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Sample records for pre-monsoon daily temperature

  1. Tropospheric ozone pool over Arabian sea during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jia; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Hou, Xuewei; Rozanov, Alexei; Burrows, John

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on the remarkable and stable phenomenon-enhancement of the tropospheric ozone over Arabian Sea (AS) during the pre-monsoon season. Satellite data (SCIAMACHY LNM, OMI/MLS and TES) showed a strong and clear ozone seasonality over AS with ~42 DU maxima in pre-monsoon season. With the help of MACC reanalysis data, our results showed that 3/4 of the enhanced ozone during this season is contributed at 0-8 km height. The main source of the ozone enhancement is believed to be a long range transport, together with a suitable meteorological condition for pollution accumulation. Local chemistry plays different roles over different altitudes. However we believe the contribution to the tropospheric ozone enhancement from the chemistry is low. The contribution of the STE is unclear. In addition, the interannual variation of the pre-monsoon tropospheric ozone enhancement over AS is discussed. The anomalies in 2005 and 2010 could be due to the dynamical variation of ozone caused by the El Niño events.

  2. Contrails reduce daily temperature range.

    PubMed

    Travis, David J; Carleton, Andrew M; Lauritsen, Ryan G

    2002-08-08

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  3. Possible role of pre-monsoon sea surface warming in driving the summer monsoon onset over the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kuiping; Liu, Yanliang; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhi; Liu, Baochao; Xue, Liang; Yu, Weidong

    2016-08-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) reaches its annual maximum just before the summer monsoon onset and collapses soon after in the central areas of the Bay of Bengal (BoB). Here, the impact of the peak in the pre-monsoon SST on triggering the earliest monsoon onset in the BoB is investigated, with a focus on the role they play in driving the first-branch northward-propagating intra-seasonal oscillations (FNISOs) over the equatorial Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO). During the calm pre-monsoon period, sea surface warming in the BoB could increase the surface equivalent potential temperature (θe) in several ways. Firstly, warming of the sea surface heats the surface air through sensible heating, which forces the air temperature to follow the SST. The elevated air surface temperature accounts for 30 % of the surface θe growth. Furthermore, the elevated air temperature raises the water vapor capacity of the surface air to accommodate more water vapor. Constrained by the observation that the surface relative humidity is maintained nearly constant during the monsoon transition period, the surface specific humidity exhibits a significant increase, according to the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. Budget analysis indicates that the additional moisture is primarily obtained from sea surface evaporation, which also exhibits a weak increasing trend due to the sea surface warming. In this way, it contributes about 70 % to the surface θe growth. The rapid SST increase during the pre-monsoon period preconditions the summer monsoon onset over the BoB through its contributions to significantly increase the surface θe, which eventually establishes the meridional asymmetry of the atmospheric convective instability in the EIO. The pre-established greater convective instability leads to the FNISO convections, and the summer monsoon is triggered in the BoB region.

  4. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature.

    PubMed

    Savage, M J

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient (b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  5. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  6. Modeling the Influences of Aerosols on Pre-Monsoon Circulation and Rainfall over Southeast Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, D.; Sud, Y. C.; Oreopoulos, L.; Kim, K.-M.; Lau, W. K.; Kang, I.-S.

    2014-01-01

    We conduct several sets of simulations with a version of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5, (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) equipped with a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme to understand the role of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) emissions in Southeast Asia (SEA) in the pre-monsoon period of February-May. Our experiments are designed so that both direct and indirect aerosol effects can be evaluated. For climatologically prescribed monthly sea surface temperatures, we conduct sets of model integrations with and without biomass burning emissions in the area of peak burning activity, and with direct aerosol radiative effects either active or inactive. Taking appropriate differences between AGCM experiment sets, we find that BBA affects liquid clouds in statistically significantly ways, increasing cloud droplet number concentrations, decreasing droplet effective radii (i.e., a classic aerosol indirect effect), and locally suppressing precipitation due to a deceleration of the autoconversion process, with the latter effect apparently also leading to cloud condensate increases. Geographical re-arrangements of precipitation patterns, with precipitation increases downwind of aerosol sources are also seen, most likely because of advection of weakly precipitating cloud fields. Somewhat unexpectedly, the change in cloud radiative effect (cloud forcing) at surface is in the direction of lesser cooling because of decreases in cloud fraction. Overall, however, because of direct radiative effect contributions, aerosols exert a net negative forcing at both the top of the atmosphere and, perhaps most importantly, the surface, where decreased evaporation triggers feedbacks that further reduce precipitation. Invoking the approximation that direct and indirect aerosol effects are additive, we estimate that the overall precipitation reduction is about 40% due to the direct effects of absorbing aerosols, which stabilize the atmosphere and reduce

  7. On the association between pre-monsoon aerosol and all-India summer monsoon rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, S. D.; Preethi, B.; Bansod, S. D.; Singh, H. N.; Revadekar, J. V.; Munot, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Summer monsoon rainfall which gives 75-90% of the annual rainfall plays vital role in Indian economy as the food grain production in India is very much dependent on the summer monsoon rainfall. It has been suggested by recent studies that aerosol loading over the Indian region plays significant role in modulating the monsoon circulation and consequent rainfall distribution over the Indian sub-continent. Increased industrialization and the increasing deforestation over past few decades probably cause a gradual increase in the aerosol concentration. A significant negative relationship between pre-monsoon (March-May i.e. MAM) aerosol loading over BOB and IGP regions and the forthcoming monsoon rainfall have been observed from the thorough analysis of the fifteen years (1997-2011) monthly Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Aerosol Index (AI) and All-India Summer Monsoon Rainfall (AISMR) data. Composite analysis revealed that AI anomalies during pre-monsoon season are negative for excess year and positive for deficient monsoon years over the Indian subcontinent, with strong variation over Bay of Bengal (BOB) and Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) regions from the month of March onwards. The correlation coefficients between AISMR and pre-monsoon AI over BOB and IGP regions are found to be negative and significant at 5% level. The study clearly brings out that the pre-monsoon aerosol loading over the BOB and IGP regions has a significant correlational link with the forthcoming monsoon intensity; however a further study of the aerosol properties and their feedback to the cloud microphysical properties is asked for establishing their causal linkage.

  8. Heterogeneity in pre-monsoon aerosol characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S.; Srivastava, A. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2013-10-01

    Heterogeneity in aerosol characteristics was studied at five different locations over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during the pre-monsoon period (April-June 2011) using concurrent measurements from sun/sky radiometer, which is hypothesized to affect the Indian monsoon circulation and also the global climate system. Based on the measured aerosol products, distribution of aerosols and the associated optical properties were examined over the entire region. The pre-monsoon mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) was found to be maximum at Lahore (0.78) and Kanpur (0.68); however, a minimum AOD (∼0.6) was observed at Karachi, Jaipur and Gandhi College, with relatively high variability at Karachi and low at Gandhi College. On the other hand, a significant gradient in Angstrom exponent (AE) from Karachi (0.30) in the west to Gandhi College (0.98) in the east IGB region suggests relative dominance of coarse particles over the western part and fine particles at the eastern part of the IGB. Results are confirmed with the aerosol size distribution and the air mass back-trajectory analysis at all the stations. The corresponding pre-monsoon mean single scattering albedo (SSA) shows relatively higher value at Karachi (0.94), suggests relative dominance of scattering type particles. On the other hand, lower SSA, ranging from 0.85 to 0.92, was observed at the other stations, with the lowest value at Gandhi College (0.85), which suggests absorbing aerosol distributions over the region.

  9. Regional behaviour of atmospheric aerosols over Indo-Gangetic Basin during pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S.; Singh, A. K.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospherics aerosols play a vital role in the field of study of Earth's radiation budget and their impact on climate change. The present study was carried out for the study of variation of aerosol characteristics during pre-monsoon season 2011 at different locations, (a) Jaipur (26.900 N, 75.900E), (b) Kanpur (26.40 N, 80.40 E) and (c) Gandhi College, Ballia (25.8° N, 84.2°E) over Indo Gangetic Basin (IGB) using AERONET level 1.5 data. Various interesting results are discussed in present paper in terms of aerosol optical and radiative properties.

  10. A Comparison of Pre-monsoonal and Monsoonal Radiative Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols over South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Cohen, J. B.; Wang, C.

    2012-12-01

    Radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols after monsoon onset is often considered unimportant compared to forcing during the pre-monsoonal period, due to precipitation scavenging. We tested this assumption for the South Asian monsoon using three model runs with forcing prescribed during the pre-monsoonal period (March-May), monsoon period (June-September) and both periods. The forcing represents the direct radiative effects of sulfate, organic carbon and black carbon. It was derived from a set of Kalman filter-optimised black carbon emissions from a modelling system based on the CAM3 GCM, a two-moment multi-scheme aerosol and radiation model, and a coupled urban scale processing package; we expect it to be reliable within its given error bounds. The monthly climatological forcing values were prescribed over South Asia every year for 100 years to CESM 1.0.4, a coupled atmosphere-ocean model. We shall compare the three resultant climatologies with climatologies from a no aerosol model and a full aerosol model.

  11. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  12. Pre-monsoon aerosol characteristics over the Indo-Gangetic Basin: implications to climatic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Tiwari, S.; Devara, P. C. S.; Bisht, D. S.; Srivastava, Manoj K.; Tripathi, S. N.; Goloub, P.; Holben, B. N.

    2011-05-01

    Sun/sky radiometer observations over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB) region during pre-monsoon (from April-June 2009) have been processed to analyze various aerosol characteristics in the central and eastern IGB region, represented by Kanpur and Gandhi College, respectively, and their impacts on climate in terms of radiative forcing. Monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD at 500 nm) and corresponding Angstrom Exponent (AE at 440-870 nm, given within the brackets) was observed to be about 0.50 (0.49) and 0.51 (0.65) in April, 0.65 (0.74) and 0.67 (0.91) in May and 0.69 (0.45) and 0.77 (0.71) in June at Kanpur and Gandhi College, respectively. Results show a positive gradient in AOD and AE from central to eastern IGB region with the advancement of the pre-monsoon, which may be caused due to diverse geographical location of the stations having different meteorological conditions and emission sources. Relatively lower SSA was observed at the eastern IGB (0.89) than the central IGB (0.92) region during the period, which suggests relative dominance of absorbing aerosols at the eastern IGB as compared to central IGB region. The absorbing aerosol optical properties over the station suggest that the atmospheric absorption over central IGB region is mainly due to dominance of coarse-mode dust particles; however, absorption over eastern IGB region is mainly due to dominance of fine-particle pollution. The derived properties from sun/sky radiometer during pre-monsoon period are used in a radiative-transfer model to estimate aerosol radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere (TOA) and at the surface over the IGB region. Relatively large TOA and surface cooling was observed at the eastern IGB as compared to the central IGB region. This translates into large heating of the atmosphere ranging from 0.45 to 0.55 K day-1 at Kanpur and from 0.45 to 0.59 K day-1 at Gandhi College.

  13. [Body temperature measurement in daily practice].

    PubMed

    Sermet-Gaudelus, I; Chadelat, I; Lenoir, G

    2005-08-01

    The use of rectal mercury thermometer has long been the standard method for measurement of body temperature. The restriction of mercury use since 1996 has led to development of other devices. The liquid crystal strip thermometer held against the forehead has a low sensitivity. The single-use chemical thermometer measures oral temperature. Its accuracy must be evaluated. Infrared ear thermometers are routinely used because it is convenient and fast to use. However, numerous studies have shown that it does not show sufficient correlation with rectal temperature, leading to the risk to miss cases of true fever. Rectal temperature remains the gold standard in case of fever. Rectal temperature measurement with an electronic device is well correlated with the glass mercury standard. Galistan thermometer accuracy must be evaluated because of sterilization of the whole device, which is not the case for the electronic thermometer. A pediatric study is necessary to evaluate the performance of this device in comparison with the electronic thermometer.

  14. Possible development mechanisms of pre-monsoon thunderstorms over northeast and east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sunanda; Vishwanathan, Gokul; Mrudula, G.

    2016-05-01

    Thunderstorms are mesoscale convective systems of towering cumulonimbus clouds of high vertical and horizontal extent lasting from a few minutes to several hours. Pre-monsoon thundershowers over the past 10 years have been analyzed to understand the organization, horizontal and vertical development and dissipation of such severe events. Kalbaisakhi's/ Norwester's over north east and East India is given preference in this study, while some of the other extreme events are also analyzed due to their severity. The meteorological parameters like horizontal and vertical wind, precipitable water etc., and derived variables such as Severe Weather Threat (SWEAT) Index, Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE), and Convective Inhibition Energy (CINE) of the identified cases are analyzed using observations from NCEP and IMD. Satellite observations from IMD and TRMM are also used to analyze the development and moisture flow of such systems. The analysis shows that some of the parameters display a clear signature of developing thunderstorms. It is also seen that cloud parameters such as convective precipitation rate and convective cloud cover from NCEP FNL didn't show much variation during the development of storms, which may be attributed to the limitation of spatial and temporal resolution. The parameters which showed indications of a developing thunderstorm were studied in detail in order to understand the possible mechanisms behind the development and organization of thunderstorm cells.

  15. Chemical composition of aerosols over Bay of Bengal during pre-monsoon: Dominance of anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Prabha R.; George, Susan K.; Aryasree, S.; Jacob, Salu

    2014-03-01

    Total suspended particulates were collected from the marine boundary layer of Bay of Bengal (BoB) as part of the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols gases & Radiation Budget (ICARB) conducted under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of Indian Space Research Organisation during pre-monsoon period. These samples were analyzed to quantify various chemical species and to bring out a comprehensive and quantitative picture of the chemical composition of aerosols in the marine environment of Bay of Bengal. Almost all the species showed highest mass concentration over north/head BoB. On the other hand, their mass fractions were high over mid/south BoB which has implications on the radiative forcing in this region. The source characteristics of various species were identified using specific chemical components as tracers. Presence of significant amount of non-sea-salt aerosols (~7-8 times of sea-salt) and several trace species like Ni, Pb, Zn, etc were observed in this marine environment indicating significant continental/anthropogenic influence. An approximate estimate of the contributions of anthropogenic and natural aerosols to the total aerosol mass loading showed prominence of anthropogenic component over mid and south BoB also. Based on this study first-cut aerosol chemical models were evolved for BoB region.

  16. Bay of Bengal: coupling of pre-monsoon tropical cyclones with the monsoon onset in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosu, Boniface O.; Wang, Shih-Yu Simon

    2015-08-01

    The pre-monsoon tropical cyclone (TC) activity and the monsoon evolution in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) are both influenced by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), but the two do not always occur in unison. This study examines the conditions that allow the MJO to modulate the monsoon onset in Myanmar and TC activity concurrently. Using the APHRODITE gridded precipitation and the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets, composite evolutions of monsoon rainfall and TC genesis are constructed for the period of 1979-2010. It is found that the MJO exhibits a strong interannual variability in terms of phase and intensity, which in some years modulate the conditions for BoB TCs to shortly precede or form concurrently with the monsoon onset in Myanmar. Such a modulation is absent in years of weaker MJO events. Further understanding of the interannual variability of MJO activity could facilitate the prediction of the monsoon onset and TC formation in the BoB.

  17. Estimation of Daily Stream Temperatures in a Mountain River Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, M.; Benjankar, R. M.; Isaak, D.; Wenger, S.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature plays an important role in aquatic ecosystems. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen, water and spawning habitat quality, growth of fish populations are functions of stream temperature. Therefore, accurate estimates of daily stream temperatures can provide beneficial information for water resource managers and decision makers. Here, we develop a model for precise daily water temperature estimates that is applicable even in places lacking various meteorological and hydrological data. The water temperature model in this study is a piecewise model that considers both linear and non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables including maximum and minimum temperature (meteorological derivers) and precipitation (hydrological deriver). We demonstrated the model in the Boise River Basin, in central Idaho, USA. The hydrology of this basin is snow-dominated and complex due to the mountainous terrain. We predicted daily stream temperature at 34 sites using 12 weather and Snowtel stations for deriving variables. Results of the stream temperature model indicate average Root Mean Square Error of 1.28 degree of Celsius along with average 0.91 of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for all stations. Comparison of the results of this study to Mohseni et al.'s model (1998), which is widely applied in water temperature studies, shows better performance of the model presented in this study. Our approach can be used to provide historical reconstructions of daily stream temperatures or projections of stream temperatures under climate change scenarios in any location with at least one year of daily stream temperature observations and with contemporaneous regional air temperature and precipitation data.

  18. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to

  19. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; ...

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AODmore » and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  20. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; Zhao, C.; Cadeddu, M.

    2015-06-19

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with a version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in the northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model low-bias is due to aerosol extinctions below ~2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over South Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to -0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and cloudiness) are shown to respond

  1. Radiative and thermodynamic responses to aerosol extinction profiles during the pre-monsoon month over South Asia

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Y.; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Coulter, R.; ...

    2016-01-18

    Aerosol radiative effects and thermodynamic responses over South Asia are examined with the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) for March 2012. Model results of aerosol optical depths (AODs) and extinction profiles are analyzed and compared to satellite retrievals and two ground-based lidars located in northern India. The WRF-Chem model is found to heavily underestimate the AOD during the simulated pre-monsoon month and about 83 % of the model's low bias is due to aerosol extinctions below  ∼  2 km. Doubling the calculated aerosol extinctions below 850 hPa generates much better agreement with the observed AOD and extinction profiles averaged over Southmore » Asia. To separate the effect of absorption and scattering properties, two runs were conducted: in one run (Case I), the calculated scattering and absorption coefficients were increased proportionally, while in the second run (Case II) only the calculated aerosol scattering coefficient was increased. With the same AOD and extinction profiles, the two runs produce significantly different radiative effects over land and oceans. On the regional mean basis, Case I generates 48 % more heating in the atmosphere and 21 % more dimming at the surface than Case II. Case I also produces stronger cooling responses over the land from the longwave radiation adjustment and boundary layer mixing. These rapid adjustments offset the stronger radiative heating in Case I and lead to an overall lower-troposphere cooling up to −0.7 K day−1, which is smaller than that in Case II. Over the ocean, direct radiative effects dominate the heating rate changes in the lower atmosphere lacking such surface and lower atmosphere adjustments due to fixed sea surface temperature, and the strongest atmospheric warming is obtained in Case I. Consequently, atmospheric dynamics (boundary layer heights and meridional circulation) and thermodynamic processes (water vapor and

  2. Daily extreme temperature multifractals in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgueño, A.; Lana, X.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.

    2014-02-01

    The multifractal character of the daily extreme temperatures in Catalonia (NE Spain) is analyzed by means of the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) applied to 65 thermometric records covering years 1950-2004. Although no clear spatial patterns of the multifractal spectrum parameters appear, factor scores deduced from Principal Component analysis indicate some signs of spatial gradients. Additionally, the daily extreme temperature series are classified depending on their complex time behavior, through four multifractal parameters (Hurst exponent, Hölder exponent with maximum spectrum, spectrum asymmetry and spectrum width). As a synthesis of the three last parameters, a basic measure of complexity is proposed through a normalized Complexity Index. Its regional behavior is found to be free of geographical dependences. This index represents a new step towards the description of the daily extreme temperatures complexity.

  3. Spatial distribution of aerosol black carbon over India during pre-monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum, S. Naseema; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Babu, S. Suresh; Satheesh, S. K.; Vinoj, V.; Badarinath, K. V. S.; Safai, P. D.; Devara, P. C. S.; Singh, Sacchidanand; Vinod; Dumka, U. C.; Pant, P.

    Aerosol black carbon (BC) mass concentrations ([BC]), measured continuously during a mutli-platform field experiment, Integrated Campaign for Aerosols gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB, March-May 2006), from a network of eight observatories spread over geographically distinct environments of India, (which included five mainland stations, one highland station, and two island stations (one each in Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal)) are examined for their spatio-temporal characteristics. During the period of study, [BC] showed large variations across the country, with values ranging from 27 μg m -3 over industrial/urban locations to as low as 0.065 μg m -3 over the Arabian Sea. For all mainland stations, [BC] remained high compared to highland as well as island stations. Among the island stations, Port Blair (PBR) had higher concentration of BC, compared to Minicoy (MCY), implying more absorbing nature of Bay of Bengal aerosols than Arabian Sea. The highland station Nainital (NTL), in the central Himalayas, showed low values of [BC], comparable or even lower than that of the island station PBR, indicating the prevalence of cleaner environment over there. An examination of the changes in the mean temporal features, as the season advances from winter (December-February) to pre-monsoon (March-May), revealed that: (a) Diurnal variations were pronounced over all the mainland stations, with an afternoon low and a nighttime high; (b) At the islands, the diurnal variations, though resembled those over the mainlands, were less pronounced; and (c) In contrast to this, highland station showed an opposite pattern with an afternoon high and a late night or early morning low. The diurnal variations at all stations are mainly caused by the dynamics of local Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). At the entire mainland as well as island stations (except HYD and DEL), [BC] showed a decreasing trend from January to May. This is attributed to the increased convective mixing and to the

  4. Statistical Modeling of Daily Stream Temperature for Mitigating Fish Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, R. J.; Rajagopalan, B.

    2011-12-01

    Water allocations in the Central Valley Project (CVP) of California require the consideration of short- and long-term needs of many socioeconomic factors including, but not limited to, agriculture, urban use, flood mitigation/control, and environmental concerns. The Endangered Species Act (ESA) ensures that the decision-making process provides sufficient water to limit the impact on protected species, such as salmon, in the Sacramento River Valley. Current decision support tools in the CVP were deemed inadequate by the National Marine Fisheries Service due to the limited temporal resolution of forecasts for monthly stream temperature and fish mortality. Finer scale temporal resolution is necessary to account for the stream temperature variations critical to salmon survival and reproduction. In addition, complementary, long-range tools are needed for monthly and seasonal management of water resources. We will present a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework of maximum daily stream temperatures and related attributes, such as: daily stream temperature range, exceedance/non-exceedance of critical threshold temperatures, and the number of hours of exceedance. A suite of predictors that impact stream temperatures are included in the models, including current and prior day values of streamflow, water temperatures of upstream releases from Shasta Dam, air temperature, and precipitation. Monthly models are developed for each stream temperature attribute at the Balls Ferry gauge, an EPA compliance point for meeting temperature criteria. The statistical framework is also coupled with seasonal climate forecasts using a stochastic weather generator to provide ensembles of stream temperature scenarios that can be used for seasonal scale water allocation planning and decisions. Short-term weather forecasts can also be used in the framework to provide near-term scenarios useful for making water release decisions on a daily basis. The framework can be easily translated to other

  5. A stochastic model for the analysis of maximum daily temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirangelo, B.; Caloiero, T.; Coscarelli, R.; Ferrari, E.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a stochastic model for the analysis of the daily maximum temperature is proposed. First, a deseasonalization procedure based on the truncated Fourier expansion is adopted. Then, the Johnson transformation functions were applied for the data normalization. Finally, the fractionally autoregressive integrated moving average model was used to reproduce both short- and long-memory behavior of the temperature series. The model was applied to the data of the Cosenza gauge (Calabria region) and verified on other four gauges of southern Italy. Through a Monte Carlo simulation procedure based on the proposed model, 105 years of daily maximum temperature have been generated. Among the possible applications of the model, the occurrence probabilities of the annual maximum values have been evaluated. Moreover, the procedure was applied for the estimation of the return periods of long sequences of days with maximum temperature above prefixed thresholds.

  6. Potential modulations of pre-monsoon aerosols during El Niño: impact on Indian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadnavis, S.; Roy, Chaitri; Sabin, T. P.; Ayantika, D. C.; Ashok, K.

    2016-11-01

    The potential role of aerosol loading on the Indian summer monsoon rainfall during the El Niño years are examined using satellite-derived observations and a state of the art fully interactive aerosol-chemistry-climate model. The Aerosol Index (AI) from TOMS (1978-2005) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from MISR spectroradiometer (2000-2010) indicate a higher-than-normal aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) during the pre-monsoon season with a concurrent El Niño. Sensitivity experiments using ECHAM5-HAMMOZ climate model suggests that this enhanced loading of pre-monsoon absorbing aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic plain can reduce the drought during El Niño years by invoking the `Elevated-Heat-Pump' mechanism through an anomalous aerosol-induced warm core in the atmospheric column. This anomalous heating upshot the relative strengthening of the cross-equatorial moisture inflow associated with the monsoon and eventually reduces the severity of drought during El Niño years. The findings are subject to the usual limitations such as the uncertainties in observations, and limited number of El Niño years (during the study period).

  7. Environmental status of groundwater affected by chromite ore processing residue (COPR) dumpsites during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons.

    PubMed

    Matern, Katrin; Weigand, Harald; Singh, Abhas; Mansfeldt, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Chromite ore processing residue (COPR) is generated by the roasting of chromite ores for the extraction of chromium. Leaching of carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from COPR dumpsites and contamination of groundwater is a key environmental risk. The objective of the study was to evaluate Cr(VI) contamination in groundwater in the vicinity of three COPR disposal sites in Uttar Pradesh, India, in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Groundwater samples (n = 57 pre-monsoon, n = 70 monsoon) were taken in 2014 and analyzed for Cr(VI) and relevant hydrochemical parameters. The site-specific ranges of Cr(VI) concentrations in groundwater were <0.005 to 34.8 mg L(-1) (Rania), <0.005 to 115 mg L(-1) (Chhiwali), and <0.005 to 2.0 mg L(-1) (Godhrauli). Maximum levels of Cr(VI) were found close to the COPR dumpsites and significantly exceeded safe drinking water limits (0.05 mg L(-1)). No significant dependence of Cr(VI) concentration on monsoons was observed.

  8. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  9. New developments on the homogenization of Canadian daily temperature data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Lucie A.; Wang, Xiaolan L.

    2010-05-01

    Long-term and homogenized surface air temperature datasets had been prepared for the analysis of climate trends in Canada (Vincent and Gullett 1999). Non-climatic steps due to instruments relocation/changes and changes in observing procedures were identified in the annual mean of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures using a technique based on regression models (Vincent 1998). Monthly adjustments were derived from the regression models and daily adjustments were obtained from an interpolation procedure using the monthly adjustments (Vincent et al. 2002). Recently, new statistical tests have been developed to improve the power of detecting changepoints in climatological data time series. The penalized maximal t (PMT) test (Wang et al. 2007) and the penalized maximal F (PMF) test (Wang 2008b) were developed to take into account the position of each changepoint in order to minimize the effect of unequal and small sample size. A software package RHtestsV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) has also been developed to implement these tests to homogenize climate data series. A recursive procedure was developed to estimate the annual cycle, linear trend, and lag-1 autocorrelation of the base series in tandem, so that the effect of lag-1 autocorrelation is accounted for in the tests. A Quantile Matching (QM) algorithm (Wang 2009) was also developed for adjusting Gaussian daily data so that the empirical distributions of all segments of the detrended series match each other. The RHtestsV3 package was used to prepare a second generation of homogenized temperatures in Canada. Both the PMT test and the PMF test were applied to detect shifts in monthly mean temperature series. Reference series was used in conducting a PMT test. Whenever possible, the main causes of the shifts were retrieved through historical evidence such as the station inspection reports. Finally, the QM algorithm was used to adjust the daily temperature series for the artificial shifts identified from the respective

  10. Observations of Daily Temperature Patterns in the Southern Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, R.W.; Jenter, H.L.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor affecting key hydrological and ecological processes within the subtropical wetlands of the Florida Everglades. Comprehensive measurements are being made to quantify the temporal and spatial variability of the water-temperature regime. Data collected in 2000 at a location near the central flow pathway of the ecosystem showed both daily repetitive cycles and dynamic fluctuations in response to meteorological forces. Time-series data collected at spatial intervals throughout the water column, in the air, and in the underlying plant-litter layer revealed the dynamic nature of the temperature structure, e.g., uniformly well-mixed periods, stratified conditions, inversions, changing vertical gradients, and other characteristics important to understanding ecosystem processes.

  11. Poorest countries experience earlier anthropogenic emergence of daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Luke J.; Frame, David J.; Fischer, Erich M.; Hawkins, Ed; Joshi, Manoj; Jones, Chris D.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how the emergence of the anthropogenic warming signal from the noise of internal variability translates to changes in extreme event occurrence is of crucial societal importance. By utilising simulations of cumulative carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and temperature changes from eleven earth system models, we demonstrate that the inherently lower internal variability found at tropical latitudes results in large increases in the frequency of extreme daily temperatures (exceedances of the 99.9th percentile derived from pre-industrial climate simulations) occurring much earlier than for mid-to-high latitude regions. Most of the world’s poorest people live at low latitudes, when considering 2010 GDP-PPP per capita; conversely the wealthiest population quintile disproportionately inhabit more variable mid-latitude climates. Consequently, the fraction of the global population in the lowest socio-economic quintile is exposed to substantially more frequent daily temperature extremes after much lower increases in both mean global warming and cumulative CO2 emissions.

  12. Benchmarking the performance of daily temperature homogenisation algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel; Bailey, Trevor; Jolliffe, Ian; Willett, Kate

    2015-04-01

    This work explores the creation of realistic synthetic data and its use as a benchmark for comparing the performance of different homogenisation algorithms on daily temperature data. Four different regions in the United States have been selected and three different inhomogeneity scenarios explored for each region. These benchmark datasets are beneficial as, unlike in the real world, the underlying truth is known a priori, thus allowing definite statements to be made about the performance of the algorithms run on them. Performance can be assessed in terms of the ability of algorithms to detect changepoints and also their ability to correctly remove inhomogeneities. The focus is on daily data, thus presenting new challenges in comparison to monthly data and pushing the boundaries of previous studies. The aims of this work are to evaluate and compare the performance of various homogenisation algorithms, aiding their improvement and enabling a quantification of the uncertainty remaining in the data even after they have been homogenised. An important outcome is also to evaluate how realistic the created benchmarks are. It is essential that any weaknesses in the benchmarks are taken into account when judging algorithm performance against them. This information in turn will help to improve future versions of the benchmarks. I intend to present a summary of this work including the method of benchmark creation, details of the algorithms run and some preliminary results. This work forms a three year PhD and feeds into the larger project of the International Surface Temperature Initiative which is working on a global scale and with monthly instead of daily data.

  13. Recent high mountain rockfalls and warm daily temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. K.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Linkages between longer term warming of the climate, related changes in the cryosphere, and destabilisation of high mountain rockwalls have been documented in several studies. Although understanding is far from complete, a range of physical processes related to longer term warming are understood to have an effect on slope stability. More recently, some attention has turned to the possible influence of much shorter periods of extremely warm temperatures, as a contributing factor, or even trigger of slope failures. So far, studies have not extended beyond highlighting one or a few individual events, and no common approach to quantifying the 'extremity' of the prevailing temperatures has been used. In the current study, we integrate established practices used in the climatology community in the analyses of climate extremes, together with an inventory of ca. 20 recent rock failures (1987 - 2010) in the central European Alps, to assess temporal relationships between daily air temperature extremes and rock failure occurrence. Using data from three high elevation recording sites across Switzerland, we focus on daily maximum temperatures in the 4 weeks immediately prior to each rockfall occurrence, where an extremely warm day is defined as exceeding the 95th percentile during the climatological reference period of 1971 - 2000. The 95th percentile is calculated in a 21 day moving window, so that extreme temperatures are considered relative to the time of year, and not on an annual basis. In addition, rock failures from the Southern Alps of New Zealand are analysed, although high elevation climate data are limited from this region. Results from the European Alps show that a majority of recent slope failures have been preceded by one or more extreme, unseasonably warm days, most notably in the week immediately prior to the failure. For example, for 9 slope failures in the Valais - Mt Blanc region (based on Grand St Bernhard climate data), 6 were proceeded by extremely warm

  14. Trends in Observed Summer Daily Temperature Maximum Across Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangwala, I.; Arvidson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Increases in the anthropogenic greenhouse forcing are expected to increase the tendency for longer and stronger heat waves in summer. We examine if there is a trend in the observed daytime extreme temperature (Tmax) during summer between 1900-2014 at select high quality stations (n=9) across Colorado. We compile daily observations of Tmax and other variables during summer (JJA), and derive and analyze trends in five different extreme metrics from this data that include the maximum five-day Tmax average, warm spell duration index, and the number of days when Tmax exceeds the 95th, 99th, and 99.9th percentile conditions. We find that the 1930s and 2000s in Colorado had some outstandingly hot years, when we also find exceptionally high count of summer Tmax extremes. Five out of the nine stations show increases in extreme temperature indicators in the more recent decades. The variability in trends in the daily summer Tmax extremes across the nine stations correspond with the mean annual warming trends at those stations. We also find that wetter summers have much smaller instances of Tmax extremes as compared to drier summers.

  15. Daily temperature and precipitation data for 223 USSR Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, V.N.; Apasova, E.G.; Martuganov, R.A.; Vose, R.S.; Steurer, P.M.

    1993-11-01

    On- May 23, 1972, the United States and the USSR established a bilateral initiative known as the Agreement on Protection of the Environment. Given recent interest in possible greenhouse gas-induced climate change, Working Group VIII (Influence of Environmental Changes on Climate) has become particularly useful to the scientific communities of both nations. Among its many achievements, Working Group VIII has been instrumental in the exchange of climatological information between the principal climate data centers of each country [i.e., the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina, and the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information in Obninsk, Russia]. Considering the relative lack of climate records previously available for the USSR, data obtained via this bilateral exchange are particularly valuable to researchers outside the former Soviet Union. To expedite the dissemination of these data, NOAA`s Climate and Global Change Program funded the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and NCDC to distribute one of the more useful archives acquired through this exchange: a 223-station daily data set covering the period 1881-1989. This data set contains: (1) daily mean, minimum, and maximum temperature data; (2) daily precipitation data; (3) station inventory information (WMO No., name, coordinates, and elevation); (4) station history information (station relocation and rain gauge replacement dates); and (5) quality assurance information (i.e., flag codes that were assigned as a result of various data checks). The data set is available, free of charge, as a Numeric Data Package (NDP) from CDIAC. The NDP consists of 18 data files and a printed document which describes both the data files and the 223-station network in detail.

  16. Reconstruction of MODIS daily land surface temperature under clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Gao, F.; Chen, Z.; Song, L.; Xie, D.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), generally defined as the skin temperature of the Earth's surface, controls the process of evapotranspiration, surface energy balance, soil moisture change and climate change. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is equipped with 1km resolution thermal sensor andcapable of observing the earth surface at least once per day.Thermal infrared bands cannot penetrate cloud, which means we cannot get consistency drought monitoring condition at one area. However, the cloudy-sky conditions represent more than half of the actual day-to-day weather around the global. In this study, we developed an LST filled model based on the assumption that under good weather condition, LST difference between two nearby pixels are similar among the closest 8 days. We used all the valid pixels covered by a 9*9 window to reconstruct the gap LST. Each valid pixel is assigned a weight which is determined by the spatial distance and the spectral similarity. This model is applied in the Middle-East of China including Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi province. The terrain is complicated in this area including plain and hill. The MODIS daily LST product (MOD11A3) from 2000 to 2004 is tested. Almost all the gap pixels are filled, and the terrain information is reconstructed well and smoothly. We masked two areas in order to validate the model, one located in the plain, another located in the hill. The correlation coefficient is greater than 0.8, even up to 0.92 in a few days. We also used ground measured day maximum and mean surface temperature to valid our model. Although both the temporal and spatial scale are different between ground measured temperature and MODIS LST, they agreed well in all the stations. This LST filled model is operational because it only needs LST and reflectance, and does not need other auxiliary information such as climate factors. We will apply this model to more regions in the future.

  17. Prediction of daily sea surface temperature using efficient neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Kalpesh; Deo, Makaranad Chintamani

    2017-02-01

    Short-term prediction of sea surface temperature (SST) is commonly achieved through numerical models. Numerical approaches are more suitable for use over a large spatial domain than in a specific site because of the difficulties involved in resolving various physical sub-processes at local levels. Therefore, for a given location, a data-driven approach such as neural networks may provide a better alternative. The application of neural networks, however, needs a large experimentation in their architecture, training methods, and formation of appropriate input-output pairs. A network trained in this manner can provide more attractive results if the advances in network architecture are additionally considered. With this in mind, we propose the use of wavelet neural networks (WNNs) for prediction of daily SST values. The prediction of daily SST values was carried out using WNN over 5 days into the future at six different locations in the Indian Ocean. First, the accuracy of site-specific SST values predicted by a numerical model, ROMS, was assessed against the in situ records. The result pointed out the necessity for alternative approaches. First, traditional networks were tried and after noticing their poor performance, WNN was used. This approach produced attractive forecasts when judged through various error statistics. When all locations were viewed together, the mean absolute error was within 0.18 to 0.32 °C for a 5-day-ahead forecast. The WNN approach was thus found to add value to the numerical method of SST prediction when location-specific information is desired.

  18. MJO modulation on diurnal rainfall over West Java during pre-monsoon and strong El Niño periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yulihastin, E.; Trismidianto; Satyawardhana, H.; Nugroho, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the MJO modulation ondiurnal rainfall in West Java during the pre-monsoon and strong El Niño periods in 2015 over West Java. The data used is a combination of satellite data, reanalysis data, radar stations data, and numerical weather prediction of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) data with spatial resolution of 5 km. The results confirmed that the strong MJO in 4 and 5 phases has modulated the amplitude of diurnal rainfall increase significantly over West Java in phase of lag+1. Modulation on diurnal cycle of rainfall was also indicated by the persistence of the rainfall and the formation of two peaks of maximum rainfall in the afternoon and early morning. In addition, modulation of rainfall for the southern part of Java was 50% greater than the north. Moreover, the MJO modulation mechanism was characterized by the formation of an active and extending of Meso-scale Convective System (MCS) which has a cycle of up to 12 hours and persistent from November 7-9 over West Java.

  19. Distribution, sources and biogeochemistry of organic matter in a mangrove dominated estuarine system (Indian Sundarbans) during the pre-monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R.; Rixen, T.; Baum, A.; Malik, A.; Gleixner, G.; Jana, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    The sources and distribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Indian Sundarbans mangrove and Hooghly estuarine system were examined during the pre-monsoon (summer) 2014. DOC is the dominant form of organic matter (OM) in the studied estuarine waters and represents a mixture of mangrove and riverine sources. Microbial degradation of land derived OM results in a high pCO2 in the Hooghly estuarine waters while enrichment in δ13C-DIC ascribes to CO2 uptake by phytoplankton in the Sundarbans water. Higher δ15N in the particulate organic nitrogen (PON) of the mangrove and marine zone could be associated with enhanced phytoplankton production sustained by nitrate from mangrove derived OM decomposition and/or nitrate imported from the Bay of Bengal. Low organic carbon contents and elemental ratios (TN/TOC) indicate an intense mineralization and transformation of OM in the sediments, resulting insignificantly different OM compositions compared to those of the three major sources: land derived OM, mangrove leaf litter (Avicennia marina) and in situ phytoplankton production.

  20. Modeling daily average stream temperature from air temperature and watershed area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, N. L.; Hunt, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Habitat restoration efforts within watersheds require spatial and temporal estimates of water temperature for aquatic species especially species that migrate within watersheds at different life stages. Monitoring programs are not able to fully sample all aquatic environments within watersheds under the extreme conditions that determine long-term habitat viability. Under these circumstances a combination of selective monitoring and modeling are required for predicting future geospatial and temporal conditions. This study describes a model that is broadly applicable to different watersheds while using readily available regional air temperature data. Daily water temperature data from thirty-eight gauges with drainage areas from 2 km2 to 2000 km2 in the Sonoma Valley, Napa Valley, and Russian River Valley in California were used to develop, calibrate, and test a stream temperature model. Air temperature data from seven NOAA gauges provided the daily maximum and minimum air temperatures. The model was developed and calibrated using five years of data from the Sonoma Valley at ten water temperature gauges and a NOAA air temperature gauge. The daily average stream temperatures within this watershed were bounded by the preceding maximum and minimum air temperatures with smaller upstream watersheds being more dependent on the minimum air temperature than maximum air temperature. The model assumed a linear dependence on maximum and minimum air temperature with a weighting factor dependent on upstream area determined by error minimization using observed data. Fitted minimum air temperature weighting factors were consistent over all five years of data for each gauge, and they ranged from 0.75 for upstream drainage areas less than 2 km2 to 0.45 for upstream drainage areas greater than 100 km2. For the calibration data sets within the Sonoma Valley, the average error between the model estimated daily water temperature and the observed water temperature data ranged from 0.7

  1. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City.

    PubMed

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007-2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0-15 years old). Middle-aged people (16-65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8-1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place.

  2. Association between Daily Hospital Outpatient Visits for Accidents and Daily Ambient Air Temperatures in an Industrial City

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Tang-Tat; Wang, Kuo-Ying

    2016-01-01

    An accident is an unwanted hazard to a person. However, accidents occur. In this work, we search for correlations between daily accident rates and environmental factors. To study daily hospital outpatients who were admitted for accidents during a 5-year period, 2007–2011, we analyzed data regarding 168,366 outpatients using univariate regression models; we also used multivariable regression models to account for confounding factors. Our analysis indicates that the number of male outpatients admitted for accidents was approximately 1.31 to 1.47 times the number of female outpatients (P < 0.0001). Of the 12 parameters (regarding air pollution and meteorology) considered, only daily temperature exhibited consistent and significant correlations with the daily number of hospital outpatient visits for accidents throughout the 5-year analysis period. The univariate regression models indicate that older people (greater than 66 years old) had the fewest accidents per 1-degree increase in temperature, followed by young people (0–15 years old). Middle-aged people (16–65 years old) were the group of outpatients that were more prone to accidents, with an increase in accident rates of 0.8–1.2 accidents per degree increase in temperature. The multivariable regression models also reveal that the temperature variation was the dominant factor in determining the daily number of outpatient visits for accidents. Our further multivariable model analysis of temperature with respect to air pollution variables show that, through the increases in emissions and concentrations of CO, photochemical O3 production and NO2 loss in the ambient air, increases in vehicular emissions are associated with increases in temperatures. As such, increases in hospital visits for accidents are related to vehicular emissions and usage. This finding is consistent with clinical experience which shows about 60% to 80% of accidents are related to traffic, followed by accidents occurred in work place. PMID

  3. Spatial downscaling and mapping of daily precipitation and air temperature using daily station data and monthly mean maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.; Stern, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate maps of daily weather variables are an essential component of hydrologic and ecologic modeling. Here we present a four-step method that uses daily station data and transient monthly maps of precipitation and air temperature. This method uses the monthly maps to help interpolate between stations for more accurate production of daily maps at any spatial resolution. The first step analyzes the quality of the each station's data using a discrepancy analysis that compares statistics derived from a statistical jack-knifing approach with a time-series evaluation of discrepancies generated for each station. Although several methods could be used for the second step of producing initial maps, such as kriging, splines, etc., we used a gradient plus inverse distance squared method that was developed to produce accurate climate maps for sparse data regions with widely separated and few climate stations, far fewer than would be needed for techniques such as kriging. The gradient plus inverse distance squared method uses local gradients in the climate parameters, easting, northing, and elevation, to adjust the inverse distance squared estimates for local gradients such as lapse rates, inversions, or rain shadows at scales of 10's of meters to kilometers. The third step is to downscale World Wide Web (web) based transient monthly data, such as Precipitation-Elevation Regression on Independent Slope Method (PRISM) for the US (4 km or 800 m maps) or Climate Research Unit (CRU 3.1) data sets (40 km for global applications) to the scale of the daily data's digital elevation model. In the final step the downscaled transient monthly maps are used to adjust the daily time-series mapped data (~30 maps/month) for each month. These adjustments are used to scale daily maps so that summing them for precipitation or averaging them for temperature would more accurately reproduce the variability in selected monthly maps. This method allows for individual days to have maxima or minima

  4. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part I: maximum temperatures in summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of summer maximum temperatures is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, summer maximum daily temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent heat-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict heat-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that high temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily maximum temperatures during summer over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the summer forecast period of 1 June - 30 September, 2007. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated maximum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme heat episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  5. Atmospheric aerosols size distribution properties in winter and pre-monsoon over western Indian Thar Desert location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panwar, Chhagan; Vyas, B. M.

    2016-05-01

    The first ever experimental results over Indian Thar Desert region concerning to height integrated aerosols size distribution function in particles size ranging between 0.09 to 2 µm such as, aerosols columnar size distribution (CSD), effective radius (Reff), integrated content of total aerosols (Nt), columnar content of accumulation and coarse size aerosols particles concentration (Na) (size < 0.5 µm) and (Nc) (size between 0.5 to 2 µm) have been described specifically during winter (a stable weather condition and intense anthropogenic pollution activity period) and pre-monsoon (intense dust storms of natural mineral aerosols as well as unstable atmospheric weather condition period) at Jaisalmer (26.90°N, 69.90°E, 220 m above surface level (asl)) located in central Thar desert vicinity of western Indian site. The CSD and various derived other aerosols size parameters are retrieved from their average spectral characteristics of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from UV to Infrared wavelength spectrum measured from Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR). The natures of CSD are, in general, bio-modal character, instead of uniformly distributed character and power law distributions. The observed primary peaks in CSD plots are seen around about 1013 m2 μm-1 at radius range 0.09-0.20 µm during both the seasons. But, in winter months, secondary peaks of relatively lower CSD values of 1010 to 1011 m2/μm-1 occur within a lower radius size range 0.4 to 0.6 µm. In contrast to this, while in dust dominated and hot season, the dominated secondary maxima of the higher CSD of about 1012 m2μm-3 is found of bigger aerosols size particles in a rage of 0.6 to 1.0 µm which is clearly demonstrating the characteristics of higher aerosols laden of bigger size aerosols in summer months relative to their prevailed lower aerosols loading of smaller size aerosols particles (0.4 to 0.6 µm) in cold months. Several other interesting features of changing nature of monthly spectral AOT

  6. Effects of dust aerosols on tropospheric chemistry during a typical pre-monsoon season dust storm in northern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Madronich, S.; Naja, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Pfister, G. G.; Knote, C.; Brasseur, G. P.; Ojha, N.; Sarangi, T.

    2014-07-01

    This study examines the effect of a typical pre-monsoon season dust storm on tropospheric chemistry through a case study in northern India. Dust can alter photolysis rates by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and provide surface area for heterogeneous reactions. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) to simulate the dust storm that occurred during 17-22 April 2010 and investigate the contribution of different processes on mixing ratios of several key trace gases including ozone, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen oxides, methanol, acetic acid and formaldehyde. We revised the Fast Troposphere Ultraviolet Visible (F-TUV) photolysis scheme to include effects of dust aerosols on photolysis rates in a manner consistent with the calculations of aerosol optical properties for feedback to the meteorology radiation schemes. In addition, we added 12 heterogeneous reactions on the dust surface, for which 6 reactions have relative-humidity-dependent reactive uptake coefficients (γ). The inclusion of these processes in WRF-Chem is found to reduce the difference between observed and modeled O3 from 16 ± 9 to 2 ± 8 ppbv and that in NOy from 2129 ± 1425 to 372 ± 1225 pptv compared to measurements at the high-altitude site Nainital in the central Himalayas, and reduce biases by up to 30% in tropospheric column NO2 compared to OMI retrievals. The simulated dust storm acted as a sink for all the trace gases examined here and significantly perturbed their spatial and vertical distributions. The reductions in these gases are estimated as 5-100%, and more than 80% of this reduction was due to heterogeneous chemistry. The RH dependence of γ is also found to have substantial impact on the distribution of trace gases, with changes of up to 20-25% in O3 and HO2, 50% in H2O2 and 100% in HNO3. A set of sensitivity analyses revealed that dust aging could change H2O2 and CH3COOH levels by up to 50% but has a relatively small impact on other gases.

  7. A comparison of climatological observing windows and their impact on detecting daily temperature extrema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žaknić-Ćatović, Ana; Gough, William A.

    2017-02-01

    Climatological observing window (COW) is defined as a time frame over which continuous or extreme air temperature measurements are collected. A 24-h time interval, ending at 00UTC or shifted to end at 06UTC, has been associated with difficulties in characterizing daily temperature extrema. A fixed 24-h COW used to obtain the temperature minima leads to potential misidentification due to fragmentation of "nighttime" into two subsequent nighttime periods due to the time discretization interval. The correct identification of air temperature extrema is achievable using a COW that identifies daily minimum over a single nighttime period and maximum over a single daytime period, as determined by sunrise and sunset. Due to a common absence of hourly air temperature observations, the accuracy of the mean temperature estimation is dependent on the accuracy of determination of diurnal air temperature extrema. Qualitative and quantitative criteria were used to examine the impact of the COW on detecting daily air temperature extrema. The timing of the 24-h observing window occasionally affects the determination of daily extrema through a mischaracterization of the diurnal minima and by extension can lead to errors in determining daily mean temperature. Hourly air temperature data for the time period from year 1987 to 2014, obtained from Toronto Buttonville Municipal Airport weather station, were used in analysis of COW impacts on detection of daily temperature extrema and calculation of annual temperature averages based on such extrema.

  8. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  9. Daily Cycle of Air Temperature and Surface Temperature in Stone Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Li, Y.; Wang, X.; Yuan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Urbanization is one of the most profound human activities that impact on climate change. In cities, where are highly artificial areas, the conflict between human activity and natural climate is particularly prominent. Urban areas always have the larger area of impervious land, the higher consumption of greenhouse gases, more emissions of anthropogenic heat and air pollution, all contribute to the urban warming phenomena. Understanding the mechanisms causing a variety of phenomena involved in the urban warming is critical to distinguish the anthropogenic effect and natural variation in the climate change. However, the exact dynamics of urban warming were poorly understood, and effective control strategies are not available. Here we present a study of the daily cycle of air temperature and surface temperature in Stone Forest. The specific heat of the stones in the Stone Forest and concrete of the man-made structures within the cities are approximate. Besides, the height of the Stone Forest and the height of buildings within the city are also similar. As a scenic area, the Stone Forest is being preserved and only opened for sightseeing. There is no anthropogenic heat, as well air pollution within the Stone Forest. The thermal environment in Stone Forest can be considered to be a simulation of thermal environment in the city, which can reveal the effect of man-made structures on urban thermal environment. We conducted the field studies and numerical analysis in the Stone Forest for 4 typical urban morphology and environment scenarios, including high-rise compact cities, low-rise sparse cities, garden cities and isolated single stone. Air temperature and relative humidity were measured every half an hour in 15 different locations, which within different spatial distribution of stones and can represent the four urban scenarios respectively. At the same time, an infrared camera was used to take thermal images and get the hourly surface temperatures of stones and

  10. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations.

  11. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  12. Estimation of body temperature rhythm based on heart activity parameters in daily life.

    PubMed

    Sooyoung Sim; Heenam Yoon; Hosuk Ryou; Kwangsuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature contains valuable health related information such as circadian rhythm and menstruation cycle. Also, it was discovered from previous studies that body temperature rhythm in daily life is related with sleep disorders and cognitive performances. However, monitoring body temperature with existing devices during daily life is not easy because they are invasive, intrusive, or expensive. Therefore, the technology which can accurately and nonintrusively monitor body temperature is required. In this study, we developed body temperature estimation model based on heart rate and heart rate variability parameters. Although this work was inspired by previous research, we originally identified that the model can be applied to body temperature monitoring in daily life. Also, we could find out that normalized Mean heart rate (nMHR) and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability showed better performance than other parameters. Although we should validate the model with more number of subjects and consider additional algorithms to decrease the accumulated estimation error, we could verify the usefulness of this approach. Through this study, we expect that we would be able to monitor core body temperature and circadian rhythm from simple heart rate monitor. Then, we can obtain various health related information derived from daily body temperature rhythm.

  13. Estimation of daily mean air temperature from satellite derived radiometric data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, D.

    1976-01-01

    The Screwworm Eradication Data System (SEDS) at JSC utilizes satellite derived estimates of daily mean air temperature (DMAT) to monitor the effect of temperature on screwworm populations. The performance of the SEDS screwworm growth potential predictions depends in large part upon the accuracy of the DMAT estimates.

  14. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-01

    The Markov chain's first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  15. Application of Markov chain model to daily maximum temperature for thermal comfort in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, Muhamad Asyraf bin Che; Hassan, Husna

    2015-10-22

    The Markov chain’s first order principle has been widely used to model various meteorological fields, for prediction purposes. In this study, a 14-year (2000-2013) data of daily maximum temperatures in Bayan Lepas were used. Earlier studies showed that the outdoor thermal comfort range based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) index in Malaysia is less than 34°C, thus the data obtained were classified into two state: normal state (within thermal comfort range) and hot state (above thermal comfort range). The long-run results show the probability of daily temperature exceed TCR will be only 2.2%. On the other hand, the probability daily temperature within TCR will be 97.8%.

