-year field study in the Chihuahuan Desert, we suspended shade cloth 15 cm above the soil surface to reduce daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increase nighttime soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compared to unshaded plots, thereby reducing DTRsoil (by 5 ºC at 0.2 cm depth) without altering mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Microbial biomass production was primarily regulated by seasonal precipitation with the magnitude of the response dependent on DTRsoil. Reduced DTRsoil more consistently increased microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN; +38%) than microbial biomass carbon (MBC) with treatment responses being similar in spring and summer. Soil respiration depended primarily on soil moisture with responses to reduced DTRsoil evident only in wetter summer soils (+53%) and not in dry spring soils. Reduced DTRsoil had no effect on concentrations of dissolved organic C, soil organic matter (SOM), nor soil inorganic N (extractable NO3 (-)-N + NH4 (+)-N). Higher MBN without changes in soil inorganic N suggests faster N cycling rates or alternate sources of N. If N cycling rates increased without a change to external N inputs (atmospheric N deposition or N fixation), then productivity in this desert system, which is N-poor and low in SOM, could be negatively impacted with continued decreases in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Thus, the future N balance in arid ecosystems, under conditions of lower DTR, seems linked to future precipitation regimes through N deposition and regulation of soil heat load dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28089413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28089413"><span>Relation of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Air Pollutant Levels in a Japanese Nationwide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamaji, Kyohei; Kohsaka, Shun; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujii, Kenshi; Amano, Tetsuya; Uemura, Shiro; Akasaka, Takashi; Kadota, Kazushige; Nakamura, Masato; Kimura, Takeshi</p> <p>2017-03-15</p> <p>Effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuation of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and concentrations of air pollutants on acute cardiovascular events have not been well studied. From January 2011 to December 2012, a total of 56,863 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were registered from 929 institutes with median interinstitutional distance of 2.6 km. We constructed generalized linear mixed models in which the presence or absence of patients with STEMI per day per institute was included as a binomial response variable, with <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorologic and environmental data obtained from their respective observatories nearest to the institutes (median distance of 9.7 and 5.6 km) as the explanatory variables. Both lower mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increase in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the previous day were independently associated with the STEMI occurrence throughout the year (odds ratio [OR] 0.925, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.915 to 0.935, per 10°C, p <0.001; and OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.009 to 1.015, per °C, p <0.001, respectively). Decrement in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from -4 days to -3 days before the event date was marginally associated with the STEMI occurrence, only during the wintertime (OR 0.991, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.999, per °C, p = 0.03). As for the air pollutants, nitrogen oxides and suspended particle matter were not correlated with the occurrence of STEMI after adjusting for the meteorologic and livelihood variables. Both the absolute value and relative change in the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were associated with the occurrence of STEMI; the associations with the air pollutant levels were less clear after adjustment for these meteorologic variables in Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4312199S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4312199S"><span>Storm impact on sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> cloud-free satellite data reconstructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shropshire, Taylor; Li, Yizhen; He, Ruoying</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Upper ocean responses to tropical storms/hurricanes have been extensively studied using satellite observations. However, resolving concurrent sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and chlorophyll a (chl a) responses along storm tracks remains a major challenge due to extensive cloud coverage in satellite images. Here we produce <span class="hlt">daily</span> cloud-free SST and chl a reconstructions based on the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function method over a 10 year period (2003-2012) for the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea regions. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> reconstructions allow us to characterize and contrast previously obscured subweekly SST and chl a responses to storms in the two main storm-impacted regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Statistical analyses of <span class="hlt">daily</span> SST and chl a responses revealed regional differences in the response time as well as the response sensitivity to maximum sustained wind speed and translation speed. This study demonstrates that SST and chl a responses clearly depend on regional ocean conditions and are not as universal as might have been previously suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28633442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28633442"><span>Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Female NOD Mice Reveals <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms and a Negative Correlation With Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Korstanje, Ron; Ryan, Jennifer L; Savage, Holly S; Lyons, Bonnie L; Kane, Kevin G; Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Previous studies with continuous glucose monitoring in mice have been limited to several days or weeks, with the mouse's physical attachment to the equipment affecting behavior and measurements. In the current study, we measured blood glucose and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 10-second intervals for 12 weeks in a cohort of NOD/ShiLtJ female mice using wireless telemetry. This allowed us to obtain a high-resolution profile of the circadian rhythm of these two parameters and the onset of hyperglycemic development in real time. The most striking observations were the elevated nocturnal concentrations of glucose into the diabetic range days before elevations in diurnal glucose (when glucose concentrations are historically measured) and the strong, negative correlation between elevated blood glucose concentrations and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a steady decline of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with diabetes development. Taken together, this technological advancement provides improved resolution in the study of the disease trajectory of diabetes in mouse models, including relevant translatability to the current technologies of continuous glucose monitoring now regularly used in patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/sse/sse-data-parameters-meteorology-temperature','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/sse/sse-data-parameters-meteorology-temperature"><span>Meteorology (<span class="hlt">Temperature</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-09-25</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (° C)   <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range (° C) Difference between the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum ... The monthly accumulation of degrees when the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is above 18° C.   Heating Degree Days below 18° C ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0859R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.C13D0859R"><span>Glacier Melt Detection in Complex Terrain Using New AMSR-E Calibrated Enhanced <span class="hlt">Daily</span> EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (CETB) Earth System Data Record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramage, J. M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Hardman, M.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Passive microwave (PM) 18 GHz and 36 GHz horizontally- and vertically-polarized brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tb) channels from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) have been important sources of information about snow melt status in glacial environments, particularly at high latitudes. PM data are sensitive to the changes in near-surface liquid water that accompany melt onset, melt intensification, and refreezing. Overpasses are frequent enough that in most areas multiple (2-8) observations per day are possible, yielding the potential for determining the dynamic state of the snow pack during transition seasons. AMSR-E Tb data have been used effectively to determine melt onset and melt intensification using <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tb and diurnal amplitude variation (DAV) thresholds. Due to mixed pixels in historically coarse spatial resolution Tb data, melt analysis has been impractical in ice-marginal zones where pixels may be only fractionally snow/ice covered, and in areas where the glacier is near large bodies of water: even small regions of open water in a pixel severely impact the microwave signal. We use the new enhanced-resolution Calibrated Passive Microwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (CETB) Earth System Data Record product's twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> obserations to test and update existing snow melt algorithms by determining appropriate melt thresholds for both Tb and DAV for the CETB 18 and 36 GHz channels. We use the enhanced resolution data to evaluate melt characteristics along glacier margins and melt transition zones during the melt seasons in locations spanning a wide range of melt scenarios, including the Patagonian Andes, the Alaskan Coast Range, and the Russian High Arctic icecaps. We quantify how improvement of spatial resolution from the original 12.5 - 25 km-scale pixels to the enhanced resolution of 3.125 - 6.25 km improves the ability to evaluate melt timing across boundaries and transition zones in diverse glacial environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9252245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9252245"><span>The impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of melatonin and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of golden spiny mice Acomys russatus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haim, A; Zisapel, N</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Beta-adrenergic stimulation induces melatonin synthesis and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in rodents. The golden spiny mouse, Acomys russatus is a nocturnal species capable of diurnal activity when coexisting with its congenitor the common spiny mouse A. cahirinus. We have investigated the impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SMT--a metabolite and index of melatonin production) and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in male A. russatus. Mice were acclimated to an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) of 28 degrees C, under two photoperiod regimes (16L:8D; 8L:16D). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Tb and urinary 6-SMT were measured for a period of 30 h at intervals of 4 h. Propranolol (4.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered one hour before lights went off (i.e. when beta blockade does not affect NST in this species) and both variables were measured for another 30 h. The beta blocker markedly augmented melatonin output of A. russatus under both photoperiod regimes. The elevation in melatonin secretion was accompanied with an increase in Tb of only 16L:8D-acclimated mice (i.e. shorten duration of melatonin peak). However, in 8L:16D-acclimated mice, a phase advance of about 4 h was noted in 6-SMT <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm. These results indicate that the role of sympathetic innervation in regulation of melatonin synthesis in A. russatus differs from that in the rat. In addition, these data are compatible with the hyperthermic action of melatonin in this species. Therefore, it is suggested that in A. russatus, other neural pathways are involved in its pineal regulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature"><span>The use of LinkWinds for the validation and analysis of 14 years of Microwave Sounder Unit <span class="hlt">daily</span> global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Botts, Michael E.; Spencer, Roy W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data derived from the Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) provides an opportunity for investigating atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a global scale since 1979. Fourteen years of global data sets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies within the lower stratosphere and lower troposphere are being generated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. LinkWinds, a visualization/analysis package under development at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been extremely useful for validating and analyzing these data sets. LinkWinds provides the ability to interactively scroll and animate through the 10,220 images of temporal data, to selectively slice and view the data along latitude, longitude, or temporal axes, to interactively analyze spatial and temporal variability within the data, and to perform correlative analysis between various elements of the data. These capabilities have been invaluable in allowing the recognition of processing artifacts, as well as the effects that physical phenomena, such as the El Ninos effects and the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, have had on atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977524','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977524"><span>Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr−1 (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr−1 (***P < 0.001) during summer. PMID:27502177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=microwave+package&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmicrowave%2Bpackage','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=microwave+package&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmicrowave%2Bpackage"><span>The use of LinkWinds for the validation and analysis of 14 years of Microwave Sounder Unit <span class="hlt">daily</span> global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Botts, Michael E.; Spencer, Roy W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data derived from the Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) provides an opportunity for investigating atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a global scale since 1979. Fourteen years of global data sets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies within the lower stratosphere and lower troposphere are being generated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. LinkWinds, a visualization/analysis package under development at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been extremely useful for validating and analyzing these data sets. LinkWinds provides the ability to interactively scroll and animate through the 10,220 images of temporal data, to selectively slice and view the data along latitude, longitude, or temporal axes, to interactively analyze spatial and temporal variability within the data, and to perform correlative analysis between various elements of the data. These capabilities have been invaluable in allowing the recognition of processing artifacts, as well as the effects that physical phenomena, such as the El Ninos effects and the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, have had on atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631251P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631251P"><span>Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr‑1 (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr‑1 (***P < 0.001) during summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27502177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27502177"><span>Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980's, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr(-1) (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr(-1) (***P < 0.001) during summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047860','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047860"><span>Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Annual <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This data set represents the average monthly minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047446','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047446"><span>Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: Average Annual <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This data set represents the average monthly maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4374360','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4374360"><span>Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4°C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4°C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts’ heath and NASA’s mission. PMID:25821722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821722"><span>Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LSSR....5....1D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LSSR....5....1D"><span>Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F"><span>North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a global warming context: possible consequences for Western North American <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Favre, Alice; Gershunov, Alexander</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and maxima of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques coupled global climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were tracked and <span class="hlt">daily</span> frequencies were gridded. Transient activity in the CNRM-CM3 historical simulation (1950-1999) was validated against reanalysis. The GCM correctly reproduces winter trajectories as well as mean geographical distributions of cyclones and anticyclones over the North Pacific in spite of a general under-estimation of cyclones’ frequency. On inter-annual time scales, frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones vary in accordance with the Aleutian Low (AL) strength. When the AL is stronger (weaker), cyclones are more (less) numerous over the central and eastern North Pacific, while anticyclones are significantly less (more) numerous over this region. The action of transient cyclones and anticyclones over the central and eastern North Pacific determines seasonal climate over the West Coast of North America, and specifically, winter weather over California. Relationships between winter cyclone/anticyclone behavior and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation/cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over Western North America (the West) were examined and yielded two simple indices summarizing North Pacific transient activity relevant to regional climates. These indices are strongly related to the observed inter-annual variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over the West as well as to large scale seasonally averaged near surface climate conditions (e.g., air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 2 m and wind at 10 m). In fact, they represent the synoptic links that accomplish the teleconnections. Comparison of patterns derived from NCEP-NCAR and CNRM-CM3 revealed that the model reproduces links between cyclone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23A0188B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23A0188B"><span>Estimation and Modelling of Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Using Landsat 7 ETM+ Images and Fuzzy System Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bisht, K.; Dodamani, S. S.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Modelling of Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is essential for short term and long term management of environmental studies and management activities of the Earth's resources. The objective of this research is to estimate and model Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (LST). For this purpose, Landsat 7 ETM+ images period from 2007 to 2012 were used for retrieving LST and processed through MATLAB software using Mamdani fuzzy inference systems (MFIS), which includes <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and post-monsoon LST in the fuzzy model. The Mangalore City of Karnataka state, India has been taken for this research work. Fuzzy model inputs are considered as the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and post-monsoon retrieved <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and LST was chosen as output. In order to develop a fuzzy model for LST, seven fuzzy subsets, nineteen rules and one output are considered for the estimation of weekly mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These are very low (VL), low (L), medium low (ML), medium (M), medium high (MH), high (H) and very high (VH). The TVX (Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Vegetation Index) and the empirical method have provided estimated LST. The study showed that the Fuzzy model M4/7-19-1 (model 4, 7 fuzzy sets, 19 rules and 1 output) which developed over Mangalore City has provided more accurate outcomes than other models (M1, M2, M3, M5). The result of this research was evaluated according to statistical rules. The best correlation coefficient (R) and root mean squared error (RMSE) between estimated and measured values for <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and post-monsoon LST found to be 0.966 - 1.607 K and 0.963- 1.623 respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23775128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23775128"><span>Does diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) on suicide mortality. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant (P<0.01) correlation between the springtime DTR maxima and suicide rates for males. No similar association could be found for females. These results provide evidence that a higher springtime DTR could be linked statistically to a higher seasonal suicide rate each spring, whereas the exact timing of the DTR peak did not associate with the seasonal suicide rate. A possible mechanism behind the springtime association between the DTR and suicides originates from brown adipose tissue (BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752811"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythms persist under the midnight sun but are absent during hibernation in free-living arctic ground squirrels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Cory T; Barnes, Brian M; Buck, C Loren</p> <p>2012-02-23</p> <p>In indigenous arctic reindeer and ptarmigan, circadian rhythms are not expressed during the constant light of summer or constant dark of winter, and it has been hypothesized that a seasonal absence of circadian rhythms is common to all vertebrate residents of polar regions. Here, we show that, while free-living arctic ground squirrels do not express circadian rhythms during the heterothermic and pre-emergent euthermic intervals of hibernation, they display entrained <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) throughout their active season, which includes six weeks of constant sun. In winter, ground squirrels are arrhythmic and regulate core body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to within ±0.2°C for up to 18 days during steady-state torpor. In spring, after the use of torpor ends, male but not female ground squirrels, resume euthermic levels of T(b) in their dark burrows but remain arrhythmic for up to 27 days. However, once activity on the surface begins, both sexes exhibit robust 24 h cycles of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We suggest that persistence of nycthemeral rhythms through the polar summer enables ground squirrels to minimize thermoregulatory costs. However, the environmental cues (zeitgebers) used to entrain rhythms during the constant light of the arctic summer in these semi-fossorial rodents are unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1039H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1039H"><span>Does diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) on suicide mortality. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant ( P < 0.01) correlation between the springtime DTR maxima and suicide rates for males. No similar association could be found for females. These results provide evidence that a higher springtime DTR could be linked statistically to a higher seasonal suicide rate each spring, whereas the exact timing of the DTR peak did not associate with the seasonal suicide rate. A possible mechanism behind the springtime association between the DTR and suicides originates from brown adipose tissue (BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25944779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25944779"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> exposure to summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> affects the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells but not male fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Ramon, J; Rafel, O; Tusell, L; Piles, M; López-Béjar, M</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of long exposure to summer circadian heat stress cycles on sperm parameters and the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells from rabbit bucks. Twelve White New Zealand rabbit bucks were exposed to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the thermoneutral zone (from 18 °C to 22 °C; control group) or exposed to a summer circadian heat stress cycles (30 °C, 3 h/day; heat stress group). Spermatozoa were flushed from the epididymis and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Sperm total motility and progressivity were negatively affected by high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (P < 0.05), as were also specific motility parameters (curvilinear velocity, linear velocity, mean velocity, straightness coefficient, linearity coefficient, wobble coefficient, and frequency of head displacement; P < 0.05, but not the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement). Heat stress significantly increased the percentage of less-motile sperm subpopulations, although the percentage of the high-motile subpopulation was maintained, which is consistent with the fact that no effect was detected on fertility rates. However, prolificacy was reduced in females submitted to heat stress when inseminated by control bucks. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are linked to changes in the proportion of motile sperm subpopulations of the epididymis, although fertility is still preserved despite the detrimental effects of heat stress. On the other hand, prolificacy seems to be affected by the negative effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, especially by altering female reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0174G"><span>Enhancing Extreme Heat Health-Related Intervention and Preparedness Activities Using Remote Sensing Analysis of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Surface Observation Networks and Ecmwf Reanalysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, R. L.; Booth, J.; Hondula, D.; Ross, K. W.; Stuyvesant, A.; Alm, G.; Baghel, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Extreme heat causes more human fatalities in the United States than any other natural disaster, elevating the concern of heat-related mortality. Maricopa County Arizona is known for its high heat index and its sprawling metropolitan complex which makes this region a perfect candidate for human health research. Individuals at higher risk are unequally spatially distributed, leaving the poor, homeless, non-native English speakers, elderly, and the socially isolated vulnerable to heat events. The Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University and NASA DEVELOP LaRC are working to establish a more effective method of placing hydration and cooling centers in addition to enhancing the heat warning system to aid those with the highest exposure. Using NASA's Earth Observation Systems from Aqua and Terra satellites, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> spatial variability within the UHI was quantified over the summer heat seasons from 2005 - 2014, effectively establishing a remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climatology for the county. A series of One-way Analysis of Variance revealed significant differences between <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages of the top 30% of census tracts within the study period. Furthermore, synoptic upper tropospheric circulation patterns were classified to relate surface weather types and heat index. The surface weather observation networks were also reviewed for analyzing the veracity of the other methods. The results provide detailed information regarding nuances within the UHI effect and will allow pertinent recommendations regarding the health department's adaptive capacity. They also hold essential components for future policy decision-making regarding appropriate locations for cooling centers and efficient warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815588J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815588J"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation by kriging with external drift in an Alpine Catchment. Sensitivity analysis to the temporal scale adopted to define the variogram models. (southeast Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Jimenez-Sanchez, Jorge</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The knowledge of the climatic historical variables in a River Basin is essential for an appropriate management of the water resources in the system. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and precipitation are the most important variables from the point of view of the assessment of water availability and its spatially and temporal distribution. The aim of this work is to estimate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using kriging with external drift (KED). A grid with a spatial resolution of 1 km and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution has been adopted to estimate values for the period 1980 to 2014 in the "Alto Genil" basin (southeast Spain). The altitude in the catchment changes from 530 to 3100 m a.s.l. The climatic variables depend of the altitude and this variable has been used as external drift. Data from 119 precipitation station and 72 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> station of the AEMET have been employed. The relationship between the altitude and the variables has been analyzed using the regression function of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for annual and monthly scale. Normally the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation increase linearly with the altitude. The relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and altitude is clearly linear. In the case of the precipitation there is a value of altitude (approximately 1500 m) from which the precipitation decreases with the altitude (inverse rainfall gradient) for every months with the exception of July that has a linear relationship. This inverse rainfall gradient has been observed in other cases as Andes Mountains, some African high mountains, tropical or subtropical high mountains. Therefore, in the case of the precipitation we have a quadratic external drift and for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we have a linear external drift. The monthly and annual climatic variograms were calibrated in order to study if the climatic variables have a seasonal conduct. The KED allows to obtain an estimation with both models (annual and monthly) for the two variables and we can quantify the sensibility of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637046"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and locomotor activity indicate different adaptive strategies to cold exposure in adult and aged mouse lemurs acclimated to a summer-like photoperiod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Terrien, Jeremy; Zizzari, Philippe; Epelbaum, Jacques; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> variations in core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tc) within the normothermic range imply thermoregulatory processes that are essential for optimal function and survival. Higher susceptibility towards cold exposure in older animals suggests that these processes are disturbed with age. In the mouse lemur, a long-day breeder, we tested whether aging affected circadian rhythmicity of Tc, locomotor activity (LA), and energy balance under long-day conditions when exposed to cold. Adult (N = 7) and aged (N = 5) mouse lemurs acclimated to LD14/10 were exposed to 10-day periods at 25 and 12 degrees C. Tc and LA rhythms were recorded by telemetry, and caloric intake (CI), body mass changes, and plasma IGF-1 were measured. During exposure to 25 degrees C, both adult and aged mouse lemurs exhibited strong <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations in Tc. Aged animals exhibited lower levels of nocturnal LA and nocturnal and diurnal Tc levels in comparison to adults. Body mass and IGF-1 levels remained unchanged with aging. Under cold exposure, torpor bout occurrence was never observed whatever the age category. Adult and aged mouse lemurs maintained their Tc in the normothermic range and a positive energy balance. All animals exhibited increase in CI and decrease in IGF-1 in response to cold. The decrease in IGF-1 was delayed in aged mouse lemurs compared to adults. Moreover, both adult and aged animals responded to cold exposure by increasing their diurnal LA compared to those under Ta = 25 degrees C. However, aged animals exhibited a strong decrease in nocturnal LA and Tc, whereas cold effects were only slight in adults. The temporal organization and amplitude of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> phase of low Tc were particularly well preserved under cold exposure in both age groups. Sexually active mouse lemurs exposed to cold thus seemed to prevent torpor exhibition and temporal disorganization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Tc, even during aging. However, although energy balance was not impaired with age in mouse lemurs after cold exposure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.120...87T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.120...87T"><span>Effects of climate change on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cloudiness in the Shikoku region: a statistical downscaling model approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tatsumi, Kenichi; Oizumi, Tsutao; Yamashiki, Yosuke</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we present a detailed analysis of the effect of changes in cloudiness (CLD) between a future period (2071-2099) and the base period (1961-1990) on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN) and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX) in the same period for the Shikoku region, Japan. This analysis was performed using climate data obtained with the use of the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). We calibrated the SDSM using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis dataset for the SDSM input and <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and CLD from 10 surface data points (SDP) in Shikoku. Subsequently, we validated the SDSM outputs, specifically, TMIN, TMAX, and CLD, obtained with the use of the NCEP reanalysis dataset and general circulation model (GCM) data against the SDP. The GCM data used in the validation procedure were those from the Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios and from the third generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) for the SRES A2 and A1B scenarios. Finally, the validated SDSM was run to study the effect of future changes in CLD on TMIN and TMAX. Our analysis showed that (1) the negative linear fit between changes in TMAX and those in CLD was statistically significant in winter while the relationship between the two changes was not evident in summer, (2) the dependency of future changes in TMAX and TMIN on future changes in CLD were more evident in winter than in other seasons with the present SDSM, (3) the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) decreased in the southern part of Shikoku in summer in all the SDSM projections while DTR increased in the northern part of Shikoku in the same season in these projections, (4) the dependencies of changes in DTR on changes in CLD were unclear in summer and winter. Results of the SDSM simulations performed for climate change scenarios such as those from this study contribute to local-scale agricultural and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20795883','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20795883"><span>Effects of light and melatonin treatment on body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and melatonin secretion <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in a diurnal rodent, the fat sand rat.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwimmer, Hagit; Mursu, Netta; Haim, Abraham</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>Many mammals display predictable <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity in both neuroendocrine function and behavior. The basic rest-activity cycles are usually consistent for a given species and vary from night-active (nocturnal), those mostly active at dawn and dusk (i.e., crepuscular), and to day-active (diurnal) species. A number of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms are oppositely phased with respect to the light/dark (LD) cycle in diurnal compared with nocturnal mammals, whereas others are equally phased with respect to the LD cycle, regardless of diurnality/nocturnality. Pineal produced melatonin (MLT) perfectly matches this phase-locked feature in that its production and secretion always occurs during the night in both diurnal and nocturnal mammals. As most rodents studied to date in the field of chronobiology are nocturnal, the aim in this study was to evaluate the effect of light manipulations and different photoperiods on a diurnal rodent, the fat sand rat, Psammomys obesus. The authors studied its <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) under various photoperiodic regimes and light manipulations (acute and chronic exposures) while maintaining a constant ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. The following protocols were used: (A) Control (CON) conditions 12L:12D; (A1) exposure to one light interference (LI) of CON-acclimated individuals for 30 min, 5 h after lights-off; (A2) short photoperiod (SP) acclimation (8L:16D) for 3 wks; (A3) 3 wks of SP acclimation with chronic LI of 15 min, three times a night at 4-h intervals; (A4) chronic exposure to constant dim blue light (470 nm, 30 lux) for 24 h for 3 wks (LL). (B) The response to exogenous MLT administration, provided in drinking water, was measured under the following protocols: (B1) After chronic exposure to SP with LI, MLT was provided once, starting 1 h before the end of photophase; (B2) after a continuous exposure to dim blue light, MLT was provided at 15:00 h for 2 h for 2 wks; (B3) to CON</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046783','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046783"><span>Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22853454','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22853454"><span>The effects of early-age thermal manipulation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term fasting on performance and body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in broiler exposed to heat stress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Günal, M</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>This study was conducted to investigate the effects of thermal manipulation at 5 days of age and short-term fasting during the warmest part of the day on responses to prolonged heat stress of broilers. A total of 240-day-old Ross 308 female broiler chicks were divided into three groups: control, thermal manipulation (chicks were exposed to 36 °C for 24 h at 5 days of age) and short-term fasting during the warmest part of the day (10.00-17.00 h). Prolonged heat stress was induced <span class="hlt">daily</span> from 28 to 42 days by heating until the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reached 32-35 °C between 10.00 and 17.00 h. Both thermal manipulation and short-term fasting resulted in a decrease in rectal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and haematocrit values at 35 and 41 days of age. Thermal manipulation improved body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion. However, short-term fasting caused a reduction in body weight and a deterioration in feed conversion. Short-term fasting lowered the percentages of carcass, whereas thermal manipulation highered breast yield. Both thermal manipulation and short-term fasting decreased heart mass and abdominal fat. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcScD...9.3795E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcScD...9.3795E"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> scale winter-time sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and the Iberian Poleward Current in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esnaola, G.; Sáenz, J.; Zorita, E.; Fontán, A.; Valencia, V.; Lazure, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The combination of remotely sensed gappy sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) images with the missing data filling Data Interpolating EOFs (DINEOF) technique followed by a Principal Component Analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale variability of the winter-time surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC) during the 1981-2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the variability of the IPC. A physical mechanism involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables is proposed in relation to the variability of the IPC. It jointly takes into account several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the Joint Effect of Baroclinicity And Relief (JEBAR) effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic Gyre. This mechanism emerges from an atmospheric 500 hPa circulation anomaly that has not a simple relationship with any of the most common North Atlantic teleconnection patterns. It then generates mutually coherent SST and sea level anomaly patterns in the North Atlantic area due to the action of anomalous wind-stress and heat-fluxes, and locally, it also generates the conditions for the mentioned mechanisms in the Bay of Biscay area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1027B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1027B"><span>A collection of sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergström, H.; Bhend, J.; Brázdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Řezníčková, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4159165','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4159165"><span>Positive matrix factorization of a 32-month series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 speciation data with incorporation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stratification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xie, Mingjie; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Dutton, Steven J.; Milford, Jana B.; Hemann, Joshua G.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Miller, Shelly L.; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Sheppard, Lianne; Hannigan, Michael P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study presents source apportionment results for PM2.5 from applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a 32-month series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 compositional data from Denver, CO, including concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, bulk elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), and 51 organic molecular markers (OMMs). An optimum 8-factor solution was determined primarily based on the interpretability of the PMF results and rate of matching factors from bootstrapped PMF solutions with those from the base case solution. These eight factors were identified as inorganic ion, n-alkane, EC/sterane, light n-alkane/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), medium alkane/alkanoic acid, PAH, winter/methoxyphenol and summer/odd n-alkane. The inorganic ion factor dominated the reconstructed PM2.5 mass (sulfate + nitrate + EC + OC) in cold periods (<span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> < 10 °C; 43.7% of reconstructed PM2.5 mass) whereas the summer/odd n-alkane factor dominated in hot periods (> 20 °C; 53.1%). The two factors had comparable relative contributions of 26.5% and 27.1% in warm periods with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 10 °C and 20 °C. Each of the seven factors resolved in a previous study (Dutton et al., 2010b) using a 1-year data set from the same location matches one factor from the current work based on comparing factor profiles. Six out of the seven matched pairs of factors are linked to similar source classes as suggested by the strong correlations between factor contributions (r = 0.89 − 0.98). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-stratified source apportionment was conducted for three subsets of the data in the current study, corresponding to the cold, warm and hot periods mentioned above. The cold period (7-factor) solution exhibited a similar distribution of reconstructed PM2.5 mass as the full data set solution. The factor contributions of the warm period (7-factor) solution were well correlated with those from the full data set solution (r = 0.76 − 0.99). However, the reconstructed PM2.5 mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1308283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1308283"><span>The effects of videotape modeling and <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on residential electricity conservation, home <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Winett, Richard A.; Hatcher, Joseph W.; Fort, T. Richard; Leckliter, Ingrid N.; Love, Susan Q.; Riley, Anne W.; Fishback, James F.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 62°F when home and about 59°F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75°F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior change, and energy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16795658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16795658"><span>The effects of videotape modeling and <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on residential electricity conservation, home <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winett, R A; Hatcher, J W; Fort, T R; Leckliter, I N; Love, S Q; Riley, A W; Fishback, J F</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 62 degrees F when home and about 59 degrees F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75 degrees F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214809"><span>Positive matrix factorization of a 32-month series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 speciation data with incorporation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stratification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Mingjie; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Dutton, Steven J; Milford, Jana B; Hemann, Joshua G; Peel, Jennifer L; Miller, Shelly L; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Sheppard, Lianne; Hannigan, Michael P</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>This study presents source apportionment results for PM2.5 from applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a 32-month series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 compositional data from Denver, CO, including concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, bulk elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), and 51 organic molecular markers (OMMs). An optimum 8-factor solution was determined primarily based on the interpretability of the PMF results and rate of matching factors from bootstrapped PMF solutions with those from the base case solution. These eight factors were identified as inorganic ion, n-alkane, EC/sterane, light n-alkane/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), medium alkane/alkanoic acid, PAH, winter/methoxyphenol and summer/odd n-alkane. The inorganic ion factor dominated the reconstructed PM2.5 mass (sulfate + nitrate + EC + OC) in cold periods (<span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> < 10 °C; 43.7% of reconstructed PM2.5 mass) whereas the summer/odd n-alkane factor dominated in hot periods (> 20 °C; 53.1%). The two factors had comparable relative contributions of 26.5% and 27.1% in warm periods with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 10 °C and 20 °C. Each of the seven factors resolved in a previous study (Dutton et al., 2010b) using a 1-year data set from the same location matches one factor from the current work based on comparing factor profiles. Six out of the seven matched pairs of factors are linked to similar source classes as suggested by the strong correlations between factor contributions (r = 0.89 - 0.98). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-stratified source apportionment was conducted for three subsets of the data in the current study, corresponding to the cold, warm and hot periods mentioned above. The cold period (7-factor) solution exhibited a similar distribution of reconstructed PM2.5 mass as the full data set solution. The factor contributions of the warm period (7-factor) solution were well correlated with those from the full data set solution (r = 0.76 - 0.99). However, the reconstructed PM2.5 mass was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1101/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1101/"><span>User's Guide, software for reduction and analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather and surface-water data: Tools for time series analysis of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and streamflow data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hereford, Richard</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The software described here is used to process and analyze <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather and surface-water data. The programs are refinements of earlier versions that include minor corrections and routines to calculate frequencies above a threshold on an annual or seasonal basis. Earlier versions of this software were used successfully to analyze historical precipitation patterns of the Mojave Desert and the southern Colorado Plateau regions, ecosystem response to climate variation, and variation of sediment-runoff frequency related to climate (Hereford and others, 2003; 2004; in press; Griffiths and others, 2006). The main program described here (Day_Cli_Ann_v5.3) uses <span class="hlt">daily</span> data to develop a time series of various statistics for a user specified accounting period such as a year or season. The statistics include averages and totals, but the emphasis is on the frequency of occurrence in days of relatively rare weather or runoff events. These statistics are indices of climate variation; for a discussion of climate indices, see the Climate Research Unit website of the University of East Anglia (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/projects/stardex/) and the Climate Change Indices web site (http://cccma.seos.uvic.ca/ETCCDMI/indices.html). Specifically, the indices computed with this software are the frequency of high intensity 24-hour rainfall, unusually warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and unusually high runoff. These rare, or extreme events, are those greater than the 90th percentile of precipitation, streamflow, or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> computed for the period of record of weather or gaging stations. If they cluster in time over several decades, extreme events may produce detectable change in the physical landscape and ecosystem of a given region. Although the software has been tested on a variety of data, as with any software, the user should carefully evaluate the results with their data. The programs were designed for the range of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and streamflow measurements expected in the semiarid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7556R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7556R"><span>Analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> component of the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the wind speed within the Aral Sea region from 1991 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roget, Elena; Khan, Valentina; Tischenko, Vladimir</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The relation between the diurnal cycle of the wind speed and the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within the Aral Sea region (40N-50N, 53E-67E) is analyzed for the period 1990-2010. Data are from 65 stations within the RIHMI-WDC databases. The power spectral density of the wind velocity clearly shows a 24h component (PSDW24) almost during all the year but especially in spring and autumn. For the studied period it the PSDW24 is found to increase almost in all the studied area and especially at the South Western region where the trend is much larger. Exceptions are found at the far North Western and South Eastern hilly areas where the PSDW24 slightly diminishes. Most of stations were located at least 100 km from the coast line of the Aral Sea so the direct effect of the variation of sea breeze due to the shrinking of the Aral is not expected to drive the general observed trend. On the other hand several authors have pointed out an increase in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) within the region during all the year. Increase of DTR in the region could enhance the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of the wind flow either directly or triggering secondary mechanisms. However the study of the trend of the DTR based in the RIHMI-WDC data shows different behavior at different regions. Detailed analysis of a) the correlation and phase lag between the diurnal harmonic of the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind speed and b) the DTR and WPSD24 trends at different areas and for different seasons is presented and discussed. Acknowledgments: CLIMSEAS project FP7-IRSES-2009 (ref. 247512)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7..249K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GMD.....7..249K"><span>Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes (Tmax and Tmin). The methodological aspects of the CPSM explored in this study include (1) investigation of the advantage</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GMDD....6.4833K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GMDD....6.4833K"><span>Methodological aspects of a pattern-scaling approach to produce global fields of monthly means of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kremser, S.; Bodeker, G. E.; Lewis, J.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A Climate Pattern-Scaling Model (CPSM) that simulates global patterns of climate change, for a prescribed emissions scenario, is described. A CPSM works by quantitatively establishing the statistical relationship between a climate variable at a specific location (e.g. <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tmax) and one or more predictor time series (e.g. global mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tglobal) - referred to as the "training" of the CPSM. This training uses a regression model to derive fit-coefficients that describe the statistical relationship between the predictor time series and the target climate variable time series. Once that relationship has been determined, and given the predictor time series for any greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, the change in the climate variable of interest can be reconstructed - referred to as the "application" of the CPSM. The advantage of using a CPSM rather than a typical atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) is that the predictor time series required by the CPSM can usually be generated quickly using a simple climate model (SCM) for any prescribed GHG emissions scenario and then applied to generate global fields of the climate variable of interest. The training can be performed either on historical measurements or on output from an AOGCM. Using model output from 21st century simulations has the advantage that the climate change signal is more pronounced than in historical data and therefore a more robust statistical relationship is obtained. The disadvantage of using AOGCM output is that the CPSM training might be compromised by any AOGCM inadequacies. For the purposes of exploring the various methodological aspects of the CPSM approach, AOGCM output was used in this study to train the CPSM. These investigations of the CPSM methodology focus on monthly mean fields of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes (Tmax and Tmin). Key conclusions are: (1) overall, the CPSM trained on simulations based on the Representative Concentration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcSci...9..655E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcSci...9..655E"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> scale wintertime sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and IPC-Navidad variability in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esnaola, G.; Sáenz, J.; Zorita, E.; Fontán, A.; Valencia, V.; Lazure, P.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The combination of remotely sensed gappy Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) images with the missing data filling DINEOF (data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions) technique, followed by a principal component analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale variability of the wintertime surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC), or Navidad, during the 1981-2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the IPC-Navidad variability. Once a time series for the evolution of the SST signal of the current over the last decades is well established, this time series is used to propose a physical mechanism in relation to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables. According to the proposed mechanism, an atmospheric circulation anomaly observed in both the 500 hPa and the surface levels generates atmospheric surface level pressure, wind-stress and heat-flux anomalies. In turn, those surface level atmospheric anomalies induce mutually coherent SST and sea level anomalies over the North Atlantic area, and locally, in the Bay of Biscay area. These anomalies, both locally over the Bay of Biscay area and over the North Atlantic, are in agreement with several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief (JEBAR) effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic gyre.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153674"><span>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern of heart rate, body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, locomotor activity, and autonomic nervous activity in congenitally bronchial-hypersensitive (BHS) and bronchial-hyposensitive (BHR) guinea pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akita, Megumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Nishibata, Ryoji; Mikami, Hiroki; Tsubone, Hirokazu</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>We studied the characteristics of the rhythmicity of heart rate (HR), body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (BT), locomotor activity (LA) and autonomic nervous activity in bronchial-hypersensitive (BHS) and bronchial-hyposensitive (BHR) guinea pigs. For this purpose, HR, BT, LA, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded from conscious and unrestrained guinea pigs using a telemetry system. Autonomic nervous activity was analyzed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Nocturnal patterns, in which the values in the dark phase (20:00-06:00) were higher than those in the light phase (06:00-20:00), were observed in HR, BT and LA in both strains of guinea pigs. The autonomic nervous activity in BHS guinea pigs showed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern, although BHR guinea pigs did not show such a rhythmicity. The high frequency (HF) power in BHS guinea pigs was higher than that in BHR guinea pigs throughout the day. Moreover, the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio in BHS guinea pigs was lower than that in BHR guinea pigs throughout the day. These results suggest that parasympathetic nervous activity may be predominant in BHS guinea pigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983662"><span><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Not Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), is Causally Associated with Short-Term Acute <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mortality Rates: Results from One Hundred United States Cities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cox, Tony; Popken, Douglas; Ricci, Paolo F</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air (C) have been suspected of contributing causally to increased acute (e.g., same-day or next-day) human mortality rates (R). We tested this causal hypothesis in 100 United States cities using the publicly available NMMAPS database. Although a significant, approximately linear, statistical C-R association exists in simple statistical models, closer analysis suggests that it is not causal. Surprisingly, conditioning on other variables that have been extensively considered in previous analyses (usually using splines or other smoothers to approximate their effects), such as month of the year and mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggests that they create strong, nonlinear confounding that explains the statistical association between PM2.5 and mortality rates in this data set. As this finding disagrees with conventional wisdom, we apply several different techniques to examine it. Conditional independence tests for potential causation, non-parametric classification tree analysis, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), and Granger-Sims causality testing, show no evidence that PM2.5 concentrations have any causal impact on increasing mortality rates. This apparent absence of a causal C-R relation, despite their statistical association, has potentially important implications for managing and communicating the uncertain health risks associated with, but not necessarily caused by, PM2.5 exposures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5079224','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5079224"><span>Timing of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life is jaggy: How episodic ultradian changes in body and brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are integrated into this process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blessing, William; Ootsuka, Youichirou</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Charles Darwin noted that natural selection applies even to the hourly organization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Indeed, in many species, the day is segmented into active periods when the animal searches for food, and inactive periods when the animal digests and rests. This episodic temporal patterning is conventionally referred to as ultradian (<24 hours) rhythmicity. The average time between ultradian events is approximately 1–2 hours, but the interval is highly variable. The ultradian pattern is stochastic, jaggy rather than smooth, so that although the next event is likely to occur within 1–2 hours, it is not possible to predict the precise timing. When models of circadian timing are applied to the ultradian temporal pattern, the underlying assumption of true periodicity (stationarity) has distorted the analyses, so that the ultradian pattern is frequently averaged away and ignored. Each active ultradian episode commences with an increase in hippocampal theta rhythm, indicating the switch of attention to the external environment. During each active episode, behavioral and physiological processes, including changes in body and brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, occur in an integrated temporal order, confirming organization by programs endogenous to the central nervous system. We describe methods for analyzing episodic ultradian events, including the use of wavelet mathematics to determine their timing and amplitude, and the use of fractal-based procedures to determine their complexity. PMID:28349079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817748P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817748P"><span>New homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data of three decades from multiple sensors confirm warming of large sub-alpine lake Garda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images from the early eighties covering three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the change dynamics in bio-physical characteristics of land and water. However it is very important to homogenize these data originating from multiple sources which follow different standards and quality. In this study, we explored the thermal dynamics of a large sub-alpine lake Garda over last twentyeight years (1986 - 2014) using Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) derived from the thermal bands of moderate resolution sensors - AVHRR/2, AVHRR/3, ATSR1, ATSR2, A(A)TSR and MODIS aboard multiple satellites. We developed a homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT dataset (12:00 P.M) at 1km spatial resolution combining the data from these sensors using split window technique and performing an acquisition time correction. The gaps in the temporal database due to clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The results show high correlation (R2 > 90) between satellite derived LSWT (taken into account both individual sensors and the combined data) and the in-situ data. The time correction enable us to perform a trend analysis on unified datasets corrected for its acquisition times. The trend analysis using non-parametric tests shows significant warming in annual trend at the rate of 0.01K yr-1 (p<0.05), while in summer the increasing trend is 0.02K yr-1(p<0.1). The results are in line with similar findings on warming of Alpine lakes. Moreover, the advantage of the spatial coverage at 1 km resolution we are able to characterize the thermal dynamics of the lake Garda at multiple locations of this large lake.