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Sample records for pre-rinse greatly increases

  1. Calcium Pre-Rinse Greatly Increases Overnight Salivary Fluoride after a 228 ppm Fluoride Rinse

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, G.L.; Chow, L.C.; Carey, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Large increases in salivary fluoride were reported 1 h after a calcium pre-rinse/NaF rinse. Aims This study examined the persistence of these increases. Methods 12 subjects rinsed in the evening with water, with a 228 μg/g (ppm) F rinse or with 150 mmol/l calcium lactate followed by a 228 μg/g F rinse. In a second experiment these same patients rinsed with a 912 μg/g F rinse. Saliva samples were obtained the morning after rinsing, centrifuged and the supernatants analyzed. Results The Ca pre-rinse/228 μg/g F rinse induced an increase in overnight salivary F over the 912 μg/g F rinse (≈2.5 times) and a statistically significant increase over the 228 μg/g F rinse (≈5.5 times). Conclusions The results suggest that a Ca pretreatment may increase the cariostatic effect of topical F agents. PMID:18781069

  2. 10 CFR 429.51 - Commercial pre-rinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial pre-rinse spray valves. 429.51 Section 429.51 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.51 Commercial pre-rinse spray...

  3. 10 CFR 429.51 - Commercial pre-rinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial pre-rinse spray valves. 429.51 Section 429.51 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.51 Commercial pre-rinse spray...

  4. 10 CFR 429.51 - Commercial pre-rinse spray valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial pre-rinse spray valves. 429.51 Section 429.51 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.51 Commercial pre-rinse spray...

  5. Greatly Increased Toughness of Infiltrated Spider Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Mo; Pippel, Eckhard; Gösele, Ulrich; Dresbach, Christian; Qin, Yong; Chandran, C. Vinod; Bräuniger, Thomas; Hause, Gerd; Knez, Mato

    2009-04-01

    In nature, tiny amounts of inorganic impurities, such as metals, are incorporated in the protein structures of some biomaterials and lead to unusual mechanical properties of those materials. A desire to produce these biomimicking new materials has stimulated materials scientists, and diverse approaches have been attempted. In contrast, research to improve the mechanical properties of biomaterials themselves by direct metal incorporation into inner protein structures has rarely been tried because of the difficulty of developing a method that can infiltrate metals into biomaterials, resulting in a metal-incorporated protein matrix. We demonstrated that metals can be intentionally infiltrated into inner protein structures of biomaterials through multiple pulsed vapor-phase infiltration performed with equipment conventionally used for atomic layer deposition (ALD). We infiltrated zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti), or aluminum (Al), combined with water from corresponding ALD precursors, into spider dragline silks and observed greatly improved toughness of the resulting silks. The presence of the infiltrated metals such as Al or Ti was verified by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra measured inside the treated silks. This result of enhanced toughness of spider silk could potentially serve as a model for a more general approach to enhance the strength and toughness of other biomaterials.

  6. Increased taxon sampling greatly reduces phylogenetic error.

    PubMed

    Zwickl, Derrick J; Hillis, David M

    2002-08-01

    Several authors have argued recently that extensive taxon sampling has a positive and important effect on the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates. However, other authors have argued that there is little benefit of extensive taxon sampling, and so phylogenetic problems can or should be reduced to a few exemplar taxa as a means of reducing the computational complexity of the phylogenetic analysis. In this paper we examined five aspects of study design that may have led to these different perspectives. First, we considered the measurement of phylogenetic error across a wide range of taxon sample sizes, and conclude that the expected error based on randomly selecting trees (which varies by taxon sample size) must be considered in evaluating error in studies of the effects of taxon sampling. Second, we addressed the scope of the phylogenetic problems defined by different samples of taxa, and argue that phylogenetic scope needs to be considered in evaluating the importance of taxon-sampling strategies. Third, we examined the claim that fast and simple tree searches are as effective as more thorough searches at finding near-optimal trees that minimize error. We show that a more complete search of tree space reduces phylogenetic error, especially as the taxon sample size increases. Fourth, we examined the effects of simple versus complex simulation models on taxonomic sampling studies. Although benefits of taxon sampling are apparent for all models, data generated under more complex models of evolution produce higher overall levels of error and show greater positive effects of increased taxon sampling. Fifth, we asked if different phylogenetic optimality criteria show different effects of taxon sampling. Although we found strong differences in effectiveness of different optimality criteria as a function of taxon sample size, increased taxon sampling improved the results from all the common optimality criteria. Nonetheless, the method that showed the lowest overall

  7. Increasing risk of great floods in a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Wetherald, R.T.; Dunne, K.A.; Delworth, T.L.

    2002-01-01

    Radiative effects of anthropogenic changes in atmospheric composition are expected to cause climate changes, in particular an intensification of the global water cycle with a consequent increase in flood risk. But the detection of anthropogenically forced changes in flooding is difficult because of the substantial natural variability; the dependence of streamflow trends on flow regime further complicates the issue. Here we investigate the changes in risk of great floods - that is, floods with discharges exceeding 100-year levels from basins larger than 200,000 km2 - using both streamflow measurements and numerical simulations of the anthropogenic climate change associated with greenhouse gases and direct radiative effects of sulphate aerosols. We find that the frequency of great floods increased substantially during the twentieth century. The recent emergence of a statistically significant positive trend in risk of great floods is consistent with results from the climate model, and the model suggests that the trend will continue.

  8. Patient organizations in Finland: increasing numbers and great variation

    PubMed Central

    Toiviainen, Hanna K.; Vuorenkoski, Lauri H.; Hemminki, Elina K.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective  There is very little research on patient organizations (POs), even though their numbers and influence seem to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment, membership, size, organization, decision making and basic funding of national POs in Finland. Setting and participants  National POs (n = 130) were identified from their umbrella organizations and by Internet searches. Data were collected from POs’ web pages (87% of POs had one), Finland’s Slot Machine Association (RAY, an important public financier of POs), a relevant survey done by a local TV‐company, and interviews and written materials of POs. Results and conclusions  Some current national POs were established around the turn of the 19th century. The rate of establishment of new POs increased from the 1970s and particularly in the 1990s when POs were characterized by increasing specialization. POs focused on different patient groups and diseases and were founded by philanthropists, physicians, patients, parents and the drug industry. Members could be patients, patient relatives, health‐care professionals and organizations. POs widely varied in memberships (20–145 000, in 2002) and in number of paid personnel (0–1395, in 2002), organizational structure and decision making. Interest groups and financiers were often represented in decision‐making organs. Activities included mutual support and service production, and, increasingly, informing and lobbying. POs had wide domestic and international co‐operation and networking. Drug industry marketing was visible on PO web pages. Budget sizes varied (4000–15 million euros, in 2001). The main public financier was RAY. The old national POs were large and part of national social and health care, but newer ones were often established for mutual support and lobbying. National POs are not uniform but characterized by great variation. The number of national POs is increasing suggesting tighter

  9. Community College Presidents' Perspectives of Dichotomous Events: The Consequences of the Great Recession & Coincidental Increased Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Corey W.

    2013-01-01

    The community college, like all of higher education, has been significantly impacted by the Great Recession and coincidental increased enrollment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the decision making processes of community college presidents as related to resource allocation and the impact of these decisions on the…

  10. The great 2006 heat wave over California and Nevada: Signal of an increasing trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the great California-Nevada heat waves can be classified into primarily daytime or nighttime events depending on whether atmospheric conditions are dry or humid. A rash of nighttime-accentuated events in the last decade was punctuated by an unusually intense case in July 2006, which was the largest heat wave on record (1948-2006). Generally, there is a positive trend in heat wave activity over the entire region that is expressed most strongly and clearly in nighttime rather than daytime temperature extremes. This trend in nighttime heat wave activity has intensified markedly since the 1980s and especially since 2000. The two most recent nighttime heat waves were also strongly expressed in extreme daytime temperatures. Circulations associated with great regional heat waves advect hot air into the region. This air can be dry or moist, depending on whether a moisture source is available, causing heat waves to be expressed preferentially during day or night. A remote moisture source centered within a marine region west of Baja California has been increasing in prominence because of gradual sea surface warming and a related increase in atmospheric humidity. Adding to the very strong synoptic dynamics during the 2006 heat wave were a prolonged stream of moisture from this southwestern source and, despite the heightened humidity, an environment in which afternoon convection was suppressed, keeping cloudiness low and daytime temperatures high. The relative contributions of these factors and possible relations to global warming are discussed. ?? 2009 American Meteorological Society.

  11. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2) vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, "inactive ingredients" (or excipients) used in topical products to formulate and deliver the active ingredient might also cause epithelial toxicities that increase viral susceptibility. However, excipients have not previously been tested in susceptibility models. Methods Excipients commonly used in topical products were formulated in a non-toxic vehicle (the "HEC universal placebo"), or other formulations as specified. Twelve hours after exposure to the excipient or a control treatment, mice were challenged with a vaginal dose of HSV-2, and three days later were assessed for infection by vaginal lavage culture to assess susceptibility. Results The following excipients markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2 after a single exposure: 5% glycerol monolaurate (GML) formulated in K-Y® Warming Jelly, 5% GML as a colloidal suspension in phosphate buffered saline, K-Y Warming Jelly alone, and both of its humectant/solvent ingredients (neat propylene glycol and neat PEG-8). For excipients formulated in the HEC vehicle, 30% glycerin significantly increased susceptibility, and a trend toward increased HSV-2 susceptibility was observed after 10% glycerin, and 0.1% disodium EDTA, but not after 0.0186% disodium EDTA. The following excipients did not increase susceptibility: 10% propylene glycol, 0.18%, methylparaben plus 0.02% propylparaben, and 1% benzyl alcohol. Conclusions As reported with other surfactants, the surfactant/emulsifier GML markedly increased susceptibility to HSV-2. Glycerin at 30% significantly increased susceptibility, and, undiluted propylene glycol and PEG-8 greatly increased susceptibility. PMID:21087496

  12. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in Great Britain, 1976-2005: age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J Q; Blakey, Karen; James, Peter W; Gomez Pozo, Basilio; Basta, Nermine O; Hale, Juliet

    2012-08-01

    Increases in the incidence of thyroid cancer have been previously reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine temporal trends in the incidence of primary thyroid cancer diagnosed in 0-49 year olds in parts of Great Britain during 1976-2005. Data on 4,337 cases of thyroid cancer were obtained from regional cancer registries. Age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were calculated. Negative binomial regression was used to examine effects of age, sex, drift (linear trend), non-linear period and non-linear cohort. The best fitting negative binomial regression model included age (P < 0.001), sex (P < 0.001) and drift (P < 0.001). Non-linear period (P = 0.648) and non-linear cohort (P = 0.788) were not statistically significant. For males aged 0-14, the ASR increased from 0.2 per million persons per year in 1976-1986 to 0.6 in 1997-2005. For males aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 1.9 to 3.3 and from 7.4 to 12.7, respectively. For females aged 0-14, the corresponding ASR increased from 0.3 to 0.5. For females aged 15-29 and 30-49 the ASRs increased from 6.9 to 12.4 and from 21.2 to 42.3, respectively. For all age groups, there has been a linear increase in incidence of thyroid cancer, which has led to a doubling of the number of cases diagnosed over a twenty year span. The reasons for this increase are not well understood, but it is consistent with findings from other countries.

  13. Should the norepinephrine maximal dosage rate be greatly increased in late shock?

    PubMed

    Stefanou, Christos; Palazis, Lakis; Loizou, Areti; Timiliotou, Chrystalla

    2016-03-04

    Any advanced shock eventually degenerates into vasoplegia, which responds weakly to vasopressors. The highest reported norepinephrine flow rate is 3 μg/kg/min. We present the case of a young explosion victim, who was transferred in late haemorrhagic shock. Apart from usual treatment (hydration, mass transfusion protocol), single-agent norepinephrine was used to maintain a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of >60-65 mm Hg. For several hours, norepinephrine flow was 7-10 times the aforementioned (highest reported) in order to achieve our goal; during which, further hydration or transfusion would not contribute to MAP elevation. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) severity score was 18 (expected mortality >99%). The patient survived without underperfusion-related damage. We conclude that norepinephrine dosages could potentially be greatly increased in late shock. We must resist giving up flow escalation based on its numerical value.

  14. The mountains that triggered the Late Neoproterozoic increase in oxygen: The Second Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Squire, Richard J.

    2010-08-01

    The consensus view is that the O 2 concentration of the Archean atmosphere was very low and that it rose to its present level of 21% in a series of steps, two of which dwarf the others in importance. The first, known as the Great Oxidation Event, occurred at ˜2.4 Ga. It involved an increase in the relative abundance of O 2, which has been estimated at three orders of magnitude, and it is important because it led to the first surface weathering. The second, although less important in relative terms, involved the addition of 9 × 10 17 kg of O 2 to the atmosphere, at least ten times as much as that required to produce the Great Oxidation Event. Its importance lies in the fact that it correlates with the rise of animals in the Ediacaran and Early Cambrian periods. Although it is widely accepted that an increase in atmospheric O 2 facilitated the appearance of animals at ˜575 Ma, followed by the Cambrian Explosion ˜50 Myr later, the cause of this increase remains controversial. We show that the surge in the O 2 level near the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary correlates with major episodes of continent-continent collision associated with Gondwana's amalgamation, including convergence between East and West Gondwana, which produced the 8000-km-long Transgondwanan Supermountains. The eroded roots of these mountains include the oldest lawsonite-bearing blueschists and eclogites, and ultra high-pressure metamorphic rocks. The sudden appearance of these low-thermal gradient, high-pressure metamorphic rocks implies that the Gondwanan orogenic zones were cooler and stronger than those associated with the assembly of earlier supercontinents and therefore capable of supporting higher mountains. There is a log-linear relationship between relief and erosion rate, and a linear relationship between sedimentation rate and organic C burial. Taken together these two relationships imply a log-linear relationship between relief and C sequestration. We suggest that the Gondwanan

  15. Physiological responses to increased brood size and ectoparasite infestation: Adult great tits favour self-maintenance.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Michele; Voegeli, Beatrice; Richner, Heinz

    2015-03-15

    Different types of stressors trigger responses of different physiological systems, and these responses may contribute differentially to the maintenance of homeostasis, to trade-offs and the evolution of life-history traits. To manipulate two common stressors during reproduction, we infested half of the nests in a naturally breeding great tit population with ectoparasites and simultaneously manipulated brood size, using a 2×2 experimental design. Parents in this model species commonly compensate for ectoparasites by an increase in food provisioning. We assessed parental responses to these concurrent stressors by measuring several physiological stress parameters such as changes in metabolic rate, oxidative stress and expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsp), and explored how these stressors affect the trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction. Neither flea infestation nor brood size manipulation affected adult metabolic rate, oxidative damage or Hsp levels. Furthermore, we found no interactive effect of the two treatments on adults. However, nestlings in infested nests had lower body mass and lower survival. Nestlings in enlarged broods were lighter and had lower survival, although parents of enlarged broods increased food provisioning rate. The findings suggest that adults favour maintenance of cellular homeostasis, and physiological equilibrium over current reproduction, and that the costs induced by both stressors, flea infestation and increased brood size, are carried by the offspring. It emphasizes the importance of self-maintenance over reproduction in life-history decisions, and more generally the need of including physiological traits for understanding the evolution of life-histories.

  16. Evolution of multicellularity coincided with increased diversification of cyanobacteria and the Great Oxidation Event

    PubMed Central

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; de Vos, Jurriaan M.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Bagheri, Homayoun C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are among the most diverse prokaryotic phyla, with morphotypes ranging from unicellular to multicellular filamentous forms, including those able to terminally (i.e., irreversibly) differentiate in form and function. It has been suggested that cyanobacteria raised oxygen levels in the atmosphere around 2.45–2.32 billion y ago during the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), hence dramatically changing life on the planet. However, little is known about the temporal evolution of cyanobacterial lineages, and possible interplay between the origin of multicellularity, diversification of cyanobacteria, and the rise of atmospheric oxygen. We estimated divergence times of extant cyanobacterial lineages under Bayesian relaxed clocks for a dataset of 16S rRNA sequences representing the entire known diversity of this phylum. We tested whether the evolution of multicellularity overlaps with the GOE, and whether multicellularity is associated with significant shifts in diversification rates in cyanobacteria. Our results indicate an origin of cyanobacteria before the rise of atmospheric oxygen. The evolution of multicellular forms coincides with the onset of the GOE and an increase in diversification rates. These results suggest that multicellularity could have played a key role in triggering cyanobacterial evolution around the GOE. PMID:23319632

  17. Evidence that the rate of strong selective sweeps increases with population size in the great apes

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Mailund, Thomas; Nater, Alexander; Greminger, Maja Patricia; Krützen, Michael; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the number of selective sweeps and their combined effects on genomic diversity in humans and other great apes is notoriously difficult. Here we address the question using a comparative approach to contrast diversity patterns according to the distance from genes in all great ape taxa. The extent of diversity reduction near genes compared with the rest of intergenic sequences is greater in a species with larger effective population size. Also, the maximum distance from genes at which the diversity reduction is observed is larger in species with large effective population size. In Sumatran orangutans, the overall genomic diversity is ∼30% smaller than diversity levels far from genes, whereas this reduction is only 9% in humans. We show by simulation that selection against deleterious mutations in the form of background selection is not expected to cause these differences in diversity among species. Instead, selective sweeps caused by positive selection can reduce diversity level more severely in a large population if there is a higher number of selective sweeps per unit time. We discuss what can cause such a correlation, including the possibility that more frequent sweeps in larger populations are due to a shorter waiting time for the right mutations to arise. PMID:28137852

  18. Evidence that the rate of strong selective sweeps increases with population size in the great apes.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Mailund, Thomas; Nater, Alexander; Greminger, Maja Patricia; Krützen, Michael; Marquès-Bonet, Tomàs; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2017-02-14

    Quantifying the number of selective sweeps and their combined effects on genomic diversity in humans and other great apes is notoriously difficult. Here we address the question using a comparative approach to contrast diversity patterns according to the distance from genes in all great ape taxa. The extent of diversity reduction near genes compared with the rest of intergenic sequences is greater in a species with larger effective population size. Also, the maximum distance from genes at which the diversity reduction is observed is larger in species with large effective population size. In Sumatran orangutans, the overall genomic diversity is ∼30% smaller than diversity levels far from genes, whereas this reduction is only 9% in humans. We show by simulation that selection against deleterious mutations in the form of background selection is not expected to cause these differences in diversity among species. Instead, selective sweeps caused by positive selection can reduce diversity level more severely in a large population if there is a higher number of selective sweeps per unit time. We discuss what can cause such a correlation, including the possibility that more frequent sweeps in larger populations are due to a shorter waiting time for the right mutations to arise.

  19. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  20. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-01-01

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13–36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia. PMID:24297875

  1. Hydrologic vulnerability and risk assessment associated with the increased role of fire on western landscapes, Great Basin, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landscape-scale plant community transitions and altered fire regimes across Great Basin, USA, rangelands have increased the likelihood of post-fire flooding and erosion events. These hazards are particularly concerning for western urban centers along the rangeland urban-wildland interface where natu...

  2. Hydrologic Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Associated With the Increased Role of Fire on Western Landscapes, Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Spaeth, K. E.; Hardegree, S. P.; Clark, P. E.; Moffet, C. A.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Boll, J.

    2010-12-01

    Landscape-scale plant community transitions and altered fire regimes across Great Basin, USA, rangelands have increased the likelihood of post-fire flooding and erosion events. These hazards are particularly concerning for western urban centers along the rangeland urban-wildland interface where natural resources, property, and human life are at risk. Extensive conversion of 4-7 million hectares of Great Basin shrub-steppe to cheatgrass-dominated (Bromus tectorum) grasslands has increased the frequency and size of wildland fires within these ecosystems. Fire frequencies have increased by more than an order of magnitude and occur on 3-10 year intervals across much of the cheatgrass-dominated landscape. Extensive tree (Pinus spp. and Juniperus spp.) encroachment into wooded shrub-steppe has increased heavy fuel loads. Ladder fuels in these ecosystems promote rapidly spreading, high-intensity and severe ground-surface-crown fires. These altered fuel structures across much of the historical Great Basin shrub-steppe have initiated an upsurge in large rangeland wildfires and have increased the spatial and temporal vulnerability of these landscapes to amplified runoff and erosion. Resource and infrastructure damages, and loss of life have been reported due to flooding following recent large-scale burning of western rangelands and dry forests. We present a decade of post-fire rangeland hydrologic research that provides a foundation for conceptual modeling of the hydrologic impacts associated with an increased role of rangeland wildfires. We highlight advancements in predictive tools to address this large-scale phenomenon and discuss vital research voids requiring attention. Our geographic emphasis is the Great Basin Region, however, these concepts likely extend elsewhere given the increased role of fire in many geographic regions and across rangeland-to-forest ecotones in the western United States.

  3. Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, Thomas; Suenaga, Masaki

    1984-01-17

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu.sub.5 Sn.sub.6 with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

  4. Multiwire conductor having greatly increased interwire resistance and method for making same

    DOEpatents

    Luhman, T.; Suenaga, M.

    1982-03-15

    An improved multiwire conductor of the type which is mechanically stabilized by a tin based solder filler is described. A solder filled conductor is heated to a temperature above its melting point for a period long enough to allow a substantial amount of copper to be dissolved from the wires comprising the conductor. The copper forms the brittle intermetallic compound Cu/sub 5/Sn/sub 6/ with tin in the solder. After cooling the conductor is flexed causing a random cracking of the solder, and thereby increasing the interwire resistance of the conductor. The subject invention is particularly adapted for use with braided, ribbon-type solder filled superconductors.

  5. Genetic Correlations Greatly Increase Mutational Robustness and Can Both Reduce and Enhance Evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Greenbury, Sam F.; Schaper, Steffen; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Louis, Ard A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutational neighbourhoods in genotype-phenotype (GP) maps are widely believed to be more likely to share characteristics than expected from random chance. Such genetic correlations should strongly influence evolutionary dynamics. We explore and quantify these intuitions by comparing three GP maps—a model for RNA secondary structure, the HP model for protein tertiary structure, and the Polyomino model for protein quaternary structure—to a simple random null model that maintains the number of genotypes mapping to each phenotype, but assigns genotypes randomly. The mutational neighbourhood of a genotype in these GP maps is much more likely to contain genotypes mapping to the same phenotype than in the random null model. Such neutral correlations can be quantified by the robustness to mutations, which can be many orders of magnitude larger than that of the null model, and crucially, above the critical threshold for the formation of large neutral networks of mutationally connected genotypes which enhance the capacity for the exploration of phenotypic novelty. Thus neutral correlations increase evolvability. We also study non-neutral correlations: Compared to the null model, i) If a particular (non-neutral) phenotype is found once in the 1-mutation neighbourhood of a genotype, then the chance of finding that phenotype multiple times in this neighbourhood is larger than expected; ii) If two genotypes are connected by a single neutral mutation, then their respective non-neutral 1-mutation neighbourhoods are more likely to be similar; iii) If a genotype maps to a folding or self-assembling phenotype, then its non-neutral neighbours are less likely to be a potentially deleterious non-folding or non-assembling phenotype. Non-neutral correlations of type i) and ii) reduce the rate at which new phenotypes can be found by neutral exploration, and so may diminish evolvability, while non-neutral correlations of type iii) may instead facilitate evolutionary exploration and so

  6. Do great tits (Parus major) suppress basal metabolic rate in response to increased perceived predation danger? A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Mathot, Kimberley J; Abbey-Lee, Robin N; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have shown that individuals with higher metabolic rates (MRs) feed at higher rates and are more willing to forage in the presence of predators. This increases the acquisition of resources, which in turn, may help to sustain a higher MR. Elevated predation danger may be expected to result in reduced MRs, either as a means of allowing for reduced feeding and risk-taking, or as a consequence of adaptively reducing intake rates via reduced feeding and/or risk-taking. We tested this prediction in free-living great tits (Parus major) using a playback experiment to manipulate perceived predation danger. There was evidence that changes in body mass and BMR differed as a function of treatment. In predator treatment plots, great tits tended to reduce their body mass, a commonly observed response in birds to increased predation danger. In contrast, birds from control treatment plots showed no overall changes in body mass. There was also evidence that great tits from control treatment plots increased their basal metabolic rate (BMR) over the course of the experiment, presumably due to decreasing ambient temperatures over the study period. However, there was no evidence for changes in BMR for birds from predator treatment plots. Although the directions of these results are consistent with the predicted directions of effects, the effects sizes and confidence intervals yield inconclusive support for the hypothesis that great tits would adaptively suppress BMR in response to increased perceived predation risk. The effect size observed in the present study was small (~1%) and would not be expected to result in substantive reductions in feeding rate and/or risk-taking. Whether or not ecological conditions that generate greater energetic stress (e.g. lower food availability, lower ambient temperatures) could produce an effect that produces biologically meaningful reductions in feeding activity and/or risk-taking remains an open question.

  7. Bacteriophage P1 pac sites inserted into the chromosome greatly increase packaging and transduction of Escherichia coli genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haomin; Masters, Millicent

    2014-11-01

    The Escherichia coli bacteriophage P1 packages host chromosome separately from phage DNA, and transfers it to recipient cells at low frequency in a process called generalized transduction. Phage genomes are packaged from concatemers beginning at a specific site, pac. To increase transduction rate, we have inserted pac into the chromosome at up to five equally spaced positions; at least this many are fully tolerated in the absence of P1 infection. A single chromosomal pac greatly increases transduction of downstream markers without decreasing phage yields; 3.5 × as much total chromosomal DNA is packaged. Additional insertions decrease phage yield by > 90% and also decrease phage DNA synthesis, although less dramatically. Packaging of chromosomal markers near to and downstream of each inserted pac site is, at the same time, increased by greater than 10 fold. Transduction of markers near an inserted pac site can be increased by over 1000-fold, potentially allowing identification of such transductants by screening.

  8. Increased household financial strain, the Great Recession and child health—findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Law, Catherine; Pearce, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence associating financial strain (FS) with poor health but most of this research has been cross-sectional and adult-focused. During the ‘Great Recession’ many UK households experienced increased FS. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of increased FS on child health. Methods We analysed the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of children born in the UK between 2000 and 2002. Surveys at 7 years (T1, 2008) and 11 years (T2, 2012) spanned the ‘Great Recession’. Three measures of increased FS were defined; ‘became income poor’ (self-reported household income dropped below the ‘poverty line’ between T1 and T2); ‘developed difficulty managing’ (parental report of being ‘financially comfortable’ at T1 and finding it ‘difficult to manage’ at T2); ‘felt worse off’ (parental report of feeling financially ‘worse off’ at T2 compared with T1). Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios (RR), adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% CIs for six child health outcomes: measured overweight/obesity, problematic behaviour as scored by parents and teachers, and parental reports of fair/poor general health, long-standing illness and bedwetting at T2 (N=13 112). In subanalyses we limited our sample to those who were above the poverty line at T2. Results Compared with those who were not financially strained at both time points, children in households which experienced increased FS were at an increased risk of all unhealthy outcomes examined. In most cases, these increased risks persisted after adjustment for confounding and when limiting the sample to those above the poverty line. Conclusions FS is associated with a range of new or continued poor child health outcomes. During times of widespread economic hardship, such as the ‘Great Recession’, measures should be taken to buffer children and their families from the impact of FS, and these should not be limited to

  9. Terrestrial Runoff Into the Great Barrier Reef: Direct Evidence From the Coral Record for Major Increases in Anthropogenic Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, S. J.; McCulloch, M. T.

    2001-12-01

    Inshore regions of the central and northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR) are regularly impacted by runoff from large rivers. The river flows are highly episodic, being associated with cyclones or occasionally intense monsoonal depressions. During these high intensity rainfall events, there can be massive discharges of freshwater and suspended sediments into the GBR lagoon. It is shown here how long-lived (300-400 year old) corals from the inshore region of the Great Barrier Reef of Australia provide a unique long-term quantitative record of suspended sediment loads delivered to the GBR by river flood plumes. Porites corals from the inshore Pandora and Havannah Reefs, experience episodic discharge of freshwater flood plumes from the Burdekin River. Barium acts as a monitor for suspended sediment as it is desorbed from suspended particles as the freshwater flood plumes enter the marine environment. Ba/Ca ratios in coral cores therefore provide a proxy of long-term changes in suspended sediment loads, which are entering inshore coral reefs prior to and following European settlement. The Ba/Ca systematics in the coral core analyzed in this study reveal two distinctive patterns. For the period prior to European settlement, there is only limited evidence for flood-plume related suspended sediment fluxes entering the inner GBR, although this period is mainly dominated by droughts. From 1800 to 1860, which includes major flood events in the years, 1801, 1811, 1817, 1819 and 1831, the coral fluorescent flood-bands still do not exhibit any Ba peaks. Immediately following European settlement, in the 1860's, there is a dramatic change in the Ba/Ca ratios of the coral core. For example in the 1870 flood-band there is a large Ba/Ca spike, indicative of a significant increase in suspended load being delivered to the inner GBR. This is coincident with the first grazing activities by European settlers in the Burdekin catchment. It is hypothesized that the initial spike in Ba/Ca is a

  10. Greatly Increasing Trapped Ion Populations for Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-10-18

    The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source, and limited to injected ion populations of ~106 charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods (e.g. in extended pulses). In this work a new SLIM ‘flat funnel’ (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations. Ion current measurements indicate a capacity of ~3.2×108 charges for the extended trapping volume, over an order of magnitude greater than the IFT. The orthogonal ion injection into a funnel shaped separation region can greatly reduce space charge effects during the initial IM separation stage, and the gradually reduced width of the path allows the ion packet to be increasingly compressed in the lateral dimension as the separation progresses, allowing e.g. efficient transmission through conductance limits or compatibility with subsequent ion manipulations. This work examined the TW, RF, and DC confining field SLIM parameters involved in ion accumulation, injection, transmission and separation in the FF IM module using both direct ion current and MS measurements. Wide m/z range ion transmission is demonstrated, along with significant increases in signal to noise (S/N) ratios due to the larger ion populations injected. Additionally, we observed a reduction in the chemical background, which was attributed to more efficient desolvation of solvent related clusters over the extended ion accumulation periods. The TW SLIM FF IM module is anticipated to be especially effective as a front end for long path SLIM IM separation modules.

  11. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  12. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6)…

  13. Side effects of rodent control on non-target species: Rodenticides increase parasite and pathogen burden in great bustards.

    PubMed

    Lemus, J A; Bravo, C; García-Montijano, M; Palacín, C; Ponce, C; Magaña, M; Alonso, J C

    2011-10-15

    For many years anticoagulant rodenticides have been used in vole control campaigns, in spite of the proven risk of secondary poisoning of non-target predators and scavengers. In this paper we analyse for the first time great bustard exposure and intoxication by anticoagulant rodenticides in Spain, based on residues found in the livers of 71 bustard carcasses collected during 1991-2010. Ten individuals contained chlorophacinone and one flocoumafen. Chlorophacinone level was significantly correlated with the pathogen and parasite burden of intoxicated birds. Moreover, through the last 12 years the annual number of great bustards that present chlorophacinone in liver collected in our study areas was correlated with vole peaks at a nearby area, suggesting that the ingestion of rodenticide was proportional to the amounts spread in the fields. We conclude that rodenticide consumption is a regular event among great bustards when baited cereal is spread on fields, and that this may cause chronic weakening of intoxicated individuals, possibly affecting their survival. Future rodent control actions should consider these negative side effects on non target granivorous steppe and farmland species, particularly when they are globally threatened.

  14. Great Apes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  15. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  16. Encapsulation of β-carotene within ferritin nanocages greatly increases its water-solubility and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingli; Bai, Guangling; Yang, Rui; Zang, Jiachen; Zhou, Ting; Zhao, Guanghua

    2014-04-15

    Carotenoids may play a number of potential health benefits for human. However, their use in food industry is limited mostly because of their poor water-solubility and low thermal stability. Ferritins are widely distributed in nature with a shell-like structure which offers a great opportunity to improve the water-solubility and thermal stability of the carotenoids by encapsulation. In this work, recombinant human H-chain ferritin (rHuHF) was prepared and used to encapsulate β-carotene, a typical compound among carotenoids, by taking advantage of the reversible dissociation and reassembly characteristic of apoferritin in different pH environments. Results from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), UV/Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that β-carotene molecules were successfully encapsulated within protein cages with a β-carotene/protein molar ratio of 12.4-1. Upon such encapsulation, these β-carotene-containing apoferritin nanocomposites were water-soluble. Interestingly, the thermal stability of the β-carotene encapsulated within apoferritin nanocages was markedly improved as compared to free β-carotene. These new properties might be favourable to the utilisation of β-carotene in food industry.

  17. Ncl Synchronously Regulates Na+, K+, and Cl− in Soybean and Greatly Increases the Grain Yield in Saline Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Do, Tuyen Duc; Chen, Huatao; Hien, Vu Thi Thu; Hamwieh, Aladdin; Yamada, Tetsuya; Sato, Tadashi; Yan, Yongliang; Cong, Hua; Shono, Mariko; Suenaga, Kazuhiro; Xu, Donghe

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress inhibits soybean growth and reduces gain yield. Genetic improvement of salt tolerance is essential for sustainable soybean production in saline areas. In this study, we isolated a gene (Ncl) that could synchronously regulate the transport and accumulation of Na+, K+, and Cl− from a Brazilian soybean cultivar FT-Abyara using map-based cloning strategy. Higher expression of the salt tolerance gene Ncl in the root resulted in lower accumulations of Na+, K+, and Cl− in the shoot under salt stress. Transfer of Ncl with the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method into a soybean cultivar Kariyutaka significantly enhanced its salt tolerance. Introgression of the tolerance allele into soybean cultivar Jackson, using DNA marker-assisted selection (MAS), produced an improved salt tolerance line. Ncl could increase soybean grain yield by 3.6–5.5 times in saline field conditions. Using Ncl in soybean breeding through gene transfer or MAS would contribute to sustainable soybean production in saline-prone areas. PMID:26744076

  18. Minority cytotypes in European populations of the Gymnadenia conopsea complex (Orchidaceae) greatly increase intraspecific and intrapopulation diversity

    PubMed Central

    Trávníček, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana; Kubátová, Barbora; Krejčíková, Jana; Bateman, Richard M.; Lučanová, Magdalena; Krajníková, Eva; Těšitelová, Tamara; Štípková, Zuzana; Amardeilh, Jean-Pierre; Brzosko, Emilia; Jermakowicz, Edyta; Cabanne, Olivier; Durka, Walter; Efimov, Peter; Hedrén, Mikael; Hermosilla, Carlos E.; Kreutz, Karel; Kull, Tiiu; Tali, Kadri; Marchand, Olivier; Rey, Manel; Schiestl, Florian P.; Čurn, Vladislav; Suda, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Patterns of ploidy variation among and within populations can provide valuable insights into the evolutionary mechanisms shaping the dynamics of plant systems showing ploidy diversity. Whereas data on majority ploidies are, by definition, often sufficiently extensive, much less is known about the incidence and evolutionary role of minority cytotypes. Methods Ploidy and proportions of endoreplicated genome were determined using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) flow cytometry in 6150 Gymnadenia plants (fragrant orchids) collected from 141 populations in 17 European countries. All widely recognized European species, and several taxa of less certain taxonomic status were sampled within Gymnadenia conopsea sensu lato. Key Results Most Gymnadenia populations were taxonomically and/or ploidy heterogeneous. Two majority (2x and 4x) and three minority (3x, 5x and 6x) cytotypes were identified. Evolution largely proceeded at the diploid level, whereas tetraploids were much more geographically and taxonomically restricted. Although minority ploidies constituted <2 % of the individuals sampled, they were found in 35 % of populations across the entire area investigated. The amount of nuclear DNA, together with the level of progressively partial endoreplication, separated all Gymnadenia species currently widely recognized in Europe. Conclusions Despite their low frequency, minority cytotypes substantially increase intraspecific and intrapopulation ploidy diversity estimates for fragrant orchids. The cytogenetic structure of Gymnadenia populations is remarkably dynamic and shaped by multiple evolutionary mechanisms, including both the ongoing production of unreduced gametes and heteroploid hybridization. Overall, it is likely that the level of ploidy heterogeneity experienced by most plant species/populations is currently underestimated; intensive sampling is necessary to obtain a holistic picture. PMID:23002267

  19. Cognitively-Related Basic Activities of Daily Living Impairment Greatly Increases the Risk of Death in Alzheimers Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Fu-Wen; Chan, Wenyaw; Chen, Ping-Jen; Zimmerman, Carissa; Waring, Stephen; Doody, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Some Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients die without ever developing cognitively impaired basic activities of daily living (basic ADL), which may reflect slower disease progression or better compensatory mechanisms. Although impaired basic ADL is related to disease severity, it may exert an independent risk for death. This study examined the association between impaired basic ADL and survival of AD patients, and proposed a multistate approach for modeling the time to death for patients who demonstrate different patterns of progression of AD that do or do not include basic ADL impairment. Methods 1029 patients with probable AD at the Baylor College of Medicine Alzheimer’s Disease and Memory Disorders Center met the criteria for this study. Two complementary definitions were used to define development of basic ADL impairment using the Physical Self-Maintenance Scale score. A weighted Cox regression model, including a time-dependent covariate (development of basic ADL impairment), and a multistate survival model were applied to examine the effect of basic ADL impairment on survival. Results As expected decreased ability to perform basic ADL at baseline, age at initial visit, years of education, and sex were all associated with significantly higher mortality risk. In those unimpaired at baseline, the development of basic ADL impairment was also associated with a much greater risk of death (hazard ratios 1.77–4.06) over and above the risk conferred by loss of MMSE points. A multi-state Cox model, controlling for those other variables quantified the substantive increase in hazard ratios for death conferred by the development of basic ADL impairment by two definitions and can be applied to calculate the short term risk of mortality in individual patients. Conclusions The current study demonstrates that the presence of basic ADL impairment or the development of such impairments are important predictors of death in AD patients, regardless of severity. PMID

  20. Clutch size and egg volume in great tits (Parus major) increase under low intensity electromagnetic fields: a long-term field study.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Gustavo; Barba, Emilio; Merino, Santiago; Martínez, Javier

    2012-10-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can affect a wide range of biological processes, including reproduction, growth and development. Experiments aimed at investigating the biological effects of EMFs, focused on potential harmful effects on humans, have been mostly carried out in vitro or with animal models in laboratory conditions. By contrast, studies performed on wild animals are scarce. The effects of EMFs created by an electric power line on reproductive traits of a wild great tit (Parus major) population were explored by analysing data gathered during nine breeding seasons. EMF exposure significantly increased clutch size (7%) and egg volume (3%), implying a 10% increase in clutch volume. This indicates an increase in reproductive investment from parent birds exposed to EMFs as compared to the adjacent reference area. These results cannot be attributed to habitat or adult quality differences between the exposed and reference group. Nevertheless, no differences in hatching success or final productivity (fledging and reproductive success or nestling body mass) could be detected. Our study clearly shows that EMFs created by power lines can have biological consequences in wild organisms that live intimately with them. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing an increase in clutch size, and one of the few reporting an increase in egg size, associated with EMF exposure. The possible mechanisms by which great tits invest more under EMF exposure are discussed, and future research directions to evaluate the effect of EMFs on avian reproduction in the wild are suggested.