  16. The EUSTACE project: delivering global, daily information on surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morice, C. P.; Rayner, N. A.; Auchmann, R.; Bessembinder, J.; Bronnimann, S.; Brugnara, Y.; Conway, E. A.; Ghent, D.; Good, E.; Herring, K.; Kennedy, J.; Lindgren, F.; Madsen, K. S.; Merchant, C. J.; van der Schrier, G.; Stephens, A.; Tonboe, R. T.; Waterfall, A. M.; Mitchelson, J.; Woolway, I.

    2015-12-01

    Day-to-day variations in surface air temperature affect society in many ways; however, daily surface air temperature measurements are not available everywhere. A global daily analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional (land and marine) surface air temperature measurements and retrievals of surface skin temperature from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface Temperature, Ice Surface Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature and Lake Surface Water Temperature. These relationships can be derived either empirically or with the help of a physical model.Here we discuss the science needed to produce a fully-global daily analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air temperature on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types. Information contained in the satellite retrievals would be used to create globally-complete fields in the past, using statistical models of how surface air temperature varies in a connected way from place to place. As the data volumes involved are considerable, such work needs to include development of new "Big Data" analysis methods.We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018), i.e.: • providing new, consistent, multi-component estimates of uncertainty in surface skin temperature retrievals from satellites; • identifying inhomogeneities in daily surface air temperature measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; • estimating surface air temperature over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin temperature retrievals; • using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras.Information will also be given on how interested users can become

  17. Fine-Resolution Satellite-Based Daily Sea Surface Temperatures over the Global Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    MODAS with latitudinal extent limited to ±80. Note that only the RTG product includes SST in the Caspian Sea and the Sea of Azov . The plot masks SST...Fine-resolution satellite-based daily sea surface temperatures over the global ocean A. B. Kara1 and C. N. Barron1 Received 18 November 2006; revised...13 February 2007; accepted 27 February 2007; published 22 May 2007. [1] The accuracy and relative merits of two sets of daily global sea surface

  18. Effects of temperature seasonality on tundra vegetation productivity using a daily vegetation dynamics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Erler, A.; Frazier, J.; Bhatt, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Changes in the seasonality of air temperature will elicit interacting effects on the dynamics of snow cover, nutrient availability, vegetation growth, and other ecosystem properties and processes in arctic tundra. Simulation models often do not have the fine temporal resolution necessary to develop theory and propose hypotheses for the effects of daily and weekly timescale changes on ecosystem dynamics. We therefore developed a daily version of an arctic tundra vegetation dynamics model (ArcVeg) to simulate how changes in the seasonality of air temperatures influences the dynamics of vegetation growth and carbon sequestration across regions of arctic tundra. High temporal-resolution air and soil temperature data collected from field sites across the five arctic tundra bioclimate subzones were used to develop a daily weather generator operable for sites throughout the arctic tundra. Empirical relationships between temperature and soil nitrogen were used to generate daily dynamics of soil nitrogen availability, which drive the daily uptake of nitrogen and growth among twelve tundra plant functional types. Seasonal dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and remotely sensed land surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) GIMMS 3g dataset were used to investigate constraints on the start of the growing season, although there was no indication of any spatially consistent temperature or day-length controls on greening onset. Because of the exponential nature of the relationship between soil temperature and nitrogen mineralization, temperature changes during the peak of the growing season had greater effects on vegetation productivity than changes earlier in the growing season. However, early season changes in temperature had a greater effect on the relative productivities of different plant functional types, with potential influences on species composition.

  19. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, SeoYeon; Kim, Min-Su; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Chi, Byung Hoon; Kim, Jin Wook; Chang, In Ho

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea.

  20. Daily Mean Temperature Affects Urolithiasis Presentation in Seoul: a Time-series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the overall cumulative exposure-response and the lag response relationships between daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation in Seoul. Using a time-series design and distributing lag nonlinear methods, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of urolithiasis presentation associated with mean daily temperature, including the cumulative RR for a 20 days period, and RR for individual daily lag through 20 days. We analyzed data from 14,518 patients of 4 hospitals emergency department who sought medical evaluation or treatment of urolithiasis from 2005-2013 in Seoul. RR was estimated according to sex and age. Associations between mean daily temperature and urolithiasis presentation were not monotonic. Furthermore, there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of association at different temperatures, although in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the 13°C reference value. The RRs for urolothiasis at 29°C vs. 13°C were 2.54 in all patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67-3.87), 2.59 in male (95% CI, 1.56-4.32), 2.42 in female (95% CI, 1.15-5.07), 3.83 in male less than 40 years old (95% CI, 1.78-8.26), and 2.47 in male between 40 and 60 years old (95% CI, 1.15-5.34). Consistent trends of increasing RR of urolithiasis presentation were observed within 5 days of high temperatures across all groups. Urolithiasis presentation increased with high temperature with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days, in Seoul, a metropolitan city in Korea. PMID:27134497

  1. How do GCMs represent daily maximum and minimum temperatures in La Plata Basin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettolli, M. L.; Penalba, O. C.; Krieger, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    This work focuses on southern La Plata Basin region which is one of the most important agriculture and hydropower producing regions worldwide. Extreme climate events such as cold and heat waves and frost events have a significant socio-economic impact. It is a big challenge for global climate models (GCMs) to simulate regional patterns, temporal variations and distribution of temperature in a daily basis. Taking into account the present and future relevance of the region for the economy of the countries involved, it is very important to analyze maximum and minimum temperatures for model evaluation and development. This kind of study is aslo the basis for a great deal of the statistical downscaling methods in a climate change context. The aim of this study is to analyze the ability of the GCMs to reproduce the observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures in the southern La Plata Basin region. To this end, daily fields of maximum and minimum temperatures from a set of 15 GCMs were used. The outputs corresponding to the historical experiment for the reference period 1979-1999 were obtained from the WCRP CMIP5 (World Climate Research Programme Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5). In order to compare daily temperature values in the southern La Plata Basin region as generated by GCMs to those derived from observations, daily maximum and minimum temperatures were used from the gridded dataset generated by the Claris LPB Project ("A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin"). Additionally, reference station data was included in the study. The analysis was focused on austral winter (June, July, August) and summer (December, January, February). The study was carried out by analyzing the performance of the 15 GCMs , as well as their ensemble mean, in simulating the probability distribution function (pdf) of maximum and minimum temperatures which include mean values, variability, skewness, et c, and regional

  2. Daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence in Guangzhou, China: a time-series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Wan, Yue; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Few previous studies have examined the association between temperature and renal colic in developing regions, especially in China, the largest developing country in the world. We collected daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for renal colic from Guangzhou Emergency Center from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. We used a distributed-lag nonlinear model in addition to the over-dispersed generalized additive model to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence after controlling for seasonality, humidity, public holidays, and day of the week. We identified 3158 EADs for renal colic during the study period. This exposure-response curve was almost flat when the temperature was low and moderate and elevated when the temperature increased over 21 °C. For heat-related effects, the significant risk occurred on the concurrent day and diminished until lag day 7. The cumulative relative risk of hot temperatures (90th percentile) and extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) over lag days 0-7 was 1.92 (95 % confidence interval, 1.21, 3.05) and 2.45 (95 % confidence interval, 1.50, 3.99) compared with the reference temperature of 21 °C. This time-series analysis in Guangzhou, China, suggested a nonlinear and lagged association between high outdoor temperatures and daily EADs for renal colic. Our findings might have important public health significance to prevent renal colic.

  3. Spatiotemporal variations in the difference between satellite-observed daily maximum land surface temperature and station-based daily maximum near-surface air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Xu; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Yao, Yitong; Peng, Shushi; Wang, Kaicun; Piao, Shilong

    2017-02-01

    There is an increasing demand to integrate land surface temperature (LST) into climate research due to its global coverage, which requires a comprehensive knowledge of its distinctive characteristics compared to near-surface air temperature (Tair). Using satellite observations and in situ station-based data sets, we conducted a global-scale assessment of the spatial and seasonal variations in the difference between daily maximum LST and daily maximum Tair (δT, LST - Tair) during 2003-2014. Spatially, LST is generally higher than Tair over arid and sparsely vegetated regions in the middle-low latitudes, but LST is lower than Tair in tropical rainforests due to strong evaporative cooling, and in the high-latitude regions due to snow-induced radiative cooling. Seasonally, δT is negative in tropical regions throughout the year, while it displays a pronounced seasonality in both the midlatitudes and boreal regions. The seasonality in the midlatitudes is a result of the asynchronous responses of LST and Tair to the seasonal cycle of radiation and vegetation abundance, whereas in the boreal regions, seasonality is mainly caused by the change in snow cover. Our study identified substantial spatial heterogeneity and seasonality in δT, as well as its determinant environmental drivers, and thus provides a useful reference for monitoring near-surface air temperature changes using remote sensing, particularly in remote regions.

  4. [The effect of daily exposure to low hardening temperature on plant vital activity].

    PubMed

    Markovskaia, E F; Sysoeva, M I; Sherudilo, E G

    2008-01-01

    Phenomenological responses of plants to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature was studied under chamber and field conditions. Experiments were carried out on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), marigolds (Tagetes L.), and petunia (Petunia x hybrida) plants. The obtained data demonstrated a similar pattern of response in all studied plant species to different variants of exposure to low hardening temperature. The main features of plant response to daily short-term exposure to low hardening temperature include: a higher rate of increase in cold tolerance (cf. two- or threefold increase relative to constant low hardening temperature) that peaked on day 5 (cf. day 2 at constant low hardening temperature) and was maintained for 2 weeks (cf. 3-4 days at constant low hardening temperature); a simultaneous increase in heat tolerance (cf. twofold relative to constant low hardening temperature) maintained over a long period (cf. only in the beginning of the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a sharp drop in the subsequent cold tolerance after plant incubation in the dark (cf. a very low decrease in cold tolerance following the exposure to constant low hardening temperature); a combination of high cold tolerance and high photochemical activity of the photosynthetic apparatus (cf. a low non-photochemical quenching at constant low hardening temperature); and the capacity to rapidly increase cold tolerance in response to repeated short-term exposures to low hardening temperature in plants grown outdoors (cf. a gradual increase after repeated exposure to constant low hardening temperature). Possible methods underlying the plant response to daily short-term exposure to low temperature are proposed.

  5. Kinetics of the Daily Rate of Photosynthesis at Low Temperatures for two Conifers 1

    PubMed Central

    Pharis, R. P.; Hellmers, H.; Schuurmans, E.

    1967-01-01

    The daily course of photosynthesis at low temperatures in 2 coniferous species, Pinus ponderosa Laws., and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, were studied using controlled environment facilities. After having been grown at a 23° day, and 19° night for a year, seedlings were acclimatized for 4 months to either a 3°, 7° or 11° day all under 1200 ft-c of light and followed by a 16-hour night at 3°. Measurement of photosynthesis at 1200 ft-c revealed 3 separate responses. First, the rapidity at which the plants attained their maximum photosynthesis when the lights were turned on depended upon the species, the current temperature, and the previous temperature condition to which the plants had become acclimatized. The warmer the day temperature the sooner the daily maximum was reached. Second, fluctuations in the rate of photosynthesis during the day varied with the species and the day temperature. Photosynthesis in both fir and pine kept at an 11° day and pines kept at a 7° day attained a daily peak rate followed by a decline. This decline occurred even though temperature and light were kept constant, the CO2 level was returned to 320 ppm from 290 ppm, and the plants were kept well watered. At a 3° day neither species showed this decline. Third, a plant transferred to another temperature acquired a new stable daily photosynthetic pattern. The number of days required for stabilization depended upon the previous temperature history of the plant. The adjustment rate was faster when the temperature was raised than when it was lowered. PMID:16656533

  6. The daily rhythm of body temperature, heart and respiratory rate in newborn dogs.

    PubMed

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Mortola, Jacopo P

    2010-08-01

    We asked whether, during the postnatal period, the daily patterns of body temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR) and breathing frequency (f) begin and develop in synchrony. To this end, measurements of HR, f and Tb were performed weekly, on two consecutive days, for the first two postnatal months on puppies of three breeds of dogs (Rottweiler, Cocker Spaniel and Carlino dogs) with very different birth weights and postnatal growth patterns. Ambient conditions and feeding habits were constant for all puppies. The results indicated that (1) the 24-h average Tb increased and average HR and f decreased with growth, (2) the daily rhythms in Tb were apparent by 4 weeks, irrespective of the puppy's growth pattern, (3) the daily rhythm of Tb in the puppy was not necessarily following that of the mother; in fact, it could anticipate it. (4) The daily rhythms in HR and f were not apparent for the whole study period. We conclude that in neonatal dogs the onset of the daily rhythms of Tb has no obvious relationship with body size or rate of growth and is not cued by the maternal Tb rhythm. The daily rhythms of HR and f do not appear before 2 months of age. Hence, they are not in synchrony with those of Tb.

  7. United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data (1871-1997)

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, D.R.

    2002-10-28

    This document describes a database containing daily observations of maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation amount, snowfall amount, and snow depth from 1062 observing stations across the contiguous US. This database is an expansion and update of the original 138-station database previously released by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) as CDIAC numeric data package NDP-042. These 1062 stations are a subset of the 1221-station US Historical Climatology Network (HCN), a monthly database compiled by the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina) that has been widely used in analyzing US climate. Data from 1050 of these daily records extend into the 1990s, while 990 of these extend through 1997. Most station records are essentially complete for at least 40 years; the latest beginning year of record is 1948. Records from 158 stations begin prior to 1900, with that of Charleston, South Carolina beginning the earliest (1871). The daily resolution of these data makes them extremely valuable for studies attempting to detect and monitor long-term climatic changes on a regional scale. Studies using daily data may be able to detect changes in regional climate that would not be apparent from analysis of monthly temperature and precipitation data. Such studies may include analyses of trends in maximum and minimum temperatures, temperature extremes, daily temperature range, precipitation ''event size'' frequency, and the magnitude and duration of wet and dry periods. The data are also valuable in areas such as regional climate model validation and climate change impact assessment. This database is available free of charge from CDIAC as a numeric data package (NDP).

  8. A regional neural network model for predicting mean daily river water temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Tyler; DeWeber, Jefferson Tyrell

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is a fundamental property of river habitat and often a key aspect of river resource management, but measurements to characterize thermal regimes are not available for most streams and rivers. As such, we developed an artificial neural network (ANN) ensemble model to predict mean daily water temperature in 197,402 individual stream reaches during the warm season (May–October) throughout the native range of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis in the eastern U.S. We compared four models with different groups of predictors to determine how well water temperature could be predicted by climatic, landform, and land cover attributes, and used the median prediction from an ensemble of 100 ANNs as our final prediction for each model. The final model included air temperature, landform attributes and forested land cover and predicted mean daily water temperatures with moderate accuracy as determined by root mean squared error (RMSE) at 886 training sites with data from 1980 to 2009 (RMSE = 1.91 °C). Based on validation at 96 sites (RMSE = 1.82) and separately for data from 2010 (RMSE = 1.93), a year with relatively warmer conditions, the model was able to generalize to new stream reaches and years. The most important predictors were mean daily air temperature, prior 7 day mean air temperature, and network catchment area according to sensitivity analyses. Forest land cover at both riparian and catchment extents had relatively weak but clear negative effects. Predicted daily water temperature averaged for the month of July matched expected spatial trends with cooler temperatures in headwaters and at higher elevations and latitudes. Our ANN ensemble is unique in predicting daily temperatures throughout a large region, while other regional efforts have predicted at relatively coarse time steps. The model may prove a useful tool for predicting water temperatures in sampled and unsampled rivers under current conditions and future projections of climate

  9. High-resolution daily gridded data sets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Sven; Krähenmann, Stefan; Bissolli, Peter

    2016-10-01

    New high-resolution data sets for near-surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D data set (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data. By spatial interpolation of these station observations, grid data in a resolution of 0.044° (≈ 5km) on a rotated grid with virtual North Pole at 39.25° N, 162° W are derived. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al.(2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are used for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA-Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Variance explained by the regression ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 K and 1-1.5 ms-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters

  10. High-resolution daily gridded datasets of air temperature and wind speed for Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, S.; Krähenmann, S.; Bissolli, P.

    2015-08-01

    New high-resolution datasets for near surface daily air temperature (minimum, maximum and mean) and daily mean wind speed for Europe (the CORDEX domain) are provided for the period 2001-2010 for the purpose of regional model validation in the framework of DecReg, a sub-project of the German MiKlip project, which aims to develop decadal climate predictions. The main input data sources are hourly SYNOP observations, partly supplemented by station data from the ECA&D dataset (http://www.ecad.eu). These data are quality tested to eliminate erroneous data and various kinds of inhomogeneities. Grids in a resolution of 0.044° (5 km) are derived by spatial interpolation of these station data into the CORDEX area. For temperature interpolation a modified version of a regression kriging method developed by Krähenmann et al. (2011) is used. At first, predictor fields of altitude, continentality and zonal mean temperature are chosen for a regression applied to monthly station data. The residuals of the monthly regression and the deviations of the daily data from the monthly averages are interpolated using simple kriging in a second and third step. For wind speed a new method based on the concept used for temperature was developed, involving predictor fields of exposure, roughness length, coastal distance and ERA Interim reanalysis wind speed at 850 hPa. Interpolation uncertainty is estimated by means of the kriging variance and regression uncertainties. Furthermore, to assess the quality of the final daily grid data, cross validation is performed. Explained variance ranges from 70 to 90 % for monthly temperature and from 50 to 60 % for monthly wind speed. The resulting RMSE for the final daily grid data amounts to 1-2 °C and 1-1.5 m s-1 (depending on season and parameter) for daily temperature parameters and daily mean wind speed, respectively. The datasets presented in this article are published at http://dx.doi.org/10.5676/DWD_CDC/DECREG0110v1.

  11. A Mesoscale Analysis of Column-Integrated Aerosol Properties in Northern India During the TIGERZ 2008 Pre-Monsoon Period and a Comparison to MODIS Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Tripathi, S. N.; Eck, T. F.; Newcomb, W. W.; Slutsker, I.; Dickerson, R. R.; Thompson, A. M.; Wang, S.-H.; Singh, R. P.; Sinyuk, A.

    2010-01-01

    opportunity to measure the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol loading in the IGP. The strong aerosol absorption derived from ground-based sun/sky radiometer measurements suggested the presence of a predominately black carbon and dust mixture during the pre-monsoon period. Consistent with the elevated heat-pump hypothesis, these absorbing aerosols found across Kanpur and the greater IGP region during the pre-monsoon period likely induced regional atmospheric warming, which lead to a more rapid advance of the southwest Asian monsoon and above normal precipitation over northern India in June 2008.

  12. Daily metabolic patterns of short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    An automatic, continuous-flow gas analysis system was used to determine daily metabolic patterns of individual short-tailed shrews (Blarina) in three natural seasonal temperature regimes in eastern Tennessee. Average daily metabolic rates (ADMR) were lowest in the summer (0.426 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/), approximately doubled under winter conditions (0.810 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) but were the highest under fall conditions (1.110 kcal g/sup -1/day/sup -1/) possibly due to incomplete acclimatization of the shrews. The shape of the daily metabolic pattern for Blarina does not change seasonally; however, summer metabolic rates are the least variable and are lower than most values previously reported in the literature. Polynomial multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the relative influence of body mass, ambient temperature, and time of day on metabolic rates; only ambient temperature was significant in predicting metabolic rates of this shrew. Average daily metabolic rates of Blarina observed under summer and winter conditions further substantiate the general predictive equations of metabolic rates formulated for small mammals by French et al. (1976). Comparisons of metabolic patterns of Blarina with those of Peromyscus leucopus observed under nearly identical conditions indicate similar rates with strong seasonal influences.

  13. Nicotine-induced perturbations on heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity daily rhythms in rats.

    PubMed

    Pelissier, A L; Gantenbein, M; Bruguerolle, B

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of nicotine on the daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in unrestrained rats by use of implanted radiotelemetry transmitters. The study was divided into three seven-day periods: a control period, a treatment period and a recovery period. The control period was used for baseline measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. During the treatment period three rats received nicotine (1 mg kg(-1), s.c.) at 0900 h. Three rats received saline under the same experimental conditions. Heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were continuously monitored and plotted every 10 min. During the three periods a power spectrum analysis was used to determine the dominant period of rhythmicity. If daily rhythms of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity were detected, the characteristics of these rhythms, i.e. the mesors, amplitudes and acrophases, were determined by cosinor analysis, expressed as means +/- s.e.m. and compared by analysis of variance. Nicotine did not suppress daily rhythmicity but induced decreases of amplitudes and phase-advances of acrophases for heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity. These perturbations might result from the effects of nicotine on the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the hypothalamic clock that co-ordinates biological rhythms.

  14. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines

    PubMed Central

    Cober, Elroy R.; Curtis, Daniel F.; Stewart, Douglas W.; Morrison, Malcolm J.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R2 = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE) = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R2 = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode). The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. PMID:27135515

  15. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light-dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light-dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high-amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light-dark cycle.

  16. Daily regulation of body temperature rhythm in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) exposed to experimental desert conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bouâouda, Hanan; Achâaban, Mohamed R.; Ouassat, Mohammed; Oukassou, Mohammed; Piro, Mohamed; Challet, Etienne; El Allali, Khalid; Pévet, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present work, we have studied daily rhythmicity of body temperature (Tb) in Arabian camels challenged with daily heat, combined or not with dehydration. We confirm that Arabian camels use heterothermy to reduce heat gain coupled with evaporative heat loss during the day. Here, we also demonstrate that this mechanism is more complex than previously reported, because it is characterized by a daily alternation (probably of circadian origin) of two periods of poikilothermy and homeothermy. We also show that dehydration induced a decrease in food intake plays a role in this process. Together, these findings highlight that adaptive heterothermy in the Arabian camel varies across the diurnal light–dark cycle and is modulated by timing of daily heat and degrees of water restriction and associated reduction of food intake. The changed phase relationship between the light–dark cycle and the Tb rhythm observed during the dehydration process points to a possible mechanism of internal desynchronization during the process of adaptation to desert environment. During these experimental conditions mimicking the desert environment, it will be possible in the future to determine if induced high‐amplitude ambient temperature (Ta) rhythms are able to compete with the zeitgeber effect of the light–dark cycle. PMID:25263204

  17. Effects of daily fluctuating temperatures on the Drosophila-Leptopilina boulardi parasitoid association.

    PubMed

    Delava, Emilie; Fleury, Frédéric; Gibert, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    Koinobiont parasitoid insects, which maintain intimate and long-term relationships with their arthropod hosts, constitute an association of ectothermic organisms that is particularly sensitive to temperature variations. Because temperature shows pronounced natural daily fluctuations, we examined if experiments based on a constant temperature range can mask the real effects of the thermal regime on host-parasitoid interactions. The effects of two fluctuating thermal regimes on several developmental parameters of the Drosophila larval parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi were analyzed in this study. Regime 1 included a range of 16-23-16°C and regime 2 included a range of 16-21-26-21-16°C (mean temperature 20.1°C) compared to a 20.1°C constant temperature. Under an average temperature of 20.1°C, which corresponds to a cold condition of L. boulardi development, we showed that the success of parasitism is significantly higher under a fluctuating temperature regime than at constant temperature. A fluctuating regime also correlated with a reduced development time of the parasitoids. In contrast, the thermal regime did not affect the ability of Drosophila to resist parasitoid infestation. Finally, we demonstrated that daily temperature fluctuation prevented the entry into diapause for this species, which is normally observed at a constant temperature of 21°C. Overall, the results reveal that constant temperature experiments can produce misleading results, highlighting the need to study the thermal biology of organisms under fluctuating regimes that reflect natural conditions as closely as possible. This is particularly a major issue in host-parasitoid associations, which constitute a good model to understand the effect of climate warming on interacting species.

  18. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1995-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by, almost 50% and 35%, respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to (1) missing data, (2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, (3) lack of filtering, and (4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C, or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  19. Reducing Noise in the MSU Daily Lower-Tropospheric Global Temperature Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, John R.; Spencer, Roy W.; McNider, Richard T.

    1996-01-01

    The daily global-mean values of the lower-tropospheric temperature determined from microwave emissions measured by satellites are examined in terms of their signal, noise, and signal-to-noise ratio. Daily and 30-day average noise estimates are reduced by almost 50% and 35%. respectively, by analyzing and adjusting (if necessary) for errors due to 1) missing data, 2) residual harmonics of the annual cycle unique to particular satellites, 3) lack of filtering, and 4) spurious trends. After adjustments, the decadal trend of the lower-tropospheric global temperature from January 1979 through February 1994 becomes -0.058 C. or about 0.03 C per decade cooler than previously calculated.

  20. A stage structured mosquito model incorporating effects of precipitation and daily temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2016-12-21

    An outbreak of dengue fever in Guangdong province in 2014 was the most serious outbreak ever recorded in China. Given the known positive correlation between the abundance of mosquitoes and the number of dengue fever cases, a stage structured mosquito model was developed to investigate the cause of the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 and its implications for outbreaks of the disease. Data on the Breteau index (number of containers positive for larvae per 100 premises investigated), temperature and precipitation were used for model fitting. The egg laying rate, the development rate and the mortality rates of immatures and adults were obtained from the estimated parameters. Moreover, effects of daily fluctuations of temperature on these parameters were obtained and the effects of temperature and precipitation were analyzed by simulations. Our results indicated that the abundance of mosquitoes depended not only on the total annual precipitation but also on the distribution of the precipitation. The daily mean temperature had a nonlinear relationship with the abundance of mosquitoes, and large diurnal temperature differences can reduce the abundance of mosquitoes. In addition, effects of increasing precipitation and temperature were interdependent. Our findings suggest that the large abundance of mosquitoes in 2014 was mainly caused by the distribution of the precipitation. In the perspective of mosquito control, our results reveal that it is better to clear water early and spray insecticide between April and August in case of limited resources.

  1. Interaction of Mean Temperature and Daily Fluctuation Influences Dengue Incidence in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Sharmin, Sifat; Glass, Kathryn; Viennet, Elvina; Harley, David

    2015-01-01

    Local weather influences the transmission of the dengue virus. Most studies analyzing the relationship between dengue and climate are based on relatively coarse aggregate measures such as mean temperature. Here, we include both mean temperature and daily fluctuations in temperature in modelling dengue transmission in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. We used a negative binomial generalized linear model, adjusted for rainfall, anomalies in sea surface temperature (an index for El Niño-Southern Oscillation), population density, the number of dengue cases in the previous month, and the long term temporal trend in dengue incidence. In addition to the significant associations of mean temperature and temperature fluctuation with dengue incidence, we found interaction of mean and temperature fluctuation significantly influences disease transmission at a lag of one month. High mean temperature with low fluctuation increases dengue incidence one month later. Besides temperature, dengue incidence was also influenced by sea surface temperature anomalies in the current and previous month, presumably as a consequence of concomitant anomalies in the annual rainfall cycle. Population density exerted a significant positive influence on dengue incidence indicating increasing risk of dengue in over-populated Dhaka. Understanding these complex relationships between climate, population, and dengue incidence will help inform outbreak prediction and control.

  2. Effects of apparent temperature on daily mortality in Lisbon and Oporto, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence that elevated temperatures can lead to increased mortality is well documented, with population vulnerability being location specific. However, very few studies have been conducted that assess the effects of temperature on daily mortality in urban areas in Portugal. Methods In this paper time-series analysis was used to model the relationship between mean apparent temperature and daily mortality during the warm season (April to September) in the two largest urban areas in Portugal: Lisbon and Oporto. We used generalized additive Poisson regression models, adjusted for day of week and season. Results Our results show that in Lisbon, a 1°C increase in mean apparent temperature is associated with a 2.1% (95%CI: 1.6, 2.5), 2.4% (95%CI: 1.7, 3.1) and 1.7% (95%CI: 0.1, 3.4) increase in all-causes, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In Oporto the increase was 1.5% (95%CI: 1.0, 1.9), 2.1% (95%CI: 1.3, 2.9) and 2.7% (95%CI: 1.2, 4.3) respectively. In both cities, this increase was greater for the group >65 years. Conclusion Even without extremes in apparent temperature, we observed an association between temperature and daily mortality in Portugal. Additional research is needed to allow for better assessment of vulnerability within populations in Portugal in order to develop more effective heat-related morbidity and mortality public health programs. PMID:20219128

  3. Estimating daily air temperatures over the Tibetan Plateau by dynamically integrating MODIS LST data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Fan; Ye, Ming; Che, Tao; Zhang, Guoqing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) data have been used to estimate air temperatures because of the sparseness of station measurements in remote mountainous areas. Due to the availability and accuracy of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data, the use of a single term or a fixed combination of terms (e.g., Terra/Aqua night and Terra/Aqua day), as used in previous estimation methods, provides only limited practical application. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy may be affected by different combinations and variable data quality among the MODIS LST terms and models. This study presents a method that dynamically integrates the available LST terms to estimate the daily mean air temperature and simultaneously considers model selection, data quality, and estimation accuracy. The results indicate that the differences in model performance are related to the combinations of LST terms and their data quality. The spatially averaged cloud cover of 14% for the developed product between 2003 and 2010 is much lower than the 35-54% for single LST terms. The average cross-validation root-mean-square difference values are approximately 2°C. This study identifies the best LST combinations and statistical models and provides an efficient method for daily air temperature estimation with low cloud blockage over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The developed data set and the method proposed in this study can help alleviate the problem of sparse air temperature data over the TP.