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/50800','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/50800"><span>Development of high-resolution (250 m) historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data using reanalysis and distributed sensor networks for the US northern Rocky Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Zachary A. Holden; Alan Swanson; Anna E. Klene; John T. Abatzoglou; Solomon Z. Dobrowski; Samuel A. Cushman; John Squires; Gretchen G. Moisen; Jared W. Oyler</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data sets are typically produced at spatial resolutions that cannot fully resolve fine-scale variation in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in regions of complex topography. These data limitations have become increasingly important as scientists and managers attempt to understand and plan for potential climate change impacts. Here, we describe the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21562167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21562167"><span>Minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Using implanted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> loggers, we measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22401790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22401790"><span>Modelling in-stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen at sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> time steps: an application to the River Kennet, UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Richard J; Boorman, David B</p> <p>2012-04-15</p> <p>The River Kennet in southern England shows a clear diurnal signal in both water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen concentrations through the summer months. The water quality model QUESTOR was applied in a stepwise manner (adding modelled processes or additional data) to simulate the flow, water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen concentrations along a 14 km reach. The aim of the stepwise model building was to find the simplest process-based model which simulated the observed behaviour accurately. The upstream boundary used was a diurnal signal of hourly measurements of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen. In the initial simulations, the amplitude of the signal quickly reduced to zero as it was routed through the model; a behaviour not seen in the observed data. In order to keep the correct timing and amplitude of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> a heating term had to be introduced into the model. For dissolved oxygen, primary production from macrophytes was introduced to better simulate the oxygen pattern. Following the modifications an excellent simulation of both water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen was possible at an hourly resolution. It is interesting to note that it was not necessary to include nutrient limitation to the primary production model. The resulting model is not sufficiently proven to support river management but suggests that the approach has some validity and merits further development. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324623','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324623"><span>Evaluation of ASTER-like <span class="hlt">daily</span> land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by fusing ASTER and MODIS data during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) is an important parameter that is highly responsive to surface energy fluxes and has become valuable to many disciplines. However, it is difficult to acquire satellite LSTs with both high spatial and temporal resolutions due to tradeoffs between them. Thus, various alg...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16497700','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16497700"><span>Moderate increase of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> adversely affects fruit set of Lycopersicon esculentum by disrupting specific physiological processes in male reproductive development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sato, S; Kamiyama, M; Iwata, T; Makita, N; Furukawa, H; Ikeda, H</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Global warming is gaining significance as a threat to natural and managed ecosystems since <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is one of the major environmental factors affecting plant productivity. Hence, the effects of moderate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase on the growth and development of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) were investigated. Plants were grown at 32/26 degrees C as a moderately elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress (METS) treatment or at 28/22 degrees C (day/night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) as a control with natural light conditions. Vegetative growth and reproductive development as well as sugar content and metabolism, proline content and translocation in the androecium were investigated. METS did not cause a significant change in biomass, the number of flowers, or the number of pollen grains produced, but there was a significant decrease in the number of fruit set, pollen viability and the number of pollen grains released. Glucose and fructose contents in the androecium (i.e. all stamens from one flower) were generally higher in the control than METS, but sucrose was higher in METS. Coincidently, the mRNA transcript abundance of acid invertase in the androecium was decreased by METS. Proline contents in the androecium were almost the same in the control and METS, while the mRNA transcript level of proline transporter 1, which expresses specifically at the surface of microspores, was significantly decreased by METS. The research indicated that failure of tomato fruit set under a moderately increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above optimal is due to the disruption of sugar metabolism and proline translocation during the narrow window of male reproductive development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2803419','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2803419"><span>Moderate Increase of Mean <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Adversely Affects Fruit Set of Lycopersicon esculentum by Disrupting Specific Physiological Processes in Male Reproductive Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>SATO, S.; KAMIYAMA, M.; IWATA, T.; MAKITA, N.; FURUKAWA, H.; IKEDA, H.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>• Background and Aims Global warming is gaining significance as a threat to natural and managed ecosystems since <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is one of the major environmental factors affecting plant productivity. Hence, the effects of moderate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase on the growth and development of the tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) were investigated. • Methods Plants were grown at 32/26 °C as a moderately elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress (METS) treatment or at 28/22 °C (day/night <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) as a control with natural light conditions. Vegetative growth and reproductive development as well as sugar content and metabolism, proline content and translocation in the androecium were investigated. • Key Results METS did not cause a significant change in biomass, the number of flowers, or the number of pollen grains produced, but there was a significant decrease in the number of fruit set, pollen viability and the number of pollen grains released. Glucose and fructose contents in the androecium (i.e. all stamens from one flower) were generally higher in the control than METS, but sucrose was higher in METS. Coincidently, the mRNA transcript abundance of acid invertase in the androecium was decreased by METS. Proline contents in the androecium were almost the same in the control and METS, while the mRNA transcript level of proline transporter 1, which expresses specifically at the surface of microspores, was significantly decreased by METS. • Conclusions The research indicated that failure of tomato fruit set under a moderately increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above optimal is due to the disruption of sugar metabolism and proline translocation during the narrow window of male reproductive development. PMID:16497700</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..213L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp..213L"><span>Retrieving air humidity, global solar radiation, and reference evapotranspiration from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: development and validation of new methods for Mexico. Part I: humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobit, P.; López Pérez, L.; Lhomme, J. P.; Gómez Tagle, A.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>This study evaluates the dew point method (Allen et al. 1998) to estimate atmospheric vapor pressure from minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and proposes an improved model to estimate it from maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Both methods were evaluated on 786 weather stations in Mexico. The dew point method induced positive bias in dry areas but also negative bias in coastal areas, and its average root mean square error for all evaluated stations was 0.38 kPa. The improved model assumed a bi-linear relation between estimated vapor pressure deficit (difference between saturated vapor pressure at minimum and average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and measured vapor pressure deficit. The parameters of these relations were estimated from historical annual median values of relative humidity. This model removed bias and allowed for a root mean square error of 0.31 kPa. When no historical measurements of relative humidity were available, empirical relations were proposed to estimate it from latitude and altitude, with only a slight degradation on the model accuracy (RMSE = 0.33 kPa, bias = -0.07 kPa). The applicability of the method to other environments is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/0222/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/0222/report.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> and seasonal variability of pH, dissolved oxygen, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and specific conductance in the Colorado River between the forebay of Glen Canyon, Dam and Lees Ferry, northeastern Arizona, 1998-99</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hart, Robert J.; Marzolf, G. Richard; Bowser, Carl J.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The productivity of the trout fishery in the tailwater reach of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam depends on the productivity of lower trophic levels. Photosynthesis and respiration are basic biological processes that control productivity and alter pH and oxygen concentration. During 1998?99, data were collected to aid in the documentation of short- and long-term trends in these basic ecosystem processes in the Glen Canyon reach. Dissolved-oxygen, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and specific-conductance profile data were collected monthly in the forebay of Glen Canyon Dam to document the status of water chemistry in the reservoir. In addition, pH, dissolved-oxygen, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and specific-conductance data were collected at five sites in the Colorado River tailwater of Glen Canyon Dam to document the <span class="hlt">daily</span>, seasonal, and longitudinal range of variation in water chemistry that could occur annually within the Glen Canyon reach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22521911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22521911"><span>Determining the period, phase and anticipatory component of activity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in newborn rabbits that were maintained under a <span class="hlt">daily</span> nursing schedule and fasting conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trejo-Muñoz, Lucero; Navarrete, Erika; Montúfar-Chaveznava, Rodrigo; Caldelas, Ivette</p> <p>2012-07-16</p> <p>During the last decade, lagomorphs have gained relevance as valuable models for the study of the development of circadian rhythmicity. This relevance is due to both the peculiar behavior of the lactating doe, in which maternal care is limited from 3 to 5 min per day, and the temporal organization that newborn rabbits exhibit during the early stages of development. In this study, we characterized the development of the temporal pattern of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and locomotor activity of newborn rabbits. This activity was recorded simultaneously for individual newborn rabbits and was maintained under constant light conditions, a 24-h nursing schedule and without access to the lactating doe. In addition, different mathematical algorithms were designed to determine the period, phase and anticipatory component of the time series obtained for the newborn rabbits. During the first two weeks of life, the average gross locomotor activity decreased as age increased; conversely however, the core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibited a significant increment during the early stages of postnatal development. The newborn rabbits' circadian patterns of activity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were consolidated as early as the first week of life. Similarly, the acrophase and nadir of both rhythms were settled by postnatal day 5, and the maximum activity consistently occurred approximately 2 h before the animals' maximum body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The anticipation of nursing was evident from postnatal day 2 for both parameters, and the duration and intensity showed changes associated with the stage of development. In addition, the anticipatory component persisted with the same duration and intensity, even when nursing was omitted. The mathematical methods used in this study are suitable for producing unbiased analyses of the time series that are obtained from developing animals in situations during which biological signals generally show variability in frequencies and trends. By using these methods, it was possible to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022266','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930022266"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> exercise routines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Patrick L.; Amoroso, Michael T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Viewgraphs