  1. Evaluating the Imbalance Between Increasing Hemodialysis Patients and Medical Staff Shortage After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Report From a Hemodialysis Center Near the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Takaaki; Nishiuchi, Takamitsu; Akaihata, Hidenori; Haga, Nobuhiro; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Hajime; Kasahara, Masato; Hayashi, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused an unprecedented imbalance between an increasing number of hemodialysis patients and medical staff shortage in the Sousou area, the site of the Fukushima nuclear power plants. In 2014, capacity of our hemodialysis center reached a critical limit due to such an imbalance. We attempted to evaluate the effort of medical staff to clarify to what extent their burden had increased post-disaster. The ratio of total dialysis sessions over total working days of medical staff was determined as an approximate indicator of effort per month. The mean value of each year was compared. Despite fluctuations of the ratio, the mean value did not differ from 2010 to 2013. However, the ratio steadily increased in 2014, and there was a significant increase in the mean value. This proposed indicator of the effort of medical staff appears to reflect what we experienced, although its validity must be carefully examined in future studies.

  2. Preventable fine sediment export from the Burdekin River catchment reduces coastal seagrass abundance and increases dugong mortality within the Townsville region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Scott A

    2017-01-30

    The coastal seagrass meadows in the Townsville region of the Great Barrier Reef are crucial seagrass foraging habitat for endangered dugong populations. Deteriorating coastal water quality and in situ light levels reduce the extent of these meadows, particularly in years with significant terrestrial runoff from the nearby Burdekin River catchment. However, uncertainty surrounds the impact of variable seagrass abundance on dugong carrying capacity. Here, I demonstrate that a power-law relationship with exponent value of -1 (R(2)~0.87) links mortality data with predicted changes in annual above ground seagrass biomass. This relationship indicates that the dugong carrying capacity of the region is tightly coupled to the biomass of seagrass available for metabolism. Thus, mortality rates increase precipitously following large flood events with a response lag of <12-months. The management implications of this result are discussed in terms of climate scenarios that indicate an increased future likelihood of extreme flood events.

  3. Increased taurine in pre-weaned juvenile mdx mice greatly reduces the acute onset of myofibre necrosis and dystropathology and prevents inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terrill, Jessica R.; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mdx mouse model for the fatal muscle wasting disease Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) shows a very mild pathology once growth has ceased, with low levels of myofibre necrosis in adults. However, from about 3 weeks of post-natal age, muscles of juvenile mdx mice undergo an acute bout of severe necrosis and inflammation: this subsequently decreases and stabilises to lower adult levels by about 6 weeks of age. Prior to the onset of this severe dystropathology, we have shown that mdx mice are deficient in the amino acid taurine (potentially due to weaning), and we propose that this exacerbates myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to increase taurine availability to pre-weaned juvenile mdx mice (from 14 days of age), to evaluate the impact on levels of myofibre necrosis and inflammation (at 22 days) during the acute period of severe dystropathology. Results: Untreated 22 day old mdx muscle was not deficient in taurine, with similar levels to normal C57 control muscle. However taurine treatment, which increased the taurine content of young dystrophic muscle (by 40%), greatly reduced myofibre necrosis (by 75%) and prevented significant increases in 3 markers of inflammation. Conclusion: Taurine was very effective at preventing the acute phase of muscle damage that normally results in myofibre necrosis and inflammation in juvenile mdx mice, supporting continued research into the use of taurine as a therapeutic intervention for protecting growing muscles of young DMD boys PMID:27679740

  4. Addition of CpG ODN to recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A conjugates of AMA1 and Pfs25 greatly increases the number of responders.

    PubMed

    Qian, Feng; Rausch, Kelly M; Muratova, Olga; Zhou, Hong; Song, Guanhong; Diouf, Ababacar; Lambert, Lynn; Narum, David L; Wu, Yimin; Saul, Allan; Miller, Louis H; Long, Carole A; Mullen, Gregory E D

    2008-05-12

    Both the blood-stage protein apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and the 25-kDa sexual-stage protein (Pfs25) of Plasmodium falciparum are two leading candidates in malarial vaccine development. We have previously demonstrated that conjugation of these malarial antigens to recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExoProtein A (rEPA) significantly increased the mean-specific functional antibody responses in mice; however, some mice responded poorly and were unable to demonstrate a functional response. We hypothesized that the immunogenicities of these two malarial antigens could be further enhanced by the inclusion of a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide in the formulation. Mice were immunized with either rEPA-conjugated or unconjugated AMA1 and Pfs25 formulated on Alhydrogel with or without the addition of CPG 7909. Mice received the formulations on days 0 and 28, and mouse sera were collected on day 42. ELISA analyses on these sera showed that the addition of CPG 7909 to AMA1-rEPA and Pfs25-rEPA formulated on Alhydrogel induced significantly higher mean antibody titers than the formulations without CPG 7909, and led to a mixed Th1/Th2 response as demonstrated by the production of mouse IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses. The presence of CPG 7909 in the formulations of both conjugated antigens greatly increased the proportion of responders with antibody titers sufficient to inhibit blood-stage parasite growth in vitro or block transmission of sexual-stage parasites to mosquitoes. The results obtained in this study indicate the potential use of a combination strategy to increase the number of responders to malarial antigens in humans.

  5. The effect of sub-lethal increases in temperature on the growth and population trajectories of three scleractinian corals on the southern Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Peter J

    2005-12-01

    To date, coral death has been the most conspicuous outcome of warming tropical seas, but as temperatures stabilize at higher values, the consequences for the corals remaining will be mediated by their demographic responses to the sub-lethal effects of temperature. To gain insight into the nature of these responses, here I develop a model to test the effect of increased temperature on populations of three pocilloporid corals at One Tree Island, near the southern extreme of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Using Seriatopora hystrix, S. caliendrum and Pocillopora damicornis as study species, the effects of temperature on growth were determined empirically, and the dynamics of their populations determined under natural temperatures over a 6-month period between 1999 and 2000 [defined as the study year (SY)]. The two data sets were combined in a demographic test of the possibility that the thermal regime projected for the southern GBR in the next 55-83 years--warmer by 3 degrees C than the study year (the SY+3 regime), which is equivalent to 1.4 degrees C warmer than the recent warm year of 1998--would alter coral population trajectories through the effects on coral growth alone; the analyses first were completed by species, then by family after pooling among species. Laboratory experiments showed that growth rates (i.e., calcification) varied significantly among species and temperatures, and displayed curvilinear thermal responses with growth maxima at approximately 27.1 degrees C. Based on these temperature-growth responses, the SY+3 regime is projected to: (1) increase annualized growth rates of all taxa by 24-39%, and defer the timing of peak growth from the summer to the autumn and spring, (2) alter the intrinsic rate of population growth (lambda) for S. hystrix (lambda decreases 26%) and S. caliendrum (lambda increases 5%), but not for P. damicornis, and (3) have a minor effect on lambda (a 0.3% increase) for the Pocilloporidae, largely because lambda varies more

  6. Great Practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  7. Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  8. Arthropods and the Current Great Mass Extinction: Effective Themes to Decrease Arthropod Fear and Disgust and Increase Positive Environmental Beliefs in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Earth is experiencing a great mass extinction (GME) that has been caused by the environmentally destructive activities of humans. This GME is having and will have profound effects on Earth's biodiversity if environmental sustainability is not reached. Activities and curriculum tools have been developed to assist teachers in integrating the current…

  9. Great Expectations for "Great Expectations."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Cheryl

    Designed to make the study of Dickens'"Great Expectations" an appealing and worthwhile experience, this paper presents a unit of study intended to help students gain (1) an appreciation of Dickens' skill at creating realistic human characters; (2) an insight into the problems of a young man confused by false values and unreal ambitions…

  10. GREAT optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner-Gentner, Armin; Graf, Urs U.; Philipp, Martin; Rabanus, David; Stutzki, Jürgen

    2004-10-01

    The German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) is a first generation PI instrument for the SOFIA telescope, developed by a collaboration between the MPIfR, KOSMA, DLR, and the MPAe. The first three institutes each contribute one heterodyne receiver channel to operate at 1.9, 2.7 and 4.7 THz, respectively. A later addition of a e.g. 1.4 THz channel is planned. The GREAT instrument is developed to carry two cryostats at once. That means that any two of the three frequencies can be observed simultaneously. Therefore, we need to be able to quickly exchange the optics benches, the local oscillator (LO) subsystems, and the cryostats containing the mixer devices. This demands a high modularity and flexibility of our receiver concept. Our aim is to avoid the need for realignment when swapping receiver channels. After an overview of the common GREAT optics, a detailed description of several parts (optics benches, calibration units, diplexer, focal plane imager) is given. Special emphasis is given to the LO optics of the KOSMA 1.9 THz channel, because its backward wave oscillator has an astigmatic output beam profile, which has to be corrected for. We developed astigmatic off-axis mirrors to compensate this astigmatism. The mirrors are manufactured in-house on a 5 axis CNC milling machine. We use this milling machine to obtain optical components with highest surface accuracy (about 5 microns) appropriate for these wavelengths. Based on the CNC machining capabilities we present our concept of integrated optics, which means to manufacture optical subsystems monolithically. The optics benches are located on three point mounts, which in conjunction with the integrated optics concept ensure the required adjustment free optics setup.

  11. Opposing effects on glutathione and reactive oxygen metabolites of sex, habitat, and spring date, but no effect of increased breeding density in great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Caroline

    2013-08-01

    Oxidative stress (i.e., more oxidants than antioxidants) has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Therefore, the aim here was to investigate the impact of ecological and individual factors for variation in markers of oxidative stress using both experimental and correlational data. Total glutathione (tGSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), plasma antioxidant capacity (OXY), and plasma-reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) were measured in more than 700 breeding great tits (Parus major). The main results revealed a pronounced sex difference, with females having lower ROM and OXY, but higher tGSH compared with males. In addition, birds breeding in the evergreen areas had higher tGSH compared with those in the deciduous habitat, but the experimentally manipulated breeding density had no significant effect on any of the redox markers. Independent of the sex differences, the larger the reproductive investment the lower the ROM of both males and females. Taken together, the extracellular markers - ROM and OXY - revealed similar results and were highly correlated. Interestingly, the direction of their effects was in the opposite direction to the endogenously synthesized tGSH and GSSG. This highlights the need to combine extracellular markers with endogenously synthesized antioxidants to understand its implications for the origin and evolution of trade-offs in an ecological setting. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a proximate currency in life-history trade-offs, which if studied in an ecological setting allow a more realistic perspective on the origin and evolution of trade-offs. Here multiple markers of oxidative stress were analysed in wild great tits. The results reveal that the endogenously synthesized antioxidant glutathione and markers of plasma oxidative stress are affected in opposing directions with regard to sex

  12. Resveratrol Specifically Kills Cancer Cells by a Devastating Increase in the Ca2+ Coupling Between the Greatly Tethered Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Madreiter-Sokolowski, Corina T.; Gottschalk, Benjamin; Parichatikanond, Warisara; Eroglu, Emrah; Klec, Christiane; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Malli, Roland; Graier, Wolfgang F.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Resveratrol and its derivate piceatannol are known to induce cancer cell-specific cell death. While multiple mechanisms of actions have been described including the inhibition of ATP synthase, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS levels, the exact mechanisms of cancer specificity of these polyphenols remain unclear. This paper is designed to reveal the molecular basis of the cancer-specific initiation of cell death by resveratrol and piceatannol. Methods The two cancer cell lines EA.hy926 and HeLa, and somatic short-term cultured HUVEC were used. Cell viability and caspase 3/7 activity were tested. Mitochondrial, cytosolic and endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ as well as cytosolic and mitochondrial ATP levels were measured using single cell fluorescence microscopy and respective genetically-encoded sensors. Mitochondria-ER junctions were analyzed applying super-resolution SIM and ImageJ-based image analysis. Results Resveratrol and piceatannol selectively trigger death in cancer but not somatic cells. Hence, these polyphenols strongly enhanced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in cancer exclusively. Resveratrol and piceatannol predominantly affect mitochondrial but not cytosolic ATP content that yields in a reduced SERCA activity. Decreased SERCA activity and the strongly enriched tethering of the ER and mitochondria in cancer cells result in an enhanced MCU/Letm1-dependent mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake upon intracellular Ca2+ release exclusively in cancer cells. Accordingly, resveratrol/piceatannol-induced cancer cell death could be prevented by siRNA-mediated knock-down of MCU and Letm1. Conclusions Because their greatly enriched ER-mitochondria tethering, cancer cells are highly susceptible for resveratrol/piceatannol-induced reduction of SERCA activity to yield mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and subsequent cancer cell death. PMID:27606689

  13. Role of dispersal timing and frequency in annual grass-invaded Great Basin ecosystems: how modifying seeding strategies increases restoration success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dispersal dynamics strongly affect plant community assembly in restored annual grass—infested ecosystems. Modifying perennial grass seeding rates and frequency may increase perennial grass establishment, yet these impacts have not yet been quantified. To assess these effects, we established a f...

  14. Who knows the bed bug? Knowledge of adult bed bug appearance increases with people's age in three counties of Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Harder, Anton; Holland, Stephanie; Hooper, Jennifer; Leake-Lyall, Clark

    2008-09-01

    The current reemergence of bed bugs in the western world has a multitude of causes. One of them may be low early detection rate of emerging infestations because of a current poor knowledge among the population of what bed bugs look like. In a survey conducted in three counties of the United Kingdom, 10% of 358 individuals recognized the bed bug when presented with a live adult. Older people were more likely to correctly identify the bed bug. If an increasing knowledge of the bed bug appearance facilitates early detection of infestations, the hospitality and travel industry may benefit from educating their staff on the bed bug appearance.

  15. Human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 transfection with ultrasound and microbubbles in nucleoside transport deficient HEK293 cells greatly increases gemcitabine uptake.

    PubMed

    Paproski, Robert J; Yao, Sylvia Y M; Favis, Nicole; Evans, David; Young, James D; Cass, Carol E; Zemp, Roger J

    2013-01-01

    Gemcitabine is a hydrophilic clinical anticancer drug that requires nucleoside transporters to cross plasma membranes and enter cells. Pancreatic adenocarcinomas with low levels of nucleoside transporters are generally resistant to gemcitabine and are currently a clinical problem. We tested whether transfection of human concentrative nucleoside transporter 3 (hCNT3) using ultrasound and lipid stabilized microbubbles could increase gemcitabine uptake and sensitivity in HEK293 cells made nucleoside transport deficient by pharmacologic treatment with dilazep. To our knowledge, no published data exists regarding the utility of using hCNT3 as a therapeutic gene to reverse gemcitabine resistance. Our ultrasound transfection system--capable of transfection of cell cultures, mouse muscle and xenograft CEM/araC tumors--increased hCNT3 mRNA and (3)H-gemcitabine uptake by >2,000- and 3,400-fold, respectively, in dilazep-treated HEK293 cells. Interestingly, HEK293 cells with both functional human equilibrative nucleoside transporters and hCNT3 displayed 5% of (3)H-gemcitabine uptake observed in cells with only functional hCNT3, suggesting that equilibrative nucleoside transporters caused significant efflux of (3)H-gemcitabine. Efflux assays confirmed that dilazep could inhibit the majority of (3)H-gemcitabine efflux from HEK293 cells, suggesting that hENTs were responsible for the majority of efflux from the tested cells. Oocyte uptake transport assays were also performed and provided support for our hypothesis. Gemcitabine uptake and efflux assays were also performed on pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells with similar results to that of HEK293 cells. Using the MTS proliferation assay, dilazep-treated HEK293 cells demonstrated 13-fold greater resistance to gemcitabine compared to dilazep-untreated HEK293 cells and this resistance could be reversed by transfection of hCNT3 cDNA. We propose that transfection of hCNT3 cDNA using ultrasound and microbubbles may be a

  16. MDE heteroduplex analysis of PCR products spanning each exon of the fibrillin (FBN1) gene greatly increases the efficiency of mutation detection in the Marfan syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Nijbroek, G.; Dietz, H.C.; Pereira, L.; Ramirz, F.

    1994-09-01

    Defects in fibrillin (FNB1) cause the Marfan syndrome (MFS). Classic Marfan phenotype cosegregates with intragenic and/or flanking marker alleles in all families tested and a significant number of FBN1 mutations have been identified in affected individuals. Using a standard method of mutation detection, SSCP analysis of overlapping RT-PCR amplimers that span the entire coding sequence, the general experience has been a low yield of identifiable mutations, ranging from 10-20%. Possible explanations included low sensitivity of mutation screening procedures, under-representation of mutant transcript in patient samples either due to deletions or mutant alleles containing premature termination codons, clustering of mutations in yet uncharacterized regions of the gene, including regulatory elements, or genetic heterogeneity. In order to compensate for a potential reduced mutant transcript stability, we have devised a method to screen directly from genomic DNA. The intronic boundaries flanking each of the 65 FBN1 exons were characterized and primer pairs were fashioned such that all splice junctions would be included in the resultant amplimers. The entire gene was screened for a panel of 9 probands with classic Marfan syndrome using mutation detection enhancement (MDE) gel heteroduplex analysis. A mutation was identified in 5/9 (55%) of patient samples. All were either missense mutations involving a cysteine residue or small deletions that did not create a frame shift. In addition, 10 novel polymorphisms were found. We conclude that the majority of mutations causing Marfan syndrome reside in the FBN1 gene and that mutations creating premature termination codons are not the predominant cause of inefficient mutation detection using RT-PCR. We are currently modifying screening methods to increase sensitivity and targeting putative FBN1 gene promoter sequences for study.

  17. Review of "Great Teachers and Great Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    "Great Teachers and Great Leaders" (GTGL) is one of six research summaries issued by the U.S. Department of Education in support of its Blueprint for Reform. This review examines the presentation of research about improving teacher and administrator quality in GTGL. The review concludes that there are serious flaws in the research summary. The…

  18. Microwave heating causes rapid degradation of antioxidants in polypropylene packaging, leading to greatly increased specific migration to food simulants as shown by ESI-MS and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Alin, Jonas; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2011-05-25

    Microwave heating of commercial microwavable polypropylene packaging in contact with fatty food simulants caused significant antioxidant degradation and increased specific migration as shown by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Degradation of the antioxidants Irgafos 168 and Irganox 1010 was not detected during conventional heating of polypropylene packaging at the same temperature. The migration into aqueous food simulants was primarily restricted by the water solubility of the migrants. Using isooctane as fatty food simulant caused significant swelling and greatly enhanced overall migration values compared to the other fatty food simulant, 99.9% ethanol, or the aqueous food simulants 10% ethanol, 3% acetic acid, or water. ESI-MS spectra clearly reflected the overall migration values, and the number and amount of compounds detected decreased as the hydrophilicity of the food simulant increased. ESI-MS was shown to be an excellent tool for the analysis of semivolatile migrants and a good complement to GC-MS analysis of volatile migrants.

  19. Delayed increase in male suicide rates in tsunami disaster-stricken areas following the great east japan earthquake: a three-year follow-up study in Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Orui, Masatsugu; Sato, Yasuhiro; Tazaki, Kanako; Kawamura, Ikuko; Harada, Shuichiro; Hayashi, Mizuho

    2015-01-01

    Devastating natural disasters and their aftermath are known to cause psychological distress. However, little information is available regarding suicide rates following tsunami disasters that destroy regional social services and networks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the tsunami disaster following the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 has influenced suicide rates. The study period was from March 2009 to February 2014. Tsunami disaster-stricken areas were defined as the 16 municipalities facing the Pacific Ocean in Miyagi Prefecture. Inland areas were defined as other municipalities in Miyagi that were damaged by the earthquake. Suicide rates in the tsunami disaster-stricken areas were compared to national averages, using a time-series analysis and the Poisson distribution test. In tsunami disaster-stricken areas, male suicide rates were significantly lower than the national average during the initial post-disaster period and began to increase after two years. Likewise, male suicide rates in the inland areas decreased for seven months, and then increased to exceed the national average. In contrast, female post-disaster suicide rates did not change in both areas compared to the national average. Importantly, the male suicide rates in the inland areas started to increase earlier compared to the tsunami-stricken areas, which may reflect the relative deficiency of mental healthcare services in the inland areas. Considering the present status that many survivors from the tsunami disaster still live in temporary housing and face various challenges to rebuild their lives, we should continue intensive, long-term mental healthcare services in the tsunami-stricken areas.

  20. The Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  1. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  2. Atlas of Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  3. Late Holocene subalpine lake sediments record a multi-proxy shift to increased aridity at 3.65 kyr BP, following a millennial-scale neopluvial interval in the Lake Tahoe watershed and western Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Paula; Zimmerman, Susan; Ball, Ian; Adams, Kenneth; Maloney, Jillian; Smith, Shane

    2016-04-01

    A mid Holocene dry period has been reported from lake records in the Great Basin and Sierra Nevada, yet the spatial and temporal extent of this interval is not well understood. We present evidence for a millennial-scale interval of high winter precipitation (neopluvial) at the end of the mid Holocene in the Lake Tahoe-Pyramid Lake watershed in the northern Sierra Nevada that reached its peak ˜3.7 kcal yr BP. A transect of 4 cores recovered from Fallen Leaf Lake in the Tahoe Basin were dated using AMS14C on plant macrofossils, and analyzed using scanning XRF, C and N elemental and stable isotope measurements, and diatoms as paleoclimate proxies. Fallen Leaf Lake is a deep glacially-derived lake situated in the Glen Alpine Valley at an elevation of 1942m, ˜45 m above the level of Lake Tahoe. In Fallen Leaf Lake, the end of the neopluvial is dated at 3.65 ± 0.09 kcal yr BP, and is the largest post-glacial signal in the cores. The neopluvial interval is interpreted to be a period of increased snowpack in the upper watershed, supported by depleted g δ13Corg (-27.5) values, negative baseline shifts in TOC and TN, lower C:N, and high abundances of Aulacoseira subarctica, a winter-early spring diatom. Collectively, these proxies indicate cooler temperatures, enhanced mixing, and/or shortened summer stratification resulting in increased algal productivity relative to terrestrial inputs. The neopluvial interval ends abruptly at 3.65 ka, with a change from mottled darker opaline clay to a homogeneous olive clay with decreased A. subarctica and opal, and followed by a 50% reduction in accumulation rates. After this transition δ13Corg becomes enriched by 2‰ and TOC, TN, and C:N all show the start of positive trends that continue through the Holocene. Pyramid Lake is an endorheic basin situated at the terminal end of the watershed, and inflow arrives from the Lake Tahoe basin via the Truckee River. At Pyramid Lake, existing ages on paleo-shorelines indicate a significant

  4. Whither the Great Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casement, William

    2002-01-01

    The decades since the 1960s have been unfortunate in many respects for American higher education, but things are not uniformly bleak. Here and there, the study of Great Books persists. The general picture that is available, then, of the health of great-books study in colleges today is mixed. High-visibility news stories, along with curriculum…

  5. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  6. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  7. Missing great earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) greater than 8.8 and six earthquakes larger than Mw 8.5, since 2004, has raised interest in the long-term global rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on the analysis of earthquakes since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era in seismology. Before this time, the catalog is less complete and magnitude estimates are more uncertain. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes before 1900, and the catalog of historical events is being used increasingly to improve hazard assessment. Here I consider the catalog of historical earthquakes and show that approximately half of all Mw ≥ 8.5 earthquakes are likely missing or underestimated in the 19th century. I further present a reconsideration of the felt effects of the 8 February 1843, Lesser Antilles earthquake, including a first thorough assessment of felt reports from the United States, and show it is an example of a known historical earthquake that was significantly larger than initially estimated. The results suggest that incorporation of best available catalogs of historical earthquakes will likely lead to a significant underestimation of seismic hazard and/or the maximum possible magnitude in many regions, including parts of the Caribbean.

  8. Great Barrier Reef

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Australia's Great Barrier Reef     View Larger Image ... reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by ...

  9. The Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hassibe, W.R.; Keck, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    The western part of the conterminous United States is often thought of as being a desert without any large bodies of water. In the desert area of western Utah, however, lies Great Salt Lake, which in 1986 covered approximately 2,300 square miles and contained 30 million acre-feet of water (an acre-foot is the amount of water necessary to cover 1 acre of land with water 1 foot in depth or about 326,000 gallons). To emphasize its size, the Great Salt Lake is the largest lake west of the Mississippi River, larger than the states of Rhode Island and Delaware.

  10. The Great Lakes whitefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John; Elliot, Charles

    1942-01-01

    In every one of the Great Lakes- Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior- the most valuable fishes are declining, and there is no evidence that this trend will be reversed. Under existing conditions of a diversity of regulations that vary between states and between the two countries, and with the present methods of fishing, the Great Lakes fisheries are doomed. This chapter deals with the common whitefish, a valuable species which many believe to be the next that will go unless positive action is forthcoming soon.

  11. Great Lakes Harbors Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-11-01

    Locally.assigned Library of Congress number: HE396 S25 U55 Nj 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) 1. HARBORS 2... WATER TRANSPORTATION 3. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 4. GREAT LJAKES - 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on ie.er.se side It necesaty nd identify by blocA number) Harbor...Scope 2 DESCRIPTION AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 3 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Navigation System 2 4 Navigation Season 3 5 Water Levels 4 6 Tributary Area 6

  12. The Next Great Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    Earth science --- when defined as the study of all biological, chemical, and physical processes that interact to define the behavior of the Earth system --- has direct societal relevance equal to or greater than that any other branch of science. However, "geology", "geoscience", and "Earth science" departments are contracting at many universities and even disappearing at some. This irony speaks volumes about the limitations of the traditional university structure that partitions educational and research programs into specific disciplines, each housed in its own department. Programs that transcend disciplinary boundaries are difficult to fit into the traditional structure and are thus highly vulnerable to threats such as chronic underfunding by university administrations, low enrollments in more advanced subjects, and being largely forgotten during capital campaigns. Dramatic improvements in this situation will require a different way of thinking about earth science programs by university administrations. As Earth scientists, our goal must not be to protect "traditional" geology departments, but rather to achieve a sustainable programmatic future for broader academic programs that focus on Earth evolution from past, present, and future perspectives. The first step toward meeting this goal must be to promote a more holistic definition of Earth science that includes modes of inquiry more commonly found in engineering and social science departments. We must think of Earth science as a meta-discipline that includes core components of physics, geology, chemistry, biology, and the emerging science of complexity. We must recognize that new technologies play an increasingly important role in our ability to monitor global environmental change, and thus our educational programs must include basic training in the modes of analysis employed by engineers as well as those employed by scientists. One of the most important lessons we can learn from the engineering community is the

  13. The Great Poetry Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that parent involvement improves academic achievement, but in the busy world in which we live it is often difficult to promote. Many researchers suggest that successful programs value parents' limited time constraints, diversity of literacy skills, and availability of materials. The Great Poetry Race provides an easy vehicle to…

  14. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  15. Taga the Great.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Frances S.

    Legends can be incorporated into elementary social studies curricula to help students understand how people transmitted history and culture from one generation to another before they learned to read and write. Taga the Great is a legend which helps explain the 16-feet high latte stones on the Mariana Islands, Tinian and Rota. According to legend,…

  16. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  17. The Great Mathematician Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  18. Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  19. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  20. What great managers do.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel.

  1. Great magnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Lee, Yen T.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Tang, Frances

    1992-01-01

    The five largest magnetic storms that occurred between 1971 to 1986 are studied to determine their solar and interplanetary causes. All of the events are found to be associated with high speed solar wind streams led by collisionless shocks. The high speed streams are clearly related to identifiable solar flares. It is found that: (1) it is the extreme values of the southward interplanetary magnetic fields rather than solar wind speeds that are the primary causes of great magnetic storms, (2) shocked and draped sheath fields preceding the driver gas (magnetic cloud) are at least as effective in causing the onset of great magnetic storms (3 of 5 events) as the strong fields within the driver gas itself, and (3) precursor southward fields ahead of the high speed streams allow the shock compression mechanism (item 2) to be particularly geoeffective.

  2. Great Lakes Demonstration 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Representatives from CG Districts 1, 5 , 13, and 17  Enbridge Pipeline, Co.  EPA  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)  Observers (CG...distances from the vessel‟s hull. (Figure 5 ) In that configuration, the recovery hose and hydraulic lines dragged across the surface of the nearby...No. CG-D-08-12 2. Government Accession Number 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Great Lakes Demonstration 2 Final Report 5

  3. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  4. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  5. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  6. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  7. Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, Doyle W.; Gardner, Joe F.

    1999-01-01

    This document is intended as a source of general information and facts about Great Salt Lake, Utah. This U.S. Geological Survey information sheet answers frequently asked questions about Great Salt Lake. Topics include: History, salinity, brine shrimp, brine flies, migratory birds, and recreation. Great Salt Lake, the shrunken remnant of prehistoric Lake Bonneville, has no outlet. Dissolved salts accumulate in the lake by evaporation. Salinity south of the causeway has ranged from 6 percent to 27 percent over a period of 22 years (2 to 7 times saltier than the ocean). The high salinity supports a mineral industry that extracts about 2 million tons of salt from the lake each year. The aquatic ecosystem consists of more than 30 species of organisms. Harvest of its best-known species, the brine shrimp, annually supplies millions of pounds of food for the aquaculture industry worldwide. The lake is used extensively by millions of migratory and nesting birds and is a place of solitude for people. All this occurs in a lake that is located at the bottom of a 35,000-square-mile drainage basin that has a human population of more than 1.5 million.

  8. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  9. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-06

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin.

  10. The great human expansion.

    PubMed

    Henn, Brenna M; Cavalli-Sforza, L L; Feldman, Marcus W

    2012-10-30

    Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today's human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth's habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the "serial founder effect." In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution.

  11. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  12. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  13. The great human expansion

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Brenna M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is in accord that today’s human population is the result of a great demic (demographic and geographic) expansion that began approximately 45,000 to 60,000 y ago in Africa and rapidly resulted in human occupation of almost all of the Earth’s habitable regions. Genomic data from contemporary humans suggest that this expansion was accompanied by a continuous loss of genetic diversity, a result of what is called the “serial founder effect.” In addition to genomic data, the serial founder effect model is now supported by the genetics of human parasites, morphology, and linguistics. This particular population history gave rise to the two defining features of genetic variation in humans: genomes from the substructured populations of Africa retain an exceptional number of unique variants, and there is a dramatic reduction in genetic diversity within populations living outside of Africa. These two patterns are relevant for medical genetic studies mapping genotypes to phenotypes and for inferring the power of natural selection in human history. It should be appreciated that the initial expansion and subsequent serial founder effect were determined by demographic and sociocultural factors associated with hunter-gatherer populations. How do we reconcile this major demic expansion with the population stability that followed for thousands years until the inventions of agriculture? We review advances in understanding the genetic diversity within Africa and the great human expansion out of Africa and offer hypotheses that can help to establish a more synthetic view of modern human evolution. PMID:23077256

  14. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  15. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  17. The great climate debate

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M. )

    1990-07-01

    There is no doubt that human activity is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Whether that spells sweeping global climate change is still much debated. Should we act to blunt the impact in the face of this uncertainty The authors thinks so. The paper presents data on the rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}; projected rises in CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluoro-carbons; the changing pattern of global CO{sub 2} emissions from North America, USSR and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Developing Countries, and others; the results of 3 computer models of climate change; and the contribution to global warming from various human activities.

  18. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER is no doubt going to increase in the coming years with the availability of new functionalities. "In addition to the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, the VLTI can also combine the light from up to 4 movable 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes. AMBER fed by three of these AT's will be offered to the user community as of April this year, and from October we will also make FINITO available," said Melnick. "This 'fringe-tracking' device allows us to stabilise changes in the atmospheric conditions and thus to substantially improve the efficiency of the observations. By effectively 'freezing' the interferometric fringes, FINITO allows astronomers to significantly increase the exposure times." The Astronomy & Astrophysics special feature (volume 464 - March II 2007) on AMBER first results includes 11 articles. They are freely available on the A&A web site.

  19. Sustainability Within the Great Monsoon River Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    For over five millenia, the great monsoon river basins of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus have provided for great and flourishing agrarian civilizations. However, rapid population growth and urbanization have placed stress on the rural sector causing the use of land that is more prone for flood and drought. In addition, increased population and farming have stressed the availability of fresh water both from rivers and aquifers. Additionally, rapid urbanization has severely reduced water quality within the great rivers. Added to these problems is delta subsidence from water withdrawal that, at the moment far surpasses sea level rise from both natural and anthropogenic effects. Finally, there appear to be great plans for river diversion that may reduce fresh water inflow into the Brahmaputra delta. All of these factors fall against a background of climate change, both anthropogenic and natural, of which there is great uncertainty. We an attempt a frank assessment assessment of the sustainability of society in the great basins and make some suggestions of factors that require attention in the short term.

  20. Foreward: The Great Irish Famine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Maureen; Singer, Alan; Miletta, Maureen McCann; Singer, Judith Y.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the lessons offered in this issue of "Middle Level Learning" that are based on the materials prepared for the New York State Great Irish Famine curriculum guide in honor of the 150th anniversary of the worst year (1847) of the Great Irish Famine. (CMK)

  1. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  2. Great Explorers to the East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo:…

  3. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  4. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes,…

  5. Cholera: a great global concern.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Mandal, Manisha Deb; Pal, Nishith Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Cholera, caused by the infection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) to humans, is a life threatening diarrheal disease with epidemic and pandemic potential. The V. cholerae, both O1 and O139 serogroups, produce a potent enterotoxin (cholera toxin) responsible for the lethal symptoms of the disease. The O1 serogroup has two biotypes (phenotypes), classical and El Tor; each of which has two major serotypes (based on antigenic responses), Ogawa and Inaba and the extremely rare Hikojima. V. cholerae O1 strains interconvert and switch between the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes. Fluid and electrolyte replacement is the mainstay of treatment of cholera patients; the severe cases require antibiotic treatment to reduce the duration of illness and replacement of fluid intake. The antibiotic therapy currently has faced difficulties due to the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug resistant V. cholerae causing several outbreaks in the globe. Currently, cholera has been becoming endemic in an increasing number of geographical areas, reflecting a failure in implementation of control measures. However, the current safe oral vaccines lower the number of resistant infections and could thus represent an effective intervention measure to control antibiotic resistance in cholera. Overall, the priorities for cholera control remain public health interventions through improved drinking water, sanitation, surveillance and access to health care facilities, and further development of safe, effective and appropriate vaccines. Thus, this review describes the facts and phenomena related to the disease cholera, which is still a great threat mainly to the developing countries, and hence a grave global concern too.

  6. Project Great Start Biennial Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Dennis W.

    Project Great Start is designed to provide non-, limited-, and near-native English proficient students with improved, intensified, and increased learning opportunities for accelerated English acquisition and significant academic achievement. It focuses on three groups: students, parents, and school staff. Students and parents benefit from separate…

  7. Transposition of the great vessels

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood to mix. A surgery called an arterial switch procedure is used to permanently correct the problem ... the baby's first week of life. This surgery switches the great arteries back to the normal position ...

  8. The Sixth Great Mass Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagler, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Five past great mass extinctions have occurred during Earth's history. Humanity is currently in the midst of a sixth, human-induced great mass extinction of plant and animal life (e.g., Alroy 2008; Jackson 2008; Lewis 2006; McDaniel and Borton 2002; Rockstrom et al. 2009; Rohr et al. 2008; Steffen, Crutzen, and McNeill 2007; Thomas et al. 2004;…

  9. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  10. The Distribution of Great Earthquakes in Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirley, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    earthquakes. All other periods were characterized by the occurrence of multiple closely spaced great earthquakes, termed bursts. Burst intervals span <39 of the 107+ years of the updated catalog, while including 91% of the great earthquakes. The event frequency during bursts is 1.84 yr-1, while the corresponding rate for gap intervals is 0.10 yr-1. The current burst duration of >4 yr exceeds the mean burst duration of 2.7 yr but is considerably shorter than that for the longest burst (11 yr). While the physical origins of this temporal clustering remain mysterious, I report here the discovery of a remarkable and surprising correlation: The distribution of great earthquake occurrence times with respect to the 11-yr solar sunspot cycle is nonrandom at the 99.4% level. A bimodal distribution of phases is found, with increased event frequency found for the years approaching sunspot minima (as now), and with a second population found associated with sunspot maxima. A pronounced deficit of events is found for the intervening times, when solar activity is most rapidly rising, and then most rapidly falling. We will discuss four possible interpretations. This work was supported by the private resources of the author.