  4. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of <span class="hlt">daily</span> extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like changes in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether changing land use has led to detectable changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed changes of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic changes to changing land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..923..269C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..923..269C"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall Prediction using Soil and Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in a Tropical Station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chacko, Tessy P.; Renuka, G.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>An attempt is made to establish a linkage between soil and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and south-west monsoon rainfall at Pillicode (12°12'N,75°10'E) a tropical station in north Kerala. The dependence of monsoon rainfall on <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreases as the depth of the soil increases. A regression equation has been developed for the estimation of monsoon rainfall using <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> soil and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results show that sub soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> along with air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be used for forecasting the monsoon level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9151432"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of constant and fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> melatonin production by eyecups from Rana perezi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valenciano, A I; Alonso-Gómez, A L; Alonso-Bedate, M; Delgado, M J</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>We analysed the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in relation to constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on day/night melatonin synthesis in frog eyecups in culture. Eyecups were cultured for 24 h under 12L:12D photoperiod and two thermal regimes, constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25, 15 and 5 degrees C) and thermoperiod (WL/CD, thermophase coinciding with photophase and cryophase coinciding with scotophase; and CL/WD, cryophase coinciding with photophase and thermophase coinciding with scotophase). A negative correlation between ocular serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for both diurnal and nocturnal activities has been observed. This effect of increased ocular activity at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is more pronounced than the well-known stimulatory effect of darkness, and it does not depend on the photoperiod phase. The lack of interactions between the phase of photoperiod and culture <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicates that the effects of both factors are independent. Night-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the key factor in determining the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm in the Rana perezi retina. However, daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can not counteract the inhibitory effect of light on ocular melatonin synthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4346C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013WRR....49.4346C"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and subdaily stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: Application to the Methow River Basin, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caldwell, R. J.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Bountry, J.; Lai, Y.; Elsner, M. M.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Management of water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Columbia River Basin (Washington) is critical because water projects have substantially altered the habitat of Endangered Species Act listed species, such as salmon, throughout the basin. This is most important in tributaries to the Columbia, such as the Methow River, where the spawning and rearing life stages of these cold water fishes occurs. Climate change projections generally predict increasing air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> across the western United States, with less confidence regarding shifts in precipitation. As air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise, we anticipate a corresponding increase in water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which may alter the timing and availability of habitat for fish reproduction and growth. To assess the impact of future climate change in the Methow River, we couple historical climate and future climate projections with a statistical modeling framework to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. A K-nearest neighbor algorithm is also employed to: (i) adjust the climate projections for biases compared to the observed record and (ii) provide a reference for performing spatiotemporal disaggregation in future hydraulic modeling of stream habitat. The statistical models indicate the primary drivers of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stream flow and show reasonable skill in predictability. When compared to the historical reference time period of 1916-2006, we conclude that increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected to occur at each subsequent time horizon representative of the year 2020, 2040, and 2080, with an increase of 0.8 ± 1.9°C by the year 2080.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr42W1....3B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ISPAr42W1....3B"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of Modis Satellite Image to Estimate the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in the Casablanca City, Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahi, Hicham; Rhinane, Hassan; Bensalmia, Ahmed</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is considered to be an essential variable for the study and analysis of meteorological regimes and chronics. However, the implementation of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> monitoring of this variable is very difficult to achieve. It requires sufficient of measurements stations density, meteorological parks and favourable logistics. The present work aims to establish relationship between day and night land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from MODIS data and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acquired between [2011-20112] and provided by the Department of National Meteorology [DMN] of Casablanca, Morocco. The results of the statistical analysis show significant interdependence during night observations with correlation coefficient of R2=0.921 and Root Mean Square Error RMSE=1.503 for Tmin while the physical magnitude estimated from daytime MODIS observation shows a relatively coarse error with R2=0.775 and RMSE=2.037 for Tmax. A method based on Gaussian process regression was applied to compute the spatial distribution of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from MODIS throughout the city of Casablanca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23485867"><span id="translatedtitle">Entrainment of the circadian clock by <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El Allali, Khalid; Achaâban, Mohamed R; Bothorel, Béatrice; Piro, Mohamed; Bouâouda, Hanan; El Allouchi, Morad; Ouassat, Mohammed; Malan, André; Pévet, Paul</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In mammals the light-dark (LD) cycle is known to be the major cue to synchronize the circadian clock. In arid and desert areas, the camel (Camelus dromedarius) is exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Since wide oscillations of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are a major factor in this environment, we wondered whether cyclic Ta fluctuations might contribute to synchronization of circadian rhythms. The rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) was selected as output of the circadian clock. After having verified that Tb is synchronized by the LD and free runs in continuous darkness (DD), we submitted the animals to <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles of Ta in LL and in DD. In both cases, the Tb rhythm was entrained to the cycle of Ta. On a 12-h phase shift of the Ta cycle, the mean phase shift of the Tb cycle ranged from a few hours in LD (1 h by cosinor, 4 h from curve peaks) to 7-8 h in LL and 12 h in DD. These results may reflect either true synchronization of the central clock by Ta <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles or possibly a passive effect of Ta on Tb. To resolve the ambiguity, melatonin rhythmicity was used as another output of the clock. In DD melatonin rhythms were also entrained by the Ta cycle, proving that the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta cycle is able to entrain the circadian clock of the camel similar to photoperiod. By contrast, in the presence of a LD cycle the rhythm of melatonin was modified by the Ta cycle in only 2 (or 3) of 7 camels: in these specific conditions a systematic effect of Ta on the clock could not be evidenced. In conclusion, depending on the experimental conditions (DD vs. LD), the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta cycle can either act as a zeitgeber or not.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21108003','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21108003"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal variation in physicochemical properties of coastal waters off Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India, during summer, <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and post-monsoon period.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Satpathy, Kamala Kanta; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Sahu, Gouri; Sarguru, S; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Natesan, Usha</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Seasonal observations on water-quality parameters and chlorophyll-a in the coastal waters off Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India, was carried out covering an area of about 30 km(2) to find out the variations in physicochemical properties during a monsoonal cycle of the year. Most of the parameters exhibited a significant spatial and seasonal variation. It revealed that the coastal water was significantly influenced by freshwater input from the nearby backwaters during North-east monsoon and post-monsoon periods. A marginal increase in pH from coast towards offshore was noticed during the observation. Relatively low salinity values were observed during pre and post monsoon when compared to summer. Bottom water was found to be highly turbid during summer and <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> conditions when compared to surface. This could be attributed to the strong northerly wind and northward current prior to the onset of southwest monsoon. N, P and Si based nutrients are relatively high in their concentration in the bottom water. Nitrate was significantly high during post-monsoon and contributed greatly towards total nitrogen as evident from the statistical correlation. Ammonia concentration was relatively high in the bottom samples during all the seasons except on a few occasions during post-monsoon. In general, phosphate and total phosphorous values remained low and particularly so in the surface water. Higher silicate concentration was observed in the bottom water, and there was a reducing trend towards offshore. High chlorophyll-a values were observed during summer and surface water was found to have higher pigment concentrations as compared to the bottom. Results show that phosphate acts as the limiting factor for phytoplankton production particularly during post-monsoon period whereas; none of the nutrients were found to be limiting the phytoplankton growth during other seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..78..259Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..78..259Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimated range of black carbon dry deposition and the related snow albedo reduction over Himalayan glaciers during dry <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> periods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yasunari, Teppei J.; Tan, Qian; Lau, K.-M.; Bonasoni, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Laj, Paolo; Ménégoz, Martin; Takemura, Toshihiko; Chin, Mian</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>One of the major factors attributed to the accelerated melting of Himalayan glaciers is the snow darkening effect of atmospheric black carbon (BC). The BC is the result of incomplete fossil fuel combustion from sources such as open biomass burning and wood burning cooking stoves. One of the key challenges in determining the darkening effect is the estimation uncertainty of BC deposition (BCD) rate on surface snow cover. Here we analyze the variation of BC dry deposition in seven different estimates based on different dry deposition methods which include different atmospheric forcings (observations and global model outputs) and different spatial resolutions. The seven simulations are used to estimate the uncertainty range of BC dry deposition over the southern Himalayas during <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> period (March-May) in 2006. Our results show BC dry deposition rates in a wide range of 270-4700 μg m-2 during the period. Two global models generate higher BC dry deposition rates due to modeled stronger surface wind and simplification of complicated sub-grid surface conditions in this region. Using ice surface roughness and observation-based meteorological data, we estimate a better range of BC dry deposition rate of 900-1300 μg m-2. Under dry and highly polluted conditions, aged snow and sulfate-coated BC are expected to possibly reduce visible albedo by 4.2-5.1%. Our results suggest that for estimating aerosol-induced snow darkening effects of Himalaya snowpacks using global and regional models, realistic physical representation of ice or snow surface roughness and surface wind speed are critical in reducing uncertainties on the estimate of BC deposition over snow surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925550','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925550"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Global Solar Radiation in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are readily available around the world, the models based on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are available in China. PMID:24605046</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605046','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605046"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based model for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation in China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Since air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are readily available around the world, the models based on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are available in China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..959F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..959F"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in indices of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitations extremes in Morocco</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Filahi, S.; Tanarhte, M.; Mouhir, L.; El Morhit, M.; Tramblay, Y.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of Morocco's climate extreme trends during the last four decades. Indices were computed based on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using a consistent approach recommended by the ETCCDI. Trends in these indices were calculated at 20 stations from 1970 to 2012. Twelve indices were considered to detect trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A large number of stations have significant trends and confirm an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, showing increased warming during spring and summer seasons. The results also show a decrease in the number of cold days and nights and an increase in the number of warm days and nights. Increasing trends have also been found in the absolute warmest and coldest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the year. A clear increase is detected for warm nights and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Eight indices for precipitation were also analyzed, but the trends for these precipitation indices are much less significant than for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices and show more mixed spatial patterns of change. Heavy precipitation events do not exhibit significant trends except at a few locations, in the north and central parts of Morocco, with a general tendency towards drier conditions. The correlation between these climate indices and the large-scale atmospheric circulations indices such as the NAO, MO, and WEMO were also analyzed. Results show a stronger relationship with these climatic indices for the precipitation indices compared to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices. The correlations are more significant in the Atlantic regions, but they remain moderate at the whole country scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4078014"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod on <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. Methods We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). Results L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Conclusions Herein, we showed that light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907851','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907851"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change uncertainty for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: a model inter-comparison</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobell, D; Bonfils, C; Duffy, P</p> <p>2006-11-09</p> <p>Several impacts of climate change may depend more on changes in mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (T{sub min}) or maximum (T{sub max}) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than <span class="hlt">daily</span> averages. To evaluate uncertainties in these variables, we compared projections of T{sub min} and T{sub max} changes by 2046-2065 for 12 climate models under an A2 emission scenario. Average modeled changes in T{sub max} were slightly lower in most locations than T{sub min}, consistent with historical trends exhibiting a reduction in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges. However, while average changes in T{sub min} and T{sub max} were similar, the inter-model variability of T{sub min} and T{sub max} projections exhibited substantial differences. For example, inter-model standard deviations of June-August T{sub max} changes were more than 50% greater than for T{sub min} throughout much of North America, Europe, and Asia. Model differences in cloud changes, which exert relatively greater influence on T{sub max} during summer and T{sub min} during winter, were identified as the main source of uncertainty disparities. These results highlight the importance of considering separately projections for T{sub max} and T{sub min} when assessing climate change impacts, even in cases where average projected changes are similar. In addition, impacts that are most sensitive to summertime T{sub min} or wintertime T{sub max} may be more predictable than suggested by analyses using only projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30.1608L"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial modeling of the highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Korea via max-stable processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Youngsaeng; Yoon, Sanghoo; Murshed, Md. Sharwar; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Cho, ChunHo; Baek, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jeong-Soo</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>This paper examines the annual highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DMT) in Korea by using data from 56 weather stations and employing spatial extreme modeling. Our approach is based on max-stable processes (MSP) with Schlather’s characterization. We divide the country into four regions for a better model fit and identify the best model for each region. We show that regional MSP modeling is more suitable than MSP modeling for the entire region and the pointwise generalized extreme value distribution approach. The advantage of spatial extreme modeling is that more precise and robust return levels and some indices of the highest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can be obtained for observation stations and for locations with no observed data, and so help to determine the effects and assessment of vulnerability as well as to downscale extreme events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019969','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019969"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Dodson, R.; Marks, D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Two methods are investigated for interpolating <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equations to convert measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and elevations to sea-level potential <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The potential <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17553537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17553537"><span id="translatedtitle">Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm adaptations in African savanna elephants (Loxodonta africana).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kinahan, A A; Inge-moller, R; Bateman, P W; Kotze, A; Scantlebury, M</p> <p>2007-11-23</p> <p>The savanna elephant is the largest extant mammal and often inhabits hot and arid environments. Due to their large size, it might be expected that elephants have particular physiological adaptations, such as adjustments to the rhythms of their core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) to deal with environmental challenges. This study describes for the first time the T(b) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in savanna elephants. Our results showed that elephants had lower mean T(b) values (36.2 +/- 0.49 degrees C) than smaller ungulates inhabiting similar environments but did not have larger or smaller amplitudes of T(b) variation (0.40 +/- 0.12 degrees C), as would be predicted by their exposure to large fluctuations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or their large size. No difference was found between the <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(b) rhythms measured under different conditions of water stress. Peak T(b)'s occurred late in the evening (22:10) which is generally later than in other large mammals ranging in similar environmental conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4782734"><span id="translatedtitle">A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hocking, Daniel J.; O’Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O’Donnell, Matthew J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network. PMID:26966662</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26966662"><span id="translatedtitle">A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70168798"><span id="translatedtitle">A hierarchical model of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using air-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are critical as the climate changes, but estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16753947','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16753947"><span id="translatedtitle">The circadian body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm in the elderly: effect of single <span class="hlt">daily</span> melatonin dosing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gubin, D G; Gubin, G D; Waterhouse, J; Weinert, D</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The present study is part of a more extensive investigation dedicated to the study and treatment of age-dependent changes/disturbances in the circadian system in humans. It was performed in the Tyumen Elderly Veteran House and included 97 subjects of both genders, ranging from 63 to 91 yrs of age. They lived a self-chosen sleep-wake regimen to suit their personal convenience. The experiment lasted 3 wks. After 1 control week, part of the group (n=63) received 1.5 mg melatonin (Melaxen) <span class="hlt">daily</span> at 22:30 h for 2 wks. The other 34 subjects were given placebo. Axillary <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured using calibrated mercury thermometers at 03:00, 08:00, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, and 23:00 h each of the first and third week. Specially trained personnel took the measurements, avoiding disturbing the sleep of the subjects. To evaluate age-dependent changes, data obtained under similar conditions on 58 young adults (both genders, 17 to 39 yrs of age) were used. Rhythm characteristics were estimated by means of cosinor analyses, and intra- and inter-individual variability by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In both age groups, the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> underwent <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes. The MESOR (36.38+/-0.19 degrees C vs. 36.17+/-0.21 degrees C) and circadian amplitude (0.33+/-0.01 degrees C vs. 0.26+/-0.01 degrees C) were slightly decreased in the elderly compared to the young adult subjects (p<0.001). The mean circadian acrophase was similar in both age groups (17.19+/-1.66 vs. 16.93+/-3.08 h). However, the inter-individual differences were higher in the older group, with individual values varying between 10:00 and 23:00 h. It was mainly this phase variability that caused a decrease in the inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm stability and lower group amplitude. With melatonin treatment, the MESOR was lower by 0.1 degrees C and the amplitude increased to 0.34+/-0.01 degrees C, a similar value to that found in young adults. This was probably due to the increase of the inter-<span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm stability. The mean acrophase</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC31D1221B"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Few sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26571674"><span id="translatedtitle">[Interpolation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by using geographically weighted regression-Kriging].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Guo-feng; Yang, Li-rong; Qu, Ming-kai; Chen, Hui-lin</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the input variable of numerous models in agriculture, hydrology, climate, and ecology. Currently, in study areas where the terrain is complex, methods taking into account correlation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and environment variables and autocorrelation of regression residual (e.g., regression Kriging, RK) are mainly adopted to interpolate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, such methods are based on the global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression technique, without taking into account the spatial nonstationary relationship of environment variables. Geographically weighted regression-Kriging (GWRK) is a kind of method that takes into account spatial nonstationarity relationship of environment variables and spatial autocorrelation of regression residuals of environment variables. In this study, according to the results of correlation and stepwise regression analysis, RK1 (covariates only included altitude), GWRK1 (covariates only included altitude), RK2 (covariates included latitude, altitude and closest distance to the seaside) and GWRK2 (co-variates included altitude and closest distance to the seaside) were compared to predict the spatial distribution of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on Hainan Island on December 18, 2013. The prediction accuracy was assessed using the maximum positive error, maximum negative error, mean absolute error and root mean squared error based on the 80 validation sites. The results showed that GWRK1's four assessment indices were all closest to 0. The fact that RK2 and GWRK2 were worse than RK1 and GWRK1 implied that correlation among covariates reduced model performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.124..161H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> grids for Austria since 1961—concept, creation and applicability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hiebl, Johann; Frei, Christoph</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Current interest into past climate change and its potential role for changes in the environment call for spatially distributed climate datasets of high temporal resolution and extending over several decades. To foster such research, we present a new gridded dataset of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> covering Austria at 1-km resolution and extending back till 1961 at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time resolution. To account for the complex and highly variable thermal distributions in this high-mountain region, we adapt and employ a recently published interpolation method that estimates nonlinear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles with altitude and accounts for the non-Euclidean spatial representativity of station measurements. The spatial analysis builds upon 150 station series in and around Austria (homogenised where available), all of which extend over or were gap-filled to cover the entire study period. The restriction to (almost) complete records shall avoid long-term inconsistencies from changes in the station network. Systematic leave-one-out cross-validation reveals interpolation errors (mean absolute error) of about 1 °C. Errors are relatively larger for minimum compared to maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, for the interior of the Alps compared to the flatland and for winter compared to summer. Visual comparisons suggest that valley-scale inversions and föhn are more realistically captured in the new compared to existing datasets. The usefulness of the presented dataset (SPARTACUS) is illustrated in preliminary analyses of long-term trends in climate impact indices. These reveal spatially variable and eventually considerable changes in the thermal climate in Austria.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613427Z"><span id="translatedtitle">On the use of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to calculate the extended spring indices phenological models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zurita-Milla, Raul; Mehdipoor, Hamed; Batarseh, Sana; Ault, Toby; Schwartz, Mark D.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Models that predict the timing of recurrent biological events play an important role in supporting the systematic study of phenological changes at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. One set of such models are the extended Spring indices (SI-x). These models predicts a suite of phenological metrics ("first leaf" and "first bloom," "last freeze" and the "damage index") from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data and geographic location (to model the duration of the day). The SI-x models were calibrated using historical phenological and weather observations from the continental US. In particular, the models relied on first leaf and first bloom observations for lilac and honeysuckle and on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values from a number of weather stations located near to the sites where phenological observations were made. In this work, we study the use of DAYMET (http://daymet.ornl.gov/) to calculate the SI-x models over the continental USA. DAYMET offers <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values for the period 1980 to 2012. Using an automatic downloader, we downloaded complete DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series for the over 1100 geographic locations where historical lilac observations were made. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values were parsed and, using the recently available MATLAB code, the SI-x indices were calculated. Subsequently, the predicted first leaf and first bloom dates were compared with historical lilac observations. The RMSE between predicted and observed lilac leaf/bloom dates was calculated after identifying data from the same geographic location and year. Results were satisfactory for the lilac observations in the Eastern US (e.g. the RMSE for the blooming date was of about 5 days). However, the correspondence between the observed and predicted lilac values in the West was rather week (e.g. RMSE for the blooming date of about 22 days). This might indicate that DAYMET <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data in this region of the US might contain larger uncertainties due to a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...42D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...42D"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios and their impact on paddy crop evapotranspiration in Kangsabati command area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhage, P. M.; Raghuwanshi, N. S.; Singh, R.; Mishra, A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Production of the principal paddy crop in West Bengal state of India is vulnerable to climate change due to limited water resources and strong dependence on surface irrigation. Therefore, assessment of impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is essential for irrigation management in Kangsabati command (West Bengal). In the present study, impact of the projected <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on ETc was studied under climate change scenarios. Further, the performance of the bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) technique was compared with the two well-known downscaling techniques, namely, multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kernel regression (KR), for the projections of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for four stations, namely, Purulia, Bankura, Jhargram, and Kharagpur. In National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and General Circulation Model (GCM), 14 predictors were used in MLR and KR techniques, whereas maximum and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictor of CanESM2 GCM was used in BCSD technique. The comparison results indicated that the performance of the BCSD technique was better than the MLR and KR techniques. Therefore, the BCSD technique was used to project the future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of study locations with three Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios for the period of 2006-2100. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Kangsabati command area were projected as 0.013 and 0.014 °C/year under RCP 2.6, 0.015 and 0.023 °C/year under RCP 4.5, and 0.056 and 0.061 °C/year under RCP 8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. As a result, kharif (monsoon) crop evapotranspiration demand of Kangsabati reservoir command (project area) will increase by approximately 10, 8, and 18 % over historical demand under RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5 scenarios, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25484357"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of repeated <span class="hlt">daily</span> menthol exposure on human <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation and perception.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gillis, D Jason; Weston, Neil; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A single exposure to menthol can, depending on concentration, enhance both cool sensations and encourage body heat storage. This study tested whether there is an habituation in either response after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures. Twenty-two participants were assigned to one of three spray groups: Control (CON; n=6), 0.05% L-menthol (M(0.05%); n=8), and 0.2% L-menthol (M(0.2%); n=8). On Monday (20°C, 50% rh) participants were sprayed with 100 mL of solution and undertook 40 min of cycling at 45% of their peak power (Ex1), from Tuesday to Thursday (30°C, 50% rh) they were sprayed twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> whilst resting (R1 to R6), Friday was a repeat of Monday (Ex2). Thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort, perceived exertion, irritation, rectal and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tsk), skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were monitored. A two-way ANOVA (alpha=0.05) compared responses from the beginning (Ex1, R1) and end (Ex2, R5) of the testing week. M(0.2%) induced significantly (P<0.05) cooler TS at the beginning of the week (Ex1, R1) compared to the end (Ex2, R5), indicating habituation of TS; this was not observed in M(0.05%). No other perceptual or physiological responses habituated. 0.2% Menthol caused a heat storage response, mediated by vasoconstriction, at the beginning and end of the week, suggesting the habituation of TS occurred in a pathway specific to sensation. In summary, the cooling influence of 0.2% menthol habituates after repeated-<span class="hlt">daily</span> exposures, but with no habituation in heat storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.4537L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACP.....9.4537L"><span id="translatedtitle">Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.</p> <p>2009-07-01</p> <p>This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5177L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ACPD....9.5177L"><span id="translatedtitle">Discriminating low frequency components from long range persistent fluctuations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanfredi, M.; Simoniello, T.; Cuomo, V.; Macchiato, M.</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>This study originated from recent results reported in literature, which support the existence of long-range (power-law) persistence in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on monthly and inter-annual scales. We investigated the results of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) carried out on twenty-two historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series recorded in Europe in order to evaluate the reliability of such findings in depth. More detailed inspections emphasized systematic deviations from power-law and high statistical confidence for functional form misspecification. Rigorous analyses did not support scale-free correlation as an operative concept for Climate modelling, as instead suggested in literature. In order to understand the physical implications of our results better, we designed a bivariate Markov process, parameterised on the basis of the atmospheric observational data by introducing a slow dummy variable. The time series generated by this model, analysed both in time and frequency domains, tallied with the real ones very well. They accounted for both the deceptive scaling found in literature and the correlation details enhanced by our analysis. Our results seem to evidence the presence of slow fluctuations from another climatic sub-system such as ocean, which inflates <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variance up to several months. They advise more precise re-analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series before suggesting dynamical paradigms useful for Climate modelling and for the assessment of Climate Change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A34E..01S"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient 21st Century Changes in <span class="hlt">Daily</span>-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A key question for policy and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We therefore use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment driven by the A1B emission scenario to investigate the transient changes in the frequency, duration and magnitude of six <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale hot and cold extreme indices throughout the 21st century in the United States. We evaluate these changes within a time of emergence framework and calculate the emergence of a permanent exceedence above the colder part of the current (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and further analyze whether a new norm, with the distribution centered on the current distribution's maxima/minima, emerges. We find that hot extremes will permanently exceed the current distribution's colder half in large parts of the U.S. during the 21st century, along with the emergence of a new hot extremes norm. The changes are particularly robust for tropical nights in the Eastern U.S. and for the exceedence of the 95th <span class="hlt">daily-maximum-temperature</span> percentile in the West and the Northeast. Conversely, no widespread emergence for a permanent exceedence or a new norm is found for cold extremes, with the exception of cold spell duration and frost day frequency. Accordingly, our analysis implies unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S. by the mid century under increase radiative forcing, as well as cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at least occasionally as long and as severe as in the current climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22558324"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal patterns of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in group-living Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W; Bennett, Nigel C; Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E; Waterman, Jane M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(a)). We measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(a) provided the greatest explanatory power for mean T(b) whereas sunrise had greatest power for T(b) acrophase. There were significant changes in mean T(b) and T(b) acrophase over time with mean T(b) increasing and T(b) acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in T(b), sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which T(b) remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to 'offload' heat. In addition, greater T(b) amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their T(a)-T(b) gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on T(b) with a lower and less variable T(b) in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile T(b) which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814295M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability from in-situ and satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Madsen, Kristine S.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Høyer, Jacob L.; Nielsen-Englyst, Pia; Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Tonboe, Rasmus T.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important parameter for understanding the climate system, including the Polar Regions. Yet, in-situ <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements over ice- and snow covered regions are sparse and unevenly distributed, and atmospheric circulation models estimating surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may have large biases. To change this picture, we will analyse the seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability of in-situ and satellite observations, and give an example of how to utilize the data in a sea ice model. We have compiled a data set of in-situ surface and 2 m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations over land ice, snow, sea ice, and from the marginal ice zone. 2523 time series of varying length from 14 data providers, with a total of more than 13 million observations, have been quality controlled and gathered in a uniform format. An overview of this data set will be presented. In addition, IST satellite observations have been processed from the Metop/AVHRR sensor and a merged analysis product has been constructed based upon the Metop/AVHRR, IASI and Modis IST observations. The satellite and in-situ observations of IST are analysed in parallel, to characterize the IST variability on diurnal and seasonal scales and its spatial patterns. The in-situ data are used to estimate sampling effects within the satellite observations and the good coverage of the satellite observations are used to complete the geographical variability. As an example of the application of satellite IST data, results will be shown from a coupled HYCOM-CICE ocean and sea ice model run, where the IST products have been ingested. The impact of using IST in models will be assessed. This work is a part of the EUSTACE project under Horizon 2020, where the ice surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> form an important piece of the puzzle of creating an observationally based record of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for all corners of the Earth, and of the ESA Glob<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> project which aims at applying surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in models in order to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4181925"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Clinical Kidney Stone Presentation in Five U.S. Metropolitan Areas: A Time-Series Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pulido, Jose E.; Gasparrini, Antonio; Saigal, Christopher S.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Landis, J. Richard; Madison, Rodger; Keren, Ron</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: High ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation is unknown. Objectives: Our objective was to estimate associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Methods: Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005–2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Results: Associations between mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure–response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, in most cases RRs increased for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> < 2°C in Atlanta, and < 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ≤ 3 days. Conclusions: In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.5921S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.5921S"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition of <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> air in the Indo-Gangetic Plain measured using a new air quality facility and PTR-MS: high surface ozone and strong influence of biomass burning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sinha, V.; Kumar, V.; Sarkar, C.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>One seventh of the world's population lives in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and the fertile region sustains agricultural food crop production for much of South Asia, yet it remains one of the most under-studied regions of the world in terms of atmospheric composition and chemistry. In particular, the emissions and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that form surface ozone and secondary organic aerosol through photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides are not well understood. In this study, ambient levels of VOCs such as methanol, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and isoprene were measured for the first time in the IGP. A new atmospheric chemistry facility that combines India's first high-sensitivity proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer, an ambient air quality station and a meteorological station, was used to quantify in situ levels of several VOCs and air pollutants in May 2012 at a suburban site in Mohali (northwest IGP). Westerly winds arriving at high wind speeds (5-20 m s-1) in the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season at the site were conducive for chemical characterization of regional emission signatures. Average levels of VOCs and air pollutants in May~2012 ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 nmol mol-1 for aromatic VOCs, 5.9 to 37.5 nmol mol-1 for the oxygenated VOCs, 1.4 nmol mol-1 for acetonitrile, 1.9 nmol mol-1 for isoprene, 567 nmol mol-1 for carbon monoxide, 57.8 nmol mol-1 for ozone, 11.5 nmol mol-1 for nitrogen oxides, 7.3 nmol mol-1 for sulfur dioxide, 104 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 276 μg m-3 for PM10. By analyzing the one-minute in situ data with meteorological parameters and applying chemical tracers (e.g., acetonitrile for biomass burning) and inter-VOC correlations, we were able to constrain major emission source activities on both temporal and diel scales. Wheat residue burning caused massive increases (> 3 times the baseline values) for all the measured VOCs and primary pollutants. Other forms of biomass burning at night were also a significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813125R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1813125R"><span id="translatedtitle">The EUSTACE project: combining different components of the observing system to deliver global, <span class="hlt">daily</span> information on surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rayner, Nick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Day-to-day variations in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affect society in many ways and are fundamental information for many climate services; however, <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements are not available everywhere. A global <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis cannot be achieved with measurements made in situ alone, so incorporation of satellite retrievals is needed. To achieve this, we must develop an understanding of the relationships between traditional surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements and retrievals of surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from satellite measurements, i.e. Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Ice Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>. Here we reflect on our experience so far within the Horizon 2020 project EUSTACE of using satellite skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals to help us to produce a fully-global <span class="hlt">daily</span> analysis (or ensemble of analyses) of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the centennial scale, integrating different ground-based and satellite-borne data types and developing new statistical models of how surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in a connected way from place to place. We will present plans and progress along this road in the EUSTACE project (2015-June 2018): - providing new, consistent, multi-component estimation of uncertainty in surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals from satellites; - identifying inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement series from weather stations and correcting for these over Europe; - estimating surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over all surfaces of Earth from surface skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals; - using new statistical techniques to provide information on higher spatial and temporal scales than currently available, making optimum use of information in data-rich eras. Information will also be given on how interested users can become involved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...42.1383S"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient twenty-first century changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 <span class="hlt">daily</span>-scale extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSR...10...59L"><span id="translatedtitle">An empirical method for estimating probability density functions of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lussana, C.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The presented work focuses on the investigation of gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum (TN) and maximum (TX) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probability density functions (PDFs) with the intent of both characterising a region and detecting extreme values. The empirical PDFs estimation procedure has been realised using the most recent years of gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analysis fields available at ARPA Lombardia, in Northern Italy. The spatial interpolation is based on an implementation of Optimal Interpolation using observations from a dense surface network of automated weather stations. An effort has been made to identify both the time period and the spatial areas with a stable data density otherwise the elaboration could be influenced by the unsettled station distribution. The PDF used in this study is based on the Gaussian distribution, nevertheless it is designed to have an asymmetrical (skewed) shape in order to enable distinction between warming and cooling events. Once properly defined the occurrence of extreme events, it is possible to straightforwardly deliver to the users the information on a local-scale in a concise way, such as: TX extremely cold/hot or TN extremely cold/hot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=307068"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The variability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observed by the China Meteorological Administ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..247D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..247D"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using MODIS data in southern Iran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Didari, Shohreh; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Zand-Parsa, Shahrokh; Khanbilvardi, Reza</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Land surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LSAT) is a key variable in agricultural, climatological, hydrological, and environmental studies. Many of their processes are affected by LSAT at about 5 cm from the ground surface (LSAT5cm). Most of the previous studies tried to find statistical models to estimate LSAT at 2 m height (LSAT2m) which is considered as a standardized height, and there is not enough study for LSAT5cm estimation models. Accurate measurements of LSAT5cm are generally acquired from meteorological stations, which are sparse in remote areas. Nonetheless, remote sensing data by providing rather extensive spatial coverage can complement the spatiotemporal shortcomings of meteorological stations. The main objective of this study was to find a statistical model from the previous day to accurately estimate spatial <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum LSAT5cm, which is very important in agricultural frost, in Fars province in southern Iran. Land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) data were obtained using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua and Terra satellites at daytime and nighttime periods with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. These data along with geometric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and elevation information were used in a stepwise linear model to estimate minimum LSAT5cm during 2003-2011. The results revealed that utilization of MODIS Aqua nighttime data of previous day provides the most applicable and accurate model. According to the validation results, the accuracy of the proposed model was suitable during 2012 (root mean square difference (RMSD) = 3.07 °C, {R}_{adj}^2 = 87 %). The model underestimated (overestimated) high (low) minimum LSAT5cm. The accuracy of estimation in the winter time was found to be lower than the other seasons (RMSD = 3.55 °C), and in summer and winter, the errors were larger than in the remaining seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1011605S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1011605S"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shrestha, P.; Barros, A. P.; Khlystov, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season (May-June). This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevations in the middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14-340 nm), and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC) and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening), during the transitional periods of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak periods was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope) mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to rise. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5958S"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stephenson, Tannecia; Vincent, Lucie; Allen, Theodore; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric; McLean, Natalie</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.95°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 7% fewer cool days and 10% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986-2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A33D..07A"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in the Caribbean region, 1961-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, T. L.; Stephenson, T. S.; Vincent, L.; Van Meerbeeck, C.; McLean, N.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>A workshop was held at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, in May 2012 to build capacity in climate data rescue and to enhance knowledge about climate change in the Caribbean region. Scientists brought their <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data for an assessment of quality and homogeneity and for the preparation of climate change indices helpful for studying climate change in their region. This study presents the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices in the Caribbean region for records spanning the 1961-2010 and 1986-2010 intervals. Overall, the results show a warming of the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Region-wide, annual means of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+1.4°C) have increased more than the annual means of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (+0.9°C) leading to significant decrease in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. The frequency of warm days and warm nights has increased by more than 15% while 9% fewer cool days and 13% fewer cool night were found over the 50-year interval. These frequency trends are further reflected in a rise of the annual extreme high and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by ~1°C. Changes in precipitation indices are less consistent and the trends are generally weak. Small positive trends were found in annual total precipitation, <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity, maximum number of consecutive dry days and heavy rainfall events particularly during the period 1986- 2010. Finally, aside from the observed climate trends, correlations between these indices and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) annual index suggest a coupling between land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and, to a lesser extent, precipitation extremes on the one hand, and the AMO signal of the North Atlantic surface sea <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed Trends in Indices of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrES....9..722T"><span id="translatedtitle">Merging <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from multiple satellites using a Bayesian maximum entropy method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Shaolei; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Di; Li, Ziwei</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) is an important variable for understanding interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere. SST fusion is crucial for acquiring SST products of high spatial resolution and coverage. This study introduces a Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method for blending <span class="hlt">daily</span> SSTs from multiple satellite sensors. A new spatiotemporal covariance model of an SST field is built to integrate not only single-day SSTs but also time-adjacent SSTs. In addition, AVHRR 30-year SST climatology data are introduced as soft data at the estimation points to improve the accuracy of blended results within the BME framework. The merged SSTs, with a spatial resolution of 4 km and a temporal resolution of 24 hours, are produced in the Western Pacific Ocean region to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed methodology. Comparisons with in situ drifting buoy observations show that the merged SSTs are accurate and the bias and root-mean-square errors for the comparison are 0.15°C and 0.72°C, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25660495"><span id="translatedtitle">R-vine models for spatial time series with an application to <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Erhardt, Tobias Michael; Czado, Claudia; Schepsmeier, Ulf</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We introduce an extension of R-vine copula models to allow for spatial dependencies and model based prediction at unobserved locations. The proposed spatial R-vine model combines the flexibility of vine copulas with the classical geostatistical idea of modeling spatial dependencies using the distances between the variable locations. In particular, the model is able to capture non-Gaussian spatial dependencies. To develop and illustrate our approach, we consider <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data observed at 54 monitoring stations in Germany. We identify relationships between the vine copula parameters and the station distances and exploit these in order to reduce the huge number of parameters needed to parametrize a 54-dimensional R-vine model fitted to the data. The new distance based model parametrization results in a distinct reduction in the number of parameters and makes parameter estimation and prediction at unobserved locations feasible. The prediction capabilities are validated using adequate scoring techniques, showing a better performance of the spatial R-vine copula model compared to a Gaussian spatial model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717119A"><span id="translatedtitle">A physics-based correction model for homogenizing sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auchmann, R.; BröNnimann, S.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A new physics-based technique for correcting inhomogeneities present in sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records is proposed. The approach accounts for changes in the sensor-shield characteristics that affect the energy balance dependent on ambient weather conditions (radiation, wind). An empirical model is formulated that reflects the main atmospheric processes and can be used in the correction step of a homogenization procedure. The model accounts for short- and long-wave radiation fluxes (including a snow cover component for albedo calculation) of a measurement system, such as a radiation shield. One part of the flux is further modulated by ventilation. The model requires only cloud cover and wind speed for each day, but detailed site-specific information is necessary. The final model has three free parameters, one of which is a constant offset. The three parameters can be determined, e.g., using the mean offsets for three observation times. The model is developed using the example of the change from the Wild screen to the Stevenson screen in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record of Basel, Switzerland, in 1966. It is evaluated based on parallel measurements of both systems during a sub-period at this location, which were discovered during the writing of this paper. The model can be used in the correction step of homogenization to distribute a known mean step-size to every single measurement, thus providing a reasonable alternative correction procedure for high-resolution historical climate series. It also constitutes an error model, which may be applied, e.g., in data assimilation approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10707326"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in the smallest primate, the pygmy mouse lemur (Microcebus myoxinus) in Madagascar.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, J; Ruf, T; Heldmaier, G</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>Thermoregulation, energetics and patterns of torpor in the pygmy mouse lemur, Microcebus myoxinus, were investigated under natural conditions of photoperiod and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Kirindy/CFPF Forest in western Madagascar. M. myoxinus entered torpor spontaneously during the cool dry season. Torpor only occurred on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis and torpor bout duration was on average 9.6 h, and ranged from 4.6 h to 19.2 h. Metabolic rates during torpor were reduced to about 86% of the normothermic value. Minimum body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor was 6.8 degrees C at an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 6.3 degrees C. Entry into torpor occurred randomly between 2000 and 0620 hours, whereas arousals from torpor were clustered around 1300 hours within a narrow time window of less than 4 h. Arousal from torpor was a two-step process with a first passive climb of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to a mean of 27 degrees C, carried by the <span class="hlt">daily</span> increase of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when oxygen consumption remained more or less constant, followed by a second active increase of oxygen consumption to further raise the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to normothermic values. In conclusion, <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythms in M. myoxinus further reduce the energetic costs of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor seen in other species: they extend to unusually low body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and consequently low metabolic rates in torpor, and they employ passive warming to reduce the energetic costs of arousal. Thus, these energy-conserving adaptations may represent an important energetic aid to the pygmy mouse lemur and help to promote their individual fitness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1347859"><span id="translatedtitle">High-frequency <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in China and its relationship to large-scale circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wu, Fu-Ting; Fu, Congbin; Qian, Yun; Gao, Yang; Wang, Shu-Yu</p> <p>2016-04-18</p> <p>Two measures of intra-seasonal variability, indicated respectively by standard deviations (SD) and day-to-day (DTD) fluctuations denoted by absolute differences between adjacent 2-day periods, as well as their relationships with large-scale circulation patterns were investigated in China during 1962–2008 on the basis of homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from 549 local stations and reanalysis data. Our results show that both the SD and DTD of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmin) in summer as well as the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in winter have been decreasing, while the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) variability in summer is fluctuating more, especially over southern China. In summer, an attribution analysis indicates that the intensity of the Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and high-level East Asian Subtropical Jet stream (EASJ) are positively correlated with both SD and DTD, but the correlation coefficients are generally greater with the SD than with the DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, Tmax. In contrast, the location of the EASJ shows the opposite correlation pattern, with intensity regarding the correlation with both SD and DTD. In winter, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is negatively correlated with both the SD and DTD of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but its intra-seasonal variability exhibits good agreement with the SD of the Tmin. The Siberian High acts differently with respect to the SD and DTD of the Tmin, demonstrating a regionally consistent positive correlation with the SD. Overall, the large-scale circulation can well explain the intra-seasonal SD, but DTD fluctuations may be more local and impacted by local conditions, such as changes in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> itself, the land surface, and so on.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H43C0974R"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Sharpened Land Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Evapotranspiration Estimation over Irrigated Crops in Arid Lands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosas Aguilar, J.; McCabe, M. F.; Houborg, R.; Gao, F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Satellite remote sensing provides data on land surface characteristics, useful for mapping land surface energy fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET). Land-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LST) derived from thermal infrared (TIR) satellite data has been reliably used as a remote indicator of ET and surface moisture status. However, TIR imagery usually operates at a coarser resolution than that of shortwave sensors on the same satellite platform, making it sometimes unsuitable for monitoring of field-scale crop conditions. This study applies the data mining sharpener (DMS; Gao et al., 2012) technique to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), which sharpens the 1 km thermal data down to the resolution of the optical data (250-500 m) based on functional LST and reflectance relationships established using a flexible regression tree approach. The DMS approach adopted here has been enhanced/refined for application over irrigated farming areas located in harsh desert environments in Saudi Arabia. The sharpened LST data is input to an integrated modeling system that uses the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model and associated flux disaggregation scheme (DisALEXI) in conjunction with model reanalysis data and remotely sensed data from polar orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (MSG; Meteosat Second Generation) satellite platforms to facilitate <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates of evapotranspiration. Results are evaluated against available flux tower observations over irrigated maize near Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. Successful monitoring of field-scale changes in surface fluxes are of importance towards an efficient water use in areas where fresh water resources are scarce and poorly monitored. Gao, F.; Kustas, W.P.; Anderson, M.C. A Data Mining Approach for Sharpening Thermal Satellite Imagery over Land. Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 3287-3319.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..92..145L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..92..145L"><span id="translatedtitle">A general model for estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and site geographic parameters in Southwest China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Mao-Fen; Fan, Li; Liu, Hong-Bin; Guo, Peng-Tao; Wu, Wei</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation (Rs) from routinely measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data has been widely developed and used in many different areas of the world. However, many of them are site specific. It is assumed that a general model for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and geographical parameters could be achieved within a climatic region. This paper made an attempt to develop a general model to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs using routinely measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (maximum (Tmax, °C) and minimum (Tmin, °C) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) and site geographical parameters (latitude (La, °N), longitude (Ld, °E) and altitude (Alt, m)) for Guizhou and Sichuan basin of southwest China, which was classified into the hot summer and cold winter climate zone. Comparison analysis was carried out through statistics indicators such as root mean squared error of percentage (RMSE%), modeling efficiency (ME), coefficient of residual mass (CRM) and mean bias error (MBE). Site-dependent <span class="hlt">daily</span> Rs estimating models were calibrated and validated using long-term observed weather data. A general formula was then obtained from site geographical parameters and the better fit site-dependent models with mean RMSE% of 38.68%, mean MBE of 0.381 MJ m-2 d-1, mean CRM of 0.04 and mean ME value of 0.713.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=309011"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and average <span class="hlt">daily</span> gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gain (ADG) and Tympanic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4982C"><span id="translatedtitle">The creation of future <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded datasets of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with a spatial weather generator, Cyprus 2020-2050</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Camera, Corrado; Bruggeman, Adriana; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Pashiardis, Stelios; Lange, Manfred</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets are essential for natural resource management and the analysis of climate changes and their effects. This study aimed to create gridded datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, for the future (2020-2050). The horizontal resolution of the developed datasets is 1 x 1 km2, covering the area under control of the Republic of Cyprus (5.760 km2). The study is divided into two parts. The first consists of the evaluation of the performance of different interpolation techniques for <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1980-2010) for the creation of the gridded datasets. Rainfall data recorded at 145 stations and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 34 stations were used. For precipitation, inverse distance weighting (IDW) performs best for local events, while a combination of step-wise geographically weighted regression and IDW proves to be the best method for large scale events. For minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, a combination of step-wise linear multiple regression and thin plate splines is recognized as the best method. Six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) for the A1B SRES emission scenario from the EU ENSEMBLE project database were selected as sources for future climate projections. The RCMs were evaluated for their capacity to simulate Cyprus climatology for the period 1980-2010. Data for the period 2020-2050 from the three best performing RCMs were downscaled, using the change factors approach, at the location of observational stations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> time series were created with a stochastic rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator. The RainSim V3 software (Burton et al., 2008) was used to generate spatial-temporal coherent rainfall fields. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generator was developed in R and modeled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a weakly stationary process with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and standard deviation conditioned on the wet and dry state of the day (Richardson, 1981). Finally gridded datasets depicting projected future climate conditions were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031450"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oscillation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increased suspended sediment on growth and smolting in juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shrimpton, J.M.; Zydlewski, J.D.; Heath, J.W.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation and increased suspended sediment concentration on growth and smolting in juvenile ocean-type chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Fish were ponded on February 26; each treatment group had three replicates of 250 fish. Mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the entire experiment were 12.3????C for all tanks with a total of 1348 and 1341 degree days for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oscillating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tanks, respectively. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> fluctuation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averaged 7.5????C in the variable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> groups and less than 1????C for the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group. Starting on April 5, bentonite clay was added each day to tanks as a pulse event to achieve a suspended sediment concentration of 200??mg l- 1; clay cleared from the tanks within approximately 8??h. Fish were sampled at approximately two??week intervals from ponding until mid-June. On the last sample date, June 12, a single gill arch was removed and fixed for histological examination of gill morphology. By early May, significant differences were seen in size between the groups; control > <span class="hlt">temperature</span> = sediment > (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> ?? sediment). This relationship was consistent throughout the experiment except for the last sample date when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group had a mean weight significantly greater than the sediment group. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity was not affected by <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillations, but groups subjected to increased suspended sediment had significantly lower enzyme activities compared to controls. Mean cell size for gill chloride cells did not differ between groups. Plasma cortisol increased significantly during the spring, but there were no significant differences between groups. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43A1162Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC43A1162Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and humidex index in the United Arab Emirates over 1948-2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, H. W.; Ouarda, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study deals with the analysis of the characteristics of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events in the Middle East, using NCEP reanalysis gridded data, for the summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) seasons. Trends in the occurrences of three types of heat spells during 1948-2014 are studied by both Linear Regression (LR) and Mann-Kendall (MK) test. Changes in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) are also investigated. To better understand the effects of heat spells on public health, the Humidex, a combination index of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity, is also used. Using percentile threshold, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Humidex) Type-A and Type-B heat spells are defined respectively by <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Humidex). Type-C heat spells are defined as the joint occurrence of Type-A and Type-B heat spells at the same time. In the Middle East, it is found that no coherent trend in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Type-A heat spells is observed. However, the occurrences of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Type-B and C heat spells have consistently increased since 1948. For Humidex heat spells, coherently increased activities of all three types of heat spells are observed in the area. During the summer, the magnitude of the positive trends in Humidex heat spells are generally stronger than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> heat spells. More than half of the locations in the area show significantly negative DTR trends in the summer, but the trends vary according to the region in the winter. Annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has increased an average by 0.5°C, but it is mainly associated with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which has warmed up by 0.84°C.<span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed no significant trends. The warming is hence stronger in minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than in maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> resulting in a decrease in DTR by 0.16 °C per decade. This study indicates hence that the UAE has not become hotter, but it has become less cold during 1948 to 2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC34B..01K"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Downscaled CMIP5 Model Skill in Simulating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Over the Southeastern United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keellings, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Downscaled CMIP5 climate projections of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the Downscaled CMIP3 and CMIP5 Climate and Hydrology Projections archive are examined regionally over the southeastern U.S. Three measures of model skill (means-based, distribution-based, extreme-based) are utilized to assess the ability of 15 downscaled models to simulate <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations. A new test is proposed to determine statistical significance of the probability density function based skill measures. Skill scores are found to be generally high for all three measures throughout the study region, but lower scores are present in coastal and mountainous areas. Application of the significance test shows that while the skill scores may be high they are not significantly higher than could be expected at random in some areas. The distribution-based skill scores are not significant in much of Florida and the Appalachians. The extreme-based skill scores are not significant in more than 90% of the region for all models investigated. The findings suggest that although the downscaled models have simulated observed means well and are a good match to the entire distribution of observations, they are not simulating the occurrence of extreme (above 90th percentile) maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3523651','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3523651"><span id="translatedtitle">Clarifying the role of fire heat and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations as germination cues for Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Blanes, M. Carmen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims This study aims to determine the role that both direct effects of fire and subsequent <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations play in the seed bank dynamics of obligate seeders from the Mediterranean Basin. The short yet high soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced due to passage of fire are conflated with the lower, but longer, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced by <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations which occur after removing vegetation. These germination cues are able to break seed dormancy, but it is difficult to assess their specific level of influence because they occur consecutively after summer fires, just before the flush of germination in the wet season (autumn). Methods By applying experimental fires, seed treatments were imposed that combined fire exposure/non-fire exposure with exposure to microhabitats under a gradient of disturbance (i.e. gaps opened by fire, mechanical brushing and intact vegetation). The seeds used were representative of the main families of obligate seeders (Ulex parviflorus, Cistus albidus and Rosmarinus officinalis). Specifically, an assessment was made of (1) the proportion of seeds killed by fire, (2) seedling emergence under field conditions and (3) seeds which remained ungerminated in soil. Key Results For the three species studied, the factors that most influenced seedling emergence and seeds remaining ungerminated were microhabitats with higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations after fire (gaps opened by fire and brushing treatments). The direct effect of fire decreased the seedling emergence of U. parviflorus and reduced the proportion of seeds of R. officinalis remaining ungerminated. Conclusions The relevance of depleting vegetation (and subsequent <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuation in summer) suggests that studies focusing on lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds for breaking seed dormancy are required. This fact also supports the hypothesis that the seeding capacity in Mediterranean Basin obligate seeders may have evolved as a response to a wide range of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23B1142R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC23B1142R"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Snow-To-Rain Transitions Across The Western U.S.: When Is <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sufficient?