on <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise routines are presented. Topics covered include: <span class="hlt">daily</span> exercise and periodic stress testings; exercise equipment; physiological monitors; exercise protocols; physiological levels; equipment control; control systems; and fuzzy logic control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1024308','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1024308"><span>Influence of climate model biases and <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation events on hydrological impacts assessment: A case study of the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ashfaq, Moetasim; Bowling, Laura C.; Cherkauer, Keith; Pal, Jeremy; Diffenbaugh, Noah</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report concludes that climate change is now unequivocal, and associated increases in evaporation and atmospheric water content could intensify the hydrological cycle. However, the biases and coarse spatial resolution of global climate models limit their usefulness in hydrological impact assessment. In order to reduce these limitations, we use a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM3) to drive a hydrological model (variable infiltration capacity) for the full contiguous United States. The simulations cover 1961-1990 in the historic period and 2071-2100 in the future (A2) period. A quantile-based bias correction technique is applied to the times series of RegCM3-simulated precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Our results show that biases in the RegCM3 fields not only affect the magnitude of hydrometeorological variables in the baseline hydrological simulation, but they also affect the response of hydrological variables to projected future anthropogenic increases in greenhouse forcing. Further, we find that changes in the intensity and occurrence of severe wet and hot events are critical in determining the sign of hydrologic change. These results have important implications for the assessment of potential future hydrologic changes, as well as for developing approaches for quantitative impacts assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4621893','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4621893"><span>The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tb over the first 30–35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect. PMID:26286956</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26286956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26286956"><span>The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Sharon E; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R</p> <p>2015-07-30</p> <p>A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tb over the first 30-35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047984','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080047984"><span>MRO SOW <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Script</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The MRO SOW <span class="hlt">daily</span> script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO <span class="hlt">daily</span> SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW <span class="hlt">daily</span> script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/LifeAfterStroke/RegainingIndependence/TipsforDailyLiving/Tips-for-Daily-Living-Volunteer-Powered-Library_UCM_456235_SubHomePage.jsp','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/LifeAfterStroke/RegainingIndependence/TipsforDailyLiving/Tips-for-Daily-Living-Volunteer-Powered-Library_UCM_456235_SubHomePage.jsp"><span>Tips for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Tips and Gadgets for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51F1083E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51F1083E"><span>Stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> modeling of arctic tundra ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erler, A.; Epstein, H. E.; Frazier, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>ArcVeg is a dynamic vegetation model that has simulated interannual variability of production and abundance of arctic tundra plant types in previous studies. In order to address the effects of changing seasonality on tundra plant community composition and productivity, we have uniquely adapted the model to operate on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescale. Each section of the model-weather generation, nitrogen mineralization, and plant growth dynamics-are driven by <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations in simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. These simulation dynamics are achieved by calibrating stochastic iterative loops and mathematical functions with raw field data. Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the fundamental driver in the model, parameterized by climate data collected in the field across numerous arctic tundra sites, and key <span class="hlt">daily</span> statistics are extracted (mean and standard deviation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for each day of the year). Nitrogen mineralization is calculated as an exponential function from the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The seasonality of plant growth is driven by the availability of nitrogen and constrained by historical patterns and dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as they pertain to the seasonal onset of growth. Here we describe the methods used for <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather generation, nitrogen mineralization, and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> competition among twelve plant functional types for nitrogen and subsequent growth. This still rather simple approach to vegetation dynamics has the capacity to generate complex relationships between seasonal patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and arctic tundra vegetation community structure and function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoridation&pg=4&id=EJ471371','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoridation&pg=4&id=EJ471371"><span>Toothbrushing: Do It <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas Child Care, 1993</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Offers a practical guide for promoting <span class="hlt">daily</span> toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoride&pg=3&id=EJ471371','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoride&pg=3&id=EJ471371"><span>Toothbrushing: Do It <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas Child Care, 1993</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Offers a practical guide for promoting <span class="hlt">daily</span> toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13C0877Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13C0877Y"><span>Examining the Physical Drivers of Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensitivity Within a Sub-alpine Mixed Conifer Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, J.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Minor, R.; Heard, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Current projections of climate change in the southwestern U.S. suggest increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and reduced summer precipitation. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water deficits have major influence on ecosystem functioning by restricting plant growth and productivity. However, there are limited data on what influences plant sensitivity to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and these dynamics are not often captured in ecosystem models. Understanding the sensitivities, linkages, and feedbacks among biotic processes and abiotic forces is especially important within Critical Zone Sciences, which seeks to integrate among disciplines. Here, we analyzed several potential drivers of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity, including differences in soil parent material, aspect, and seasonality within a suite of species. Each of these variables captures a different physical driver: (i) soil parent material influences water holding capacity of the soil; (ii) aspect influences how incoming energy drives evaporative loss of soil water, creating warmer and drier environments on south/east faces; and (iii) seasonality captures temporal patterns of soil moisture recharge. Our research was conducted within two V shaped zero-order catchment basins of the Santa Catalina Critical Zone Observatory in southern Arizona, one with schist bedrock and the other with granite. We used leaf-level gas exchange measurements on 24 trees across a range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to quantify this plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity during the dry <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and wet monsoon seasons. Preliminary results show that maximum photosynthetic rate was 51% higher during the monsoon than <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season. Optimal photosynthetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased 25% while the span of functional <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Ω50) was 21% higher following the onset of monsoon rains. During the rainy season, soil parent material became an important factor. The greater water holding capacity of schist soils yielded greater maximum photosynthesis and reduced tree sensitivity to higher</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25505031','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25505031"><span>Vestibular loss disrupts <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxène, B; Besnard, S</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (τ <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9218V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9218V"><span>Temporal disaggregation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological grid data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vormoor, K.; Skaugen, T.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>For operational flood forecasting, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) applies the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model for 117 catchments. The hydrological models are calibrated and run using an extensive meteorological grid data set providing <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data back to 1957 for entire Norway at 1x1 km grid resolution (seNorge grids). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution is dictated by the resolution of historical meteorological data. However, since meteorological forecasts and runoff observations are also available at a much finer than a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-resolution (e.g. 6 hourly), and many hydrological extreme events happens at a temporal scale of less than <span class="hlt">daily</span>, it is important to try to establish a historical dataset of meteorological input at a finer corresponding temporal resolution. We present a simple approach for the temporal disaggregation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological seNorge grids into 6-hour values by consulting a HIRLAM hindcast grid data series with an hourly time resolution and a 10x10 km grid resolution. The temporal patterns of the hindcast series are used to disaggregate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> interpolated observations from the seNorge grids. In this way, we produce a historical grid dataset from 1958-2010 with 6-hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for entire Norway on a 1x1 km grid resolution. For validation and to see if additional information is gained, the disaggregated data is compared with observed values from selected meteorological stations. In addition, the disaggregated data is evaluated against <span class="hlt">daily</span> data, simply split into four fractions. The validation results indicate that additional information is indeed gained and point out the benefit of disaggregated data compared to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data split into four. With regard to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the disaggregated values show very low deviations (MAE, RMSE), and are highly correlated with observed values. Regarding precipitation, the disaggregated data shows cumulative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024565"><span>New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tyagi, Alok</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20433612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20433612"><span>Quarrelsomeness in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moskowitz, D S</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>It is common in studies of interpersonal characteristics to examine personality variables as static predictors. Yet in recent years it has also become possible to examine personality and related interpersonal processes as they unfold over time in association with event specific cues. The present article reviews research that (1) identifies behaviors that reflect the occurrence of hostile-irritable-quarrelsome traits in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life, (2) demonstrates both the stability and within-person variability of these behaviors over time, (3) documents event-level interpersonal cues that are systematically associated with within-person variation in quarrelsome behavior, and (4) describes how dispositional level agreeableness and irritability moderate the associations of event-level cues with quarrelsome behavior. The influence of the neurotransmitter serotonin on quarrelsome behavior is also considered. The studies indicate that quarrelsome individuals have reduced affective reactivity to engaging in quarrelsome behavior, increased behavioral reactivity to perceptions of quarrelsomeness in others, and greater responsiveness to change in serotonin levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Water Use in Nine Cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of <span class="hlt">daily</span> municipal water use to rainfall and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes with no response for <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for <span class="hlt">daily</span> water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010913&hterms=physical+activity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bactivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010913&hterms=physical+activity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bactivity"><span>Quantification of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Physical Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative <span class="hlt">daily</span> lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> history of ground reaction forces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.128...27R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.128...27R"><span>Climate change in Bangladesh: a spatio-temporal analysis and simulation of recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data using GIS and time series analysis model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahman, Md. Rejaur; Lateh, Habibah</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data series were analysed from 34 meteorological stations distributed throughout Bangladesh over a 40-year period (1971 to 2010) in order to evaluate the magnitude of these changes statistically and spatially. Linear regression, coefficient of variation, inverse distance weighted interpolation techniques and geographical information systems were performed to analyse the trends, variability and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall. Autoregressive integrated moving average time series model was used to simulate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data. The results confirm a particularly strong and recent climate change in Bangladesh with a 0.20 °C per decade upward trend of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The highest upward trend in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (range of 0.80-2.4 °C) was observed in the northern, northwestern, northeastern, central and central southern parts while greatest warming in the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (range of 1.20-2.48 °C) was found in the southern, southeastern and northeastern parts during 1971-2010. An upward