  11. Great Books 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, David

    2009-01-01

    As documented by multiple NEA studies ("Reading at Risk," 2004; "To Read or Not to Read," 2007), reading has become devalued in American life, on sale in the clearance bin along with notions of greatness, classic works and ideas, and Western civilization itself. Trying to teach fine literature, writes the author, has become the struggle of how to…

  12. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  13. The Great Bug Hunt 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The Association For Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk Great Bug Hunt 2011," in association with Martin Rapley and Gatekeeper Educational, has been a resounding success--not only because it fits into the science curriculum so neatly, but also because of the passion it evoked in the children who took part. This year's entries were…

  14. Making a Great First Impression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Renee

    2007-01-01

    Managers and business owners often base hiring decisions on first impressions. That is why it is so important to teach students to make a great first impression--before they go on that first job interview. Managers do not have unrealistic expectations, they just want to hire people who they believe can develop into valuable employees. A nice…

  15. The Great Books and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an introductory economics course in which all of the reading material is drawn from the Great Books of Western Civilization. Explains the rationale and mechanics of the course. Includes an annotated course syllabus that details how the reading material relates to the lecture material. (RLH)

  16. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  17. Great Expectations and New Beginnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    Great Expectation and New Beginnings is a prenatal family support program run by the Family, Infant, and Preschool Program (FIPP) in North Carolina. FIPP has developed an evidence-based integrated framework of early childhood intervention and family support that includes three primary components: providing intervention in everyday family…

  18. Cosmic Reason of Great Glaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagrov, Alexander; Murtazov, Andrey

    The origin of long-time and global glaciations in the past of our planet, which have been named «great», is still not clear. Both the advance of glaciers and their subsequent melting must be connected with some energy consuming processes. There is a powerful energy source permanently functioning throughout the Earth’s history - the solar radiation. The equality of the incoming shortwave solar energy and the transformed long-wave energy emitted by the Earth provides for the whole ecosphere’s sustainable evolution. Great glaciations might be caused by space body falls into the world oceans. If the body is large enough, it can stir waters down to the bottom. The world waters are part of the global heat transfer from the planet’s equator to its poles (nowadays, mostly to the North Pole). The mixing of the bottom and surface waters breaks the circulation of flows and they stop. The termination of heat transfer to the poles will result in an icecap at high latitudes which in its turn will decrease the total solar heat inflow to the planet and shift the pole ice boarder to the equator. This positive feedback may last long and result in long-time glaciations. The oceanic currents will remain only near the equator. The factor obstructing the global cooling is the greenhouse effect. Volcanic eruptions supply a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. When due to the increased albedo the planet receives less solar heat, plants bind less carbon oxide into biomass and more of it retains in the atmosphere. Therefore, the outflow of heat from the planet decreases and glaciations does not involve the whole planet. The balance established between the heat inflow and heat losses is unstable. Any imbalance acts as a positive feed-back factor. If the volcanic activity grows, the inflow of the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere will cause its heating-up (plants will fail to reproduce themselves quickly enough to utilize the carbonic acid). The temperature growth will lead to

  19. Great Lakes management: Ecological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonzogni, W. C.; Robertson, A.; Beeton, A. M.

    1983-11-01

    Although attempts to improve the quality of the Great Lakes generally focus on chemical pollution, other factors are important and should be considered Ecological factors, such as invasion of the lakes by foreign species, habitat changes, overfishing, and random variations in organism populations, are especially influential. Lack of appreciation of the significance of ecological factors stems partly from the inappropriate application of the concept of eutrophication to the Great Lakes. Emphasis on ecological factors is not intended to diminish the seriousness of pollution, but rather to point out that more cost-effective management, as well as more realistic expectations of management efforts by the public, should result from an ecosystem management approach in which ecological factors are carefully considered.

  20. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  1. Penetrating Wounds of Great Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Symbas, P. N.; Kourias, E.; Tyras, D. H.; Hatcher, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-six patients with penetrating wounds of the great vessels treated at Grady Memorial Hospital during a 7-year period were reviewed. In more than 50% of the cases, diagnosis of the injury was made at the time of emergency thoracotomy for massive bleeding. In the remaining patients the diagnosis was suspected: 1) when the pulse distal to the vascular injury was absent or weak; 2) when the patient had symptoms and signs of impaired central nervous system perfusion; 3) when the missile had traversed the mediastinum and there was roentgenographic evidence of widening of the mediastinal shadow; or, 4) when a new murmur appeared. In all suspected cases with great vessel injury, the diagnosis was confirmed arteriographically. Arteriography in such patients should be performed to define the type and site of vascular injury so that its repair can be properly planned. Twenty-nine patients recovered from their injury, 6 succumbed as a result of it and 1 required midforearm amputation following repair of a subclavian artery and vein injury. Most of these patients underwent autotransfusion which greatly contributed to their successful outcome. Local temporary shunt was used for protection of the spinal cord and/or brain when impairment of their perfusion was required for the repair of the vascular wounds. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:17859862

  2. Great Basin geoscience data base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Sawatzky, Don L.; Connors, Katherine A.

    1996-01-01

    This CD-ROM serves as the archive for 73 digital GIS data set for the Great Basin. The data sets cover Nevada, eastern California, southeastern Oregon, southern Idaho, and western Utah. Some of the data sets are incomplete for the total area. On the CD-ROM, the data are provided in three formats, a prototype Federal Data Exchange standard format, the ESRI PC ARCVIEW1 format for viewing the data, and the ESRI ARC/INFO export format. Extensive documentation is provided to describe the data, the sources, and data enhancements. The following data are provided. One group of coverages comes primarily from 1:2,000,000-scale National Atlas data and can be assembled for use as base maps. These various forms of topographic information. In addition, public land system data sets are provided from the 1:2,500,000-scale Geologic Map of the United States and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. Geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program are provided for most of the Great Basin. Geophysical data are provided for most of the Great Basin, typically gridded data with a spacing of 1 km. The geophysical data sets include aeromagnetics, gravity, radiometric data, and several derivative products. The thematic data sets include geochronology, calderas, pluvial lakes, tectonic extension domains, distribution of pre-Cenozoic terranes, limonite anomalies, Landsat linear features, mineral sites, and Bureau of Land Management exploration and mining permits.

  3. Life and death during the Great Depression

    PubMed Central

    Tapia Granados, José A.; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2009-01-01

    Recent events highlight the importance of examining the impact of economic downturns on population health. The Great Depression of the 1930s was the most important economic downturn in the U.S. in the twentieth century. We used historical life expectancy and mortality data to examine associations of economic growth with population health for the period 1920–1940. We conducted descriptive analyses of trends and examined associations between annual changes in health indicators and annual changes in economic activity using correlations and regression models. Population health did not decline and indeed generally improved during the 4 years of the Great Depression, 1930–1933, with mortality decreasing for almost all ages, and life expectancy increasing by several years in males, females, whites, and nonwhites. For most age groups, mortality tended to peak during years of strong economic expansion (such as 1923, 1926, 1929, and 1936–1937). In contrast, the recessions of 1921, 1930–1933, and 1938 coincided with declines in mortality and gains in life expectancy. The only exception was suicide mortality which increased during the Great Depression, but accounted for less than 2% of deaths. Correlation and regression analyses confirmed a significant negative effect of economic expansions on health gains. The evolution of population health during the years 1920–1940 confirms the counterintuitive hypothesis that, as in other historical periods and market economies, population health tends to evolve better during recessions than in expansions. PMID:19805076

  4. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard. PMID:27883066

  5. Meteotsunamis in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechle, Adam J.; Wu, Chin H.; Kristovich, David A. R.; Anderson, Eric J.; Schwab, David J.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2016-11-01

    The generation mechanism of meteotsunamis, which are meteorologically induced water waves with spatial/temporal characteristics and behavior similar to seismic tsunamis, is poorly understood. We quantify meteotsunamis in terms of seasonality, causes, and occurrence frequency through the analysis of long-term water level records in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The majority of the observed meteotsunamis happen from late-spring to mid-summer and are associated primarily with convective storms. Meteotsunami events of potentially dangerous magnitude (height > 0.3 m) occur an average of 106 times per year throughout the region. These results reveal that meteotsunamis are much more frequent than follow from historic anecdotal reports. Future climate scenarios over the United States show a likely increase in the number of days favorable to severe convective storm formation over the Great Lakes, particularly in the spring season. This would suggest that the convectively associated meteotsunamis in these regions may experience an increase in occurrence frequency or a temporal shift in occurrence to earlier in the warm season. To date, meteotsunamis in the area of the Great Lakes have been an overlooked hazard.

  6. Is the great attractor really a great wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Albert; Turner, Michael S.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the cosmological consequences are discussed of a late time phase transition which produces light domain walls. The observed peculiar velocity field of the Universe and the observed isotropy of the microwave background radiation severely constrain the wall surface density in such a scenario. The most interesting consequence of such a phase transition is the possibility that the local, coherent streaming motion reported by the Seven Samurai could be explained by the repulsive effect of a relic domain wall with the Hubble volume (the Great Wall).

  7. Rural School District Reorganization on the Great Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Rural school district reorganization and school consolidation are put into perspective by reviewing the large population increases that fueled small-school growth in the Great Plains, 1870-1930. Since the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, population losses, improvements in transportation, and arguments advocating economies of scale and increased…

  8. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  9. Speech About the Great Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chen Ning

    2013-05-01

    Of all the sights that I saw during that trip, the one that provoked the most thought on my part was the Great Wall. The Great Wall defies imagination. It is simple and strong. It winds gracefully up and down. It scales slowly but steadily the distant hill, to disappear down into the valley beyond, only to climb again, inexorably, to surmount the next mountain in its path. As one examines the individual stones with which it was built, one realizes how much sweat and blood there must have been in its complex history. As one looks at the overall structure, at its strength and elegance, its real significance begins to emerge. It is long. It is tenacious. It is flexible in every turn, but is persistent and persisting in the long range development. Its overall unity of purpose is what gives it strength and character. And its overall unity of purpose is what makes it one of the man-made structures on the surface of the earth to become first visible to a visitor approaching our planet from outer space...

  10. A Great Moment for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    VLT First Light Successfully Achieved The European Southern Observatory announces that First Light has been achieved with the first VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope at the Paranal Observatory. Scientifically useful images have been obtained as scheduled, on May 25 - 26, 1998. A first analysis of these images convincingly demonstrates the exceptional potential of the ESO Very Large Telescope. Just one month after the installation and provisional adjustment of the optics, the performance of this giant telescope meets or surpasses the design goals, in particular as concerns the achievable image quality. Exposures lasting up to 10 minutes confirm that the tracking, crucial for following the diurnal rotation of the sky, is very accurate and stable. It appears that the concept developed by ESO for the construction of the VLT, namely an actively controlled, single thin mirror, yields a very superior performance. In fact, the angular resolution achieved even at this early stage is unequalled by any large ground-based telescope . The combination of large area and fine angular resolution will ultimately result in a sensitivity for point sources (e.g. stars), which is superior to any yet achieved by existing telescopes on Earth. The present series of images demonstrate these qualities and include some impressive first views with Europe's new giant telescope. After further optimization of the optical, mechanical and electronic systems, and with increasing operational streamlining, this telescope will be able to deliver unique astronomical data of the highest quality. The commissioning and science verification phases of the complex facility including instruments will last until April 1, 1999, at which time the first visiting astronomers will be received. The full significance of this achievement for astronomy will take time to assess. For Europe, this is a triumph of the collaboration between nations, institutions and industries. For the first time in almost a century, European

  11. Great Time to Do Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Has there ever been a more exciting time to do physics? Whether you're interested in the big philosophical questions of matter and energy or just the next cool wireless gadget, in saving the world from nuclear annihilation or saving a single life with positron emission tomography, physics is a great place to begin the journey. In this talk, I'll expound a bit on career trajectories of hidden physicists, and touch on tales from a variety of physics research topics, from spintronics to spallation to spandex. Yes, it is an unlikely trio, but within each are opportunities for ``a meaningful undergraduate research experience,'' the kind advocated by the SPS Council for all undergraduate physics majors. Along the way, I'll mention some pointers for physics undergraduates about preparing for their future, whether it includes summer research internships, industry aspirations, or graduate school.

  12. Einstein: The Standard of Greatness

    SciTech Connect

    Rigdon, John

    2005-03-16

    Einstein's seven-month performance in 1905 has no equal in the history of physics. Beginning with his revolutionary paper, completed on March 17, and continuing to September 26, Einstein wrote a total of five papers that changed the infrastructure of physics and today, a century later, these papers remain part of the tectonic bedrock of the discipline. How Einstein approached his physics and what he accomplished certainly provided the basis for his world fame. But while the What? and the How? were, and remain, of primary importance, can they explain Einstein's celebrity standing after 1922 and his iconic status today, fifty years after his death? The question remains: Why is Einstein the standard of greatness?

  13. The Great Warming Brian Fagan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Great Warming is a journey back to the world of a thousand years ago, to the Medieval Warm Period. Five centuries of irregular warming from 800 to 1250 had beneficial effects in Europe and the North Atlantic, but brought prolonged droughts to much of the Americas and lands affected by the South Asian monsoon. The book describes these impacts of warming on medieval European societies, as well as the Norse and the Inuit of the far north, then analyzes the impact of harsh, lengthy droughts on hunting societies in western North America and the Ancestral Pueblo farmers of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. These peoples reacted to drought by relocating entire communities. The Maya civilization was much more vulnerable that small-scale hunter-gatherer societies and subsistence farmers in North America. Maya rulers created huge water storage facilities, but their civilization partially collapsed under the stress of repeated multiyear droughts, while the Chimu lords of coastal Peru adapted with sophisticated irrigation works. The climatic villain was prolonged, cool La Niñalike conditions in the Pacific, which caused droughts from Venezuela to East Asia, and as far west as East Africa. The Great Warming argues that the warm centuries brought savage drought to much of humanity, from China to Peru. It also argues that drought is one of the most dangerous elements in today’s humanly created global warming, often ignored by preoccupied commentators, but with the potential to cause over a billion people to starve. Finally, I use the book to discuss the issues and problems of communicating multidisciplinary science to the general public.

  14. Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway Regional Transportation Study; Great Lakes Area Industries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    Regional Transportation Study is an element of this planning process . The objective of the GL/SLS Regional Transportation Study is to develop an up-to-date...system performance and ability to process future cargo flows Evaluation of the performance and economic feasibility of improvements to increase the...section is organized as follows: Basic steelmaking processes Production centers in the U.S. and Canada The industry in the Great Lakes area. These

  15. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship. PMID:27003136

  16. Great Plains Synfuels` hidden treasures

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, A.K.; Duncan, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Great Plains Synfuels Project was commissioned 12 years ago. While demonstrating success regarding SNG production, DGC quietly started development of chemical products derived from the liquid by-product streams of Lurgi moving bed gasifiers. Naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil are the primary by-products, and these contain valuable compounds such as phenol, cresylic acid, catechols, naphthols, fluorene, and BTX. Process technologies have been developed for (1) separation of various impurities from cresylic acid distillate fractions or from whole cresylic acid; (2) extracting cresylic acid from tar oil; (3) conversion of tar pitch to a blend stock used in making anode binder pitch; and (4) separating high purity catechol and methyl catechols. As a result of this work, DGC built a phenol/cresylic acid facility. The cresylic acid side supplies over 10 percent of the world market. The achievement with the catechols is presently leading to bench scale routes for synthesis of chemical intermediates which ultimately may include compounds such as vanillin, pyrogallol, sesamol, homoveratrylamine, and many others, penetrating the fields of flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, photographic chemicals, dyes, etc. These efforts stimulate DGC`s growth and will provide an economic uplift. By-products already contribute more than 10% of revenues and are destined to rival natural gas in importance.

  17. Modeling toxaphene behavior in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Holsen, Thomas M; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-01-15

    Chlorinated camphenes, toxaphene, are persistent organic pollutants of concern in the Great Lakes since elevated concentrations are found in various media throughout the system. While concentrations have decreased since their peak values in the 1970s and 80s, recent measurements have shown that the rate of this decline in Lake Superior has decreased significantly. This modeling study focused on toxaphene cycling in the Great Lakes and was performed primarily to determine if elevated water and fish concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by physical differences among the lakes. Specifically, the coastal zone model for persistent organic pollutants (CoZMo-POP), a fugacity-based multimedia fate model, was used to calculate toxaphene concentrations in the atmosphere, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The performance of the model was evaluated by comparing calculated and reported concentrations in these compartments. In general, simulated and observed concentrations agree within one order of magnitude. Both model results and observed values indicate that toxaphene concentrations have declined in water and biota since the 1980s primarily as the result of decreased atmospheric deposition rates. Overall the model results suggest that the CoZMo-POP2 model does a reasonable job in simulating toxaphene variations in the Great Lakes basin. The results suggest that the recent findings of higher toxaphene concentrations in Lake Superior can be explained by differences in the physical properties of the lake (primarily large volume, large residence time and cold temperatures) compared to the lower lakes and increased recent inputs are not needed to explain the measured values.

  18. Transposition of the great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Paula; Castela, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries (TGA), also referred to as complete transposition, is a congenital cardiac malformation characterised by atrioventricular concordance and ventriculoarterial (VA) discordance. The incidence is estimated at 1 in 3,500–5,000 live births, with a male-to-female ratio 1.5 to 3.2:1. In 50% of cases, the VA discordance is an isolated finding. In 10% of cases, TGA is associated with noncardiac malformations. The association with other cardiac malformations such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is frequent and dictates timing and clinical presentation, which consists of cyanosis with or without congestive heart failure. The onset and severity depend on anatomical and functional variants that influence the degree of mixing between the two circulations. If no obstructive lesions are present and there is a large VSD, cyanosis may go undetected and only be perceived during episodes of crying or agitation. In these cases, signs of congestive heart failure prevail. The exact aetiology remains unknown. Some associated risk factors (gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal exposure to rodenticides and herbicides, maternal use of antiepileptic drugs) have been postulated. Mutations in growth differentiation factor-1 gene, the thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein-2 gene and the gene encoding the cryptic protein have been shown implicated in discordant VA connections, but they explain only a small minority of TGA cases. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, which also provides the morphological details required for future surgical management. Prenatal diagnosis by foetal echocardiography is possible and desirable, as it may improve the early neonatal management and reduce morbidity and mortality. Differential diagnosis includes other causes of central neonatal cyanosis. Palliative treatment with prostaglandin E1 and balloon atrial septostomy are usually required soon after birth

  19. TOXAPHENE STUDY OF GREAT LAKES TRIBUTARY SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Product is the paper "Pulp and Paper Mills as Sources of Toxaphene to Lake Superior and Northern Lake Michigan" published in the Journal of Great Lakes Research, 25(2):383-394 International Association of Great Lakes 1999.

  20. 75 FR 32077 - Great Outdoors Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8528 of May 28, 2010 Great Outdoors Month, 2010 By the President of the United... friends. During Great Outdoors Month, we renew our enduring commitment to protect our natural landscapes... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim June 2010 as Great Outdoors Month. I urge...

  1. The Great White Guppy: Top Predator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalski, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen isotopes are often used to trace the trophic level of members of an ecosystem. As part of a stable isotope biogeochemistry and forensics course at Purdue University, students are introduced to this concept by analyzing nitrogen isotopes in sea food purchased from local grocery stores. There is a systematic increase in 15N/14N ratios going from kelp to clams/shrimp, to sardines, to tuna and finally to shark. These enrichments demonstrate how nitrogen is enriched in biomass as predators consume prey. Some of the highest nitrogen isotope enrichments observed, however, are in the common guppy. We investigated a number of aquarium fish foods and find they typically have high nitrogen isotope ratios because they are made form fish meal that is produced primarily from the remains of predator fish such as tuna. From, a isotope perspective, the guppy is the top of the food chain, more ferocious than even the Great White shark.

  2. Treatment of great auricular neuralgia with real-time ultrasound-guided great auricular nerve block

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Younghoon; Kim, Saeyoung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The great auricular nerve can be damaged by the neck surgery, tumor, and long-time pressure on the neck. But, great auricular neuralgia is very rare condition. It was managed by several medication and landmark-based great auricular nerve block with poor prognosis. Patient concerns: A 25-year-old man presented with a pain in the left lateral neck and auricle. Diagnosis: He was diagnosed with great auricular neuralgia. Interventions: His pain was not reduced by medication. Therefore, the great auricular nerve block with local anesthetics and steroid was performed under ultrasound guidance. Outcomes: Ultrasound guided great auricular nerve block alleviated great auricular neuralgia. Lessons: This medication-resistant great auricular neuralgia was treated by the ultrasound guided great auricular nerve block with local anesthetic agent and steroid. Therefore, great auricular nerve block can be a good treatment option of medication resistant great auricular neuralgia. PMID:28328811

  3. Influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Holman, K.; Zarrin, A.; Fluck, E.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long simulations, with the lakes either included or excluded, using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4. The Great Lakes dampen the variability in near-surface air temperature across the surrounding region, while reducing the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and annual cycle of air temperature. The impacts of the Great Lakes on the regional surface energy budget include an increase (decrease) in turbulent fluxes during the cold (warm) season and an increase in surface downward shortwave radiation flux during summer due to diminished atmospheric moisture and convective cloud amount. Changes in the hydrologic budget due to the presence of the Great Lakes include increases in evaporation and precipitation during October-March and decreases during May-August, along with springtime reductions in snowmelt-related runoff. Circulation responses consist of a regionwide decrease in sea-level pressure in autumn-winter and an increase in summer, with enhanced ascent and descent in the two seasons, respectively. The most pronounced simulated impact of the Great Lakes on synoptic systems traversing the basin is a weakening of cold-season anticyclones.

  4. Save the Great Lakes fisheries!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John

    1939-01-01

    During the winters of 1939-40 and 1940-41, two experiments involving 456 bobwhite quail, were conducted at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Bowie, Maryland, to determine the palatability and comparative feeding value of 20 common wild quail-foods when offered as a part of a maintenance diet....2. Mortality was low on all diets, the highest occurring on that containing a mixture of bayberry and wax myrtle fruits. On all diets the birds showed increases in weight during the early winter. These gains were better maintained by birds on the wild foods than those on control diets composed entirely of cultivated feedstuffs.....3. There were statistically significant differences between the quantities of the various diets eaten.....4. For palatability and acceptability, seeds of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and of shrub lespedeza (Lespedeza bicolor) were the preferred wild foods.....5. It is concluded that pen-reared bobwhite quail can be maintained successfully through winters in the vicinity of Washington, D. C., on diets containing 50 per cent of any one of the wild foods listed and 50 per cent of a high-caloric commercial seed mixture with yellow corn as the principal cereal.....6. The results of these 'cafeteria' studies, although interesting and indicative of the preferences of quail in confinement, do not necessarily represent selections that might be. made by bobwhites in the wild.

  5. Galaxies Gather at Great Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Distant Galaxy Cluster Infrared Survey Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Bird's Eye View Mosaic Bird's Eye View Mosaic with Clusters [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 9.1 Billion Light-Years 8.7 Billion Light-Years 8.6 Billion Light-Years

    Astronomers have discovered nearly 300 galaxy clusters and groups, including almost 100 located 8 to 10 billion light-years away, using the space-based Spitzer Space Telescope and the ground-based Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. The new sample represents a six-fold increase in the number of known galaxy clusters and groups at such extreme distances, and will allow astronomers to systematically study massive galaxies two-thirds of the way back to the Big Bang.

    A mosaic portraying a bird's eye view of the field in which the distant clusters were found is shown at upper left. It spans a region of sky 40 times larger than that covered by the full moon as seen from Earth. Thousands of individual images from Spitzer's infrared array camera instrument were stitched together to create this mosaic. The distant clusters are marked with orange dots.

    Close-up images of three of the distant galaxy clusters are shown in the adjoining panels. The clusters appear as a concentration of red dots near the center of each image. These images reveal the galaxies as they were over 8 billion years ago, since that's how long their light took to reach Earth and Spitzer's infrared eyes.

    These pictures are false-color composites, combining ground-based optical images captured by the Mosaic-I camera on the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, with infrared pictures taken by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Blue and green represent visible light at wavelengths of 0

  6. Biological science in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    The Great Basin is an expanse of desert and high moun-tains situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of the western United States. The most explicit description of the Great Basin is that area in the West where surface waters drain inland. In other words, the Great Basin is comprised of many separate drainage areas - each with no outlet. What at first glance may appear as only a barren landscape, the Great Basin upon closer inspection reveals island mountains, sagebrush seas, and intermittent aquatic habitats, all teeming with an incredible number and variety of plants and animals. Biologists at the USGS are studying many different species and ecosystems in the Great Basin in order to provide information about this landscape for policy and land-management decision-making. The following stories represent a few of the many projects the USGS is conducting in the Great Basin.

  7. Leading Good Schools to Greatness: Mastering What Great Principals Do Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Susan Penny; Streshly, William A.

    2010-01-01

    Great leaders are made, not born. Written by the authors of "From Good Schools to Great Schools," this sequel shows how great school leaders can be developed and how leaders can acquire the powerful personal leadership characteristics that the best administrators use to lead their schools to greatness. Based on sound strategies and the work of Jim…

  8. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  9. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  10. Sequential tool use in great apes.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Schumacher, Lena; Call, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Sequential tool use is defined as using a tool to obtain another non-food object which subsequently itself will serve as a tool to act upon a further (sub)goal. Previous studies have shown that birds and great apes succeed in such tasks. However, the inclusion of a training phase for each of the sequential steps and the low cost associated with retrieving the longest tools limits the scope of the conclusions. The goal of the experiments presented here was, first to replicate a previous study on sequential tool use conducted on New Caledonian crows and, second, extend this work by increasing the cost of retrieving a tool in order to test tool selectivity of apes. In Experiment 1, we presented chimpanzees, orangutans and bonobos with an out-of-reach reward, two tools that were available but too short to reach the food and four out-of-reach tools differing in functionality. Similar to crows, apes spontaneously used up to 3 tools in sequence to get the reward and also showed a strong preference for the longest out-of reach tool independently of the distance of the food. In Experiment 2, we increased the cost of reaching for the longest out-of reach tool. Now apes used up to 5 tools in sequence to get the reward and became more selective in their choice of the longest tool as the costs of its retrieval increased. The findings of the studies presented here contribute to the growing body of comparative research on tool use.

  11. Appetite - increased

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have you noticed any other symptoms such as anxiety, palpitations , increased thirst , vomiting , frequent urination , or unintentional weight gain? Tests that may be done include: Blood tests, ...

  12. The Great Recession, Public Transfers, and Material Hardship

    PubMed Central

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; Currie, Janet; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Economic downturns lead to lost income and increased poverty. Although high unemployment almost certainly also increases material hardship, and government transfers likely decrease hardship, the first relationship has not yet been documented and the second is poorly understood. We use data from five waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study to study the relationships between unemployment, government transfers, and material hardship. The latest wave of data was collected during the Great Recession, the worst recession since the Great Depression, providing a unique opportunity to look at how high unemployment rates affect the well-being of low income families. We find that the unemployment rate is associated with increased overall material hardship, difficulty paying bills, having utilities disconnected, and with increased usage of TANF, SNAP, UI and Medicaid. If not for SNAP, food hardship might have increased by twice the amount actually observed. PMID:24379487

  13. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  14. Life on the Great Plains. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    In this four-part lesson, students examine the concept of geographic region by exploring the history of the United States Great Plains. In Part I, students gather information about the location and environment of the Great Plains in order to produce a map outlining the region in formal terms. In Part II, students examine how the region has been…

  15. Revisiting the Great Lessons. Spotlight: Cosmic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chattin-McNichols, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers the role of the Great Lessons--formation of the universe, evolution of life, evolution of humans, and discovery of language and mathematics--in the Montessori elementary curriculum. Discusses how the Great Lessons guide and organize the curriculum, as well as the timing of the lessons across the 6-12 age span. (JPB)

  16. 25 Great Ideas for Hispanic Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Hispanic Heritage Month, celebrated September 15th through October 15th, is a great opportunity to kick off a whole year of cultural discovery. This article presents 25 great ideas for Hispanic heritage. These 25 fresh ideas--from Aztec math to Carnaval masks--are easy to put together, and they offer students the chance to celebrate their own…

  17. Notes from the Great American Desert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Marilyn L.; LaCost, Barbara Y.

    2005-01-01

    In the good old days, the state that is Nebraska was identified as part of the Great American Desert. In many ways, in climate and terrain, it still bears a resemblance to a desert. As a frontier or a land of pioneers, it deserves recognition. Invisibility may be one of the greatest challenges women face. One of the great flaws in the writing of…

  18. Directory of Great Lakes Education Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The Great Lakes Science Advisory Board of the International Joint Commission surveyed several hundred educators and producers of educational programs. One of the results of the survey was the development of this directory, which is limited to materials and producers of materials dealing with the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem, environmental studies,…

  19. Great Expectations for Middle School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    During the Great Recession, 2008 to 2010, school systems scrambled to balance budgets, and the ratio of counselors to students became even larger. To make matters worse, the Great Recession had a major impact on cuts in educational funding. Budget cutbacks tend to occur where the public will be least likely to notice. The loss of teachers and the…

  20. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  1. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  2. Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the U.S. and Canada addresses critical environmental health issues in the Great Lakes region. It's a model of binational cooperation to protect water quality. It was first signed in 1972 and amended in 2012.

  3. 76 FR 32857 - Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8687 of May 31, 2011 Great Outdoors Month, 2011 By the President of the United... stretching over rolling hills and rivers raging through stone-faced cliffs. During Great Outdoors Month, we... healthy, active, and energized, while reconnecting with their natural heritage. This month, let each of...

  4. 77 FR 33597 - Great Outdoors Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8833 of June 1, 2012 Great Outdoors Month, 2012 By the President of the..., trials, and triumphs. During Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate our long legacy of environmental... Outdoors Month is a time for all Americans to share in the natural splendor of which we are all...

  5. 78 FR 33955 - Great Outdoors Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8988 of May 31, 2013 Great Outdoors Month... Great Outdoors Month, we celebrate the land entrusted to us by our forebears and resolve to pass it on... inspired us toward bold new horizons. This month, let us reflect on those timeless gifts, and let us vow...

  6. Great Lakes Education Booklet, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    This booklet integrates science, history, and environmental education to help students acquire a basic understanding of the importance of the Great Lakes located in the United States. The packet also contains a Great Lakes Basin resource map and a sand dune poster. These materials introduce students to a brief history of the lakes, the diversity…

  7. EPA Research Strengthens Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, the Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) are a source of economic prosperity, recreation and raw materials. Human activity, however, has resulted in pollution and other stressors. The Great Lakes curren...

  8. The astronomy of Chaco style great kivas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, Gene

    Are Chaco style great kivas the product of a common design criterion that was applied in order to be able to view solar and lunar events? This thesis will guide the reader through a consideration of the form of the great kiva and the history of its development. It examines how this traditional architectural form was adopted during the beginning of the Chaco era as a mechanism to coordinate seasonal ceremonial activities by observation of astronomical events, and suggests why this change may have occurred. Using excavation reports from Chaco style great kivas, along with recent astronomical observations obtained inside the Great Kiva at Aztec, it argues that a common design criterion was applied to most Chaco style great kivas, and that this common design criterion involved an orientation of building elements to the summer and winter solstice sunrise and sunsets.

  9. Osteoid osteoma of the great toe.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hiroyuki; Takase, Katsumi; Morohashi, Akira

    2011-08-08

    Osteoid osteoma is a relatively common osteoblastic lesion of benign skeletal neoplasms and occurs most commonly in the cortex of long bones, especially the femur and the tibia. Radiological characteristics are a nidus that appears as a small, relatively radiolucent zone within an area of extensive reactive sclerosis. Clinically, the lesion presents with increasing pain, is worse at night, and is relived by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Osteoid osteomas involving the phalanges of the toes are uncommon, and its accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult due to the unique clinical and radiological features. The features in the phalanx of the toe are soft tissue swelling and a nidus frequently located in the cancellous without osteosclerosis. This article presents a case of a 22-year-old man with osteoid osteoma in his distal phalanx of the hallux. A needle biopsy of his great toe revealed a small number of bacteria, so he was initially treated for osteomyelitis but with unsatisfactory results. The particular characteristics of clinical and imaging findings supported a diagnosis of osteoid osteoma in the distal phalanx of the hallux. After surgical removal of the tumor, his symptoms resolved. The pathological examination confirmed the suspected diagnosis. In a patient with chronic foot pain that changes to become nocturnal and disappears with NSAID administration, it is important to include osteoid osteoma as a differential diagnosis. A detailed assessment of both clinical and radiological features can lead to the correct diagnosis, which must be confirmed with histopathological examination to ensure adequate excision.

  10. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mary Anne; Fahnenstiel, Gary; Scavia, Donald

    2011-04-15

    Phytoplankton production is an important factor in determining both ecosystem stability and the provision of ecosystem goods and services. The expansive and economically important North American Great Lakes are subjected to multiple stressors and understanding their responses to those stresses is important for understanding system-wide ecological controls. Here we show gradual increases in spring silica concentration (an indicator of decreasing growth of the dominant diatoms) in all basins of Lakes Michigan and Huron (USA and Canadian waters) between 1983 and 2008. These changes indicate the lakes have undergone gradual oligotrophication coincident with and anticipated by nutrient management implementation. Slow declines in seasonal drawdown of silica (proxy for seasonal phytoplankton production) also occurred, until recent years, when lake-wide responses were punctuated by abrupt decreases, putting them in the range of oligotrophic Lake Superior. The timing of these dramatic production drops is coincident with expansion of populations of invasive dreissenid mussels, particularly quagga mussels, in each basin. The combined effect of nutrient mitigation and invasive species expansion demonstrates the challenges facing large-scale ecosystems and suggest the need for new management regimes for large ecosystems.

  11. Post-fire grazing management in the Great Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing wildfire size and frequency in the Great Basin call for post-fire grazing management practices that ensure sagebrush steppe communities are productive and resilient to disturbances such as drought and species invasions. We provide guidelines for maintaining productive sagebrush steppe co...

  12. Improving germination and establishment of Great Basin legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project, we have collected and evaluated several native western legumes. Germplasm releases were made, but much work remains to be done concerning how to establish these legumes for seed production and on rangelands. We report herein h...

  13. Cognitive development in transposition of the great vessels.

    PubMed

    Hesz, N; Clark, E B

    1988-02-01

    Ten children who had had transposition of the great vessels (TGV) repaired, deep hypothermia, and cardiac arrest were examined. Seven children with acyanotic heart disease and 12 unaffected siblings were tested for comparison. Their intelligence, academic achievement, and behaviour was studied. The group with TGV had lower performance subscores on the intelligence test, an increase in somatic complaints, and aggressive behaviour.

  14. Repeated Measures of Students' Marine and Great Lakes Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal statewide study of Ohio fifth and ninth graders' knowledge about and attitude toward the oceans and Great Lakes. Results indicate a knowledge score increase except for humanities items. Among science items, earth science topics showed the greatest deficiencies, and oceanic attitudes declined over the period. (15…

  15. Identity and Belonging in a Changing Great Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This resource gives students and teachers a greater understanding of identity, membership, citizenship, and belonging in the UK. In a time when debates about national identity and integration have taken on increased urgency, Facing History and Ourselves introduces, "Identity and Belonging in a Changing Great Britain". It reveals…

  16. Staff retention and recruitment: "one great department".

    PubMed

    Casady, Wanda M; Dowd, Terry A

    2002-01-01

    The projected demand for healthcare workers during the next ten years has been the impetus for many organizations to develop more creative strategies to ensure adequate staffing levels in the future. In order to keep pace with service demands, the diagnostic imaging department at Valley Lutheran Medical Center (VLMC) in Mesa, Ariz., has been growing as well. Since November of 1999, the number of core FTEs increased from 54.5 to 96. As a result, efforts to retain the current employees became just as critical as efforts to recruit staff for the new positions that were created to support the expanded services. In February 2001, an AHRA seminar was held in Phoenix, which included a day-long session called "Workforce 2001: Recruitment, Selection, Retention of Quality Employees." The presenter, Clint Maun, C.S.P., emphasized the need to provide "passionate orientation" for new employees, encouraged team-based selection of new employees, and reminded the audience that new employees decide within the first three days whether or not they will stay with an organization, regardless of how long it actually takes to leave. Maun also described to the group a model for creating team effort called "One Great Unit" (OGU), which uses a "12-Week Plan" for engaging staff. For the diagnostic imaging department at VLMC, this concept was remodeled so that, instead of focusing on one modality (unit) in the department, the focus was on the whole department. The first step to creating "One Great Department" was to establish an Oversight Committee that would help define the focus of the 12-Week Teams. Five, front-line employees were recruited who represented a cross-section of the imaging department. To assist in the implementation, the director of learning and innovation at VLMC agreed to facilitate the first two meetings. The first 12-Week Team was called together in May 2001. The operational objective addressed was "improving communication inter- and intra-departmentally." Each member

  17. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task 3, the

  18. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David; Taylor, William W.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Leonard, Nancy J.

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  19. Partitioning potential fish yields from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftus, D.H.; Olver, C.H.; Brown, Edward H.; Colby, P.J.; Hartman, Wilbur L.; Schupp, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    We proposed and implemented procedures for partitioning future fish yields from the Great Lakes into taxonomic components. These projections are intended as guidelines for Great Lakes resource managers and scientists. Attainment of projected yields depends on restoration of stable fish communities containing some large piscivores that will use prey efficiently, continuation of control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), and restoration of high-quality fish habitat. Because Great Lakes fish communities were harmonic before their collapse, we used their historic yield properties as part of the basis for projecting potential yields of rehabilitated communities. This use is qualified, however, because of possible inaccuracies in the wholly commercial yield data, the presence now of greatly expanded sport fisheries that affect yield composition and magnitude, and some possibly irreversible changes since the 1950s in the various fish communities themselves. We predict that total yields from Lakes Superior, Huron, and Ontario will be increased through rehabilitation, while those from Lakes Michigan and Erie will decline. Salmonines and coregonines will dominate future yields from the upper lakes. The Lake Erie fishery will continue to yield mostly rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the relative importance of percids, especially of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) will increase. In Lake Ontario, yields of salmonines will be increased. Managers will have to apply the most rigorous management strictures to major predator species.

  20. A Great Teacher-Maurois Remembered Alain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baslaw, Annette S.

    1972-01-01

    This article deals with the fame and philosophies of a great" teacher, Emile-Auguste Chartier, better known as Alain. The author includes quotes from Andre Maurois which reflect the regard that is felt for Alain. (MS)

  1. Aquatic Trash Prevention National Great Practices Compendium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Great Practice Compendium highlights outstanding activities, technologies, and programs that prevent trash from entering the aquatic environment and/or that reduce the overall volume of trash that is generated.