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rajagopal, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The phase of precipitation at the land surface is critical for determining the timing and amount of water available for hydrological and ecological systems. Natural variability in precipitation phase due to elevation, micro-climate, and storm characteristics make it a challenge to predict phase. In addition, regional warming is expected to move the snow-rain elevation higher in the future, which has the potential to alter water availability. Despite this, there are few techniques for direct observation of precipitation phase and many predictive techniques apply simple <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds (i.e. 0 degree Celsius) to determine spatiotemporal patterns. In this paper, we asked two questions: 1) what is the optimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for predicting snow-rain transitions in the mountains of the Western U.S.? and 2) what errors in precipitation phase estimation are associated with common <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds? We use 502 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations with data from 2004 to 2014 to determine rain versus snow using a combination of precipitation, snow depth, and SWE observations. From the observations, we determined that <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a better predictor of rain and snow events than average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from -2.0 to 3 C, with an average of 0.3 C across ecoregions. The Northern Basin and Northern Cascades with lower average elevations had higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds and the Southern Rockies with highest elevations had the lowest thresholds. Developing a relationship based on station elevation improved the RMSE by 12%, whereas using an optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> developed for each station improved the RMSE by 34% on average. While using optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds reduce error in prediction, they do not eliminate misclassification of rain-show transitions. These results highlight a current weakness in our ability to predict the effects of regional warming that could have uneven impacts on water and ecological resource management</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446212','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446212"><span id="translatedtitle">Part 2. Association of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality with ambient air pollution, and effect modification by extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Wuhan, China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Zhengmin; He, Qingci; Lin, Hung-Mo; Kong, Lingli; Zhou, Dunjin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhu, Zhichao; Liao, Duanping; Liu, Wenshan; Bentley, Christy M; Dan, Jijun; Wang, Beiwei; Yang, Niannian; Xu, Shuangqing; Gong, Jie; Wei, Hongming; Sun, Huilin; Qin, Zudian</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Fewer studies have been published on the association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and ambient air pollution in Asia than in the United States and Europe. This study was undertaken in Wuhan, China, to investigate the acute effects of air pollution on mortality with an emphasis on particulate matter (PM*). There were three primary aims: (1) to examine the associations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to all natural causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause-specific mortality (cardiovascular [CVD], stroke, cardiac [CARD], respiratory [RD], cardiopulmonary [CP], and non-cardiopulmonary [non-CP] causes) with <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean concentrations (microg/m3) of PM with an aerodynamic diameter--10 pm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), or ozone (O3); (2) to investigate the effect modification of extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the association between air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality due to all natural causes and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cause-specific mortality; and (3) to assess the uncertainty of effect estimates caused by the change in International Classification of Disease (ICD) coding of mortality data from Revision 9 (ICD-9) to Revision 10 (ICD-10) code. Wuhan is called an "oven city" in China because of its extremely hot summers (the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in July is 37.2 degrees C and maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> often exceeds 40 degrees C). Approximately 4.5 million residents live in the core city area of 201 km2, where air pollution levels are higher and ranges are wider than the levels in most cities studied in the published literature. We obtained <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean levels of PM10, SO2, and NO2 concentrations from five fixed-site air monitoring stations operated by the Wuhan Environmental Monitoring Center (WEMC). O3 data were obtained from two stations, and 8-hour averages, from 10:00 to 18:00, were used. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality data were obtained from the Wuhan Centres for Disease Prevention and Control (WCDC) during the study period of July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2004. To achieve the first aim, we used a regression of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESSDD...8.1021B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESSDD...8.1021B"><span id="translatedtitle">CPLFD-GDPT5: high-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset for two largest Polish river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezowski, T.; Szcześniak, M.; Kardel, I.; Michałowski, R.; Okruszko, T.; Mezghani, A.; Piniewski, M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The CHASE-PL Forcing Data-Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations from Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), ECAD and NOAA-NCDC (Slovak, Ukrainian and Belarus stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of Vistula and Odra basin and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in time from about 100 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 300 for precipitation in 1950 up to about 180 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 700 for precipitation in 1990. The precipitation dataset was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were: kriging with elevation as external drift for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross-validation revealed low root mean squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 0.88 for maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in the Vistula and Odra basins. Link to the dataset: <a href="http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07" target=_blank>http://data.3tu.nl/repository/uuid:e939aec0-bdd1-440f-bd1e-c49ff10d0a07</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESSD....8..127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ESSD....8..127B"><span id="translatedtitle">CPLFD-GDPT5: High-resolution gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set for two largest Polish river basins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berezowski, Tomasz; Szcześniak, Mateusz; Kardel, Ignacy; Michałowski, Robert; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Piniewski, Mikołaj</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The CHASE-PL (Climate change impact assessment for selected sectors in Poland) Forcing Data-Gridded <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation & <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dataset-5 km (CPLFD-GDPT5) consists of 1951-2013 <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitation totals interpolated onto a 5 km grid based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW-PIB; Polish stations), Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD, German and Czech stations), and European Climate Assessment and Dataset (ECAD) and National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration-National Climatic Data Center (NOAA-NCDC) (Slovak, Ukrainian, and Belarusian stations). The main purpose for constructing this product was the need for long-term aerial precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data for earth-system modelling, especially hydrological modelling. The spatial coverage is the union of the Vistula and Oder basins and Polish territory. The number of available meteorological stations for precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varies in time from about 100 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 300 for precipitation in the 1950s up to about 180 for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and 700 for precipitation in the 1990s. The precipitation data set was corrected for snowfall and rainfall under-catch with the Richter method. The interpolation methods were kriging with elevation as external drift for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and indicator kriging combined with universal kriging for precipitation. The kriging cross validation revealed low root-mean-squared errors expressed as a fraction of standard deviation (SD): 0.54 and 0.47 for minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, respectively, and 0.79 for precipitation. The correlation scores were 0.84 for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, 0.88 for maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and 0.65 for precipitation. The CPLFD-GDPT5 product is consistent with 1971-2000 climatic data published by IMGW-PIB. We also confirm good skill of the product for hydrological modelling by performing an application using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997IJBm...40..103N"><span id="translatedtitle">Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira</p> <p></p> <p>This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL). Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05) of 0.25 (SD 0.61) °C in the morning and 0.24 (SD 0.50) °C in the afternoon. Differences between oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in summer and winter tended to be greater in subjects with low ADL scores, even when their room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was well-controlled. In conclusion, the oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the elderly are lower in winter than summer, particularly in physically inactive people. It appears that those with low levels of ADL are more vulnerable to large changes in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811202L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811202L"><span id="translatedtitle">The physical basis of enhanced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index ice melt parameterizations in the Nepal Himalaya.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Litt, Maxime; Shea, Joseph; Koch, Inka; Wagnon, Patrick</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Glacier melt is an important component of seasonal water flows in the Himalayas. Due to scarce data availability and computational convenience, most glaciological projections in the Himalayan region derive ice melt from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index (TI) or enhanced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index (ETI) parameterizations, which require only <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar radiation as inputs. Still, the processes linking these variables to melt remain poorly documented under high-altitude climates, where the air is cold, and the main input is shortwave radiation. In this study, we question the physical basis of enhanced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index (ETI) melt parameterizations in the Nepal Himalayas. Using atmospheric weather station (AWS) installed on Yala glacier at 5090 m a.s.l and Mera glaciers at 6350 m a.s.l., we study the surface energy balance (SEB) during one melt season, i.e, the monsoon and surrounding weeks, in 2014. The SEB estimates provide insights into the atmospheric controls on the glaciers. We study the variability of correlation coefficients linking <span class="hlt">daily</span> means of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, SEB and SEB components. On Yala at 5090 m a.s.l, energy inputs are high during the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> due to low surface albedo and strong incoming solar radiation near the solstice, and melt is strong. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlates moderately with the SEB (R = 0.58) mainly through sublimation and net longwave radiation. During the monsoon snow deposition reduces the magnitude of net shortwave radiation, thus dampening the melt rates. Strong longwave emission from clouds compensates for the surface emission, and the correlation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with the SEB, mainly explained through net shortwave radiation, decreases (R = 0.49). During the post-monsoon, high albedo, heat losses through sublimation and clear-skies favoring longwave losses at the surface lead to a near zero SEB, and reduced melt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> correlates well with the SEB (R = 0.88) through net longwave radiation. On Mera at 6300 m a.s.l, high surface albedo and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21721858"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Ordovás, J M; Smith, C E; Nicolás, F; Garaulet, M</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The circadian rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity patterns. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) (mean ± SEM). Skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1130373"><span id="translatedtitle">GSOD Based <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Global Mean Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xuan Shi, Dali Wang</p> <p>2014-05-05</p> <p>This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040090350&hterms=potato&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpotato"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T. W.; Bennett, S. M.; Cao, W.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11537703"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of continuous irradiation injury on potatoes with <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T W; Bennett, S M; Cao, W</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18 degrees C and fluctuating 22 degrees C/14 degrees C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18 degrees C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1062526"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of Continuous Irradiation Injury on Potatoes with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Cycling 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, Theodore W.; Bennett, Susan M.; Cao, Weixing</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Two controlled-environment experiments were conducted to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations under continuous irradiation on growth and tuberization of two potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars, Kennebec and Superior. These cultivars had exhibited chlorotic and stunted growth under continuous irradiation and constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The plants were grown for 4 weeks in the first experiment and for 6 weeks in the second experiment. Each experiment was conducted under continuous irradiation of 400 micromoles per square meter per second of photosynthetic photon flux and included two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments: constant 18°C and fluctuating 22°C/14°C on a 12-hour cycle. A common vapor pressure deficit of 0.62 kilopascal was maintained at all <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants under constant 18°C were stunted and had chlorotic and abscised leaves and essentially no tuber formation. Plants grown under the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment developed normally, were developing tubers, and had a fivefold or greater total dry weight as compared with those under the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. These results suggest that a thermoperiod can allow normal plant growth and tuberization in potato cultivars that are unable to develop effectively under continuous irradiation. Images Figure 1 PMID:11537703</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28270050"><span id="translatedtitle">Water quality and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle affect biofilm formation in drip irrigation devices revealed by optical coherence tomography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qian, Jueying; Horn, Harald; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona; Katz, Sagi; Wagner, Michael</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Drip irrigation is a water-saving technology. To date, little is known about how biofilm forms in drippers of irrigation systems. In this study, the internal dripper geometry was recreated in 3-D printed microfluidic devices (MFDs). To mimic the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions in (semi-) arid areas, experiments were conducted in a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled box between 20 and 50°C. MFDs were either fed with two different treated wastewater (TWW) or synthetic wastewater. Biofilm formation was monitored non-invasively and in situ by optical coherence tomography (OCT). 3-D OCT datasets reveal the major fouling position and illustrate that biofilm development was influenced by fluid dynamics. Biofilm volumetric coverage of the labyrinth up to 60% did not reduce the discharge rate, whereas a further increase to 80% reduced the discharge rate by 50%. Moreover, the biofilm formation rate was significantly inhibited in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle independent of the cultivation medium used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014281','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110014281"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Estimation of Black Carbon Deposition from Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid Data and Its Possible Impact on Snow Albedo Changes Over Himalayan Glaciers During the <span class="hlt">Pre-Monsoon</span> Season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yasunari, T. J.; Bonasoni, P.; Laj, P.; Fujita, K.; Vuillermoz, E.; Marinoni, A.; Cristofanelli, P.; Duchi, R.; Tartari, G.; Lau, K.-M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The possible minimal range of reduction in snow surface albedo due to dry deposition of black carbon (BC) in the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> period (March-May) was estimated as a lower bound together with the estimation of its accuracy, based on atmospheric observations at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P) sited at 5079 m a.s.l. in the Himalayan region. We estimated a total BC deposition rate of 2.89 g m-2 day-1 providing a total deposition of 266 micrograms/ square m for March-May at the site, based on a calculation with a minimal deposition velocity of 1.0 10(exp -4) m/s with atmospheric data of equivalent BC concentration. Main BC size at NCO-P site was determined as 103.1-669.8 nm by correlation analysis between equivalent BC concentration and particulate size distribution in the atmosphere. We also estimated BC deposition from the size distribution data and found that 8.7% of the estimated dry deposition corresponds to the estimated BC deposition from equivalent BC concentration data. If all the BC is deposited uniformly on the top 2-cm pure snow, the corresponding BC concentration is 26.0-68.2 microgram/kg assuming snow density variations of 195-512 kg/ cubic m of Yala Glacier close to NCO-P site. Such a concentration of BC in snow could result in 2.0-5.2% albedo reductions. From a simple numerical calculations and if assuming these albedo reductions continue throughout the year, this would lead to a runoff increases of 70-204 mm of water drainage equivalent of 11.6-33.9% of the annual discharge of a typical Tibetan glacier. Our estimates of BC concentration in snow surface for <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season can be considered comparable to those at similar altitude in the Himalayan region, where glaciers and perpetual snow region starts in the vicinity of NCO-P. Our estimates from only BC are likely to represent a lower bound for snow albedo reductions, since a fixed slower deposition velocity was used and atmospheric wind and turbulence effects, snow aging, dust deposition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2901A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multisite multivariate modeling of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Canadian Prairie Provinces using generalized linear models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Asong, Zilefac E.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Based on the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) framework, a multisite stochastic modelling approach is developed using <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations of precipitation and minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 120 sites located across the Canadian Prairie Provinces: Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is modeled using a two-stage normal-heteroscedastic model by fitting mean and variance components separately. Likewise, precipitation occurrence and conditional precipitation intensity processes are modeled separately. The relationship between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is accounted for by using transformations of precipitation as covariates to predict <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields. Large scale atmospheric covariates from the National Center for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis-I, teleconnection indices, geographical site attributes, and observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records are used to calibrate these models for the 1971-2000 period. Validation of the developed models is performed on both pre- and post-calibration period data. Results of the study indicate that the developed models are able to capture spatiotemporal characteristics of observed precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields, such as inter-site and inter-variable correlation structure, and systematic regional variations present in observed sequences. A number of simulated weather statistics ranging from seasonal means to characteristics of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes and some of the commonly used climate indices are also found to be in close agreement with those derived from observed data. This GLM-based modelling approach will be developed further for multisite statistical downscaling of Global Climate Model outputs to explore climate variability and change in this region of Canada.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761507','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761507"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: a statistical modeling study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1 km × 1 km) <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts to Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R2 of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R2 of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376 °C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably. PMID:26717080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GPC...149...79N"><span id="translatedtitle">Bias correction of global and regional simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia using quantile mapping method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ngai, Sheau Tieh; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A trend preserving quantile mapping (QM) method was applied to adjust the biases of the global and regional climate models (GCM and RCMs) simulated <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over Southeast Asia regions based on APHRODITE dataset. Output from four different RCMs as well as their driving GCM in CORDEX-EA archive were corrected to examine the added value of RCMs dynamical downscaling in the context of bias adjustment. The result shows that the RCM biases are comparable to that of the GCM biases. In some instances, RCMs amplified the GCM biases. Generally, QM method substantially improves the biases for both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, the bias adjustment method works better for surface mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and less so for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. The large inter-models variability is reduced remarkably after bias adjustment. Overall, study indicates no strong evident that RCMs downscaling as an immediate step before bias correction provides additional improvement to the sub-regional climate compared to the correction directly carried out on their forcing GCM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17408996"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of physical exercise on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Piccione, Giuseppe; Grasso, Fortunata; Fazio, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in horses. Blood samples from 12 Thoroughbred horses, six sedentary animals and six athletes (studied both before and after a period of inactivity) were collected at 4h intervals for 48h via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded every 4h for 48h with a rectal probe. Platelet aggregation was measured with an aggregometer. Collagen was used to test the aggregation of the plasma samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by single cosinor method. Cosinor analysis identified the periodic parameters and their acrophases (expressed in hours) during the 2 days of monitoring. On each single day, there was a highly significant effect of time in all the horses, with P values <0.05. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rhythms were unaffected by exercise. Platelet aggregation in exercising horses differed from the sedentary horses, and this difference disappeared after a 2-week period of rest. The results could be interpreted as indicating that physical exercise has an influence on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of platelet aggregation in horses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26717080"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across the Southeastern United States using high-resolution satellite data: A statistical modeling study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shi, Liuhua; Liu, Pengfei; Kloog, Itai; Lee, Mihye; Kosheleva, Anna; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of spatio-temporal resolved near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) are crucial for environmental epidemiological studies. However, values of Ta are conventionally obtained from weather stations, which have limited spatial coverage. Satellite surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ts) measurements offer the possibility of local exposure estimates across large domains. The Southeastern United States has different climatic conditions, more small water bodies and wetlands, and greater humidity in contrast to other regions, which add to the challenge of modeling air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, we incorporated satellite Ts to estimate high resolution (1km×1km) <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta across the southeastern USA for 2000-2014. We calibrated Ts-Ta measurements using mixed linear models, land use, and separate slopes for each day. A high out-of-sample cross-validated R(2) of 0.952 indicated excellent model performance. When satellite Ts were unavailable, linear regression on nearby monitors and spatio-temporal smoothing was used to estimate Ta. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Ta estimations were compared to the NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) model. A good agreement with an R(2) of 0.969 and a mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) of 1.376°C was achieved. Our results demonstrate that Ta can be reliably predicted using this Ts-based prediction model, even in a large geographical area with topography and weather patterns varying considerably.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3358D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3358D"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional projection of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the 21st Century over the Eastern India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhage, Pradnya; Singh Raghuwanshi, Narendra; Singh, Rajendra</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Global as well as regional climate has changed due to human activities like land use changes, production of industrial effluents and other developmental activities of the society. The consequences of these changes have a massive impact on atmospheric events like precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> etc. The rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are intrinsic parameters of hydrologic cycle. Consequently, these are also the major driving factors of change in hydrologic response due to climate change. Future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information is required at regional and basin scales for climate change studies. Therefore, in present study, <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> scenarios were developed from Multi-GCM ensemble (CanESM2, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MPI-ESM-LR, and CNRM-CM5 GCMs) using bias correction and spatial downscaling (BCSD) method at station scale for Kangsabati reservoir catchment and command, West Bengal, India. Subsequently, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intensity and frequency indices like extremes of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, consecutive hot days, consecutive cold days, and warming nights were analyzed. The GCM data for all the requisite variables corresponding to historic run (1971-2005) and future climate (2006-2100) were used under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) emission scenarios. The results indicate significant increase in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in all seasons (<span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span>, monsoon, and post-monsoon), with the most significant increase occurring in <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season, and for all the stations of the study area. The warming tendencies of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Kangsabati command area are projected as 0.20 and 0.22 °C/decade under RCP4.5, and 0.54 and 0.59 °C/decade under RCP8.5 for 2011-2100 period, respectively. Further, it is found that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intensity and frequency indices will increase (maximum value of Tmax and Tmin, and minimum value of Tmax and Tmin, consecutive hot days, and warming nights) while</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24927130"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, not the circadian clock, regulate growth rate in Brachypodium distachyon.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A; Cole, Benjamin J; Whitney, Ian P; MacKinnon, Kirk J-M; Kay, Steve A; Hazen, Samuel P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. Changes in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light changes, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced changes in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no change in growth rate under conditions of constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not change in response to changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate changes in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ThApC.tmp...43C"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends and periodicity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, and the nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases faster than the daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..569Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality among the elderly: a meta-analysis and systematic review of epidemiological evidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Ye, Xiaofang; Guo, Yuming; Pan, Xiaochuan; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The impact of climate change on the health of vulnerable groups such as the elderly has been of increasing concern. However, to date there has been no meta-analysis of current literature relating to the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations upon mortality amongst the elderly. We synthesised risk estimates of the overall impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on elderly mortality across different continents. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and PubMed to identify papers published up to December 2010. Selection criteria including suitable <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indicators, endpoints, study-designs and identification of threshold were used. A two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model was performed to summarise the percent increase in mortality with a 1°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase (or decrease) with 95% confidence intervals in hot (or cold) days, with lagged effects also measured. Fifteen studies met the eligibility criteria and almost 13 million elderly deaths were included in this meta-analysis. In total, there was a 2-5% increase for a 1°C increment during hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals, and a 1-2 % increase in all-cause mortality for a 1°C decrease during cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals. Lags of up to 9 days in exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> intervals were substantially associated with all-cause mortality, but no substantial lagged effects were observed for hot intervals. Thus, both hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> substantially increased mortality among the elderly, but the magnitude of heat-related effects seemed to be larger than that of cold effects within a global context.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862828','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22862828"><span id="translatedtitle">A model to approximate lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records and its application in risk assessment for the establishment of fish diseases in the UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thrush, M A; Peeler, E J</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Ambient water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a key factor controlling the distribution and impact of disease in fish populations, and optimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges have been characterised for the establishment of a number important aquatic diseases exotic to the UK. This study presents a simple regression method to approximate <span class="hlt">daily</span> average surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in lakes of 0.5-15 ha in size across the UK using 5 km(2) gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> average air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provided by the UK Meteorological Office. A Geographic information system (GIS) is used to present thematic maps of relative risk scores established for each grid cell based on the mean number of days per year that water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> satisfied optimal criteria for the establishment of two economically important pathogens of cyprinid fish (koi herpesvirus (KHV) and spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV)) and the distribution and density of fish populations susceptible to these viruses. High-density susceptible populations broadly overlap the areas where the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are optimal for KHV (central and south-east England); however, few fish populations occur in areas where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles are most likely to result in the establishment of spring viremia of carp (SVC) (namely northern England and Scotland). The highest grid-cell risk scores for KHV and SVC were 7 and 6, respectively, out of a maximum score of 14. The proportion of grid cells containing susceptible populations with risk scores of 5 or more was 37% and 5% for KHV and SVC, respectively. This work demonstrates a risk-based approach to inform surveillance for exotic pathogens in aquatic animal health management, allowing efficient use of resources directed towards higher risk animals and geographic areas for early disease detection. The methodology could be used to examine the change in distribution of high-risk areas for both exotic and endemic fish diseases under different climate change scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..569R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..569R"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Reference Evapotranspiration using <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Based Models and Remotely Sensed Data over Indian River Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>R, Shwetha H.; D, Nagesh Kumar</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) is the most significant component of the hydrological budget. Accurate quantification of ETo is vital for proper water management, efficient agricultural activities, irrigation planning and irrigation scheduling. FAO Penman Montieth (FAO-PM) is the widely accepted and used method for the ETo estimation under all climatic conditions, but needs numerous inputs which are difficult to acquire in developing countries. In such conditions, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based models such as Hargreaves-Samani (HS) equation and Penman Montieth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (PMT) can be used, where only maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are required. Spatial interpolation of meteorological parameters to calculate spatial variation of ETo results in inaccurate estimations at lowly densed weather stations. Hence, there is a necessity of simple and easy method to estimate spatial distribution of ETo. In this regard, remotely sensed data provides viable alternative approach to obtain continuous spatio-temporal ETo. In this study, we used <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based ETo models with remotely sensed LST data to estimate spatio-temporal variation of ETo. Day and night LST (MYD11A1) data of the year 2010 for the Cauvery basin on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis were obtained from MODIS sensor of Aqua satellite. Firstly, day and night land surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (LST) with HS and PMT methods were applied to estimate ETo. Secondly, maximum and minimum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were estimated from day and night LST respectively using simple linear regression and these air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were used to estimate ETo. Estimated results were validated with the ETo calculated using meteorological data obtained from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) by applying standard FAO-PM. The preliminary results revealed that, HS method with LST overestimated ETo in the study region. Statistical analysis showed PMT method with both LST and air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> performed better than the HS method. These two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based methods are often used for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814427B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814427B"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical downscaling of sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> (6-hour) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Romania, by means of artificial neural networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cǎrbunaru, Felicia</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The role of statistical downscaling is to model the relationship between large-scale atmospheric circulation and climatic variables on a regional and sub-regional scale, making use of the predictions of future circulation generated by General Circulation Models (GCMs) in order to capture the effects of climate change on smaller areas. The study presents a statistical downscaling model based on a neural network-based approach, by means of multi-layer perceptron networks. Sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data series from 81 meteorological stations over Romania, with full data records are used as predictands. As large-scale predictor, the NCEP/NCAD air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 850 hPa over the domain 20-30E / 40-50N was used, at a spatial resolution of 2.5×2.5 degrees. The period 1961-1990 was used for calibration, while the validation was realized over the 1991-2010 interval. Further, in order to estimate future changes in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for 2021-2050 and 2071-2100, air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 850 hPa corresponding to the IPCC A1B scenario was extracted from the CNCM33 model (Meteo-France) and used as predictor. This work has been realized within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian Executive Agency for Higher Education Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJBm...50..121O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJBm...50..121O"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Marie S.; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0 14 years) and the elderly (ages ≥65 years). Predictors included mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [cold (10 11°C) for both cities and heat (35 36°C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each city (15°C in Mexico City, 25°C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15912362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15912362"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Neill, Marie S; Hajat, Shakoor; Zanobetti, Antonella; Ramirez-Aguilar, Matiana; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>We assessed the influence of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on associations between apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Mexico City and Monterrey. Poisson regressions were fit to mortality among all ages, children (ages 0-14 years) and the elderly (ages >or=65 years). Predictors included mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> AT, season, day of week and public holidays for the base model. Respiratory epidemics and air pollution (particulate matter <10 microm in aerodynamic diameter and O3) were added singly and then jointly for a fully adjusted model. Percent changes in mortality were calculated for days of relatively extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [cold (10-11 degrees C) for both cities and heat (35-36 degrees C) for Monterrey], compared to days at the overall mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in each city (15 degrees C in Mexico City, 25 degrees C in Monterrey). In Mexico City, total mortality increased 12.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.5%, 14.5%] on cold days (fully adjusted). Among children, the adjusted association was similar [10.9% (95% CI: 5.4%, 16.7%)], but without control for pollution and epidemics, was nearly twice as large [19.7% (95% CI: 13.9%, 25.9)]. In Monterrey, the fully adjusted heat effect for all deaths was 18.7% (95% CI: 11.7%, 26.1%), a third lower than the unadjusted estimate; the heat effect was lower among children [5.5% (95% CI: -10.1%, 23.8%)]. Cold had a similar effect on all-age mortality as in Mexico City [11.7% (95% CI: 3.7%, 20.3%)]. Responses of the elderly differed little from all-ages responses in both cities. Associations between weather and health persisted even with control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics in two Mexican cities, but risk assessments and climate change adaptation programs are best informed by analyses that account for these potential confounders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27085998"><span id="translatedtitle">Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on grizzly bear habitat selection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pigeon, Karine E; Cardinal, Etienne; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Côté, Steeve D</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>To fulfill their needs, animals are constantly making trade-offs among limiting factors. Although there is growing evidence about the impact of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection in mammals, the role of environmental conditions and thermoregulation on apex predators is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the influence of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on habitat selection patterns of grizzly bears in the managed landscape of Alberta, Canada. Grizzly bear habitat selection followed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal pattern that was influenced by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with adult males showing stronger responses than females to warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Cutblocks aged 0-20 years provided an abundance of forage but were on average 6 °C warmer than mature conifer stands and 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks. When ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increased, the relative change (odds ratio) in the probability of selection for 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks decreased during the hottest part of the day and increased during cooler periods, especially for males. Concurrently, the probability of selection for 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks increased on warmer days. Following plant phenology, the odds of selecting 0- to 20-year-old cutblocks also increased from early to late summer while the odds of selecting 21- to 40-year-old cutblocks decreased. Our results demonstrate that ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and therefore thermal requirements, play a significant role in habitat selection patterns and behaviour of grizzly bears. In a changing climate, large mammals may increasingly need to adjust spatial and temporal selection patterns in response to thermal constraints.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20502901"><span id="translatedtitle">Variation in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of free-living Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx): does water limitation drive heterothermy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hetem, Robyn Sheila; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fick, Linda Gayle; Maloney, Shane Kevin; Meyer, Leith Carl Rodney; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Heterothermy, a variability in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> beyond the limits of homeothermy, has been advanced as a key adaptation of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) to their arid-zone life. We measured body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using implanted data loggers, for a 1-year period, in five oryx free-living in the deserts of Saudi Arabia. As predicted for adaptive heterothermy, during hot months compared to cooler months, not only were maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher (41.1 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.1°C, P = 0.0002) but minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also were lower (36.1 ± 0.3 vs. 36.8 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.04), resulting in a larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm (5.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.9 ± 0.2°C, P = 0.0007), while mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose by only 0.4°C. The maximum <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitude of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm reached 7.7°C for two of our oryx during the hot-dry period, the largest amplitude ever recorded for a large mammal. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability was influenced not only by ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but also water availability, with oryx displaying larger <span class="hlt">daily</span> amplitudes of the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm during warm-dry months compared to warm-wet months (3.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.3 ± 0.3°C, P = 0.005), even though ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were the same. Free-living Arabian oryx therefore employ heterothermy greater than that recorded in any other large mammal, but water limitation, rather than high ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, seems to be the primary driver of this heterothermy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016904"><span id="translatedtitle">Polar microwave brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from Nimbus-7 SMMR: Time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and monthly maps from 1978 to 1987</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Comiso, Josefino C.; Zwally, H. Jay</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A time series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gridded maps (October 25, 1978 through August 15, 1987) were generated from all ten channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer orbital data. This unique data set can be utilized in a wide range of applications including heat flux, ocean circulation, ice edge productivity, and climate studies. Two sets of data in polar stereographic format are created for the Arctic region: one with a grid size of about 30 km on a 293 by 293 array similar to that previously utilized for the Nimbus-5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer, while the other has a grid size of about 25 km on a 448 by 304 array identical to what is now being used for the DMSP Scanning Multichannel Microwave Imager. Data generated for the Antaractic region are mapped using the 293 by 293 grid only. The general technique for mapping, and a quality assessment of the data set are presented. Monthly and yearly averages are also generated from the <span class="hlt">daily</span> data and sample geophysical ice images and products derived from the data are given. Contour plots of monthly ice concentrations derived from the data for October 1978 through August 1987 are presented to demonstrate spatial and temporal detail which this data set can offer, and to show potential research applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210829A"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Extreme <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Indices for the Countries of the Western Indian Ocean, 1975-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguilar, Enric; Vincent, Lucie A.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In the framework of the project "Renforcement des Capacités des Pays de la COI dans le Domaine de l'Adaptation au Changement Climatique (ACCLIMATE)" (Comission de l'Ocean Indien, COI), a workshop on homogenization of climate data and climate change indices analysis was held in Mauritius in October 2009, using the successful format prepared by the CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices. Scientists from the five countries in Western Indian Ocean brought <span class="hlt">daily</span> climatological data from their region for a meticulous assessment of the data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices which can be used for analyses of changes in climate extremes. Although the period of analysis is very short, it represents a seminal step for the compilation of longer data set and allows us to examine the evolution of climate extremes in the area during the time period identified as the decades where anthropogenic warming es larger than natural forcings. This study first presents some results of the homogeneity assessment using the software package RHtestV3 (Wang and Feng 2009) which has been developed for the detection of changepoints in climatological datasets. Indices based on homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and precipitations were also prepared for the analysis of trends at more than 50 stations across the region. The results show an increase in the percentage of warm days and warm nights over 1975-2008 while changes in extreme precipitations are not as consistent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJBm...50..342D"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Madrid (Spain) among the 45-64 age-group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Díaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>This paper analyses the relationship between extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mortality among persons aged 45-64 years. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mortality in Madrid was analysed by sex and cause, from January 1986 to December 1997. Quantitative analyses were performed using generalised additive models, with other covariables, such as influenza, air pollution and seasonality, included as controls. Our results showed that impact on mortality was limited for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentiles, and increased sharply thereafter. During the summer period, the effect of heat was detected solely among males in the target age group, with an attributable risk (AR) of 13.3% for circulatory causes. Similarly, NO2 concentrations registered the main statistically significant associations in females, with an AR of 15% when circulatory causes were considered. During winter, the impact of cold was exclusively observed among females having an AR of 7.7%. The magnitude of the AR indicates that the impact of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is by no means negligible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMetR..30...53L"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum/mean/minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in China during 1960-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhen; Cao, Lijuan; Zhu, Yani; Yan, Zhongwei</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Two homogenized datasets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tm), and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) series in China have recently been developed. One is CHTM3.0, based on the Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization (MASH) method, and includes 753 stations for the period 1960-2013. The other is CHHTD1.0, based on the Relative Homogenization test (RHtest), and includes 2419 stations over the period 1951-2011. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tmax/Tm/Tmin series at 751 stations, which are in both datasets, are chosen and compared against the raw dataset, with regard to the number of breakpoints, long-term climate trends, and their geographical patterns. The results indicate that some robust break points associated with relocations can be detected, the inhomogeneities are removed by both the MASH and RHtest method, and the data quality is improved in both homogenized datasets. However, the differences between CHTM3.0 and CHHTD1.0 are notable. By and large, in CHHTD1.0, the break points detected are fewer, but the adjustments for inhomogeneities and the resultant changes of linear trend estimates are larger. In contrast, CHTM3.0 provides more reasonable geographical patterns of long-term climate trends over the region. The reasons for the differences between the datasets include: (1) different algorithms for creating reference series for adjusting the candidate series—more neighboring stations used in MASH and hence larger-scale regional signals retained; (2) different algorithms for calculating the adjustments—larger adjustments in RHtest in general, partly due to the individual local reference information used; and (3) different rules for judging inhomogeneity—all detected break points are adjusted in CHTM3.0, based on MASH, while a number of break points detected via RHtest but without supporting metadata are overlooked in CHHTD1.0. The present results suggest that CHTM3.0 is more suitable for analyses of large-scale climate change in China, while CHHTD1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24918585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24918585"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ziska, Lewis H</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide) applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (lowest 24 h recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a given year) can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (1999-2013) from -28.6°C (Minnesota) to -5.1°C (Louisiana). Although soybean yields (per hectare) did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare) increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1977-2013) indicated greater relative increases in minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023) showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8319316"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Acomys russatus: the response to chemical signals released by Acomys cahirinus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fluxman, S; Haim, A</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Two species of spiny mice of the genus Acomys--the golden spiny A. russatus and the common spiny A. cahirinus--are sympatric in the arid and hot parts of the Rift Valley in Israel. The coexistence of these two species is due to exclusion of A. russatus mice by A. cahirinus mice from nocturnal activity. The aim of this research was to study if odor signals released by A. cahirinus mice can play a role in the exclusion of A. russatus mice. A. russatus mice with an implanted transmitter recording body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) were kept alone in a metabolic chamber under constant conditions of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (27 degrees C) and photoperiod (12 h light:12 h dark). After 5 days of recording, chemical signals from an A. cahirinus mouse were added through the air tube going into the metabolic chamber of the A. russatus mice. This treatment caused a shift of approximately 2 h in Tb <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of the naive tested A. russatus mice, whereas no shift was observed in A. russatus mice that had been kept in the same room with the A. cahirinus mouse before measurements. These results strongly support the idea that chemical signals released by A. cahirinus mice can entrain the Tb rhythms of A. russatus mice. Therefore, it may be assumed that the exclusion of A. russatus mice from nocturnal activity by A. cahirinus mice could be achieved through the odor released by the latter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046771"><span id="translatedtitle">Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9630J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9630J"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of the 7-8-year cycle in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a cross-scale information transfer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jajcay, Nikola; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Paluš, Milan</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Using a novel nonlinear time-series analysis method, an information transfer from larger to smaller scales of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability has been observed in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data from European stations as the influence of the phase of slow oscillatory phenomena with periods around 6-11 years on amplitudes of the variability characterized by smaller temporal scales from a few months to 4-5 years [1]. The strongest effect is exerted by an oscillatory mode with the period close to 8 years and its influence can be seen in 1-2 °C differences of the conditional SAT means taken conditionally on the phase of the 8-year cycle. The size of this effect, however, changes in space and time. The changes in time are studied using sliding window technique, showing that the effect evolves in time, and during the last decades the effect is stronger and significant. Sliding window technique was used along with seasonal division of the data, and it has been found that the cycle is most pronounced in the winter season. Different types of surrogate data are applied in order to establish statistical significance and distinguish the effect of the 7-8-yr cycle from climate variability on shorter time scales. [1] M. Palus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112 078702 (2014) This study is supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic within the Program KONTAKT II, Project No. LH14001.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23376108"><span id="translatedtitle">Depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus, is specific for liver and correlates with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kutschke, Maria; Grimpo, Kirsten; Kastl, Anja; Schneider, Sandra; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation to save energy. Increasing evidence suggests depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor of the Djungarian hamster but tissue-specificity and relation to torpor depth is unknown. We first confirmed a previous study by Brown and colleagues reporting on the depressed substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor. Next, we show that mitochondrial respiration is not depressed in kidneys, skeletal muscle and heart. In liver mitochondria, we found that state 3 and state 4 respirations correlate with body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting inhibition related to torpor depth and to metabolic rate. We conclude that molecular events leading to depression of mitochondrial respiration during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor are specific to liver and linked to a decrease in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Different tissue-specificity of mitochondrial depression may assist to compare and identify the molecular nature of mitochondrial alterations during torpor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27103613"><span id="translatedtitle">Strong impacts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the green-up date and summer greenness of the Tibetan Plateau.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Miaogen; Piao, Shilong; Chen, Xiaoqiu; An, Shuai; Fu, Yongshuo H; Wang, Shiping; Cong, Nan; Janssens, Ivan A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding vegetation responses to climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) helps in elucidating the land-atmosphere energy exchange, which affects air mass movement over and around the TP. Although the TP is one of the world's most sensitive regions in terms of climatic warming, little is known about how the vegetation responds. Here, we focus on how spring phenology and summertime greenness respond to the asymmetric warming, that is, stronger warming during nighttime than during daytime. Using both in situ and satellite observations, we found that vegetation green-up date showed a stronger negative partial correlation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin ) than with maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax ) before the growing season ('preseason' henceforth). Summer vegetation greenness was strongly positively correlated with summer Tmin , but negatively with Tmax . A 1-K increase in preseason Tmin advanced green-up date by 4 days (P < 0.05) and in summer enhanced greenness by 3.6% relative to the mean greenness during 2000-2004 (P < 0.01). In contrast, increases in preseason Tmax did not advance green-up date (P > 0.10) and higher summer Tmax even reduced greenness by 2.6% K(-1) (P < 0.05). The stimulating effects of increasing Tmin were likely caused by reduced low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> constraints, and the apparent negative effects of higher Tmax on greenness were probably due to the accompanying decline in water availability. The dominant enhancing effect of nighttime warming indicates that climatic warming will probably have stronger impact on TP ecosystems than on apparently similar Arctic ecosystems where vegetation is controlled mainly by Tmax . Our results are crucial for future improvements of dynamic vegetation models embedded in the Earth System Models which are being used to describe the behavior of the Asian monsoon. The results are significant because the state of the vegetation on the TP plays an important role in steering the monsoon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.1969H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39.1969H"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparing the skill of different reanalyses and their ensembles as predictors for <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a glaciated mountain (Peru)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hofer, Marlis; Marzeion, Ben; Mölg, Thomas</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>It is well known from previous research that significant differences exist amongst reanalysis products from different institutions. Here, we compare the skill of NCEP-R (reanalyses by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, NCEP), ERA-int (the European Centre of Medium-range Weather Forecasts Interim), JCDAS (the Japanese Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System reanalyses), MERRA (the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), CFSR (the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis by the NCEP), and ensembles thereof as predictors for <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a high-altitude glaciated mountain site in Peru. We employ a skill estimation method especially suited for short-term, high-resolution time series. First, the predictors are preprocessed using simple linear regression models calibrated individually for each calendar month. Then, cross-validation under consideration of persistence in the time series is performed. This way, the skill of the reanalyses with focus on intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability is quantified. The most important findings are: (1) ERA-int, CFSR, and MERRA show considerably higher skill than NCEP-R and JCDAS; (2) differences in skill appear especially during dry and intermediate seasons in the Cordillera Blanca; (3) the optimum horizontal scales largely vary between the different reanalyses, and horizontal grid resolutions of the reanalyses are poor indicators of this optimum scale; and (4) using reanalysis ensembles efficiently improves the performance of individual reanalyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A33E0277T"><span id="translatedtitle">A Hybrid Framework to Bias Correct and Empirically Downscale <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, P.; Abraham, Z.; Winkler, J. A.; Perdinan, P.; Zhong, S. S.; Liszewska, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Bias correction and statistical downscaling are widely used approaches for postprocessing climate simulations generated by global and/or regional climate models. The skills of these approaches are typically assessed in terms of their ability to reproduce historical climate conditions as well as the plausibility and consistency of the derived statistical indicators needed by end users. Current bias correction and downscaling approaches often do not adequately satisfy the two criteria of accurate prediction and unbiased estimation. To overcome this limitation, a hybrid regression framework was developed to both minimize prediction errors and preserve the distributional characteristics of climate observations. Specifically, the framework couples the loss functions of standard (linear or nonlinear) regression methods with a regularization term that penalizes for discrepancies between the predicted and observed distributions. The proposed framework can also be extended to generate physically-consistent outputs across multiple response variables, and to incorporate both reanalysis-driven and GCM-driven RCM outputs into a unified learning framework. The effectiveness of the framework is demonstrated using <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Program (NARCCAP) . The accuracy of the framework is comparable to standard regression methods, but, unlike the standard regression methods, the proposed framework is able to preserve many of the distribution properties of the response variables, akin to bias correction approaches such as quantile mapping and bivariate geometric quantile mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..695W"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of topographic setting and weather type on the correlation between elevation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures in mountainous terrain in the Canadian Rocky Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Wendy; Marshall, Shawn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates for hydrological and ecological studies in mountainous regions are often based on lapse rate adjustments using sparse low elevation measurements. These measurements may not be representative of the area where estimates are required. This study examines the effects varying topographic settings under different weather types have on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship. The Foothills Climate Array study recorded hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between 2004 and 2010 at ˜230 weather stations over an area of approximately 24 000 km2 in the Canadian Rocky mountains, extending to the Canadian prairies. 132 sites are considered mountain sites, comprising a range of elevation values, surface types and varied terrain morphology. Correlations are calculated between all station pairs for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, grouped by weather type for the 2006 data. Topographic and surface type characteristics - horizontal and vertical separation, height above valley bottom, slope aspect and angle and land surface type - for the 10 highest correlated neighbours for each site are examined as a means of determining which of these measures drives a similar behavior in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results indicate a weak <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation correlation coefficient is -0.31 for <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, varying from weaker than -0.2 for weather types where cold air pooling is a common occurrence to stronger than -0.6 for cool wet weather days. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have an average correlation coefficient of -0.78, but the correlation weakens to -0.4 for cold weather events. There is a nonlinear maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship, with weak correlations below 2000 m and stronger correlations at higher elevations. Choosing sites with similar topographic settings does strengthen the correlation coefficient, but the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/elevation relationship remains weak due to large day to day</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27751889"><span id="translatedtitle">Synergistic effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations and matching light-dark cycle enhances population growth and synchronizes oviposition behavior in a soil arthropod.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liefting, Maartje; Cosijn, Jarno; Ellers, Jacintha</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Some major aspects of insect life, like development time and reproduction, can benefit from fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rather than a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime. The benefit of fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has generally been attributed to the non-linear properties of the relationship of many life history traits with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise, however, usually coincide with the light phase of the photoperiodic cycle and there could be a benefit in linking <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations with light and dark phases e.g. to anticipate the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Such synergistic effects have primarily been studied in the light of activity patterns and gene expression, but have not yet been shown to extend to population dynamics and aspects of individual fitness like oviposition behavior. We therefore explored possible synergistic effects on life history traits of the springtail Orchesella cincta. We first test the primary effect of ecologically relevant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations of different amplitudes on population growth and total population mass. The slowest population growth was observed in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime treatment and the highest population growth in the regime with high amplitude fluctuations. In a second experiment, population growth and oviposition rhythm were measured under four different regimes; a constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime, thermoperiod only, photoperiod only and thermoperiod and photoperiod aligned as under natural conditions. The regime in which thermoperiod was aligned with photoperiod resulted in a higher population growth than could be realized by either factor alone. Also, significantly fewer eggs were laid in the constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/light regime than in the other three regimes, strongly suggesting that this regime is stressful to O. cincta. Additionally, the fraction of eggs laid at night was highest in the regime with the combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light cycle. In conclusion, our results show that under these experimental</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11610108V"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed trends in indices of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for the countries of the western Indian Ocean, 1961-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vincent, L. A.; Aguilar, E.; Saindou, M.; Hassane, A. F.; Jumaux, G.; Roy, D.; Booneeady, P.; Virasami, R.; Randriamarolaza, L. Y. A.; Faniriantsoa, F. R.; Amelie, V.; Seeward, H.; Montfraix, B.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>A workshop on climate change indices was held at the Mauritius Meteorological Services in October 2009 to produce the first analysis of climate trends for the countries of the western Indian Ocean. Scientists brought their long-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for a careful assessment of data quality and homogeneity, and for the preparation of climate change indices. This paper reports on the trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indices for 1961-2008. The results indicate a definitive warming of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at land stations. Annual means of the daytime and nighttime <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have increased at a similar rate, leading to no discernible change in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Significant increasing trends were found in the frequency of warm days and warm nights, while decreasing trends were observed in the frequency of cold days and cold nights. Moreover, it seems that the warm extremes have changed more than the cold extremes in the western Indian Ocean region. Trends in precipitation indices are generally weak and show less spatial coherence. Regionally, a significant decrease was found in the annual total rainfall for the past 48 years. The results also show some increase in consecutive dry days, no change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity and consecutive wet days, and a decrease in extreme precipitation events. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> indices are highly correlated with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the region, whereas weak correlations are found with the precipitation indices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..542..953K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..542..953K"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term patterns of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC51A0732T"><span id="translatedtitle">Error Correction of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation from Regional Climate Simulations in Europe and the Effects on Climate Change Signals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Themessl, M. J.; Gobiet, A.; Heinrich, G.; Regional; Local Climate Modeling; Analysis Research Group</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>State-of-the-art regional climate models (RCMs) have shown their capability to reproduce mesoscale and even finer climate variability satisfactorily. However, considerable differences between model results and observational data remain, due to scale discrepancies and model errors. This limits the direct utilization of RCM results in climate change impact studies. Besides continuous climate model improvement, empirical-statistical post-processing approaches (model output statistics) offer an immediate pathway to mitigate these model problems and to provide better input data for climate change impact assessments. Among various statistical approaches, quantile mapping (QM) represents one powerful non-parametric technique to post-process RCM outputs. In this study, results from a transient regional climate simulation (period: 1951 to 2050; general circulation model: HadCM3; emission scenario: A1B; RCM: CLM) with horizontal grid spacing of 25 km is error corrected for entire Europe based on the E-OBS European <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded observational dataset (http://ensembles-eu.org). Firstly, the performance of QM for correcting <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for long-term simulations is evaluated in a decadal cross-validation framework between 1961 and 2000 and the error characteristics are discussed. In the case of precipitation amount a frequency adaptation tool is presented which deals with rare situations where the probability for non-precipitation days is lower in the observations than in the model. Secondly, the issue of generating new extremes in future scenarios is raised. For this purpose, the ERA-40 reanalysis driven hindcast is used to assure best possible temporal correlation between observations and model output. The hindcast is split such that the independent validation period contains observed extremes outside the range of the calibration period. Two extrapolation schemes at the tails of the calibrated correction functions are tested and compared to the simple</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JASTP.149..131S"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation using wavelet regression, ANN, GEP and empirical models: A comparative study of selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based approaches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharifi, Sayed Saber; Rezaverdinejad, Vahid; Nourani, Vahid</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Although the sunshine-based models generally have a better performance than <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based models for estimating solar radiation, the limited availability of sunshine duration records makes the development of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based methods inevitable. This paper presents a comparative study between Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Wavelet Regression (WR) and 5 selected <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-based empirical models for estimating the <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation. A new combination of inputs including four readily accessible parameters have been employed: <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean clearness index (KT), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (ΔT), theoretical sunshine duration (N) and extraterrestrial radiation (Ra). Ten statistical indicators in a form of GPI (Global Performance Indicator) is used to ascertain the suitability of the models. The performance of selected models across the range of solar radiation values, was depicted by the quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plots. Comparing these plots makes it evident that ANNs can cover a broader range of solar radiation values. The results shown indicate that the performance of ANN model was clearly superior to the other models. The findings also demonstrated that WR model performed well and presented high accuracy in estimations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28116556"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ranges and maximum ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ranges (ADT) and the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P < 0.01) for all traits. Narrower ranges of ADT3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, and PDL (P < 0.01), while higher PEAK3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, PDL, and LBA (P < 0.001). To reduce the risk of reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their <span class="hlt">temperature</span> management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..542..978K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..542..978K"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term patterns of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111078S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111078S"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of correction methods of inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> data on example of Central European <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation series</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanek, P.; Gruber, Ch.; Zahradnicek, P.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for <span class="hlt">daily</span> data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods were investigated more deeply and their results were mutually compared. The methods used were HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM of Olivier Mestre and a new method of Petr Stepanek. For the calculation, the software ProClimDB has been combined with R software scripts containing HOM and SPLIDHOM and the different methodological approaches were applied to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of various meteorological elements measured in the area of the Czech Republic. The tool is open and freely available. Series were processed by means of the developed ProClimDB and AnClim software (www.climahom.eu).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26590452"><span id="translatedtitle">Torpor expression in juvenile and adult Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) differs in frequency, duration and onset in response to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diedrich, Victoria; Bank, Jonathan H; Scherbarth, Frank; Steinlechner, Stephan</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In addition to morphological and physiological traits of short-day acclimatisation, Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) from Central Asia exhibit spontaneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor to decrease energy demands during winter. Environmental factors such as food scarcity and low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been shown to facilitate the use of this temporal reduction in metabolism and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We investigated the effect of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on short-day acclimation and torpor expression in juvenile and adult Djungarian hamsters. The animals were exposed to a cold dark phase (6°C) and a warmer light phase (18°C) and were compared with control hamsters kept at a constant ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 18°C. Under constant conditions, torpor expression did not differ between adult and juvenile hamsters. Although the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle evoked an increased metabolic rate in adult and juvenile hamsters during the dark phase and strengthened the synchronization between torpor entrance and the beginning of the light phase, it did not induce the expected torpor facilitation. In adult hamsters, torpor expression profiles did not differ from those under constant conditions at all. In contrast, juvenile hamsters showed a delayed onset of torpor season, a decreased torpor frequency, depth and duration, as well as an increased number of early torpor terminations coinciding with the rise in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> after the beginning of the light phase. While the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> challenge appeared to be of minor importance for energy balance and torpor expression in adult hamsters, it profoundly influenced the overall energy saving strategy of juvenile hamsters, promoting torpor-alleviating active foragers over torpor-prone energy-savers. In addition, our data suggest a more efficient acclimation in juvenile hamsters under additional energy challenges, which reduces the need for torpor expression.