trend of annual rainfall (+7.13 mm per year) and downward <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> (-0.75 mm per year) and post-monsoon rainfall (-0.55 mm per year) trends were observed during this period. Rainfall was erratic in <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season and even more so during the post-monsoon season (variability of 44.84 and 85.25 % per year, respectively). The mean forecasted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibited an increase of 0.018 °C per year in 2011-2020, and if this trend continues, this would lead to approximately 1.0 °C warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Bangladesh by 2020, compared to that of 1971. A greater rise is projected for the mean minimum (0.20 °C) than the mean maximum (0.16 °C) <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Annual rainfall is projected to decline 153 mm from 2011 to 2020, and a drying condition will persist in the northwestern, western and southwestern parts of the country during the pre- and post-monsoonal seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333R"><span>Climate change in Bangladesh: a spatio-temporal analysis and simulation of recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data using GIS and time series analysis model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahman, Md. Rejaur; Lateh, Habibah</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data series were analysed from 34 meteorological stations distributed throughout Bangladesh over a 40-year period (1971 to 2010) in order to evaluate the magnitude of these changes statistically and spatially. Linear regression, coefficient of variation, inverse distance weighted interpolation techniques and geographical information systems were performed to analyse the trends, variability and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall. Autoregressive integrated moving average time series model was used to simulate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data. The results confirm a particularly strong and recent climate change in Bangladesh with a 0.20 °C per decade upward trend of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The highest upward trend in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (range of 0.80-2.4 °C) was observed in the northern, northwestern, northeastern, central and central southern parts while greatest warming in the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (range of 1.20-2.48 °C) was found in the southern, southeastern and northeastern parts during 1971-2010. An upward trend of annual rainfall (+7.13 mm per year) and downward <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> (-0.75 mm per year) and post-monsoon rainfall (-0.55 mm per year) trends were observed during this period. Rainfall was erratic in <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season and even more so during the post-monsoon season (variability of 44.84 and 85.25 % per year, respectively). The mean forecasted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibited an increase of 0.018 °C per year in 2011-2020, and if this trend continues, this would lead to approximately 1.0 °C warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Bangladesh by 2020, compared to that of 1971. A greater rise is projected for the mean minimum (0.20 °C) than the mean maximum (0.16 °C) <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Annual rainfall is projected to decline 153 mm from 2011 to 2020, and a drying condition will persist in the northwestern, western and southwestern parts of the country during the pre- and post-monsoonal seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..284P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..284P"><span>Projected changes in rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over homogeneous regions of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patwardhan, Savita; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Rao, K. Koteswara</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The impact of climate change on the characteristics of seasonal maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and seasonal summer monsoon rainfall is assessed over five homogeneous regions of India using a high-resolution regional climate model. Providing REgional Climate for Climate Studies (PRECIS) is developed at Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, UK. The model simulations are carried out over South Asian domain for the continuous period of 1961-2098 at 50-km horizontal resolution. Here, three simulations from a 17-member perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) produced using HadCM3 under the Quantifying Model Uncertainties in Model Predictions (QUMP) project of Hadley Centre, Met. Office, UK, have been used as lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the 138-year simulations of the regional climate model under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B scenario. The projections indicate the increase in the summer monsoon (June through September) rainfall over all the homogeneous regions (15 to 19%) except peninsular India (around 5%). There may be marginal change in the frequency of medium and heavy rainfall events (>20 mm) towards the end of the present century. The analysis over five homogeneous regions indicates that the mean maximum surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season (March-April-May) as well as the mean minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for winter season (January-February) may be warmer by around 4 °C towards the end of the twenty-first century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28060036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28060036"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). <span class="hlt">Daily</span> PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3673164','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3673164"><span>Unravelling <span class="hlt">daily</span> human mobility motifs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schneider, Christian M.; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, <span class="hlt">daily</span> human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient. PMID:23658117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15617293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15617293"><span>The patient with <span class="hlt">daily</span> headaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maizels, Morris</p> <p>2004-12-15</p> <p>The term "chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache. A pathologic underlying cause should be considered in patients with recent-onset <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache, a change from a previous headache pattern, or associated neurologic or systemic symptoms. Treatment of CDH focuses on reduction of headache triggers and use of preventive medication, most commonly anti-depressants, antiepileptic drugs, and beta blockers. Medication overuse must be treated with discontinuation of symptomatic medicines, a transitional therapy, and long-term prophylaxis. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with CDH and should be identified and treated. Although the condition is challenging, appropriate treatment of patients with CDH can bring about significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26307483"><span>Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stress, and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Affect.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> PA and lower <span class="hlt">daily</span> NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress and NA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1105S"><span>Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> period reveals indicators whether the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..211S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..211S"><span>Precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in eastern India by multiple trend detection methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Pradhan, Rudra P.; Singh, Amanpreet; Kawamura, Akira</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p> (monsoon) and mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (<span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and monsoon).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.choosemyplate.gov/MyPlate-Daily-Checklist','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.choosemyplate.gov/MyPlate-Daily-Checklist"><span>MyPlate <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Checklist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... or Yogurt Food Gallery Take the Dairy Quiz Oils All About Oils How Are Oils Different from Solid Fats? Nutrients and Health Benefits ... Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS SuperTracker What’s Cooking? BMI Calculator <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.choosemyplate.gov/moms-daily-food-plan','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.choosemyplate.gov/moms-daily-food-plan"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Food Plan for Moms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... or Yogurt Food Gallery Take the Dairy Quiz Oils All About Oils How Are Oils Different from Solid Fats? Nutrients and Health Benefits ... Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein Foods Dairy Oils ONLINE TOOLS SuperTracker What’s Cooking? BMI Calculator <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...73A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...73A"><span>Digital <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cycles of Individuals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22011770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22011770"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> practices, consumption and citizenship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from <span class="hlt">daily</span> consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the <span class="hlt">daily</span> consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tractors&pg=3&id=ED113570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tractors&pg=3&id=ED113570"><span>Tractor Operation and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fore, J. M.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15133691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15133691"><span>Olfactory dysfunction and <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Frasnelli, Johannes; Hummel, Thomas</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that subjects with parosmia suffer more in their <span class="hlt">daily</span> life than patients who experience only quantitative olfactory loss. Two hundred five outpatients of the Smell and Taste Clinic and 25 healthy controls were included. The newly developed Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders (QOD) was administered in combination with other psychometric tests (Beck Depression Inventory, "Befindlichkeitsskala" and the Short Form-36 Health Survey) along with an olfactory test ("Sniffin' Sticks"). Results of the QOD were found to be an appropriate and valid measure of the impact of olfactory dysfunction on <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Patients with parosmia and quantitative olfactory dysfunction show higher rates of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life complaints when compared to patients suffering from quantitative olfactory impairment only (QOD-PS: P=0.005). In addition, hyposmic and anosmic patients indicated significantly more complaints compared to patients with normosmia. Further, female patients seemed to suffer more from olfactory dysfunction than male patients. In conclusion, the assessment of the degree of qualitative olfactory dysfunction may be possible by the use of instruments based on questionnaires regarding <span class="hlt">daily</span> life problems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/special/disruptions/socal/archive/winter/2016-11-21_winter_socal_energy_report.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/special/disruptions/socal/archive/winter/2016-11-21_winter_socal_energy_report.pdf"><span>Southern California <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Energy Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>EIA has updated its Southern California <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Energy Report to provide additional information on key energy market indicators for the winter season. The dashboard includes information that EIA regularly compiles about energy operations and the management of natural gas and electricity systems in Southern California in the aftermath of a leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility outside of Los Angeles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ADL&pg=6&id=ED148035','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ADL&pg=6&id=ED148035"><span>Teaching Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCormack, James E.</p> <p></p> <p>Provided are strategies for teaching activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL), which include dressing, eating, grooming, toileting, and basic homemakine, to severely retarded students. Reviewed are the steps necessary to teach ADL skills: ADL assessment, identification of appropriate strategies and tactics, and task analysis. Explained are four common…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/45122','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/45122"><span>Frequency of urban building fires as related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Arthur R. Pirsko; Wallace L. Fons</p> <p>1956-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> weather elements of precipitation, wind, mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, and dew-point <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for selected urban areas (approximately 850,000 population) in the United States are statistically analyzed to determine their correlation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> number of building fires. The frequency of urban building fires is found to be significantly correlated with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..838P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..838P"><span>Observability of market <span class="hlt">daily</span> volatility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the <span class="hlt">daily</span> returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24514630"><span>Nonlinear optics in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garmire, Elsa</p> <p>2013-12-16</p> <p>An overview is presented of the impact of NLO on today's <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. While NLO researchers have promised many applications, only a few have changed our lives so far. This paper categorizes applications of NLO into three areas: improving lasers, interaction with materials, and information technology. NLO provides: coherent light of different wavelengths; multi-photon absorption for plasma-materials interaction; advanced spectroscopy and materials analysis; and applications to communications and sensors. Applications in information processing and storage seem less mature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7667165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7667165"><span>Single <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of aminoglycosides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Preston, S L; Briceland, L L</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the rationale behind dosing aminoglycosides as a single <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose versus traditional dosing approaches, we conducted a MEDLINE search to identify all pertinent articles, and also reviewed the references of all articles. Single <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of aminoglycosides is not a new concept, having been examined since 1974. The advantages of this regimen include optimum concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, longer dosing intervals due to the postantibiotic effect (PAE), and prevention of bacterial adaptive resistance. Because of longer dosing intervals, toxicity may also be delayed or reduced. Costs may be reduced due to decreased monitoring and administration. Clinically, the regimen has been implemented in various patient populations with reported success. Questions remain, however, about optimum dose, peak and trough serum concentrations, and dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment or neutropenia. More clinical experience with this method in large numbers of patients has to be published. Pharmacists can be instrumental in monitoring patients receiving once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> therapy and by educating health care professionals as to the rationale behind the therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol8-sec20-24.