  2. Animation: 'Great Lake' on Jupiter's Moon Europa

    NASA Video Gallery

    Data from a NASA planetary mission have provided scientists evidence of what appears to be a body of liquid water, equal in volume to the North American Great Lakes, beneath the icy surface of Jupi...

  3. The geologic story of the Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    For more than half a century after Lewis and Clark crossed the country in 1805-6, the Great Plains was the testing ground of frontier America here America grew to maturity (fig. 1). In 1805-7, explorer Zebulon Pike crossed the southcentral Great Plains, following the Arkansas River from near Great Bend, Kans., to the Rocky Mountains. In later years, Santa Fe traders, lured by the wealth of New Mexican trade, followed Pike's path as far as Bents Fort, Colo., where they turned southwestward away from the river route. Those pioneers who later crossed the plains on the Oregon Trail reached the Platte River near the place that would become Kearney, Nebr., by a nearly direct route from Independence, Mo., and followed the Platte across the central part of the Great Plains.

  4. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. Classics in the Classroom: Great Expectations Fulfilled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Shela

    1986-01-01

    Describes how an English teacher in a Queens, New York, ghetto school introduced her grade nine students to Charles Dickens's "Great Expectations." Focuses on students' responses, which eventually became enthusiastic, and discusses the use of classics within the curriculum. (KH)

  6. Cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical collections of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepod crustaceans in the Great Lakes have mainly been based on samples taken with plankton nets in deeper waters (>5 m). Of the non-calanoid copepod species known from the Great Lakes, 58 or 64 live primarily on or in the sediments and rarely are collected in plankton samples. Because of their small size, they are rarely retained in the coarse sieves used to concentrate samples of benthic invertebrates. Thus, the abundance and distribution of most species of these two groups of copepods have never been adequately documented in the Great Lakes. We examined the stomach contents of small, bottom-feeding fishes such as slimy sculpin which feed on benthic copepods that live in deep, inaccessible rocky areas of the Great Lakes to collect some of the material. We also collected in shallow nearshore habitats, including wetlands. We present an annotated checklist of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods based on published records and our recent collections in the Great Lakes. We have added 14 species of cyclopoid copepods to the Great Lakes record, increasing the total to 30. Because we probably have accounted for most of the cyclopoid species, we provide a key to the identification of this group. We have added 19 species of harpacticoid copepods to the 15 previously known to the Great Lakes, and suspect that additional species remain to be discovered. In individual lakes, there were approximately as many species of cyclopoids as harpacticoids; the total number of species per lake ranged from 35 to 57. The most speciose genera were Bryocamptus (7), Canthocamptus (5), and Moraria (5) in the Harpacticoida, and Diacyclops (6) and Acanthocyclops (5) in the Cyclopoida. The origin of introduced species, our ability to classify copepod habitat, and the ecological significance of copepods are discussed.

  7. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul; Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Great egret

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Brian R.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    1984-01-01

    The great egret, also called common egret or American egret, is a large white heron tn the order Ciconiiformes, family Ardeidae. Great egrets stand 94.0-104.1 cm (37-41 inches) tall and have a wing spread to 139.7 cm (55 inches) (Terres 1980). The species is associated with streams, ponds, lakes, mud flats, swamps, ahd freshwater and salt marshes. The birds feed in shallow water on fishes, amphibians, reptiles, crustaceans and insects (Terres 1980).

  9. The great asteroid nomenclature controversy of 1801

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    1992-01-01

    With the almost complete neglect of 19th century asteroid research by professional historians of science, it is scarcely surprising that great gaps exist in our knowledge of that important field. This paper focuses on issue of naming the first asteroid. This seemingly innocuous issue assumed great importance because many believed the object discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Observatory to be the eighth primary planet of the solar system.

  10. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  11. The Great Recession and the risk for child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-10-01

    This study draws on the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2,032), a birth cohort study of families with children from 20 U.S. cities. Interviews occurred between August 2007, and February 2010, when the children were approximately 9 years old. Macro-economic indicators of the Great Recession such as the Consumer Sentiment Index and unemployment and home foreclosure rates were matched to the data to estimate the links between different measures of the Great Recession and high frequency maternal spanking. We find that the large decline in consumer confidence during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index, was associated with worse parenting behavior. In particular, lower levels of consumer confidence were associated with increased levels of high frequency spanking, a parenting behavior that is associated with greater likelihood of being contacted by child protective services.

  12. The Great Recession and the Risk for Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study draws on the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,032), a birth cohort study of families with children from 20 U.S. cities. Interviews occurred between August 2007, and February 2010, when the children were approximately 9 years old. Macro-economic indicators of the Great Recession such as the Consumer Sentiment Index and unemployment and home foreclosure rates were matched to the data to estimate the links between different measures of the Great Recession and high frequency maternal spanking. We find that the large decline in consumer confidence during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index, was associated with worse parenting behavior. In particular, lower levels of consumer confidence were associated with increased levels of high frequency spanking, a parenting behavior that is associated with greater likelihood of being contacted by child protective services. PMID:24045057

  13. Predicting Great Lakes fish yields: tools and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, C.A.; Schupp, D.H.; Taylor, W.W.; Collins, J.J.; Hatch, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Prediction of yield is a critical component of fisheries management. The development of sound yield prediction methodology and the application of the results of yield prediction are central to the evolution of strategies to achieve stated goals for Great Lakes fisheries and to the measurement of progress toward those goals. Despite general availability of species yield models, yield prediction for many Great Lakes fisheries has been poor due to the instability of the fish communities and the inadequacy of available data. A host of biological, institutional, and societal factors constrain both the development of sound predictions and their application to management. Improved predictive capability requires increased stability of Great Lakes fisheries through rehabilitation of well-integrated communities, improvement of data collection, data standardization and information-sharing mechanisms, and further development of the methodology for yield prediction. Most important is the creation of a better-informed public that will in turn establish the political will to do what is required.

  14. Ecosystem services in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinman, Alan D.; Cardinale, Bradley J; Munns Jr, Wayne R; Ogdahl, Mary E.; Allan, David J; Angadi, Ted; Bartlett, Sarah; Brauman, Kate; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Doss, Matt; Dupont, Diane; Johns, Annie; Kashian, Donna; Lupi, Frank; McIntyre, Peter B.; Miller, Todd; Moore, Michael P.; Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Poudel, Rajendra; Price, James; Provencher, Bill; Rea, Anne; Read, Jennifer; Renzetti, Steven; Sohngen, Brent; Washburn, Erica

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services across the entire Great Lakes basin is currently lacking and is needed to make informed management decisions. A greater appreciation and understanding of ecosystem services, including both use and non-use services, may have avoided misguided resource management decisions in the past that resulted in negative legacies inherited by future generations. Given the interest in ecosystem services and lack of a coherent approach to addressing this topic in the Great Lakes, a summit was convened involving 28 experts working on various aspects of ecosystem services in the Great Lakes. The invited attendees spanned a variety of social and natural sciences. Given the unique status of the Great Lakes as the world's largest collective repository of surface freshwater, and the numerous stressors threatening this valuable resource, timing was propitious to examine ecosystem services. Several themes and recommendations emerged from the summit. There was general consensus that: 1) a comprehensive inventory of ecosystem services throughout the Great Lakes is a desirable goal but would require considerable resources; 2) more spatially and temporally intensive data are needed to overcome our data gaps, but the arrangement of data networks and observatories must be well-coordinated; 3) trade-offs must be considered as part of ecosystem services analyses; and 4) formation of a Great Lakes Institute for Ecosystem Services, to provide a hub for research, meetings, and training is desirable. Several challenges also emerged during the summit, which are discussed.

  15. American undergraduate students' value development during the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Park, Heejung; Twenge, Jean M; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2017-02-01

    The Great Recession's influence on American undergraduate students' values was examined, testing Greenfield's and Kasser's theories concerning value development during economic downturns. Study 1 utilised aggregate-level data to investigate (a) population-level value changes between the pre-recession (2004-2006: n = 824,603) and recession freshman cohort (2008-2010: n = 662,262) and (b) overall associations of population-level values with national economic climates over long-term periods by correlating unemployment rates and concurrent aggregate-level values across 1966-2015 (n = 10 million). Study 2 examined individual-level longitudinal value development from freshman to senior year, and whether the developmental trajectories differed between those who completed undergraduate education before the Great Recession (freshmen in 2002, n = 12,792) versus those who encountered the Great Recession during undergraduate years (freshmen in 2006, n = 13,358). Results suggest American undergraduate students' increased communitarianism (supporting Greenfield) and materialism (supporting Kasser) during the Great Recession. The recession also appears to have slowed university students' development of positive self-views. Results contribute to the limited literature on the Great Recession's influence on young people's values. They also offer theoretical and practical implications, as values of this privileged group of young adults are important shapers of societal values, decisions, and policies.

  16. 77 FR 33450 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH Corporation From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... performance resulting in increased pre-rinsing and/or hand washing as well as increased detergent and rinse... detergents leading to additional detergent usage. Hard water also causes increased water spots on dishware... well as increased detergent and rinse agent usage. The water softening process requires water usage...

  17. Feeding habitat selection by great blue herons and great egrets nesting in east central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Galli, J.

    2002-01-01

    Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) partitioned feeding habitat based on wetland size at Peltier Lake rookery in cast central Minnesota. Great Blue Herons preferred large water-bodies ( greater than or equal to350 ha), whereas Great Egrets fed most often at small ponds (<25 ha). Forty-nine percent of Great Blue Herons used wetlands 301 - 400 hectares in size and 83% of Great Egrets fed in wetlands <100 ha in size. Great Blue Herons selected large wetlands more often than expected both at the regional (30-km radius) and local (4-km radius) scales. Habitat use by Great Egrets was in proportion to availability at the regional scale, but they selected smaller wetlands for feeding more often than expected at a local scale. The median flight distance of Great Blue Herons was 2.7 km, similar to distances reported elsewhere. Great Egrets flew farther to feeding sites than Great Blue Herons, and flew farther (median = 13.5 km) than reported in other geographic areas. Received 22 September 2001, accepted 5 November 2001.

  18. Great Lakes Energy-Water Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent

    2014-09-18

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region’s energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decision-making is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  19. The reproductive toxicology of Great Lakes contaminants.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, W G

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is characterized as a heavily populated and industrialized region in which a large number of environmental contaminants have been identified. Both the scientific community and the public have voiced concern that contaminants present in the Great Lakes may pose undue risk to human reproduction. Evidence from animal experiments, wildlife studies, and reports of occupational and accidental human exposures indicate that chemical contaminants can adversely affect reproduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the reproductive toxicity of some of the many contaminants known to be present in the Great Lakes. Since the number of chemicals present in the Great Lakes is far too great for each to be adequately reviewed here, discussion will be limited to those contaminants that have been identified in human serum, ovarian follicular fluid, and semen obtained from people residing in the Great Lakes region. It is concluded that a) the data at present is too limited to support the notion that reproduction, in the general population, has been impaired by exposure to chemicals present in the Great Lakes; b) the lack of data in some cases such as for hexachloroethane and 1,2,4-trichlobenzene does provide reason for concern and underscores the need for further research in this area; and c) the potential for a number of the compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT), to disrupt endocrine functions suggests that additive or synergistic effects of these compounds may already be causing adverse effects on reproduction in sensitive individuals, which needs to be explored. PMID:8635441

  20. Comparative isotope ecology of African great apes.

    PubMed

    Oelze, Vicky M; Fahy, Geraldine; Hohmann, Gottfried; Robbins, Martha M; Leinert, Vera; Lee, Kevin; Eshuis, Henk; Seiler, Nicole; Wessling, Erin G; Head, Josephine; Boesch, Christophe; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2016-12-01

    The isotope ecology of great apes is a useful reference for palaeodietary reconstructions in fossil hominins. As extant apes live in C3-dominated habitats, variation in isotope signatures is assumed to be low compared to hominoids exploiting C4-plant resources. However, isotopic differences between sites and between and within individuals are poorly understood due to the lack of vegetation baseline data. In this comparative study, we included all species of free-ranging African great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, Gorilla sp.). First, we explore differences in isotope baselines across different habitats and whether isotopic signatures in apes can be related to feeding niches (faunivory and folivory). Secondly, we illustrate how stable isotopic variations within African ape populations compare to other extant and extinct primates and discuss possible implications for dietary flexibility. Using 701 carbon and nitrogen isotope data points resulting from 148 sectioned hair samples and an additional collection of 189 fruit samples, we compare six different great ape sites. We investigate the relationship between vegetation baselines and climatic variables, and subsequently correct great ape isotope data to a standardized plant baseline from the respective sites. We obtained temporal isotopic profiles of individual animals by sectioning hair along its growth trajectory. Isotopic signatures of great apes differed between sites, mainly as vegetation isotope baselines were correlated with site-specific climatic conditions. We show that controlling for plant isotopic characteristics at a given site is essential for faunal data interpretation. While accounting for plant baseline effects, we found distinct isotopic profiles for each great ape population. Based on evidence from habituated groups and sympatric great ape species, these differences could possibly be related to faunivory and folivory. Dietary flexibility in apes varied, but temporal variation was overall

  1. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  2. [The Great Ape Project--human rights for the great anthropoid apes].

    PubMed

    Scharmann, W

    2000-01-01

    The Great Ape Project (GAP) is an appeal of 36 scientist from different disciplines aiming at the legal equalisation of the non-human great apes (chimpanzees, gorillas and orang-utans) with man. The appeal is expressed by a number of essays stating zoological, genetical, ethological, anthropological, ethical and psychological knowledge and, based on these arguments, demanding the abolition of the species barrier between human beings and great apes. The central point of the initiative is the "Declaration on Great Apes", claiming the inclusion of great apes in the "community of equals" and thus securing three basic rights for all great apes: 1. The Right of Life; 2. The Protection of Individual Liberty; 3. The Prohibition of Torture. Not only experiments with great apes and their capture from the wilderness will be banned, but it is also intended to enfranchise as many great apes as possible from research laboratories and zoos. As a legal basis for the achievement of basic rights most of the authors plead for the idea of conferring the moral status of "persons" on great apes. Criticism of the GAP is due to its anthropocentrism. Rejection is especially expressed by advocates of pathocentric ethics who argue that the species barrier will not be abolished but only shifted, running then between the great apes and the remaining living beings. However, the GAP resulted in a greater retention in the use of great apes for experiments in several industrial countries. Additionally, the popular literature published by ethologists in the passed decades has supported a more responsible attitude of the public towards primates. Despite of all efforts the survival of the great apes is greatly endangered within their native countries.

  3. Biological Effects of the Great Oxidation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil evidence of photoautotrophy, documented in Precambrian sediments by stromatolites, stromatolitic microfossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with autotrophic CO2-fixation, extends to ~3,500 Ma. Such data, however, are insufficient to establish the time of origin of O2-producing (cyanobacterial) photosynthesis from its anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterial, evolutionary precursor. The oldest (Paleoarchean) stromatolites may have been formed by anoxygenic photoautotrophs, rather than the cyanobacteria that dominate Proterozoic and modern stromatolites. Unlike the cyanobacteria of Proterozoic microbial assemblages, the filamentous and coccoidal microfossils of Archean deposits may represent remnants of non-O2-producing prokaryotes. And although the chemistry of Archean organic matter shows it to be biogenic, its carbon isotopic composition is insufficient to differentiate between oxygenic and anoxygenic sources. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its early stages and that O2-producing photosynthesis evolved earlier, perhaps much earlier, than the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the ~2,450 and ~2,320 Ma Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the time of origin of oxygenic photoautotrophy has yet to be established. Recent findings suggest that Earth's ecosystem responded more or less immediately to the GOE. The increase of atmospheric oxygen markedly affected ocean water chemistry, most notably by increasing the availability of biologically usable oxygen (which enabled the development of obligate aerobes, such as eukaryotes), and of nitrate, sulfate and hydrogen sulfide (the increase of H2S being a result of microbial reduction of sulfate), the three reactants that power the anaerobic basis of sulfur-cycling microbial sulfuretums. Fossil evidence of the earliest eukaryotes (widely accepted to date from ~1800 Ma and, arguably, ~2200 Ma) fit this scenario, but the most telling example of life's response to the GOE

  4. 77 FR 19650 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH Corporation From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... resulting in increased pre-rinsing and/or hand washing as well as increased detergent and rinse agent usage... mineral content of ``hard'' water. Hard water reduces the effectiveness of detergents leading to additional detergent usage. Hard water also causes increased water spots on dishware, resulting in the...

  5. Causes and Predictability of the 2012 Great Plains Drought

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Kumar, A.; Leung, R.; Mariotti, A.; Mo, K.; Schubert, S.; Seager, R.

    2013-01-01

    Central Great Plains precipitation deficits during May-August 2012 were the most severe since at least 1895, eclipsing the Dust Bowl summers of 1934 and 1936. Drought developed suddenly in May, following near-normal precipitation during winter and early spring. Its proximate causes were a reduction in atmospheric moisture transport into the Great Plains from the Gulf of Mexico. Processes that generally provide air mass lift and condensation were mostly absent, including a lack of frontal cyclones in late spring followed by suppressed deep convection in summer owing to large-scale subsidence and atmospheric stabilization. Seasonal forecasts did not predict the summer 2012 central Great Plains drought development, which therefore arrived without early warning. Climate simulations and empirical analysis suggest that ocean surface temperatures together with changes in greenhouse gases did not induce a substantial reduction in summertime precipitation over the central Great Plains during 2012. Yet, diagnosis of the retrospective climate simulations also reveals a regime shift toward warmer and drier summertime Great Plains conditions during the recent decade, most probably due to natural decadal variability. As a consequence, the probability for severe summer Great Plains drought may have increased in the last decade compared to the 1980s and 1990s, and the so-called tail-risk for severe drought may have been heightened in summer 2012. Such an extreme drought event was nonetheless still found to be a rare occurrence within the spread of 2012 climate model simulations. Implications of this study's findings for U.S. seasonal drought forecasting are discussed.

  6. Lessons from a great developmental biologist.

    PubMed

    De Robertis, Edward M

    2014-07-01

    The announcement that Sir John Gurdon had been awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was received with great joy by developmental biologists. It was a very special occasion because of his total dedication to science and turning the Golden Rule of western civilization - love your neighbor as yourself - into a reality in our field. This essay attempts to explain how John became such a great scientific benefactor, and to review some of his discoveries that are less well known than the nuclear transplantation experiments. A few personal anecdotes are also included to illustrate the profound goodness of this unique man of science.

  7. Lessons from a Great Developmental Biologist

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    The announcement that Sir John Gurdon had been awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was received with great joy by developmental biologists. It was a very special occasion because of his total dedication to science and turning the Golden Rule of western civilization – love your neighbor as yourself – into a reality in our field. This essay attempts to explain how John became such a great scientific benefactor, and to review some of his discoveries that are less well known than the nuclear transplantation experiments. A few personal anecdotes are also included to illustrate the profound goodness of this unique man of science. PMID:25455202

  8. Natural remediation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Kamrin, Michael A.; Hickey, James P.; Swindoll, C. Michael; Stahl, Ralph G.; Ells, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    Overall, the existence of stricter environmental laws during the last 30 years and a reduction in the manufacturing base in the Great Lakes has resulted in improvement in conditions in harbors, rivers, and nearshore waters. Problems remain, such as the inability to dredge certain harbors and remove sediments because of lack of disposal facilities for contaminated sediments. Because of the wide extent of of contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes, much work remains to be done to document the condition of contaminated areas and the degree to which remediation of these areas is occurring from biotic and abiotic natural processes.

  9. Studies on the Great Barrier Reef

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, S.

    1985-01-01

    Proposals to drill for oil on Australia's Great Barrier Reef have led to the appointment of a royal commission to study the environmental impact of such activities. The Australian Institute of Marine Science has developed a 5-part research plant which covers the Australian mangrove environment; nearshore habitat; processes and interactions, energy flows, resource cycling and their consequences within the reef ecosystems; patterns, abundances and relationships within the reef; and the continental shelf of the Great Barrier Reef region. Research in each of these areas is described.

  10. Native Great Lakes wolves were not restored.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Jennifer A; Wayne, Robert K

    2008-02-23

    Wolves from the Great Lakes area were historically decimated due to habitat loss and predator control programmes. Under the protection of the US Endangered Species Act, the population has rebounded to approximately 3000 individuals. We show that the pre-recovery population was dominated by mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from an endemic American wolf referred to here as the Great Lakes wolf. In contrast, the recent population is admixed, and probably derives also from the grey wolf (Canis lupus) of Old World origin and the coyote (Canis latrans). Consequently, the pre-recovery population has not been restored, casting doubt on delisting actions.

  11. Breeding success and lutein availability in great tit ( Parus major)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillanpää, Saila; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2009-11-01

    The relationship among temporal variation in the availability of carotenoid-rich food, tissue carotenoid levels and breeding success are poorly known. We studied how diet quality and quantity affect the carotenoid profile and fledging success of great tit ( Parus major) nestlings along a pollution gradient. We found declining seasonal trend in lutein concentration of caterpillars, which may be the explanation for the declining trend in nestlings' lutein concentration of plasma with season, despite the increase in caterpillar biomass. This may be because the biomass of most lutein-rich caterpillars (autumnal moths) decreased and less lutein-rich caterpillars (sawflies) increased during the breeding season. The temporal difference in occurrence of different caterpillar species means that peak lutein availability does not coincide with peak caterpillar abundance. However the positive association between total larval biomass and the number of great tit fledglings may suggest that fledging success depends more on total caterpillar availability than on lutein concentration of caterpillars.

  12. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  13. Statistical Downscaling for the Northern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, J.

    2014-12-01

    The need for detailed, local scale information about the warming climate has led to the use of ever more complex and geographically realistic computer models as well as the use of regional models capable of capturing much finer details. Another class of methods for ascertaining localized data is known as statistical downscaling, which offers some advantages over regional models, especially in the realm of computational efficiency. Statistical downscaling can be described as the process of linking coarse resolution climate model output to that of fine resolution or even station-level data via statistical relationships with the purpose of correcting model biases at the local scale. The development and application of downscaling has given rise to a plethora of techniques which have been applied to many spatial scales and multiple climate variables. In this study two downscaling processes, bias-corrected statistical downscaling (BCSD) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA), are applied to minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation for the Northern Great Plains (NGP, 40 - 53°N and 95 - 120°W) region at both daily and monthly time steps. The abilities of the methods were tested by assessing their ability to recreate local variations in a set of both spatial and temporal climate metrics obtained through the analysis of 1/16 degree station data for the period 1950 to 2000. Model data for temperature, precipitation and a set of predictor variables were obtained from CMIP5 for 15 models. BCSD was applied using direct comparison and correction of the variable distributions via quadrant mapping. CCA was calibrated on the data for the period 1950 to 1980 using a series of model-based predictor variables screened for increasing skill, with the derived model being applied to the period 1980 to 2000 so as to verify that it could recreate the overall climate patterns and trends. As in previous studies done on other regions, it was found that the CCA method recreated

  14. The surge of great earthquakes from 2004 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thorne

    2015-01-01

    During the decade from mid-2004 to mid-2014 18 great (Mw ≥ 8.0) earthquakes occurred globally (∼1.8 per year), compared to 71 from 1900 to mid-2004 (∼0.68 per year), yielding a short-term rate increase of 265%. Six events had Mw ≥ 8.5, larger than any prior event since the 1965 Rat Islands earthquake. The December 26, 2004 Mw 9.2 Sumatra earthquake had the longest recorded rupture length of 1300+ km and a rupture duration exceeding 450 s. The largest recorded strike-slip earthquake (Mw 8.7) occurred in the Indo-Australian plate on April 11, 2012. The largest recorded deep focus earthquake (Mw 8.3) occurred under the Sea of Okhotsk on May 24, 2013. While this overall surge of activity has not been demonstrated to be causally linked, regional spatio-temporal clustering is clearly evident for great events along the Sumatra, Kuril and Tonga subduction zones, and longer-range interactions have been established for global seismicity and seismic tremor at lower magnitudes following some of the events. This recent decade of intense great earthquake activity coincided with vastly expanded global networks of seismometers, GPS stations, tsunami gauges, and new satellite imaging capabilities such as InSAR and LandSAT interferometry and gravity measurements by GRACE and GOCE, enabling unprecedented analyses of precursory, co-seismic and post-seismic processes around the subduction zone environments where most of the events occurred. Individual events such as the March 11, 2011, Tohoku, Japan Mw 9.0 earthquake produced more ground motion and tsunami recordings than available for all great earthquakes of the last century collectively. Joint inversion and modeling of the diverse data sets exploit complementary sensitivity of the signals to different aspects of the earthquake processes. Major advances have been achieved in quantifying frictional locking and strain accumulation prior to some great events and in relating it to co-seismic slip heterogeneity. Many surprising

  15. The Great Basin Research and Management Partnership

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Basin is undergoing major sociological and ecological change as a result of urbanization, changing technology and land use, climate change, limited water resources, altered fire regimes, and invasive species, insects, and disease. Sustaining ecosystems, resources, and human populations of...

  16. Growing Great Minds: Seizing the Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers must seize the opportunity to grow great minds. Contextualizing the argument in the writing of renowned poets, noted educators, and distinguished moral heroes whose life's work was dedicated to the principles of democracy, this article reminds practicing teachers in this challenging moment that "You are braver than you believe,…

  17. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  18. Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

    The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

  19. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  20. The Technological Diegesis in "The Great Gatsby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Mingquan

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the technological diegesis in "The Great Gatsby." In the novel, Fitzgerald cleverly integrates the technological forces into his writing. He particularly relies on the two main props of automobile and telephone to arrange his fragmented plots into a whole. By the deliberate juxtaposition of men and women and machines…

  1. The Five Great Ideas of Our Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Identifies five great ideas of the U.S. Constitution as power, liberty, justice, equality, and property. The first of two installments, article focuses on how ideas of power and liberty are presented in the Constitution. It also discusses how people may exercise power through voting and public protest and liberty through their First Amendment…

  2. Great Depression a Timely Class Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that a number of history and social studies teachers have found that because of the parallels they're able to draw between the current economic crisis and the Great Depression, their students are seeing that history is relevant. They're engaging more deeply in history lessons than they have in previous years. The teachers say…

  3. The Classical Plotline of "The Great Gatsby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Dennis P.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that an understanding of the craft of fiction is furthered by a return to the original creation, concluding that "The Great Gatsby" is one of the best examples of Aristotle's description of tragedy as set forth in "The Poetics." (RB)

  4. A Hierarchical Grouping of Great Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Donald G.

    1977-01-01

    Great educators of history were categorized on the basis of their: aims of education, fundamental ideas, and educational theories. They were classed by Ward's method of hierarchical analysis into six groupings: Socrates, Ausonius, Jerome, Abelard; Quintilian, Origen, Melanchthon, Ascham, Loyola; Alciun, Comenius; Vittorino, Basedow, Pestalozzi,…

  5. The Nature of Psychology: The Great Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    Research about the nature of psychology, its subject matter, its level of analysis, its scientific laws, its relationship with other disciplines, and its social relevance has been a matter of great concern and interest during the development of psychology. This problem can be analyzed in terms of the dilemmas of the psychological discipline, which…

  6. The Great Work of the New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Berry explores the meaning of work from the standpoint of human civilization responding to the call of the universe, replacing use and exploitation of nature with the wonder, rapport, and intimacy so important to the psychic balance of the developing human and natural harmony of life on Earth. The Great Work is defined as the work of…

  7. The Great Depression: Were You There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissandrello, Paul, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a method of teaching a unit on the Great Depression and the New Deal. The author contacted a local nursing home for anyone interested in sharing recollections of the 1930s. The respondent, a retired chiropractor, proved an interesting and delightful resource. The author notes that students and visitor profited from the interaction. (KC)

  8. Cambrian paleogeography of the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    McCollum, L.B.; McCollum, M.B. )

    1991-02-01

    The Cambrian Period encompasses an interval from about 570 Ma to about 505 Ma. Rock sequences, aggregating more than 4 km thick, were originally deposited as clastic and carbonate sediments in fluvial, nearshore, and marine settings along the western Cordilleran passive margin, which was located 10-15{degree} north of the equator. One of the more easily studies areas within the Cordillera is the Great Basin province in the western United States, where Cambrian strata are well exposed within at least 75 block faulted mountain ranges. The Lower Cambrian of the Great Basin was dominated by fluvial and nearshore marine siliciclastics deposited across a broad passive margin. Although shallow marine carbonates were generally restricted to the southeastern Great Basin, a regionally extensive carbonate platform development near the end of the Early Cambrian. The last major influx of cratonally derived clastics completely covered the carbonate platform at the onset of the Middle Cambrian. The carbonate platform reestablished itself in a more cratonward position throughout the rest of the Cambrian, although complex facies patterns resulted from environmental shifts, periodic siliciclastic input, and several drowning events. This resulted in highly variable lithologic mosaics, which may partially account for the over one hundred formational designations currently in use for the Cambrian of the Great Basin.

  9. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow.

  10. Ecology of Great Salt Pond, Block Island

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Salt Pond is an island of estuarine water on Block Island, which sits in the middle of the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf. When the last continental glaciers retreated, they left a high spot on a terminal moraine. The rising sea from melting glaciers formed two island...

  11. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  12. The Great Bug Hunt Is Back!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Rapley, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Science Education's "schoolscience.co.uk" and Martin Rapley, presenter of "The Big Bug Experience," are again running the Great Bug Hunt in 2012. Simply identify a habitat, explore and discover the bugs that live there, photograph or draw them and record findings--it's that simple. The winner will be the…

  13. LARGE AND GREAT RIVERS: NEW ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecological Exposure Research Division has been conducting research to support the development of the next generation of bioassessment and monitoring tools for large and great rivers. Focus has largely been on the development of standardized protocols for the traditional indi...

  14. CONTEMPLATING THE ASSESSMENT OF GREAT RIVER ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The science and practice of assessing the status and trends of ecological conditions in great rivers have not kept pace with perturbation wrought on these systems. Participants at a symposium sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Council of State G...

  15. The Great Acting Teachers and Their Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brestoff, Richard

    This book explores the acting theories and teaching methods of great teachers of acting--among them, the Europeans Stanislavski, Meyerhold, Brecht, and Grotowski; the Japanese Suzuki (who trained in Europe); and the contemporary Americans, Stella Adler, Lee Strasberg, and Sanford Meisner. Each chapter of the book includes a sample class, which…

  16. Temperature Over Time at the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rick; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which water temperature is investigated in relation to water depth, weather patterns, land use, time of year, and other factors students choose to investigate with data collected from the Internet. Uses the Great Lakes as the setting for this investigation and examines how and why the temperature of a body of water changes…

  17. The Future of Great Lakes Rivermouth Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Rivermouth Collaboratory, a group of scientists and stakeholders representing academics, federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are developing a conceptual model that draws upon existing data sources to synthesize the "state of the s...

  18. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  19. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    Within this submission are multiple .tif images with accompanying metadata of magnetotelluric conductor occurrence, fault critical stress composite risk segment (CRS), permeability CRS, Quaternary mafic extrusions, Quaternary fault density, and Quaternary rhyolite maps. Each of these contributed to a final play fairway analysis (PFA) for the SE Great Basin study area.

  20. Great Lakes Environmental Education. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The International Joint Commission report builds on a previous report to the Governments of the United States and Canada that recommended the Great Lakes (GL) States and Provinces incorporate the GL ecosystem as a priority topic in existing school curricula. This report begins by building an argument showing the need for environmental education…

  1. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  2. [Psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    2010-05-01

    The article presents an observe of questions of organization of psychiatric aid during the Great Patriotic War, main disadvantages of the first period of war, their dependence from circumstances of prewar period, ignoring of experience of last war. There was marked the role of famous native psychiatrists in organization of psychiatric aid to military servicemen in theatre of combat actions.

  3. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  4. How To Become a Great Public Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Marylaine

    2003-01-01

    Presents interviews with Fred Kent, founder of the Project for Public Spaces (PPS) and Phil Myrick, PPS's assistant vice president, about transforming libraries into desirable public spaces. Discusses qualities people value in public spaces; great library buildings and what they are doing right; the first thing library directors should do when…

  5. Biological Effects–Based Tools for Monitoring Impacted Surface Waters in the Great Lakes: A Multiagency Program in Support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particul...

  6. Volatile selenium flux from the great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Oliver, W.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (<4 m in depth) may be responsible for volatile Se production. Volatile Se flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Volatile selenium flux from the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ximena; Johnson, William P; Oliver, Wade A; Naftz, David L

    2009-01-01

    The removal mechanisms that govern Se concentrations in the Great Salt Lake are unknown despite this terminal lake being an avian habitat of hemispheric importance. However, the volatilization flux of Se from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hypersaline environment This paper presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of dissolved volatile Se (areally and with depth) in the south arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of dissolved volatile Se in a cryofocusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryotrapped volatile Se was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS). Results show concentrations of dissolved volatile Se that increase with depth in the shallow brine, suggesting that phytoplankton in the open waters and bioherms in shallow sites (<4 m in depth) may be responsible for volatile Se production. Volatile Se flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport models corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the south arm of the Great Salt Lake. The estimated annual flux of volatile Se was 1455 kg/year within a range from 560 to 3780 kg Se/year for the 95% confidence interval and from 970 to 2180 kg Se/year within the 68% confidence interval.

  8. Life in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is life in the Great Lakes. Students learn about shorebird adaptations,…

  9. Great Lakes Environmental Issues. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is environmental issues in the Great Lakes. Students learn about the…

  10. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program... Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce. ACTION... notice published in the Federal Register on January 19, 2010. That notice announced the NOAA Great...

  11. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.

    The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology

  12. From Good to Great: Exemplary Teachers Share Perspectives on Increasing Teacher Effectiveness across the Career Continuum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen; Bassett, Katherine; Olson, Derek; Jacques, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    For well over a decade, teachers have been recognized as the single most important school-level factor influencing student achievement (Darling-Hammond, 2000; McCaffrey, Lockwood, Koretz, & Hamilton, 2003; Rivkin, Hanushek, & Kain, 2000; Rowan, Correnti & Miller, 2002; Wright, Horn, & Sanders, 1997). Tremendous public resources…

  13. From Good to Great: Designing a PDS Partnership that Increases Student Achievement by Preparing Better Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Gloria; Lee, Valarie; Leftwich, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    The College of Education at Rowan University has held a long and continuing commitment to the tenets of the Professional Development School (PDS) movement. Two schools in the Rowan's network--Holly Glen Elementary and Edward R. Johnstone Elementary Schools--have a long history of exceptional commitment to continuous growth by all P-12 faculty and…

  14. Summer fire increases plant-available nitrogen and phosphorus in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire is an important process maintaining ecosystem functioning in grasslands. Most wildfires in the western U.S. burn during summer and coincide with the greatest fire danger. Consequently, experimental data are lacking and little is known about the impacts of summer fire on ecosystem function. S...

  15. Declining Coral Calcification on the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De'ath, Glenn; Lough, Janice M.; Fabricius, Katharina E.

    2009-01-01

    Reef-building corals are under increasing physiological stress from a changing climate and ocean absorption of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. We investigated 328 colonies of massive Porites corals from 69 reefs of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in Australia. Their skeletal records show that throughout the GBR, calcification has declined by 14.2% since 1990, predominantly because extension (linear growth) has declined by 13.3%. The data suggest that such a severe and sudden decline in calcification is unprecedented in at least the past 400 years. Calcification increases linearly with increasing large-scale sea surface temperature but responds nonlinearly to annual temperature anomalies. The causes of the decline remain unknown; however, this study suggests that increasing temperature stress and a declining saturation state of seawater aragonite may be diminishing the ability of GBR corals to deposit calcium carbonate.

  16. The Great Recession and Mother’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Duque, Valentina; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2016-01-01

    We use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study to investigate the impacts of the Great Recession on the health of mothers. We focus on a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as health behaviors. We find that increases in the unemployment rate decrease self-reported health status and increase smoking and drug use. We also find evidence of heterogeneous impacts. Disadvantaged mothers—African-American, Hispanic, less educated, and unmarried–experience greater deterioration in their health than advantaged mothers—those who are white, married, and college educated. PMID:27212714

  17. Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenail.

    PubMed

    Fierro-Arias, Leonel; Morales-Martínez, André; Zazueta-López, Rosa María; Ramírez-Dovala, Silvia; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    Congenital malalignment of the great toenail (CMA) is a disorder of the anatomic orientation of the ungual apparatus, in which the longitudinal axis of the nail plate is not parallel with the axis of the distal phalanx but is deflected sideways. This disorder is understood to arise from multiple factors. Although many theories have been proposed about its origin, its pathogenesis is not fully known. Besides the cosmetic impact, this disorder causes such problems in the medium and long term as onychocryptosis and difficulty in motion. Some cases may regress spontaneously, although persistent cases may require a specialized surgical approach. Congenital malalignment of the great toenail is poorly understood and described medical condition that is often treated incorrectly; thus, reviewing the subject is important. A symptombased clinical classification system is proposed to guide diagnosis and treatment modality decisions.

  18. ERTS-1 views the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The meteorological content of ERTS images, particularly mesoscale effects of the Great Lakes and air pollution dispersion is summarized. Summertime lake breeze frontal clouds and various winter lake-effect convection patterns and snow squalls are revealed in great detail. A clear-cut spiral vortex over southern Lake Michigan is related to a record early snow storm in the Chicago area. Marked cloud changes induced by orographic and frictional effects on Lake Michigan's lee shore snow squalls are seen. The most important finding, however, is a clear-cut example of alterations in cumulus convection by anthropogenic condensation and/or ice nuclei from northern Indiana steel mills during a snow squall situation. Jet aircraft condensation trails are also found with surprising frequency.