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27154303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27154303"><span id="translatedtitle">Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx) Respond to Increased Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> with a Seasonal Shift in the Timing of Their <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Inactivity Patterns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davimes, Joshua G; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Gravett, Nadine; Bertelsen, Mads F; Mohammed, Osama B; Ismail, Khairy; Bennett, Nigel C; Manger, Paul R</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The Arabian oryx inhabits an environment where summer ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can exceed 40 °C for extended periods of time. While the oryx uses a suite of adaptations that aid survival, the effects of this extreme environment on inactivity are unknown. To determine how the oryx manages inactivity seasonally, we measured the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and used fine-grain actigraphy, in 10 animals, to reveal when the animals were inactive in relation to ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod. We demonstrate that during the cooler winter months, the oryx was inactive during the cooler parts of the 24-h day (predawn hours), showing a nighttime (nocturnal) inactivity pattern. In contrast, in the warmer summer months, the oryx displayed a bimodal inactivity pattern, with major inactivity bouts (those greater than 1 h) occurring equally during both the coolest part of the night (predawn hours) and the warmest part of the day (afternoon hours). Of note, the timing of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not vary seasonally, although the amplitude did change, leading to a seasonal alteration in the phase relationship between inactivity and the body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm. Because during periods of inactivity the oryx were presumably asleep for much of the time, we speculate that the daytime shift in inactivity may allow the oryx to take advantage of the thermoregulatory physiology of sleep, which likely occurs when the animal is inactive for more than 1 h, to mitigate environmentally induced increases in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=284758','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=284758"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of wrist <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The circadian rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816900I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1816900I"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual Variability and Trends in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extreme Indices in Finland in Relation to Atmospheric Circulation Patterns, 1961-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Irannezhad, Masoud; Kløve, Bjørn</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (minimum and maximum) and precipitation datasets applied at regular grid points (10×10 km2) throughout Finland for 1961-2011 were analyzed with the aim to evaluate variability and trends in weather extremes on both national and spatial scale of the country and their relationships with atmospheric circulation patterns (ACPs). Recommending by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), the extreme indices considered for <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were frost days (FD), summer days (SD) and ice days (ID); and for <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation were heavy precipitation days (R10), consecutive dry days (CDD), consecutive wet days (CWD), highest 1-day precipitation amount (RX1day), simple <span class="hlt">daily</span> intensity index (SDII) and precipitation fraction due to 95th percentile of the reference period (R95pTOT). This study used the well-known influential ACPs for Finland climate variability: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), East Atlantic (EA), East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), Polar (POL), Scandinavia (SCA). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to determine significant historical trends in extreme indices, and the Spearman rank correlation (rho) to identify relationships between extreme indices and ACPs. For <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices, statistically significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were found in ID (-0.40±0.34 days/year) and FD (-0.45±0.27 days/year) on a national scale of Finland during 1961-2011. The AO and EA/WR were most significant ACPs affecting variations in ID and FD, with rho = -0.73 and 0.42, respectively. For the <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation extreme indices on the nation-wide of country over the study period (1961-2011), significant trends were only determined in SDII (0.01±0.00 mm/wet days year) and R95pTOT (0.19±0.09 %/year). Both of these indices (SDII and R95pTOT) showed the strongest correlations with the EA/WR pattern, with rho between from -0.42 to -0.34. The EA/WR pattern was also the most influential ACP for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827148','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26827148"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct and indirect toxicity of the fungicide pyraclostrobin to Hyalella azteca and effects on leaf processing under realistic <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willming, Morgan M; Maul, Jonathan D</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Fungicides in aquatic environments can impact non-target bacterial and fungal communities and the invertebrate detritivores responsible for the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter. Additionally, in some aquatic systems <span class="hlt">daily</span> water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations may influence these processes and alter contaminant toxicity, but such <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations are rarely examined in conjunction with contaminants. In this study, the shredding amphipod Hyalella azteca was exposed to the fungicide pyraclostrobin in three experiments. Endpoints included mortality, organism growth, and leaf processing. One experiment was conducted at a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (23 °C), a fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime (18-25 °C) based on field-collected data from the S. Llano River, Texas, or an adjusted fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime (20-26 °C) based on possible climate change predictions. Pyraclostrobin significantly reduced leaf shredding and increased H. azteca mortality at concentrations of 40 μg/L or greater at a constant 23 °C and decreased leaf shredding at concentrations of 15 μg/L or greater in the fluctuating <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. There was a significant interaction between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment and pyraclostrobin concentration on H. azteca mortality, body length, and dry mass under direct aqueous exposure conditions. In an indirect exposure scenario in which only leaf material was exposed to pyraclostrobin, H. azteca did not preferentially feed on or avoid treated leaf disks compared to controls. This study describes the influence of realistic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation on fungicide toxicity to shredding invertebrates, which is important for understanding how future alterations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes due to climate change may influence the assessment of ecological risk of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4739786','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4739786"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range on respiratory health in Argentina and its modification by impaired socio-economic conditions and PM10 exposures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carreras, Hebe; Zanobetti, Antonella; Koutrakis, Petros</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Epidemiological investigations regarding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence on human health have focused on mortality rather than morbidity. In addition, most information comes from developed countries despite the increasing evidence that climate change will have devastating impacts on disadvantaged populations living in developing countries. In the present study, we assessed the impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range on upper and lower respiratory infections in Cordoba, Argentina, and explored the effect modification of socio-economic factors and influence of airborne particles We found that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range is a strong risk factor for admissions due to both upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in elderly individuals, and that these effects are more pronounced in sub-populations with low education level or in poor living conditions. These results indicate that socio-economic factors are strong modifiers of the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and respiratory morbidity, thus they should be considered in risk assessments. PMID:26164202</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030124','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030124"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns in complex terrain: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> variations and long-term change in the central Sierra Nevada, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lundquist, J.D.; Cayan, D.R.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A realistic description of how <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> vary with elevation is crucial for ecosystem studies and for models of basin-scale snowmelt and spring streamflow. This paper explores surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from an array of 37 sensors, called the Yosemite network, which traverses both slopes of the Sierra Nevada in the vicinity of Yosemite National Park, California. These data indicate that a simple lapse rate is often a poor description of the spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure. Rather, the spatial pattern of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the Yosemite network varies considerably with synoptic conditions. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) were used to identify the dominant spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns and how they vary in time. Temporal variations of these surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns were correlated with large-scale weather conditions, as described by National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis data. Regression equations were used to downscale larger-scale weather parameters, such as Reanalysis winds and pressure, to the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure over the Yosemite network. These relationships demonstrate that strong westerly winds are associated with relatively warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the east slope and cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the west slope of the Sierra, and weaker westerly winds are associated with the opposite pattern. Reanalysis data from 1948 to 2005 indicate weakening westerlies over this time period, a trend leading to relatively cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on the east slope over decadal timescale's. This trend also appears in long-term observations and demonstrates the need to consider topographic effects when examining long-term changes in mountain regions. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20.1765H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HESS...20.1765H"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halder, Subhadeep; Saha, Subodh K.; Dirmeyer, Paul A.; Chase, Thomas N.; Nath Goswami, Bhupendra</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> moderate rainfall events, which constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 through 2005. On the other hand, mean and extreme near-surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the monsoon season have increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) and prescribed land cover of years 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the changes in moderate rainfall events and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been caused by land-use/land-cover change (LULCC), which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over central India coincides with the region of decrease in forest and increase in crop cover. Our results also show that LULCC alone causes warming in the extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by a maximum of 1-1.2 °C, which is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease in forest cover and simultaneous increase in crops not only reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, but also contributes toward decrease in moisture convergence through reduced surface roughness. These factors act together in reducing significantly the moderate rainfall events and the amount of rainfall in that category over central India. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over the Indian Ocean. As a result, enhanced warming at the surface and greater decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India compared to the earlier set of simulations are noticed. Results from these additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of LULCC in the decrease in moderate rainfall events and increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India. Therefore, this study demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..12.6575H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESSD..12.6575H"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during 1951-2005 using a regional climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halder, S.; Saha, S. K.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Chase, T. N.; Goswami, B. N.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> moderate rainfall events, that constitute a major portion of seasonal summer monsoon rainfall over central India, have decreased significantly during the period 1951 till 2005. Mean and extreme near surface <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the monsoon season have also increased by a maximum of 1-1.5 °C. Using simulations made with a high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM4) with prescribed vegetation cover of 1950 and 2005, it is demonstrated that part of the above observed changes in moderate rainfall events and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been caused by land-use land-cover change (LULCC) which is mostly anthropogenic. Model simulations show that the increase in seasonal mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over central India coincides with the region of decreased (increased) forest (crop) cover. The results also show that land-use land-cover alone causes warming in the extremes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by maximum of 1-1.2 °C, that is comparable with the observed increasing trend in the extremes. Decrease (increase) in forest (crop) cover reduces the evapotranspiration over land and large-scale convective instability, apart from decreasing the moisture convergence. These factors act together not only in reducing the moderate rainfall events over central India but also the amount of rainfall in that category, significantly. This is the most interesting result of this study. Additionally, the model simulations are repeated by removing the warming trend in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. As a result, there is enhanced warming at the surface and decrease in moderate rainfall events over central India. Results from the additional experiments corroborate our initial findings and confirm the contribution of land-use land-cover change on increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and decrease in moderate rainfall events. This study not only demonstrates the important implications of LULCC over India, but also shows the necessity for inclusion of projected anthropogenic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3653820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3653820"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations unpredictably influence developmental rate and morphology at a critical early larval stage in a frog</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has profound consequences for early amphibian development and many field and laboratory studies have examined this. Most laboratory studies that have characterized the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on development in amphibians have failed to incorporate the realities of diel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations (DTF), which can be considerable for pond-breeding amphibians. Results We evaluated the effects of different ecologically relevant ranges of DTF compared with effects of constant <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on development of embryos and larvae of the Korean fire-bellied toad (Bombina orientalis). We constructed thermal reaction norms for developmental stage, snout- vent length, and tail length by fitting a Gompertz-Gaussian function to measurements taken from embryos after 66 hours of development in 12 different constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environments between 14°C and 36°C. We used these reaction norms as null models to test the hypothesis that developmental effects of DTF are more than the sum of average constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects over the distribution of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> experienced. We predicted from these models that growth and differentiation would be positively correlated with average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at low levels of DTF but not at higher levels of DTF. We tested our prediction in the laboratory by rearing B. orientalis embryos at three average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20°C, 24°C, and 28°C) and four levels of thermal variation (0°C, 6°C, 13°C, and 20°C). Several of the observed responses to DTF were significantly different from both predictions of the model and from responses in constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments at the same average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. At an average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 24°C, only the highest level of DTF affected differentiation and growth rates, but at both cooler and warmer average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, moderate DTF was enough to slow developmental and tail growth rates. Conclusions These results demonstrate that both the magnitude of DTF range and thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4674394"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Dockery, Douglas W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements at the nearest weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10°N) to the Arctic (64°N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor, airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Our results suggest that, depending on the measure, season, and location, outdoor weather measurements can be reliably used to represent indoor exposures and that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor exposure than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, absolute measures of water vapor should be examined in conjunction with other measures (e.g. <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity) in studies of the effect of weather and climate on human health. PMID:26054827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26054827"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships: a sample across seasons and diverse climatic regions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Jennifer L; Dockery, Douglas W</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The health consequences of heat and cold are usually evaluated based on associations with outdoor measurements collected at a nearby weather reporting station. However, people in the developed world spend little time outdoors, especially during extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. We examined the association between indoor and outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in a range of climates. We measured indoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, apparent <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, dew point, and specific humidity (a measure of moisture content in air) for one calendar year (2012) in a convenience sample of eight diverse locations ranging from the equatorial region (10 °N) to the Arctic (64 °N). We then compared the indoor conditions to outdoor values recorded at the nearest airport weather station. We found that the shape of the indoor-to-outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity relationships varied across seasons and locations. Indoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> showed little variation across season and location. There was large variation in indoor relative humidity between seasons and between locations which was independent of outdoor airport measurements. On the other hand, indoor specific humidity, and to a lesser extent dew point, tracked with outdoor, airport measurements both seasonally and between climates, across a wide range of outdoor <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These results suggest that, in general, outdoor measures of actual moisture content in air better capture indoor conditions than outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. Therefore, in studies where water vapor is among the parameters of interest for examining weather-related health effects, outdoor measurements of actual moisture content can be more reliably used as a proxy for indoor exposure than the more commonly examined variables of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23924206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23924206"><span id="translatedtitle">Adaptation of the pituitary-adrenal axis to <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated forced swim exposure in rats is dependent on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabasa, Cristina; Delgado-Morales, Raúl; Gómez-Román, Almudena; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Comparison of exposure to certain predominantly emotional stressors reveals a qualitatively similar neuroendocrine response profile as well as a reduction of physiological responses after <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure (adaptation). However, particular physical components of the stressor may interfere with adaptation. As defective adaptation to stress can enhance the probability to develop pathologies, we studied in adult male rats (n = 10/group) swimming behavior (struggling, immobility and mild swim) and physiological responses (ACTH, corticosterone and rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) to <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure to forced swim (20 min, 13 d) at 25 or 36 °C (swim25 or swim36). Rats were repeatedly blood-sampled by tail-nick and hormones measured by radioimmunoassay. Some differences were observed between the two swim <span class="hlt">temperature</span> groups after the first exposure to forced swim: (a) active behaviors were greater in swim25 than swim36 groups; (b) swim25 but not swim36 caused hypothermia; and (c) swim36 elicited the same ACTH response as swim25, but plasma corticosterone concentration was lower for swim36 at 30 min post-swim. After <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated exposure, adaptation in ACTH secretion was observed with swim36 already on day 4, whereas with swim25 adaptation was not observed until day 13 and was of lower magnitude. Nevertheless, after repeated exposure to swim25 a partial protection from hypothermia was observed and the two swim conditions resulted in progressive reduction of active behaviors. Thus, <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated swim at 25 °C impairs adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as compared to swim at 36 °C, supporting the hypothesis that certain physical components of predominantly emotional stressors can interfere with the process of adaptation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.alz.org/care/alzheimers-dementia-daily-plan.asp','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.alz.org/care/alzheimers-dementia-daily-plan.asp"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Care</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Life <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing Dressing & Grooming Dental Care ... About Us | News | Events | Press | Careers | Privacy Policy | Copyrights & Reprints | Contact Us National Headquarters Alzheimer's Association National ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.118...57J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.118...57J"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability and trends in <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in January and May in case of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range has not changed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860054410&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dplot','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860054410&hterms=plot&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dplot"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of a resistance-energy balance method for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat plots using one-time-of-day infrared <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of evaporation over field-scale or larger areas are needed in hydrologic studies, irrigation scheduling, and meteorology. Remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> might be used in a model to calculate evaporation. A resistance-energy balance model, which combines an energy balance equation, the Penman-Monteith (1981) evaporation equation, and van den Honert's (1948) equation for water extraction by plant roots, is analyzed for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat using postnoon canopy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. Additional data requirements are half-hourly averages of solar radiation, air and dew point <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and wind speed, along with reasonable estimates of canopy emissivity, albedo, height, and leaf area index. Evaporation fluxes were measured in the field by precision weighing lysimeters for well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Errors in computed <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation were generally less than 10 percent, while errors in cumulative evaporation for 10 clear sky days were less than 5 percent for both well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Some results from sensitivity analysis of the model are also given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4312199S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..4312199S"><span id="translatedtitle">Storm impact on sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> cloud-free satellite data reconstructions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shropshire, Taylor; Li, Yizhen; He, Ruoying</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Upper ocean responses to tropical storms/hurricanes have been extensively studied using satellite observations. However, resolving concurrent sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and chlorophyll a (chl a) responses along storm tracks remains a major challenge due to extensive cloud coverage in satellite images. Here we produce <span class="hlt">daily</span> cloud-free SST and chl a reconstructions based on the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Function method over a 10 year period (2003-2012) for the Gulf of Mexico and Sargasso Sea regions. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> reconstructions allow us to characterize and contrast previously obscured subweekly SST and chl a responses to storms in the two main storm-impacted regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Statistical analyses of <span class="hlt">daily</span> SST and chl a responses revealed regional differences in the response time as well as the response sensitivity to maximum sustained wind speed and translation speed. This study demonstrates that SST and chl a responses clearly depend on regional ocean conditions and are not as universal as might have been previously suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28089413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28089413"><span id="translatedtitle">Relation of ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ambient <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Air Pollutant Levels in a Japanese Nationwide Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamaji, Kyohei; Kohsaka, Shun; Morimoto, Takeshi; Fujii, Kenshi; Amano, Tetsuya; Uemura, Shiro; Akasaka, Takashi; Kadota, Kazushige; Nakamura, Masato; Kimura, Takeshi</p> <p>2017-03-15</p> <p>Effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuation of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and concentrations of air pollutants on acute cardiovascular events have not been well studied. From January 2011 to December 2012, a total of 56,863 consecutive ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention were registered from 929 institutes with median interinstitutional distance of 2.6 km. We constructed generalized linear mixed models in which the presence or absence of patients with STEMI per day per institute was included as a binomial response variable, with <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorologic and environmental data obtained from their respective observatories nearest to the institutes (median distance of 9.7 and 5.6 km) as the explanatory variables. Both lower mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increase in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the previous day were independently associated with the STEMI occurrence throughout the year (odds ratio [OR] 0.925, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.915 to 0.935, per 10°C, p <0.001; and OR 1.012, 95% CI 1.009 to 1.015, per °C, p <0.001, respectively). Decrement in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from -4 days to -3 days before the event date was marginally associated with the STEMI occurrence, only during the wintertime (OR 0.991, 95% CI 0.982 to 0.999, per °C, p = 0.03). As for the air pollutants, nitrogen oxides and suspended particle matter were not correlated with the occurrence of STEMI after adjusting for the meteorologic and livelihood variables. Both the absolute value and relative change in the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were associated with the occurrence of STEMI; the associations with the air pollutant levels were less clear after adjustment for these meteorologic variables in Japan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26391383','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26391383"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal microbial and nutrient responses during a 5-year reduction in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of soil in a Chihuahuan Desert ecosystem.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Gestel, Natasja C; Dhungana, Nirmala; Tissue, David T; Zak, John C</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of soil (DTRsoil) negatively affects soil microbial biomass and activity, but its interaction with seasonal soil moisture in regulating ecosystem function remains unclear. For our 5-year field study in the Chihuahuan Desert, we suspended shade cloth 15 cm above the soil surface to reduce daytime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and increase nighttime soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> compared to unshaded plots, thereby reducing DTRsoil (by 5 ºC at 0.2 cm depth) without altering mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Microbial biomass production was primarily regulated by seasonal precipitation with the magnitude of the response dependent on DTRsoil. Reduced DTRsoil more consistently increased microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN; +38%) than microbial biomass carbon (MBC) with treatment responses being similar in spring and summer. Soil respiration depended primarily on soil moisture with responses to reduced DTRsoil evident only in wetter summer soils (+53%) and not in dry spring soils. Reduced DTRsoil had no effect on concentrations of dissolved organic C, soil organic matter (SOM), nor soil inorganic N (extractable NO3 (-)-N + NH4 (+)-N). Higher MBN without changes in soil inorganic N suggests faster N cycling rates or alternate sources of N. If N cycling rates increased without a change to external N inputs (atmospheric N deposition or N fixation), then productivity in this desert system, which is N-poor and low in SOM, could be negatively impacted with continued decreases in <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. Thus, the future N balance in arid ecosystems, under conditions of lower DTR, seems linked to future precipitation regimes through N deposition and regulation of soil heat load dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9252245','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9252245"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of melatonin and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of golden spiny mice Acomys russatus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haim, A; Zisapel, N</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Beta-adrenergic stimulation induces melatonin synthesis and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) in rodents. The golden spiny mouse, Acomys russatus is a nocturnal species capable of diurnal activity when coexisting with its congenitor the common spiny mouse A. cahirinus. We have investigated the impact of beta-adrenergic blockade on 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (6-SMT--a metabolite and index of melatonin production) and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in male A. russatus. Mice were acclimated to an ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) of 28 degrees C, under two photoperiod regimes (16L:8D; 8L:16D). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of Tb and urinary 6-SMT were measured for a period of 30 h at intervals of 4 h. Propranolol (4.5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered one hour before lights went off (i.e. when beta blockade does not affect NST in this species) and both variables were measured for another 30 h. The beta blocker markedly augmented melatonin output of A. russatus under both photoperiod regimes. The elevation in melatonin secretion was accompanied with an increase in Tb of only 16L:8D-acclimated mice (i.e. shorten duration of melatonin peak). However, in 8L:16D-acclimated mice, a phase advance of about 4 h was noted in 6-SMT <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm. These results indicate that the role of sympathetic innervation in regulation of melatonin synthesis in A. russatus differs from that in the rat. In addition, these data are compatible with the hyperthermic action of melatonin in this species. Therefore, it is suggested that in A. russatus, other neural pathways are involved in its pineal regulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960022588&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature"><span id="translatedtitle">The use of LinkWinds for the validation and analysis of 14 years of Microwave Sounder Unit <span class="hlt">daily</span> global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Botts, Michael E.; Spencer, Roy W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> data derived from the Microwave Sounder Unit (MSU) provides an opportunity for investigating atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a global scale since 1979. Fourteen years of global data sets of <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies within the lower stratosphere and lower troposphere are being generated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. LinkWinds, a visualization/analysis package under development at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has been extremely useful for validating and analyzing these data sets. LinkWinds provides the ability to interactively scroll and animate through the 10,220 images of temporal data, to selectively slice and view the data along latitude, longitude, or temporal axes, to interactively analyze spatial and temporal variability within the data, and to perform correlative analysis between various elements of the data. These capabilities have been invaluable in allowing the recognition of processing artifacts, as well as the effects that physical phenomena, such as the El Ninos effects and the Mt. Pinatubo eruption, have had on atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977524','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4977524"><span id="translatedtitle">Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr−1 (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr−1 (***P < 0.001) during summer. PMID:27502177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631251P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...631251P"><span id="translatedtitle">Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980’s, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr‑1 (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr‑1 (***P < 0.001) during summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27502177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27502177"><span id="translatedtitle">Homogenised <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data generated from multiple satellite sensors: A long-term case study of a large sub-Alpine lake.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images since the 1980's, which cover three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the changing dynamics of bio-physical characteristics of land and water. In this study, we introduce a new methodology to develop homogenised Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) from multiple polar orbiting satellites. Precisely, we developed homogenised 1 km <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT maps covering the last 30 years (1986 to 2015) combining data from 13 satellites. We used a split-window technique to derive LSWT from brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a modified diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle model to homogenise data which were acquired between 8:00 to 17:00 UTC. Gaps in the temporal LSWT data due to the presence of clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The satellite derived LSWT maps were validated based on long-term monthly in-situ bulk <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements in Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy. We found the satellite derived homogenised LSWT being significantly correlated to in-situ data. The new LSWT time series showed a significant annual rate of increase of 0.020 °C yr(-1) (*P < 0.05), and of 0.036 °C yr(-1) (***P < 0.001) during summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4374360','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4374360"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4°C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4°C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts’ heath and NASA’s mission. PMID:25821722</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821722','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25821722"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LSSR....5....1D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LSSR....5....1D"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-term, <span class="hlt">daily</span> exposure to cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost <span class="hlt">daily</span> time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without <span class="hlt">daily</span> short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047446','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047446"><span id="translatedtitle">Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: Average Annual <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Maximum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This data set represents the average monthly maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047860','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047860"><span id="translatedtitle">Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Annual <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This data set represents the average monthly minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time High-Resolution Monthly Average Maximum/Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the Conterminous United States for 2002 raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/sse/sse-data-parameters-meteorology-temperature','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/sse/sse-data-parameters-meteorology-temperature"><span id="translatedtitle">Meteorology (<span class="hlt">Temperature</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-09-25</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (° C)   <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Range (° C) Difference between the average <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum ... The monthly accumulation of degrees when the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is above 18° C.   Heating Degree Days below 18° C ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ClDy...32..969F"><span id="translatedtitle">North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a global warming context: possible consequences for Western North American <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Favre, Alice; Gershunov, Alexander</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and maxima of mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques coupled global climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were tracked and <span class="hlt">daily</span> frequencies were gridded. Transient activity in the CNRM-CM3 historical simulation (1950-1999) was validated against reanalysis. The GCM correctly reproduces winter trajectories as well as mean geographical distributions of cyclones and anticyclones over the North Pacific in spite of a general under-estimation of cyclones’ frequency. On inter-annual time scales, frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones vary in accordance with the Aleutian Low (AL) strength. When the AL is stronger (weaker), cyclones are more (less) numerous over the central and eastern North Pacific, while anticyclones are significantly less (more) numerous over this region. The action of transient cyclones and anticyclones over the central and eastern North Pacific determines seasonal climate over the West Coast of North America, and specifically, winter weather over California. Relationships between winter cyclone/anticyclone behavior and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation/cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over Western North America (the West) were examined and yielded two simple indices summarizing North Pacific transient activity relevant to regional climates. These indices are strongly related to the observed inter-annual variability of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over the West as well as to large scale seasonally averaged near surface climate conditions (e.g., air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 2 m and wind at 10 m). In fact, they represent the synoptic links that accomplish the teleconnections. Comparison of patterns derived from NCEP-NCAR and CNRM-CM3 revealed that the model reproduces links between cyclone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1039H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.1039H"><span id="translatedtitle">Does diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) on suicide mortality. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant ( P < 0.01) correlation between the springtime DTR maxima and suicide rates for males. No similar association could be found for females. These results provide evidence that a higher springtime DTR could be linked statistically to a higher seasonal suicide rate each spring, whereas the exact timing of the DTR peak did not associate with the seasonal suicide rate. A possible mechanism behind the springtime association between the DTR and suicides originates from brown adipose tissue (BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21752811"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythms persist under the midnight sun but are absent during hibernation in free-living arctic ground squirrels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Cory T; Barnes, Brian M; Buck, C Loren</p> <p>2012-02-23</p> <p>In indigenous arctic reindeer and ptarmigan, circadian rhythms are not expressed during the constant light of summer or constant dark of winter, and it has been hypothesized that a seasonal absence of circadian rhythms is common to all vertebrate residents of polar regions. Here, we show that, while free-living arctic ground squirrels do not express circadian rhythms during the heterothermic and pre-emergent euthermic intervals of hibernation, they display entrained <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) throughout their active season, which includes six weeks of constant sun. In winter, ground squirrels are arrhythmic and regulate core body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to within ±0.2°C for up to 18 days during steady-state torpor. In spring, after the use of torpor ends, male but not female ground squirrels, resume euthermic levels of T(b) in their dark burrows but remain arrhythmic for up to 27 days. However, once activity on the surface begins, both sexes exhibit robust 24 h cycles of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We suggest that persistence of nycthemeral rhythms through the polar summer enables ground squirrels to minimize thermoregulatory costs. However, the environmental cues (zeitgebers) used to entrain rhythms during the constant light of the arctic summer in these semi-fossorial rodents are unknown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23775128','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23775128"><span id="translatedtitle">Does diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range influence seasonal suicide mortality? Assessment of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data of the Helsinki metropolitan area from 1973 to 2010.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holopainen, Jari; Helama, Samuli; Partonen, Timo</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Several studies show a peak in suicide rates during springtime and suggest differences in the seasonal variation of suicides. However, the seasonal distribution of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impact on suicide is less clear. This study investigated the relationship between diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) on suicide mortality. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and suicide data for Helsinki were analyzed for the period of 1973-2010 inclusive. Overall, DTR reached its maximum during the spring from mid-April to mid-June, which is also the season with highest suicide mortality in the study region. Specifically, the seasonal timing and maxima for both DTR and suicides vary from year to year. Time series analysis of DTR and suicide records revealed a significant (P<0.01) correlation between the springtime DTR maxima and suicide rates for males. No similar association could be found for females. These results provide evidence that a higher springtime DTR could be linked statistically to a higher seasonal suicide rate each spring, whereas the exact timing of the DTR peak did not associate with the seasonal suicide rate. A possible mechanism behind the springtime association between the DTR and suicides originates from brown adipose tissue (BAT) over-activity. Activation of BAT through the winter improves cold tolerance at the cost of heat tolerance. This might trigger anxiety and psychomotor agitation, affecting mood in a negative way. As a hypothesis, the compromised heat tolerance is suggested to increase the risk of death from suicide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25944779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25944779"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> exposure to summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> affects the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells but not male fertility in an in vivo rabbit model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Ramon, J; Rafel, O; Tusell, L; Piles, M; López-Béjar, M</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have negative effects on sperm quality leading to temporary or permanent sterility. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of long exposure to summer circadian heat stress cycles on sperm parameters and the motile subpopulation structure of epididymal sperm cells from rabbit bucks. Twelve White New Zealand rabbit bucks were exposed to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the thermoneutral zone (from 18 °C to 22 °C; control group) or exposed to a summer circadian heat stress cycles (30 °C, 3 h/day; heat stress group). Spermatozoa were flushed from the epididymis and assessed for sperm quality parameters at recovery. Sperm total motility and progressivity were negatively affected by high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (P < 0.05), as were also specific motility parameters (curvilinear velocity, linear velocity, mean velocity, straightness coefficient, linearity coefficient, wobble coefficient, and frequency of head displacement; P < 0.05, but not the mean amplitude of lateral head displacement). Heat stress significantly increased the percentage of less-motile sperm subpopulations, although the percentage of the high-motile subpopulation was maintained, which is consistent with the fact that no effect was detected on fertility rates. However, prolificacy was reduced in females submitted to heat stress when inseminated by control bucks. In conclusion, our results suggest that environmental high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are linked to changes in the proportion of motile sperm subpopulations of the epididymis, although fertility is still preserved despite the detrimental effects of heat stress. On the other hand, prolificacy seems to be affected by the negative effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, especially by altering female reproduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A51H0174G"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Extreme Heat Health-Related Intervention and Preparedness Activities Using Remote Sensing Analysis of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Surface Observation Networks and Ecmwf Reanalysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, R. L.; Booth, J.; Hondula, D.; Ross, K. W.; Stuyvesant, A.; Alm, G.; Baghel, E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Extreme heat causes more human fatalities in the United States than any other natural disaster, elevating the concern of heat-related mortality. Maricopa County Arizona is known for its high heat index and its sprawling metropolitan complex which makes this region a perfect candidate for human health research. Individuals at higher risk are unequally spatially distributed, leaving the poor, homeless, non-native English speakers, elderly, and the socially isolated vulnerable to heat events. The Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University and NASA DEVELOP LaRC are working to establish a more effective method of placing hydration and cooling centers in addition to enhancing the heat warning system to aid those with the highest exposure. Using NASA's Earth Observation Systems from Aqua and Terra satellites, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> spatial variability within the UHI was quantified over the summer heat seasons from 2005 - 2014, effectively establishing a remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climatology for the county. A series of One-way Analysis of Variance revealed significant differences between <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages of the top 30% of census tracts within the study period. Furthermore, synoptic upper tropospheric circulation patterns were classified to relate surface weather types and heat index. The surface weather observation networks were also reviewed for analyzing the veracity of the other methods. The results provide detailed information regarding nuances within the UHI effect and will allow pertinent recommendations regarding the health department's adaptive capacity. They also hold essential components for future policy decision-making regarding appropriate locations for cooling centers and efficient warning systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815588J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815588J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation by kriging with external drift in an Alpine Catchment. Sensitivity analysis to the temporal scale adopted to define the variogram models. (southeast Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Juan Collados-Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David; Jimenez-Sanchez, Jorge</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The knowledge of the climatic historical variables in a River Basin is essential for an appropriate management of the water resources in the system. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and precipitation are the most important variables from the point of view of the assessment of water availability and its spatially and temporal distribution. The aim of this work is to estimate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using kriging with external drift (KED). A grid with a spatial resolution of 1 km and a <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution has been adopted to estimate values for the period 1980 to 2014 in the "Alto Genil" basin (southeast Spain). The altitude in the catchment changes from 530 to 3100 m a.s.l. The climatic variables depend of the altitude and this variable has been used as external drift. Data from 119 precipitation station and 72 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> station of the AEMET have been employed. The relationship between the altitude and the variables has been analyzed using the regression function of <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for annual and monthly scale. Normally the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation increase linearly with the altitude. The relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and altitude is clearly linear. In the case of the precipitation there is a value of altitude (approximately 1500 m) from which the precipitation decreases with the altitude (inverse rainfall gradient) for every months with the exception of July that has a linear relationship. This inverse rainfall gradient has been observed in other cases as Andes Mountains, some African high mountains, tropical or subtropical high mountains. Therefore, in the case of the precipitation we have a quadratic external drift and for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> we have a linear external drift. The monthly and annual climatic variograms were calibrated in order to study if the climatic variables have a seasonal conduct. The KED allows to obtain an estimation with both models (annual and monthly) for the two variables and we can quantify the sensibility of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.120...87T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.120...87T"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of climate change on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cloudiness in the Shikoku region: a statistical downscaling model approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tatsumi, Kenichi; Oizumi, Tsutao; Yamashiki, Yosuke</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study, we present a detailed analysis of the effect of changes in cloudiness (CLD) between a future period (2071-2099) and the base period (1961-1990) on <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN) and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX) in the same period for the Shikoku region, Japan. This analysis was performed using climate data obtained with the use of the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM). We calibrated the SDSM using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis dataset for the SDSM input and <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and CLD from 10 surface data points (SDP) in Shikoku. Subsequently, we validated the SDSM outputs, specifically, TMIN, TMAX, and CLD, obtained with the use of the NCEP reanalysis dataset and general circulation model (GCM) data against the SDP. The GCM data used in the validation procedure were those from the Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios and from the third generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM3) for the SRES A2 and A1B scenarios. Finally, the validated SDSM was run to study the effect of future changes in CLD on TMIN and TMAX. Our analysis showed that (1) the negative linear fit between changes in TMAX and those in CLD was statistically significant in winter while the relationship between the two changes was not evident in summer, (2) the dependency of future changes in TMAX and TMIN on future changes in CLD were more evident in winter than in other seasons with the present SDSM, (3) the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) decreased in the southern part of Shikoku in summer in all the SDSM projections while DTR increased in the northern part of Shikoku in the same season in these projections, (4) the dependencies of changes in DTR on changes in CLD were unclear in summer and winter. Results of the SDSM simulations performed for climate change scenarios such as those from this study contribute to local-scale agricultural and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16795658','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16795658"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of videotape modeling and <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on residential electricity conservation, home <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Winett, R A; Hatcher, J W; Fort, T R; Leckliter, I N; Love, S Q; Riley, A W; Fishback, J F</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 62 degrees F when home and about 59 degrees F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75 degrees F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4159165','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4159165"><span id="translatedtitle">Positive matrix factorization of a 32-month series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 speciation data with incorporation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stratification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xie, Mingjie; Piedrahita, Ricardo; Dutton, Steven J.; Milford, Jana B.; Hemann, Joshua G.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Miller, Shelly L.; Kim, Sun-Young; Vedal, Sverre; Sheppard, Lianne; Hannigan, Michael P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study presents source apportionment results for PM2.5 from applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a 32-month series of <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM2.5 compositional data from Denver, CO, including concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, bulk elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC), and 51 organic molecular markers (OMMs). An optimum 8-factor solution was determined primarily based on the interpretability of the PMF results and rate of matching factors from bootstrapped PMF solutions with those from the base case solution. These eight factors were identified as inorganic ion, n-alkane, EC/sterane, light n-alkane/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), medium alkane/alkanoic acid, PAH, winter/methoxyphenol and summer/odd n-alkane. The inorganic ion factor dominated the reconstructed PM2.5 mass (sulfate + nitrate + EC + OC) in cold periods (<span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> < 10 °C; 43.7% of reconstructed PM2.5 mass) whereas the summer/odd n-alkane factor dominated in hot periods (> 20 °C; 53.1%). The two factors had comparable relative contributions of 26.5% and 27.1% in warm periods with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 10 °C and 20 °C. Each of the seven factors resolved in a previous study (Dutton et al., 2010b) using a 1-year data set from the same location matches one factor from the current work based on comparing factor profiles. Six out of the seven matched pairs of factors are linked to similar source classes as suggested by the strong correlations between factor contributions (r = 0.89 − 0.98). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-stratified source apportionment was conducted for three subsets of the data in the current study, corresponding to the cold, warm and hot periods mentioned above. The cold period (7-factor) solution exhibited a similar distribution of reconstructed PM2.5 mass as the full data set solution. The factor contributions of the warm period (7-factor) solution were well correlated with those from the full data set solution (r = 0.76 − 0.99). However, the reconstructed PM2.5 mass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1308283','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1308283"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of videotape modeling and <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on residential electricity conservation, home <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn: Winter and summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Winett, Richard A.; Hatcher, Joseph W.; Fort, T. Richard; Leckliter, Ingrid N.; Love, Susan Q.; Riley, Anne W.; Fishback, James F.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Two studies were conducted in all-electric townhouses and apartments in the winter (N = 83) and summer (N = 54) to ascertain how energy conservation strategies focusing on thermostat change and set-backs and other low-cost/no-cost approaches would affect overall electricity use and electricity used for heating and cooling, the home thermal environment, the perceived comfort of participants, and clothing that was worn. The studies assessed the effectiveness of videotape modeling programs that demonstrated these conservation strategies when used alone or combined with <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback on electricity use. In the winter, the results indicated that videotape modeling and/or feedback were effective relative to baseline and to a control group in reducing overall electricity use by about 15% and electricity used for heating by about 25%. Hygrothermographs, which accurately and continuously recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity in the homes, indicated that participants were able to live with no reported loss in comfort and no change in attire at a mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 62°F when home and about 59°F when asleep. The results were highly discrepant with prior laboratory studies indicating comfort at 75°F with the insulation value of the clothing worn by participants in this study. In the summer, a combination of strategies designed to keep a home cool with minimal or no air conditioning, in conjunction with videotape modeling and/or <span class="hlt">daily</span> feedback, resulted in overall electricity reductions of about 15% with reductions on electricity for cooling of about 34%, but with feedback, and feedback and modeling more effective than modeling alone. Despite these electricity savings, hygrothermograph recordings indicated minimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change in the homes, with no change in perceived comfort or clothing worn. The results are discussed in terms of discrepancies with laboratory studies, optimal combinations of video-media and personal contact to promote behavior change, and energy</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1101/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1101/"><span id="translatedtitle">User's Guide, software for reduction and analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather and surface-water data: Tools for time series analysis of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and streamflow data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hereford, Richard</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The software described here is used to process and analyze <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather and surface-water data. The programs are refinements of earlier versions that include minor corrections and routines to calculate frequencies above a threshold on an annual or seasonal basis. Earlier versions of this software were used successfully to analyze historical precipitation patterns of the Mojave Desert and the southern Colorado Plateau regions, ecosystem response to climate variation, and variation of sediment-runoff frequency related to climate (Hereford and others, 2003; 2004; in press; Griffiths and others, 2006). The main program described here (Day_Cli_Ann_v5.3) uses <span class="hlt">daily</span> data to develop a time series of various statistics for a user specified accounting period such as a year or season. The statistics include averages and totals, but the emphasis is on the frequency of occurrence in days of relatively rare weather or runoff events. These statistics are indices of climate variation; for a discussion of climate indices, see the Climate Research Unit website of the University of East Anglia (http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/projects/stardex/) and the Climate Change Indices web site (http://cccma.seos.uvic.ca/ETCCDMI/indices.html). Specifically, the indices computed with this software are the frequency of high intensity 24-hour rainfall, unusually warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and unusually high runoff. These rare, or extreme events, are those greater than the 90th percentile of precipitation, streamflow, or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> computed for the period of record of weather or gaging stations. If they cluster in time over several decades, extreme events may produce detectable change in the physical landscape and ecosystem of a given region. Although the software has been tested on a variety of data, as with any software, the user should carefully evaluate the results with their data. The programs were designed for the range of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and streamflow measurements expected in the semiarid</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1027B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1027B"><span id="translatedtitle">A collection of sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> pressure and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations for the early instrumental period with a focus on the "year without a summer" 1816</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Brönnimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergström, H.; Bhend, J.; Brázdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Řezníčková, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046783','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046783"><span id="translatedtitle">Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: 30-Year Average <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971-2000</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This tabular data set represents thecatchment-average for the 30-year (1971-2000) average <span class="hlt">daily</span> minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Celsius multiplied by 100 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data were the United States Average Monthly or Annual Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, 1971 - 2000 raster data set produced by the PRISM Group at Oregon State University. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcScD...9.3795E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcScD...9.3795E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> scale winter-time sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability and the Iberian Poleward Current in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esnaola, G.; Sáenz, J.; Zorita, E.; Fontán, A.; Valencia, V.; Lazure, P.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The combination of remotely sensed gappy sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) images with the missing data filling Data Interpolating EOFs (DINEOF) technique followed by a Principal Component Analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale variability of the winter-time surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC) during the 1981-2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the variability of the IPC. A physical mechanism involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables is proposed in relation to the variability of the IPC. It jointly takes into account several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the Joint Effect of Baroclinicity And Relief (JEBAR) effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic Gyre. This mechanism emerges from an atmospheric 500 hPa circulation anomaly that has not a simple relationship with any of the most common North Atlantic teleconnection patterns. It then generates mutually coherent SST and sea level anomaly patterns in the North Atlantic area due to the action of anomalous wind-stress and heat-fluxes, and locally, it also generates the conditions for the mentioned mechanisms in the Bay of Biscay area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5079224','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5079224"><span id="translatedtitle">Timing of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life is jaggy: How episodic ultradian changes in body and brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are integrated into this process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Blessing, William; Ootsuka, Youichirou</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Charles Darwin noted that natural selection applies even to the hourly organization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Indeed, in many species, the day is segmented into active periods when the animal searches for food, and inactive periods when the animal digests and rests. This episodic temporal patterning is conventionally referred to as ultradian (<24 hours) rhythmicity. The average time between ultradian events is approximately 1–2 hours, but the interval is highly variable. The ultradian pattern is stochastic, jaggy rather than smooth, so that although the next event is likely to occur within 1–2 hours, it is not possible to predict the precise timing. When models of circadian timing are applied to the ultradian temporal pattern, the underlying assumption of true periodicity (stationarity) has distorted the analyses, so that the ultradian pattern is frequently averaged away and ignored. Each active ultradian episode commences with an increase in hippocampal theta rhythm, indicating the switch of attention to the external environment. During each active episode, behavioral and physiological processes, including changes in body and brain <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, occur in an integrated temporal order, confirming organization by programs endogenous to the central nervous system. We describe methods for analyzing episodic ultradian events, including the use of wavelet mathematics to determine their timing and amplitude, and the use of fractal-based procedures to determine their complexity. PMID:28349079</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15153674"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern of heart rate, body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, locomotor activity, and autonomic nervous activity in congenitally bronchial-hypersensitive (BHS) and bronchial-hyposensitive (BHR) guinea pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akita, Megumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Nishibata, Ryoji; Mikami, Hiroki; Tsubone, Hirokazu</p> <p>2004-04-01</p> <p>We studied the characteristics of the rhythmicity of heart rate (HR), body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (BT), locomotor activity (LA) and autonomic nervous activity in bronchial-hypersensitive (BHS) and bronchial-hyposensitive (BHR) guinea pigs. For this purpose, HR, BT, LA, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded from conscious and unrestrained guinea pigs using a telemetry system. Autonomic nervous activity was analyzed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Nocturnal patterns, in which the values in the dark phase (20:00-06:00) were higher than those in the light phase (06:00-20:00), were observed in HR, BT and LA in both strains of guinea pigs. The autonomic nervous activity in BHS guinea pigs showed a <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern, although BHR guinea pigs did not show such a rhythmicity. The high frequency (HF) power in BHS guinea pigs was higher than that in BHR guinea pigs throughout the day. Moreover, the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio in BHS guinea pigs was lower than that in BHR guinea pigs throughout the day. These results suggest that parasympathetic nervous activity may be predominant in BHS guinea pigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23983662"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Not Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5), is Causally Associated with Short-Term Acute <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mortality Rates: Results from One Hundred United States Cities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cox, Tony; Popken, Douglas; Ricci, Paolo F</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in air (C) have been suspected of contributing causally to increased acute (e.g., same-day or next-day) human mortality rates (R). We tested this causal hypothesis in 100 United States cities using the publicly available NMMAPS database. Although a significant, approximately linear, statistical C-R association exists in simple statistical models, closer analysis suggests that it is not causal. Surprisingly, conditioning on other variables that have been extensively considered in previous analyses (usually using splines or other smoothers to approximate their effects), such as month of the year and mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggests that they create strong, nonlinear confounding that explains the statistical association between PM2.5 and mortality rates in this data set. As this finding disagrees with conventional wisdom, we apply several different techniques to examine it. Conditional independence tests for potential causation, non-parametric classification tree analysis, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), and Granger-Sims causality testing, show no evidence that PM2.5 concentrations have any causal impact on increasing mortality rates. This apparent absence of a causal C-R relation, despite their statistical association, has potentially important implications for managing and communicating the uncertain health risks associated with, but not necessarily caused by, PM2.5 exposures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcSci...9..655E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OcSci...9..655E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> scale wintertime sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and IPC-Navidad variability in the southern Bay of Biscay from 1981 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Esnaola, G.; Sáenz, J.; Zorita, E.; Fontán, A.; Valencia, V.; Lazure, P.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The combination of remotely sensed gappy Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) images with the missing data filling DINEOF (data interpolating empirical orthogonal functions) technique, followed by a principal component analysis of the reconstructed data, has been used to identify the time evolution and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale variability of the wintertime surface signal of the Iberian Poleward Current (IPC), or Navidad, during the 1981-2010 period. An exhaustive comparison with the existing bibliography, and the vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity profiles related to its extremes over the Bay of Biscay area, show that the obtained time series accurately reflect the IPC-Navidad variability. Once a time series for the evolution of the SST signal of the current over the last decades is well established, this time series is used to propose a physical mechanism in relation to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, involving both atmospheric and oceanic variables. According to the proposed mechanism, an atmospheric circulation anomaly observed in both the 500 hPa and the surface levels generates atmospheric surface level pressure, wind-stress and heat-flux anomalies. In turn, those surface level atmospheric anomalies induce mutually coherent SST and sea level anomalies over the North Atlantic area, and locally, in the Bay of Biscay area. These anomalies, both locally over the Bay of Biscay area and over the North Atlantic, are in agreement with several mechanisms that have separately been related to the variability of the IPC-Navidad, i.e. the south-westerly winds, the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief (JEBAR) effect, the topographic β effect and a weakened North Atlantic gyre.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817748P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817748P"><span id="translatedtitle">New homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data of three decades from multiple sensors confirm warming of large sub-alpine lake Garda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pareeth, Sajid; Salmaso, Nico; Adrian, Rita; Neteler, Markus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Availability of remotely sensed multi-spectral images from the early eighties covering three decades of voluminous data could help researchers to study the change dynamics in bio-physical characteristics of land and water. However it is very important to homogenize these data originating from multiple sources which follow different standards and quality. In this study, we explored the thermal dynamics of a large sub-alpine lake Garda over last twentyeight years (1986 - 2014) using Lake Surface Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (LSWT) derived from the thermal bands of moderate resolution sensors - AVHRR/2, AVHRR/3, ATSR1, ATSR2, A(A)TSR and MODIS aboard multiple satellites. We developed a homogenized <span class="hlt">daily</span> LSWT dataset (12:00 P.M) at 1km spatial resolution combining the data from these sensors using split window technique and performing an acquisition time correction. The gaps in the temporal database due to clouds were filled by applying Harmonic ANalysis of Time Series (HANTS). The results show high correlation (R2 > 90) between satellite derived LSWT (taken into account both individual sensors and the combined data) and the in-situ data. The time correction enable us to perform a trend analysis on unified datasets corrected for its acquisition times. The trend analysis using non-parametric tests shows significant warming in annual trend at the rate of 0.01K yr-1 (p<0.05), while in summer the increasing trend is 0.02K yr-1(p<0.1). The results are in line with similar findings on warming of Alpine lakes. Moreover, the advantage of the spatial coverage at 1 km resolution we are able to characterize the thermal dynamics of the lake Garda at multiple locations of this large lake.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21562167','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21562167"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Using implanted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> loggers, we measured core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22401790','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22401790"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling in-stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen at sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> time steps: an application to the River Kennet, UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Richard J; Boorman, David B</p> <p>2012-04-15</p> <p>The River Kennet in southern England shows a clear diurnal signal in both water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen concentrations through the summer months. The water quality model QUESTOR was applied in a stepwise manner (adding modelled processes or additional data) to simulate the flow, water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen concentrations along a 14 km reach. The aim of the stepwise model building was to find the simplest process-based model which simulated the observed behaviour accurately. The upstream boundary used was a diurnal signal of hourly measurements of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen. In the initial simulations, the amplitude of the signal quickly reduced to zero as it was routed through the model; a behaviour not seen in the observed data. In order to keep the correct timing and amplitude of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> a heating term had to be introduced into the model. For dissolved oxygen, primary production from macrophytes was introduced to better simulate the oxygen pattern. Following the modifications an excellent simulation of both water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and dissolved oxygen was possible at an hourly resolution. It is interesting to note that it was not necessary to include nutrient limitation to the primary production model. The resulting model is not sufficiently proven to support river management but suggests that the approach has some validity and merits further development.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4621893','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4621893"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tb over the first 30–35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect. PMID:26286956</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26286956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26286956"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mitchell, Sharon E; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R</p> <p>2015-07-30</p> <p>A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in <span class="hlt">daily</span> Tb over the first 30-35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/LifeAfterStroke/RegainingIndependence/TipsforDailyLiving/Tips-for-Daily-Living-Volunteer-Powered-Library_UCM_456235_SubHomePage.jsp','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/LifeAfterStroke/RegainingIndependence/TipsforDailyLiving/Tips-for-Daily-Living-Volunteer-Powered-Library_UCM_456235_SubHomePage.jsp"><span id="translatedtitle">Tips for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Tips and Gadgets for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activities Dressing Tips Shopping Tips Modifying the Bathroom Driving After Stroke Medication ... and resources. Find a group in your area . Online Support If there is not a support group ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51F1083E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51F1083E"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic <span class="hlt">daily</span> modeling of arctic tundra ecosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erler, A.; Epstein, H. E.; Frazier, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>ArcVeg is a dynamic vegetation model that has simulated interannual variability of production and abundance of arctic tundra plant types in previous studies. In order to address the effects of changing seasonality on tundra plant community composition and productivity, we have uniquely adapted the model to operate on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescale. Each section of the model-weather generation, nitrogen mineralization, and plant growth dynamics-are driven by <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations in simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. These simulation dynamics are achieved by calibrating stochastic iterative loops and mathematical functions with raw field data. Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the fundamental driver in the model, parameterized by climate data collected in the field across numerous arctic tundra sites, and key <span class="hlt">daily</span> statistics are extracted (mean and standard deviation of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for each day of the year). Nitrogen mineralization is calculated as an exponential function from the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The seasonality of plant growth is driven by the availability of nitrogen and constrained by historical patterns and dynamics of the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as they pertain to the seasonal onset of growth. Here we describe the methods used for <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather generation, nitrogen mineralization, and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> competition among twelve plant functional types for nitrogen and subsequent growth. This still rather simple approach to vegetation dynamics has the capacity to generate complex relationships between seasonal patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and arctic tundra vegetation community structure and function.