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title50-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title50-vol8-sec20-24.pdf"><span>50 CFR 20.24 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the <span class="hlt">daily</span> bag limit or aggregate <span class="hlt">daily</span> bag limit, whichever applies. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol6-sec20-24.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol6-sec20-24.pdf"><span>50 CFR 20.24 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the <span class="hlt">daily</span> bag limit or aggregate <span class="hlt">daily</span> bag limit, whichever applies. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120226','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120226"><span>Identification and future description of warming signatures over Pakistan with special emphasis on evolution of CO2 levels and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the first decade of the twenty-first century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haider, Khadija; Khokhar, Muhammad Fahim; Chishtie, Farrukh; RazzaqKhan, Waseem; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Like other developing countries, Pakistan is also facing changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> per decade and other climatic abnormalities like droughts and torrential rains. In order to assess and identify the extent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change over Pakistan, the whole Pakistan was divided into five climatic zones ranging from very cold to hot and dry climates. Similarly, seasons in Pakistan are defined on the basis of monsoon variability as winter, <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span>, monsoon, and post-monsoon. This study primarily focuses on the comparison of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) network with PRECIS (Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies) model simulations. Results indicate that PRECIS underestimates the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Northern Pakistan and during the winter season. However, there exists a fair agreement between PRECIS output and observed datasets in the lower plain and hot areas of the country. An absolute increase of 0.07 °C is observed in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Pakistan during the time period of 1951-2010. Especially, the increase is more significant (0.7 °C) during the last 14 years (1997-2010). Moreover, SCIAMACHY observations were used to explore the evolution of atmospheric CO2 levels in comparison to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Pakistan. CO2 levels have shown an increasing trend during the first decade of the twenty-first century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4351926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4351926"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>RUF, THOMAS; GEISER, FRITZ</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e., the maintenance of high body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e., hypometabolic states associated with low body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (torpor), have been distinguished: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged however, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent the extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species, 43 birds and 171 mammals form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms are small on average, but hibernators are significantly heavier than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (~35°) than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms (~25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30-g heterotherm differed significantly between <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differed by ~13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ~35% of the BMR in <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms but only 6% of basal metabolic rate in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586394"><span>Managing Hypertriglyceridemia in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pramono, Laurentius A; Harbuwono, Dante S</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Hypertriglyceridemia is a form of dyslipidemia, which usually occurs in combination with hypercholesterolemia, high-LDL or low-HDL cholesterol level. Most studies suggest that hypertriglyceridemia is associated with many metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, and also cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia is often not comprehensively addressed by many physicians, who usually only include prescribing drugs without encouraging patients to perform physical activity, to take a true healthy diet for dyslipidemia and to stop smoking. This review article discusses evaluation, diagnosis and a comprehensive, yet simple management of hypertriglyceridemia, which can be easily applied in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780022814','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780022814"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> latitude variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graber, M. A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> latitude measurements of the International polar motion service are analyzed. The results indicate that the annual polar oscillation is probably due to local phenomena with amplitudes varying from 0.05 to 0.15 min. Within the resolution of the residuals (150 cm), there is no indication of the sharp changes which might be associated with earthquake effects. Then, applying Schuster's test to a periodogram of the residuals indicates that there are probably several processes occurring at amplitudes between 0.007 and 0.03 min whose solution awaits a more precise measurement technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles in coastal dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17635826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17635826"><span>Phosphorus balance with <span class="hlt">daily</span> dialysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kooienga, Laura</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Hyperphosphatemia is an almost universal finding in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and vascular calcification. These associations have raised the question of whether reducing phosphorus levels could result in improved survival. In light of the recent findings that increased per-session dialysis dose, as assessed by urea kinetics, did not result in improved survival, the definition of adequacy of dialysis should be re-evaluated and consideration given to alternative markers. Two alternatives to conventional thrice weekly dialysis (CHD) are nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) and short <span class="hlt">daily</span> hemodialysis (SDHD). The elimination kinetics of phosphorus as they relate to these alternative <span class="hlt">daily</span> dialysis schedules and the clinical implications of overall phosphorus balance are discussed here. The total weekly phosphorus removal with NHD is more than twice that removed by CHD (4985 mg/week +/- 1827 mg vs. 2347 mg/week +/- 697 mg) and this is associated with a significantly lower average serum phosphorous (4.0 mg/dl vs. 6.5 mg/dl). In spite of the observed increase in protein and phosphorus intake seen in patients on SDHD, phosphate binder requirements and serum phosphorus levels are generally stable to decrease although this effect is strongly dependent on the frequency and overall treatment time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337890"><span>The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>The main objective of present study is to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sunshine hours as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..865G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..865G"><span>Weather, season, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> stroke admissions in Hong Kong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Previous studies examining <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with <span class="hlt">daily</span> hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marijuana+AND+history&id=EJ999531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marijuana+AND+history&id=EJ999531"><span>Intent to Quit among <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> College Student Smokers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. never <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers), converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. former <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers] and (ii) smoking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=64+AND+32&pg=5&id=EJ999531','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=64+AND+32&pg=5&id=EJ999531"><span>Intent to Quit among <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> College Student Smokers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. never <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers), converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. former <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers] and (ii) smoking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14732911','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14732911"><span>[<span class="hlt">Daily</span> nutrient intake in hemodialysis].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellizzi, V; Di Iorio, B R; Zamboli, P; Terracciano, V; Minutolo, R; Iodice, C; De Nicola, L; Conte, G</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Although there is a higher nutrient requirement, food intake in haemodialysis patients is often inadequate. Protein nitrogen appearance (PNA) indirectly estimates the mean protein intake during the short interdialysis period, but it does not measure the <span class="hlt">daily</span> nutrient intake, which is generally unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study aimed at estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> nutrient intake and its relationship with the nutritional status of haemodialysis patients. We selected 28 haemodialysis patients with adequate nutritional status and no evidence of risk-factor for malnutrition. Patients were treated with biocompatible membranes, low-flux and high bicarbonate dialysis, Kt/V > 1.2, PNA > 1.1 g/kg/day and erythropoietin. We measured every four months <span class="hlt">daily</span> PNA, protein and calorie intake (DPI, DCI) as well as weight gain (WG) during an entire week for one-year. The nutritional status was assessed by biochemical and BIA markers. Twenty seven subjects (8 F, 19 M; age 57.1 +- 2.7 yeas; dialysis age 105 +- 13 months) completed the trial. The mean interdialytic PNA did not change in both long- and short-interdialysis periods, resulting in the "normal" range (> 1.1 g/kg/day); however, <span class="hlt">daily</span> levels of protein and calorie intake were significantly reduced on the third day during the long interdialysis interval. Eight patients showed time-averaged values of DPI and DCI lower than 0.8 g/kg/day and 25 Kcal/kg/day, respectively, on the third day (LOW group), values that were associated with similar changes in WG. Such a highly reduced nutrient intake during the third interdialysis day was associated with a normal PNA value (1.23 +- 0.05 g/kg/day vs 1.30 +- 0.06 in CON, NS) when measured during the short interdialysis period (S), just as it is in clinical practice; in contrast, when the PNA value was measured during the long interdialysis period it was found to be significantly reduced (1.07 +- 0.08 g/kg/day vs 1.37 +- 0.06 in CON, p < 0.05 and vs S, p < 0.05). During the study, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790069864&hterms=periodogram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dperiodogram','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790069864&hterms=periodogram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dperiodogram"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> latitude variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graber, M. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> latitude measurements of the International Polar Motion Service are analyzed. The annual oscillation in the data was modeled by separate oscillations in each observatory's latitude data. The separate oscillations varied in amplitude from 0.05 sec to 0.15 sec with standard deviations of about 0.007 sec. Within the resolution of the latitude residuals (150 cm), there is no indication of the sharp changes which might be associated with earthquake effects. Then, applying Schuster's test to a periodogram of the residuals indicates that there are probably several processes occurring at amplitudes between 0.007 sec and 0.03 sec whose solution awaits a more precise measurement technique.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm"><span><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=shoes&pg=5&id=ED525890','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=shoes&pg=5&id=ED525890"><span>The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+shoes&id=ED525890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+shoes&id=ED525890"><span>The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.588a2015K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JPhCS.588a2015K"><span>Physical Monitoring in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life by Remote Body Area Network System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kamada, Keisuke; Yuichi, Nakanishi; Shimizu, Hideaki; Takahashi, Hiroto; Mohtadzar, Nur Alia Athirah Binti Hj; Takayama, Shigeru</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>To spend <span class="hlt">daily</span> life in high QOL, it is important to keep our health condition. Physical diseases are caused by various body parameters. People must get body parameter in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Therefore people need wearable body area network system for getting body parameter in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Authors made wearable body area network system which can get heart rate, SpO2, body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, impact and acceleration of waist, shoulder, both ankles and wrist. Moreover authors made some applications by using these parameters. This paper describes the wearable sensing network system, host system to monitor dynamic physical conditions of user at remote location and applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..292P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..292P"><span>Seasonal Change Detection and Attribution of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> changes over Interior Peninsular Region of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pattanayak, Sonali; Nagesh Kumar, Dasika</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A good number of studies have investigated recent trends in the observed and simulated hydrometeorological variables across the world. It has been challenging for the research community to address whether the significant change in climate over the course of 2nd half of 20th century is caused either due to natural or manmade effects. Although evidences for an anthropogenic contribution to climatic trends have been accumulated rapidly worldwide, for India these are scarce. Hence the formal efforts have been undertaken to distinguish whether the recent changes in seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India occurred due to natural internal variation of climate system or human influence using rigorous detection and attribution (D&A) procedure. The surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the most widely cited indicator of climate fluctuation. Hence maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmax & Tmin) which are among the si