  19. Dry Climate Disconnected the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, C. F. Michael; King, John W.; Blasco, Stefan M.; Brooks, Gregory R.; Coakley, John P.; Croley, Thomas E.; Dettman, David L.; Edwards, Thomas W. D.; Heil, Clifford W.; Hubeny, J. Bradford; Laird, Kathleen R.; McAndrews, John H.; McCarthy, Francine M. G.; Medioli, Barbara E.; Moore, Theodore C.; Rea, David K.; Smith, Alison J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have produced a new understanding of the hydrological history of North America's Great Lakes, showing that water levels fell several meters below lake basin outlets during an early postglacial dry climate in the Holocene (younger than 10,000 radiocarbon years, or about 11,500 calibrated or calendar years before present (B.P.)). Water levels in the Huron basin, for example, fell more than 20 meters below the basin overflow outlet between about 7900 and 7500 radiocarbon (about 8770-8290 calibrated) years B.P. Outlet rivers, including the Niagara River, presently falling 99 meters from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario (and hence Niagara Falls), ran dry. This newly recognized phase of low lake levels in a dry climate provides a case study for evaluating the sensitivity of the Great Lakes to current and future climate change.

  20. Dynamic lithosphere within the Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Ryan C.; Fouch, Matthew J.; Schmerr, Nicholas C.

    2014-04-01

    place new constraints on the short-term, broad-scale lithospheric evolution of plate interiors, we utilize broadband seismic data from the Great Basin region of the Western United States to produce high-resolution images of the crust and upper mantle. Our results suggest that parts of the Great Basin lithosphere has been removed, likely via inflow of hot asthenosphere as subduction of the Farallon spreading center occurred and the region extended. In our proposed model, fragments of thermal lithosphere removed by this process were gravitationally unstable and subsequently sank into the underlying mantle, leaving behind less dense, stronger, chemically depleted lithosphere. This destabilization process promotes volcanism, deformation, and the reworking of continental lithosphere inboard from plate margins. Our results provide evidence for a new mechanism of lithospheric evolution that is likely common and significant in postsubduction tectonic settings.

  1. Why are there no great women chefs?

    PubMed

    Druckman, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This article applies the rhetorical and deliberately provocative approach of the watershed essay art historian Linda Nochlin wrote in 1971—“Why Have there Been No Great Women Artists?”—to today's culinary industry. Nochlin used the question her title posed as a theoretical trap that would draw attention not only to the inherent sexism or prejudice that pervades the way the public perceives art, but also to those same issues' existence within and impact on academia and the other cultural institutions responsible for posing these sorts of questions. Nochlin bypassed the obvious and irrelevant debate over women's being less or differently talented and, in so doing, exposed that debate for being a distraction from the heart of the matter: how, sociologically (media) or institutionally (museums, foundations, etc.), people define a “great artist.” Although it's 40 years later, the polemic is as effective when used to understand the gender divide in the food world.

  2. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Susan Small, director of the Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  3. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A great horned owl flies to freedom after its release at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  4. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  5. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  6. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, remove two great horned owls from the vehicle before releasing them at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release..

  7. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  8. Great 3 - Cultural Resource Inventory. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    of Engineers, the Missouri Department of Natural Re- sources/Historic Preservation Program, and the Illinois Department of Conservation/ Division of...Cultural Sequences Proposed for Missouri Drainages and Localities and Illinois Natural Division in GREAT III area 30 Figure 7. Missouri DNR/HPP Drainage...and the Natural Divisions of Illinois.. 33 I I D -iii- " I LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS Craig Sturdevant Principal Investigator, Report Author M.A

  9. Great Plains makes 100 billion cubic feet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Great Plains coal gasification plant on January 18, 1987 produced its 100 billionth cubic foot of gas since start-up July 28, 1984. Owned by the Department of Energy and operated by ANG Coal Gasification Company, the plant uses the Lurgi process to produce about 50 billion cubic feet per year of gas from five million tons per year of lignite. The plant has been performing at well above design capacity.

  10. Hydrogeomorphic classification for Great Lakes coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Dennis A.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Ingram, Joel W.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogeomorphic classification scheme for Great Lakes coastal wetlands is presented. The classification is hierarchical and first divides the wetlands into three broad hydrogeomorphic systems, lacustrine, riverine, and barrier-protected, each with unique hydrologic flow characteristics and residence time. These systems are further subdivided into finer geomorphic types based on physical features and shoreline processes. Each hydrogeomorphic wetland type has associated plant and animal communities and specific physical attributes related to sediment type, wave energy, water quality, and hydrology.

  11. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project (GRIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Fortin, V.; Fry, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    As a continuation of investments in the development of alternative methods for estimating major components of the Great Lakes water budget through the recently-completed International Joint Commission (IJC) International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS), representatives from a variety of United States and Canadian agencies have formed a bi-national collaboration to assess alternative methods for modeling runoff within the Great Lakes basin. The project is based on assessing and comparing simulated runoff across the watersheds of both Lake Michigan and Lake Ontario, with an emphasis on understanding the different sources of data needed to support these models, and a comparison between both total runoff and estimated runoff at individual gauging stations. Models, or modeling frameworks (and contributing agencies) participating in the project include (but are not limited to) Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels (or AFINCH, from USGS), the Community Hydrologic Prediction System (or CHPS, from NOAA's National Weather Service), the MESH system (from Environment Canada), the Large Basin Runoff Model (or LBRM, from NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory) as well as a series of empirical methods for extrapolating historical gauge measurements to ungauged portions of each Lake basin. This presentation will also explore alternative methods for comparing runoff estimates over broad spatial scales, and for understanding potential sources of bias and uncertainty within and between these estimates. For models generating probabilistic estimates (i.e. with an explicit expression of uncertainty) we provide a comparison based on posterior predictive p-values (similar to rank histograms), an approach which, unlike conventional deterministic metrics, provides an indication of the relative importance of uncertainty in large-scale hydrological model assessment and how expressions of that uncertainty propagate into model-based water resources management planning

  12. Solitary nodule of the great toe.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; Wilde, J L; Sartori, C R; Elston, D M

    2001-07-01

    We describe a 21-year-old woman with a subungual exostosis exhibiting both skin and nail findings. The patient presented with a firm, flesh-colored, nontender, subungual nodule in the distal nail bed of the great toe. Radiographic examination revealed focal calcification of the nodule, with direct communication to the underlying phalanx. Subungual exostosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any digital mass. Surgical excision, followed by curettage of the base, is the treatment of choice.

  13. SE Great Basin Play Fairway Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission includes a Na/K geothermometer probability greater than 200 deg C map, as well as two play fairway analysis (PFA) models. The probability map acts as a composite risk segment for the PFA models. The PFA models differ in their application of magnetotelluric conductors as composite risk segments. These PFA models map out the geothermal potential in the region of SE Great Basin, Utah.

  14. Great Universalist of the 20TH Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershtein, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    One of the most prominent physicists of the 20th century, Lev Davidovich Landau, was at the same time a great universalist who made fundamental contributions in diverse areas of physics: quantum mechanics, solid state physics, theory of magnetism, phase transition theory, nuclear and particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED), low-temperature physics, fluid dynamics, atomic collision theory, theory of chemical reactions, and other disciplines.

  15. Ordovician chitinozoan zones of Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hutter, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    Within the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US, Ordovician chitinozoans have been recovered in two major lithic facies; the western eugeosynclinal facies and the eastern miogeosynclinal facies. Chitinozoans recovered from these facies range in age from Arenig to Ashgill. Extensive collections from this area make possible the establishment of chitinozoan faunal interval zones from the Ordovician of this area. Selected species of biostratigraphic value include, in chronostratigraphic order, Lagenochitina ovoidea Benoit and Taugourdeau, 1961, Conochitina langei Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitinia poumoti Combaz and Penique, Desmochitina cf. nodosa Eisenack, 1931, Conochitina maclartii Combaz and Peniguel, 1972, Conochitina robusta Eisenack, 1959, Angochitina capitallata Eisenack, 1937, Sphaerochitina lepta Jenkins. 1970, and Ancyrochitina merga Jenkins, 1970. In many cases, these zones can be divided into additional sub-zones using chitinozoans and acritarchs. In all cases, these chitinozoan faunal zones are contrasted with established American graptolite zones of the area, as well as correlated with British standard graptolite zones. The composition of these faunas of the western US Great Basin is similar to that of the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico, to which direct comparisons have been made. There also appears to be a great similarity with the microfaunas and microfloras of the Ordovician of the Canning basin of western Australia. The Ordovician chitinozoan faunal interval zones established for the Basin and Range province of the Great Basin of the western US also appear to be applicable to the Marathon region of west Texas and the Basin Ranges of Arizona and New Mexico.

  16. Miocene precursors to Great Barrier Reef

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, P.J.; Symonds, P.A.; Feary, D.A.; Pigram, C.

    1988-01-01

    Huge reefs of Miocene age are present in the Gulf of Papua north of the present-day Great Barrier Reef and to the east on the Marion and Queensland Plateaus. In the Gulf of Papua, Miocene barrier reefs formed the northern forerunner of the Great Barrier Reef, extending for many hundreds of kilometers along the eastern and northern margin of the Australian craton within a developing foreland basin. Barrier reefs, slope pinnacle reefs, and platform reefs are seen in seismic sections and drill holes. Leeside talus deposits testify to the high energy impinging on the eastern margin of these Miocene reefs. The Queensland Plateau is a marginal plateau east of the central Great Barrier Reef and separated from it by a rift trough. Miocene reefs occupied an area of about 50,000 km/sup 2/ and grew on salt-controlled highs on the western margin of the plateau and on a regional basement high extending from the platform interior to its southern margin. Reef growth has continued to the present day, although two major contractions in the area covered by reefs occurred during the Miocene. The Marion Plateau is present directly east of the Great Barrier Reef and during the Micoene formed a 30,000-km/sup 2/ platform with barrier reefs along its northern margin and huge platform reefs and laggons on the platform interior. These reefs grew on a flat peneplained surface, the whole area forming a large shallow epicontinental sea. In all three areas, the middle Miocene formed the acme of reef expansion in the region.

  17. Moral reasoning about great apes in research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Carol Midori

    2006-04-01

    This study explored how individuals (biomedical scientists, Great Ape Project activists, lay adults, undergraduate biology and environmental studies students, and Grade 12 and 9 biology students) morally judge and reason about using great apes in biomedical and language research. How these groups perceived great apes' mental capacities (e.g., pain, logical thinking) and how these perceptions related to their judgments were investigated through two scenarios. In addition, the kinds of informational statements (e.g., biology, economics) that may affect individuals' scenario judgments were investigated. A negative correlation was found between mental attributions and scenario judgments while no clear pattern occurred for the informational statements. For the biomedical scenario, all groups significantly differed in mean judgment ratings except for the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students. For the language scenario, all groups differed except for the GAP activists, and undergraduate environmental studies and Grade 9 students. An in-depth qualitative analysis showed that although the biomedical scientists, GAP activists and Grade 9 students had similar judgments, they produced different mean percentages of justifications under four moral frameworks (virtue, utilitarianism, deontology, and welfare). The GAP activists used more virtue reasoning while the biomedical scientists and Grade 9 students used more utilitarian and welfare reasoning, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of developing environmental/humane education curricula.

  18. Geothermal fluid genesis in the Great Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    Early theories concerning geothermal recharge in the Great Basin implied recharge was by recent precipitation. Physical, chemical, and isotopic differences between thermal and non-thermal fluids and global paleoclimatic indicators suggest that recharge occurred during the late Pleistocene. Polar region isotopic studies demonstrate that a depletion in stable light-isotopes of precipitation existed during the late Pleistocene due to the colder, wetter climate. Isotopic analysis of calcite veins and packrat midden megafossils confirm the depletion event occurred in the Great Basin. Isotopic analysis of non-thermal springs is utilized as a proxy for local recent precipitation. Contoured plots of deuterium concentrations from non-thermal and thermal water show a regional, systematic variation. Subtracting contoured plots of non-thermal water from plots of thermal water reveals that thermal waters on a regional scale are generally isotopically more depleted. Isolated areas where thermal water is more enriched than non-thermal water correspond to locations of pluvial Lakes Lahontan and Bonneville, suggesting isotopically enriched lake water contributed to fluid recharge. These anomalous waters also contain high concentrations of sodium chloride, boron, and other dissolved species suggestive of evaporative enrichment. Carbon-age date and isotopic data from Great Basin thermal waters correlate with the polar paleoclimate studies. Recharge occurred along range bounding faults. 151 refs., 62 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  20. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  1. LANDSCAPE-SCALE ECOLOGICAL FACTORS AND THEIR ROLE IN PLANT OPPORTUNISM OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (USA and Canada) are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems of the world. However, since the 1970s the presence of opportunistic plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis [Cav.] Steudel) have increased in Great ...

  2. 3 CFR 8687 - Proclamation 8687 of May 31, 2011. Great Outdoors Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hills and rivers raging through stone-faced cliffs. During Great Outdoors Month, we rededicate ourselves... community-driven action to protect our invaluable natural heritage. Our plan will restore and increase... Conservation Service Corps so that young people can experience and restore the great outdoors. To...

  3. Competition effects from cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) differs among perennial grasses of the Great Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition from the exotic annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), threatens millions of hectares of native plant communities throughout the Great Basin. The Nature Conservancy has identified the Great Basin as the third most endangered ecosystem in the United States. Not only has increased fue...

  4. EPA Report to Congress: Great Lakes Restoration Initiative is Accelerating Great Lakes Cleanup and Protection

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Chicago (July 28, 2015) - During its first five years, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative implemented more than 2500 projects to improve water quality, clean up contaminated shoreline, protect and restore native habitat and species and prevent and cont

  5. BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT AND CLASSIFICATION FOR GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are a valued aquatic resource that provide important ecological functions for the Great Lakes including serving as fish habitat, aquatic food web support, and nutrient and sediment retention from watersheds. Great Lakes resource managers need assessme...

  6. Aerosol Production from the Great Lakes Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Mwaniki, G.; Bertman, S. B.; Vanreken, T. M.; Shepson, P. B.

    2009-12-01

    It is well understood that oceans generate airborne particulate matter from mechanical processes such as sea spray and bubble bursting. These particles are primarily composed of salts and other nonvolatile inorganic material; however, the organic mass fraction can vary by location and the extent of biological activity. The size distributions of aerosols in these environments depend greatly on relative humidity with diameters ranging from typically several hundred nanometers to several micrometers. There has been much less discussion of particle formation from fresh water ecosystems, a hub for organic activity, and thus a more likely medium for organic aerosol production. We investigated particle formation over the Great Lakes during the summer of 2009 as a part of the Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions Experiments (CABINEX) at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) in Pellston, MI. With a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) aboard Purdue University’s Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) for size-distribution analysis of accumulation-mode aerosol, we conducted vertical profiles above Lake Michigan and the UMBS deciduous forest, and transects across the peninsula between Lakes Michigan and Huron to study particle formation, transport, and deposition. Preliminary results reveal a well-mixed troposphere above the forest with a mode ~0.1 μm, while in several cases, the total particle concentration over Lake Michigan is an order of magnitude greater than over the forest. There is a consistent bimodal distribution of particle sizes over Lake Michigan the lowest of which is centered at ~0.025 μm, suggesting the possibility of new particle formation. This mode is consistent with the presence of breaking waves on the lake’s surface, and this mode and the vertical structure depend greatly on wind speed. We present here evidence for new particle production from breaking waves on fresh water lakes, and discuss the results

  7. The Great Stench or the fool's argument.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The eight weeks of the "Great Stench" in London in June-July 1858 had a lasting effect on the city. Today's embankments were planned then, and the huge oval brick sewers of London were designed and constructed as a direct result of the stench. The event occurred before the bacteriological era, when fear of cholera caused by a miasma gripped the city. This article, through quotations from The Times, Punch, and the medical press, traces the various reactions to the stink and explores the reasons why there wasn't more of a public reaction to the plague threat. PMID:1814064

  8. The Great Stench or the fool's argument.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J D

    1991-01-01

    The eight weeks of the "Great Stench" in London in June-July 1858 had a lasting effect on the city. Today's embankments were planned then, and the huge oval brick sewers of London were designed and constructed as a direct result of the stench. The event occurred before the bacteriological era, when fear of cholera caused by a miasma gripped the city. This article, through quotations from The Times, Punch, and the medical press, traces the various reactions to the stink and explores the reasons why there wasn't more of a public reaction to the plague threat.

  9. Great Lakes Sinkholes: A Microbiogeochemical Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; Nold, Stephen C.; Ruberg, Steven A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Sanders, T. Garrison; Gray, Jefferson J.

    2009-02-01

    Recent underwater explorations have revealed unique hot spots of biogeochemical activity at several submerged groundwater vents in Lake Huron, the third largest of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Fueled by venting groundwater containing high sulfate and low dissolved oxygen, these underwater ecosystems are characterized by sharp physical and chemical gradients and spectacularly colorful benthic mats that overlie carbon-rich sediments. Here, typical lake inhabitants such as fish and phytoplankton are replaced by communities dominated by microorganisms: bacteria and archaea that perform unique ecosystem functions. Shallow, sunlit sinkholes are dominated by photosynthetic microorganisms and processes, while food webs in deep aphotic sinkholes are supported primarily by chemosynthesis.

  10. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    False color representation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) taken through three different near-infrared filters of the Galileo imaging system and processed to reveal cloud top height. Images taken through Galileo's near-infrared filters record sunlight beyond the visible range that penetrates to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere before being reflected by clouds. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation. Light reflected by Jupiter at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane strongly absorbs is shown in red. Due to this absorption, only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (732 nm) where methane absorbs less strongly is shown in green. Lower clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere is shown in blue: This light is reflected from the deepest clouds. Thus, the color of a cloud in this image indicates its height. Blue or black areas are deep clouds; pink areas are high, thin hazes; white areas are high, thick clouds. This image shows the Great Red Spot to be relatively high, as are some smaller clouds to the northeast and northwest that are surprisingly like towering thunderstorms found on Earth. The deepest clouds are in the collar surrounding the Great Red Spot, and also just to the northwest of the high (bright) cloud in the northwest corner of the image. Preliminary modeling shows these cloud heights vary over 30 km in altitude. This mosaic, of eighteen images (6 in each filter) taken over a 6 minute interval during the second GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996, has been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet

  11. Great Plains Gasification Project status report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, D.C.

    1985-08-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Project is the first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion in the US. The goal is to convert North Dakota lignite into pipeline quality synthetic natural gas (SNG). The project consists of an open pit coal mine, a gasification plant, and an SNG pipeline in Mercer County, North Dakota. The project took 12 years from its conception to the production in 1984 of SNG for users. The author describes the plant's basic processes, the start-up activities and schedule, and some of the more interesting start-up problems.

  12. Great debate probes Pluto's planetary credentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-09-01

    It had all the trappings of an Olympic boxing final: two fiery competitors, a partisan crowd and the attention of the global press. But no individual gold medalist emerged from the Great Planet Debate held last month in Baltimore to discuss what type of astronomical object Pluto really is. Rather, the contest between Neil de-Grasse Tyson, director of New York's Hayden Planetarium, and Mark Sykes of the University of Arizona's Planetary Science Institute provided a view of how science deals with controversial issues of definition.

  13. Dust storms - Great Plains, Africa, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woiceshyn, P. M.; Krauss, R.; Minzner, R.; Shenk, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dust storms in the Great Plains of North America and in the Sahara Desert are analyzed on the basis of imagery from the geostationary Synchronous Meteorological Satellite. The onset time, location and areal extent of the dust storms are studied. Over land surfaces, contrast enhancement techniques are needed to obtain an adequate picture of dust storm development. In addition, infrared imagery may provide a means of monitoring the strong horizontal temperature gradients characteristic of dust cloud boundaries. Analogies between terrestrial dust storms and the airborne rivers of dust created by major Martian dust storms are also drawn.

  14. Monitoring sweetener consumption in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Hinson, A L; Nicol, W M

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the consumption of intense sweeteners in Great Britain in 1988 quantified the levels of usage of different sweeteners and identified their distribution between food categories and population subgroups. Saccharin was found to be the most widely used intense sweetener. Beverages were the most common source of intense sweeteners. The quantities consumed of all sweeteners were found to be below the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) values established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, the European Commission Scientific Committee for Food or the UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products and the Environment.

  15. Medicine Wheels of the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, David

    Medicine Wheels are unexplained aboriginal boulder configurations found primarily on hilltops and river valley vistas across the northwest Great Plains of North America. Their varied, complex designs have inspired diverse hypotheses concerning their meaning and purpose, including astronomical ones. While initial "observatory" speculations were unfounded, and quests to "decode" these structures remain unfulfilled and possibly misguided, the Medicine Wheels nevertheless represent a uniquely worthwhile case study in archaeoastronomical theory and method. In addition, emerging technologies for data acquisition and analysis pertinent to Medicine Wheels offer prospectively important new sight lines for the future of archaeoastronomy.

  16. Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.

    1977-01-01

    Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.

  17. [Communication networks in great natural disasters].

    PubMed

    Galinski, R

    1990-02-01

    A great natural disaster destroys every energy supplies and the communication network necessary for the organisation of health care (telephone, telex) is entirely or partially not functioning. It becomes impossible to be informed about the hospitals and others sanitary availabilities in the disaster area. Our personal experience, during the El Asnam's and Mexico's earthquakes demonstrates the necessity to maintain a functioning network for sanitary use. The unique possibility is the availability of portable, battery operated radio-transmitters. It is necessary to have these equipment in all hospitals and health centers in the area of a previsible disaster. A good scheduled training is necessary for the medical and paramedical personal of these areas.

  18. Semiannual variations of great geomagnetic storms: Solar sources of great storms. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Cliver, E.W.; Crooker, N.U.; Cane, H.V.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report preliminary results of an investigation of the solar sources of 25 great geomagnetic storms with D sub st < or = {minus}250 nT occurring from 1957-1990. These storms exhibit a clear semiannual variation with 14 events occurring within {+-} 30 days of the equinoxes vs. 5 storms within {+-} 30 days of the solstices. This seasonal variation appears to result from a variable threshold for the size of a solar event required to produce a great geomagnetic storm, in the sense that weaker solar events, such as disappearing solar filaments, are more likely to produce great storms at the equinoxes than near the solstices. The great problem storms of the last four solar cycles, i.e., those storms lacking commensurate preceding solar activity, are all found to occur relatively near the equinoxes. Conversely, four of the five great storms that occurred near the solstices were preceded by truly outstanding solar flares. About half (11/25) of the great storms had obvious precursor geomagnetic activity, i.e., periods of approximately > 1 day with D sub st approximately < {minus}30 nT. The precursors can enable some weaker solar events to be more geoeffective than would otherwise be the case in two ways: (1) compression and amplification of pre-existing southward (precursor) fields by the transient shock, and (2) establishment of a lower D sub st baseline , making it easier for transient events to drive D sub st to values < or = {minus}250 nT.

  19. Evidence for external forcing temporal clustering of great earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Zhumabayev, Beibit; Toyshiev, Nursultan; Kairatkyzy, Dina; Kaldybayev, Azamat; Nurakynov, Serik

    2016-04-01

    It is shown by Bufe and Perkins [2005, BSSA, doi:10.1785/0120040110] and Shearera and Stark [2012, PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1118525109] that clustering of great earthquakes in 1950-1965 and 2004-2011 years is highly significant, with a 0.5% probability of random occurrence. Lutikov and Rogozhin [2014, Physics of the Solid Earth] reported on a similar clustering in the end of 19th - beginning of 20ty centuries as well, when strongest earthquakes occurred in Tien Shan (1889, M=8.3; and 1911, M=8.2); Alaska (1899, M=8.0); Kashgaria (1902, M=8.2); Mongolia (1905, M=8.2); San Francisco (1906, M=8.3), China(1906, M=8.3); Columbia (1906, M=8.6). Shearera and Stark [2012] have found that clustering of great earthquakes is analogous to seismic swarms that occur for a limited time. Simultaneously, they mentioned that at present no physical mechanism has been proposed to explain possible global seismicity swarms. Our results suggest that a mechanism responsible for temporal clustering of great earthquakes could be an external one related to the processes in the whole solar system including the Sun. We pay attention that the three marked periods of great earthquake clustering are related closely to the extreme phases of the recent Solar Centennial Gleissberg Cycle, which minimums occurred around of 1913 and 2008 years, and maximum - around of 1960 year. In particular, the great earthquake clustering in 1950-1965 coincides closely with the extremely high 19th eleven year solar cycle lasting from February 1954 to October 1964, while a great earthquake clustering after 2004 year coincides closely with the recent prolonged solar minimum developing after 2000 year. Also, we demonstrate that depending on the structure and composition of the lithosphere, strongest earthquakes may prefer to occur either in high or low solar activity. In particular, data analysis for 32 strongest (M=>7.0) earthquakes occurred in 1973-2014 years in the orogeny region of Eurasia, restricted by coordinates

  20. Great Basin Integrated Landscape Monitoring Pilot Summary Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Sean P.; Kitchell, Kate; Baer, Lori Anne; Bedford, David R.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Matchett, J.R.; Mathie, Amy; Miller, David M.; Pilliod, David S.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The Great Basin Integrated Landscape Monitoring Pilot project (GBILM) was one of four regional pilots to implement the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Thrust on Integrated Landscape Monitoring (ILM) whose goal was to observe, understand, and predict landscape change and its implications on natural resources at multiple spatial and temporal scales and address priority natural resource management and policy issues. The Great Basin is undergoing rapid environmental change stemming from interactions among global climate trends, increasing human populations, expanding and accelerating land and water uses, invasive species, and altered fire regimes. GBLIM tested concepts and developed tools to store and analyze monitoring data, understand change at multiple scales, and forecast landscape change. The GBILM endeavored to develop and test a landscape-level monitoring approach in the Great Basin that integrates USGS disciplines, addresses priority management questions, catalogs and uses existing monitoring data, evaluates change at multiple scales, and contributes to development of regional monitoring strategies. GBILM functioned as an integrative team from 2005 to 2010, producing more than 35 science and data management products that addressed pressing ecosystem drivers and resource management agency needs in the region. This report summarizes the approaches and methods of this interdisciplinary effort, identifies and describes the products generated, and provides lessons learned during the project.

  1. Ammonium Hydrosulfide and Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R.; Chanover, N.; Simon, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The color and composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) has been debated for more than a century. While there are numerous hypotheses for the origin of Jupiter's GRS, recent work suggests that the GRS's color could originate from multiple components (Carlson et al., 2012; Simon et al., submitted). In light of this, we have recently begun conducting in situ laboratory experiments that test whether ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, or its radiation decomposition products contribute to the GRS spectrum. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our most recent results, where we have studied the stability of NH4SH samples as a function of temperature using infrared and mass spectrometry. Funding for this work has been provided by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Outer Planets Research programs. ReferencesCarlson, R. W., K. H. Baines, M. S. Anderson, G. Filacchione. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, DPS, 44, 2012. Simon, A. A., J. Legarreta, F. Sanz-Requena, S. Perez-Hoyos, E. Garcia-Melendo, R. W. Carlson. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, submitted.

  2. DOE receives title to Great Plains plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    On June 30, 1986 the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project was sold at a foreclosure sale at the Mercer County courthouse in North Dakota. The US Department of Energy was the only bidder at the sale. DOE's bid for the plant was $1 billion DOE-secured loan that the five sponsor companies defaulted on when they withdrew from the project in August 1985. DOE did not receive title to the plant until a lawsuit filed by American Natural Resources (ANR) was settled on July 14, 1986. DOE has vowed to keep the plant running as long as it does not cost the taxpayers any money. Eventually DOE wishes to dispose of the plant. Therefore, in February 1986 DOE requested that interested organizations submit expressions of interest in the Great Plains plant. This paper, after discussing the lawsuit, summarizes the nine responses received by DOE. Some companies were willing for it to remain a coal gasification facility; other submitted plans for modifications to produce methanol.

  3. How to write a great business plan.

    PubMed

    Sahlman, W A

    1997-01-01

    Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers - and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture's product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it.

  4. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. This photograph shows the Cornell #2 team driving their vehicle through the course. The team finished the race in second place in the college division. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle, that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  5. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the team from Lafayette County High school in Higginsville, Missouri, designated Lafayette County team #1, races through the course to cross the finish line to win the high school division. The team beat out 26 other teams representing high schools from 9 states. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  6. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, Team No. 1 from North Dakota State University in Fargo conquers one of several obstacles on their way to victory. The team captured first place honors in the college level competition.

  7. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, racers from C-1 High School in Lafayette County, Missouri, get ready to tackle the course. The team pedaled its way to victory over 29 other teams to take first place honors. It was the second year in a row a team from the school has placed first in the high school division. (NASA/MSFC)

  8. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. A team from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, took the first place honor in the college division. In this photograph, the Cornell #1 team, the collegiate first place winner, maneuvers their vehicle through the course. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a humanpowered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  9. 9th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico and South America came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 9th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Seventy-seven teams, representing high schools and colleges from 21 states, Puerto Rico, and Columbia, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. In this photograph, the New Orleans area schools team #2 from New Orleans, Louisiana maneuvers through an obstacle course. The team captured second place in the high school division competition. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by the development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems, similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team.

  10. The superego, narcissism and Great Expectations.

    PubMed

    Ingham, Graham

    2007-06-01

    The author notes that the concepts of the superego and narcissism were linked at conception and that superego pathology may be seen as a determining factor in the formation of a narcissistic disorder; thus an examination of the superego can function as a "biopsy", indicating the condition of the personality as a whole. Charles Dickens's novel "Great Expectations" is presented as a penetrating exploration of these themes and it is argued that in Pip, the central character, Dickens provides a perceptive study of the history of a narcissistic condition. Other key figures in the book are understood as superego representations and, as such, integral to the vicissitudes of Pip's development. In particular, the lawyer Jaggers is considered as an illustration of Bion's notion of the "ego-destructive superego". In the course of the paper, the author suggests that Great Expectations affirms the psychoanalytic understanding that emotional growth and some recovery from narcissistic difficulties necessarily take place alongside modification of the superego, allowing for responsible knowledge of the state of the object and the possibility of realistic reparation.

  11. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  12. Proposed Great Salt Lake Basin Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2004-12-01

    The dynamic physiography and population growth within the Great Salt Lake Basin provide the opportunity to observe climate and human-induced land-surface changes affecting water availability, water quality, and water use, thereby making the Great Salt Lake Basin a microcosm of contemporary water resource issues and an excellent site to pursue interdisciplinary and integrated hydrologic science. Important societal concerns center on: How do climate variability and human-induced landscape changes affect hydrologic processes, water quality and availability, and aquatic ecosystems over a range of scales? What are the resource, social, and economic consequences of these changes? The steep topography and large climatic gradients of the Great Salt Lake Basin yield hydrologic systems that are dominated by non-linear interactions between snow deposition and snow melt in the mountains, stream flow and groundwater recharge in the mid-elevations, and evaporative losses from the desert floor at lower elevations. Because the Great Salt Lake Basin terminates in a closed basin lake, it is uniquely suited to closing the water, solute, and sediment balances in a way that is rarely possible in a watershed of a size sufficient for coupling to investigations of atmospheric processes. Proposed infrastructure will include representative densely instrumented focus areas that will be nested within a basin-wide network, thereby quantifying fluxes, residence times, pathways, and storage volumes over a range of scales and land uses. The significant and rapid ongoing urbanization presents the opportunity for observations that quantify the interactions among hydrologic processes, human induced changes and social and economic dynamics. One proposed focus area will be a unique, highly instrumented mountain-to-basin transect that will quantify hydrologic processes extending from the mountain ridge top to the Great Salt Lake. The transect will range in elevation from about 1200 m to 3200 m, with a

  13. An overview of policies for managing polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica; Mohapatra, Satya P; Mitchell, Anne

    2008-11-01

    The Great Lakes are an important environmental and economic resource for Canada and the United States. The ecological integrity of the Great Lakes, however, is becoming increasingly threatened by a number of persistent, bio-accumulative and harmful chemicals that enter the Great Lakes ecosystem through fluvial and atmospheric deposition. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardant, are among such chemicals, whose concentration in the Great Lakes has greatly increased in recent years. Despite growing concern over the possible health and environmental effects of these compounds, only four of the eight Great Lakes states have enacted regulations to ban/restrict the use of PBDE while the two Canadian Great Lakes provinces are yet to endorse any regulation. Of the three main commercial PBDE mixtures (pentaBDE, octaBDE and decaBDE), penta- and octaBDE are no longer manufactured or imported into the United States and Canada. DecaBDE, however, still finds use in a variety of products. In the present paper, the authors review the current regulations and policies for managing PBDEs in the Great Lakes jurisdictions and briefly review commercially available non-bromine chemical alternatives to PBDE. As these alternatives are comparatively more expensive than PBDE, future adoption of more eco-friendly flame retardants by the polymer industry will likely depend on stricter legislation regulating the use of PBDE and/or an increased public demand for PBDE-free products.

  14. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  15. Microwave properties of ice from The Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The increasing use of radar systems as remote sensors of ice thickness has revealed a lack of basic data on the microwave properties of fresh-water ice. A program, in which the complex dielectric constant was measured for a series of ice samples taken from the Great Lakes, is described. The measurements were taken at temperatures of -5, -10, and -15 C. It is noted that the ice has considerable internal layered structure, and the effects of the layering are examined. Values of 3.0 to 3.2 are reported for the real part of the dielectric constant, with an error bar of + or - 0.01.

  16. The Great Recession and the Social Safety Net

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The social safety net responded in significant and favorable ways during the Great Recession. Aggregate per capita expenditures grew significantly, with particularly strong growth in the SNAP, EITC, UI, and Medicaid programs. Distributionally, the increase in transfers was widely shared across demographic groups, including families with and without children, single-parent and two-parent families. Transfers grew as well among families with more employed members and with fewer employed members. However, the increase in transfer amounts was not strongly progressive across income classes within the low-income population, increasingly slightly more for those just below the poverty line and those just above it, compared to those at the bottom of the income distribution. This is mainly the result of the EITC program, which provides greater benefits to those with higher family earnings. The expansions of SNAP and UI benefitted those at the bottom of the income distribution to a greater extent. PMID:27065356

  17. Toxaphene in Great Lakes biota and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassmeyer, Susan Theresa

    1998-11-01

    Toxaphene is a complex mixture of at least 600 hexa- through decachlorinated bornanes and bornenes, which was used as an insecticide in the United States from the 1950's until 1982, when it was banned. Toxaphene is ubiquitous in the environment, probably because of its atmospheric transport away from areas of use. Toxaphene's complex nature makes accurate quantitation difficult. I have developed a computer program to automate quantitation, thus decreasing the time required for analysis while maintaining precise quantitation. I have shown that toxaphene in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) taken from Lake Superior have not decreased as they have in the four other Great Lakes from the time of the ban though 1992. This result could be due to three possibilities: ( a) There had been a food chain perturbation that made the 1982 concentrations unusually low. (b) The physical properties of Lake Superior make the loss rate significantly lower than the other Great Lakes. (c) There are current sources of toxaphene entering the Lake Superior basin. I analyzed an extended time series of lake trout from Lake Superior and from northern Lake Michigan to test the first two hypotheses. The concentrations of toxaphene have been constant in trout from Lake Superior since the late 1970's, so hypothesis a can be negated. The northern Lake Michigan samples did not decline as greatly as the southern basin samples, so hypothesis b can not be disproved. To determine the atmospheric deposition of toxaphene to Lake Superior, I analyzed air samples collected every twelve days for sixteen months at Eagle Harbor, Michigan. The concentrations of toxaphene in these samples are similar to those found in recent studies of air collected at Traverse City, MI., but significantly lower than samples taken at a land based site in southern Ontario in 1988 and 1989. This difference in concentration may (or may not) be due to differences in sampling times or locations or

  18. REMOTE DETECTION OF INVASSIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  19. REMOTE DETENTION OF INVASIVE AND OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive and opportunistic plant species have been associated with wetland disturbance. Increases in the abundance of plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis) in coastal Great Lakes wetlands are hypothesized to occur with shifts toward drier hydrologic regimes, fr...

  20. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  1. Thomas G. Pickering - a great mentor.

    PubMed

    Kario, Kazuomi

    2010-04-01

    Professor Thomas G. Pickering passed away on 14 May 2009. I studied at the Hypertension Center, The New York Presbyterian Hospital/Cornell University Medical College, NY, USA from 1 September 1998 to 30 November 2000. Professor Pickering was a great mentor who showed how important the following issues were: (i) how important it is to stick to 'clinical viewpoint' and generate clinical ideas through 'words'. He introduced the beautiful medical words 'white-coat hypertension' and 'masked hypertension'; (ii) no man can do revolutionary research by himself, but the professional network; (iii) respect the independence of each researcher; and (iv) communications among different countries which represent the quality of the academic professionals and their warm personality, that transcended language differences.

  2. Observations of Fukushima fallout in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Howard, B J; Howard, D C; Wells, C; Tyler, A N; Bradley, S; Copplestone, D

    2012-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, grass samples were collected from 42 sites around Great Britain during April 2011. Iodine-131 was measurable in grass samples across the country with activity concentrations ranging from 10 to 55 Bq kg(-1) dry matter. Concentrations were similar to those reported in other European countries. Rainwater and some foodstuffs were also analysed from a limited number of sites. Of these, (131)I was only detectable in sheep's milk (c. 2 Bq kg(-1)). Caesium-134, which can be attributed to releases from the Fukushima reactors, was detectable in six of the grass samples (4-8 Bq kg(-1) dry matter); (137)Cs was detected in a larger number of grass samples although previous release sources (atmospheric weapons test and the 1986 Chernobyl and 1957 Windscale accidents) are likely to have contributed to this.

  3. Interfaces - Weak Links, Yet Great Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Dimofte, Florin; Chupp, Raymond E.; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate turbomachine interface design can rapidly degrade system performance, yet provide great opportunity for improvements. Engineered coatings of seals and bearing interfaces are major issues in the operational life of power systems. Coatings, films, and combined use of both metals and ceramics play a major role in maintaining component life. Interface coatings, like lubricants, are sacrificial for the benefit of the component. Bearing and sealing surfaces are routinely protected by tribologically paired coatings such as silicon diamond like coatings (SiDLC) in combination with an oil lubricated wave bearing that prolongs bearing operational life. Likewise, of several methods used or researched for detecting interface failures, dopants within coatings show failures in functionally graded ceramic coatings. The Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) materials models and quantum mechanical tools, employed in interface design, are discussed.