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoride&pg=3&id=EJ471371','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fluoride&pg=3&id=EJ471371"><span id="translatedtitle">Toothbrushing: Do It <span class="hlt">Daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Texas Child Care, 1993</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Offers a practical guide for promoting <span class="hlt">daily</span> toothbrushing in young children. Discusses the importance of proper dental care, explains the causes of tooth decay, describes proper dental care for infants and young children, recommends materials and teaching methods, and discusses visits to the dentist and the benefits of fluoride for dental health.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024565','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024565"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tyagi, Alok</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>New <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache (NDPH) is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9218V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9218V"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal disaggregation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological grid data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vormoor, K.; Skaugen, T.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>For operational flood forecasting, the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration (NVE) applies the conceptual HBV rainfall-runoff model for 117 catchments. The hydrological models are calibrated and run using an extensive meteorological grid data set providing <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data back to 1957 for entire Norway at 1x1 km grid resolution (seNorge grids). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal resolution is dictated by the resolution of historical meteorological data. However, since meteorological forecasts and runoff observations are also available at a much finer than a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-resolution (e.g. 6 hourly), and many hydrological extreme events happens at a temporal scale of less than <span class="hlt">daily</span>, it is important to try to establish a historical dataset of meteorological input at a finer corresponding temporal resolution. We present a simple approach for the temporal disaggregation of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological seNorge grids into 6-hour values by consulting a HIRLAM hindcast grid data series with an hourly time resolution and a 10x10 km grid resolution. The temporal patterns of the hindcast series are used to disaggregate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> interpolated observations from the seNorge grids. In this way, we produce a historical grid dataset from 1958-2010 with 6-hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for entire Norway on a 1x1 km grid resolution. For validation and to see if additional information is gained, the disaggregated data is compared with observed values from selected meteorological stations. In addition, the disaggregated data is evaluated against <span class="hlt">daily</span> data, simply split into four fractions. The validation results indicate that additional information is indeed gained and point out the benefit of disaggregated data compared to <span class="hlt">daily</span> data split into four. With regard to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the disaggregated values show very low deviations (MAE, RMSE), and are highly correlated with observed values. Regarding precipitation, the disaggregated data shows cumulative</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986WRR....22..845M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Water Use in Nine Cities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin</p> <p>1986-06-01</p> <p>Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of <span class="hlt">daily</span> municipal water use to rainfall and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes with no response for <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for <span class="hlt">daily</span> water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13C0877Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP13C0877Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the Physical Drivers of Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensitivity Within a Sub-alpine Mixed Conifer Forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, J.; Barron-Gafford, G.; Minor, R.; Heard, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Current projections of climate change in the southwestern U.S. suggest increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and reduced summer precipitation. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water deficits have major influence on ecosystem functioning by restricting plant growth and productivity. However, there are limited data on what influences plant sensitivity to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and these dynamics are not often captured in ecosystem models. Understanding the sensitivities, linkages, and feedbacks among biotic processes and abiotic forces is especially important within Critical Zone Sciences, which seeks to integrate among disciplines. Here, we analyzed several potential drivers of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity, including differences in soil parent material, aspect, and seasonality within a suite of species. Each of these variables captures a different physical driver: (i) soil parent material influences water holding capacity of the soil; (ii) aspect influences how incoming energy drives evaporative loss of soil water, creating warmer and drier environments on south/east faces; and (iii) seasonality captures temporal patterns of soil moisture recharge. Our research was conducted within two V shaped zero-order catchment basins of the Santa Catalina Critical Zone Observatory in southern Arizona, one with schist bedrock and the other with granite. We used leaf-level gas exchange measurements on 24 trees across a range of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to quantify this plant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity during the dry <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and wet monsoon seasons. Preliminary results show that maximum photosynthetic rate was 51% higher during the monsoon than <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season. Optimal photosynthetic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased 25% while the span of functional <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Ω50) was 21% higher following the onset of monsoon rains. During the rainy season, soil parent material became an important factor. The greater water holding capacity of schist soils yielded greater maximum photosynthesis and reduced tree sensitivity to higher</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010913&hterms=physical+activity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bactivity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020010913&hterms=physical+activity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bactivity"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Physical Activity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative <span class="hlt">daily</span> lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> history of ground reaction forces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15617293','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15617293"><span id="translatedtitle">The patient with <span class="hlt">daily</span> headaches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maizels, Morris</p> <p>2004-12-15</p> <p>The term "chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache" (CDH) describes a variety of headache types, of which chronic migraine is the most common. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> headaches often are disabling and may be challenging to diagnose and treat. Medication overuse, or drug rebound headache, is the most treatable cause of refractory <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache. A pathologic underlying cause should be considered in patients with recent-onset <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache, a change from a previous headache pattern, or associated neurologic or systemic symptoms. Treatment of CDH focuses on reduction of headache triggers and use of preventive medication, most commonly anti-depressants, antiepileptic drugs, and beta blockers. Medication overuse must be treated with discontinuation of symptomatic medicines, a transitional therapy, and long-term prophylaxis. Anxiety and depression are common in patients with CDH and should be identified and treated. Although the condition is challenging, appropriate treatment of patients with CDH can bring about significant improvement in the patient's quality-of-life.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22011770','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22011770"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> practices, consumption and citizenship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mazzarino, Jane M; Morigi, Valdir J; Kaufmann, Cristine; Farias, Alessandra M B; Fernandes, Diefersom A</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This paper promotes a reflection on the relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices and consumption. Understanding how conflicts, resistance and consensus are generated from <span class="hlt">daily</span> consumption practices opens up possibilities for reflecting on the construction of sustainability in the context of diversity, one of the landmarks of the globalized world. Within this socio-cultural context, the central issue is: can consumption generate citizenship practices? The concepts of subject and agent help one think about collective action and subjectivation processes and their interferences on the collective consuming behavior. Based on empirical data from a research carried out in the municipality of Estrela in 2007, in the Taquari Valley - Rio Grande do Sul (Southern Brazil) on local reality consumption practices, it was possible to conclude that various reasoning mechanisms and values underlie the <span class="hlt">daily</span> consumption practices. Citizenship construction, based on consumption practices, depends on the subject's reflection capacity on his/her <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices or on what goes through the circulation of environmental information based on sociability spaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tractors&pg=3&id=ED113570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tractors&pg=3&id=ED113570"><span id="translatedtitle">Tractor Operation and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fore, J. M.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...73A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015FrP.....3...73A"><span id="translatedtitle">Digital <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cycles of Individuals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive <span class="hlt">daily</span> pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.eia.gov/special/disruptions/socal/archive/winter/2016-11-21_winter_socal_energy_report.pdf','EIAPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.eia.gov/special/disruptions/socal/archive/winter/2016-11-21_winter_socal_energy_report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Southern California <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Energy Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eia.doe.gov/reports/">EIA Publications</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>EIA has updated its Southern California <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Energy Report to provide additional information on key energy market indicators for the winter season. The dashboard includes information that EIA regularly compiles about energy operations and the management of natural gas and electricity systems in Southern California in the aftermath of a leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility outside of Los Angeles</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ADL&pg=6&id=ED148035','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ADL&pg=6&id=ED148035"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCormack, James E.</p> <p></p> <p>Provided are strategies for teaching activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL), which include dressing, eating, grooming, toileting, and basic homemakine, to severely retarded students. Reviewed are the steps necessary to teach ADL skills: ADL assessment, identification of appropriate strategies and tactics, and task analysis. Explained are four common…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333R"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change in Bangladesh: a spatio-temporal analysis and simulation of recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data using GIS and time series analysis model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahman, Md. Rejaur; Lateh, Habibah</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data series were analysed from 34 meteorological stations distributed throughout Bangladesh over a 40-year period (1971 to 2010) in order to evaluate the magnitude of these changes statistically and spatially. Linear regression, coefficient of variation, inverse distance weighted interpolation techniques and geographical information systems were performed to analyse the trends, variability and spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall. Autoregressive integrated moving average time series model was used to simulate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall data. The results confirm a particularly strong and recent climate change in Bangladesh with a 0.20 °C per decade upward trend of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The highest upward trend in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (range of 0.80-2.4 °C) was observed in the northern, northwestern, northeastern, central and central southern parts while greatest warming in the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (range of 1.20-2.48 °C) was found in the southern, southeastern and northeastern parts during 1971-2010. An upward trend of annual rainfall (+7.13 mm per year) and downward <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> (-0.75 mm per year) and post-monsoon rainfall (-0.55 mm per year) trends were observed during this period. Rainfall was erratic in <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season and even more so during the post-monsoon season (variability of 44.84 and 85.25 % per year, respectively). The mean forecasted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exhibited an increase of 0.018 °C per year in 2011-2020, and if this trend continues, this would lead to approximately 1.0 °C warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Bangladesh by 2020, compared to that of 1971. A greater rise is projected for the mean minimum (0.20 °C) than the mean maximum (0.16 °C) <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Annual rainfall is projected to decline 153 mm from 2011 to 2020, and a drying condition will persist in the northwestern, western and southwestern parts of the country during the pre- and post-monsoonal seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..284P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp..284P"><span id="translatedtitle">Projected changes in rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over homogeneous regions of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patwardhan, Savita; Kulkarni, Ashwini; Rao, K. Koteswara</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The impact of climate change on the characteristics of seasonal maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and seasonal summer monsoon rainfall is assessed over five homogeneous regions of India using a high-resolution regional climate model. Providing REgional Climate for Climate Studies (PRECIS) is developed at Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, UK. The model simulations are carried out over South Asian domain for the continuous period of 1961-2098 at 50-km horizontal resolution. Here, three simulations from a 17-member perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) produced using HadCM3 under the Quantifying Model Uncertainties in Model Predictions (QUMP) project of Hadley Centre, Met. Office, UK, have been used as lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the 138-year simulations of the regional climate model under Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A1B scenario. The projections indicate the increase in the summer monsoon (June through September) rainfall over all the homogeneous regions (15 to 19%) except peninsular India (around 5%). There may be marginal change in the frequency of medium and heavy rainfall events (>20 mm) towards the end of the present century. The analysis over five homogeneous regions indicates that the mean maximum surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season (March-April-May) as well as the mean minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for winter season (January-February) may be warmer by around 4 °C towards the end of the twenty-first century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..838P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..444..838P"><span id="translatedtitle">Observability of market <span class="hlt">daily</span> volatility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the <span class="hlt">daily</span> returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7667165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7667165"><span id="translatedtitle">Single <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of aminoglycosides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Preston, S L; Briceland, L L</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the rationale behind dosing aminoglycosides as a single <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose versus traditional dosing approaches, we conducted a MEDLINE search to identify all pertinent articles, and also reviewed the references of all articles. Single <span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing of aminoglycosides is not a new concept, having been examined since 1974. The advantages of this regimen include optimum concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, longer dosing intervals due to the postantibiotic effect (PAE), and prevention of bacterial adaptive resistance. Because of longer dosing intervals, toxicity may also be delayed or reduced. Costs may be reduced due to decreased monitoring and administration. Clinically, the regimen has been implemented in various patient populations with reported success. Questions remain, however, about optimum dose, peak and trough serum concentrations, and dose adjustment in patients with renal impairment or neutropenia. More clinical experience with this method in large numbers of patients has to be published. Pharmacists can be instrumental in monitoring patients receiving once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> therapy and by educating health care professionals as to the rationale behind the therapy.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol6-sec20-24.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title50-vol6/pdf/CFR-2010-title50-vol6-sec20-24.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 20.24 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit. 20.24 Section 20.24 Wildlife... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.24 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> limit. No person shall take in any 1 calendar day, more than the <span class="hlt">daily</span> bag limit or aggregate <span class="hlt">daily</span> bag limit, whichever applies....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1105S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.1105S"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> period reveals indicators whether the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780022814','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19780022814"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> latitude variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graber, M. A.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> latitude measurements of the International polar motion service are analyzed. The results indicate that the annual polar oscillation is probably due to local phenomena with amplitudes varying from 0.05 to 0.15 min. Within the resolution of the residuals (150 cm), there is no indication of the sharp changes which might be associated with earthquake effects. Then, applying Schuster's test to a periodogram of the residuals indicates that there are probably several processes occurring at amplitudes between 0.007 and 0.03 min whose solution awaits a more precise measurement technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586394','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586394"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Hypertriglyceridemia in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pramono, Laurentius A; Harbuwono, Dante S</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Hypertriglyceridemia is a form of dyslipidemia, which usually occurs in combination with hypercholesterolemia, high-LDL or low-HDL cholesterol level. Most studies suggest that hypertriglyceridemia is associated with many metabolic disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity, and also cardio-cerebrovascular diseases. Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia is often not comprehensively addressed by many physicians, who usually only include prescribing drugs without encouraging patients to perform physical activity, to take a true healthy diet for dyslipidemia and to stop smoking. This review article discusses evaluation, diagnosis and a comprehensive, yet simple management of hypertriglyceridemia, which can be easily applied in <span class="hlt">daily</span> clinical practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4351926','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4351926"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>RUF, THOMAS; GEISER, FRITZ</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Many birds and mammals drastically reduce their energy expenditure during times of cold exposure, food shortage, or drought, by temporarily abandoning euthermia, i.e., the maintenance of high body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Traditionally, two different types of heterothermy, i.e., hypometabolic states associated with low body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (torpor), have been distinguished: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor, which lasts less than 24 h and is accompanied by continued foraging, versus hibernation, with torpor bouts lasting consecutive days to several weeks in animals that usually do not forage but rely on energy stores, either food caches or body energy reserves. This classification of torpor types has been challenged however, suggesting that these phenotypes may merely represent the extremes in a continuum of traits. Here, we investigate whether variables of torpor in 214 species, 43 birds and 171 mammals form a continuum or a bimodal distribution. We use Gaussian-mixture cluster analysis as well as phylogenetically informed regressions to quantitatively assess the distinction between hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and to evaluate the impact of body mass and geographical distribution of species on torpor traits. Cluster analysis clearly confirmed the classical distinction between <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation. Overall, heterothermic endotherms are small on average, but hibernators are significantly heavier than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and also are distributed at higher average latitudes (~35°) than <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms (~25°). Variables of torpor for an average 30-g heterotherm differed significantly between <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and hibernators. Average maximum torpor bout duration was >30-fold longer, and mean torpor bout duration >25-fold longer in hibernators. Mean minimum body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differed by ~13°C, and the mean minimum torpor metabolic rate was ~35% of the BMR in <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms but only 6% of basal metabolic rate in hibernators. Consequently, our analysis strongly supports the view that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17635826','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17635826"><span id="translatedtitle">Phosphorus balance with <span class="hlt">daily</span> dialysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kooienga, Laura</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Hyperphosphatemia is an almost universal finding in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with increased all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and vascular calcification. These associations have raised the question of whether reducing phosphorus levels could result in improved survival. In light of the recent findings that increased per-session dialysis dose, as assessed by urea kinetics, did not result in improved survival, the definition of adequacy of dialysis should be re-evaluated and consideration given to alternative markers. Two alternatives to conventional thrice weekly dialysis (CHD) are nocturnal hemodialysis (NHD) and short <span class="hlt">daily</span> hemodialysis (SDHD). The elimination kinetics of phosphorus as they relate to these alternative <span class="hlt">daily</span> dialysis schedules and the clinical implications of overall phosphorus balance are discussed here. The total weekly phosphorus removal with NHD is more than twice that removed by CHD (4985 mg/week +/- 1827 mg vs. 2347 mg/week +/- 697 mg) and this is associated with a significantly lower average serum phosphorous (4.0 mg/dl vs. 6.5 mg/dl). In spite of the observed increase in protein and phosphorus intake seen in patients on SDHD, phosphate binder requirements and serum phosphorus levels are generally stable to decrease although this effect is strongly dependent on the frequency and overall treatment time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013759"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles in coastal dunes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hunter, R.E.; Richmond, B.M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> cycles of summer sea breezes produce distinctive cyclic foreset deposits in dune sands of the Texas and Oregon coasts. In both areas the winds are strong enough to transport sand only during part of the day, reach a peak during the afternoon, and vary little in direction during the period of sand transport. Cyclicity in the foreset deposits is made evident by variations in the type of sedimentary structure, the texture, and the heavy-mineral content of the sand. Some of the cyclic deposits are made up entirely of one basic type of structure, in which the character of the structure varies cyclically; for example, the angle of climb in a climbing-wind-ripple structure may vary cyclically. Other cyclic deposits are characterized by alternations of two or more structural types. Variations in the concentration of fine-grained heavy minerals, which account for the most striking cyclicity, arise mainly because of segregation on wind-rippled depositional surfaces: where the ripples climb at low angles, the coarsegrained light minerals, which accumulate preferentially on ripple crests, tend to be excluded from the local deposit. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cyclic deposits are thickest and best developed on small dunes and are least recognizable near the bases of large dunes. ?? 1988.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marijuana+AND+history&id=EJ999531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marijuana+AND+history&id=EJ999531"><span id="translatedtitle">Intent to Quit among <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> College Student Smokers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. never <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers), converted non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers (i.e. former <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers] and (ii) smoking…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337890','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21337890"><span id="translatedtitle">The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Behrang, M.A.; Assareh, E.; Ghanbarzadeh, A.; Noghrehabadi, A.R.</p> <p>2010-08-15</p> <p>The main objective of present study is to predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation (GSR) on a horizontal surface, based on meteorological variables, using different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation, and wind speed values between 2002 and 2006 for Dezful city in Iran (32 16'N, 48 25'E), are used in this study. In order to consider the effect of each meteorological variable on <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR prediction, six following combinations of input variables are considered: (I)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (II)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sunshine hours as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (III)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity and sunshine hours as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (IV)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours and evaporation as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (V)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours and wind speed as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. (VI)Day of the year, <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity, sunshine hours, evaporation and wind speed as inputs and <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR as output. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks are applied for <span class="hlt">daily</span> GSR modeling based on six proposed combinations. The measured data between 2002 and 2005 are used to train the neural networks while the data for 214 days from 2006 are used as testing data. The comparison of obtained results from ANNs and different conventional GSR prediction (CGSRP) models shows very good improvements (i.e. the predicted values of best ANN model (MLP-V) has a mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) about 5.21% versus 10.02% for best CGSRP model (CGSRP 5)). (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..865G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJBm...56..865G"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather, season, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> stroke admissions in Hong Kong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goggins, William B.; Woo, Jean; Ho, Suzanne; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Chau, P. H.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Previous studies examining <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and stroke incidence have given conflicting results. We undertook this retrospective study of all stroke admissions in those aged 35 years old and above to Hong Kong public hospitals from 1999 through 2006 in order to better understand the effects of meteorological conditions on stroke risk in a subtropical setting. We used Poisson Generalized Additive Models with <span class="hlt">daily</span> hemorrhagic (HS) and ischemic stroke (IS) counts separately as outcomes, and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity, solar radiation, rainfall, air pressure, pollutants, flu consultation rates, day of week, holidays, time trend and seasonality as predictors. Lagged effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity and pollutants were also considered. A total of 23,457 HS and 107,505 IS admissions were analyzed. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had a strong, consistent, negative linear association with HS admissions over the range (8.2-31.8°C) observed. A 1°C lower average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the same day and previous 4 days (lags 0-4) being associated with a 2.7% (95% CI: 2.0-3.4%, P < .0.0001) higher admission rate after controlling for other variables. This association was stronger among older subjects and females. Higher lag 0-4 average change in air pressure from previous day was modestly associated with higher HS risk. The association between IS and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was weaker and apparent only below 22°C, with a 1°C lower average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (lags 0-13) below this threshold being associated with a 1.6% (95% CI:1.0-2.2%, P < 0.0001) higher IS admission rate. Pollutant levels were not associated with HS or IS. Future studies should examine HS and IS risk separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790069864&hterms=periodogram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dperiodogram','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790069864&hterms=periodogram&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dperiodogram"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> latitude variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Graber, M. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> latitude measurements of the International Polar Motion Service are analyzed. The annual oscillation in the data was modeled by separate oscillations in each observatory's latitude data. The separate oscillations varied in amplitude from 0.05 sec to 0.15 sec with standard deviations of about 0.007 sec. Within the resolution of the latitude residuals (150 cm), there is no indication of the sharp changes which might be associated with earthquake effects. Then, applying Schuster's test to a periodogram of the residuals indicates that there are probably several processes occurring at amplitudes between 0.007 sec and 0.03 sec whose solution awaits a more precise measurement technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/BuyingUsingMedicineSafely/UnderstandingOver-the-CounterMedicines/SafeUseofOver-the-CounterPainRelieversandFeverReducers/ucm233848.htm"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..211S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.180..211S"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes in eastern India by multiple trend detection methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Pradhan, Rudra P.; Singh, Amanpreet; Kawamura, Akira</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p> (monsoon) and mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (<span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and monsoon).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+shoes&id=ED525890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effects+AND+shoes&id=ED525890"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in <span class="hlt">daily</span> practice. "The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of <span class="hlt">daily</span> practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731190','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3731190"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedoanalgesia in pediatric <span class="hlt">daily</span> surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ozkan, Aybars; Okur, Mesut; Kaya, Murat; Kaya, Ertugrul; Kucuk, Adem; Erbas, Mesut; Kutlucan, Leyla; Sahan, Leyla</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The present report was focused on clinical advantages of sedoanalgesia in the pediatric outpatient surgical cases. Method: Sedoanalgesia has been used to sedate patients for a variety of pediatric procedures in our department between 2007 and 2010. This is a retrospective review of 2720 pediatric patients given ketamine for sedation with midazolam premedication. Ketamine was given intravenously (1-2 mg/kg) together with atropine (0.02 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) + a local infiltration anesthetic 2 mg/kg 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride. Result: Median age of the patients included in the study was 5.76 ± 2.12 (0-16 years). The main indications for ketamine include circumcision (69%), inguinal pathologies (inguinal hernia (17%), orchidopexy (2.68%), hydrocele (3.38%), hypospadias (1.94%), urethral fistula repair (0.33%), urethral dilatation (0.25%), and other conditions. All of our patients were discharged home well. In this regard, we have the largest group of patients ever given ketamine. Conclusion: Sedoanalgesia might be used as a quite effective method for <span class="hlt">daily</span> surgical procedures in children. PMID:23936597</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931426','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4931426"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms in Mosquitoes and Their Consequences for Malaria Transmission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rund, Samuel S. C.; O’Donnell, Aidan J.; Gentile, James E.; Reece, Sarah E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), biotic factors, including ecological interactions, also follow <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles. How <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms shape, and are shaped by, interactions between organisms is poorly understood. Here, we review an emerging area, namely the causes and consequences of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in the interactions between vectors, their hosts and the parasites they transmit. We focus on mosquitoes, malaria parasites and vertebrate hosts, because this system offers the opportunity to integrate from genetic and molecular mechanisms to population dynamics and because disrupting rhythms offers a novel avenue for disease control. PMID:27089370</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27089370','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27089370"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms in Mosquitoes and Their Consequences for Malaria Transmission.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rund, Samuel S C; O'Donnell, Aidan J; Gentile, James E; Reece, Sarah E</p> <p>2016-04-14</p> <p>The 24-h day involves cycles in environmental factors that impact organismal fitness. This is thought to select for organisms to regulate their temporal biology accordingly, through circadian and diel rhythms. In addition to rhythms in abiotic factors (such as light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), biotic factors, including ecological interactions, also follow <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles. How <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms shape, and are shaped by, interactions between organisms is poorly understood. Here, we review an emerging area, namely the causes and consequences of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in the interactions between vectors, their hosts and the parasites they transmit. We focus on mosquitoes, malaria parasites and vertebrate hosts, because this system offers the opportunity to integrate from genetic and molecular mechanisms to population dynamics and because disrupting rhythms offers a novel avenue for disease control.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MAP...112..125B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MAP...112..125B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> total global solar radiation modeling from several meteorological data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilgili, Mehmet; Ozgoren, Muammer</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the modeling of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> total global solar radiation in Adana city of Turkey using multi-linear regression (MLR), multi-nonlinear regression (MNLR) and feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Several <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological data, i.e., measured sunshine duration, air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind speed and date of the year, i.e., monthly and <span class="hlt">daily</span>, were used as independent variables to the MLR, MNLR and ANN models. In order to determine the relationship between the total global solar radiation and other meteorological data, and also to obtain the best independent variables, the MLR and MNLR analyses were performed with the "Stepwise" method in the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program. Thus, various models consisting of the combination of the independent variables were constructed and the best input structure was investigated. The performances of all models in the training and testing data sets were compared with the measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation values. The obtained results indicated that the ANN method was better than the other methods in modeling <span class="hlt">daily</span> total global solar radiation. For the ANN model, mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), correlation coefficient ( R) and coefficient of determination ( R 2) for the training/testing data set were found to be 0.89/1.00 MJ/m2 day, 7.88/9.23%, 0.9824/0.9751, and 0.9651/0.9508, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028194','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028194"><span id="translatedtitle">Cokriging estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> suspended sediment loads</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Li, Z.; Zhang, Y.-K.; Schilling, K.; Skopec, M.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> suspended sediment loads (S) were estimated using cokriging (CK) of S with <span class="hlt">daily</span> river discharge based on weekly, biweekly, or monthly sampled sediment data. They were also estimated with ordinary kriging (OK) and a rating curve method. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads were compared with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> measured values over a nine-year-period. The results show that the estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with the CK using the weekly measured data best matched the measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> values. The rating curve method based on the same data provides a fairly good match but it tends to underestimate the peak and overestimate the low values. The CK estimation was better than the rating curve because CK considers the temporal correlation among the data values and honors the measured points whereas the rating curve method does not. For the site studied, weekly sampling may be frequent enough for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> sediment loads with CK when <span class="hlt">daily</span> discharge data is available. The estimated <span class="hlt">daily</span> loads with CK were less reliable when the sediment samples were taken less frequently, i.e., biweekly or monthly. The OK estimates using the weekly measured data significantly underestimates the <span class="hlt">daily</span> S because unlike CK and the rating curve, OK makes no use of the correlation of sediment loads with frequently measured river discharge. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599495','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24599495"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables--namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>--influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23943146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23943146"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequentiality of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life physiology: an automatized segmentation approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fontecave-Jallon, J; Baconnier, P; Tanguy, S; Eymaron, M; Rongier, C; Guméry, P Y</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Based on the hypotheses that (1) a physiological organization exists inside each activity of <span class="hlt">daily</span> life and (2) the pattern of evolution of physiological variables is characteristic of each activity, pattern changes should be detected on <span class="hlt">daily</span> life physiological recordings. The present study aims at investigating whether a simple segmentation method can be set up to detect pattern changes on physiological recordings carried out during <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Heart and breathing rates and skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been non-invasively recorded in volunteers following scenarios made of "<span class="hlt">daily</span> life" steps (13 records). An observer, undergoing the scenario, wrote down annotations during the recording time. Two segmentation procedures have been compared to the annotations, a visual inspection of the signals and an automatic program based on a trends detection algorithm applied to one physiological signal (skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>). The annotations resulted in a total number of 213 segments defined on the 13 records, the best visual inspection detected less segments (120) than the automatic program (194). If evaluated in terms of the number of correspondences between the times marks given by annotations and those resulting from both physiologically based segmentations, the automatic program was better than the visual inspection. The mean time lags between annotation and program time marks remain <60 s (the precision of annotation times marks). We conclude that physiological variables time series recorded in common life conditions exhibit different successive patterns that can be detected by a simple trends detection algorithm. Theses sequences are coherent with the corresponding annotated activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923436"><span id="translatedtitle">TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> MAXIMUMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M</p> <p>2007-11-12</p> <p>Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+life+AND+optimism&pg=4&id=ED316828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=quality+AND+life+AND+optimism&pg=4&id=ED316828"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routine of the Oldest Old.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barer, Barbara M.</p> <p></p> <p>Individuals who are beyond the age of 85 have to confront the decrements of aging that are commonly recognized. This study examined the <span class="hlt">daily</span> routine of the oldest old through interviews. Subjects were asked about the logistics of their <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives, what they liked best to do, what they didn't like to do, what made a day good for them, and what…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=world+AND+hunger&pg=6&id=ED297371','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=world+AND+hunger&pg=6&id=ED297371"><span id="translatedtitle">How the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Press Looks at Hunger.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robinson, Sondra G.</p> <p></p> <p>Utilizing both content analysis of 139 editorials appearing in 19 United States <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers and the results of a survey of 146 newspaper editors, a study asked three questions: (1) To what extent is hunger covered in the news and editorial columns of U.S. <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers? (2) How is hunger defined as a problem in terms of its causes in those…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED047466.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED047466.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living: Curriculum Guides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wooldridge, Lillian; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Presented are specific guides concerning techniques for <span class="hlt">daily</span> living which were developed by the child care staff at the Illinois Braille and Sight Saving School. The guides are designed for cottage parents of the children, who may have both visual and other handicaps, and show what <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills are necessary and appropriate for the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title1-vol1-sec5-6.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 5.6 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1032&id=EJ1051349','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1032&id=EJ1051349"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Stressors in Primary Education Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22meditation%22&pg=6&id=EJ995012','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22meditation%22&pg=6&id=EJ995012"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Einolf, Christopher J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines how the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that <span class="hlt">daily</span> spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22288493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22288493"><span id="translatedtitle">Adolescent <span class="hlt">daily</span> and general maladjustment: is there reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> repeated measures methodologies?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nishina, Adrienne</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The present study examined whether repeated exposure to <span class="hlt">daily</span> surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' <span class="hlt">daily</span> and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports tapping experienced or experienced and witnessed negative events, or they completed no <span class="hlt">daily</span> reports. General maladjustment was measured in 2-week intervals before, at the end of, and 2 weeks after the <span class="hlt">daily</span> report study. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> maladjustment either decreased or did not change across the 5 <span class="hlt">daily</span> report exposures. General maladjustment decreased across the three 2-week intervals. Combined, results indicate that short-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> report studies do not place youth at risk for increased maladjustment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.2045M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IJBm...58.2045M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843548','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18843548"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting of <span class="hlt">daily</span> total atmospheric ozone in Isfahan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yazdanpanah, H; Karimi, M; Hejazizadeh, Z</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>A neural network combined to an artificial neural network model is used to forecast <span class="hlt">daily</span> total atmospheric ozone over Isfahan city in Iran. In this work, in order to forecast the total column ozone over Isfahan, we have examined several neural networks algorithms with different meteorological predictors based on the ozone-meteorological relationships with previous day's ozone value. The meteorological predictors consist of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (dry and dew point) and geopotential heights at standard levels of 100, 50, 30, 20 and 10 hPa with their wind speed and direction. These data together with previous day total ozone forms the input matrix of the neural model that is based on the back propagation algorithm (BPA) structure. The output matrix is the <span class="hlt">daily</span> total atmospheric ozone. The model was build based on <span class="hlt">daily</span> data from 1997 to 2004 obtained from Isfahan ozonometric station data. After modeling these data we used 3 year (from 2001 to 2003) of <span class="hlt">daily</span> total ozone for testing the accuracy of model. In this experiment, with the final neural network, the total ozone are fairly well predicted, with an Agreement Index 76%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..292P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..292P"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Change Detection and Attribution of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> changes over Interior Peninsular Region of India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pattanayak, Sonali; Nagesh Kumar, Dasika</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>A good number of studies have investigated recent trends in the observed and simulated hydrometeorological variables across the world. It has been challenging for the research community to address whether the significant change in climate over the course of 2nd half of 20th century is caused either due to natural or manmade effects. Although evidences for an anthropogenic contribution to climatic trends have been accumulated rapidly worldwide, for India these are scarce. Hence the formal efforts have been undertaken to distinguish whether the recent changes in seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over India occurred due to natural internal variation of climate system or human influence using rigorous detection and attribution (D&A) procedure. The surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is the most widely cited indicator of climate fluctuation. Hence maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tmax & Tmin) which are among the six most commonly used variables for impact assessment studies are analyzed here. Seasonal divisions are based on conventional meteorological seasons: January-February (winter); March-May (<span class="hlt">pre</span> <span class="hlt">monsoon</span>); June-September (monsoon); October-December (post monsoon). Time span considered for this study is 1950-2005. Climate Research Unit (Version 3.21) gridded monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> datasets are considered as observed data. Initially TFPW-MK (Trend Free Pre Whitening Mann Kendall) test is used to search the significant trends in the four seasons over all India. Temporal change detection analysis in evapotranspiration (which is one of the key processes in hydrological cycle) is essential for progress in water resources planning and management. Hence along with Tmax and Tmin, potential evapotranspiration (PET) has also been analyzed for the similar conditions. Significant upward trends in Tmax, Tmin and PET are observed over most of the grid points in Interior Peninsula (IP) region over India. Significant correlation was obtained between PET and Tmax compared to PET and Tmin. Trends in Tmin clearly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_sw_daily_utc_table','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_sw_daily_utc_table"><span id="translatedtitle">REL3.0 SW <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> UTC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-10-05</p> <p>... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_<span class="hlt">daily</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_sw_daily_local_table','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_sw_daily_local_table"><span id="translatedtitle">REL3.0 SW <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> LOCAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-10-05</p> <p>... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_<span class="hlt">daily</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/food-and-nutrition/faq-20058436?p=1','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/food-and-nutrition/faq-20058436?p=1"><span id="translatedtitle">Percent <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Value: What Does It Mean?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What do the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Value numbers mean on food labels? Answers from ... 15, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/food-and- ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4cA0QY-DIE','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e4cA0QY-DIE"><span id="translatedtitle">AMSR2 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Arctic Sea Ice - 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html">NASA Video Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this animation, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> Arctic sea ice and seasonal land cover change progress through time, from March 21, 2014 through the 3rd of August, 2014. Over the water, Arctic sea ice changes from da...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..537..117T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..537..117T"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating multimodal seasonality in extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation occurrence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tye, Mari R.; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley J.; Stephenson, David B.; Kilsby, Christopher G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Floods pose multi-dimensional hazards to critical infrastructure and society and these hazards may increase under climate change. While flood conditions are dependent on catchment type and soil conditions, seasonal precipitation extremes also play an important role. The extreme precipitation events driving flood occurrence may arrive non-uniformly in time. In addition, their seasonal and inter-annual patterns may also cause sequences of several events and enhance likely flood responses. Spatial and temporal patterns of extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation occurrence are characterized across the UK. Extreme and very heavy <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation is not uniformly distributed throughout the year, but exhibits spatial differences, arising from the relative proximity to the North Atlantic Ocean or North Sea. Periods of weeks or months are identified during which extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation occurrences are most likely to occur, with some regions of the UK displaying multimodal seasonality. A Generalized Additive Model is employed to simulate extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation occurrences over the UK from 1901 to 2010 and to allow robust statistical testing of temporal changes in the seasonal distribution. Simulations show that seasonality has the strongest correlation with intra-annual variations in extreme event occurrence, while Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) and Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) have the strongest correlation with inter-annual variations. The north and west of the UK are dominated by MSLP in the mid-North Atlantic and the south and east are dominated by local SST. All regions now have a higher likelihood of autumnal extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation than earlier in the twentieth century. This equates to extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation occurring earlier in the autumn in the north and west, and later in the autumn in the south and east. The change in timing is accompanied by increases in the probability of extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation occurrences during the autumn, and in the number of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511389P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511389P"><span id="translatedtitle">Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution over a debris covered glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pellicciotti, Francesca; Petersen, Lene; Wicki, Simon; Carenzo, Marco; Immerzeel, Walter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a key control in the exchange of energy fluxes at the glacier-atmosphere interface and also the main input variable in many of the melt models (both energy balance or <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-index type of models) currently used to predict glacier melt across a variety of scales. The commonly used approach to derive distributed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inputs is extrapolation from point measurements, often located outside the glacier surface, with a lapse rate that is assumed to be constant in time and uniform in space. Previous work for debris free glaciers has shown that lapse rates depend on several factors such as katabatic wind, humidity and the presence of clouds and that they vary in space and time. A dominant control however seems to be the presence of katabatic wind. For debris covered glaciers, the driving forces of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are likely to be different but little is known because of the scarcity of field observations. Few preliminary studies have suggested that there is a strong coupling between surface and 2 m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while strong katabatic wind does not develop on debris covered tongues. In this study, we examine the variability in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and lapse rates, as well as its atmospheric controls under different meteorological settings for the debris covered Lirung Glacier in the Nepalese Himalayas. We use a recently collected data set of air and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a network of locations on the glacier tongue during the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> season and the entire monsoon season of 2012. Additionally an AWS was installed on the glacier allowing the collection of meteorological observations. We investigate differences in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during different climatic conditions (monsoon vs. dry period, upvalley vs. downvalley wind, cloudy vs. clear-sky, etc.). We identify the main controls on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and discuss how appropriate the application of a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> lapse rate is over a debris covered glacier by investigating the correlation between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5309726','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5309726"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical model for estimating dengue incidence using <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, rainfall, and relative humidity: a 19-year retrospective analysis in East Delhi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVES Aedes mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting the dengue virus. The mosquito lifecycle is known to be influenced by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, rainfall, and relative humidity. This retrospective study was planned to investigate whether climatic factors could be used to predict the occurrence of dengue in East Delhi. METHODS The number of monthly dengue cases reported over 19 years was obtained from the laboratory records of our institution. Monthly data of rainfall, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and humidity collected from a local weather station were correlated with the number of monthly reported dengue cases. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyse whether the climatic parameters differed significantly among seasons. Four models were developed using negative binomial generalized linear model analysis. Monthly rainfall, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity, were used as independent variables, and the number of dengue cases reported monthly was used as the dependent variable. The first model considered data from the same month, while the other three models involved incorporating data with a lag phase of 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. RESULTS The greatest number of cases was reported during the post-monsoon period each year. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, rainfall, and humidity varied significantly across the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span>, monsoon, and post-monsoon periods. The best correlation between these three climatic factors and dengue occurrence was at a time lag of 2 months. CONCLUSIONS This study found that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, rainfall, and relative humidity significantly affected dengue occurrence in East Delhi. This weather-based dengue empirical model can forecast potential outbreaks 2-month in advance, providing an early warning system for intensifying dengue control measures. PMID:27899025</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28265478','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28265478"><span id="translatedtitle">Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> versus Once-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson's Disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yun, Ji Young; Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui-Jun; Kim, Han-Joon; Jeon, Beomseok</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This open-label study aimed to compare once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> pramipexole extended release (PER) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-<span class="hlt">daily</span>-first or twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span>-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y) in medication-on state, Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, 12 preferred a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, 25 chose a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span>. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318624','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5318624"><span id="translatedtitle">Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> versus Once-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Pramipexole Extended Release Dosage Regimens in Parkinson's Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Young Eun; Yang, Hui-Jun; Kim, Han-Joon</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This open-label study aimed to compare once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> pramipexole extended release (PER) treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). PD patients on dopamine agonist therapy, but with unsatisfactory control, were enrolled. Existing agonist doses were switched into equivalent PER doses. Subjects were consecutively enrolled into either once-<span class="hlt">daily</span>-first or twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span>-first groups and received the prescribed amount in one or two, respectively, <span class="hlt">daily</span> doses for 8 weeks. For the second period, subjects switched regimens in a crossover manner. The forty-four patients completed a questionnaire requesting preference during their last visit. We measured the UPDRS-III, Hoehn and Yahr stages (H&Y) in medication-on state, Parkinson's disease sleep scale (PDSS), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Eighteen patients preferred a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, 12 preferred a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, and 14 had no preference. After the trial, 14 subjects wanted to be on a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, 25 chose a twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, and 5 wanted to maintain the prestudy regimen. Main reasons for choosing the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen were decreased off-duration, more tolerable off-symptoms, and psychological stability. The mean UPDRS-III, H&Y, and PDSS were not different. Daytime sleepiness was significantly high in the once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen, whereas nocturnal hallucinations were more common in the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span>. Multiple dosing should be considered if once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> dosing is unsatisfactory. This study is registered as NCT01515774 at ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:28265478</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18797881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18797881"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythmicity and hibernation in the Anatolian ground squirrel under natural and laboratory conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kart Gür, Mutlu; Refinetti, Roberto; Gür, Hakan</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>We studied <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T(b)) before and during hibernation in Anatolian ground squirrels (Spermophilus xanthoprymnus) under natural and laboratory conditions using surgically implanted <span class="hlt">temperature</span> loggers. Under both conditions, robust <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(b) rhythmicity with parameters comparable to those of other ground squirrel species was observed before but not during hibernation. Euthermic animals had robust <span class="hlt">daily</span> T(b) rhythms with a mean of 37.0 degrees C and a range of excursion of approximately 4 degrees C. No T(b) rhythm was detected during torpor bouts, either because T(b) rhythmicity was absent or because the <span class="hlt">daily</span> range of excursion was smaller than 0.2 degrees C. The general patterns of hibernation that we observed in Anatolian ground squirrels were similar to those previously observed by other investigators in other species of ground squirrels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27474007','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27474007"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of physiological parameters in the dromedary camel under natural and laboratory conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Haidary, Ahmed A; Abdoun, Khalid A; Samara, Emad M; Okab, Aly B; Sani, Mamane; Refinetti, Roberto</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Camels are well adapted to hot arid environments and can contribute significantly to the economy of developing countries in arid regions of the world. Full understanding of the physiology of camels requires understanding of the internal temporal order of the body, as reflected in <span class="hlt">daily</span> or circadian rhythms. In the current study, we investigated the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity of 20 physiological variables in camels exposed to natural oscillations of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a desert environment and compared the <span class="hlt">daily</span> temporal courses of the variables. We also studied the rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> under experimental conditions with constant ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the presence and absence of a light-dark cycle. The obtained results indicated that different physiological variables exhibit different degrees of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity and reach their <span class="hlt">daily</span> peaks at different times of the day, starting with plasma cholesterol, which peaks 24min after midnight, and ending with plasma calcium, which peaks 3h before midnight. Furthermore, the rhythm of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> persisted in the absence of environmental rhythmicity, thus confirming its endogenous nature. The observed delay in the acrophase of core body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm under constant conditions suggests that the circadian period is longer than 24h. Further studies with more refined experimental manipulation of different variables are needed to fully elucidate the causal network of circadian rhythms in dromedary camels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920042314&hterms=mizzi&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmizzi','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920042314&hterms=mizzi&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmizzi"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimates of tropical analysis differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> values produced by two operational centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kasahara, Akira; Mizzi, Arthur P.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>To assess the uncertainty of <span class="hlt">daily</span> synoptic analyses for the atmospheric state, the intercomparison of three First GARP Global Experiment level IIIb datasets is performed. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> values of divergence, vorticity, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, static stability, vertical motion, mixing ratio, and diagnosed diabatic heating rate are compared for the period of 26 January-11 February 1979. The spatial variance and mean, temporal mean and variance, 2D wavenumber power spectrum, anomaly correlation, and normalized square difference are employed for comparison.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1546841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1546841"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> air pollution concentrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwartz, J; Dockery, D W</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>Cause-specific deaths by day for the years 1973 to 1980 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were extracted from National Center for Health Statistics mortality tapes. Death from accidents (International Classification of Disease, Revision 9 greater than or equal to 800) and deaths outside of the city were excluded. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> counts of deaths were regressed using Poisson regression on total suspended particulate (TSP) and/or SO2 on the same day and on the preceding day, controlling for year, season, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and humidity. A significant positive association was found between total mortality (mean of 48 deaths/day) and both TSP (second highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, 222 micrograms/m3) and SO2 (second highest <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, 299 micrograms/m3). The strongest associations were found with the mean pollution of the current and the preceding days. Total mortality was estimated to increase by 7% (95% CI, 4 to 10%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP, and 5% (95% CI, 3 to 7%) with each 100-micrograms/m3 increase in SO2. When both pollutants were considered simultaneously, the SO2 association was no longer significant. Mortality increased monotonically with TSP. The effect of 100 micrograms/m3 TSP was stronger in subjects older than 65 yr of age (10% increase) compared with those younger than 65 yr of age (3% increase). Cause-specific mortality was also associated with a 100-micrograms/m3 increase in TSP: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ICD9 490-496), +19% (95% CI, 0 to 42%), pneumonia (ICD9 480-486 & 507), +11% (95% CI, -3 to +27%), and cardiovascular disease (ICD9 390-448), +10% (95% CI, 6 to 14%). These results are somewhat higher than previously reported associations, and they add to the body of evidence showing that particulate pollution is associated with increased <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality at current levels in the United States.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Life+AND+keys&pg=5&id=EJ956697','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Life+AND+keys&pg=5&id=EJ956697"><span id="translatedtitle">Deriving <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Purpose through <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Events and Role Fulfillment among Asian American Youth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kiang, Lisa</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Establishing life purpose is a key developmental task; however, how it is linked to adolescents' everyday family, school, extracurricular, and leisure experiences remains unclear. Using <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary data from 180 Asian American ninth and tenth graders (50% ninth; 58% female; 25% first generation), <span class="hlt">daily</span> purpose was positively related to daily…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.alsa.org/als-care/resources/products/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.alsa.org/als-care/resources/products/"><span id="translatedtitle">Products to Aid in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... for an update to this message. Product List Product/Services Topics Care Services Information and Referral Service (800) 782-4747 alsinfo@alsa-national.org For People with ALS and ... Videos Factsheets Products to Aid in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living Informative Web Links ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817331P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817331P"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling erosion on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis and include estimation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding <span class="hlt">daily</span> erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=winnipeg+AND+school+AND+division&pg=3&id=ED195531','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=winnipeg+AND+school+AND+division&pg=3&id=ED195531"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Physical Education/Fitness. Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.</p> <p></p> <p>Physical education staff (principals and division superintendents) in the Manitoba, Canada department of education responded to a survey pertaining to time allotments of physical education programs. Survey results indicated that all levels of administration supported the implementation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical education programs. There is general…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+5&pg=2&id=EJ984125','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=big+AND+5&pg=2&id=EJ984125"><span id="translatedtitle">Big Ideas behind <span class="hlt">Daily</span> 5 and CAFE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64896&keyword=harvard&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89482515&CFTOKEN=15864098','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=64896&keyword=harvard&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89482515&CFTOKEN=15864098"><span id="translatedtitle">INTERPOLATING VANCOUVER'S <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> AMBIENT PM 10 FIELD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In this article we develop a spatial predictive distribution for the ambient space- time response field of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient PM10 in Vancouver, Canada. Observed responses have a consistent temporal pattern from one monitoring site to the next. We exploit this feature of the field b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_lpla_daily_nc_table','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_lpla_daily_nc_table"><span id="translatedtitle">REL3.0 LPLA <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> NC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-10-05</p> <p>... 3.0 Langley Parameterized Longwave Model <span class="hlt">daily</span> Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format News:  LPLA Project ... Temporal Resolution:  3-hourly averaged by day File Format:  NETCDF Tools:  Search and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.1_lw_daily_nc_table','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.1_lw_daily_nc_table"><span id="translatedtitle">REL3.1 LW <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> NC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-10-05</p> <p>... Budget (SRB) Release 3.1 GEWEX Longwave <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Data in 1x1 Degree NetCDF Format News:  GEWEX Project ... Temporal Resolution:  3-hourly averaged by day File Format:  NETCDF Tools:  Search and ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED304214.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED304214.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines of Young Children. (Draft).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rossbach, Hans-Guenther</p> <p></p> <p>This pilot study of the structural characteristics of <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines of young children also explored aspects of conceptual framework and research instruments. Four data collection instruments were developed. Two of the three retrospective measures used were questionnaires for mothers about their child's routine on the previous day. The other…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Citizen+AND+participation+AND+security&pg=6&id=ED189399','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Citizen+AND+participation+AND+security&pg=6&id=ED189399"><span id="translatedtitle">Good Ideas for Teaching <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Adult Living.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leigh, Robert K.</p> <p></p> <p>Intended for practicing Adult Basic Education teachers, this handbook provides materials for teaching specific coping skills in the area of <span class="hlt">daily</span> adult living. Three areas of study are explored: (1) community, which includes organizations, health, nutrition, safety, money management, and media; (2) government and law, which includes citizenship,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-829.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec19-829.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.829 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Records § 19.829 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing process shall keep accurate... spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of vinegar produced; and (f) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title27-vol1-sec19-650.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 19.650 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process Required Records for Vinegar Plants § 19.650 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> records. Each manufacturer of vinegar by the vaporizing... proof gallons of distilled spirits used in the manufacture of vinegar; (e) The wine gallons of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27215346','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27215346"><span id="translatedtitle">Fasting-induced <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chi, Qing-Sheng; Wan, Xin-Rong; Geiser, Fritz; Wang, De-Hua</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor is frequently expressed in small rodents when facing energetically unfavorable ambient conditions. Desert hamsters (Phodopus roborovskii, ~20g) appear to be an exception as they have been described as homeothermic. However, we hypothesized that they can use torpor because we observed reversible decreases of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) in fasted hamsters. To test this hypothesis we (i) randomly exposed fasted summer-acclimated hamsters to ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tas) ranging from 5 to 30°C or (ii) supplied them with different rations of food at Ta 23°C. All desert hamsters showed heterothermy with the lowest mean Tb of 31.4±1.9°C (minimum, 29.0°C) and 31.8±2.0°C (minimum, 29.0°C) when fasted at Ta of 23°C and 19°C, respectively. Below Ta 19°C, the lowest Tb and metabolic rate increased and the proportion of hamsters using heterothermy declined. At Ta 5°C, nearly all hamsters remained normothermic by increasing heat production, suggesting that the heterothermy only occurs in moderately cold conditions, perhaps to avoid freezing at extremely low Tas. During heterothermy, Tbs below 31°C with metabolic rates below 25% of those during normothermia were detected in four individuals at Ta of 19°C and 23°C. Consequently, by definition, our observations confirm that fasted desert hamsters are capable of shallow <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor. The negative correlation between the lowest Tbs and amount of food supply shows that heterothermy was mainly triggered by food shortage. Our data indicate that summer-acclimated desert hamsters can express fasting-induced shallow <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor, which may be of significance for energy conservation and survival in the wild.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H31D0269M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.H31D0269M"><span id="translatedtitle">A Hybrid Architecture of Neural Networks for <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Streamflow Forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moradkhani, H.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Streamflow forecasting has always been a challenging task for water resources engineers and managers and the major component of water resources system control. For years numerous techniques have been suggested and employed for streamflow forecasting. Computational Neural Networks (NNs), which are capable of recognizing hidden patterns in data, have recently become popular in many hydrologic applications. In this study, hybrid NN is developed for one step ahead forecasting of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow. Radial Basis Function (RBF) composed of a group of Gausian functions is used in conjunction with Self-Organizing Feature Map (SOFM) used in data classification. RBF transfers those classified input variables into the desired output estimate. Eight years of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall, streamflow, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Salt River basin were used for calibration and validation. Since 60%-80% of the water supply produced by the basin comes in the form of snow, further consideration of the existing time delay of snow melting process in the basin to the watershed outlet is important. Therefore two separated settings were considered in this simulation: the first one only includes several short-term <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall and streamflow in the input sequence; the second setting, on the other hand, includes a longer time period (three-months) of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data sequence. Various statistical analyses, such as root mean square error, bias estimate, noise to signal ratio, and correlation coefficients of estimates and observations, were done to evaluate the forecast models. The preliminary results show that the accuracy of the model once considering the long-term effect of the snowmelt is conspicuous with respect to short-term effect. The effectiveness of the proposed and current operational models is evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..544..397B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JHyd..544..397B"><span id="translatedtitle">Combination of radar and <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation data to estimate meaningful sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> point precipitation extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bárdossy, András; Pegram, Geoffrey</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The use of radar measurements for the space time estimation of precipitation has for many decades been a central topic in hydro-meteorology. In this paper we are interested specifically in <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> extreme values of precipitation at gauged or ungauged locations which are important for design. The purpose of the paper is to develop a methodology to combine <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation observations and radar measurements to estimate sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> extremes at point locations. Radar data corrected using precipitation-reflectivity relationships lead to biased estimations of extremes. Different possibilities of correcting systematic errors using the <span class="hlt">daily</span> observations are investigated. Observed gauged <span class="hlt">daily</span> amounts are interpolated to unsampled points and subsequently disaggregated using the sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> values obtained by the radar. Different corrections based on the spatial variability and the subdaily entropy of scaled rainfall distributions are used to provide unbiased corrections of short duration extremes. Additionally a statistical procedure not based on a matching day by day correction is tested. In this last procedure as we are only interested in rare extremes, low to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected leaving a small number of L days of ranked <span class="hlt">daily</span> maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprises about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The sum of these L day maxima is first iterpolated using a Kriging procedure. Subsequently this sum is disaggregated to <span class="hlt">daily</span> values using a nearest neighbour procedure. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> sums are then disaggregated by using the relative values of the biggest L radar based days. Of course, the timings of radar and gauge maxima can be different, so the method presented here uses radar for disaggregating <span class="hlt">daily</span> gauge totals down to 15 min intervals in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall. The methodologies were tested in South Africa, where an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NW.....96..525K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NW.....96..525K"><span id="translatedtitle">The key to winter survival: <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in a small arid-zone marsupial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Mammalian hibernation, which lasts on average for about 6 months, can reduce energy expenditure by >90% in comparison to active individuals. In contrast, the widely held view is that <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor reduces energy expenditure usually by about 30%, is employed for a few hours every few days, and often occurs only under acute energetic stress. This interpretation is largely based on laboratory studies, whereas knowledge on <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in the field is scant. We used <span class="hlt">temperature</span> telemetry to quantify thermal biology and activity patterns of a small arid-zone marsupial, the stripe-faced dunnart Sminthopsis macroura (16.9 g), in the wild and to test the hypothesis that <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor is a crucial survival strategy of this species in winter. All individuals entered torpor <span class="hlt">daily</span> with the exception of a single male that remained normothermic for a single day (torpor on 212 of 213 observation days, 99.5%). Torpor was employed at air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ( T a) ranging from approximately -1°C to 36°C. Dunnarts usually entered torpor during the night and aroused at midday with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> increase of T a. Torpor was on average about twice as long (mean 11.0 ± 4.7 h, n = 8) than in captivity. Animals employed sun basking during rewarming, reduced foraging time significantly, and occasionally omitted activity for several days in sequence. Consequently, we estimate that <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in this species can reduce <span class="hlt">daily</span> energy expenditure by up to 90%. Our study shows that for wild stripe-faced dunnarts <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor is an essential mechanism for overcoming energetic challenges during winter and that torpor data obtained in the laboratory can substantially underestimate the ecological significance of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in the wild.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21124210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21124210"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Bone Alignment With Limited Repeat CT Correction Rivals <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ultrasound Alignment for Prostate Radiotherapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>O'Daniel, Jennifer C.; Dong Lei Zhang Lifei; Wang He; Tucker, Susan L.; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, Rex; Cox, James D.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Mohan, Radhe</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ultrasound (US)- and computed tomography (CT)-guided alignments with an off-line correction protocol using <span class="hlt">daily</span> bone alignment plus a correction factor for systematic internal prostate displacement (CF{sub ID}). Methods and Materials: Ten prostate cancer patients underwent CT scans three times weekly using an integrated CT-linear accelerator system, followed by alignment using US for <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were designed with our current clinical margins. The treatment plan was copied onto the repeat CT images and aligned using several methods: (1) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after three off-line CT scans (bone+3CT), (2) bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} after six off-line CT scans (bone+6CT), (3) US alignment, and (4) CT alignment. The accuracy of the repeated US and CT measurements to determine the CF{sub ID} was compared. The target dosimetric effect was quantified. Results: The CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacements was more accurately measured with limited repeat CT scans than with US (residual error, 0.0 {+-} 0.7 mm vs. 2.0 {+-} 3.2 mm). Bone+3CT, bone+6CT, and US provided equivalent prostate and seminal vesicle dose coverage, but bone+3CT and bone+6CT produced more precise <span class="hlt">daily</span> alignments. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> CT alignment provided the greatest target dose coverage. Conclusion: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} for internal systematic prostate displacement provided better <span class="hlt">daily</span> alignment precision and equivalent dose coverage compared with <span class="hlt">daily</span> US alignment. The CF{sub ID} should be based on at least three repeat CT scans, which could be collected before the start of treatment or during the first 3 treatment days. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> bone alignment plus CF{sub ID} provides another option for accurate prostate cancer patient positioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814614B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814614B"><span id="translatedtitle">Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation extremes?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/<span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than <span class="hlt">daily</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19286645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19286645"><span id="translatedtitle">Interracial roommate relationships: negotiating <span class="hlt">daily</span> interactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trail, Thomas E; Shelton, J Nicole; West, Tessa V</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Jobs, social group memberships, or living arrangements lead many people to interact every day with another person from a different racial background. Given that research has shown that interracial interactions are often stressful, it is important to know how these <span class="hlt">daily</span> interactions unfold across time and what factors contribute to the success or failure of these interactions. Both members of same-race and mixed-race college roommate pairs completed <span class="hlt">daily</span> questionnaires measuring their emotional experiences and their perceptions of their roommate. Results revealed that roommates in mixed-race dyads experienced less positive emotions and intimacy toward their roommates than did roommates in same-race dyads and that the experience of positive emotions declined over time for ethnic minority students with White roommates. Mediation analyses showed that the negative effects of roommate race were mediated by the level of intimacy-building behaviors performed by the roommate. Implications for future research and university policies are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015664','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015664"><span id="translatedtitle">An introduction to quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> geomagnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Campbell, W.H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>On days that are quiet with respect to solar-terrestrial activity phenomena, the geomagnetic field has variations, tens of gamma in size, with major spectral components at about 24, 12, 8, and 6 hr in period. These quiet <span class="hlt">daily</span> field variations are primarily due to the dynamo currents flowing in the E region of the earth's ionosphere, are driven by the global thermotidal wind systems, and are dependent upon the local tensor conductivity and main geomagnetic field vector. The highlights of the behavior and interpretation of these quiet field changes, from their discovery in 1634 until the present, are discussed as an introduction to the special journal issue on Quiet <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Geomagnetic Fields. ?? 1989 Birkha??user Verlag.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624808Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624808Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiological responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> light exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and <span class="hlt">daily</span> light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and <span class="hlt">daily</span> light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that <span class="hlt">daily</span> long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25462037','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25462037"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> animal exposure and children's biological concepts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geerdts, Megan S; Van de Walle, Gretchen A; LoBue, Vanessa</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A large body of research has focused on the developmental trajectory of children's acquisition of a theoretically coherent naive biology. However, considerably less work has focused on how specific <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences shape the development of children's knowledge about living things. In the current research, we investigated one common experience that might contribute to biological knowledge development during early childhood-pet ownership. In Study 1, we investigated how children interact with pets by observing 24 preschool-aged children with their pet cats or dogs and asking parents about their children's <span class="hlt">daily</span> involvement with the pets. We found that most of young children's observed and reported interactions with their pets are reciprocal social interactions. In Study 2, we tested whether children who have <span class="hlt">daily</span> social experiences with animals are more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than children without pets. Both 3- and 5-year-olds with pets were more likely to attribute biological properties to animals than those without pets. Similarly, both older and younger children with pets showed less anthropocentric patterns of extension of novel biological information. The results suggest that having pets may facilitate the development of a more sophisticated, human-inclusive representation of animals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H51N1588B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H51N1588B"><span id="translatedtitle">The Probability Distribution of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Streamflow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blum, A.; Vogel, R. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Flow duration curves (FDCs) are a graphical illustration of the cumulative distribution of streamflow. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> streamflows often range over many orders of magnitude, making it extremely challenging to find a probability distribution function (pdf) which can mimic the steady state or period of record FDC (POR-FDC). Median annual FDCs (MA-FDCs) describe the pdf of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow in a typical year. For POR- and MA-FDCs, Lmoment diagrams, visual assessments of FDCs and Quantile-Quantile probability plot correlation coefficients are used to evaluate goodness of fit (GOF) of candidate probability distributions. FDCs reveal that both four-parameter kappa (KAP) and three-parameter generalized Pareto (GP3) models result in very high GOF for the MA-FDC and a relatively lower GOF for POR-FDCs at over 500 rivers across the coterminous U.S. Physical basin characteristics, such as baseflow index as well as hydroclimatic indices such as the aridity index and the runoff ratio are found to be correlated with one of the shape parameters (kappa) of the KAP and GP3 pdfs. Our work also reveals several important areas for future research including improved parameter estimators for the KAP pdf, as well as increasing our understanding of the conditions which give rise to improved GOF of analytical pdfs to large samples of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G41B..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.G41B..03S"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress towards <span class="hlt">daily</span> "swath" solutions from GRACE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sakumura, C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The GRACE mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind that measures the total water column in the Earth System over the past 13 years. The GRACE solutions available from the project have been monthly average solutions. There have been attempts by several groups to produce shorter time-window solutions with different techniques. There is also an experimental quick-look GRACE solution available from CSR that implements a sliding window approach while applying variable <span class="hlt">daily</span> data weights. All of these GRACE solutions require special handling for data assimilation. This study explores the possibility of generating a true <span class="hlt">daily</span> GRACE solution by computing a <span class="hlt">daily</span> "swath" total water storage (TWS) estimate from GRACE using the Tikhonov regularization and high resolution monthly mascon estimation implemented at CSR. This paper discusses the techniques for computing such a solution and discusses the error and uncertainty characterization. We perform comparisons with official RL05 GRACE solutions and with alternate mascon solutions from CSR to understand the impact on the science results. We evaluate these solutions with emphasis on the temporal characteristics of the signal content and validate them against multiple models and in-situ data sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587073','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587073"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Interpersonal Events in Pain Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davis, Mary C.; Affleck, Glenn; Zautra, Alex J.; Tennen, Howard</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Action theory proposes that individuals actively shape and then respond to their environments, highlighting the role of stable person characteristics in the development and maintenance of life’s interpersonal difficulties. In this study, we adopted the action perspective in our examination of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> lives of chronic pain patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Our evaluation of patients’ <span class="hlt">daily</span> diary reports indicated that individuals played a more prominent role in shaping their positive versus their negative social worlds. The contribution of symptoms of ill health and demographic characteristics, as well as personality attributes were also examined as stable factors that predicted exposure to and appraisal of events. In addition to between-person measures, day to day variations in illness symptoms also played a key role in predicting their social experinces. Together, these findings suggest that stable person characteristics and within-person fluctuations in ill health are each tied to <span class="hlt">daily</span> interpersonal experiences for those in chronic pain. More broadly, they point to the value of capturing the experiences of individuals intensively over time, an approach that can help to elaborate the contributions of both stable factors and circumstance in shaping our social contexts. PMID:16810668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23918373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23918373"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding metropolitan patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> encounters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng</p> <p>2013-08-20</p> <p>Understanding of the mechanisms driving our <span class="hlt">daily</span> face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838836','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838836"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiological responses to <span class="hlt">daily</span> light exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and <span class="hlt">daily</span> light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and <span class="hlt">daily</span> light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that <span class="hlt">daily</span> long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth. PMID:27098210</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..661M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..661M"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieving <span class="hlt">daily</span> global solar radiation from routine climate variables</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moradi, Isaac; Mueller, Richard; Perez, Richard</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Solar radiation is an important variable for studies related to solar energy applications, meteorology, climatology, hydrology, and agricultural meteorology. However, solar radiation is not routinely measured at meteorological stations; therefore, it is often required to estimate it using other techniques such as retrieving from satellite data or estimating using other geophysical variables. Over the years, many models have been developed to estimate solar radiation from other geophysical variables such as <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, rainfall, and sunshine duration. The aim of this study was to evaluate six of these models using data measured at four independent worldwide networks. The dataset included 13 stations from Australia, 25 stations from Germany, 12 stations from Saudi Arabia, and 48 stations from the USA. The models require either sunshine duration hours (Ångstrom) or <span class="hlt">daily</span> range of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Bristow and Campbell, Donatelli and Bellocchi, Donatelli and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani) as input. According to the statistical parameters, Ångstrom and Bristow and Campbell indicated a better performance than the other models. The bias and root mean square error for the Ångstrom model were less than 0.25 MJ m2 day-1 and 2.25 MJ m2 day-1, respectively, and the correlation coefficient was always greater than 95 %. Statistical analysis using Student's t test indicated that the residuals for Ångstrom, Bristow and Campbell, Hargreaves, and Hargreaves and Samani are not statistically significant at the 5 % level. In other words, the estimated values by these models are statistically consistent with the measured data. Overall, given the simplicity and performance, the Ångstrom model is the best choice for estimating solar radiation when sunshine duration measurements are available; otherwise, Bristow and Campbell can be used to estimate solar radiation using <span class="hlt">daily</span> range of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol1-sec330-3.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title20-vol1-sec330-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 330.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation. 330.3 Section 330... INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation. (a) Definition. An employee's <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate of compensation is his or her straight-time rate of pay, including any...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED286174.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED286174.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Intercity Competition on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspaper Content.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lacy, Stephen</p> <p></p> <p>A study examined whether intercity competition affects the content of <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers and whether the content profile is consistent with the umbrella competition theory elaborated by James N. Rosse. Rosse's theory hypothesized four layers of newspaper competition--large metropolitan <span class="hlt">dailies</span>, satellite <span class="hlt">daily</span> papers, suburban <span class="hlt">dailies</span>, and weekly…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000326','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000326"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference evapotranspiration modeling and evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Lietzow, R.; Melesse, Assefa M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Accurate and reliable evapotranspiration (ET) datasets are crucial in regional water and energy balance studies. Due to the complex instrumentation requirements, actual ET values are generally estimated from reference ET values by adjustment factors using coefficients for water stress and vegetation conditions, commonly referred to as crop coefficients. Until recently, the modeling of reference ET has been solely based on important weather variables collected from weather stations that are generally located in selected agro-climatic locations. Since 2001, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) has been producing six-hourly climate parameter datasets that are used to calculate <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference ET for the whole globe at 1-degree spatial resolution. The U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science has been producing <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference ET (ETo) since 2001, and it has been used on a variety of operational hydrological models for drought and streamflow monitoring all over the world. With the increasing availability of local station-based reference ET estimates, we evaluated the GDAS-based reference ET estimates using data from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS). <span class="hlt">Daily</span> CIMIS reference ET estimates from 85 stations were compared with GDAS-based reference ET at different spatial and temporal scales using five-year <span class="hlt">daily</span> data from 2002 through 2006. Despite the large difference in spatial scale (point vs. ∼100 km grid cell) between the two datasets, the correlations between station-based ET and GDAS-ET were very high, exceeding 0.97 on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis to more than 0.99 on time scales of more than 10 days. Both the temporal and spatial correspondences in trend/pattern and magnitudes between the two datasets were satisfactory, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS parameter-based reference ET for regional water and energy balance studies in many parts of the world</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070134','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24070134"><span id="translatedtitle">Difference in nephrotoxicity of vancomycin administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> and twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> in rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Konishi, Hiroki; Morita, Yukiko; Mizumura, Miyo; Iga, Ikumi; Nagai, Katsuhito</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We compared the degree of nephrotoxicity of vancomycin (VCM) administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> and twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> in rats. VCM was intraperitoneally administered once <span class="hlt">daily</span> to rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg (VCM-1-treated) or administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> at 12-hour intervals (VCM-2-treated) for 7 consecutive days. Creatinine clearance was decreased more markedly in VCM-1 rats relative to VCM-2 rats, although there was no significant difference in renal accumulation of VCM between the two groups. Renal superoxide dismutase activity was lower in VCM-1 rats than that in VCM-2 rats. The magnitude of histological change in kidney tissue was in agreement with the degree of alterations in the abovementioned biochemical values. These results suggest that the nephrotoxic effect of once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> VCM administration is more pronounced than that of the twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> treatment. Our findings provide fundamental evidence for the advantage in choosing a divided VCM administration to attenuate nephrotoxicity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2009D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.2009D"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Das, Umasankar; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Behara, Ambica</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A pool of relatively cooler water, called here as the southern Bay of Bengal cold pool, exists around Sri Lanka and southern tip of India during the summer monsoon. This cold pool is enveloped by the larger Indian Ocean warm pool and is believed to affect the intraseasonal variations of summer monsoon rainfall. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms responsible for the formation of the cold pool using a combination of both satellite data sets and a general circulation model of the Indian Ocean. Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) within the cold pool, after the steady increase during the February-April period, decreases first during a <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> spell in April and then with the monsoon onset during May. The onset cooling is stronger (~1.8°C) than the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> cooling (~0.8°C) and culminates in the formation of the cold pool. Analysis of the model <span class="hlt">temperature</span> equation shows that SST decrease during both events is primarily due to a decrease in incoming solar radiation and an increase in latent heat loss. These changes in the net heat flux are brought about by the arrival of cloud bands above the cold pool during both periods. During the <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> period, a cloud band originates in the western equatorial Indian Ocean and subsequently arrives above the cold pool. Similarly, during the monsoon onset, a band of clouds originating in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean comes over the cold pool region. A lead-lag correlation calculation between <span class="hlt">daily</span> SST and rainfall anomalies suggest that cooling in SST occurs in response to rainfall events with a lag of 5 days. These sequence of events occur every year with certain amount of interannual variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSR...113...85P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JSR...113...85P"><span id="translatedtitle">Patterns of parasite transmission in polar seas: <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of cercarial emergence from intertidal snails</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prokofiev, Vladimir V.; Galaktionov, Kirill V.; Levakin, Ivan A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Trematodes are common parasites in intertidal ecosystems. Cercariae, their dispersive larvae, ensure transmission of infection from the first intermediate molluscan host to the second intermediate (invertebrates and fishes) or the final (fishes, marine birds and mammals) host. Trematode transmission in polar seas, while interesting in many respects, is poorly studied. This study aimed to elucidate the patterns of cercarial emergence from intertidal snails at the White Sea and Barents Sea. The study, involving cercariae of 12 species, has provided the most extensive material obtained so far in high latitude seas (66-69° N). The experiments were conducted in situ. Multichannel singular spectral analysis (MSSA) used for processing primary data made it possible to estimate the relative contribution of different oscillations into the analysed time series and to separate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> component from the other oscillatory components and the noise. Cercarial emergence had pronounced <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms, which did not depend on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> tidal schedule but were regulated by thermo- and photoperiod. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> emergence maximums coincided with periods favourable for infecting the second intermediate hosts. Cercarial <span class="hlt">daily</span> emergence rhythms differed in species using the same molluscan hosts which can be explained by cercarial host searching behaviour. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> cercarial output (DCO) correlated negatively with larval volume and positively with that of the molluscan host except in cercariae using ambuscade behaviour. In the Barents Sea cercariae emerged from their molluscan hosts at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than in the warmer White Sea but the <span class="hlt">daily</span> emergence period was prolonged. Thus, DCO of related species were similar in these two seas and comparable with DCO values reported for boreal seas. Local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> adaptations in cercarial emergence suggests that in case of Arctic climate warming trematode transmission in coastal ecosystems is likely to be intensified not because of the increased</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9772O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9772O"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing urban air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from smartphone battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Accurate air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health. However, the availability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from smartphone battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to a server for storage. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are averaged in space and time to obtain <span class="hlt">daily</span> averaged battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The model is calibrated with observed air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13130436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13130436"><span id="translatedtitle">Melatonin production accompanies arousal from <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in Siberian hamsters.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9923199','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9923199"><span id="translatedtitle">Biometeorological classification of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather types for the humid tropics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lecha Estela, L B</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>This paper describes the methodology for an objective classification of weather types for biometeorological purposes in a tropical-humid climate, such as the Cuban climate. The classification considers the <span class="hlt">daily</span> behavior of extreme air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the mean partial vapor pressure, the mean diurnal cloudiness, the wind speed at 1300 hours local time, and the occurrence of precipitation during the day, in order to identify up to 18 weather types. Descriptions are given of the main biometeorological characteristics of some significant weather types, considering typical geographical locations, and their seasonal variations related to the seasonal pattern of asthma and acute respiratory infections. The relationship between the <span class="hlt">daily</span> occurrence of diseases and the distribution of these local weather types is also described. A significant relationship was found between the incidence of cardiovascular and neurological diseases and the occurrence of hot stress, while the presence of cold and very cold days was closely related with increases of bronchial asthma in adults and children. The appearance of large meteoropathological reactions in the native population could be explained by the day to day pattern of change in the weather types.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27839928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27839928"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 constancy for routine quality assurance on linear accelerators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Binny, Diana; Lancaster, Craig M; Kairn, Tanya; Trapp, Jamie V; Crowe, Scott B</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 (Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, USA) device as a safe quality assurance device for control of machine specific parameters, such as linear accelerator output, beam quality and beam flatness and symmetry. Measurements were performed using three Varian 2300iX linear accelerators. The suitability of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 as a device for quality control of linear accelerator parameters was investigated for both 6 and 10MV photons and 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18MeV electrons. Measurements of machine specific using the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 device were compared to corresponding measurements using a simpler constancy meter, Farmer chamber and plane parallel ionisation chamber in a water tank. The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 device showed a linear dose response making it a suitable device for detection of output variations during routine measurements. It was noted that over estimations of variations compared with Farmer chamber readings were seen if the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 wasn't calibrated for output and sensitivity on a regular eight to ten monthly basis. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-pressure correction factors calculated by <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 also contributed towards larger short term variations seen in output measurements. Energy, symmetry and flatness variations detected by <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 were consistent with measurements performed in water tank using a parallel plate chamber. It was concluded that the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> QA 3 device is suitable for routine <span class="hlt">daily</span> and fortnightly quality assurance of linear accelerator beam parameters however a regular eight-ten monthly dose and detector array calibration will improve error detection capabilities of the device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267849','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4267849"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spiritual Experiences and Adolescent Treatment Response</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LEE, MATTHEW T.; VETA, PAIGE S.; JOHNSON, BYRON R.; PAGANO, MARIA E.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study is to explore changes in belief orientation during treatment and the impact of increased <span class="hlt">daily</span> spiritual experiences (DSE) on adolescent treatment response. One-hundred ninety-five adolescents court-referred to a 2-month residential treatment program were assessed at intake and discharge. Forty percent of youth who entered treatment as agnostic or atheist identified themselves as spiritual or religious at discharge. Increased DSE was associated with greater likelihood of abstinence, increased prosocial behaviors, and reduced narcissistic behaviors. Results indicate a shift in DSE that improves youth self-care and care for others that may inform intervention approaches for adolescents with addiction. PMID:25525291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.1560C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.1560C"><span id="translatedtitle">The probability distribution of intense <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cavanaugh, Nicholas R.; Gershunov, Alexander; Panorska, Anna K.; Kozubowski, Tomasz J.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The probability tail structure of over 22,000 weather stations globally is examined in order to identify the physically and mathematically consistent distribution type for modeling the probability of intense <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and extremes. Results indicate that when aggregating data annually, most locations are to be considered heavy tailed with statistical significance. When aggregating data by season, it becomes evident that the thickness of the probability tail is related to the variability in precipitation causing events and thus that the fundamental cause of precipitation volatility is weather diversity. These results have both theoretical and practical implications for the modeling of high-frequency climate variability worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010005251','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010005251"><span id="translatedtitle">BOREAS TE-21 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Surface Meteorological Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810044296&hterms=Rap&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DRap','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810044296&hterms=Rap&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DRap"><span id="translatedtitle">Approach to forecasting <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum ozone levels in St. Louis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prior, E. J.; Schiess, J. R.; Mcdougal, D. S.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Measurements taken in 1976 from the St. Louis Regional Air Pollution Study (RAPS) data base, conducted by EPA, were analyzed to determine an optimum set of air-quality and meteorological variables for predicting maximum ozone levels for each day in 1976. A 'leaps and bounds' regression analysis was used to identify the best subset of variables. Three particular variables, the 9 a.m. ozone level, the forecasted maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the 6-9 a.m. averaged wind speed, have useful forecasting utility. The trajectory history of air masses entering St. Louis was studied, and it was concluded that transport-related variables contribute to the appearance of very high ozone levels. The final empirical forecast model predicts the <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum ozone over 341 days with a standard deviation of 11 ppb, which approaches the estimated error.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28308721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28308721"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) in Madagascar: energetic consequences and biological significance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, J</p> <p>2000-05-01</p> <p>Patterns and energetic consequences of spontaneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor were measured in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under natural conditions of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and photoperiod in a dry deciduous forest in western Madagascar. Over a period of two consecutive dry seasons, oxygen consumption (VO2) and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T b) were measured on ten individuals kept in outdoor enclosures. In all animals, spontaneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor occurred on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis with torpor bouts lasting from 3.6 to 17.6 h, with a mean torpor bout duration of 9.3 h. On average, body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in torpor were 17.3±4.9°C with a recorded minimum value of 7.8°C. Torpor was not restricted to the mouse lemurs' diurnal resting phase: entries occurred throughout the night and arousals mainly around midday, coinciding with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maximum. Arousal from torpor was a two-phase process with a first passive, exogenous heating where the T b of animals increased from the torpor T b minimum to a mean value of 27.1°C before the second, endogenous heat production commenced to further raise T b to normothermic values. Metabolic rate during torpor (28.6±13.2 ml O2 h(-1)) was significantly reduced by about 76% compared to resting metabolic rate (132.6±50.5 ml O2 h(-1)). On average, for all M. murinus individuals measured, hypometabolism during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor reduced <span class="hlt">daily</span> energy expenditure by about 38%. In conclusion, all these energy-conserving mechanisms of the nocturnal mouse lemurs, with passive exogenous heating during arousal from torpor, low minimum torpor T bs, and extended torpor bouts into the activity phase, comprise an important and highly adapted mechanism to minimize energetic costs in response to unfavorable environmental conditions and may play a crucial role for individual fitness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4706363','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4706363"><span id="translatedtitle">Vestibular Function and Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harun, Aisha; Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Agrawal, Yuri</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Vestibular dysfunction increases with age and is associated with mobility difficulties and fall risk in older individuals. We evaluated whether vestibular function influences the ability to perform activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADLs). Method: We analyzed the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of adults aged older than 40 years (N = 5,017). Vestibular function was assessed with the Modified Romberg test. We evaluated the association between vestibular function and difficulty level in performing specific basic and instrumental ADLs, and total number of ADL impairments. Results: Vestibular dysfunction was associated with significantly higher odds of difficulty with nine ADLs, most strongly with difficulty managing finances (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 5.90]). In addition, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a significantly greater number of ADL impairments (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.09, 0.33]). This effect size was comparable with the influence of heavy smoking (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.36]) and hypertension (β = .10, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.18]) on the number of ADL impairments. Conclusion: Vestibular dysfunction significantly influences ADL difficulty, most strongly with a cognitive rather than mobility-based task. These findings underscore the importance of vestibular inputs for both cognitive and physical <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities. PMID:26753170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24173611','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24173611"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache in the elderly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Özge, Aynur</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic <span class="hlt">daily</span> headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new <span class="hlt">daily</span> persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (<4 hours) forms of CDH are chronic cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4577095','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4577095"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Saramäki, Jari</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals’ social networks. Further, women’s calls were longer than men’s calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day. PMID:26390215</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6287H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.6287H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> simulations of urban heat load in Vienna for 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hollosi, Brigitta; Zuvela-Aloise, Maja; Koch, Roland</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In this study, the dynamical urban climate model MUKLIMO3 (horizontal resolution of 100 m) is uni-directionally coupled with the operational weather forecast model ALARO-ALADIN of the ZAMG (horizontal resolution of 4.8 km) to simulate the development of the urban heat island in Vienna on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis. The aim is to evaluate the performance of the urban climate model applied for climatological studies in a weather prediction mode. The focus of the investigation is on assessment of the urban heat load during day-time. We used the archived <span class="hlt">daily</span> forecast data for the summer period in 2011 (April - October) as input data for the urban climate model. The high resolution simulations were initialized with vertical profiles of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity and prevailing wind speed and direction in the rural area near the city in the early morning hours. The model output for hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity has been evaluated against the monitoring data at 9 weather stations in the area of the city. Additionally, spatial gradients in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were evaluated by comparing the grid point values with the data collected during a mobile measuring campaign taken on a multi-vehicle bicycle tour on the 7th of July, 2011. The results show a good agreement with observations on a district scale. Particular challenge in the modeling approach is achieving robust and numerically stable model solutions for different weather situation. Therefore, we analyzed modeled wind patterns for different atmospheric conditions in the summer period. We found that during the calm hot days, due to the inhomogeneous surface and complex terrain, the local-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients can induce strong anomalies, which in turn could affect the circulation on a larger scale. However, these results could not be validated due to the lack of observations. In the following years extreme hot conditions are very likely to occur more frequently and with higher intensity. Combining urban climate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11128441','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11128441"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of hibernation, estivation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in the edible dormouse, Glis glis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wilz, M; Heldmaier, G</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>Three major forms of dormancy in mammals have been classified: hibernation in endotherms is characterised by reduced metabolic rate (MR) and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) near ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ta) over prolonged times in the winter. Estivation is a similar form of dormancy in a dry and hot environment during summertime. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor is defined as reduced MR and Tb lower than 32 degrees C, limited to a duration of less than 24 h. The edible dormouse (Glis glis) is capable for all three distinct forms of dormancy. During periods of food restriction and/or low Ta, <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor is displayed throughout the year, alternating with hibernation and estivation in winter and summer respectively. We recorded Tb, O2-consumption and CO2-production in unrestrained dormice at different Ta's for periods of up to several months. Cooling rate and rate of metabolic depression during entrance into the torpid state was identical in all three forms of dormancy. The same was true for thermal conductance, maximum heat production, duration of arousal and cost of an arousal. The only difference between hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor was found in the bout duration. A <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor bout lasted 3-21 h, a hibernation bout 39-768 h. As a consequence of prolonged duration, MR, Tb and also the Tb - Ta gradient decreased to lower values during hibernation bouts when compared to <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor bouts. Our findings suggest that all three forms of dormancy are based on the same physiological mechanism of thermal and metabolic regulation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/118613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/118613"><span id="translatedtitle">Coastal eutrophication and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ganoulis, J.; Rafailidis, S.; Bogardi, I.; Duckstein, L.; Matyasovszky, I.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>A 3-D hydroecological model has been developed to simulate the impact of climate-change-induced <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation on coastal water quality and eutrophication. Historical <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series over a thirty-year period have been used to link local meteorological variables to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). Then, CPs generated under a 2{times}CO{sub 2} scenario have been used to simulate climate-change-induced local <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations. Both historical and climate-change-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series have been introduced as inputs into the hydroecological model to simulate coastal water quality and eutrophication. Subject to model validation with available data, a case study in the bay of Thessaloniki (N. Greece) indicates a risk of increasing eutrophication and oxygen depletion in coastal areas due to possible climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18266526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18266526"><span id="translatedtitle">Appraisal-emotion relationships in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nezlek, John B; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Van Mechelen, Iven; Kuppens, Peter</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> process design, the present study examined relationships between momentary appraisals and emotional experience based on Smith and Lazarus' (1993) theory of emotions (1993). Nine times a day for 2 weeks, participants (N = 33, 23 women) recorded their momentary experience of 2 positive emotions (joy, love) and 4 negative emotions (anger, guilt, fear, sadness) and the core relational theme appraisal contents Smith and Lazarus hypothesized as corresponding to these emotions. A series of multilevel modeling analyses found that the hypothesized relationships between appraisal contents and these emotions were stronger than relationships between contents and other emotions, although appraisals were related to other emotions in many cases. Moreover, there were some individual differences in the strength of these relationships. These results suggest that there are no one-to-one relationships between appraisal contents and specific emotional experiences, and that specific emotions are associated with different appraisal contents, and that specific appraisals are associated with different emotions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233117','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4233117"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> oral iron supplementation during pregnancy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Iron and folic acid supplementation has been the preferred intervention to improve iron stores and prevent anaemia among pregnant women, and it may also improve other maternal and birth outcomes. Objectives To assess the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral iron supplements for pregnant women, either alone or in conjunction with folic acid, or with other vitamins and minerals as a public health intervention. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (2 July 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (2 July 2012) and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effects of oral preventive supplementation with <span class="hlt">daily</span> iron, iron + folic acid or iron + other vitamins and minerals during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results We included 60 trials. Forty-three trials, involving more than 27,402 women, contributed data and compared the effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> oral supplements containing iron versus no iron or placebo. Overall, women taking iron supplements were less likely to have low birthweight newborns (below 2500 g) compared with controls (8.4% versus 10.2%, average risk ratio (RR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 0.97, 11 trials, 8480 women) and mean birthweight was 30.81 g greater for those infants whose mothers received iron during pregnancy (average mean difference (MD) 30.81; 95% CI 5.94 to 55.68, 14 trials, 9385 women). Preventive iron supplementation reduced the risk of maternal anaemia at term by 70% (RR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.46, 14 trials, 2199 women) and iron deficiency at term by 57% (RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.27 to 0.66, seven trials, 1256 women</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20790722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20790722"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Shanghai, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.H.; Huang, W.; London, S.J.; Song, G.X.; Chen, G.H.; Jiang, L.L.; Zhao, N.Q.; Chen, B.H.; Kan, H.D.</p> <p>2006-08-15</p> <p>Given the changes in types of air pollution from conventional coal combustion to the mixed coal combustion/motor vehicle emissions in China's large cities, it is worthwhile to investigate the acute effect of O{sub 3} on mortality outcomes in the country. We conducted a time-series study to investigate the relation between O{sub 3} and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Shanghai using 4 years of <span class="hlt">daily</span> data (2001-2004). O{sub 3} was found to be significantly associated with total and cardiovascular mortality in the cold season but not in the warm season. In the whole-year analysis, an increase of 10 pg/m{sup 3} of 2-day average O{sub 3} corresponds to 0.45% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-0.73%), 0.53% (95% CI, 0.10-0.96%), and 0.35% (95% CI, -0.40 to 1.09%) increase of total nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. In the cold season, the estimates increased to 1.38% (95% CI , 0.68-2.07%), 1.53% (95% CI, 0.54-2.52%), and 0.95% (95% CI, -0.71 to 2.60%), respectively. In the warm season, we did not observe significant associations for both total and causespecific mortality. The results were generally insensitive to model specifications such as lag structure of O{sub 3} concentrations and degree of freedom for time trend. Multipoflutant models indicate that the effect of O{sub 3} was not confounded by particulate matter {<=} 10 {mu} m in diameter (PM10) or by sulfur dioxide; however, after adding nitrogen dioxide into the model, the association of O{sub 3} with total and cardiovascular mortality became statistically insignificant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163515.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163515.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163515.html <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Aspirin May Help Prevent Some Recurrent Miscarriages Approach seemed ... as simple as taking a <span class="hlt">daily</span> low-dose aspirin could help prevent a recurrence. The intervention appears ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28358569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28358569"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Job Demands and Employee Work Engagement: The Role of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Transformational Leadership Behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Breevaart, Kimberley; Bakker, Arnold B</p> <p>2017-03-30</p> <p>Using job demands-resources (JD-R) theory, the present study integrates the challenge stressor-hindrance stressor framework and leadership theory to investigate the relationship between <span class="hlt">daily</span> transformational leadership behavior and employee work engagement. We hypothesized that <span class="hlt">daily</span> transformational leadership behavior (a) sustains employee work engagement on days characterized by high challenge job demands, and (b) protects work engagement on days characterized by high hindrance job demands. Teachers filled out a short online questionnaire at the end of each workday during a 2-week period (N = 271 × 5.68 days = 1539). Results of latent moderated structural equation modeling showed that teachers' <span class="hlt">daily</span> challenge demands (workload and cognitive demands) had a positive relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was high (vs. low). In addition, teachers' <span class="hlt">daily</span> hindrance demands (role-conflict, but not family to work conflict) had a negative relationship with work engagement on the days transformational leadership was low (vs. high). These findings show that the function of transformational leadership behavior changes from day to day, and depends on the type of job demand. We discuss the practical and theoretical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23456448','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23456448"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather factors in the short-term forecasting of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambulance calls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Ho-Ting; Lai, Poh-Chin</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambulance demand for Hong Kong is rising, and it has been shown that weather factors (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity) play a role in the demand for ambulance services. This study aimed at developing short-term forecasting models of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambulance calls using the 7-day weather forecast data as predictors. We employed the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method to analyze over 1.3 million cases of emergency attendance in May 2006 through April 2009 and the 7-day weather forecast data for the same period. Our results showed that the ARIMA model could offer reasonably accurate forecasts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambulance calls at 1-7 days ahead of time and with improved accuracy by including weather factors. Specifically, the inclusion of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone in our ARIMA model improved the predictability of the 1-day forecast when compared to that of a simple ARIMA model (8.8% decrease in the root mean square error, RMSE=53 vs 58). The improvement in the 7-day forecast with average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a predictor was more pronounced, with a 10% drop in prediction error (RMSE=62 vs 69). These findings suggested that weather forecast data can improve the 1- to 7-day forecasts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambulance demand. As weather forecast data are readily accessible from Hong Kong Observatory's official website, there is virtually no cost to including them in the ARIMA models, which yield better prediction for forward planning and deployment of ambulance manpower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185011','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70185011"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy assessment of NOAA gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference evapotranspiration for the Texas High Plains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Moorhead, Jerry; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Hobbins, Michael; Senay, Gabriel; Paul, George; Marek, Thomas; Porter, Dana</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference evapotranspiration (ETref) maps for the contiguous United States using climatic data from North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). This data provides large-scale spatial representation of ETref, which is essential for regional scale water resources management. Data used in the development of NOAA <span class="hlt">daily</span> ETref maps are derived from observations over surfaces that are different from short (grass — ETos) or tall (alfalfa — ETrs) reference crops, often in nonagricultural settings, which carries an unknown discrepancy between assumed and actual conditions. In this study, NOAA <span class="hlt">daily</span> ETos and ETrs maps were evaluated for accuracy, using observed data from the Texas High Plains Evapotranspiration (TXHPET) network. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> ETos, ETrs and the climatic data (air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, wind speed, and solar radiation) used for calculating ETref were extracted from the NOAA maps for TXHPET locations and compared against ground measurements on reference grass surfaces. NOAA ETrefmaps generally overestimated the TXHPET observations (1.4 and 2.2 mm/day ETos and ETrs, respectively), which may be attributed to errors in the NLDAS modeled air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind speed, to which reference ETref is most sensitive. Therefore, a bias correction to NLDAS modeled air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind speed data, or adjustment to the resulting NOAA ETref, may be needed to improve the accuracy of NOAA ETref maps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. 6.3 Section 6.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> lists of parts affected. (a) Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall carry...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title1-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title1-vol1-sec6-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1 CFR 6.1 - Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to <span class="hlt">daily</span> issues. Each <span class="hlt">daily</span> issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol1-sec330-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol1-sec330-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 330.3 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation. 330.3 Section 330.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rate of compensation. (a) Definition....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol1-sec330-2.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title20-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title20-vol1-sec330-2.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">20 CFR 330.2 - Computation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> benefit rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> benefit rate. 330.2 Section 330.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF <span class="hlt">DAILY</span> BENEFIT RATES § 330.2 Computation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> benefit rate. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=american+AND+marriage+AND+age&pg=3&id=EJ967197','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=american+AND+marriage+AND+age&pg=3&id=EJ967197"><span id="translatedtitle">Racial Differences in Exposure and Reactivity to <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Family Stressors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Using data from the National Study of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of <span class="hlt">daily</span> interviews during which they reported on daily…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026824','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026824"><span id="translatedtitle">A resampling procedure for generating conditioned <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Clark, M.P.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Brandon, D.; Werner, K.; Hay, L.; Rajagopalan, B.; Yates, D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>[1] A method is introduced to generate conditioned <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series at multiple stations. The method resamples data from the historical record "nens" times for the period of interest (nens = number of ensemble members) and reorders the ensemble members to reconstruct the observed spatial (intersite) and temporal correlation statistics. The weather generator model is applied to 2307 stations in the contiguous United States and is shown to reproduce the observed spatial correlation between neighboring stations, the observed correlation between variables (e.g., between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>), and the observed temporal correlation between subsequent days in the generated weather sequence. The weather generator model is extended to produce sequences of weather that are conditioned on climate indices (in this case the Nin??o 3.4 index). Example illustrations of conditioned weather sequences are provided for a station in Arizona (Petrified Forest, 34.8??N, 109.9??W), where El Nin??o and La Nin??a conditions have a strong effect on winter precipitation. The conditioned weather sequences generated using the methods described in this paper are appropriate for use as input to hydrologic models to produce multiseason forecasts of streamflow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJBm...57..497M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJBm...57..497M"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather variables on psychosis admissions to psychiatric hospitals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Several studies have noted seasonal variations in admission rates of patients with psychotic illnesses. However, the changeable <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns within seasons have never been examined in any great depth in the context of admission rates. A handful of small studies have posed interesting questions regarding a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (especially heat waves) and sunshine. In this study, we used simple non-parametric testing and more complex ARIMA and time-series regression analysis to examine whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns (wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, sunshine, sunlight and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) exert an influence on admission rates for psychotic disorders across 12 regions in Ireland. Although there were some weak but interesting trends for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, barometric pressure and sunshine, the meteorological patterns ultimately did not exert a clinically significant influence over admissions for psychosis. Further analysis is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22855350','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22855350"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> weather variables on psychosis admissions to psychiatric hospitals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Several studies have noted seasonal variations in admission rates of patients with psychotic illnesses. However, the changeable <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns within seasons have never been examined in any great depth in the context of admission rates. A handful of small studies have posed interesting questions regarding a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (especially heat waves) and sunshine. In this study, we used simple non-parametric testing and more complex ARIMA and time-series regression analysis to examine whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological patterns (wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, sunshine, sunlight and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) exert an influence on admission rates for psychotic disorders across 12 regions in Ireland. Although there were some weak but interesting trends for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, barometric pressure and sunshine, the meteorological patterns ultimately did not exert a clinically significant influence over admissions for psychosis. Further analysis is needed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP41D1423C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP41D1423C"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> pollen concentration based on meteorological data and days after seasonal initiation - a case study for Japanese hop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choe, H.; Kim, K. R.; Kim, M.; Han, M. J.; Cho, C.; Choi, B. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Pollinosis causes various allergy symptoms such as seasonal rhinitis, asthma, and conjunctivitis (Min, 1991). Japanese hop (Humulus japonicus) is a major allergen in southern Gyonggi-do during the fall seasons (Park, 1998). So that it is needed to forecast the concentration of its pollens.For the germination of Japanese hop, a period of low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (<5C) followed by warm (~20C) and humid conditions is needed (Growing and Protecting New Zealand(2010)). The <span class="hlt">daily</span> concentration of the pollens increases rapidly then decreases a few days afterward. In this study, the changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> pollen concentration were analyzed to yield a prediction model.As a result, a regression model was produced to forecast <span class="hlt">daily</span> pollen concentration. It can be integrated into the <span class="hlt">daily</span> pollinosis warning system of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and provide more accurate <span class="hlt">daily</span> risk information.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16322980','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16322980"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor patterns of free-ranging female and male Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dietz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth K V</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> torpor can provide significant energy and water savings in bats during cold ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and food scarcity. However, it may reduce rates of foetal and juvenile development. Therefore, reproductive females should optimize development by minimizing times in torpor. To test this hypothesis, the use of torpor by female and male free-ranging Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) during reproduction (gestation, lactation, and post-lactation period) was investigated in 1998 and 1999. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-sensitive radio transmitters were attached to the bats to measure skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Simultaneously, ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded. While both sexes became torpid during daytime, male bats used <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor (>6 degrees C below individual active <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) significantly more often during reproductive period (mean: 78.4 % of day time in May and 43 % in June) than females. Female bats went into <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor, particularly in late summer when juveniles were weaned (mean: 66.6 % of daytime). Lowest skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> occurred in a female bat with 21.0 degrees C during post-lactation. Skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of male bats fluctuated from 16.8 degrees C in torpor to 37.2 degrees C during times of activity. There was a significant effect of reproductive period on skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in females whereas mean ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had no significant effect. However, mean ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affected mean skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in males. Our findings indicate that female Daubenton's bats adopt their thermoregulatory behaviour in particular to optimize the juvenile development.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1566678','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1566678"><span id="translatedtitle">Particulate air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality on Utah's Wasatch Front.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pope, C A; Hill, R W; Villegas, G M</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Reviews of <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-series mortality studies from many cities throughout the world suggest that <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality counts are associated with short-term changes in particulate matter (PM) air pollution. One U.S. city, however, with conspicuously weak PM-mortality associations was Salt Lake City, Utah; however, relatively robust PM-mortality associations have been observed in a neighboring metropolitan area (Provo/Orem, Utah). The present study explored this apparent discrepancy by collecting, comparing, and analyzing mortality, pollution, and weather data for all three metropolitan areas on Utah's Wasatch Front region of the Wasatch Mountain Range (Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem) for approximately 10 years (1985-1995). Generalized additive Poisson regression models were used to estimate PM-mortality associations while controlling for seasonality, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, humidity, and barometric pressure. Salt Lake City experienced substantially more episodes of high PM that were dominated by windblown dust. When the data were screened to exclude obvious windblown dust episodes and when PM data from multiple monitors were used to construct an estimate of mean exposure for the area, comparable PM-mortality effects were estimated. After screening and by using constructed mean PM [less than/equal to] 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) data, the estimated percent change in mortality associated with a 10-mg/m3 increase in PM10 (and 95% confidence intervals) for the three Wasatch Front metropolitan areas equaled approximately 1. 6% (0.3-2.9), 0.8% (0.3-1.3), and 1.0% (0.2-1.8) for the Ogden, Salt Lake City, and Provo/Orem areas, respectively. We conclude that stagnant air pollution episodes with higher concentrations of primary and secondary combustion-source particles were more associated with elevated mortality than windblown dust episodes with relatively higher concentrations of coarse crustal-derived particles. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10379003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........10V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT........10V"><span id="translatedtitle">Particulate air pollution and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality in Bangkok</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vajanapoom, Nitaya</p> <p>1999-10-01</p> <p>This study was designed to assess the association between PM10 and visibility, and to determine whether the variations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality were associated with fluctuations in <span class="hlt">daily</span> PM10 and visibility levels, in Bangkok during 1992-1997. Mortality data were extracted from death certificates, provided by the Bureau of Registration Administration. PM10 data were obtained from three monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, and visibility data were obtained from two monitoring stations operated by the Department of Meteorology. PM10 was regressed on visibility using multiple regression. Inverse and significant association was found between PM10 and visibility, after controlling for relative humidity, minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and winter indicator variable. Positive association was found between total mortality and PM10, in Poisson regression model while controlling for long-term trends, season, and variations in weather. Five-day moving average of PM10 was significantly and most strongly associated with total mortality from non-external causes; a 2.3% (95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (30 μg/m3) increase in PM10. When PM10 was replaced with visibility, a 1.3% (95% CI = 0.4, 2.3) increase in mortality was estimated for one interquartile range (1.5 km) decrease in visibility. Lagged effects up to three day lags prior to death with similar patterns were observed for both PM10 and visibility. The findings suggest the possibility of using visibility as a surrogate for fine particulate matter. This approach is feasible because visibility data are usually routinely recorded at airports throughout the world. On the other hand, given the large number of population living in Bangkok, the small but significant percent excess deaths attributable to airborne particle exposure is an important public health concern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999WRR....35.3783H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999WRR....35.3783H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> phosphorus variation in a mountain stream</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hatch, Lorin K.; Reuter, John E.; Goldman, Charles R.</p> <p>1999-12-01</p> <p>Monthly diel monitoring studies for phosphorus content were conducted (1995-1996 period) for multiple stations on Incline Creek, a mountain stream in the Lake Tahoe basin (California-Nevada). Large discharge and particulate P (PP) concentration fluctuations occurred during June in the early evening as snowmelt from higher elevations arrived at the lower stream reaches. June diel dissolved organic P (DOP) concentrations steadily increased, while soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations remained constant. June diel PP concentrations associated with sand-sized particles (PPsand: >63 μm) exhibited a clockwise hysteresis, indicating possible sediment source depletion on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescale. June diel PP associated with silt- and clay-sized particles (PPSC: >0.45 μm and <63 μm) exhibited counterclockwise hysteresis behavior, suggesting a potential groundwater contribution to PPSC. PPSC comprised the majority of PP concentration, except during high-discharge events when PPsand concentration was dominant. Areal PP loading, specifically PPsand, appears to originate primarily from the lower eastern branch of Incline Creek during the spring snowmelt season. Possible sources include a ski resort/parking lot and a golf course. DOP and SRP areal loads were greatest from the undeveloped upper subwatershed, suggesting that natural factors such as slope are influencing loading of small-sized P fractions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12878452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12878452"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> prickly pear consumption improves platelet function.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wolfram, R; Budinsky, A; Efthimiou, Y; Stomatopoulos, J; Oguogho, A; Sinzinger, H</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Prickly pear is traditionally used by Pima Indians as a dietary nutrient against diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> consumption of 250 g in 8 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with mild familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia on various parameters of platelet function. Beside its action on lipids and lipoproteins, prickly pear consumption significantly reduced the platelet proteins (platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin), ADP-induced platelet aggregation and improved platelet sensitivity (against PGI2 and PGE1) in volunteers as well as in patients. Also plasma 11-DH-TXB2 and the WU-test showed a significant improvement in both patients and volunteers. In contrast, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the number of circulating endothelial cells showed a significant response in patients only. No influence of prickly pear ingestion on peripheral platelet count was monitored. The dietary run-in period did not influence any of the parameters of haemostasis examined. No sex difference was seen. Prickly pear may induce at least part of its beneficial actions on the cardiovascular system via decreasing platelet activity and thereby improving haemostatic balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1723696','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1723696"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> tonometric curves after cataract surgery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sacca, S; Marletta, A; Pascotto, A; Barabino, S; Rolando, M; Giannetti, R; Calabria, G</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>AIM—To evaluate <span class="hlt">daily</span> tonometric curves after cataract surgery in patients with cataract only and in patients with cataract and glaucoma.
METHODS—108 patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomly allocated to two groups: 57 patients with cataract only (normal) and 51 with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). All patients underwent extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) (manual technique with long wound), phacoemulsification (automated technique with short wound), or nucleus capture (manual technique with short wound). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by Goldmann tonometry in all patients every 2 hours for 12 hours before the operation and at 1 and 6 months postoperatively.
RESULTS—79 patients completed the 6 month examination. ECCE resulted in greater reductions in IOP than the other procedures (ECCE: 27% and 36% in normal patients and those with POAG, respectively; nucleus capture: 20% and 31%, respectively; phacoemulsification: 19% and 22%, respectively). The fluctuations in IOP before and after surgery were not statistically significant.
CONCLUSION—Cataract surgery in normal patients reduces IOP but does not eliminate fluctuations which are directly proportional to the IOP value and result partly from circadian rhythms. This important finding might influence our approach to treatment of patients with glaucoma.