  4. Hummingbirds have a greatly enlarged hippocampal formation.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian J; Day, Lainy B; Wilkening, Steven R; Wylie, Douglas R; Saucier, Deborah M; Iwaniuk, Andrew N

    2012-08-23

    Both field and laboratory studies demonstrate that hummingbirds (Apodiformes, Trochilidae) have exceptional spatial memory. The complexity of spatial-temporal information that hummingbirds must retain and use daily is probably subserved by the hippocampal formation (HF), and therefore, hummingbirds should have a greatly expanded HF. Here, we compare the relative size of the HF in several hummingbird species with that of other birds. Our analyses reveal that the HF in hummingbirds is significantly larger, relative to telencephalic volume, than any bird examined to date. When expressed as a percentage of telencephalic volume, the hummingbird HF is two to five times larger than that of caching and non-caching songbirds, seabirds and woodpeckers. This HF expansion in hummingbirds probably underlies their ability to remember the location, distribution and nectar content of flowers, but more detailed analyses are required to determine the extent to which this arises from an expansion of HF or a decrease in size of other brain regions.

  5. Base flow in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, B.P.; Day, S.M.; Piggott, A.R.; Fuller, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrograph separations were performed using the PART, HYSEP 1, 2, and 3, BFLOW and UKIH methods on 104,293 years of daily streamflow records from 3,936 streamflow-gaging stations in Ontario, Canada and the eight Great Lakes States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin to estimate base-flow index (BFI) and base flow. BFI ranged an average of 0.24 BFI depending on which hydrograph-separation method was used. BFI data from 959 selected streamflow-gaging stations with a combined 28,784 years of daily streamflow data were used to relate BFI to surficial geology and the proportion of surface water within the gaged watersheds. This relation was then used to derive estimates of BFI throughout the Great Lakes, Ottawa River, and upper St. Lawrence River Basins at a scale of 8-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) watersheds for the U.S. and tertiary watersheds in Canada. This process was repeated for each of the six hydrograph-separation methods used. When applied to gaged watersheds, model results predicted observed base flow within 0.2 BFI up to 94 percent of the time. Estimates of long-term (length of streamflow record) average annual streamflow in each HUC and tertiary watershed were calculated and used to determine average annual base flow from BFI estimates. Possibilities for future study based on results from this study include long-term trend analysis of base flow and improving the scale at which base-flow estimates can be made.

  6. Forecasting the Next Great San Francisco Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, P.; Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Yakovlev, G.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2005-12-01

    The great San Francisco earthquake of 18 April 1906 and its subsequent fires killed more than 3,000 persons, and destroyed much of the city leaving 225,000 out of 400,000 inhabitants homeless. The 1906 earthquake occurred on a km segment of the San Andreas fault that runs from the San Juan Bautista north to Cape Mendocino and is estimated to have had a moment magnitude m ,l 7.9. Observations of surface displacements across the fault were in the range m. As we approach the 100 year anniversary of this event, a critical concern is the hazard posed by another such earthquake. In this talk we examine the assumptions presently used to compute the probability of occurrence of these earthquakes. We also present the results of a numerical simulation of interacting faults on the San Andreas system. Called Virtual California, this simulation can be used to compute the times, locations and magnitudes of simulated earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the vicinity of San Francisco. Of particular importance are new results for the statistical distribution of interval times between great earthquakes, results that are difficult or impossible to obtain from a purely field-based approach. We find that our results are fit well under most circumstances by the Weibull statistical distribution, and we compute waiting times to future earthquakes based upon our simulation results. A contrasting approach to the same problem has been adopted by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, who use observational data combined with statistical assumptions to compute probabilities of future earthquakes.

  7. Anatomically corrected malposition of great arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R H; Becker, A E; Losekoot, T G; Gerlis, L M

    1975-01-01

    Four anomalous hearts are described in which the great arteries arise in unusual fashion from their morphologically appropriate ventricles. This malformation, previously termed anatomically corrected transposition, is now termed anatomically corrected malposition. This is because, following the precedent of Van Praagh and his associates, we now reserve the term 'transposition' to describe the situation in which both great arteries arise from separate morphologically inappropriate ventricles. All the hearts examined exhibited atrioventricular concordance, I with viscero-atrial situs inversus, and 3 with situs solitus. However, there were considerable variations in ventricular morphology between the cases. Thus, 2 cases exhibited atresia of the right atrioventricular valve, and in the remaining 2 cases right and levt ventricular sinuses were both identified. Two of the cases also had pulmonary atresia, and coronary artery anomalies were present in all 4. The cases emphasize the fact that the term anatomically corrected malposition describes not a discrete anomaly but only a ventriculo-arterial relation, which is one of ventriculo-arterial concordance. Doubt has previously been cast upon the existence of this as an anatomical entity. It is concluded that the relation does indeed exist, and furthermore can coexist with all varieties of atrioventricular relations. It is suggested that the differing atrioventricular relations can be distinguished by usage of the terms 'concordant' or 'discordant' anatomically corrected malposition. Finally, it is emphasized that it is necessary to distinguish this anomaly, which in most cases presents with left-sided anterior aorta, from the left-sided anterior aorta more frequently encountered in classically corrected transposition'. Images PMID:1191424

  8. 78 FR 38725 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage, including review of proposed Great Lakes...

  9. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... St. Lawrence River shall be considered as a part of the Great Lakes. In addition, the Victoria Bridge... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes...

  10. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... St. Lawrence River shall be considered as a part of the Great Lakes. In addition, the Victoria Bridge... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes...

  11. Utilization of a Marketing Strategy at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes, Great Lakes, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    22 Analysis of the Mare.....................22 Development of the Marketing Mix .. .......... 29 A Marketing Mix --Recommendations...problem. Marketing strategy, marketing mix and ultimately the marketing orientation will allow hospitals to persevere and possibly thrive in a somewhat...market are currently being met at Naval Regional Medical Center Great Lakes. The fourth objective is to demonstrate an appropriate marketing mix for

  12. The Great Lakes Hydrography Dataset: Consistent, binational watersheds for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based management of the Laurentian Great Lakes, which spans both the United States and Canada, is hampered by the lack of consistent binational watersheds for the entire Basin. Using comparable data sources and consistent methods we developed spatially equivalent waters...

  13. Methane flux in the Great Dismal Swamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.; Day, F. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reports measurements made over a 17-month period of the methane flux in the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia in light of the potential implications of variations in atmospheric methane concentrations. Gas flux measurements were made by a technique combining a gas filter correlation IR absorption analyzer with improved sampling chambers that enclose a soil area under conditions ranging from totally flooded soils to dry soils resulting from drought conditions. Methane emissions are found to range from 0.0013 g CH4/sq m per day to 0.019 g CH4/sq m per day, depending on temperature and season, when the soil is in a waterlogged state. During drought conditions, the peat soils in the swamp were a sink for atmospheric methane, with fluxes from less than 0.001 to 0.005 g CH4/sq m per day and decreasing with decreasing temperature. Results illustrate the potential complexity of the processes which regulate the net flux of methane between wetland soils and the atmosphere.

  14. A Silurian short-great-appendage arthropod

    PubMed Central

    Siveter, Derek J.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Siveter, David J.; Sutton, Mark D.; Legg, David; Joomun, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    A new arthropod, Enalikter aphson gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Silurian (Wenlock Series) Herefordshire Lagerstätte of the UK. It belongs to the Megacheira (=short-great-appendage group), which is recognized here, for the first time, in strata younger than mid-Cambrian age. Discovery of this new Silurian taxon allows us to identify a Devonian megacheiran representative, Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Hunsrück Slate of Germany. The phylogenetic position of megacheirans is controversial: they have been interpreted as stem chelicerates, or stem euarthropods, but when Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus are added to the most comprehensive morphological database available, a stem euarthropod position is supported. Enalikter represents the only fully three-dimensionally preserved stem-group euarthropod, it falls in the sister clade to the crown-group euarthropods, and it provides new insights surrounding the origin and early evolution of the euarthropods. Recognition of Enalikter and Bundenbachiellus as megacheirans indicates that this major arthropod group survived for nearly 100 Myr beyond the mid-Cambrian. PMID:24452026

  15. [Claude Fortier: the great history of neuroendocrinology].

    PubMed

    Rostène, William

    2005-05-01

    The work of Claude Fortier is linked to the history of neuroendocrinology. Through him and his pioneer work in Montreal with Hans Selye, the < Man of stress >, and at Laval University in Quebec City in his own laboratory, where all researchers involved in the study of the hypothalamo-hypophysial adrenal axis have been through, it is the whole saga of the search for the neuropeptide CRH (corticotropin releasing factor), and the harsh fight for the Nobel distinction that can be related. Among Claude Fortier's scientific discoveries, the feedback mechanisms of glucocorticoid hormones on brain and pituitary function, the presence of both mineralo and glucocorticoid receptors in some brain structures, and the introduction of computer science in biomedical research, can be cited. The consequences of these discoveries are illustrated in the pathologies linked to stress (anxiety, depression, addiction). Claude Fortier was not only a great figure in biomedical science, honored by several distinctions, but also an important personality in the policy of research in which he played a prominent role in Quebec medical research and allowed it to rank among the best in the world.

  16. How do great bowerbirds construct perspective illusions?

    PubMed Central

    Endler, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Many animals build structures to provide shelter, avoid predation, attract mates or house offspring, but the behaviour and potential cognitive processes involved during building are poorly understood. Great bowerbird (Ptilinorhynchus nuchalis) males build and maintain display courts by placing tens to hundreds of objects in a positive size–distance gradient. The visual angles created by the gradient create a forced perspective illusion that females can use to choose a mate. Although the quality of illusion is consistent within males, it varies among males, which may reflect differences in how individuals reconstruct their courts. We moved all objects off display courts to determine how males reconstructed the visual illusion. We found that all individuals rapidly created the positive size–distance gradient required for forced perspective within the first 10 objects placed. Males began court reconstruction by placing objects in the centre of the court and then placing objects further out, a technique commonly used when humans lay mosaics. The number of objects present after 72 h was not related to mating success or the quality of the illusion, indicating that male skill at arranging objects rather than absolute number of objects appears to be important. We conclude that differences arise in the quality of forced perspective illusions despite males using the same technique to reconstruct their courts. PMID:28280568

  17. [Corrected transposition of the great arteries].

    PubMed

    Alva-Espinosa, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Corrected transposition of the great arteries is one of the most fascinating entities in congenital heart disease. The apparent corrected condition is only temporal. Over time, most patients develop systemic heart failure, even in the absence of associated lesions. With current imaging studies, precise visualization is achieved in each case though the treatment strategy remains unresolved. In asymptomatic patients or cases without associated lesions, focalized follow-up to assess systemic ventricular function and the degree of tricuspid valve regurgitation is important. In cases with normal ventricular function and mild tricuspid failure, it seems unreasonable to intervene surgically. In patients with significant associated lesions, surgery is indicated. In the long term, the traditional approach may not help tricuspid regurgitation and systemic ventricular failure. Anatomical correction is the proposed alternative to ease the right ventricle overload and to restore the systemic left ventricular function. However, this is a prolonged operation and not without risks and long-term complications. In this review the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic aspects are overviewed in the light of the most significant and recent literature.

  18. Natural Selection in the Great Apes

    PubMed Central

    Cagan, Alexander; Theunert, Christoph; Laayouni, Hafid; Santpere, Gabriel; Pybus, Marc; Casals, Ferran; Prüfer, Kay; Navarro, Arcadi; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Andrés, Aida M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection is crucial for the adaptation of populations to their environments. Here, we present the first global study of natural selection in the Hominidae (humans and great apes) based on genome-wide information from population samples representing all extant species (including most subspecies). Combining several neutrality tests we create a multi-species map of signatures of natural selection covering all major types of natural selection. We find that the estimated efficiency of both purifying and positive selection varies between species and is significantly correlated with their long-term effective population size. Thus, even the modest differences in population size among the closely related Hominidae lineages have resulted in differences in their ability to remove deleterious alleles and to adapt to changing environments. Most signatures of balancing and positive selection are species-specific, with signatures of balancing selection more often being shared among species. We also identify loci with evidence of positive selection across several lineages. Notably, we detect signatures of positive selection in several genes related to brain function, anatomy, diet and immune processes. Our results contribute to a better understanding of human evolution by putting the evidence of natural selection in humans within its larger evolutionary context. The global map of natural selection in our closest living relatives is available as an interactive browser at http://tinyurl.com/nf8qmzh. PMID:27795229

  19. Jonathan Taft: dentistry's great forgotten hero.

    PubMed

    Ring, Malvin E

    2006-01-01

    One of the greatest figures in the development of the dental profession to the high status it enjoys today is all but forgotten. Jonathan Taft was dean of the second dental school in the world and wrote the most important clinical textbook of his time, one that was reprinted in many editions over a quarter of a century. Later appointed dean of the new University of Michigan Dental School, he instituted innovations in admission requirements and course of study that were copied by all subsequent schools and are the standards adhered to today. The editor of one of the most important dental journals for 44 years, a record unmatched to this day, he set the standards for modern dental periodical literature that have done so much to elevate dentistry that today it stands on a par with medicine as a truly science-based profession. He served dentistry in many capacities: president of the American Dental Association, founder of the National Association of Dental Faculties, and founder of the National Association of Dental Examiners. Over his lifetime, he published almost 200 professional papers and probably attended and lectured at more dental meetings than anyone of his day and since. His memory should be resurrected, and the profession must be made aware of the great debt it owes to this intrepid fighter for a better dental profession.

  20. [One year after the Great Tohoku Disaster].

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    After the great earthquake of March 11, 2011, at least seven hospitals with 723 beds along the Miyagi Prefecture northern coastline were so devastated they could no longer function, leaving only several available hospitals. The two crucial issues thus became maintaining communications and regional transport. Phones and wireless were knocked out in most hospitals and areas. Many of the severe cases had to be brought to the Tohoku University Hospital at Sendai from the above the hospitals. Tohoku University Hospital and other medical facilities in the Tohoku district were in a terrible crisis of electricity shortage. It was a critical situation, particularly for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis requiring artificial ventilation. We should hurry to submit a guideline for medical transportation for patients with neuromuscular diseases requiring artificial ventilation. We also should research the disaster medicine in the field of neurology, and prevent the neurological disease progressing after the earthquake. A large number of hospitals in coastal areas suffered devastating damage. We do not think it is feasible or even reasonable to restore such hospitals to what they were before the disaster. We started Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization as a disaster recovery model for revitalizing the areas reported to have scarce medical services. The project provides supports to local medical services, constructs a community coalition for medical information, sets up a biobank based on large-scale cohort studies, and provides educational training to produce highly specialized medical practitioners.

  1. True Color of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Roughly true color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter as taken by the Galileo imaging system on June 26, 1996. Because the Galileo imaging system's wavelength sensitivities go beyond those of the human eye, this is only an approximation of what a human observer would have seen in place of the Galileo spacecraft. To simulate red as our eyes see it, the near-infrared filter (756 nm) image was used. To simulate blue as our eyes see it, the violet filter (410 nm) image was used. Finally, to simulate green as our eyes see it, a combination of 2/3 violet and 1/3 near-infrared was used. The result is an image that is similar in color to that seen when looking through a telescope at Jupiter with your eye, but allowing detail about 100 times finer to be visible! The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Sequential information in a great ape utterance

    PubMed Central

    Fedurek, Pawel; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Dahl, Christoph D.

    2016-01-01

    Birdsong is a prime example of acoustically sophisticated vocal behaviour, but its complexity has evolved mainly through sexual selection to attract mates and repel sexual rivals. In contrast, non-human primate calls often mediate complex social interactions, but are generally regarded as acoustically simple. Here, we examine arguably the most complex call in great ape vocal communication, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) ‘pant hoot’. This signal consists of four acoustically distinct phases: introduction, build-up, climax and let-down. We applied state-of-the-art Support Vector Machines (SVM) methodology to pant hoots produced by wild male chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We found that caller identity was apparent in all four phases, but most strongly in the low-amplitude introduction and high-amplitude climax phases. Age was mainly correlated with the low-amplitude introduction and build-up phases, dominance rank (i.e. social status) with the high-amplitude climax phase, and context (reflecting activity of the caller) with the low-amplitude let-down phase. We conclude that the complex acoustic structure of chimpanzee pant hoots is linked to a range of socially relevant information in the different phases of the call, reflecting the complex nature of chimpanzee social lives. PMID:27910886

  3. Material Stock Demographics: Cars in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2016-03-15

    Recent literature on material flow analysis has been focused on quantitative characterization of past material flows. Fewer analyses exist on past and prospective quantification of stocks of materials in-use. Some of these analyses explore the composition of products' stocks, but a focus on the characterization of material stocks and its relation with service delivery is often neglected. We propose the use of the methods of human demography to characterize material stocks, defined herein as stock demographics, exploring the insights that this approach could provide for the sustainable management of materials. We exemplify an application of stock demographics by characterizing the composition and service delivery of iron, steel, and aluminum stocks of cars in Great Britain, 2002-2012. The results show that in this period the stock has become heavier, it is traveling less, and it is idle for more time. The visualization of material stocks' dynamics demonstrates the pace of product replacement as a function of its usefulness and enables the formulation of policy interventions and the exploration of future trends.

  4. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Regional Personality Differences in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Rentfrow, Peter J.; Jokela, Markus; Lamb, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent investigations indicate that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The geographical distributions of personality traits are associated with a range of important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The majority of research on this subject has focused on the geographical distributions and macro-level correlates of personality across nations or regions of the United States. The aim of the present investigation was to replicate and extend that past work by examining regional personality differences in Great Britain. Using a sample of nearly 400,000 British residents, we mapped the geographical distributions of the Big Five Personality traits across 380 Local Authority Districts and examined the associations with important political, economic, social, and health outcomes. The results revealed distinct geographical clusters, with neighboring regions displaying similar personality characteristics, and robust associations with the macro-level outcome variables. Overall, the patterns of results were similar to findings from past research. PMID:25803819

  6. Cluster--A Great Way to Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropper, Rebecca J.; Merkowitz, Rose Fisher

    1998-01-01

    Extension faculty in Adams, Brown, and Highland Counties (Ohio) work as a cluster group to enhance interdisciplinary program delivery and develop specialized skills. Clustering also increases networking among clientele and enhances extension's public image. (SK)

  7. A search for X-ray emission associated with the great attractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahoda, Keith; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    A search is reported for X-ray emission associated with the object, dubbed the 'great attractor', which has been postulated as the cause of the coherent deviations from the Hubble flow which are observed in nearby parts of the universe. The hypothesis that a substantial fraction of the dynamical mass of the great attractor exists in the form of rich clusters of galaxies is ruled out. The possibility is considered that a substantial fraction of the mass of the great attractor could exist in a form which would increase the apparently diffuse X-ray surface brightness. The observational upper limit to the diffuse X-ray sky surface brightness enhancement in the general direction of the great attractor allows interesting limits to be set on the fraction of the dynamical mass of the great attractor which can exist in the form of X-ray-luminous material.

  8. Africa's Great Green Wall Initiative: a model for restoration success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrahmouni, Nora; Sacande, Moctar

    2014-05-01

    The Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative was launched to address the increasing challenges of land degradation, desertification and drought, climate change, food insecurity and poverty in more than 20 countries. Restoration of agro-sylvo-pastoral landscapes and degraded lands is one of the priority interventions initiated, enabling the springing up of green nests of life. When complete, the Great Green Wall of Africa will reverse the seemingly unstoppable desertification and address the development of its drylands' inhabitant rural communities. Today's planting of modest seedlings will grow into vast mosaics of forest and agroforestry landscapes and grasslands, which will provide essential ecosystem goods and services, restore lost livelihoods and create new wealth. The ambition of reforestation efforts within this initiative - the like of which the world has never seen before - sounds like an impossible dream. However, learning from past mistakes and capitalising on current advancement in science and technology, it is a reality that is taking root. Following a successful restoration model that RBG Kew experts have devised, we are helping to mobilise, train and support communities in four border regions in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. In collaboration with FAO, the Millennium Seed Bank Partnership is using its unique expertise to ensure that seeds of environmentally well-adapted and economically useful local species are collected and planted in communal gardens and village agroforestry systems managed by the communities themselves. In our first year, an estimated total of 162,000 seedlings and 61 kg of seeds from 40 useful native species, including grasses for livestock, have been planted to cover 237 ha of farmer-managed land in 19 villages. The keen interest it has created has indicated that these figures will rise five-fold in the second year. These green bricks are the foundations of the living wall that will eventually reach across the

  9. Conceiving and Marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In late 1984, Dr. Charles P. (Charlie) Pellerin Jr., director of the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) faced a dilemma. Congress and the White House had given approval to work that would lead to the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, but competing segments of the astronomical community were clamoring for two additional missions, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). Pellerin knew that Congress would not countenance a request for another costly astronomical space observatory so soon after approving GRO and HST. He also foresaw that if he arbitrarily assigned priority to either AXAF or SIRTF he would split the astronomical community. The losing faction would be up on Capitol Hill, lobbying Congress to reverse the decision; and Congress would do what it always does with split communities --- nothing. Pellerin called a meeting of leading astrophysicists to see how a persuasive argument could be made for both these new observatories and to market them as vital to a first comprehensive inventory of the universe conducted across all wavelength ranges. The group provided Pellerin a rotating membership of astrophysicists, who could debate and resolve issues so that decisions he reached would have solid community support. It also helped him to market his ideas in Congress. Ultimately, the concept of the Great Observatories came to be accepted; but its implementation faced myriad difficulties. False starts, political alliances that never worked out, and dramatic changes of direction necessitated by the Challenger disaster of early 1986 continually kept progress off balance. My paper follows these twists and turns from late 1984 to the announcement, on February 1, 1988, that President Reagan's FY89 budget proposal to Congress had designated AXAF for a new start.

  10. Early mortality syndrome in Great Lakes salmonines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, Dale C.; Brown, Scott B.; Fitzsimons, John D.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome (EMS) is the termused to describe an embryonic mortality affectingthe offspring of salmonines (coho salmonOnco-rhynchus kisutch, Chinook salmonOncorhynchustshawytscha, steelhead [anadromous rainbow troutOncorhynchus mykiss], brown troutSalmo trutta,and lake trout,Salvelinus namaycush) in LakesMichigan and Ontario and, to a lesser extent, LakesHuron and Erie (Marcquenski and Brown 1997).Clinical signs of EMS include loss of equilibrium,a spiral swimming pattern, lethargy, hyperexcit-ability, hemorrhage, and death between hatch andfirst feeding. Early mortality syndrome was ob-served as far back as the 1960s in Great Lakessalmonines (Marcquenski and Brown 1997; Fitz-simons et al. 1999) and is of concern because mor-tality has been high in recent years (Wolgamoodet al. 2005; all 2005 citations are this issue). Stocksof Atlantic salmonSalmo salarfrom the FingerLakes and the Baltic Sea also exhibit a similarearly life stage mortality, called Cayuga syndrome(Fisher et al. 1995) and M74 (Bo ̈ rjeson and Norr-gren 1997), respectively. Low egg thiamine levelsand enhanced survival following thiamine treat-ments are common characteristics of EMS, CayugaSyndrome, and M74 (Fitzsimons et al. 1999). Be-cause the deficiency does not appear to be the re-sult of inadequate dietary thiamine (Fitzsimons and Brown 1998), investigators have hypothesizedthat the presence of some thiaminolytic factors inthe diet may reduce the bioavailability of thiamine,either by destroying it or converting it to an in-active analog or thiamine antagonist (Fisher et al.1996; Fitzsimons et al. 1999).

  11. Hematology of great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juvenile exposed to brackish water environment.

    PubMed

    Zarejabad, Asad Mohammadi; Jalali, Mohammad Ali; Sudagar, Mohammad; Pouralimotlagh, Somayeh

    2010-09-01

    The effect of environmental salinity on hematological parameters of great sturgeon Huso huso juveniles was studied. Five-month-old juveniles (mean body weight 28.3 +/- 2.1 g) were subjected to 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 ppt salinities. The hematological parameters were assessed after a period of 20 days rearing at these salinities. After transfer from fresh water to brackish water, red blood cells, hematocrit, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin decreased, but mean corpuscular volume increased. Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, monocyte counts, and eosinophil counts showed no significant variations with increase in environmental salinity. An increase was found in lymphocyte counts according to the increase of salinity from 0 to 12 ppt, while the fresh water control group maintained basal levels. Decrease in neutrophil counts was observed in great sturgeon with increase in environmental salinity. These data show significant effect of salinity on the blood parameters of great sturgeon.

  12. Great prospects for fiber optics sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors provide noise immunity and galvanic insulation at the measurement point. Interest in such sensors is increasing for these reasons. In the United States sales are expected to increase from 12 million dollars in 1981 to 180 million in 1991. Interferometric sensors based on single modus fibers deliver extremely high sensitivity, while sensors based on multi-modus fibers are more easily manufactured. The fiber optic sensors which are available today are based on point measurements. Development of fiber optic sensors in Norway is being carried out at the Central institute and has resulted in the development of medical manometers which are now undergoing clinical testing.

  13. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079??kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255??kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143??kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates + dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560??kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be ?? 15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Species interactions of the alewife in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1970-01-01

    The alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) has caused serious problems in the Great Lakes for almost 100 years. It entered Lake Ontario in abundance via the Erie Canal during the 1860's when major piscivores were declining, and became the dominant species in the lake during the 1870's. The alewife subsequently spread throughout the Great Lakes and became the dominant species in Lakes Huron and Michigan as major piscivores declined. In lakes where it became extremely abundant, the shallow-water planktivores declined in the first decade after alewife establishment, the minor piscivores increased then declined in the second decade, and the deep-water planktivores declined in the third decade. The consequence has been a general reduction in fishery productivity. Rehabilitation will require extreme reduction of the alewife, and restoration of an interacting complex of deep- and shallow-water forage species, and minor and major piscivores, either by reestablishing species affected by the alewife, or by the introduction of new species that can thrive under the new ecological conditions of the lakes.

  15. Status of coregonine fishes in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.

    1992-01-01

    The post-glacial coregonine assemblage in the Great Lakes included several species of the genera Prosopium and Coregonus. Overfishing, habitat degradation, and competition with various exotic fish species severely reduced coregonine abundance and altered their distribution by the mid to latter part of the 20th century. Most of the original Coregonus species, some which were endemic to the Great Lakes, are now extinct or are extremely rare. The prevailing coregonines are mostly benthic and deep-water species, contrasted to the original assemblage dominated by pelagic, nearshore species. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations have recovered and now support record fisheries in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. Bloaters (C. hoyi) have recovered to dominate the planktivorous fish community in Lake Michigan and are rapidly increasing in Lake Huron. The recent resurgence in some coregonine populations are linked to declines in exotic fish populations and favorable climatic changes. The reduced diversity of the coregonines may explain the dominance of the remaining species. The stability of this simplified coregonine community is uncertain but the existing coregonines have demonstrated resiliency.

  16. Can high tech save the Great Lakes states

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, L.E.

    1983-11-01

    Hard hit by the current recession, the Great Lakes states are looking at New England's success with high technology to solve their long-term economic problems associated with their dependence on smokestack manufacturing industries. ''High tech'' is a concept relating to evolving knowledge-intensive industries. A comparison of employment records shows a faster growth in nonmanufacturing compared to high-tech industries, which create a relatively small fraction of total employment. Despite a high level of manufacturing activity in the Great Lakes region, high-tech employment is lower than the national average. A 1981-83 survey of high-tech companies showing an interest in increasing expansion investment in the Midwest will not help the area improve its employment situation. High labor costs and a low percentage of college graduates deter investment there. The application of high tech to preserve traditional industries looks more promising than efforts to emulate New England and the Southwest. 10 references, 3 figures, 5 tables. (DCK)

  17. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ximena; Johnson, William P; Naftz, David L

    2009-03-15

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079 kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255 kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143 kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates+dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560 kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be +/-15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends.

  18. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  19. In-air hearing of the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo).

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Alyssa; Hansen, Kirstin Anderson; Ortiz, Sara Torres; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Siebert, Ursula; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-03-13

    Many aquatic birds use sounds extensively for in-air communication. Regardless of this, we know very little about their hearing abilities. The in-air audiogram of a male adult great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) was determined using psychophysical methods (method of constants). Hearing thresholds were derived using pure tones of five different frequencies. The lowest threshold was at 2 kHz: 18 dB re 20 µPa rms. Thresholds derived using signal detection theory were within 2 dB of the ones derived using classical psychophysics. The great cormorant is more sensitive to in-air sounds than previously believed and its hearing abilities are comparable to several other species of birds of similar size. This knowledge is important for our understanding of the hearing abilities of other species of sea birds. It can also be used to develop cormorant deterrent devices for fisheries, as well as to assess the impact of increasing in-air anthropogenic noise levels on cormorants and other aquatic birds.

  20. Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1968-01-01

    The species composition of fish in the Great Lakes has undergone continual change since the earliest records. Some changes were caused by enrichment of the environment, but others primarily by an intensive and selective fishery for certain species. Major changes related to the fishery were less frequent before the late 1930's than in recent years and involved few species. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were overexploited knowingly during the late 1800's because they interfered with fishing for preferred species; sturgeon were greatly reduced in all lakes by the early 1900's. Heavy exploitation accompanied sharp declines of lake herring (Leucichthys artedi) in Lake Erie during the 1920's and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron during the 1930's. A rapid succession of fish species in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior that started about 1940 has been caused by selective predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on native predatory species, and the resultant shifting emphasis of the fishery and species interaction as various species declined. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and burbot (Lota lota), the deepwater predators, were depleted first; this favored their prey, the chubs (Leucichthys spp.). The seven species of chubs were influenced differently according to differences in size. Fishing emphasis and predation by sea lampreys were selective for the largest species of chubs as lake trout and burbot declined. A single slow-growing chub, the bloater, was favored and increased, but as the large chubs declined the bloater was exploited by a new trawl fishery. The growth rate and size of the bloater increased, making it more vulnerable to conventional gillnet fishery and lamprey predation. This situation in Lakes Michigan and Huron favored the small alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) which had recently become established in the upper Great Lakes, and the alewife increased rapidly and dominated the fish stocks of the lakes. The successive

  1. Strategic Communication during Times of Great Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2008-01-01

    As American schools increasingly are called on to ensure students have the skills necessary to succeed in the 21st century, school districts nationwide are responding with a renewed interest in systemic change. The revived attention notwithstanding, educators, policymakers and the public still misunderstand the true meaning of systemic change in…

  2. The Great Irish Head Shop Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryall, Graham; Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This research describes and analyses recent policy developments in Ireland in relation to the practice of selling psychoactive substances which, while not themselves illegal, mimic the effects of commonly used illegal drugs. These so-called "legal highs" had been sold in Ireland through an increasing number of "head shops"…

  3. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment

  4. Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Indices for Mid-continent US Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    We developed a set of great river macroinvertebrate indices of condition (GRMICs) for the mid-continent great rivers. We used a multiscale (site, reach, landscape) multimetric abiotic stressor gradient to select macroinvertebrate assemblage metrics sensitive to human disturbance ...

  5. Interior view, stairwell and entrance to the great hall (note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, stairwell and entrance to the great hall (note Boardman Roberts's painting, Great Codifers of Law) - United States Department of Justice, Constitution Avenue between Ninth & Tenth Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Ballast Water Discharges into the Great Lakes from Overseas Vessels

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Analysis of Ballast Water Discharges into the Great Lakes from Overseas Vessels from 2010 to 2013 - An assessment of the volume, location, and global port origins of ballast water discharges in the Great Lakes (May 2015).

  7. The risk of tuberculosis transmission to free-ranging great apes.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Tiffany M; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Travis, Dominic; Mugisha, Lawrence; Singer, Randall S

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen exchange between humans and primates has been facilitated by anthropogenic disturbances, such as changing land use patterns, habitat destruction, and poaching, which decrease population sizes and increase levels of primate-human interaction. As a result, human and domestic animal diseases have become a recognized threat to endangered primate populations. Tuberculosis is a major global human and animal health concern, especially in equatorial Africa where many of the remaining free-living great ape populations exist in proximity with exposed and/or infected human populations and their domestic animals. Increased anthropogenic pressure creates an opportunity for the anthropozoonotic spread of this disease. This review examines current evidence of the risk of tuberculosis transmission to great apes, the benefits and limitations of current detection methods, the impact of current great ape conservation and management strategies on this risk, and the need for an ecosystem health-based approach to mitigating the risks of tuberculosis transmission to great apes.

  8. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality.

  9. On Death Ground: Why Weak States Resist Great Powers Explaining Coercion Failure in Asymmetric Interstate Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Great Powers often adopt coercive strategies ...threatening or using limited force to convince weak states to comply with their demands. While coercive strategies have succeeded in just over half of...state without first seeking resolution through the United Nations have increased the costs to a Great Power for employing a brute force war strategy . In

  10. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Enrico Fermi: a great teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong

    2002-09-01

    Enrico Fermi was not only a great theoretical and experimental physicist but a great teacher as well. This article highlights Fermi's approaches in both his formal and informal teaching, and as a thesis advisor. The great teacher inspires - William Arthur Ward

  11. 15. Photo copy of drawing, July 24, 1916. GREAT CAPTAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photo copy of drawing, July 24, 1916. GREAT CAPTAIN ISLAND LIGHT STATION. (Northwest and northeast elevations and basement floor plan). Drawing No. 5912, United States Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Metro Center Boulevard, Warwick, RI - Great Captain Island Light, Great Captain Island, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  12. The Great Lakes. An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Lee; Krushelnicki, Bruce

    This atlas was developed jointly by the Canadian and American governments, and is intended to provide an ecosystem approach to the understanding of the Great Lakes Basin. Chapter one provides an introduction to both the natural and cultural aspects of the Great Lakes. Chapter two, "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes," describes such…

  13. 78 FR 49544 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage,...

  14. 78 FR 54264 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee management; notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... the Great Lakes Pilotage regulations. The meeting will be open to the public. DATES: GLPAC will...

  15. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... recommendations to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great...

  16. 78 FR 5474 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory... recommendations to the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great...

  17. 76 FR 62085 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee... the Federal Register of October 4, 2011, a notice announcing a Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee... authority of the Great Lakes Pilotage program. If you have been adversely affected by the one-day delay...

  18. 16. Photo copy of drawing, May 19, 1934. GREAT CAPTAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photo copy of drawing, May 19, 1934. GREAT CAPTAIN ISLAND LIGHT STATION; ARRANGEMENT OF PIPING & MACHINERY FOR FOG SIGNAL INSTALLATION. Drawing No. 8075, United States Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Metro Center Boulevard, Warwick, RI - Great Captain Island Light, Great Captain Island, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. 14. Photo copy of historic photograph, ca. 1964. GREAT CAPTAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photo copy of historic photograph, ca. 1964. GREAT CAPTAIN ISLAND LIGHTHOUSE, FOG SIGNAL BUILDING, AND OIL HOUSE, AND DOCK. United States Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Metro Center Boulevard, Warwick, RI - Great Captain Island Light, Great Captain Island, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  20. 76 FR 72003 - Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... National Park Service Paterson Great Falls National Historical Park AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior... of the Interior (Secretary) has established, in the State of New Jersey, Paterson Great Falls...: (b) PATERSON GREAT FALLS NATIONAL HISTORICAL PARK.-- (1) ESTABLISHMENT.-- (A) IN GENERAL.--Subject...

  1. CHECKLIST OF DIATOMS FROM THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An updated diatom (Bacillariophyta) checklist for the Great Lakes has been completed (J. Great Lakes Res. 1999) and supplants the preliminary checklist (J. Great Lakes Res. 1978). The present list is effectively a 20-year update. The updated list is based upon: 1) the 1978 checkl...

  2. Sickle cell anemia and transposition of the great vessels.

    PubMed

    Hudson, R L; Castro, O; Spivak, J L; Sampson, C; Downing, J W

    1978-02-01

    A child with homozygous sickle cell disease and transposition of the great vessels had erythrocytosis associated with markedly increased plasma erythropoietin activity. Her clinical course was complicated by neurologic manifestations but not by recurrent sickle cell vasooculsive episodes. The fetal hemoglobin level which had been greater than 25% during the first two years of life gradually decreased to less than 10%. She died at 3 years of age of congestive heart failure and severe anemia. The only sickle cell painful crisis occurred during her terminal illness. It is likely that the high levels of fetal hemorglobin decreased sickling and thus allowed erythrocytosis to develop. Fetal hemoglobin may also have prevented frequent vaso-occlusive events despite the high hematocrit level.

  3. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-03-31

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration.

  4. Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chandra X-Ray Data (blue) Chandra X-Ray Data (green)Hubble Telescope (visible-light)Spitzer Telescope (infrared)

    NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler's supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including astronomer Johannes Kepler.

    The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.

    Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant.

    Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behind the shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look like rippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave is encountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material.

    The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles (colored red) that have been heated by the

  5. Great Basin Land Management Planning Using Ecological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbis, Tara A.; Provencher, Louis; Frid, Leonardo; Medlyn, Gary

    2006-07-01

    This report describes a land management modeling effort that analyzed potential impacts of proposed actions under an updated Bureau of Land Management Resource Management Plan that will guide management for 20 years on 4.6 million hectares in the Great Basin ecoregion of the United States. State-and-transition models that included vegetation data, fire histories, and many parameters (i.e., rates of succession, fire return intervals, outcomes of management actions, and invasion rates of native and nonnative invasive species) were developed through workshops with scientific experts and range management specialists. Alternative restoration scenarios included continuation of current management, full fire suppression, wildfire use in designated fire use zones, wildfire use in resilient vegetation types only, restoration with a tenfold budget increase, no restoration treatments, and no livestock grazing. Under all the scenarios, cover of vegetation states with native perennial understory declined and was replaced by tree-invaded and weed-dominated states. The greatest differences among alternative management scenarios resulted from the use of fire as a tool to maintain native understory. Among restoration scenarios, only the scenario assuming a tenfold budget increase had a more desirable outcome than the current management scenario. Removal of livestock alone had little effect on vegetation resilience. Rather, active restoration was required. The predictive power of the model was limited by current understanding of Great Basin vegetation dynamics and data needs including statistically valid monitoring of restoration treatments, invasiveness and invasibility, and fire histories. The authors suggest that such computer models can be useful tools for systematic analysis of potential impacts in land use planning. However, for a modeling effort to be productive, the management situation must be conducive to open communication among land management agencies and partner

  6. Dynamical connection between Great Plains low-level winds and variability of central Gulf States precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Bing; Dickinson, Robert E.; Fu, Rong

    2016-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet has been related to summer precipitation over the northern Great Plains and Midwest through its moisture transport and convergence at the jet exit area. Much less studied has been its negative relationship with precipitation over the southern Great Plains and the Gulf coastal area. This work shows that the southerly low-level winds at 30°-40°N over the southern Great Plains are significantly correlated with anticyclonic vorticity to its east over the central Gulf States (30°-35°N, 85°-95°W) from May to July. When the low-level jet is strong in June and July, anomalous anticyclonic vorticity over the central Gulf States leads to divergence and consequent subsidence suppressing precipitation over that region. In contrast, an enhanced southerly flow at the entrance region of the jet over the Gulf of Mexico, largely uncorrelated with the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains, is correlated with increased precipitation over the central Gulf States. Precipitation is large over the central Gulf States when the meridional wind over the southern Great Plains is weakest and over the Gulf of Mexico is strongest. This increase is consistent with the increased moisture transport and dynamic balance between loss of vorticity by advection and friction and gain by convergence.