 PMID:11133707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.2709S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SoPh..290.2709S"><span id="translatedtitle">When <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) <span class="hlt">daily</span> series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23746068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23746068"><span id="translatedtitle">Kiwifruit: our <span class="hlt">daily</span> prescription for health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stonehouse, Welma; Gammon, Cheryl S; Beck, Kathryn L; Conlon, Cathryn A; von Hurst, Pamela R; Kruger, Rozanne</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>Kiwifruit are unequalled, compared with other commonly consumed fruit, for their nutrient density, health benefits, and consumer appeal. Research into their health benefits has focussed on the cultivars Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward' (green kiwifruit) and Actinidia chinensis 'Hort 16A', ZESPRI(®) (gold kiwifruit). Compared with other commonly consumed fruit, both green and gold kiwifruit are exceptionally high in vitamins C, E, K, folate, carotenoids, potassium, fibre, and phytochemicals acting in synergy to achieve multiple health benefits. Kiwifruit, as part of a healthy diet, may increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decrease triglycerides, platelet aggregation, and elevated blood pressure. Consuming gold kiwifruit with iron-rich meals improves poor iron status, and green kiwifruit aids digestion and laxation. As a rich source of antioxidants, they may protect the body from endogenous oxidative damage. Kiwifruit may support immune function and reduce the incidence and severity of cold or flu-like illness in at-risk groups such as older adults and children. However, kiwifruit are allergenic, and although symptoms in most susceptible individuals are mild, severe reactions have been reported. While many research gaps remain, kiwifruit with their multiple health benefits have the potential to become part of our "<span class="hlt">daily</span> prescription for health."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11192269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11192269"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> energy expenditure of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus): a small primate that uses torpor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, J; Speakman, J R</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>We aimed to investigate the pattern of utilisation of torpor and its impact on energy budgets in free-living grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus), a small nocturnal primate endemic to Madagascar. We measured <span class="hlt">daily</span> energy expenditure (DEE) and water turnover using doubly labelled water, and we used <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive radio collars to measure skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tsk) and home range. Our results showed that male and female mouse lemurs in the wild enter torpor spontaneously over a wide range of ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Ta) during the dry season, but not during the rainy season. Mouse lemurs remained torpid between 1.7-8.9 h with a <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean of 3.4 h, and their Tsk s fell to a minimum of 18.8 degrees C. Mean home ranges of mouse lemurs which remained normothermic were similar in the rainy and dry season. During the dry season, the mean home range of mouse lemurs showing <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor was significantly smaller than that of animals remaining normothermic. The DEE of M. murinus remaining normothermic in the rainy season (122 +/- 65.4 kJ x day(-1)) was about the same of that of normothermic mouse lemurs in the dry season (115.5 +/- 27.3 kJ x day(-1)). During the dry season, the mean DEE of M. murinus that utilised <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor was 103.4 +/- 32.7 kJ x day(-1) which is not significantly different from the mean DEE of animals remaining normothermic. We found that the DEE of mouse lemurs using <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor was significantly correlated with the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference between Tsk and Ta (r2 = 0.37) and with torpor bout length (r2 = 0.46), while none of these factors explained significant amounts of variation in the DEE of the mouse lemurs remaining normothermic. The mean water flux rate of mouse lemurs using <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor (13.0 +/- 4.1 ml x day(-1)) was significantly lower than that of mouse lemurs remaining normothermic (19.4 +/- 3.8 ml x day(-1)), suggesting the lemurs conserve water by entering torpor. Thus, this first study on the energy budget of free-ranging M. murinus</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24504856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24504856"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> feeding rhythm in proboscis monkeys: a preliminary comparison with other non-human primates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matsuda, Ikki; Akiyama, Yoshihiro; Tuuga, Augustine; Bernard, Henry; Clauss, Marcus</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In non-human primates, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> feeding rhythm, i.e., temporal fluctuation in feeding activity across the day, has been described but has rarely received much analytical interpretation, though it may play a crucial part in understanding the adaptive significance of primate foraging strategies. This study is the first to describe the detailed <span class="hlt">daily</span> feeding rhythm in proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) based on data collected from both riverbank and inland habitats. From May 2005 to May 2006, data on feeding behavior in a group of proboscis monkeys consisting of an alpha-male, six adult females and immatures was collected via continuous focal animal sampling technique in a forest along the Menanggul River, Sabah, Malaysia. In both the male and females, the highest peak of feeding activity was in the late afternoon at 15:00-17:00, i.e., shortly before sleeping. The differences in the feeding rhythm among the seasons appeared to reflect the time spent eating fruit and/or the availability of fruit; clearer feeding peaks were detected when the monkeys spent a relevant amount of time eating fruit, but no clear peak was detected when fruit eating was less frequent. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> feeding rhythm was not strongly influenced by <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations. When comparing the <span class="hlt">daily</span> feeding rhythm of proboscis monkeys to that of other primates, one of the most common temporal patterns detected across primates was a feeding peak in the late afternoon, although it was impossible to demonstrate this statistically because of methodological differences among studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23281715','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23281715"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> changes in ultraviolet light levels can synchronize the circadian clock of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chittka, Lars; Stelzer, Ralph J; Stanewsky, Ralf</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Endogenous circadian clocks are synchronized to the 24-h day by external zeitgebers such as <span class="hlt">daily</span> light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycles. Bumblebee foragers show diurnal rhythms under <span class="hlt">daily</span> light:dark cycles and short-period free-running circadian rhythms in constant light conditions in the laboratory. In contrast, during the continuous light conditions of the arctic summer, they show robust 24-h rhythms in their foraging patterns, meaning that some external zeitgeber must entrain their circadian clocks in the presence of constant light. Although the sun stays above the horizon for weeks during the arctic summer, the light quality, especially in the ultraviolet (UV) range, exhibits pronounced <span class="hlt">daily</span> changes. Since the photoreceptors and photopigments that synchronize the circadian system of bees are not known, we tested if the circadian clocks of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) can be entrained by <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles in UV light levels. Bumblebee colonies were set up in the laboratory and exposed to 12 h:12 h UV + :UV- cycles in otherwise continuous lighting conditions by placing UV filters on their foraging arenas for 12 h each day. The activity patterns of individual bees were recorded using fully automatic radiofrequency identification (RFID). We found that colonies manipulated in such a way showed synchronized 24-h rhythms, whereas simultaneously tested control colonies with no variation in UV light levels showed free-running rhythms instead. The results of our study show that bumblebee circadian rhythms can indeed be synchronized by <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycles in ambient light spectral composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4617758','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4617758"><span id="translatedtitle">Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Diary Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Curran, Melissa A.; McDaniel, Brandon T.; Pollitt, Amanda M.; Totenhagen, Casey J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotion work predict <span class="hlt">daily</span> relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others’ emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of <span class="hlt">daily</span> relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations, and volatility (overall <span class="hlt">daily</span> variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive <span class="hlt">daily</span> increases in, individuals’ own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotion work and volatility in <span class="hlt">daily</span> relationship quality for relational partners. PMID:26508808</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817758R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817758R"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of different methods to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included <span class="hlt">daily</span> and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax, °C), minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s-1), <span class="hlt">daily</span> solar radiation (Rs, MJ m- 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at <span class="hlt">daily</span> time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate <span class="hlt">daily</span> reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23E0369K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A23E0369K"><span id="translatedtitle">Future changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> snowfall intensity projected by large ensemble regional climate experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawase, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the future changes in <span class="hlt">daily</span> snowfall intensity in Japan analyzing the large ensemble regional climate experiments. Dynamical downscalings are conducted by Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model (NHRCM) with 20 km from the global climate projections using Meteorological Research Institute-Atmospheric General Circulation Model (MRI-AGCM). Fifty ensemble experiments are performed in the present climate. For the future climate projections, 90 ensemble experiments are performed based on the six patterns of SST changes in the periods when 4 K rise in global-mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is projected. The accumulated snowfall in winter decreases in Japan except for the northern parts of Japan. Especially, the inland areas in the Sea of Japan side, which is famous for the heaviest snowfall region in the world, shows the remarkable decrease in snowfall in the future climate. The experiments also show increased number of days without snowfall and decreased number of days with weak snowfall due to significant warming in the most parts of Japan. On the other hand, the extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> snowfall, which occurs once ten years, would increase at higher elevations in the Sea of Japan side. This means that extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> snowfall in the present climate would occur more frequently in the future climate. The warmer atmosphere can contain more water vapor and warmer ocean can supply more water vapor to the low atmosphere. The surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at higher elevations is still lower than 0 degree Celsius, which could result in the increased extreme <span class="hlt">daily</span> snowfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.398J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.398J"><span id="translatedtitle">Austrian <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jurkovic, A.; Lipa, W.; Adler, S.; Albenberger, J.; Lechner, W.; Swietli, R.; Vossberg, I.; Zehetner, S.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Checked climate datasets are a "conditio sine qua non" for all projects that are relevant for environment and climate. In the framework of climate change studies and analysis it is essential to work with quality controlled and trustful data. Furthermore these datasets are used as input for various simulation models. In regard to investigations of extreme events, like strong precipitation periods, drought periods and similar ones we need climate data in high temporal resolution (at least in <span class="hlt">daily</span> resolution). Because of the historical background - during Second World War the majority of our climate sheets were sent to Berlin, where the historical sheets were destroyed by a bomb attack and so important information got lost - only several climate sheets, mostly duplicates, before 1939 are available and stored in our climate data archive. In 1970 the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in Vienna started a first attempt to digitize climate data by means of punch cards. With the introduction of a routinely climate data quality control in 1984 we can speak of high-class-checked <span class="hlt">daily</span> data (finally checked data, quality flag 6). Our group is working on the processing of digitization and quality control of the historical data for the period 1872 to 1983 for 18 years. Since 2007 it was possible to intensify the work (processes) in the framework of an internal project, namely Austrian Climate Data Rescue and Quality Control. The aim of this initiative was - and still is - to supply <span class="hlt">daily</span> data in an outstanding good and uniform quality. So this project is a kind of pre-project for all scientific projects which are working with <span class="hlt">daily</span> data. In addition to routine quality checks (that are running since 1984) using the commercial Bull Software we are testing our data with additional open source software, namely ProClim.db. By the use of this spatial and statistical test procedure, the elements air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation - for several sites in Carinthia - could</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4511964','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4511964"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Interpersonal and Affective Dynamics in Personality Disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Simms, Leonard J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this naturalistic study we adopt the lens of interpersonal theory to examine between-and within-person differences in dynamic processes of <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect and interpersonal behaviors among individuals (N = 101) previously diagnosed with personality disorders who completed <span class="hlt">daily</span> diaries over the course of 100 days. Dispositional ratings of interpersonal problems and measures of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress were used as predictors of <span class="hlt">daily</span> shifts in interpersonal behavior and affect in multilevel models. Results indicate that ~40%–50% of the variance in interpersonal behavior and affect is due to <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations, which are modestly related to dispositional measures of interpersonal problems but strongly related to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress. The findings support conceptions of personality disorders as a dynamic form of psychopathology involving the individuals interacting with and regulating in response to the contextual features of their environment. PMID:26200849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19091728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19091728"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> stressors, war experiences, and mental health in Afghanistan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Miller, Kenneth E; Omidian, Patricia; Rasmussen, Andrew; Yaqubi, Aziz; Daudzai, Haqmal</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Working in Afghanistan's capital city of Kabul, the authors assessed the relative contribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors and war-related experiences of violence and loss to levels of depression, PTSD, impaired functioning, and a culturally specific measure of general psychological distress. For women, <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors were a better predictor than war experiences of all mental health outcomes except for PTSD; for men, <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors were a better predictor of depression and functional impairment, while war experiences and <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors were similarly predictive of general distress. For men, <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors moderated the relationship between war experiences and PTSD, which was significant only under conditions of low <span class="hlt">daily</span> stress. The study's implications for research and intervention in conflict and post-conflict settings are considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11199&hterms=Phoenix&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPhoenix','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA11199&hterms=Phoenix&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DPhoenix"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Measurements Taken by Phoenix Spacecraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><p/> This chart plots the minimum <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander spacecraft since landing on Mars. As the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased through the summer season, the atmospheric humidity also increased. Clouds, ground fog, and frost were observed each night after the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> started dropping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27776950','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27776950"><span id="translatedtitle">Weak associations between the <span class="hlt">daily</span> number of suicide cases and amount of <span class="hlt">daily</span> sunlight.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seregi, Bernadett; Kapitány, Balázs; Maróti-Agóts, Ákos; Rihmer, Zoltán; Gonda, Xénia; Döme, Péter</p> <p>2017-02-06</p> <p>Several environmental factors with periodic changes in intensity during the calendar year have been put forward to explain the increase in suicide frequency during spring and summer. In the current study we investigated the effect of averaged <span class="hlt">daily</span> sunshine duration of periods with different lengths and 'lags' (i.e. the number of days between the last day of the period for which the averaged sunshine duration was calculated and the day of suicide) on suicide risk. We obtained data on <span class="hlt">daily</span> numbers of suicide cases and <span class="hlt">daily</span> sunshine duration in Hungary from 1979 to 2013. In order to remove the seasonal components from the two time series (i.e. numbers of suicide and sunshine hours) we used the differencing method. Pearson correlations (n=22,950) were calculated to reveal associations between sunshine duration and suicide risk. The final sample consisted of 122,116 suicide cases. Regarding the entire investigated period, after differencing, sunshine duration and number of suicides on the same days showed a distinctly weak, but highly significant positive correlation in the total sample (r=0.067; p=1.17*10(-13)). Positive significant correlations (p˂0.0001) between suicide risk on the index day and averaged sunshine duration in the previous days (up to 11days) were also found in the total sample. Our results from a large sample strongly support the hypothesis that sunshine has a prompt, but very weak increasing effect on the risk of suicide (especially violent cases among males). The main limitation is that possible confounding factors were not controlled for.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061229','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061229"><span id="translatedtitle">Drivers of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines in an Ectothermic Marine Predator: Hunt Warm, Rest Warmer?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Bradley, Darcy; Dee, Laura E; Weng, Kevin; Lowe, Christopher G; Caselle, Jennifer E</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Animal <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines represent a compromise between maximizing foraging success and optimizing physiological performance, while minimizing the risk of predation. For ectothermic predators, ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may also influence <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines through its effects on physiological performance. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> can fluctuate significantly over the diel cycle and ectotherms may synchronize behaviour to match thermal regimes in order to optimize fitness. We used bio-logging to quantify activity and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) at a tropical atoll. Behavioural observations were used to concurrently measure bite rates in herbivorous reef fishes, as an index of activity for potential diurnal prey. Sharks showed early evening peaks in activity, particularly during ebbing high tides, while body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> peaked several hours prior to the period of maximal activity. Herbivores also displayed peaks in activity several hours earlier than the peaks in shark activity. Sharks appeared to be least active while their body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were highest and most active while <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were cooling, although we hypothesize that due to thermal inertia they were still warmer than their smaller prey during this period. Sharks may be most active during early evening periods as they have a sensory advantage under low light conditions and/or a thermal advantage over cooler prey. Sharks swam into shallow water during daytime low tide periods potentially to warm up and increase rates of digestion before the nocturnal activity period, which may be a strategy to maximize ingestion rates. "Hunt warm, rest warmer" may help explain the early evening activity seen in other ectothermic predators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850055822&hterms=Barley&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBarley','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850055822&hterms=Barley&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DBarley"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the atmospheric boundary layer for remotely sensed estimates of <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gurney, R. J.; Blyth, K.; Camillo, P. J.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>An energy and moisture balance model of the soil surface was used to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> evaporation from wheat and barley fields in West Germany. The model was calibrated using remotely sensed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates. Complete atmospheric boundary layer models are difficult to use because of the number of parameters involved and a simplified model was used here. The resultant evaporation estimates were compared to eddy correlation evaporation estimates and good agreement was found.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ThApC.106..321S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ThApC.106..321S"><span id="translatedtitle">Accuracy evaluation of ClimGen weather generator and <span class="hlt">daily</span> to hourly disaggregation methods in tropical conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Safeeq, Mohammad; Fares, Ali</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data are often required for hydrological and environmental modeling. Various weather generator programs have been used to generate synthetic climate data where observed climate data are limited. In this study, a weather data generator, ClimGen, was evaluated for generating information on <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and wind speed at four tropical watersheds located in Hawai`i, USA. We also evaluated different <span class="hlt">daily</span> to sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> weather data disaggregation methods for precipitation, air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, dew point <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and wind speed at Mākaha watershed. The hydrologic significance values of the different disaggregation methods were evaluated using Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model. MuDRain and diurnal method performed well over uniform distribution in disaggregating <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. However, the diurnal method is more consistent if accurate estimates of hourly precipitation intensities are desired. All of the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> disaggregation methods performed reasonably well, but goodness-of-fit statistics were slightly better for sine curve model with 2 h lag. Cosine model performed better than random model in disaggregating <span class="hlt">daily</span> wind speed. The largest differences in annual water balance were related to wind speed followed by precipitation and dew point <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Simulated hourly streamflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge were less sensitive to the method of disaggregating <span class="hlt">daily</span> air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. ClimGen performed well in generating the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and wind speed. However, for precipitation, it clearly underestimated the number of extreme rainfall events with an intensity of >100 mm/day in all four locations. ClimGen was unable to replicate the distribution of observed precipitation at three locations (Honolulu, Kahului, and Hilo). ClimGen was able to reproduce the distributions of observed minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Kahului and wind speed at Kahului and Hilo. Although the weather</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=283959&keyword=climate+AND+change+AND+oregon&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90703623&CFTOKEN=77609253','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=283959&keyword=climate+AND+change+AND+oregon&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90703623&CFTOKEN=77609253"><span id="translatedtitle">Yaquina Bay, Oregon, Intertidal Sediment <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Database, 1998 - 2006.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Detailed, long term sediment <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records were obtained and compiled in a database to determine the influence of <span class="hlt">daily</span>, monthly, seasonal and annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation on eelgrass distribution across the intertidal habitat in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Both currently and hi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1054296"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment with Gas Gaps Varying with Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki; Binh Pham</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps varying from the beginning of life. The control <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas gap and the fuel compact – graphite holder gas gaps were linearly changed from the original fabrication dimensions, to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each <span class="hlt">daily</span> calculation. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105962','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105962"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> thermal predictions of the AGR-1 experiment with gas gaps varying with time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hawkes, G.; Sterbentz, J.; Maki, J.; Pham, B.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>A new <span class="hlt">daily</span> as-run thermal analysis was performed at the Idaho National Laboratory on the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) test experiment number one at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This thermal analysis incorporates gas gaps changing with time during the irradiation experiment. The purpose of this analysis was to calculate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of each compact to compare with experimental results. Post irradiation examination (PIE) measurements of the graphite holder and fuel compacts showed the gas gaps changed from the beginning of life. The control <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas gap and the fuel compact - graphite holder gas gaps were modeled with a linear change from the original fabrication gap dimensions to the end of irradiation measurements. A steady-state thermal analysis was performed for each <span class="hlt">daily</span> calculation with the commercial finite element heat transfer code ABAQUS. These new thermal predictions more closely match the experimental data taken during the experiment than previous analyses. Results are presented comparing normalized compact average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to normalized log(R/B) Kr-85m. The R/B term is the measured release rate divided by the predicted birth rate for the isotope Kr-85m. Correlations between these two normalized values are presented. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24236115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24236115"><span id="translatedtitle">Light pollution modifies the expression of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms and behavior patterns in a nocturnal primate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Le Tallec, Thomas; Perret, Martine; Théry, Marc</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Among anthropogenic pressures, light pollution altering light/dark cycles and changing the nocturnal component of the environment constitutes a threat for biodiversity. Light pollution is widely spread across the world and continuously growing. However, despite the efforts realized to describe and understand the effects of artificial lighting on fauna, few studies have documented its consequences on biological rhythms, behavioral and physiological functions in nocturnal mammals. To determine the impacts of light pollution on nocturnal mammals an experimental study was conducted on a nocturnal primate, the grey mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. Male mouse lemurs (N = 8) were exposed 14 nights to moonlight treatment and then exposed 14 nights to light pollution treatment. For both treatments, chronobiological parameters related to locomotor activity and core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were recorded using telemetric transmitters. In addition, at the end of each treatment, the 14(th) night, nocturnal and feeding behaviors were explored using an infrared camera. Finally, throughout the study, body mass and <span class="hlt">daily</span> caloric food intake were recorded. For the first time in a nocturnal primate, light pollution was demonstrated to modify <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms of locomotor activity and core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> especially through phase delays and increases in core <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Moreover, nocturnal activity and feeding behaviors patterns were modified negatively. This study suggests that light pollution induces <span class="hlt">daily</span> desynchronization of biological rhythms and could lead to seasonal desynchronization with potential deleterious consequences for animals in terms of adaptation and anticipation of environmental changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208812','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4208812"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Personality on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Life Emotional Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Personality features are associated with individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in <span class="hlt">daily</span> life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of <span class="hlt">daily</span> affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to <span class="hlt">daily</span> stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in <span class="hlt">daily</span> emotional life. PMID:25343494</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4081O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoRL..40.4081O"><span id="translatedtitle">Crowdsourcing urban air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from smartphone battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Overeem, A.; Robinson, J. C. R.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Horn, B. K. P.; Uijlenhoet, R.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Accurate air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on human health. However, the availability of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were collected by an Android application for smartphones. A straightforward heat transfer model is employed to estimate <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from smartphone battery <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring in densely populated areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16826500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16826500"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> patterns of metabolic rate among New Zealand lizards (Reptilia: Lacertilia: Diplodactylidae and Scincidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hare, Kelly M; Pledger, Shirley; Thompson, Michael B; Miller, John H; Daugherty, Charles H</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In addition to the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations on metabolic rate, entrained endogenous rhythms in metabolism, which are independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, may be important in overall energy metabolism in ectotherms. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> entrained endogenous rhythms may serve as energy-conserving mechanisms during an animal's active or inactive phase. However, because nocturnal lizards often take advantage of thermal opportunities during the photophase (light), their <span class="hlt">daily</span> metabolic rhythms may be less pronounced than those of diurnal species. We measured the rate of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) as an index of metabolic rate of eight temperate lizard species (four nocturnal, three diurnal, and one crepuscular/diurnal; n = 7-14) over 24 h at 13 degrees C and in constant darkness to test whether <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns (including amplitude, magnitude, and time of peak VO(2)) of metabolic rate in lizards differ with activity period. We also tested for phylogenetic differences in metabolic rate between skinks and geckos. Three <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns were evident: 24-h cycle, 12-h cycle, or no <span class="hlt">daily</span> cycle. The skink Cyclodina aenea has a 12-h crepuscular pattern of oxygen consumption. In four other species, VO(2) increased with, or in anticipation of, the active part of the day, but three species had rhythms offset from their active phase. Although not correlated with activity period or phylogeny, amplitude of VO(2) may be correlated with whether a species is temperate or tropical. In conclusion, the metabolic rate of many species does not always correlate with the recorded activity period. The dichotomy of ecology and physiology may be clarified by more in-depth studies of species behaviors and activity periods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1971T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy...47.1971T"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial patterns in the oxygen isotope composition of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall in the British Isles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tyler, Jonathan J.; Jones, Matthew; Arrowsmith, Carol; Allott, Tim; Leng, Melanie J.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding the modern day relationship between climate and the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18OP) is crucial for obtaining rigorous palaeoclimate reconstructions from a variety of archives. To date, the majority of empirical studies into the meteorological controls over δ18OP rely upon <span class="hlt">daily</span>, event scale, or monthly time series from individual locations, resulting in uncertainties concerning the representativeness of statistical models and the mechanisms behind those relationships. Here, we take an alternative approach by analysing <span class="hlt">daily</span> patterns in δ18OP from multiple stations across the British Isles ( n = 10-70 stations). We use these data to examine the spatial and seasonal heterogeneity of regression statistics between δ18OP and common predictors (<span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation amount and the North Atlantic Oscillation index; NAO). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and NAO are poor predictors of <span class="hlt">daily</span> δ18OP in the British Isles, exhibiting weak and/or inconsistent effects both spatially and between seasons. By contrast δ18OP and rainfall amount consistently correlate at most locations, and for all months analysed, with spatial and temporal variability in the regression coefficients. The maps also allow comparison with <span class="hlt">daily</span> synoptic weather types, and suggest characteristic δ18OP patterns, particularly associated with Cylonic Lamb Weather Types. Mapping <span class="hlt">daily</span> δ18OP across the British Isles therefore provides a more coherent picture of the patterns in δ18OP, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the climatic controls. These observations are another step forward towards developing a more detailed, mechanistic framework for interpreting stable isotopes in rainfall as a palaeoclimate and hydrological tracer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818183S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818183S"><span id="translatedtitle">Fundamental statistical relationships between monthly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological variables: Temporal downscaling of weather based on a global observational dataset</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sommer, Philipp; Kaplan, Jed</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Accurate modelling of large-scale vegetation dynamics, hydrology, and other environmental processes requires meteorological forcing on <span class="hlt">daily</span> timescales. While meteorological data with high temporal resolution is becoming increasingly available, simulations for the future or distant past are limited by lack of data and poor performance of climate models, e.g., in simulating <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. To overcome these limitations, we may temporally downscale monthly summary data to a <span class="hlt">daily</span> time step using a weather generator. Parameterization of such statistical models has traditionally been based on a limited number of observations. Recent developments in the archiving, distribution, and analysis of "big data" datasets provide new opportunities for the parameterization of a temporal downscaling model that is applicable over a wide range of climates. Here we parameterize a WGEN-type weather generator using more than 50 million individual <span class="hlt">daily</span> meteorological observations, from over 10'000 stations covering all continents, based on the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) and Synoptic Cloud Reports (EECRA) databases. Using the resulting "universal" parameterization and driven by monthly summaries, we downscale mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (minimum and maximum), cloud cover, and total precipitation, to <span class="hlt">daily</span> estimates. We apply a hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto distribution to calculate <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation amounts, which overcomes much of the inability of earlier weather generators to simulate high amounts of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation. Our globally parameterized weather generator has numerous applications, including vegetation and crop modelling for paleoenvironmental studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=therapeutic+AND+recreation&pg=3&id=EJ615793','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=therapeutic+AND+recreation&pg=3&id=EJ615793"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Experience Research: Methods and Applications in Therapeutic Recreation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Voelkl, Judith E.; Baldwin, Cheryl K.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Reviews the major approaches used by social scientists to measure <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences, including interval-contingent, signal- contingent, and event-contingent methods. Examples of how these methods have been used in therapeutic recreation and leisure research are provided. The unique challenges and issues of measuring the <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=families+AND+expectation+AND+young+AND+disability&pg=4&id=EJ799416','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=families+AND+expectation+AND+young+AND+disability&pg=4&id=EJ799416"><span id="translatedtitle">What Impact Does Developmental Coordination Disorder Have on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In order to understand how age and motor difficulties impact on <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines, this qualitative investigation used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine the <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines of younger (5 to 7 years of age) and older children (8 to 9 years of age) with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/675','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.canadianfieldnaturalist.ca/index.php/cfn/article/view/675"><span id="translatedtitle">Long <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a <span class="hlt">daily</span> round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long <span class="hlt">daily</span> movements by Wolves rearing pups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol16-sec75-45.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol16-sec75-45.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.45 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol17-sec75-45.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol17/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol17-sec75-45.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.45 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance... that such tests are unnecessary for providing quality-assured data....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 159.35 - Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate... the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate or certified quarterly rate is not... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate. 159.35 Section...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol2-sec159-35.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 159.35 - Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate... the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate or certified quarterly rate is not... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified <span class="hlt">daily</span> rate. 159.35 Section...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2012-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such <span class="hlt">daily</span> interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span> 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2010-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such <span class="hlt">daily</span> interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span> 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2013-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such <span class="hlt">daily</span> interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span> 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2014-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such <span class="hlt">daily</span> interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span> 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title26-vol18/pdf/CFR-2011-title26-vol18-sec301-6622-1.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">26 CFR 301.6622-1 - Interest compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... by dividing such rate of interest by 365 (366 in a leap year) and compounding such <span class="hlt">daily</span> interest... following example. Example. Individual A files a tax return for calendar year 1981 on April 15, 1982... percent per year compounded <span class="hlt">daily</span> 37.96 Total due, March 1, 1983 1,462.62...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=less+AND+competition+AND+areas&pg=6&id=ED228680','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=less+AND+competition+AND+areas&pg=6&id=ED228680"><span id="translatedtitle">Rich News: Metropolitan <span class="hlt">Dailies</span> and the Urban Poor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Draper, Mary Jo</p> <p></p> <p>The migration of people from cities to suburbs, new patterns of advertising, a less homogeneous and unified readership, and increasing competition from other media have produced tremendous pressures on <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers. In responding to these pressures, metropolitan <span class="hlt">dailies</span> are turning from "hard" to "soft" news, away from their poorer urban…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol8/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol8-sec890-5050.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">21 CFR 890.5050 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> activity assist device. 890.5050 Section 890.5050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5050 <span class="hlt">Daily</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prosthetics&pg=6&id=ED143189','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prosthetics&pg=6&id=ED143189"><span id="translatedtitle">Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Living.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCormack, James E.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in <span class="hlt">daily</span> living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADL) skills,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birth+AND+order&pg=6&id=EJ908341','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birth+AND+order&pg=6&id=EJ908341"><span id="translatedtitle">The Determinants of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to identify determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> function were examined from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol16-sec75-45.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol16-sec75-45.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.45 - <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality assurance criteria. 75.45 Section 75.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.45 <span class="hlt">Daily</span> quality...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=change+AND+consumer+AND+preference&pg=3&id=ED246431','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=change+AND+consumer+AND+preference&pg=3&id=ED246431"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Newspapers: Implications for Community Political Behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Michael V.</p> <p></p> <p>A decline in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> reading of newspapers has been observed in the United States since World War II. In the decade from the late 1960s to the late 1970s, most <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspapers employed market research to document and diagnose trends in readership, to estimate their present and future audiences' composition, and to assess the audiences'…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED308534.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED308534.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Flying Newsboy: A Small <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Attempts Air Delivery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watts, Elizabeth A.</p> <p></p> <p>For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Gazette" (a <span class="hlt">daily</span> newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sponge&pg=5&id=ED164212','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sponge&pg=5&id=ED164212"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Curriculum Guide, Year II, Weeks 1-10.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.</p> <p></p> <p>Spanning two years, the program set forth in the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Curriculum Guide for preschool Spanish-speaking children is essentially a language maintenance model in which Spanish is used as a means to develop basic concepts, skills and attitudes. This guide gives <span class="hlt">daily</span> lesson plans for the first ten weeks of the second year. Each lesson, written in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5109469','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5109469"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypometabolism during <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Torpor in Mice is Dominated by Reduction in the Sensitivity of the Thermoregulatory System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sunagawa, Genshiro A.; Takahashi, Masayo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Some mammals enter a hypometabolic state either <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor (minutes to hours in length) or hibernation (days to weeks), when reducing metabolism would benefit survival. Hibernators demonstrate deep torpor by reducing both the sensitivity (H) and the theoretical set-point <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TR) of the thermogenesis system, resulting in extreme hypothermia close to ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, these properties during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor remain poorly understood due to the very short steady state of the hypometabolism and the large variation among species and individuals. To overcome these difficulties in observing and evaluating <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor, we developed a novel torpor-detection algorithm based on Bayesian estimation of the basal metabolism of individual mice. Applying this robust method, we evaluated fasting induced torpor in various ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (TAs) and found that H decreased 91.5% during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor while TR only decreased 3.79 °C in mice. These results indicate that thermogenesis during <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor shares a common property of sensitivity reduction with hibernation while it is distinct from hibernation by not lowering TR. Moreover, our findings support that mice are suitable model animals to investigate the regulation of the heat production during active hypometabolism, thus suggesting further study of mice may provide clues to regulating hypometabolism in mammals. PMID:27845399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.133...41J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.133...41J"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on seasonal variations of aerosol properties and its influence on radiative effect over an urban location in central India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jose, Subin; Gharai, Biswadip; Niranjan, K.; Rao, P. V. N.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Aerosol plays an important role in modulating solar radiation, which are of great concern in perspective of regional climate change. The study analysed the physical and optical properties of aerosols over an urban area and estimated radiative effect using three years in-situ data from sunphotometer, aethalometer and nephelometer as input to radiative transfer model. Aerosols properties indicate the dominance of fine mode aerosols over the study area. However presence of coarse mode aerosols is also found during <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> [March-April-May]. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean aerosol optical depth showed a minimum during winter [Dec-Jan-Feb] (0.45-0.52) and a maximum during <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> (0.6-0.7), while single scattering albedo (ω) attains its maximum (0.78 ± 0.05) in winter and minimum (0.67 ± 0.06) during <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> and asymmetry factor varied in the range between 0.48 ± 0.02 to 0.53 ± 0.04. Episodic events of dust storm and biomass burning are identified by analyzing intrinsic aerosol optical properties like scattering Ångström exponent (SAE) and absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) during the study periods and it has been observed that during dust storm events ω is lower (˜0.77) than that of during biomass burning (˜0.81). The aerosol direct radiative effect at top of the atmosphere during winter is -11.72 ± 3.5 Wm-2, while during <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span>; it is -5.5 ± 2.5 Wm-2, which can be due to observed lower values of ω during <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span>. A large positive enhancement of atmospheric effect of ˜50.53 Wm-2 is observed during <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span> compared to winter. Due to high aerosol loading in <span class="hlt">pre-monsoon</span>, a twofold negative surface forcing is also observed in comparison to winter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..65...69W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmEn..65...69W"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-term effects of <span class="hlt">daily</span> air pollution on mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean O3 with natural mortality. For the <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean O3 or CO. There is an association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3247621','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3247621"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> or Intermittent Budesonide in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zeiger, Robert S.; Mauger, David; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Strunk, Robert C.; Covar, Ronina; Szefler, Stanley J.; Boehmer, Susan; Jackson, Daniel J.; Sorkness, Christine A.; Gern, James E.; Kelly, H. William; Friedman, Noah J.; Mellon, Michael H.; Schatz, Michael; Morgan, Wayne J.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Raissy, Hengameh H.; Bade, Elizabeth; Malka-Rais, Jonathan; Beigelman, Avraham; Taussig, Lynn M.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND <span class="hlt">Daily</span> inhaled glucocorticoids are recommended for young children at risk for asthma exacerbations, as indicated by a positive value on the modified asthma predictive index (API) and an exacerbation in the preceding year, but concern remains about <span class="hlt">daily</span> adherence and effects on growth. We compared <span class="hlt">daily</span> therapy with intermittent therapy. METHODS We studied 278 children between the ages of 12 and 53 months who had positive values on the modified API, recurrent wheezing episodes, and at least one exacerbation in the previous year but a low degree of impairment. Children were randomly assigned to receive a budesonide inhalation suspension for 1 year as either an intermittent high-dose regimen (1 mg twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> for 7 days, starting early during a predefined respiratory tract illness) or a <span class="hlt">daily</span> low-dose regimen (0.5 mg nightly) with corresponding placebos. The primary outcome was the frequency of exacerbations requiring oral glucocorticoid therapy. RESULTS The <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen of budesonide did not differ significantly from the intermittent regimen with respect to the frequency of exacerbations, with a rate per patient-year for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.22) versus a rate of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.20) for the intermittent regimen (relative rate in the intermittent-regimen group, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.35; P=0.60). There were also no significant between-group differences in several other measures of asthma severity, including the time to the first exacerbation, or adverse events. The mean exposure to budesonide was 104 mg less with the intermittent regimen than with the <span class="hlt">daily</span> regimen. CONCLUSIONS A <span class="hlt">daily</span> low-dose regimen of budesonide was not superior to an intermittent high-dose regimen in reducing asthma exacerbations. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> administration led to greater exposure to the drug at 1 year. PMID:22111718</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....100..975G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NW....100..975G"><span id="translatedtitle">Torpor in the Patagonian opossum ( Lestodelphys halli): implications for the evolution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geiser, Fritz; Martin, Gabriel M.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor are two distinct forms of torpor, and although they are related, it is not known how and in which sequence they evolved. As the pattern of torpor expressed by the oldest marsupial order the opossums (Didelphimorphia) may provide insights into the evolution of torpor, we aimed to provide the first quantitative data on the thermal biology and torpor expression of the rare Patagonian opossum ( Lestodelphys halli). It is the opossum with the southernmost distribution, has a propensity of autumnal fattening, and therefore, is likely to hibernate. We captured two male Lestodelphys, which while in captivity displayed strong <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations of body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tb) measured with implanted miniature data loggers even when they remained normothermic. In autumn and early winter, torpor was expressed occasionally when food was available, but cold exposure and food withdrawal increased torpor use. The mean Tb throughout the study was 32.2 ± 1.4 °C, the minimum Tb measured in torpid Lestodelphys was 7.7 °C, average torpor bout duration was 10.3 h, and the maximum torpor bout duration was 42.5 h. Thus, the pattern of torpor expressed by Lestodelphys was intermediate between that of <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and hibernators suggesting that it may represent an ancestral opportunistic torpor pattern from which the derived patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and seasonal hibernation diverged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.648S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.648S"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of correction methods for inhomogeneities in <span class="hlt">daily</span> time series on example of Central European datasets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.,</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for <span class="hlt">daily</span> data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of <span class="hlt">daily</span> adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of <span class="hlt">daily</span> values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods emerged only in recent years. Their results were investigated in this work more deeply and they were mutually compared. Among the analyzed methods belong HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre and own methods (DAP). We applied multi-element approach (using e.g. weather types) as well and investigated if it can improve the models. Comparison of the available correction methods is also current task of the ongoing COST action ESO601 (www. homogenisation.org). Performance of the available correction methods (on <span class="hlt">daily</span> scale) is shown on example of Central European series of various meteorological elements (air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine duration). Comparisons among the methods as well as its various modifications (parameters settings) were investigated. For the task, ProClimDB software has been used (read more at www.climahom.eu).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24045765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24045765"><span id="translatedtitle">Torpor in the Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli): implications for the evolution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and hibernation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geiser, Fritz; Martin, Gabriel M</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Hibernation and <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor are two distinct forms of torpor, and although they are related, it is not known how and in which sequence they evolved. As the pattern of torpor expressed by the oldest marsupial order the opossums (Didelphimorphia) may provide insights into the evolution of torpor, we aimed to provide the first quantitative data on the thermal biology and torpor expression of the rare Patagonian opossum (Lestodelphys halli). It is the opossum with the southernmost distribution, has a propensity of autumnal fattening, and therefore, is likely to hibernate. We captured two male Lestodelphys, which while in captivity displayed strong <span class="hlt">daily</span> fluctuations of body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tb) measured with implanted miniature data loggers even when they remained normothermic. In autumn and early winter, torpor was expressed occasionally when food was available, but cold exposure and food withdrawal increased torpor use. The mean Tb throughout the study was 32.2 ± 1.4 °C, the minimum Tb measured in torpid Lestodelphys was 7.7 °C, average torpor bout duration was 10.3 h, and the maximum torpor bout duration was 42.5 h. Thus, the pattern of torpor expressed by Lestodelphys was intermediate between that of <span class="hlt">daily</span> heterotherms and hibernators suggesting that it may represent an ancestral opportunistic torpor pattern from which the derived patterns of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and seasonal hibernation diverged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5374969','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5374969"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythms of behavioral and hormonal patterns in male dromedary camels housed in boxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Aubè, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Hammadi, Mohamed</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Background <span class="hlt">Daily</span> rhythmicity has been observed for a number of hormonal and behavioral variables in mammals. It can be entrained by several external factors, such as light-dark cycle and scheduled feeding. In dromedary camels, <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity has been documented only for melatonin secretion and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this study, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity of behavioral repertoire, cortisol and testosterone levels was investigated in captive male camels. Methods Six clinically healthy male dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used. The animals were housed in single boxes for 24 h <span class="hlt">daily</span> and fed twice a day. Over a period of 48 h, behavioral observations were made and blood samples taken every two hours. The data were analyzed using diurnality index, conisor analysis and PROC mixed procedure. Results The diurnality index for rumination and lying down was close to 0 (respectively, 0.09 and 0.19), while the indices for stereotypy, standing, feeding and walking were close to 1 (respectively, 0.74, 0.84, 0.92 and 0.85). Cosinor analysis revealed <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity for all behaviors and for cortisol levels (acrophase at 12:57) but not for testosterone. Rumination and lying down (inactive behaviors) reached a peak during the scotophase, whereas feeding, walking and stereotypy (active behaviors) reached a peak during the photophase around midday. Cortisol level and expression of stereotypies peaked before and after food distribution and were negatively correlated (r =  − 0.287, P = 0.005). Testosterone levels and expression of sexual behaviors were stimulated by the visual and olfactory contacts with the females and were positively correlated (r = 0.164, P = 0.040). Testosterone was also negatively correlated with cortisol (r =  − 0.297; P = 0.003). Discussion These preliminary results provided new knowledge about the <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythm of behaviors in camels housed in boxes, suggesting that camels exhibit diurnal behavior pattern in the maintenance conditions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16493237','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16493237"><span id="translatedtitle">Neuropathologic correlates of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living in Alzheimer disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marshall, Gad A; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Tekin, Sibel; Vinters, Harry V; Cummings, Jeffrey L</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Functional status, reflected by measures of activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living (ADLs), deteriorates as Alzheimer disease (AD) progresses. Decline in activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living may be mediated by executive and frontal lobe dysfunction. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living and pathologic burden in Alzheimer disease. Twenty two subjects with definite Alzheimer disease were selected from the UCLA ADRC neuropathology database. A total activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living score was derived from the Retrospective Collateral Dementia Interview-Revised (RCDI-R) questionnaire, which was administered to caregivers of autopsied subjects included in the study. Neuritic plaque (NP) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) counts were performed for 8 brain regions. There was a significant positive correlation between total activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living score (higher scores indicate more disability) and mean neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts (r = 0.671, P = 0.001, and r = 0.542, P = 0.009, resp), as well as CA1 and prosubiculum neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts, right and left orbital frontal neuritic plaques counts, and occipital neuritic plaques count. Total activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living score did not correlate with age at death, age at symptom onset, dementia duration, gender, or education. Deteriorating activities of <span class="hlt">daily</span> living in Alzheimer Disease subjects correlate with greater overall pathologic burden and possibly selectively with involvement of the medial temporal, occipital, and orbital frontal regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18786384','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18786384"><span id="translatedtitle">Human responses to the geophysical <span class="hlt">daily</span>, annual and lunar cycles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Foster, Russell G; Roenneberg, Till</p> <p>2008-09-09</p> <p>Collectively the <span class="hlt">daily</span>, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles, as a result of improved living conditions, high-quality nutrition and 24/7 working practices, have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JHyd...71..253K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984JHyd...71..253K"><span id="translatedtitle">A statistical analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow hydrograph</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kavvas, M. L.; Delleur, J. W.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>In this study a periodic statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow data in Indiana, U.S.A., was performed to gain some new insight into the stochastic structure which describes the <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow process. This analysis was performed by the periodic mean and covariance functions of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflows, by the time and peak discharge -dependent recession limb of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow hydrograph, by the time and discharge exceedance level (DEL) -dependent probability distribution of the hydrograph peak interarrival time, and by the time-dependent probability distribution of the time to peak discharge. Some new statistical estimators were developed and used in this study. In general features, this study has shown that: (a) the persistence properties of <span class="hlt">daily</span> flows depend on the storage state of the basin at the specified time origin of the flow process; (b) the <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow process is time irreversible; (c) the probability distribution of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> hydrograph peak interarrival time depends both on the occurrence time of the peak from which the inter-arrival time originates and on the discharge exceedance level; and (d) if the <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow process is modeled as the release from a linear watershed storage, this release should depend on the state of the storage and on the time of the release as the persistence properties and the recession limb decay rates were observed to change with the state of the watershed storage and time. Therefore, a time-varying reservoir system needs to be considered if the <span class="hlt">daily</span> streamflow process is to be modeled as the release from a linear watershed storage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4727935','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4727935"><span id="translatedtitle">Semiparametric Modeling of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gutiérrez-Zapata, Diana María; Galeano-Vasco, Luis Fernando; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ammonia concentration (AMC) in poultry facilities varies depending on different environmental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America). The objective of this study was to model <span class="hlt">daily</span> AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity and wind speed on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation. All effects included in the model were highly significant (p<0.001). The AMC was higher during the night and early morning when the wind was not blowing (0.0 m/s) and the heat index was extreme. The average and maximum AMC were 5.94±3.83 and 31.70 ppm, respectively. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> above 25°C and humidity greater than 80% increased AMC levels. In naturally ventilated caged-egg facilities the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations observed in AMC primarily depend on cyclic variations of the environmental conditions and are also affected by litter handling (i.e., removal of the bedding material). PMID:26812150</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJBm...55..555E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJBm...55..555E"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather conditions and <span class="hlt">daily</span> television use in the Netherlands, 1996-2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans; Vergeer, Maurice</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric weather conditions on <span class="hlt">daily</span> television use in the Netherlands for the period 1996-2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory. It is proposed that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions are associated with lower human mood, and that watching entertainment and avoiding informational programs may serve to repair such mood. We consequently hypothesize that people spend more time watching television if inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions (low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, little sunshine, much precipitation, high wind velocity, less daylight) coincide with more airtime for entertainment programs, but that they view less if the same weather conditions coincide with more airtime devoted to information fare. We put this interaction thesis to a test using a time series analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> television viewing data of the Dutch audience obtained from telemeters ( T = 3,653), merged with meteorological weather station statistics and program broadcast figures, whilst controlling for a wide array of recurrent and one-time societal events. The results provide substantial support for the proposed interaction of program airtime and the weather parameters <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sunshine on aggregate television viewing time. Implications of the findings are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMIA34A..04L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUSMIA34A..04L"><span id="translatedtitle">Recharge assessment using <span class="hlt">daily</span> soil moisture balance and well hydrographs in deltaic unconfined aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lefebvre, R.; Maltais, I.; Paradis, D.; Michaud, Y.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Estimation of groundwater recharge to aquifers represents an important step in assessing regional groundwater dynamics and sustainable yield. A recharge estimation method combining <span class="hlt">daily</span> water balances and well hydrographs was adapted and its applicability to Canadian climatic conditions was tested in the Portneuf deltaic sand unconfined aquifers. Well hydrographs have been recorded at four sites in the aquifers for more than 10 years. Weather stations in the area provide <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation data to calculate a water balance using conventional methods to estimate hydrologic parameters: potential evapotranspiration, runoff and readily available water supply in soil. Precipitations occurring as snow in winter are accumulated until a threshold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above zero is reached, and then accumulated precipitation is made available for infiltration and runoff. The estimated recharge is converted to changes in groundwater level though the use of specific yield. The rate of lowering dh/dt (m/d) of groundwater levels during recession periods, when no recharge occurs, is also taken into account. The approach thus yields a synthetic curve of changes in groundwater level. The matching of the synthetic water level to a well hydrograph is achieved by adjustments in parameters. The <span class="hlt">daily</span> water balance appears as a simple method providing representative recharge estimates for unconfined aquifers. It has advantages compared to hydrographs and water balance methods used alone. The method also provides restricted ranges of hydrologic parameters for long duration hydrographs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20978912"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather conditions and <span class="hlt">daily</span> television use in the Netherlands, 1996-2005.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans; Vergeer, Maurice</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric weather conditions on <span class="hlt">daily</span> television use in the Netherlands for the period 1996-2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory. It is proposed that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions are associated with lower human mood, and that watching entertainment and avoiding informational programs may serve to repair such mood. We consequently hypothesize that people spend more time watching television if inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions (low <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, little sunshine, much precipitation, high wind velocity, less daylight) coincide with more airtime for entertainment programs, but that they view less if the same weather conditions coincide with more airtime devoted to information fare. We put this interaction thesis to a test using a time series analysis of <span class="hlt">daily</span> television viewing data of the Dutch audience obtained from telemeters (T = 3,653), merged with meteorological weather station statistics and program broadcast figures, whilst controlling for a wide array of recurrent and one-time societal events. The results provide substantial support for the proposed interaction of program airtime and the weather parameters <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sunshine on aggregate television viewing time. Implications of the findings are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26812150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26812150"><span id="translatedtitle">Semiparametric Modeling of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Ammonia Levels in Naturally Ventilated Caged-Egg Facilities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gutiérrez-Zapata, Diana María; Galeano-Vasco, Luis Fernando; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario Fernando</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ammonia concentration (AMC) in poultry facilities varies depending on different environmental conditions and management; however, this is a relatively unexplored subject in Colombia (South America). The objective of this study was to model <span class="hlt">daily</span> AMC variations in a naturally ventilated caged-egg facility using generalized additive models. Four sensor nodes were used to record AMC, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, relative humidity and wind speed on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> basis, with 10 minute intervals for 12 weeks. The following variables were included in the model: Heat index, Wind, Hour, Location, Height of the sensor to the ground level, and Period of manure accumulation. All effects included in the model were highly significant (p<0.001). The AMC was higher during the night and early morning when the wind was not blowing (0.0 m/s) and the heat index was extreme. The average and maximum AMC were 5.94±3.83 and 31.70 ppm, respectively. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> above 25°C and humidity greater than 80% increased AMC levels. In naturally ventilated caged-egg facilities the <span class="hlt">daily</span> variations observed in AMC primarily depend on cyclic variations of the environmental conditions and are also affected by litter handling (i.e., removal of the bedding material).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24813827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24813827"><span id="translatedtitle">Huddling facilitates expression of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Eto, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Shinsuke H; Okubo, Yoshinobu; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Kashimura, Atsushi; Morita, Tetsuo</p> <p>2014-06-22</p> <p>Small endotherms employ multiple adaptations to maintain energy balance in winter, including spontaneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor and simultaneous huddling. The relationships between these adaptations have been discussed in several previous studies, but it has not been well-established if huddling actually affects the expression of torpor in small endotherms. We examine whether and how huddling affects the expression of torpor in the large Japanese field mouse Apodemus speciosus, which is known to become torpid under artificial winter conditions. The mice were found to adjust expression of torpor in response to the number of cage mates. Torpor frequency and minimum torpid body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were both significantly elevated when the number of cage mates was increased, but there was no significant change in torpor bout length. Rewarming rate on arousal was lower when the number of cage mates was increased, suggesting reduction in endogenous rewarming due to exogenous passive rewarming. Food consumption per mouse decreased significantly with increasing number of cage mates. Thus, our study demonstrates that social thermoregulatory behaviors such as huddling can facilitate expression of spontaneous <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor in small rodents. These findings suggest that energy constraints, such as ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and food availability may not be the only modulating factors on the expression of <span class="hlt">daily</span> torpor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59..377K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm...59..377K"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal <span class="hlt">daily</span> rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25207653"><span id="translatedtitle">Coping with <span class="hlt">daily</span> thermal variability: behavioural performance of an ectotherm model in a warming world.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rojas, José M; Castillo, Simón B; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to <span class="hlt">daily</span> variance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24 ± 0, 24 ± 4 and 24 ± 8 °C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, --i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on animals' performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4160209','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4160209"><span id="translatedtitle">Coping with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Thermal Variability: Behavioural Performance of an Ectotherm Model in a Warming World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rojas, José M.; Castillo, Simón B.; Folguera, Guillermo; Abades, Sebastián; Bozinovic, Francisco</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Global climate change poses one of the greatest threats to species persistence. Most analyses of the potential biological impacts have focused on changes in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but changes in thermal variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the effects of acclimation to <span class="hlt">daily</span> variance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on dispersal and exploratory behavior in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio laevis in an open field. Acclimation treatments were 24±0, 24±4 and 24±8°C. Because the performance of ectotherms relates nonlinearly to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we predicted that animals acclimated to a higher <span class="hlt">daily</span> thermal variation should minimize the time exposed in the centre of open field, – i.e. increase the linearity of displacements. Consistent with our prediction, isopods acclimated to a thermally variable environment reduce their exploratory behaviour, hypothetically to minimize their exposure to adverse environmental conditions. This scenario as well as the long latency of animals after releases acclimated to variable environments is consistent with this idea. We suggested that to develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, one must consider the interactions between the mean and variance of environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on animals' performance. PMID:25207653</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872520','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3872520"><span id="translatedtitle">Sociogeographic Variation in the Effects of Heat and Cold on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Mortality in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Ueda, Kayo; Takeuchi, Ayano; Nitta, Hiroshi; Konishi, Shoko; Bagrowicz, Rinako; Watanabe, Chiho; Takami, Akinori</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affects mortality in susceptible populations, but regional differences in this association remain unclear in Japan. We conducted a time-series study to examine the variation in the effects of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality across Japan. Methods A total of 731 558 all-age non-accidental deaths in 6 cities during 2002–2007 were analyzed. The association between <span class="hlt">daily</span> mortality and ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was examined using distributed lag nonlinear models with Poisson distribution. City-specific estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Bivariate random-effects meta-regressions were used to examine the moderating effect of city characteristics. Results The effect of heat generally persisted for 1 to 2 days. In warmer communities, the effect of cold weather lasted for approximately 1 week. The combined increases in mortality risk due to heat (99th vs 90th percentile of city-specific <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and cold (first vs 10th percentile) were 2.21% (95% CI, 1.38%–3.04%) and 3.47% (1.75%–5.21%), respectively. City-specific effects based on absolute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes were more heterogeneous than estimates based on relative changes, which suggests some degree of acclimatization. Northern populations with a cool climate appeared acclimatized to low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> but were still vulnerable to extreme cold weather. Population density, average income, cost of property rental, and number of nurses appeared to influence variation in heat effect across cities. Conclusions We noted clear regional variation in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related increases in mortality risk, which should be considered when planning preventive measures. PMID:24317342</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25827335','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25827335"><span id="translatedtitle">Specific dimensions of impulsivity are differentially associated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> and non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> cigarette smoking in young adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Dustin C; Peters, Jessica R; Adams, Zachary W; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers, or <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P (negative and positive urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4397977','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4397977"><span id="translatedtitle">Specific Dimensions of Impulsivity Are Differentially Associated with <span class="hlt">Daily</span> and Non-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, Dustin C.; Peters, Jessica R.; Adams, Zachary W.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Young adults are at risk for initiation of tobacco use and progression to tobacco dependence. Not every person who smokes cigarettes becomes tobacco dependent, however, and non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking is becoming more prevalent among those who use tobacco. It is likely that individual differences in psychosocial and behavioral factors influence risk for engaging in non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and <span class="hlt">daily</span> cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between impulsivity and smoking status in young adults who vary in frequency of cigarette smoking. Young adult first-year college students between the ages of 18-24 (512) were classified to one of three groups: non-smokers, non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers, or <span class="hlt">daily</span> smokers, and impulsivity was assessed using the UPPS-P(Negative and Positive Urgency, lack of Premeditation, lack of Perseverance, Sensation Seeking). When all impulsivity dimensions were used simultaneously to predict smoking status, negative urgency predicted increased risk of membership in the <span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking group and lack of premeditation predicted increased risk of membership in the non-<span class="hlt">daily</span> smoking group. These results suggest that dimensions of impulsivity may contribute differentially to forms of smoking behavior in young adults. PMID:25827335</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3613750','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3613750"><span id="translatedtitle">Conversion From Twice-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Tacrolimus to Once-<span class="hlt">Daily</span> Extended Release Tacrolimus (LCPT): The Phase III Randomized MELT Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bunnapradist, S; Ciechanowski, K; West-Thielke, P; Mulgaonkar, S; Rostaing, L; Vasudev, B; Budde, K</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phase III noninferiority trial examining efficacy and safety of converting stable renal transplant recipients from twice-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tacrolimus to a novel extended-release once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> tacrolimus formulation (LCPT) with a controlled agglomeration technology. Controls maintained tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>. The primary efficacy endpoint was proportion of patients with efficacy failures (death, graft failure, locally read biopsy-proven acute rejection [BPAR], or loss to follow-up) within 12 months. Starting LCPT dose was 30% lower (15% for blacks) than preconversion tacrolimus dose; target trough levels were 4–15 ng/mL. A total of 326 patients were randomized; the mITT population (n = 162 each group) was similar demographically in the two groups. Mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> dose of LCPT was significantly (p < 0.0001) lower than preconversion tacrolimus dose at each visit; mean trough levels between groups were similar. There were four efficacy failures in each group; safety outcomes were similar between groups. Frequency of premature study drug discontinuation was LCPT: 12% versus tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span>: 5% (p = 0.028). LCPT demonstrated noninferiority to tacrolimus twice <span class="hlt">daily</span> in efficacy failure rates. LCPT may offer a safe and effective alternative for converting patients to a once-<span class="hlt">daily</span> formulation. Compared to currently available tacrolimus formulation, LCPT requires lower doses to achieve target trough levels. PMID:23279614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007evga.conf...69A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007evga.conf...69A"><span id="translatedtitle">ERP time series with <span class="hlt">daily</span> and sub-<span class="hlt">daily</span> resolution determined from CONT05</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Artz, T.; Böckmann, S.; Nothnagel, A.; Tesmer, V.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>From time to time, continuous VLBI campaigns take place under the direction of the IVS. Even though these observations are continuous over two weeks, the standard VLBI analysis procedure leads to independent <span class="hlt">daily</span> datasets. In this paper, an alternative approach is presented to estimate earth rotation parameters with different temporal resolutions. By stacking the single sessions to a two-weekly solution on the normal equation level, a consistent time series is produced over the whole CONT05 period. Stacked parameters are station positions which are estimated in a 'global' approach and borders of time dependent parameters e.g. zenith wet delay. Analysis of the correlation matrix of estimated parameters gives an impression of the dependencies between them. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how these dependencies depend on the type of datum used. E.g. correlations between earth rotation parameters (ERP) and tropospheric zenith delay of certain VLBI sites have been detected. The ERP time series resulting from the stacking approach turned out to be more consistent over the fortnightly time span. In particular, time series of hourly ERP exhibit a better behaviour at the session boundaries, since the discrepancies at session borders due to poorly determined intervals is minimized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23969850','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23969850"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This study aimed at describing <span class="hlt">daily</span> and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and <span class="hlt">daily</span> activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820007805','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820007805"><span id="translatedtitle">An Automated Technique for Estimating <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Precipitation over the State of Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Follansbee, W. A.; Chamberlain, L. W., III</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Digital IR and visible imagery obtained from a geostationary satellite located over the equator at 75 deg west latitude were provided by NASA and used to obtain a linear relationship between cloud top <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hourly precipitation. Two computer programs written in FORTRAN were used. The first program computes the satellite estimate field from the hourly digital IR imagery. The second program computes the final estimate for the entire state area by comparing five preliminary estimates of 24 hour precipitation with control raingage readings and determining which of the five methods gives the best estimate for the day. The final estimate is then produced by incorporating control gage readings into the winning method. In presenting reliable precipitation estimates for every cell in Virginia in near real time on a <span class="hlt">daily</span> on going basis, the techniques require on the order of 125 to 150 <span class="hlt">daily</span> gage readings by dependable, highly motivated observers distributed as uniformly as feasible across the state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39..681M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ClDy...39..681M"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of intra-<span class="hlt">daily</span> SST variability on ENSO characteristics in a coupled model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masson, Sébastien; Terray, Pascal; Madec, Gurvan; Luo, Jing-Jia; Yamagata, Toshio; Takahashi, Keiko</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>This paper explores the impact of intra-<span class="hlt">daily</span> Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (SST) variability on the tropical large-scale climate variability and differentiates it from the response of the system to the forcing of the solar diurnal cycle. Our methodology is based on a set of numerical experiments based on a fully global coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation in which we alter (1) the frequency at which the atmosphere sees the SST variations and (2) the amplitude of the SST diurnal cycle. Our results highlight the complexity of the scale interactions existing between the intra-<span class="hlt">daily</span> and inter-annual variability of the tropical climate system. Neglecting the SST intra-<span class="hlt">daily</span> variability results, in our CGCM, to a systematic decrease of 15% of El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude. Furthermore, ENSO frequency and skewness are also significantly modified and are in better agreement with observations when SST intra-<span class="hlt">daily</span> variability is directly taken into account in the coupling interface of our CGCM. These significant modifications of the SST interannual variability are not associated with any remarkable changes in the mean state or the seasonal variability. They can therefore not be explained by a rectification of the mean state as usually advocated in recent studies focusing on the diurnal cycle and its impact. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SST high frequency coupling is systematically associated with a strengthening of the air-sea feedbacks involved in ENSO physics: SST/sea level pressure (or Bjerknes) feedback, zonal wind/heat content (or Wyrtki) feedback, but also negative surface heat flux feedbacks. In our model, nearly all these results (excepted for SST skewness) are independent of the amplitude of the SST diurnal cycle suggesting that the systematic deterioration of the air-sea coupling by a <span class="hlt">daily</span> exchange of SST information is cascading toward the major mode of tropical variability, i.e. ENSO.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.534F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.534F"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in the homogenization of <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate surface data in Switzerland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Füllemann, C.; Begert, M.; Croci-Maspoli, M.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>It is often the extremes of weather and climate which have the greatest impact on society. In this respect temporal high-resolution and long-term climate data series are a unique source for e.g. variability and trend analyses, extreme value analysis or analyses of extreme climate indices. Consequentially that these analyses require high demands on the data quality for accurate conclusions on climate change. This can be achieved by homogenization of the corresponding data. It is the intention of MeteoSwiss to fulfill these requirements for their available long-term climate surface data in Switzerland by i) systematically preserve historical climate data in respect to national and international guidelines, ii) ensure efficient and extensive quality control and iii) homogenize long-term data series of the most important climate variables on monthly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> time scales. In the framework of the COST Action ES0601 "Advances in homogenization methods of climate series: an integrated approach (HOME)", which dedicates a main focus on the comparison and development of <span class="hlt">daily</span> homogenization methods, we present results of the comparison from different <span class="hlt">daily</span> homogenization procedures using long-term series. Currently only a few statistical methods exist to help homogenize <span class="hlt">daily</span> climate data. We will focus on three different <span class="hlt">daily</span> homogenization methods and will present results of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values during the period 1864 until 2009 for several Swiss surface stations. One aspect will be the exposure of the three methods to different weather conditions such as sunny calm days or days influenced by the foehn in spring. It is important to see how the methods deal with physical impacts (radiation, wind).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_sw_daily_utc_nc_table','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/srb/srb_rel3.0_sw_daily_utc_nc_table"><span id="translatedtitle">REL3.0 SW <span class="hlt">Daily</span> UTC NC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-10-05</p> <p>... Active Radiation Flux Cloud Fraction Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Satellite Cosine Solar Zenith Angle From Astronomy ... ISCCP Data Table SSE Renewable Energy Readme Files:  Readme_3.0_sw_<span class="hlt">daily</span>_nc ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6283789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6283789"><span id="translatedtitle">SSPS monthly data: plant operation report and <span class="hlt">daily</span> operation summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> operation data are given for both the central receiver and distributed collector systems for the month of June 1984. Data include meteorological data, heliostat field performance, power conversion, and electric energy production. (LEW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6414622','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6414622"><span id="translatedtitle">SSPS monthly data: plant operation report and <span class="hlt">daily</span> operation summary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Daily</span> operation data are given for both the central receiver and the distributed collector systems for the month of May 1984. Data include meteorological data, heliostat field performance, power conversion, and electric energy production. (LEW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3594506','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3594506"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Spousal Influence on Physical Activity in Knee Osteoarthritis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Martire, Lynn M.; Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Mogle, Jacqueline; Schulz, Richard; Brach, Jennifer; Keefe, Francis J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background Physical activity is critical for the management of knee osteoarthritis, and the spouse may play a role in encouraging or discouraging physical activity. Purpose To examine four types of spousal influence—spouses' <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity, autonomy support, pressure, and persuasion--on the <span class="hlt">daily</span> physical activity of adults living with knee osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 141 couples reported their <span class="hlt">daily</span> experiences for 22 days using a handheld computer, and wore an accelerometer to measure moderate activity and steps. Results Spouses' autonomy support for patient physical activity, as well as their own level of activity, was concurrently associated with patients' greater <span class="hlt">daily</span> moderate activity and steps. In addition, on days when male patients perceived that spouses exerted more pressure to be active, they spent less time in moderate activity. Conclusions Couple-oriented interventions for knee osteoarthritis should target physical activity in both partners and spousal strategies for helping patients stay active. PMID:23161472</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3807A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3807A"><span id="translatedtitle">New gridded <span class="hlt">daily</span> climatology of Finland: Permutation-based uncertainty estimates and temporal trends in climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aalto, Juha; Pirinen, Pentti; Jylhä, Kirsti</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Long-term time series of key climate variables with a relevant spatiotemporal resolution are essential for environmental science. Moreover, such spatially continuous data, based on weather observations, are commonly used in, e.g., downscaling and bias correcting of climate model simulations. Here we conducted a comprehensive spatial interpolation scheme where seven climate variables (<span class="hlt">daily</span> mean, maximum, and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation sum, relative humidity, sea level air pressure, and snow depth) were interpolated over Finland at the spatial resolution of 10 × 10 km2. More precisely, (1) we produced <span class="hlt">daily</span> gridded time series (FMI_ClimGrid) of the variables covering the period of 1961-2010, with a special focus on evaluation and permutation-based uncertainty estimates, and (2) we investigated temporal trends in the climate variables based on the gridded data. National climate station observations were supplemented by records from the surrounding countries, and kriging interpolation was applied to account for topography and water bodies. For <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation sum and snow depth, a two-stage interpolation with a binary classifier was deployed for an accurate delineation of areas with no precipitation or snow. A robust cross-validation indicated a good agreement between the observed and interpolated values especially for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables and air pressure, although the effect of seasons was evident. Permutation-based analysis suggested increased uncertainty toward northern areas, thus identifying regions with suboptimal station density. Finally, several variables had a statistically significant trend indicating a clear but locally varying signal of climate change during the last five decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27043938"><span id="translatedtitle">Determinants of <span class="hlt">daily</span> path length in black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) in northeastern Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raño, Mariana; Kowalewski, Martin M; Cerezo, Alexis M; Garber, Paul A</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Models used to explain the social organization of primates suggest that variation in <span class="hlt">daily</span> path length (DPL) is a response to variation in resource distribution and the intensity of intragroup feeding competition. However, <span class="hlt">daily</span> path length may be affected by a number of other factors including the availability and distribution of nutritionally complementary food items, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which can influence activity budget, patterns of subgrouping, and the frequency and function of intergroup encounters. In this 6-month study (total 495 hr of quantitative data), we examined <span class="hlt">daily</span> path lengths in two neighboring groups of black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) inhabiting a semi-deciduous gallery forest in San Cayetano (27° 30'S, 58° 41'W), in the northwest province of Corrientes, Argentina. Both study groups were of similar size and composition. We identified relationships across groups between time spent feeding on fruits, leaves, and flowers, the number of trees visited, group spread, frequency of intergroup encounters, mean <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and DPL. Our results suggest that variation in food availability had a significant impact on howler ranging behavior by increasing DPL under conditions of high immature and mature fruit availability, and by decreasing DPL with increased availability and increased time invested in feeding on mature leaves. These results do not support the contention that a reduction in food availability or an increase in within-group feeding competition increased DPL in black and gold howler monkeys. DPL in black and gold howlers is influenced by several interrelated factors. In this regard we suggest that models of socio-ecology and ecological constraints need to reconsider how factors such as individual nutritional requirements, social tolerance and group cohesion, and the spatial and temporal availability of preferred and nearby food resources influence primate ranging behavior. Am. J. Primatol. 78:825-837, 2016. © 2016 Wiley</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060026032&hterms=Lettuce&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DLettuce','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060026032&hterms=Lettuce&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DLettuce"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-Time Imaging of Ground Cover: Relationships with Radiation Capture, Canopy Photosynthesis, and <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Growth Rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Klassen, S. P.; Ritchie, G.; Frantz, J. M.; Pinnock, D.; Bugbee, B.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Cumulative absorbed radiation is highly correlated with crop biomass and yield. In this chapter we describe the use of a digital camera and commercial imaging software for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> radiation capture, canopy photosynthesis, and relative growth rate. Digital images were used to determine percentage of ground cover of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) communities grown at five <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Plants were grown in a steady-state, 10-chamber CO2 gas exchange system, which was used to measure canopy photosynthesis and <span class="hlt">daily</span> carbon gain. <span class="hlt">Daily</span> measurements of percentage of ground cover were highly correlated with <span class="hlt">daily</span> measurements of both absorbed radiation (r(sup 2) = 0.99) and <span class="hlt">daily</span> carbon gain (r(sup 2) = 0.99). Differences among <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments indicated that these relationships were influenced by leaf angle, leaf area index, and chlorophyll content. An analysis of the <span class="hlt">daily</span> images also provided good estimates of relative growth rates, which were verified by gas exchange measurements of <span class="hlt">daily</span> carbon gain. In a separate study we found that images taken at hourly intervals were effective for monitoring real-time growth. Our data suggests that hourly images can be used for early detection of plant stress. Applications, limitations, and potential errors are discussed. We have long known that crop yield is determined by the efficiency of four component processes: (i) radiation capture, (ii) quantum yield, (iii) carbon use efficiency, and (iv) carbon partitioning efficiency (Charles-Edwards, 1982; Penning de Vries & van Laar, 1982; Thornley, 1976). More than one-half century ago, Watson (1947, 1952) showed that variation in radiation capture accounted for almost all of the variation in yield between sites in temperate regions, because the three other components are relatively constant when the crop is not severely stressed. More recently, Monteith (1977) reviewed the literature on the close correlation between radiation capture and yield. Bugbee and Monje (1992</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5226700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5226700"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Deaths: Effect of Low Levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Although many time-series studies have established associations of <span class="hlt">daily</span> pollution variations with <span class="hlt">daily</span> deaths, there are fewer at low concentrations, or focused on locally generated pollution, which is becoming more important as regulations reduce regional transport. Causal modeling approaches are also lacking. Objective: We used causal modeling to estimate the impact of local air pollution on mortality at low concentrations. Methods: Using an instrumental variable approach, we developed an instrument for variations in local pollution concentrations that is unlikely to be correlated with other causes of death, and examined its association with <span class="hlt">daily</span> deaths in the Boston, Massachusetts, area. We combined height of the planetary boundary layer and wind speed, which affect concentrations of local emissions, to develop the instrument for particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), or nitrogen dioxide (NO2) variations that were independent of year, month, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We also used Granger causality to assess whether omitted variable confounding existed. Results: We estimated that an interquartile range increase in the instrument for local PM2.5 was associated with a 0.90% increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> deaths (95% CI: 0.25, 1.56). A similar result was found for BC, and a weaker association with NO2. The Granger test found no evidence of omitted variable confounding for the instrument. A separate test confirmed the instrument was not associated with mortality independent of pollution. Furthermore, the association remained when all days with PM2.5 concentrations > 30 μg/m3 were excluded from the analysis (0.84% increase in <span class="hlt">daily</span> deaths; 95% CI: 0.19, 1.50). Conclusions: We conclude that there is a causal association of local air pollution with <span class="hlt">daily</span> deaths at concentrations below U.S. EPA standards. The estimated attributable risk in Boston exceeded 1,800 deaths during the study period, indicating that important public health benefits can follow from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmRe..88..367M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AtmRe..88..367M"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloud contribution to the <span class="hlt">daily</span> and annual radiation budget in a mountainous valley</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malek, Esmaiel</p> <p></p> <p>An automated-ventilated radiation station has been set up in a mountainous valley at the Logan Airport in northern Utah, USA, since mid-1995, to evaluate the <span class="hlt">daily</span> and annual radiation budget components, and develop an algorithm to study cloudiness and its contribution to the <span class="hlt">daily</span> and annual radiation. This radiation station (composed of pyranometers, pyrgeometers and a net radiometer) provides continuous measurements of downward and upward shortwave, longwave and net radiation throughout the year. The surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and pressure, the 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity, precipitation, and wind at this station were also measured. A heated rain gauge provided precipitation information. Using air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture and measured downward longwave (atmospheric) radiation, appropriate formula (among four approaches) was chosen for computation of cloudless-skies atmospheric emissivity. Considering the additional longwave radiation during the cloudy skies coming from the cloud in the waveband which the gaseous emission lacks (from 8-13 μm), an algorithm was developed which provides continuous 20-min cloud information (cloud base height, cloud base <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, percent of skies covered by cloud, and cloud contribution to the radiation budget) over the area during day and night. On the partly-cloudy day of 3 February, 2003, for instance, cloud contributed 1.34 MJ m - 2 d - 1 out of 26.92 MJ m - 2 d - 1 to the <span class="hlt">daily</span> atmospheric radiation. On the overcast day of 18 December, 2003, this contribution was 5.77 MJ m - 2 d - 1 out of 29.38 MJ m - 2 d - 1 . The same contribution for the year 2003 amounted to 402.85 MJ m - 2 y - 1 out of 9976.08 MJ m - 2 y - 1 . Observations (fog which yielded a zero cloud base height and satellite cloud imaging data) throughout the year confirmed the validity of the computed data. The nearby Bowen ratio station provided the downward radiation and net radiation data. If necessary, these data could be substituted for the missing data at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21328659','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21328659"><span id="translatedtitle">Ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modelling with soft computing techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bertini, Ilaria; Ceravolo, Francesco; Citterio, Marco; Di Pietra, Biagio; Margiotta, Francesca; Pizzuti, Stefano; Puglisi, Giovanni; De Felice, Matteo</p> <p>2010-07-15</p> <p>This paper proposes a hybrid approach based on soft computing techniques in order to estimate monthly and <span class="hlt">daily</span> ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Indeed, we combine the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and the simple Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to effectively train artificial neural networks (ANN) in such a way that the BP algorithm initialises a few individuals of the GA's population. Experiments concerned monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation of unknown places and <span class="hlt">daily</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation for thermal load computation. Results have shown remarkable improvements in accuracy compared to traditional methods. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=303118','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=303118"><span id="translatedtitle">A multi-site stochastic weather generator of <span class="hlt">daily</span> precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Stochastic weather generators are used to generate time series of climate variables that have statistical properties similar to those of observed data. Most stochastic weather generators work for a single site, and can only generate climate data at a single point, or independent time series at sever...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..535..547X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..535..547X"><span id="translatedtitle">Models for estimating <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall erosivity in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xie, Yun; Yin, Shui-qing; Liu, Bao-yuan; Nearing, Mark A.; Zhao, Ying</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The rainfall erosivity factor (R) represents the multiplication of rainfall energy and maximum 30 min intensity by event (EI30) and year. This rainfall erosivity index is widely used for empirical soil loss prediction. Its calculation, however, requires high temporal resolution rainfall data that are not readily available in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to parameterize models suitable for estimating erosivity from <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall data, which are more widely available. One-minute resolution rainfall data recorded in sixteen stations over the eastern water erosion impacted regions of China were analyzed. The R-factor ranged from 781.9 to 8258.5 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 y-1. A total of 5942 erosive events from one-minute resolution rainfall data of ten stations were used to parameterize three models, and 4949 erosive events from the other six stations were used for validation. A threshold of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall between days classified as erosive and non-erosive was suggested to be 9.7 mm based on these data. Two of the models (I and II) used power law functions that required only <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall totals. Model I used different model coefficients in the cool season (Oct.-Apr.) and warm season (May-Sept.), and Model II was fitted with a sinusoidal curve of seasonal variation. Both Model I and Model II estimated the erosivity index for average annual, yearly, and half-month temporal scales reasonably well, with the symmetric mean absolute percentage error MAPEsym ranging from 10.8% to 32.1%. Model II predicted slightly better than Model I. However, the prediction efficiency for the <span class="hlt">daily</span> erosivity index was limited, with the symmetric mean absolute percentage error being 68.0% (Model I) and 65.7% (Model II) and Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency being 0.55 (Model I) and 0.57 (Model II). Model III, which used the combination of <span class="hlt">daily</span> rainfall amount and <span class="hlt">daily</span> maximum 60-min rainfall, improved predictions significantly, and produced a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007072','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110007072"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of the MODIS <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Snow Albedo Product</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hall, Dorothy K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Riggs, George A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product is a data layer in the MOD10A1 snow-cover product that includes snow-covered area and fractional snow cover as well as quality information and other metadata. It was developed to augment the MODIS BRDF/Albedo algorithm (MCD43) that provides 16-day maps of albedo globally at 500-m resolution. But many modelers require <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo, especially during the snowmelt season when the snow albedo is changing rapidly. Many models have an unrealistic snow albedo feedback in both estimated albedo and change in albedo over the seasonal cycle context, Rapid changes in snow cover extent or brightness challenge the MCD43 algorithm; over a 16-day period, MCD43 determines whether the majority of clear observations was snow-covered or snow-free then only calculates albedo for the majority condition. Thus changes in snow albedo and snow cover are not portrayed accurately during times of rapid change, therefore the current MCD43 product is not ideal for snow work. The MODIS <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo from the MOD10 product provides more frequent, though less robust maps for pixels defined as "snow" by the MODIS snow-cover algorithm. Though useful, the <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product can be improved using a <span class="hlt">daily</span> version of the MCD43 product as described in this paper. There are important limitations to the MOD10A1 <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo product, some of which can be mitigated. Utilizing the appropriate per-pixel Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) can be problematic, and correction for anisotropic scattering must be included. The BRDF describes how the reflectance varies with view and illumination geometry. Also, narrow-to-broadband conversion specific for snow on different surfaces must be calculated and this can be difficult. In consideration of these limitations of MOD10A1, we are planning to improve the <span class="hlt">daily</span> snow albedo algorithm by coupling the periodic per-pixel snow albedo from MCD43, with <span class="hlt">daily</span> surface ref|outanoom, In this paper, we</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489509','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489509"><span id="translatedtitle">Drivers of <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Routines in an Ectothermic Marine Predator: Hunt Warm, Rest Warmer?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Papastamatiou, Yannis P.; Watanabe, Yuuki Y.; Bradley, Darcy; Dee, Laura E.; Weng, Kevin; Lowe, Christopher G.; Caselle, Jennifer E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Animal <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines represent a compromise between maximizing foraging success and optimizing physiological performance, while minimizing the risk of predation. For ectothermic predators, ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may also influence <span class="hlt">daily</span> routines through its effects on physiological performance. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> can fluctuate significantly over the diel cycle and ectotherms may synchronize behaviour to match thermal regimes in order to optimize fitness. We used bio-logging to quantify activity and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) at a tropical atoll. Behavioural observations were used to concurrently measure bite rates in herbivorous reef fishes, as an index of activity for potential diurnal prey. Sharks showed early evening peaks in activity, particularly during ebbing high tides, while body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> peaked several hours prior to the period of maximal activity. Herbivores also displayed peaks in activity several hours earlier than the peaks in shark activity. Sharks appeared to be least active while their body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were highest and most active while <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were cooling, although we hypothesize that due to thermal inertia they were still warmer than their smaller prey during this period. Sharks may be most active during early evening periods as they have a sensory advantage under low light conditions and/or a thermal advantage over cooler prey. Sharks swam into shallow water during daytime low tide periods potentially to warm up and increase rates of digestion before the nocturnal activity period, which may be a strategy to maximize ingestion rates. “Hunt warm, rest warmer” may help explain the early evening activity seen in other ectothermic predators. PMID:26061229</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4229132','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4229132"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Daily</span> Self-Disclosure and Sleep in Couples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kane, Heidi S.; Slatcher, Richard B.; Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.; Robles, Theodore F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction and health, is associated with sleep behavior. Method As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n=46) and husbands (n=38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of <span class="hlt">daily</span> diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both <span class="hlt">daily</span> variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Results <span class="hlt">Daily</span> variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, <span class="hlt">daily</span> self-disclosure buffered the negative effect of <span class="hlt">daily</span> negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. Conclusion The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which <span class="hlt">daily</span> relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep. PMID:25068453</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9910E..1TR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9910E..1TR"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">daily</span> task manager for Paranal Science Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Romero, Cristian M.; Mieske, Steffen; Brillant, Stephane; Rodrigues, Myriam; Pino, Andres; Rivas, Leonel</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Paranal Observatory has a department called Science Operations (SciOps), which is in charge of operating the instruments within the global scheme established for the Very Large Telescope. This scheme was improved on what was called SciOps 2.0. The main operational goals of this new scheme were to strengthen the coordination of science operations activities within, and between, the department groups, by increasing the time allocated to "high-level" activities. It also improves the efficiency of the core science operations support to service mode (SM) and visitor mode (VM) observations, and the quality of the astronomical data delivered to the community of Paranal users. In this context of efficiency and quality improvement of operations within the SciOps department, we had identified a strong need to optimize the management of <span class="hlt">daily</span> operation tasks, via the development of a <span class="hlt">daily</span> activity monitoring integrated tool, so this paper details the findings of the <span class="hlt">Daily</span> Activity Monitoring Integrated Tool (DAMIT), the