  7. Distension of central great vein decreases sympathetic outflow in humans.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Gao, Zhaohui; Blaha, Cheryl; Herr, Michael D; Mast, Jessica; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2013-08-01

    Classic canine studies suggest that central great vein distension evokes an autonomic reflex tachycardia (Bainbridge reflex). It is unclear whether central venous distension in humans is a necessary and sufficient stimulus to evoke a reflex increase in heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Prior work from our laboratory suggests that limb venous distension evokes a reflex increase in BP and MSNA in humans. We hypothesized that in humans, compared with the limb venous distension, inferior vena cava (IVC) distension would evoke a less prominent increase in HR and MSNA. IVC distension (monitored with ultrasonography) was induced by two methods: 1) head-down tilt (HDT, N = 13); and 2) lower-body positive pressure (LBPP, N = 10). Two minutes of HDT induced IVC distension (Δ2.6 ± 0.2 mm, P < 0.001, ~27% in cross-sectional area), slightly increased mean BP (Δ2.3 ± 0.7 mmHg, P = 0.005), decreased MSNA (Δ5.2 ± 0.8 bursts/min, P < 0.001, N = 10), and did not alter HR (P = 0.37). LBPP induced similar IVC distension, increased BP (Δ2.0 ± 0.7 mmHg, P < 0.01), and did not alter HR (P = 0.34). Thus central venous distension leads to a rapid increase in BP and a subsequent fall in MSNA. Central venous distension does not evoke either bradycardia or tachycardia in humans. The absence of a baroreflex-mediated bradycardia suggests that the Bainbridge reflex is engaged. Clearly, this reflex differs from the powerful sympathoexcitation peripheral venous distension reflex described in humans.

  8. Nile perch: the great lake experiment.

    PubMed

    Ogutu-ohwayo, R

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve the fishery of Lake Victoria, a large predatory fish, the Nile perch (Lates niloticus), was introduced into the lake to feed on the smaller but abundant haplochromines, thereby producing a larger fish for food consumption. Originally the lake had a very high fish species diversity, dominated by more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlids; however, they were too small to be exploited for food. It took about 20 years for the population of the Nile perch in the lake to increase significantly. Although increased fish production has benefited riparian communities by providing revenue, employment, and food, the introduction of the Nile perch has also resulted in extinction and has transformed the lake ecosystem. In response to the concern caused by the introduction of the Nile perch, the deteriorating water quality, and the need to sustain the lucrative fishery, the governments of Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania have initiated the multisectoral Lake Victoria Environment Management Programme. Its goals are to control the loading of nutrients and contaminants into the lake, manage land use in the catchment area, manage the introduced fish species, conserve biodiversity, and control the spread of water hyacinths.

  9. The future of irrigation on the U.S. Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Great Plains, soil and water conservation is being achieved in both dryland and irrigated agricultural systems, and increasingly in combinations of these systems. Limiting tillage has increased the retention of crop residues on the surface and has reduced the evaporative loss of water, making...

  10. Transposition of the great vessels: a series of three cases with a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, S; Russell, R

    2000-07-01

    Improvements in surgical techniques have led to increased survival in transposition of the great vessels. We present three women who required anaesthetic management for labour analgesia, instrumental delivery and evacuation of retained products; the literature is reviewed with regard to anaesthetic techniques and maternal outcome, and recommendations made for the management of this increasingly common condition.

  11. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  12. 75 FR 29891 - Special Local Regulation; Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim. This special local regulation is necessary to protect... Swim, Great South Bay, NY, in the Federal Register (74 FR 32428). We did not receive any comments...

  13. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York... swimmer or safety craft on the swim event race course bounded by the following points: Starting Point...

  14. Stochastic dynamics of a warmer Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jennifer K; Spencer, Matthew; Bruno, John F

    2015-07-01

    Pressure on natural communities from human activities continues to increase. Even unique ecosystems like the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), that until recently were considered near-pristine and well-protected, are showing signs of rapid degradation. We collated recent (1996-2006) spatiotemporal relationships between benthic community composition on the GBR and environmental variables (ocean temperature and local threats resulting from human activity). We built multivariate models of the effects of these variables on short-term dynamics, and developed an analytical approach to study their long-term consequences. We used this approach to study the effects of ocean warming under different levels of local threat. Observed short-term changes in benthic community structure (e.g., declining coral cover) were associated with ocean temperature (warming) and local threats. Our model projected that, in the long-term, coral cover of less than 10% was not implausible. With increasing temperature and/or local threats, corals were initially replaced by sponges, gorgonians, and other taxa, with an eventual moderately high probability of domination (> 50%) by macroalgae when temperature increase was greatest (e.g., 3.5 degrees C of warming). Our approach to modeling community dynamics, based on multivariate statistical models, enabled us to project how environmental change (and thus local and international policy decisions) will influence the future state of coral reefs. The same approach could be applied to other systems for which time series of ecological and environmental variables are available.

  15. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot from Spacecraft Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; de Pater, Imke; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Carlson, Robert W.; Marcus, Philip S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nanometers, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nanometers. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  16. DRAMATIC CHANGE IN JUPITER'S GREAT RED SPOT FROM SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; De Pater, Imke; Rogers, John H.; Orton, Glenn S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Marcus, Philip S.

    2014-12-20

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features. Since the advent of modern telescopes, keen observers have noted its appearance and documented a change in shape from very oblong to oval, confirmed in measurements from spacecraft data. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show that this change has been accompanied by an increase in cloud/haze reflectance as sensed in methane gas absorption bands, increased absorption at wavelengths shorter than 500 nm, and increased spectral slope between 500 and 630 nm. These changes occurred between 2012 and 2014, without a significant change in internal tangential wind speeds; the decreased size results in a 3.2 day horizontal cloud circulation period, shorter than previously observed. As the GRS has narrowed in latitude, it interacts less with the jets flanking its north and south edges, perhaps allowing for less cloud mixing and longer UV irradiation of cloud and aerosol particles. Given its long life and observational record, we expect that future modeling of the GRS's changes, in concert with laboratory flow experiments, will drive our understanding of vortex evolution and stability in a confined flow field crucial for comparison with other planetary atmospheres.

  17. Snow, the Great River, and the Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.

    2005-12-01

    While many major rivers around the world originate from alpine snowpacks in mountain regions, some experience the extreme contrast of flowing through harsh desert environments downriver. One such stream is the Rio Grande which rises in the San Juan and the Sangre de Christo mountains of southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. Eventually, the snow fed Rio Grande flows through North America's largest desert, the Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico, and simultaneously becomes part of the border between the United States and Mexico. As is often true, urban areas develop along the river corridors rather than in more inaccessible mountain regions. This demographic preference tends to isolate the vast majority of population in the Rio Grande, who are dependent on water for their livelihoods, from the mountain snowpacks where the flow is generated. Ironically then, snow is seldom viewed as the source of the much needed water flowing through the desert by the majority of the basin's population. In arid regions of the western U.S., water demand far exceeds the water supply, and water use is apportioned under the doctrine of prior appropriation with the oldest right getting the first use of water. The increasing population in urban areas does not usually have a right to use the water flowing through the desert unless water rights have been purchased by municipalities from the major category of water user in these basins, namely, irrigated agriculture. In the entire Rio Grande basin, irrigation makes up 80% of the consumptive use of water. Additionally, basin compacts and international treaties apportion water between states and countries. Because these formal agreements were based on above average runoff years, there is little flexibility in changing the use of water, particularly in dry to normal runoff years. Most of the older water rights in the Rio Grande, especially the upper basin, are supplied by snowmelt. This leaves the lower basin to depend upon

  18. [Genetically modified food--great unknown].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, G; Wiackowski, S K

    2012-08-01

    Genetically modified food (GMF) creates evident threat to consumers' health. In spite of assurances of biotechnologists, DNA of transgenic plants is instable, so, synthesis of foreign, allergenic proteins is possible. Due to high trypsin inhibitor content the GMF is digested much more slowly what, alike Bt toxin presence, increases probability of alimentary canal diseases. Next threats are bound to the presence of fitoestrogens and residues of Roundup pesticide, that can diminish reproductiveness; and even lead to cancerogenic transformation through disturbance of human hormonal metabolism. In spite of food producers and distributors assurances that food made of GMF raw materials is marked, de facto consumers have no choice. Moreover, along the food law products containing less than 0.9% of GMF protein are not included into genetically modified food.

  19. Great flights by great snipes: long and fast non-stop migration over benign habitats.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Alerstam, Thomas; Carlsson, Peter; Fox, James W; Lindström, Ake

    2011-12-23

    Migratory land birds perform extreme endurance flights when crossing ecological barriers, such as deserts, oceans and ice-caps. When travelling over benign areas, birds are expected to migrate by shorter flight steps, since carrying the heavy fuel loads needed for long non-stop flights comes at considerable cost. Here, we show that great snipes Gallinago media made long and fast non-stop flights (4300-6800 km in 48-96 h), not only over deserts and seas but also over wide areas of suitable habitats, which represents a previously unknown migration strategy among land birds. Furthermore, the great snipes achieved very high ground speeds (15-27 m s(-1)), which was not an effect of strong tailwind support, and we know of no other animal that travels this rapidly over such a long distance. Our results demonstrate that some migratory birds are prepared to accept extreme costs of strenuous exercise and large fuel loads, even when stopover sites are available along the route and there is little tailwind assistance. A strategy of storing a lot of energy before departure, even if migration is over benign habitats, may be advantageous owing to differential conditions of fuel deposition, predation or infection risk along the migration route.

  20. Determinants of fish assemblage structure in Northwestern Great Plains streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullen, J.A.; Bramblett, R.G.; Guy, C.S.; Zale, A.V.; Roberts, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Prairie streams are known for their harsh and stochastic physical conditions, and the fish assemblages therein have been shown to be temporally variable. We assessed the spatial and temporal variation in fish assemblage structure in five intermittent, adventitious northwestern Great Plains streams representing a gradient of watershed areas. Fish assemblages and abiotic conditions varied more spatially than temporally. The most important variables explaining fish assemblage structure were longitudinal position and the proportion of fine substrates. The proportion of fine substrates increased proceeding upstream, approaching 100% in all five streams, and species richness declined upstream with increasing fine substrates. High levels of fine substrate in the upper reaches appeared to limit the distribution of obligate lithophilic fish species to reaches further downstream. Species richness and substrates were similar among all five streams at the lowermost and uppermost sites. However, in the middle reaches, species richness increased, the amount of fine substrate decreased, and connectivity increased as watershed area increased. Season and some dimensions of habitat (including thalweg depth, absolute distance to the main-stem river, and watershed size) were not essential in explaining the variation in fish assemblages. Fish species richness varied more temporally than overall fish assemblage structure did because common species were consistently abundant across seasons, whereas rare species were sometimes absent or perhaps not detected by sampling. The similarity in our results among five streams varying in watershed size and those from other studies supports the generalization that spatial variation exceeds temporal variation in the fish assemblages of prairie and warmwater streams. Furthermore, given longitudinal position, substrate, and stream size, general predictions regarding fish assemblage structure and function in prairie streams are possible. ?? American

  1. The Great American Biotic Interchange in birds

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Jason T.; Bermingham, Eldredge; Schluter, Dolph

    2009-01-01

    The sudden exchange of mammals over the land bridge between the previously isolated continents of North and South America is among the most celebrated events in the faunal history of the New World. This exchange resulted in the rapid merging of continental mammalian faunas that had evolved in almost complete isolation from each other for tens of millions of years. Yet, the wider importance of land bridge-mediated interchange to faunal mixing in other groups is poorly known because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. In particular, the ability of birds to fly may have rendered a land bridge unnecessary for faunal merging. Using molecular dating of the unique bird faunas of the two continents, we show that rates of interchange increased dramatically after land bridge completion in tropical forest-specializing groups, which rarely colonize oceanic islands and have poor dispersal abilities across water barriers, but not in groups comprised of habitat generalists. These results support the role of the land bridge in the merging of the tropical forest faunas of North and South America. In contrast to mammals, the direction of traffic across the land bridge in birds was primarily south to north. The event transformed the tropical avifauna of the New World. PMID:19996168

  2. The Great American Biotic Interchange in birds.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T; Bermingham, Eldredge; Schluter, Dolph

    2009-12-22

    The sudden exchange of mammals over the land bridge between the previously isolated continents of North and South America is among the most celebrated events in the faunal history of the New World. This exchange resulted in the rapid merging of continental mammalian faunas that had evolved in almost complete isolation from each other for tens of millions of years. Yet, the wider importance of land bridge-mediated interchange to faunal mixing in other groups is poorly known because of the incompleteness of the fossil record. In particular, the ability of birds to fly may have rendered a land bridge unnecessary for faunal merging. Using molecular dating of the unique bird faunas of the two continents, we show that rates of interchange increased dramatically after land bridge completion in tropical forest-specializing groups, which rarely colonize oceanic islands and have poor dispersal abilities across water barriers, but not in groups comprised of habitat generalists. These results support the role of the land bridge in the merging of the tropical forest faunas of North and South America. In contrast to mammals, the direction of traffic across the land bridge in birds was primarily south to north. The event transformed the tropical avifauna of the New World.

  3. Scavenging of ammonia by raindrops in Saturn's great storm clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Baines, Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Observations of the great Saturn storms of 2010-2011 by Cassini instruments showed a very large depletion in atmospheric ammonia. While dynamics will play a role, the very high solubility of ammonia in water may be another important contributor to ammonia depletion in storms. Ammonia exists in Earth's atmosphere and rainstorms dissolve ammonia to a great degree, leaving almost no NH3 in the atmosphere. Studies by Elperin et al (2011, 2013) show that scavenging of ammonia is greatest as a rainstorm starts and lessens as raindrops fall, tapering off to almost zero by the time the rain reaches the ground (Elperin et al 2009). Ammonia is reaching saturation as it dissolves in the aqueous solution. As concentration increases, NH3 is then converted to aqueous species (NH3)x.(H2O)y (Max and Chapados 2013).Ammonia has the highest solubility in water compared to all other gases in the Saturn atmosphere. The Henry's Law constant for NH3 in water is 60 M/atm at 25 C. For H2S, it is 0.001 M/atm. In Saturn storms, it is "raining UP": As water-laden storm clouds convectively rise, ammonia gas will be scavenged and go into solution to a great degree, whilst all the other gases remain mostly in the gas phase. Aqueous ammonia acts as an antifreeze: if ammonia is dissolved in water cloud droplets to the limit of its solubility, as water droplets rise, they can stay liquid (and continue to scavenge NH3) to well below their normal freezing point of 0 Celsius (273 K). The freezing point for a 30 wt % water-ammonia solution is ~189 K. The pressure level where T = 189 K is at 2.8 bars. The normal freezing point of water occurs at the 9 bar pressure level in Saturn's atmosphere. 2.8 bars occurs at the -51 km altitude (below the 1 bar level). 9 bars is at the -130 km level: a difference of 79 km. A water droplet containing 30 wt% NH3 can move upwards from 9 bars to 2.8 bars (79 km) and still remain liquid, only freezing above that altitude. Calculations by the E-AIM model show that ammonia

  4. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  5. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    data derived from the VegET model, which takes into account soil moisture and land surface phenology; 3) adding an additional flux tower from Brookings, SD, and additional years at other flux towers to the training data sets; and 4) considering the lag response of vegetation production to precipitation. We modeled and mapped 8-day and 500-m carbon fluxes for the years 2000-2006 in the northern Great Plains grasslands. These maps were then used to assess the regional and temporal trends of carbon fluxes in this region, identify carbon sink and source areas, and determine important transitions and environmental drivers of carbon sinks/sources. Cross-validation at sites showed that the improved model increases the estimation accuracies and reflects the variations in water stress that may not be monitored by vegetation indices alone because of the lag-response of vegetation indices to water deficits.

  6. Evolutionary signals of selection on cognition from the great tit genome and methylome

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Veronika N.; Gossmann, Toni I.; Schachtschneider, Kyle M.; Garroway, Colin J.; Madsen, Ole; Verhoeven, Koen J. F.; de Jager, Victor; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Warren, Wesley C.; Minx, Patrick; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Corcoran, Pádraic; Adriaensen, Frank; Belda, Eduardo; Bushuev, Andrey; Cichon, Mariusz; Charmantier, Anne; Dingemanse, Niels; Doligez, Blandine; Eeva, Tapio; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Fedorov, Slava; Hau, Michaela; Hille, Sabine; Hinde, Camilla; Kempenaers, Bart; Kerimov, Anvar; Krist, Milos; Mand, Raivo; Matthysen, Erik; Nager, Reudi; Norte, Claudia; Orell, Markku; Richner, Heinz; Slagsvold, Tore; Tilgar, Vallo; Tinbergen, Joost; Torok, Janos; Tschirren, Barbara; Yuta, Tera; Sheldon, Ben C.; Slate, Jon; Zeng, Kai; van Oers, Kees; Visser, Marcel E.; Groenen, Martien A. M.

    2016-01-01

    For over 50 years, the great tit (Parus major) has been a model species for research in evolutionary, ecological and behavioural research; in particular, learning and cognition have been intensively studied. Here, to provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind these important traits, we de novo assemble a great tit reference genome and whole-genome re-sequence another 29 individuals from across Europe. We show an overrepresentation of genes related to neuronal functions, learning and cognition in regions under positive selection, as well as increased CpG methylation in these regions. In addition, great tit neuronal non-CpG methylation patterns are very similar to those observed in mammals, suggesting a universal role in neuronal epigenetic regulation which can affect learning-, memory- and experience-induced plasticity. The high-quality great tit genome assembly will play an instrumental role in furthering the integration of ecological, evolutionary, behavioural and genomic approaches in this model species. PMID:26805030

  7. Assessing the additive risks of PSII herbicide exposure to the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen E; Schaffelke, Britta; Shaw, Melanie; Bainbridge, Zoë T; Rohde, Ken W; Kennedy, Karen; Davis, Aaron M; Masters, Bronwyn L; Devlin, Michelle J; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide residues have been measured in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon at concentrations which have the potential to harm marine plant communities. Monitoring on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon following wet season discharge show that 80% of the time when herbicides are detected, more than one are present. These herbicides have been shown to act in an additive manner with regards to photosystem-II inhibition. In this study, the area of the Great Barrier Reef considered to be at risk from herbicides is compared when exposures are considered for each herbicide individually and also for herbicide mixtures. Two normalisation indices for herbicide mixtures were calculated based on current guidelines and PSII inhibition thresholds. The results show that the area of risk for most regions is greatly increased under the proposed additive PSII inhibition threshold and that the resilience of this important ecosystem could be reduced by exposure to these herbicides.

  8. Building Indigenous Community Resilience in the Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, B.

    2014-12-01

    Indigenous community resilience is rooted in the seasoned lifeways, developed over generations, incorporated into systems of knowledge, and realized in artifacts of infrastructure through keen observations of the truth and consequences of their interactions with the environment found in place over time. Their value lies, not in their nature as artifacts, but in the underlying patterns and processes of culture: how previous adaptations were derived and evolved, and how the principles and processes of detailed observation may inform future adaptations. This presentation examines how such holistic community approaches, reflected in design and practice, can be applied to contemporary issues of energy and housing in a rapidly changing climate. The Indigenous Peoples of the Great Plains seek to utilize the latest scientific climate modeling to support the development of large, utility scale distributed renewable energy projects and to re-invigorate an indigenous housing concept of straw bale construction, originating in this region. In the energy context, we explore the potential for the development of an intertribal wind energy dynamo on the Great Plains, utilizing elements of existing federal policies for Indian energy development and existing federal infrastructure initially created to serve hydropower resources, which may be significantly altered under current and prospective drought scenarios. For housing, we consider the opportunity to address the built environment in Indian Country, where Tribes have greater control as it consists largely of residences needed for their growing populations. Straw bale construction allows for greater use of local natural and renewable materials in a strategy for preparedness for the weather extremes and insurance perils already common to the region, provides solutions to chronic unemployment and increasing energy costs, while offering greater affordable comfort in both low and high temperature extremes. The development of large

  9. Altitudinal variation in haemosporidian parasite distribution in great tit populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the major issues concerning disease ecology and conservation is knowledge of the factors that influence the distribution of parasites and consequently disease outbreaks. This study aimed to investigate avian haemosporidian composition and the distribution of these parasites in three altitudinally separated great tit (Parus major) populations in western Switzerland over a three-year period. The objectives were to determine the lineage diversity of parasites occuring across the study populations and to investigate whether altitudinal gradients govern the distribution of haemosporidian parasites by lineage. Methods In this study molecular approaches (PCR and sequencing) were used to detect avian blood parasites (Plasmodium sp., Haemoproteus sp. and Leucocytozoon sp.) in populations of adult great tits caught on their nests during three consecutive breeding seasons. Results High levels of parasite prevalence (88-96%) were found across all of the study populations with no significant altitude effect. Altitude did, however, govern the distribution of parasites belonging to different genera, with Plasmodium parasites being more prevalent at lower altitudes, Leucocytozoon parasites more at high altitude and Haemoproteus parasite prevalence increasing with altitude. A total of 27 haemosporidian parasite lineages were recorded across all study sites, with diversity showing a positive correlation to altitude. Parasites belonging to lineage SGS1 (P. relictum) and PARUS4 and PARUS19 (Leucocytozoon sp.) dominated lower altitudes. SW2 (P. polare) was the second most prevalent lineage of parasite detected overall and these parasites were responsible for 68% of infections at intermediate altitude, but were only documented at this one study site. Conclusions Avian haemosporidian parasites are not homogeneously distributed across host populations, but differ by altitude. This difference is most probably brought about by environmental factors influencing vector

  10. Intrusive upwelling in the Central Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Tonin, Hemerson; Brinkman, Richard; Herzfeld, Michael; Steinberg, Craig

    2016-11-01

    In the Central Great Barrier Reef, the outer continental shelf has an open reef matrix that facilitates the exchange of waters with the Coral Sea. During austral summer, cool water intrudes onto the shelf along the seafloor. Temperature observations reveal cool, bottom intrusions during a 6 year period from the Queensland Integrated Marine Observing System's Palm Passage mooring. A metric is used to identify 64 intrusion events. These intrusions predominantly occur from October to March including the wet season. During an event, the outer-shelf's near-bottom temperature decreases by 1-3°C typically over 1 week. The near-bottom salinity tends to increase, while near-surface changes do not reflect these tendencies. Intrusion events occur predominantly with either weakening equatorward winds or poleward wind bursts. A regional hydrodynamic model for the Great Barrier Reef captures the timing and amplitude of these intrusions. During intrusion events, isotherms tend to uplift over the continental slope and onto the shelf and the East Australian Current intensifies poleward. Over the shelf, a bottom-intensified onshore current coincides with bottom cooling. For numerous events, the model diagnostics reveal that the cross-shelf flow is dominated by the geostrophic contribution. A vertical circulation tilts the isopycnals upward on the southern side of the passage, causing an along-shelf density gradient and geostrophic onshore flow with depth. While wind fluctuations play a major role in controlling the along-shelf currents, model results indicate that a concurrent topographically induced circulation can assist the onshore spread of cool water.

  11. The last act of a great CEO.

    PubMed

    Friel, Thomas J; Duboff, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    No one is in a better position to get an incoming CEO up to speed than his or her predecessor, whose insights and accumulated wisdom are uniquely valuable during the transition and even beyond. The outgoing leader can provide information about the expectations of high-ranking employees; short-term opportunities ripe for harvesting; how the board and others perceive the newcomer's reputation or personal brand; the strengths and foibles of internal allies and external partners; organizational bench strength; and the wisdom that comes from experience well reflected upon. Organizations and their shareholders don't want intellectual capital like this to simply evaporate, which is why nearly every multinational corporation makes ongoing consultation a requirement in severance contracts and pays handsomely for it. Nevertheless, candid, in-depth discussions between outgoing and incoming CEOs rarely take place. Friel, formerly the chairman and CEO of Heidrick & Struggles, and Duboff, the CEO and a cofounder of HawkPartners, conducted numerous interviews with people who had been through at least one CEO transition to find out why those discussions didn't happen as a matter of course and how best to draw on the knowledge of a departing leader. They clearly outline the steps that organizations can take, such as making golden parachutes contingent on debriefing conversations, having HR arrange the meetings to dispel any awkwardness, and creating a thorough agenda. And they advise the two executives to meet as equals, share the "first 90 days plan," and speak consistently about the past and the future--to the media as well as to stakeholders. Much of an outgoing CEO's knowledge will be lost unless a conscious effort is made to capture it. As the average tenure of chief executives shrinks, it becomes increasingly imperative that they get off to a strong start.

  12. Social encounter networks: characterizing Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Danon, Leon; Read, Jonathan M; House, Thomas A; Vernon, Matthew C; Keeling, Matt J

    2013-08-22

    A major goal of infectious disease epidemiology is to understand and predict the spread of infections within human populations, with the intention of better informing decisions regarding control and intervention. However, the development of fully mechanistic models of transmission requires a quantitative understanding of social interactions and collective properties of social networks. We performed a cross-sectional study of the social contacts on given days for more than 5000 respondents in England, Scotland and Wales, through postal and online survey methods. The survey was designed to elicit detailed and previously unreported measures of the immediate social network of participants relevant to infection spread. Here, we describe individual-level contact patterns, focusing on the range of heterogeneity observed and discuss the correlations between contact patterns and other socio-demographic factors. We find that the distribution of the number of contacts approximates a power-law distribution, but postulate that total contact time (which has a shorter-tailed distribution) is more epidemiologically relevant. We observe that children, public-sector and healthcare workers have the highest number of total contact hours and are therefore most likely to catch and transmit infectious disease. Our study also quantifies the transitive connections made between an individual's contacts (or clustering); this is a key structural characteristic of social networks with important implications for disease transmission and control efficacy. Respondents' networks exhibit high levels of clustering, which varies across social settings and increases with duration, frequency of contact and distance from home. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for the transmission and control of pathogens spread through close contact.

  13. A Great Place to Watch the Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In this time of year when Mars is most likely to be covered by global dust storms, NASA's Spirit rover has been experiencing relative calm. In fact, the martian winds have been quite beneficial, clearing dust from the rover's solar panels and increasing the solar energy available for driving to new places and conducting scientific experiments.

    Another thing the martian wind has done is send hundreds of dust devils spinning across the surface of the planet. From Spirit's high perch approximately 90 meters (295 feet) above the surrounding plains, as shown in this image taken from the summit of 'Husband Hill,' three dust devils are clearly visible in the plains of Gusev Crater. Planetary Scientist Ron Greeley of Arizona State University, Tempe, describes the whirling vortices of wind and dust as 'vacuum cleaners' that were first seen in images from the Viking Orbiter in 1985, though their existence was predicted as early as 1964.

    The most prominent dust devil in this image, visible on the left side of the 360-degree panorama, is one of the closest seen by Spirit. It is about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) away from the rover, about 90 meters (295 feet) in diameter at its widest point, and 275 meters (902 feet) tall. Its flux is about 1 kilogram per second, meaning it is picking up about 2 pounds of sediment each second and moving it around.

    The smaller dust devil just to the right of the largest one is 2.5 to 3 kilometers (1.6 to 1.9 miles) away and is churning up about 0.5 kilograms (1 pound) per second. Both are north of the rover's position and are moving in an east-southeast direction. On the right side of the mosaic shown here is a third dust devil.

    Greeley has calculated that if the number and frequency of dust devils Spirit has encountered are similarly spaced throughout Gusev Crater, the crater probably experiences about 90,000 dust devils per martian day, or sol. Collectively, the whirlwinds lift and redeposit an estimated 4.5 million

  14. Great Lakes agreement calls for binational science priorities and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    An amended Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA), signed by officials from Canada and the United States at a 7 September ceremony in Washington, D. C., will facilitate efforts by the two countries to “restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Waters of the Great Lakes.” The agreement calls on the countries to cooperate and collaborate; develop programs, practices, and technology necessary to better understand the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem; and eliminate or reduce environmental threats to Great Lakes waters. The amended GLWQA specifically calls for the establishment of “binational priorities for science and action to address current and future threats” to the quality of Great Lakes waters within 18 months. In addition, the agreement calls on the International Joint Commission (IJC) to establish a Great Lakes science advisory board.

  15. Vegetation and Hydrologic Response to Climate in the Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, R. W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Ongoing drought in the Great Basin is a likely portent of future conditions with questions asked on water resource and ecosystem sustainability given increased temperatures and reduced winter snowpack. Research highlights the combined use of integrated models and remote sensing products to explore inter-annual climate variability and its impact on the relationship between vegetation vigor and hydrologic response in semi-arid landscapes. Hydrologic response to the current drought is shown to be similar to a moderate, decadal drought observed during 1952-1961; with moderate droughts expected to increase in frequency over the next century and move hydrologic conditions closer to the equivalent of the most severe drought observed in the 20th century. Vegetation water use in groundwater dependent ecosystems is explored in the context of soil moisture and depth to groundwater, as well as type and water use efficiency of upland vegetation. A case study illustrates that hydrologic sensitivity of meadow groundwater levels to upland woody-plant encroachment depends on precipitation falling out of phase with potential evapotranspiration; and weathered/fractured bedrock having the capacity to store water to sustain deep rooted plant transpiration during seasonally dry periods. Results suggest the meadow groundwater levels operate on a threshold response to precipitation greater than 400 mm per year and are highly responsive to small changes in upland vegetation and climate. Use of remote sensing in conjunction with integrated hydrologic models provides insight on the complex interplay between climate, vegetation, and hydrology.

  16. Reservoir properties of submarine- fan facies: Great Valley sequence, California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, H.

    1981-01-01

    Submarine-fan sandstones of the Great Valley sequence west of the Sacramento Valley, California, have low porosities and permeabilities. However, petrography and scanning electron microscope studies indicate that most sands in almost all submarine-fan environments are originally porous and permeable. Thin turbidite sandstones deposited in areas dominated by shale in the outer-fan and basin-plain are cemented mainly by calcite; shale dewatering is inferred to contribute to rapid cementation early in the burial process. Sands deposited in inner- and middle-fan channels with only thin shale beds have small percentrages of intergranular cement. The original porosity is reduced mechanically at shallow depths and by pressure solution at deeperlevels. Permeability decreases with increasing age of the rocks, as a result of increasing burial depths. Computer-run stepwise regression analyses show that the porosity is inversely related to the percentage of calcite cement. The results reported here indicate original porosity and permeability can be high in deep-water submarine fans and that fan environments dominated by sand (with high sand/shale ratios) are more likely to retain higher porosity and permeability to greater depths than sand interbedded with thick shale sequences.-from Author

  17. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Baharian, Soheil; Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R; Shringarpure, Suyash; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J; Bustamante, Carlos D; Kenny, Eimear E; Williams, Scott M; Aldrich, Melinda C; Gravel, Simon

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  18. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barakatt, Maxime; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Errington, Jacob; Blot, William J.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Kenny, Eimear E.; Williams, Scott M.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Gravel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15–16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance. PMID:27232753

  19. Decomposing Curricular Objectives To Increase Specificity of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    Advances in cognitive science have greatly increased our knowledge of how the human mind stores and uses information. That knowledge can be used to decompose curricular objectives so as to increase the specificity of instruction to a level of precision that should greatly enhance student writing. This article identifies some major types of…

  20. 4. View of Great Falls of the Potomac River looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Great Falls of the Potomac River looking upriver from a lower point further downstream than view #2. Observation Tower visible on left. During flood conditions of 1936 and 1942, lower portion of this tower was under water. Low water conditions are clearly evidenced here by normal water markings on rock formations noted on right. In rear of front rock promontory, a sand beach is shown. Mr. Horyduzak, photographer, 1943. - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal & Locks, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  1. GREAT: a web portal for Genome Regulatory Architecture Tools.

    PubMed

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Bucchini, François; Elati, Mohamed; Képès, François

    2016-07-08

    GREAT (Genome REgulatory Architecture Tools) is a novel web portal for tools designed to generate user-friendly and biologically useful analysis of genome architecture and regulation. The online tools of GREAT are freely accessible and compatible with essentially any operating system which runs a modern browser. GREAT is based on the analysis of genome layout -defined as the respective positioning of co-functional genes- and its relation with chromosome architecture and gene expression. GREAT tools allow users to systematically detect regular patterns along co-functional genomic features in an automatic way consisting of three individual steps and respective interactive visualizations. In addition to the complete analysis of regularities, GREAT tools enable the use of periodicity and position information for improving the prediction of transcription factor binding sites using a multi-view machine learning approach. The outcome of this integrative approach features a multivariate analysis of the interplay between the location of a gene and its regulatory sequence. GREAT results are plotted in web interactive graphs and are available for download either as individual plots, self-contained interactive pages or as machine readable tables for downstream analysis. The GREAT portal can be reached at the following URL https://absynth.issb.genopole.fr/GREAT and each individual GREAT tool is available for downloading.

  2. 2. Elkmont, deck view of corrugated arched bridge. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elkmont, deck view of corrugated arched bridge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 3. Elkmont, underside detail of corrugated arched bridge. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Elkmont, underside detail of corrugated arched bridge. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Elkmont Vehicle Bridge, Spanning Little River at Elkmont Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 77 FR 2497 - Great Lakes Steamship Repower Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... powered by old, inefficient steam boilers. Voluntary replacement of these boilers with modern fuel... encourage owners of Great Lakes steamships to voluntarily replace their steam boilers with cleaner,...

  5. 52. GREAT HALL, LOOKING NORTH THROUGH STAIR HALL TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. GREAT HALL, LOOKING NORTH THROUGH STAIR HALL TO NORTH VESTIBULE DOORS - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  7. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling. PMID:27996017

  8. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling.

  9. Do invasive quagga mussels alter CO2 dynamics in the Laurentian Great Lakes?

    PubMed

    Lin, Peng; Guo, Laodong

    2016-12-20

    The Laurentian Great Lakes have experienced unprecedented ecological and environmental changes, especially after the introduction of invasive quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis). While impacts on ecological functions have been widely recognized, the response of carbon dynamics to invasive species remains largely unknown. We report new CO2 data showing significant increases in pCO2 (up to 800 μatm in Lake Michigan) and CO2 emission fluxes in most of the Great Lakes compared to those prior to or during the early stage of the colonization of invasive quagga mussels. The increased CO2 supersaturation is most prominent in Lakes Huron and Michigan, followed by Lakes Ontario and Erie, but no evident change was observed in Lake Superior. This trend mirrors the infestation extent of invasive quagga mussels in the Great Lakes and is consistent with the decline in primary production and increase in water clarity observed pre- and post-Dreissena introduction, revealing a close linkage between invasive species and carbon dynamics. The Great Lakes have become a significant CO2 source to the atmosphere, emitting >7.7 ± 1.0 Tg-C annually, which is higher than the organic carbon burial rate in global inland-seas and attesting to the significant role of the Laurentian Great Lakes in regional/global CO2 budget and cycling.

  10. [Conservative methods of treatment of wounds during the great patriotic war (according to the magazine "the hospital case")].

    PubMed

    Petrov, M M

    2013-09-01

    The article investigates reasons of increase of labour-saving innovations and inventions made by physicians during the great patriotic war. It is proved that suggestions made during the analyzed period (1942) showed no much novelty and originality. From the article it follows that soviet physicians at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War had no proper knowledge about military surgery.

  11. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  12. Three-dimensional Simulations of Neptune's Great Dark SPOT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeau, R. P.; Dowling, T. E.

    1996-09-01

    The Great Dark Spot (GDS) seen on Neptune by Voyager was the most time-dependent Jovian vortex yet observed, with oscillations in aspect ratio and orientation, recurring formation of a tail, and steady equatorward drift. We have simulated each of these motions using an isentropic coordinate, primitive equation GCM (the EPIC model), and report here on idealized-model results that form part of a sensitivity study using a hierarchy of increasingly realistic Neptune models. The runs reported here are for a 9.5-layer model covering the pressure range 0-4000 mbar and overlying an adiabatic interior that has a specified zonal-wind profile. Analytical models of uniform potential vorticity spots, either two-dimensional ellipses (Polvani et al, 1990, Science 249) or three-dimensional ellipsoids (Meacham et al, 1994, Dyn.Atm.Oceans 21), exhibit periodic oscillations while retaining an elliptical shape. To connect to these simplified models and to isolate physical processes, we have run a series of experiments with uniform background potential vorticity (PV), uniform stratification, and zero vertical wind shear. Removing the background PV gradient significantly reduces or eliminates the equatorward drift. Unlike the analytical models, our vortices tend to reconfigure themselves to have nonuniform potential vorticity (becoming increasingly anticyclonic towards the center), even when initialized with near-uniform PV. Tails that closely resemble those of the GDS form quasi-periodically; the details governing their formation are not completely understood. Vertically, while each three-dimensional vortex remains coherent, the centers of vorticity on different layers exhibit complex "shaky column" behavior: sometimes leaning, as seen in the 2.5-layer-equivalent model of Achterberg and Ingersoll (1994, J.Atmos.Sci. 51), sometimes kinking, where the center of a higher and a lower layer are both to the same side of a central layer, and generally not retaining their initial vertical

  13. Potential sources of pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs to the atmosphere of the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hafner, William D; Hites, Ronald A

    2003-09-01

    A probabilistic model called the potential source contribution function (PSCF) has been used to estimate atmospheric source regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the Great Lakes. This model allows us to map each compound's source region on a 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees latitude/longitude grid centered over the Great Lakes basin. PCBs primarily have urban sources, the strengths of which vary. Like PCBs, PAHs show a strong urban signature, but these compounds also seem to come from rural sites. The source regions of PAH become less distinct as the molecular weight of the compound increases. Since reactivity increases with PAH size, this diminishing trend may be an indication that atmospheric degradation plays a large role in PAH transport. The pesticides have the strongest source regions and are typically transported the farthest, often from areas distant from the Great Lakes basin.

  14. Mercury temporal trends in top predator fish of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Zananski, Tiffany J; Holsen, Thomas M; Hopke, Philip K; Crimmins, Bernard S

    2011-10-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination is widespread in the Laurentian Great Lakes region and is a serious environmental concern. In anaerobic environments such as lake sediments, mercury is transformed into methylmercury (MeHg) and can biomagnify up the food chain to toxic concentrations. The Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLFMP), administered by the US EPA Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO), aims to monitor temporal trends of mercury in the five Great Lakes using top predator fish as biomonitors. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in Great Lake fish collected between 1999 and 2009. Single factor ANOVA determined that average fish THg concentrations over this time period in the five lakes were significantly different from one another in the order of Superior > Huron > Michigan > Ontario > Erie. By fitting the data to three different models (linear, quadratic, and two-segment piecewise), it was determined that Hg concentrations in top predator fish (lake trout, or walleye in Lake Erie) are currently increasing in Lake Erie and the Apostle Island sampling site in Lake Superior. Significant decreasing trends are evident in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and the Rockport sampling site in Lake Huron, although all of the lakes exhibit elevated concentrations in fish compared to historic concentrations. As new Hg emission controls are implemented in the US, continued monitoring of Hg in Great Lakes fish will be needed to determine if they influence the current concentrations and trends.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, toxaphenes, and other halogenated organic pollutants in great blue heron eggs.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Moisey, John; Muir, Derek C G

    2010-02-01

    The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) has been used as a bioindicator of the state of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada) since 1996. At 5-year intervals, selected breeding colonies along the River and its estuary are visited to estimate reproductive success and determine levels of contamination. Brominated flame retardants are found in many ecosystems and are increasing in concentration in the Great Lakes, which is the source of much of the water for the St. Lawrence River. In 2001 and 2002, in addition to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated bornanes (toxaphene) congeners and non-ortho-substituted PCBs were measured for the first time in pools of great blue heron eggs. The PBDE levels in great blue heron eggs (70-1,377 ng/g wet wt) were comparable to those measured in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes. Toxaphene was detected in great blue heron eggs at levels comparable to those of other major chlorinated pesticides. Major toxaphene congeners were octachlorobornane P44 and the nonachlorobornane P50. Environ.

  16. Soil gas radon concentrations measurements in terms of great soil groups.

    PubMed

    Içhedef, Mutlu; Saç, Müslim Murat; Camgöz, Berkay; Bolca, Mustafa; Harmanşah, Çoşkun

    2013-12-01

    In this study, soil gas radon concentrations were investigated according to locations, horizontal soil layers and great soil groups around Tuzla Fault, Seferihisar-İzmir. Great soil groups are a category that described the horizontal soil layers under soil classification system and distributions of radon concentration in the great soil groups are firstly determined by the present study. According to the obtained results, it has been showed that the radon concentrations in the Koluvial soil group are higher than the other soil groups in the region. Also significant differences on location in same great soil group were determined. The radon concentrations in the Koluvial soil groups were measured with respect to soil layers structures (A, B, C1, and C2). It has been observed that the values increase with depth of soil (C2>C1>B>A). The main reason may be due to the meteorological factors that have limited effect on radon escape from deep layers. Although fault lines pass thought the study area radon concentrations were varied location to location, layer to layer and great group to great group. The study shows that a detailed location description should be performed before soil radon measurements for earthquake predictions.

  17. Multimetric Fish Indices for Midcontinent (USA) Great Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems we developed a fish-assemblage based multimetric index (Great River Fish Index,GRFIn) as an indicator of ecological conditions in the Lower Missouri, impounded Upper Mississippi, unimpounded...

  18. School Improvement Grants: Progress Report from America's Great City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of the Great City Schools, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report measures trends in performance among urban schools receiving federal School Improvement Grant (SIG) awards as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA). The Council of the Great City Schools aims to document how member districts of the Council of the Great City Schools implemented SIG and specifically what…

  19. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  20. Using Music to Teach about the Great Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert L.; Fogel, Jared A.

    2007-01-01

    The Great Depression is typically taught through history textbooks, but the music of this time allows students to learn about this era through different perspectives. The Great Depression witnessed many musical styles--from the light heartedness of popular music to the sadness of the blues, gospel, which offered inspiration, to the tension between…

  1. Teach with Your Strengths: How Great Teachers Inspire Their Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liesveld, Rosanne; Miller, Jo Ann

    2005-01-01

    What do great teachers do differently? This book argues that they make the most of their natural talents and do not strive to be well-rounded. In this book, readers will hear from great teachers, many of whom reveal their unorthodox--and sure-to-be-controversial--approaches. The reader will gain key insights gleaned from 40 years of research into…

  2. The Great Depression: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulczak, Carrie

    2001-01-01

    Provides citations with abstracts from the ERIC database focusing on the Great Depression. Includes both background information and teaching materials on such topics as an overview of the New Deal, the arts and the Great Depression, and information on the Civilian Conservation Corps. Offers directions for accessing the materials. (CMK)

  3. The Great Leap Forward: Anatomy of a Central Planning Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wei; Yang, Dennis Tao

    2005-01-01

    The Great Leap Forward disaster, characterized by a collapse in grain production and a widespread famine in China between 1959 and 1961, is found attributable to a systemic failure in central planning. Wishfully expecting a great leap in agricultural productivity from collectivization, the Chinese government accelerated its aggressive…

  4. Figuring Somepin 'bout the Great Depression. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElroy, Amy; Pietsch, Chris

    These 10th and 11th grade lessons plans related to the Great Depression and the novel "The Grapes of Wrath" help students to: develop research skills and strategies, such as keyword searches, for finding information; recognize and use the different voices of migrants; and understand the politics of migration and the Great Depression. By…

  5. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  6. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  7. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  8. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  9. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  10. Highland Homeland. The People of the Great Smokies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykeman, Wilma; Stokely, Jim

    More than 6,600 separate tracts of land, purchased by the citizens of Tennessee and North Carolina and given to the people of the United States in 1934, comprise the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The history of the Great Smokies is, therefore, a story of people and their home. This volume presents historical vignettes of the groups who…

  11. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  12. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  13. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  14. 33 CFR 100.901 - Great Lakes annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Lakes annual marine events... REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.901 Great Lakes annual marine events. Permanent special local regulations are hereby established for the marine events listed in Table 1....

  15. Twenty-Five Factors Great Teachers Have in Common

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    The author presents his thoughts on what constitutes a great and effective teacher based on his personal experience of 42 years in the education field. He lists what he believes are 25 traits of great teachers. These traits include the knowledge of how students think and what motivates them; the ability to network and collaborate with other…

  16. Who Says There Have Been Great Women Artists? Some Afterthoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Roger; Folgo, Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Last year these authors addressed an issue in these pages that echoed Linda Nochlin 's (1971) haunting question, "Why have there been no great women artists?" (Clark, Folgo, & Pichette, 2005). That essay examined the question, "Have there now been any great women artists?" through a study of art history textbooks primarily written for college…

  17. The Role of Ecological Research in Great Lakes Water Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk will present some current ecological research in the Great Lakes. It will focus on how research examines aspects of water quality that relate to Basin-Lake and Human-Water interactions in the context of water sustainability issues for the Great Lakes.

  18. Turbulent Times: Outdoor Education in Great Britain: 1993-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Pete; Telford, John

    2005-01-01

    Outdoor education has a long and well documented history in Great Britain which is regularly linked to Hahn, Gordonstoun School, and the Outward Bound movement. A kayaking tragedy in 1993 resulted in the introduction of new legislation through Parliament. This has led to major changes in outdoor education in Great Britain and extensive debates,…

  19. Great Books, Reform, and the Catholic Educational Tradition: A Reply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, John

    1981-01-01

    Responds to an article on St. Thomas Aquinas College's Great Books Curriculum (EJ 240 962). Endorses the program's aims of using Great Books as a means to truth, not as an end in themselves, but feels that the approach is too narrow and too reliant upon authority and that it fails to develop complex thinking and knowing methods. (DMM)

  20. 33 CFR 100.108 - Great Kennebec River Whatever Race.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Kennebec River Whatever Race. 100.108 Section 100.108 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.108 Great Kennebec...

  1. Probabilistic projections of regional climatic changes over the Great Lakes Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiuquan; Huang, Guohe; Baetz, Brian W.; Zhao, Shan

    2016-11-01

    As the largest surface fresh water system on earth, the Great Lakes is facing the threat of climate change. Understanding how the hydrologic cycle in the Great Lakes region would be affected by human-induced global warming is important for developing informed adaptation strategies. In this study, high-resolution regional climate ensemble simulations based upon the PRECIS modeling system are conducted to project future climatic changes over the Great Lakes Basin. The results show that the Great Lakes Basin is very likely to experience a continuous warming-up throughout the 21st century. Particularly, mean air temperatures will rise by 2.6 °C in the forthcoming decades (i.e., 2030s), 3.8 °C in the middle of the century (i.e., 2050s), and 5.6 °C to the end of the century (i.e., 2080s), respectively. The warming air temperatures are very likely to result in more precipitation over the entire basin. The annual total precipitation over the Great Lakes Basin is projected to increase by 8.9% in the 2030s and 12.2% in the 2050s, while the magnitude of precipitation increase would decline to 7.1% in the 2080s. The slow-down of the precipitation increase from the 2050s to the 2080s indicates a shift from the aggressive increase of precipitation before and in the middle of this century to the eventual decrease by the end of this century, suggesting that a nonlinear response relationship between precipitation and temperature may exist in the Great Lakes Basin and such a relationship is also likely to vary in response to global warming.

  2. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  3. Health Impacts of the Great Recession: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Falconi, April; Downing, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    The severity, sudden onset, and multipronged nature of the Great Recession (2007–2009) provided a unique opportunity to examine the health impacts of macroeconomic downturn. We comprehensively review empirical literature examining the relationship between the Recession and mental and physical health outcomes in developed nations. Overall, studies reported detrimental impacts of the Recession on health, particularly mental health. Macro- and individual-level employment- and housing-related sequelae of the Recession were associated with declining fertility and self-rated health, and increasing morbidity, psychological distress, and suicide, although traffic fatalities and population-level alcohol consumption declined. Health impacts were stronger among men and racial/ethnic minorities. Importantly, strong social safety nets in some European countries appear to have buffered those populations from negative health effects. This literature, however, still faces multiple methodological challenges, and more time may be needed to observe the Recession’s full health impact. We conclude with suggestions for future work in this field. PMID:27239427

  4. A preliminary report on the Great Wenchuan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zifa

    2008-06-01

    The May 12, 2008 Great Wenchuan Earthquake has resulted in more than 68,858 deaths and losses in the hundreds of billions RMB as of May 30, 2008, and these numbers will undoubtedly increase as more information becomes available on the extent of the event. Immediately after the earthquake, the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) responded quickly by sending teams of experts to the affected region, eventually including over 60 staff members from the Institute of Engineering Mechanics (IEM). This paper reports preliminary information that has been gathered in the first 18 days after the event, covering seismicity, search and rescue efforts, observed ground motions, and damage and loss estimates. The extensive field investigation has revealed a number of valuable findings that could be useful in improving research in earthquake engineering in the future. Once again, this earthquake has shown that the vertical component of ground motion is as significant as horizontal ground motions in the near-source area. Finally, note that as more information is gathered, the numbers reported in this paper will need to be adjusted accordingly.

  5. Evolving polycentric governance of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Tiffany H

    2017-04-11

    A growing field of sustainability science examines how environments are transformed through polycentric governance. However, many studies are only snapshot analyses of the initial design or the emergent structure of polycentric regimes. There is less systematic analysis of the longitudinal robustness of polycentric regimes. The problem of robustness is approached by focusing not only on the structure of a regime but also on its context and effectiveness. These dimensions are examined through a longitudinal analysis of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) governance regime, drawing on in-depth interviews and demographic, economic, and employment data, as well as organizational records and participant observation. Between 1975 and 2011, the GBR regime evolved into a robust polycentric structure as evident in an established set of multiactor, multilevel arrangements addressing marine, terrestrial, and global threats. However, from 2005 onward, multiscale drivers precipitated at least 10 types of regime change, ranging from contextual change that encouraged regime drift to deliberate changes that threatened regime conversion. More recently, regime realignment also has occurred in response to steering by international organizations and shocks such as the 2016 mass coral-bleaching event. The results show that structural density and stability in a governance regime can coexist with major changes in that regime's context and effectiveness. Clear analysis of the vulnerability of polycentric governance to both diminishing effectiveness and the masking effects of increasing complexity provides sustainability science and governance actors with a stronger basis to understand and respond to regime change.

  6. Mid-Wisconsinan environments on the eastern Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, R. G.; Bettis, E. A., III; Mandel, R. D.; Dorale, J. A.; Fredlund, G. G.

    2009-05-01

    Few sites on the eastern Great Plains contain paleobotanical records for the mid-Wisconsin. We report on four sites, two stream cutbanks and two quarry exposures, ranging in age from >50 to ˜23.4 ka. The oldest site at >50 ka contains a suite of macrofossils from prairie and disturbed ground habitats, with no representation of trees, indicating an open prairie. By ˜38 ka the assemblages include aquatic, wetland, mudflat, and prairie elements with rare specimens of Populus, Betula cf. papyrifera, Salix and at the most northerly site, Picea. This assemblage suggests a prairie/parkland with interspersed marshes, cooler temperatures and increased moisture. Populus and Salix continued to be represented from ˜36 to ˜29 ka, but the only other taxon was Carex. A hiatus may be present at some time during this interval. After ˜29 ka, Picea became dominant on the uplands and it was joined by sedges in local wetlands. At sites near riverine loess sources, loess accumulation began to fill in the wetlands and organic deposition ceased some time after 29 ka.

  7. Mid-Wisconsinan environments on the eastern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.G.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Mandel, R.D.; Dorale, J.A.; Fredlund, G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Few sites on the eastern Great Plains contain paleobotanical records for the mid-Wisconsin. We report on four sites, two stream cutbanks and two quarry exposures, ranging in age from >50 to ???23.4 ka. The oldest site at >50 ka contains a suite of macrofossils from prairie and disturbed ground habitats, with no representation of trees, indicating an open prairie. By ???38 ka the assemblages include aquatic, wetland, mudflat, and prairie elements with rare specimens of Populus, Betula cf. papyrifera, Salix and at the most northerly site, Picea. This assemblage suggests a prairie/parkland with interspersed marshes, cooler temperatures and increased moisture. Populus and Salix continued to be represented from ???36 to ???29 ka, but the only other taxon was Carex. A hiatus may be present at some time during this interval. After ???29 ka, Picea became dominant on the uplands and it was joined by sedges in local wetlands. At sites near riverine loess sources, loess accumulation began to fill in the wetlands and organic deposition ceased some time after 29 ka. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neglect and Extinction Depend Greatly on Task Demands: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This review illustrates how, after unilateral brain damage, the presence and severity of spatial awareness deficits for the contralesional hemispace depend greatly on the quantity of attentional resources available for performance. After a brief description of neglect and extinction, different frameworks accounting for spatial and non-spatial attentional processes will be outlined. The central part of the review describes how the performance of brain-damaged patients is negatively affected by increased task demands, which can result in the emergence of severe awareness deficits for contralesional space even in patients who perform normally on paper-and-pencil tests. Throughout the review neglect is described as a spatial syndrome that can be exacerbated in the presence and severity by both spatial and non-spatial tasks. The take-home message is that the presence and degree of contralesional neglect and extinction can be dramatically overlooked based on standard clinical (paper-and-pencil) testing, where patients can easily compensate for their deficits. Only tasks where compensation is made impossible represent an appropriate approach to detect these disabling contralesional deficits of awareness when they become subtle in post-acute stroke phases. PMID:22822394

  9. Hepatitis B among Indochinese refugees in Great Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, R. G.; Hall, A. J.; Davidson, I.; Bull, F. G.; Wright, R.

    1982-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty-two blood samples from 879 consecutive admissions to one resettlement camp for Indochinese refugees in Great Britain were screened for markers of hepatitis B (HB) virus infection. The overall prevalence of HB surface antigen (HBsAg) was 15%, being 16% in those aged 40 years or less, and falling to 8% in those older than 40 (P less than 0.05). No significant difference in prevalence was found between males and females. HBe antigen was detected in 56% of those with HBsAg and was demonstrable in 55-76% of those under 30 years of age. HBe antibody was found in 21% of HBsAg-positive refugees. In those under 40 years old, HB core (HBc) antibody was commoner in males (P less than 0.01). HBc antibody prevalence increased significantly with age in females (P less than 0.01) but not in males. There was no definite evidence that vertical transmission of hepatitis B was present in the group studied. PMID:7170264

  10. Public understanding in Great Britain of ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capstick, Stuart B.; Pidgeon, Nick F.; Corner, Adam J.; Spence, Elspeth M.; Pearson, Paul N.

    2016-08-01

    Public engagement with climate change is critical for maintaining the impetus for meaningful emissions cuts. Ocean acidification (OA) is increasingly recognized by marine scientists as an important, but often overlooked, consequence of anthropogenic emissions. Although substantial evidence now exists concerning people’s understanding of climate change more generally, very little is known about public perceptions of OA. Here, for the first time, we characterize in detail people’s understanding of this topic using survey data obtained in Great Britain (n = 2,501) during 2013 and 2014. We draw on theories of risk perception and consider how personal values influence attitudes towards OA. We find that public awareness of OA is very low compared to that of climate change, and was unaffected by the publication of the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report. Using an experimental approach, we show that providing basic information can heighten concern about OA, however, we find that attitude polarization along value-based lines may occur if the topic is explicitly associated with climate change. We discuss the implications of our findings for public engagement with OA, and the importance of learning lessons from communications research relating to climate change.

  11. Dynamics of mercury in blood and feathers of great skuas

    SciTech Connect

    Bearhop, S.; Ruxton, G.D.; Furness, R.W.

    2000-06-01

    Mercury dynamics in the blood and feathers of captive great skuas, Catharacta skua, were monitored over 56 weeks. Prior to the onset of molt, mercury intake was solely from their maintenance ration of sprats, Sprattus sprattus. For the first half of molt, in addition to mercury intake from sprats, birds were fed different doses of methylmercuric chloride weekly for 20 weeks. During the second half of molt, dosing was stopped and mercury intake was solely from sprats. Blood was sampled throughout the study and feather growth was monitored. Prior to the onset of molt, mercury concentrations increased over the first 51 to 71 d and appeared to level off after this period. Repeated dosing models based on mammalian pharmacokinetics were, in general, too simplistic to be applicable to the birds in the study. During molt, the elimination of mercury from the blood is probably best described by a three-compartment model. Mercury concentrations in feathers were significantly correlated with those in blood at the time of their growth, suggesting that blood and feathers reflect mercury intake over the same time period. Individuals varied in their ability to excrete ingested mercury into the feathers.

  12. Benthic Foraminifera from the Capricorn Group, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Briony L

    2016-12-23

    Effective reef management and monitoring has become increasingly important as anthropogenic processes impact upon natural ecosystems. One locality that is under direct threat due to human activities is the Australian Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Marine foraminifera represent an abundant and readily applicable tool that can be used in reef studies to investigate a variety of ecological parameters and assist in understanding reef dynamics and influence management protocols. The first step is to establish a baseline knowledge of taxonomic composition within the region to facilitate comparative studies and monitor how assemblages change in order to maximise effective management. A detailed taxonomic assessment is provided of 133 species of benthic foraminifera in 76 genera from Heron Island, One Tree Island, Wistari and Sykes Reefs, which form the core of the Capricorn Group (CG) at the southern end of the GBR. Of these 133 species, 46% belong to the order Miliolida, 34% to Rotaliida, 7% to Textulariida, 5% to Lagenida, 3% to Lituolida, 3% to Spirillinida, 1% to Loftusiida and 1% to Robertinida. Samples were collected from a variety of shallow shelf reef environments including reef flat, lagoonal and channel environments. Seventy species, representing the most abundant forms, are formally described with detailed distribution data for the remaining 63 species supplied.

  13. Organophosphate Esters in Sediment of the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dandan; Guo, Jiehong; Wang, Yawei; Li, Zhuona; Liang, Kang; Corcoran, Margaret B; Hosseini, Soheil; Bonina, Solidea M C; Rockne, Karl J; Sturchio, Neil C; Giesy, John P; Liu, Jingfu; Li, An; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-02-07

    This is the first study on organophosphate ester (OPEs) flame retardants and plasticizers in the sediment of the Great Lakes. Concentrations of 14 OPEs were measured in three sediment cores and 88 Ponar surface grabs collected from Lakes Ontario, Michigan, and Superior of North America. The sum of these OPEs (Σ14OPEs) in Ponar grabs averaged 2.2, 4.7, and 16.6 ng g(-1) dw in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Ontario, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated statistically significant associations between logarithm concentrations of Σ14OPEs as well as selected congeners in surface grab samples and sediment organic carbon content as well as a newly developed urban distance factor. Temporal trends observed in dated sediment cores from Lake Michigan demonstrated that the recent increase in depositional flux to sediment is dominated by chlorinated OPEs, particularly tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), which has a doubling time of about 20 years. Downward diffusion within sediment may have caused vertical fractionation of OPEs over time. Two relatively hydrophilic OPEs including TCPP had much higher concentrations in sediment than estimated based on equilibria between water and sediment organic carbon. Approximately a quarter (17 tonnes) of the estimated total OPE burden (63 tonnes) in Lake Michigan resides in sediment, which may act as a secondary source releasing OPEs to the water column for years to come.

  14. Geographical epidemiology of prostate cancer in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Jarup, Lars; Best, Nicky; Toledano, Mireille B; Wakefield, Jon; Elliott, Paul

    2002-02-10

    Prostate cancer incidence has increased during recent years, possibly linked to environmental exposures. Exposure to environmental carcinogens is unlikely to be evenly distributed geographically, which may give rise to variations in disease occurrence that is detectable in a spatial analysis. The aim of our study was to examine the spatial variation of prostate cancer in Great Britain at ages 45-64 years. Spatial variation was examined across electoral wards from 1975-1991. Poisson regression was used to examine regional, urbanisation and socioeconomic effects, while Bayesian mapping techniques were used to assess spatial variability. There was an indication of geographical differences in prostate cancer risk at a regional level, ranging from 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78-0.87) to 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.3) across regions. There was significant heterogeneity in the risk across wards, although the range of relative risks was narrow. More detailed spatial analyses within 4 regions did not indicate any clear evidence of localised geographical clustering for prostate cancer. The absence of any marked geographical variability at a small-area scale argues against a geographically varying environmental factor operating strongly in the aetiology of prostate cancer.

  15. Particulate matter concentrations for mono-slope beef cattle facilities in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confined cattle facilities are an increasingly common housing system in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States. Producers may maintain a deep-bedded manure pack (Pack), they may remove all bedding/manure material from the pens weekly (Scrape), or use a combination of management styles...

  16. 78 FR 54891 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval: Comment Request; Great...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Lakes Accountability System (Reinstatement) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...), Great Lakes Accountability System (Reinstatement) (EPA ICR No. 2379.02, OMB Control No. 2005-0001) to... ecosystem. The legislation called for increased accountability for the GLRI and directed EPA to implement...

  17. Bringing Educational Fundraising Back to Great Britain: A Comparison with the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proper, Eve

    2009-01-01

    As a solution to dwindling government revenue, higher education in Great Britain has recently begun to increase fundraising. While it looks to the United States' higher education sector as a model, there are significant legal, historical and cultural differences between the two nations that could limit the British higher education sector's…

  18. Using Data to Improve Instruction in the Great City Schools: Documenting Current Practice. Urban Data Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heppen, Jessica; Jones, Wehmah; Faria, Ann-Marie; Sawyer, Katherine; Lewis, Sharon; Horwitz, Amanda; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Casserly, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A key lever for improvement in instruction and student support is the data that are available in urban districts. A considerable amount of information now exists about students' academic strengths and weaknesses, and the momentum to build and improve data systems is increasing at a rapid pace. In fall 2008, the Council of the Great City Schools…

  19. Low-dose glyphosate does not control annual bromes in the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual bromes (downy brome and Japanese brome) have been shown to decrease perennial grass forage production and alter ecosystem functions in northern Great Plains rangelands. Large-scale chemical control might be a method for increasing rangeland forage production if low application rates confer co...

  20. Adaptation of Pulse Crops to the Changing Climate of the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate over the northern Great Plains has generally warmed over the last 60 yr. The rate of warming has varied temporally and spatially, confounding trend analysis for climate indicators such as increased length of the growing season. Change in precipitation has been even more variable. Despite thi...

  1. Depth Matters: Soil pH and dilution effects in the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the northern Great Plans (NGP), surface sampling depths of 0-15.2 cm or 0-20.3 cm are suggested for testing soil characteristics such as pH. However, acidification is often most pronounced near-surface (e.g., <10 cm). Thus, sampling deeper can potentially dilute (increase) pH measurements and the...

  2. Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…

  3. Land & Water Interactions in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is land and water interactions. Students examine how the Great Lakes were…

  4. [The oxidation degradation of great green SF by Fenton reagent].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Huai-li; Zhang, Zhan-mei; Tang, Ming-fang; Yi, Qian; Chen, Chun-yan; Peng, Zhi-cong

    2006-04-01

    Photo-Fenton method, the combination of Fenton reagent with light, is an efficient method for waste water treatment. In the present paper, the degradation of great green SF using this method was studied. Great green SF is a kind of permanent and nondegradable dye. Through numerous experiments, the influences of various parameters including the UV absorption curve of great green dye SF, the concentration-absorbency curve of great green dye SF, dosage of Fe2+, dosage of H2O2, initial pH, different light sources, and cation-exchange resin on the degradation were researched intensively. The optimum condition for dye SF degradation was given. Under the experiment condition, the sun light can promote this reaction apparently. The reaction time can greatly be shortened too. After the cation-exchange resin was introduced into the Fenton system, the activation of H2O2 can be enhanced to a great extent. The dosage of H2O2 will be decreased. The degradation effect of the great green SF is better. Under optimal conditions, the overall color removal is more than 96.7% within 40 min; COD can be removed effectively at the same time.

  5. Perchlorate in The Great Lakes: Distribution, Isotopic Composition and Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Jackson, W. A.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Hatzinger, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations, stable chlorine and oxygen isotopic compositions, and 36Cl abundances of perchlorate were investigated in the five Laurentian Great Lakes. Samples were collected during monitoring cruises in 2007 and 2008 of the U.S. EPA's RV Lake Guardian and in 2010 at the water supply intake of Marquette, MI on the southern shore of Lake Superior. Concentrations of perchlorate were measured by IC/MS/MS at 24 locations, including one or two depth profiles in each lake. Mean concentrations (μg/L) are: Superior, 0.06 × 0.01; Michigan, 0.10 × 0.01; Huron, 0.11 × 0.01; Erie, 0.08 × 0.01, and Ontario, 0.09 × 0.01. Concentration vs. depth is nearly constant in each lake, indicating well-mixed conditions. Perchlorate was extracted from near-surface water by passing 15,000 to 80,000 L of water through 1-L cartridges containing Purolite A530E bifunctional anion-exchange resin. In the laboratory, perchlorate was eluted from the resin, purified, and precipitated as a >99% pure crystalline phase. Milligram amounts were recovered from each lake. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses were performed at Caltech using the Cameca 7f-GEO SIMS instrument, following validation of the SIMS method with analyses of USGS-37 and USGS-38 isotopic reference materials. Results indicate a relatively narrow range in δ37Cl values (+2.9 to +3.9 ‰) and a wider range in δ18O values (-4.0 to +4.1 ‰), with a general geographic trend of increasing δ18O from west to east. Oxygen-17 was measured at UIC using dual-inlet IRMS of O2 produced by decomposition of KClO4. Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ17O values (+1.6 ‰ to +2.7 ‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7 ‰) and the other four lakes (~ +1.7 ‰). The isotopic data indicate that perchlorate is dominantly of natural origin, having stable isotopic compositions resembling those of perchlorate from pre-industrial groundwaters in the western USA. The 36Cl

  6. Increasing the Minority CTE Teacher Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the need for more minority teachers. This issue deserves serious consideration as the K-12 minority student population increases and the number of minority teachers does not. Various states have implemented programs designed to recruit minority teachers, including teacher shadowing initiatives in South…

  7. Can protein levels be economically increased?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One result from the 2010 hard red winter wheat harvest was an increase of discussions on protein values across the southern great plains. The crop garnered relatively low protein values for several reasons, many of which were directly related to the weather patterns and environmental conditions. T...

  8. Soil salinity study in Northern Great Plains sodium affected soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharel, Tulsi P.

    Climate and land-use changes when combined with the marine sediments that underlay portions of the Northern Great Plains have increased the salinization and sodification risks. The objectives of this dissertation were to compare three chemical amendments (calcium chloride, sulfuric acid and gypsum) remediation strategies on water permeability and sodium (Na) transport in undisturbed soil columns and to develop a remote sensing technique to characterize salinization in South Dakota soils. Forty-eight undisturbed soil columns (30 cm x 15 cm) collected from White Lake, Redfield, and Pierpont were used to assess the chemical remediation strategies. In this study the experimental design was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated four times. Following the application of chemical remediation strategies, 45.2 cm of water was leached through these columns. The leachate was separated into 120- ml increments and analyzed for Na and electrical conductivity (EC). Sulfuric acid increased Na leaching, whereas gypsum and CaCl2 increased water permeability. Our results further indicate that to maintain effective water permeability, ratio between soil EC and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) should be considered. In the second study, soil samples from 0-15 cm depth in 62 x 62 m grid spacing were taken from the South Dakota Pierpont (65 ha) and Redfield (17 ha) sites. Saturated paste EC was measured on each soil sample. At each sampling points reflectance and derived indices (Landsat 5, 7, 8 images), elevation, slope and aspect (LiDAR) were extracted. Regression models based on multiple linear regression, classification and regression tree, cubist, and random forest techniques were developed and their ability to predict soil EC were compared. Results showed that: 1) Random forest method was found to be the most effective method because of its ability to capture spatially correlated variation, 2) the short wave infrared (1.5 -2.29 mum) and near infrared (0

  9. Fire rehabilitation effectiveness: a chronosequence approach for the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.; Pilliod, David S.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Grace, James

    2009-01-01

    Federal land management agencies have invested heavily in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and rehabilitation (ES&R) of non-forested lands. ES&R projects are implemented to reduce post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, minimize probability of recurrent fire, quickly recover lost habitat for sensitive species, and ultimately result in plant communities with desirable characteristics including resistance to invasive species and resilience or ability to recover following disturbance. Land managers lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding non-forested lands achieves their desired long-term ES&R objectives. The overall objective of our investigation is to determine if ES&R projects increase perennial plant cover, improve community composition, decrease invasive annual plant cover and result in a more desirable fuel structure relative to no treatment following fires while potentially providing habitat for Greater Sage-Grouse, a species of management concern. In addition, we provide the locations and baseline vegetation data for further studies relating to ES&R project impacts. We examined effects of seeding treatments (drill and broadcast) vs. no seeding on biotic and abiotic (bare ground and litter) variables for the dominant climate regimes and ecological types within the Great Basin. We attempted to determine seeding effectiveness to provide desired plant species cover while restricting non-native annual grass cover relative to post-treatment precipitation, post-treatment grazing level and time-since-seeding. Seedings were randomly sampled from all known post-fire seedings that occurred in the four-state area of Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and Utah. Sampling locations were stratified by major land resource area, precipitation, and loam-dominated soils to ensure an adequate spread of locations to provide inference of our findings to similar lands throughout the Great Basin. Nearly 100 sites were located that contained an ES&R project. Of

  10. GREAT Highlights from the SOFIA Early Science Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, Hans; Gusten, R.; GREAT Team

    2012-01-01

    Since its first light on April 01, the German REceiver for Astronomy at TeraHertz Frequencies (GREAT) has flown more than a dozen SOFIA science flights both for US and German proposals. The spectrometer was operated routinely in its low frequency configurations, for sky frequencies between 1.25 and 1.5 THz (L1 channel) and 1.81-1.91 THz (L2 channel). During a GREAT engineering flight, the 2.5 THz OH ground-state transition was successfully observed. We will summarize the science opportunities with GREAT and present highlights from these Early Science flights.

  11. "Most brilliant in judgment": Alexander the Great and Aristotle.

    PubMed

    Lainas, Panagiotis; Panutsopulos, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Zoras, Odysseas; Skandalakis, John E

    2005-03-01

    From historical sources, it is evident that Alexander the Great was indebted to one of his teachers, Aristotle of Stagira. It was the teaching of Aristotle that evoked all the nascent talents of young Alexander and turned him into a great man. Alexander was extremely interested in the secrets of medicine and considered it an art. The medical knowledge he acquired from Aristotle may have saved his life and the lives of his troops on many occasions. If Alexander did not possess medical knowledge and if his everyday life had not been so greatly influenced by medicine, he might never have been able to create his empire.

  12. Drinking in the age of the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Johnson, Timothy P; Cho, Young Ilk; Vijayasira, Ganga; Cloninger, Lea; Wolff, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    The United States has been experiencing the most severe economic crisis since the Great Depression. This article presents the Life Change Consequences of the Great Recession (LCCGR), an instrument depicting work and personal life-related stressors reflecting the enduring effects of the Great Recession. A national sample of 663 respondents completed a mail survey including this instrument and measures of drinking outcomes. Multiple regression analyses addressed the links between the LCCGR and drinking. Economy-related stressors manifested significant effects on both male and female consumptions patterns, but most LCCGR subscales were more clearly related to problematic drinking patterns in men compared with women.

  13. 2. View of Potomac River at Great Falls looking upstream ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Potomac River at Great Falls looking upstream from Observation Tower. The majestic character of this wild and untrammeled spot is vividly shown. Scanty flow is evidenced by light colored normal water line markings on rock formation. Washington Agueduct Dam is shown in upper portion. Maryland on right and Virginia on left. Natives quoted as saying the water was as low or lower than during the drought conditions of 1930. Mr. Horyduzak, Photographer, 1943. - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal & Locks, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  14. Origin and status of the Great Lakes wolf.

    PubMed

    Koblmüller, Stephan; Nord, Maria; Wayne, Robert K; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2009-06-01

    An extensive debate concerning the origin and taxonomic status of wolf-like canids in the North American Great Lakes region and the consequences for conservation politics regarding these enigmatic predators is ongoing. Using maternally, paternally and biparentally inherited molecular markers, we demonstrate that the Great Lakes wolves are a unique population or ecotype of gray wolves. Furthermore, we show that the Great Lakes wolves experienced high degrees of ancient and recent introgression of coyote and western gray wolf mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplotypes, and that the recent demographic bottleneck caused by persecution and habitat depletion in the early 1900s is not reflected in the genetic data.

  15. With Great Challenges Come Great Opportunities: Promising Practices of Texas Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Jennifer; Shook, Melissa; Fletcher, Carla; Smith, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Enrollment at Texas community colleges has increased substantially in recent years. Texas community colleges have a multitude of diverse missions, from academic degrees to technical certifications, remedial education, recreational self-fulfillment courses, and more. This diversity of student and community needs poses significant challenges to a…

  16. Economic suicides in the Great Recession in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-09-01

    There has been a substantial rise in 'economic suicides' in the Great Recessions afflicting Europe and North America. We estimate that the Great Recession is associated with at least 10 000 additional economic suicides between 2008 and 2010. A critical question for policy and psychiatric practice is whether these suicide rises are inevitable. Marked cross-national variations in suicides in the recession offer one clue that they are potentially avoidable. Job loss, debt and foreclosure increase risks of suicidal thinking. A range of interventions, from upstream return-to-work programmes through to antidepressant prescriptions may help mitigate suicide risk during economic downturn.

  17. Restoring the Great Lakes: DOI stories of success and partnership in implementing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a monumentally unique national treasure containing nearly ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh surface water. Formed by receding glaciers, the Great Lakes support a thriving, resilient ecosystem rich with fish, wildlife, and abundant natural resources. The Great Lakes also support an array of commercial uses, including shipping, and provide a source of recreation, drinking water, and other critical services that drive the economy of the region and the Nation. Regrettably, activities such as clear cutting of mature forests, over-harvesting of fish populations, industrial pollution, invasive species, and agricultural runoffs have degraded these treasured lakes over the decades creating long-term impacts to the surrounding watershed. Fortunately, the people who live, work, and recreate in the region recognize the critical importance of a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem, and have come together to support comprehensive restoration. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. This program provides the seed money to clean up legacy pollution, restore habitats, protect wildlife, combat invasive species, and address agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes watershed. At the same time GLRI promotes public outreach, education, accountability, and partnerships.

  18. Particulate Loads Caused by Wind Erosion in the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Lawrence J.; Woodruff, Neil P.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper the annual flux of suspended particulates caused by wind erosion in the Great Plains is estimated. This study demonstrated that climate causes wide variations in air pollution from wind erosion. (BT)

  19. 170. GWMP SOUTH OF GREAT HUNTING CREEK LOOKING SOUTH. (NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. GWMP SOUTH OF GREAT HUNTING CREEK LOOKING SOUTH. (NOTE ASPHALT PAVEMENT AND FILLED LAND) - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  20. 1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, entrance sign. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail, Between Cherokee Orchard Road & U.S. Route 321, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN