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Sample records for precise tightly size-calibrated

  1. Bland Embolization in Patients with Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Precise, Tightly Size-Calibrated, Anti-Inflammatory Microparticles: First Clinical Experience and One-Year Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomo, Guido; Pedicini, Vittorio; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Della Vigna, Paolo; Poretti, Dario; Orgera, Gianluigi; Orsi, Franco

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to report on the feasibility, local response, and 1-year clinical outcome of bland transarterial embolization (TAE) with 40- and 100-{mu}m Embozene microspheres in patients affected by unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Up to January 2009, 53 patients underwent superselective TAE for a total of 74 lesions. Diagnosis of HCC was based on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), {alpha}-fetoprotein, and biopsy. MDCT was performed 24 after treatment and repeated at 1 month, 3 months, and then every 6 months. Local efficacy was defined according to RECIST criteria. Technical success was always achieved. Local results at 1-month, 3- to 6-month, and 6- to 12-month follow-up were 62%, 37%, and 16%, respectively, for stable disease and 35%, 56%, and 51%, respectively, for partial response. Complete response (no evidence of lesion) has been observed only at late follow-up (three lesions; 7%). To date, 20 of 53 patients have had at least 1 year of follow-up, with an overall survival rate of 96%. Hepatic progressive disease (i.e., new nodules) was observed in 14 of 20 patients due to underlying liver disease. Minor complications were observed in four patients. A major complication occurred in one patient, who died unexpectedly 24 h after TAE due to pulmonary embolism of necrotic pathologic tissue and passage of particles through a disrupted hepatic vein. Local results as well as 1-year clinical outcome after TAE with Embozene microspheres are veryly encouraging, however, further studies, a larger patient population, and a longer follow-up are mandatory to assess the real clinical impact.

  2. Tightly Coupled Integration of Ionosphere-Constrained Precise Point Positioning and Inertial Navigation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Zhang, Hongping; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Shen, Wenbin; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-01-01

    The continuity and reliability of precise GNSS positioning can be seriously limited by severe user observation environments. The Inertial Navigation System (INS) can overcome such drawbacks, but its performance is clearly restricted by INS sensor errors over time. Accordingly, the tightly coupled integration of GPS and INS can overcome the disadvantages of each individual system and together form a new navigation system with a higher accuracy, reliability and availability. Recently, ionosphere-constrained (IC) precise point positioning (PPP) utilizing raw GPS observations was proven able to improve both the convergence and positioning accuracy of the conventional PPP using ionosphere-free combined observations (LC-PPP). In this paper, a new mode of tightly coupled integration, in which the IC-PPP instead of LC-PPP is employed, is implemented to further improve the performance of the coupled system. We present the detailed mathematical model and the related algorithm of the new integration of IC-PPP and INS. To evaluate the performance of the new tightly coupled integration, data of both airborne and vehicle experiments with a geodetic GPS receiver and tactical grade inertial measurement unit are processed and the results are analyzed. The statistics show that the new approach can further improve the positioning accuracy compared with both IC-PPP and the tightly coupled integration of the conventional PPP and INS. PMID:25763647

  3. Tightly coupled integration of ionosphere-constrained precise point positioning and inertial navigation systems.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Zhang, Hongping; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Shen, Wenbin; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald

    2015-03-10

    The continuity and reliability of precise GNSS positioning can be seriously limited by severe user observation environments. The Inertial Navigation System (INS) can overcome such drawbacks, but its performance is clearly restricted by INS sensor errors over time. Accordingly, the tightly coupled integration of GPS and INS can overcome the disadvantages of each individual system and together form a new navigation system with a higher accuracy, reliability and availability. Recently, ionosphere-constrained (IC) precise point positioning (PPP) utilizing raw GPS observations was proven able to improve both the convergence and positioning accuracy of the conventional PPP using ionosphere-free combined observations (LC-PPP). In this paper, a new mode of tightly coupled integration, in which the IC-PPP instead of LC-PPP is employed, is implemented to further improve the performance of the coupled system. We present the detailed mathematical model and the related algorithm of the new integration of IC-PPP and INS. To evaluate the performance of the new tightly coupled integration, data of both airborne and vehicle experiments with a geodetic GPS receiver and tactical grade inertial measurement unit are processed and the results are analyzed. The statistics show that the new approach can further improve the positioning accuracy compared with both IC-PPP and the tightly coupled integration of the conventional PPP and INS.

  4. Construction and Operation of a High-Speed, High-Precision Eye Tracker for Tight Stimulus Synchronization and Real-Time Gaze Monitoring in Human and Animal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Farivar, Reza; Michaud-Landry, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of the fast and precise movements of the eye—critical to many vision, oculomotor, and animal behavior studies—can be made non-invasively by video oculography. The protocol here describes the construction and operation of a research-grade video oculography system with ~0.1° precision over the full typical viewing range at over 450 Hz with tight synchronization with stimulus onset. The protocol consists of three stages: (1) system assembly, (2) calibration for both cooperative, and for minimally cooperative subjects (e.g., animals or infants), and (3) gaze monitoring and recording. PMID:27683545

  5. Sample-Wise Aiding in GPS/INS Ultra-Tight Integration for High-Dynamic, High-Precision Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Yanhong; Zhang, Han

    2016-01-01

    By aiding GPS receiver tracking loops with INS estimates of signal dynamics, GPS/INS ultra-tight coupling can improve the navigation performance in challenging environments. Traditionally the INS data are injected into the loops once every loop update interval, which limits the levels of dynamics accommodated. This paper presents a sample-wise aiding method, which interpolates the aiding Doppler into each digital sample of the local signal to further eliminate the dynamic errors. The relationship between the tracking error and the aiding rate is derived analytically. Moreover, the effects of sample-wise aiding using linear and spline interpolations are simulated and compared with traditional aiding under different INS data update rates. Finally, extensive tests based on a digital IF (intermediate frequency) signal simulator and a software receiver validate the theoretical equations and demonstrate that the dynamic stress error can be significantly reduced by sample-wise aiding. PMID:27077858

  6. Tightly Coupled Integration of GPS Ambiguity Fixed Precise Point Positioning and MEMS-INS through a Troposphere-Constrained Adaptive Kalman Filter.

    PubMed

    Han, Houzeng; Xu, Tianhe; Wang, Jian

    2016-07-08

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) makes use of the undifferenced pseudorange and carrier phase measurements with ionospheric-free (IF) combinations to achieve centimeter-level positioning accuracy. Conventionally, the IF ambiguities are estimated as float values. To improve the PPP positioning accuracy and shorten the convergence time, the integer phase clock model with between-satellites single-difference (BSSD) operation is used to recover the integer property. However, the continuity and availability of stand-alone PPP is largely restricted by the observation environment. The positioning performance will be significantly degraded when GPS operates under challenging environments, if less than five satellites are present. A commonly used approach is integrating a low cost inertial sensor to improve the positioning performance and robustness. In this study, a tightly coupled (TC) algorithm is implemented by integrating PPP with inertial navigation system (INS) using an Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The navigation states, inertial sensor errors and GPS error states are estimated together. The troposphere constrained approach, which utilizes external tropospheric delay as virtual observation, is applied to further improve the ambiguity-fixed height positioning accuracy, and an improved adaptive filtering strategy is implemented to improve the covariance modelling considering the realistic noise effect. A field vehicular test with a geodetic GPS receiver and a low cost inertial sensor was conducted to validate the improvement on positioning performance with the proposed approach. The results show that the positioning accuracy has been improved with inertial aiding. Centimeter-level positioning accuracy is achievable during the test, and the PPP/INS TC integration achieves a fast re-convergence after signal outages. For troposphere constrained solutions, a significant improvement for the height component has been obtained. The overall positioning accuracies of the height

  7. Tightly Coupled Integration of GPS Ambiguity Fixed Precise Point Positioning and MEMS-INS through a Troposphere-Constrained Adaptive Kalman Filter

    PubMed Central

    Han, Houzeng; Xu, Tianhe; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) makes use of the undifferenced pseudorange and carrier phase measurements with ionospheric-free (IF) combinations to achieve centimeter-level positioning accuracy. Conventionally, the IF ambiguities are estimated as float values. To improve the PPP positioning accuracy and shorten the convergence time, the integer phase clock model with between-satellites single-difference (BSSD) operation is used to recover the integer property. However, the continuity and availability of stand-alone PPP is largely restricted by the observation environment. The positioning performance will be significantly degraded when GPS operates under challenging environments, if less than five satellites are present. A commonly used approach is integrating a low cost inertial sensor to improve the positioning performance and robustness. In this study, a tightly coupled (TC) algorithm is implemented by integrating PPP with inertial navigation system (INS) using an Extended Kalman filter (EKF). The navigation states, inertial sensor errors and GPS error states are estimated together. The troposphere constrained approach, which utilizes external tropospheric delay as virtual observation, is applied to further improve the ambiguity-fixed height positioning accuracy, and an improved adaptive filtering strategy is implemented to improve the covariance modelling considering the realistic noise effect. A field vehicular test with a geodetic GPS receiver and a low cost inertial sensor was conducted to validate the improvement on positioning performance with the proposed approach. The results show that the positioning accuracy has been improved with inertial aiding. Centimeter-level positioning accuracy is achievable during the test, and the PPP/INS TC integration achieves a fast re-convergence after signal outages. For troposphere constrained solutions, a significant improvement for the height component has been obtained. The overall positioning accuracies of the height

  8. Tight Diabetes Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Tight Diabetes Control Keeping your blood glucose levels as close ... and syringes, than before. What About Type 2 Diabetes? The DCCT studied only people with type 1 ...

  9. Diagnosing the tight building syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.A.

    1987-12-01

    Formaldehyde is but one of many chemicals capable of causing the tight building syndrome or environmentally induced illness (EI). The spectrum of symptoms it may induce includes attacks of headache, flushing, laryngitis, dizziness, nausea, extreme weakness, arthralgia, unwarranted depression, dysphonia, exhaustion, inability to think clearly, arrhythmia or muscle spasms. The nonspecificity of such symptoms can baffle physicians from many specialties. Presented herein is a simple office method for demonstrating that formaldehyde is among the etiologic agents triggering these symptoms. The very symptoms that patients complain of can be provoked within minutes, and subsequently abolished, with an intradermal injection of the appropriate strength of formaldehyde. This injection aids in convincing the patient of the cause of the symptoms so he can initiate measure to bring his disease under control.

  10. Tight informationally complete quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. J.

    2006-10-01

    We introduce a class of informationally complete positive-operator-valued measures which are, in analogy with a tight frame, 'as close as possible' to orthonormal bases for the space of quantum states. These measures are distinguished by an exceptionally simple state-reconstruction formula which allows 'painless' quantum state tomography. Complete sets of mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued measures are both members of this class, the latter being the unique minimal rank-one members. Recast as ensembles of pure quantum states, the rank-one members are in fact equivalent to weighted 2-designs in complex projective space. These measures are shown to be optimal for quantum cloning and linear quantum state tomography.

  11. Reflooding of tight lattice bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Veteau, J.M.; Digonnet, A.; Deruaz, R. . Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble)

    1994-07-01

    Results regarding analytical bottom reflooding experiments in a 37- and a 127-heater rod bundle are presented for two different tight lattices. A comparison between these two geometries and with the standard pressurized water reactor (PWR) array shows a degradation of cooling efficiency when the cross section of the subchannels is decreased. The core heat sinks (guide thimbles and water tubes'') are seen to have a noticeable influence on the overall cooling of the bundle, and it is confirmed that a combined top/bottom injection does not significantly improve cooling efficiency. Calculations with CATHARE 1.3 code adjusted for the standard PWR array are presented (zero heat sinks), but results have to be confirmed over a wider range of parameters.

  12. Precision Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radius, Marcie; And Others

    The manual provides information for precision measurement (counting of movements per minute of a chosen activity) of achievement in special education students. Initial sections give guidelines for the teacher, parent, and student to follow for various methods of charting behavior. It is explained that precision measurement is a way to measure the…

  13. Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cholerton, Brenna; Larson, Eric B.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Mata, Ignacio F.; Keene, C. Dirk; Flanagan, Margaret; Crane, Paul K.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Three key elements to precision medicine are stratification by risk, detection of pathophysiological processes as early as possible (even before clinical presentation), and alignment of mechanism of action of intervention(s) with an individual's molecular driver(s) of disease. Used for decades in the management of some rare diseases and now gaining broad currency in cancer care, a precision medicine approach is beginning to be adapted to cognitive impairment and dementia. This review focuses on the application of precision medicine to address the clinical and biological complexity of two common neurodegenerative causes of dementia: Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:26724389

  14. Tight junction proteins: from barrier to tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Runkle, E Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-08-28

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis.

  15. Tight Junction Proteins: From Barrier to Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Runkle, E. Aaron; Mu, David

    2013-01-01

    The tight junction is a multi-protein complex and is the apical most junctional complex in certain epithelial and endothelial cells. A great deal of attention has been devoted to the understanding of these proteins in contributing to the barrier function - that is, regulating the paracellular flux or permeability between adjacent cells. However, tight junction proteins are now recognized as having functions beyond the barrier. The focus of this review is to discuss the barrier function of the tight junction and to summarize the literature with a focus on the role of tight junction proteins in proliferation, transformation, and metastasis. PMID:23743355

  16. Precision metrology.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X; Whitehouse, D J

    2012-08-28

    This article is a summary of the Satellite Meeting, which followed on from the Discussion Meeting at the Royal Society on 'Ultra-precision engineering: from physics to manufacture', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Chicheley Hall, Buckinghamshire, UK. The meeting was restricted to 18 invited experts in various aspects of precision metrology from academics from the UK and Sweden, Government Institutes from the UK and Germany and global aerospace industries. It examined and identified metrology problem areas that are, or may be, limiting future developments in precision engineering and, in particular, metrology. The Satellite Meeting was intended to produce a vision that will inspire academia and industry to address the solutions of those open-ended problems identified. The discussion covered three areas, namely the function of engineering parts, their measurement and their manufacture, as well as their interactions.

  17. Analysis of Tight Junction Formation and Integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Karakaya, Mahmut; Kerekes, Ryan A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Foster, Carmen M; Retterer, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study segmentation of tight junctions and analyze the formation and integrity of tight junctions in large-scale confocal image stacks, a challenging biological problem because of the low spatial resolution images and the presence of breaks in tight junction structure. We present an automated, three-step processing approach for tight junction analysis. In our approach, we first localize each individual nucleus in the image by using thresholding, morphological filters and active contours. By using each nucleus position as a seed point, we automatically segment the cell body based on the active contour. We then use an intensity-based skeletonization algorithm to generate the boundary regions for each cell, and features are extracted from tight junctions associated with each cell to assess tight junction continuity. Based on qualitative results and quantitative comparisons, we show that we are able to automatically segment tight junctions and compute relevant features that provide a quantitative measure of tight junction formation to which the permeability of the cell monolayer can ultimately be correlated.

  18. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.; Crawford, Daniel W.

    1984-01-01

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  19. Precision translator

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, R.P.; Crawford, D.W.

    1982-03-09

    A precision translator for focusing a beam of light on the end of a glass fiber which includes two turning fork-like members rigidly connected to each other. These members have two prongs each with its separation adjusted by a screw, thereby adjusting the orthogonal positioning of a glass fiber attached to one of the members. This translator is made of simple parts with capability to keep adjustment even in condition of rough handling.

  20. Exercise regulation of intestinal tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Zuhl, Micah; Schneider, Suzanne; Lanphere, Katherine; Conn, Carole; Dokladny, Karol; Moseley, Pope

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal distress, such as diarrhoea, cramping, vomiting, nausea and gastric pain are common among athletes during training and competition. The mechanisms that cause these symptoms are not fully understood. The stress of heat and oxidative damage during exercise causes disruption to intestinal epithelial cell tight junction proteins resulting in increased permeability to luminal endotoxins. The endotoxin moves into the blood stream leading to a systemic immune response. Tight junction integrity is altered by the phosphoylation state of the proteins occludin and claudins, and may be regulated by the type of exercise performed. Prolonged exercise and high-intensity exercise lead to an increase in key phosphorylation enzymes that ultimately cause tight junction dysfunction, but the mechanisms are different. The purpose of this review is to (1) explain the function and physiology of tight junction regulation, (2) discuss the effects of prolonged and high-intensity exercise on tight junction permeability leading to gastrointestinal distress and (3) review agents that may increase or decrease tight junction integrity during exercise.

  1. Current trends in salivary gland tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Olga J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tight junctions form a continuous intercellular barrier between epithelial cells that is required to separate tissue spaces and regulate selective movement of solutes across the epithelium. They are composed of strands containing integral membrane proteins (e.g., claudins, occludin and tricellulin, junctional adhesion molecules and the coxsackie adenovirus receptor). These proteins are anchored to the cytoskeleton via scaffolding proteins such as ZO-1 and ZO-2. In salivary glands, tight junctions are involved in polarized saliva secretion and barrier maintenance between the extracellular environment and the glandular lumen. This review seeks to provide an overview of what is currently known, as well as the major questions and future research directions, regarding tight junction expression, organization and function within salivary glands. PMID:27583188

  2. Tight-Binding study of Boron structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrady, Joseph W.; Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios A.; Mehl, Michael J.

    2014-10-01

    We have performed Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (LAPW) calculations for five crystal structures (alpha, dhcp, sc, fcc, bcc) of Boron which we then fitted to a non-orthogonal tight-binding model following the Naval Research Laboratory Tight-Binding (NRL-TB) method. The predictions of the NRL-TB approach for complicated Boron structures such as R105 (or β-rhombohedral) and T190 are in agreement with recent first-principles calculations. Fully utilizing the computational speed of the NRL-TB method we calculated the energy differences of various structures, including those containing vacancies using supercells with up to 5000 atoms.

  3. Keeping Schools Safe during Tight Budget Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2010-01-01

    Tight budgets are no excuse for failing to be proactive with school safety. In fact, school leaders must be especially committed to prevention and security programs during times when economic woes are increasing stress on kids, their families and school staff. Parents will forgive educators if their school's test scores drop. But they are much…

  4. Slit Diaphragms Contain Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Hirotaka; Bornheimer, Scott; Kudlicka, Krystyna; Farquhar, Marilyn G.

    2009-01-01

    Slit diaphragms are essential components of the glomerular filtration apparatus, as changes in these junctions are the hallmark of proteinuric diseases. Slit diaphragms, considered specialized adherens junctions, contain both unique membrane proteins (e.g., nephrin, podocin, and Neph1) and typical adherens junction proteins (e.g., P-cadherin, FAT, and catenins). Whether slit diaphragms also contain tight junction proteins is unknown. Here, immunofluorescence, immunogold labeling, and cell fractionation demonstrated that rat slit diaphragms contain the tight junction proteins JAM-A (junctional adhesion molecule A), occludin, and cingulin. We found these proteins in the same protein complexes as nephrin, podocin, CD2AP, ZO-1, and Neph1 by cosedimentation, coimmunoprecipitation, and pull-down assays. PAN nephrosis increased the protein levels of JAM-A, occludin, cingulin, and ZO-1 several-fold in glomeruli and loosened their attachment to the actin cytoskeleton. These data extend current information about the molecular composition of slit diaphragms by demonstrating the presence of tight junction proteins, although slit diaphragms lack the characteristic morphologic features of tight junctions. The contribution of these proteins to the assembly of slit diaphragms and potential signaling cascades requires further investigation. PMID:19478094

  5. An Objective Measure of Noseband Tightness and Its Measurement Using a Novel Digital Tightness Gauge

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Noseband tightness is difficult to assess in horses participating in equestrian sports such as dressage, show jumping and three-day-eventing. There is growing concern that nosebands are commonly tightened to such an extent as to restrict normal equine behaviour and possibly cause injury. In the absence of a clear agreed definition of noseband tightness, a simple model of the equine nose-noseband interface environment was developed in order to guide further studies in this area. The normal force component of the noseband tensile force was identified as the key contributor to sub-noseband tissue compression. The model was used to inform the design of a digital tightness gauge which could reliably measure the normal force component of the noseband tensile force. A digital tightness gauge was developed to measure this parameter under nosebands fitted to bridled horses. Results are presented for field tests using two prototype designs. Prototype version three was used in field trial 1 (n = 15, frontal nasal plane sub-noseband site). Results of this trial were used to develop an ergonomically designed prototype, version 4, which was tested in a second field trial (n = 12, frontal nasal plane and lateral sub-noseband site). Nosebands were set to three tightness settings in each trial as judged by a single rater using an International Society for Equitation Science (ISES) taper gauge. Normal forces in the range 7–95 N were recorded at the frontal nasal plane while a lower range 1–28 N was found at the lateral site for the taper gauge range used in the trials. The digital tightness gauge was found to be simple to use, reliable, and safe and its use did not agitate the animals in any discernable way. A simple six point tightness scale is suggested to aid regulation implementation and the control of noseband tightness using normal force measurement as the objective tightness discriminant. PMID:28045955

  6. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    The goal of the work this quarter has been to partition and high-grade the Greater Green River basin for exploration efforts in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play and to initiate resource assessment of the basin. The work plan for the quarter of July 1-September 30, 1998 comprised three tasks: (1) Refining the exploration process for deep, naturally fractured gas reservoirs; (2) Partitioning of the basin based on structure and areas of overpressure; (3) Examination of the Kinney and Canyon Creek fields with respect to the Cretaceous tight gas play and initiation of the resource assessment of the Vermilion sub-basin partition (which contains these two fields); and (4) Initiation analysis of the Deep Green River Partition with respect to the Stratos well and assessment of the resource in the partition.

  7. [Injuries and muscle tightness in soccer].

    PubMed

    Kreckel, V; Eysel, P; König, D P

    2004-09-01

    Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide. Due to its characteristic many injuries are expected. Muscular tightness is postulated as an intrinsic risk factor for the developement of a muscle injury. Muscle flexibility testing can identify soccer players at risk for musculoskeletal lesions. One-hundred-and-seventeen male amateur soccer players aged 4 to 29 were examined for former injuries and muscular flexibility by using Janda's "functional muscular diagnostic". Muscle injuries and ankle lesions predominated among the injuries. The "functional muscular diagnostic" is suitable for screening muscular flexibility in soccer players. You found comprehensive muscular tightness among the soccer players. The value of stretching for preventing exercise-related muscle injury is still unclear.

  8. Physiology and Function of the Tight Junction

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James M.; Van Itallie, Christina M.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of tight junctions has evolved from their historical perception as inert solute barriers to recognition of their physiological and biochemical complexity. Many proteins are specifically localized to tight junctions, including cytoplasmic actin-binding proteins and adhesive transmembrane proteins. Among the latter are claudins, which are critical barrier proteins. Current information suggests that the paracellular barrier is most usefully modeled as having two physiologic components: a system of charge-selective small pores, 4 Å in radius, and a second pathway created by larger discontinuities in the barrier, lacking charge or size discrimination. The first pathway is influenced by claudin expression patterns and the second is likely controlled by different proteins and signals. Recent information on claudin function and disease-causing mutations have led to a more complete understanding of their role in barrier formation, but progress is impeded by lack of high resolution structural information. PMID:20066090

  9. Tight focusing of an asymmetric Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlyar, Victor V.; Stafeev, Sergey S.; Porfirev, Alexey P.

    2015-12-01

    Tight focusing of a linearly polarized asymmetric Bessel beam, which has a topological charge n=3 and a crescent shape, was investigated numerically and experimentally. Using the Debye formulae, it was shown that the aplanatic lens of numerical aperture NA=0.9 forms a crescent in the focal plane. Experimentally, an asymmetric Bessel beam was formed by a spatial light modulator and focused by an immersive lens (NA=1.25). The crescent was also formed in the focal plane.

  10. Hydraulic fracturing in tight, fissured media

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Large volumes of natural gas are found in tight, fissured reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing can enhance recovery, but many complications, such as pressure-sensitive or accelerated leakoff, damage, and complex fracturing, arise during treatment of such reservoirs. This paper reports that special procedures generally should be considered during breakdown and fracturing of these reservoirs. In addition, the use of alternative stimulation strategies may be beneficial.

  11. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, D.

    1995-05-01

    Exploration strategies are needed to identify subtle basement features critical to locating fractured regions in advance of drilling in tight gas reservoirs. The Piceance Basin served as a demonstration site for an analysis utilizing aeromagnetic surveys, remote sensing, Landsat Thematic Mapper, and Side Looking Airborne Radar imagery for the basin and surrounding areas. Spatially detailed aeromagnetic maps were used to to interpret zones of basement structure.

  12. Supplies tight for CFC-11 and -12

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.; Kirschner, E.

    1992-09-30

    With US 1992 production of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11 and -12 cut back to less than 50% of 1986 levels, supplies are tight and prices are rising. While CFC customers can find the product, the first half of the year was particularly bumpy, marked by shortages of key feedstock carbon tetrachloride. US carbon tet production dropped from 400 million lbs in 1991 to 250 million lbs because of a series of plant closings in 1991. The lack of carbon tet, says a spokesman for one CFC producer, was [open quotes]a real disruption.[close quotes] And, says Jerry Dziedzic, general manager, fluorochemicals at Elf Atochem (Philadelphia), in a such a tight market [open quotes]even a little hiccup can throw the system out of whack.[close quotes] Dow senior project manager Jeff Sullivan says CFC producers were expecting a drop in 1992 sales when the company's Sarnia, ON carbon tet plant closing was announced. By the time CFC producers recognized that demand would remain at 1991 levels, the shutdown was under way. [open quotes]We were caught short because they were caught short.[close quotes] While the carbon tet shortage has lessened recently, supplies of CFC-11 and 12 are expected to remain tight through the rest of the year. But that could ease toward year-end as hydrofluorocarbon-141b increasingly replaces CFC-11.

  13. Creating tight, anatomically correct interproximal contacts.

    PubMed

    Keogh, T P; Bertolotti, R L

    2001-01-01

    Achievement of an excellent contact, one that provides a natural look and feel, reproducing the natural tooth contact or sometimes improving it, can be achieved in many ways. Understanding the separate issues of tightness and anatomy is crucial to achieving the desired result. In most cases, use of a contoured sectional matrix and McKean-style ring is the surest way to achieve the desired result. Unusual circumstances, such as wide preparations and malpositioned teeth, call for innovative techniques, some of which are illustrated in this article.

  14. Image denoising using a tight frame.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lixin; Papadakis, Manos; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Kouri, Donald; Hoffman, David

    2006-05-01

    We present a general mathematical theory for lifting frames that allows us to modify existing filters to construct new ones that form Parseval frames. We apply our theory to design nonseparable Parseval frames from separable (tensor) products of a piecewise linear spline tight frame. These new frame systems incorporate the weighted average operator, the Sobel operator, and the Laplacian operator in directions that are integer multiples of 45 degrees. A new image denoising algorithm is then proposed, tailored to the specific properties of these new frame filters. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm on a diverse set of images with very encouraging results.

  15. Tight junctions, tight junction proteins and paracellular permeability across the gill epithelium of fishes: a review.

    PubMed

    Chasiotis, Helen; Kolosov, Dennis; Bui, Phuong; Kelly, Scott P

    2012-12-01

    Paracellular permeability characteristics of the fish gill epithelium are broadly accepted to play a key role in piscine salt and water balance. This is typically associated with differences between gill epithelia of teleost fishes residing in seawater versus those in freshwater. In the former, the gill is 'leaky' to facilitate Na(+) secretion and in the latter, the gill is 'tight' to limit passive ion loss. However, studies in freshwater fishes also suggest that varying epithelial 'tightness' can impact ionoregulatory homeostasis. Paracellular permeability of vertebrate epithelia is largely controlled by the tight junction (TJ) complex, and the fish gill is no exception. In turn, the TJ complex is composed of TJ proteins, the abundance and properties of which determine the magnitude of paracellular solute movement. This review provides consolidated information on TJs in fish gills and summarizes recent progress in research that seeks to understand the molecular composition of fish gill TJ complexes and what environmental and systemic factors influence those components.

  16. 18 CFR 270.304 - Tight formation gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tight formation gas... Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.304 Tight formation gas. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is tight formation gas must file with the jurisdictional agency an...

  17. Tricellular Tight Junctions in the Inner Ear

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are structures that seal the space between the epithelial cell sheets. In the inner ear, the barrier function of TJs is indispensable for the separation of the endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces, which is essential for the generation and maintenance of the endocochlear potential (EP). TJs are formed by the intercellular binding of membrane proteins, known as claudins, and mutations in these proteins cause deafness in humans and mice. Within the epithelial cell sheet, however, a bound structure is present at the site where the corners of three cells meet (tricellular tight junctions (tTJs)), and the maintenance of the barrier function at this location cannot be explained by the claudins alone. Tricellulin and the angulin family of proteins (angulin-1/LSR, angulin-2/ILDR1, and angulin-3/ILDR2) have been identified as tTJ-associated proteins. Tricellulin and ILDR1 are localized at the tTJ and alterations in these proteins have been reported to be involved in deafness. In this review, we will present the current state of knowledge for tTJs. PMID:27195292

  18. Precision powder feeder

    DOEpatents

    Schlienger, M. Eric; Schmale, David T.; Oliver, Michael S.

    2001-07-10

    A new class of precision powder feeders is disclosed. These feeders provide a precision flow of a wide range of powdered materials, while remaining robust against jamming or damage. These feeders can be precisely controlled by feedback mechanisms.

  19. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    The work plan for October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998 consisted of investigation of a number of topical areas. These topical areas were reported in four quarterly status reports, which were submitted to DOE earlier. These topical areas are reviewed in this volume. The topical areas covered during the year were: (1) Development of preliminary tests of a production method for determining areas of natural fracturing. Advanced Resources has demonstrated that such a relationship exists in the southern Piceance basin tight gas play. Natural fracture clusters are genetically related to stress concentrations (also called stress perturbations) associated with local deformation such a faulting. The mechanical explanation of this phenomenon is that deformation generally initiates at regions where the local stress field is elevated beyond the regional. (2) Regional structural and geologic analysis of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Application of techniques developed and demonstrated during earlier phases of the project for sweet-spot delineation were demonstrated in a relatively new and underexplored play: tight gas from continuous-typeUpper Cretaceous reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). The effort included data acquisition/processing, base map generation, geophysical and remote sensing analysis and the integration of these data and analyses. (3) Examination of the Table Rock field area in the northern Washakie Basin of the Greater Green River Basin. This effort was performed in support of Union Pacific Resources- and DOE-planned horizontal drilling efforts. The effort comprised acquisition of necessary seismic data and depth-conversion, mapping of major fault geometry, and analysis of displacement vectors, and the development of the natural fracture prediction. (4) Greater Green River Basin Partitioning. Building on fundamental fracture characterization work and prior work performed under this contract, namely structural analysis using satellite and

  20. The Cost Implications of Less Tight Versus Tight Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy (CHIPS Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rashid J.; Gafni, Amiram; Hu, Zheng Jing; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; von Dadelszen, Peter; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E.; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, J. Johanna; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Helewa, Michael; Lee, Shoo K.; Lee, Terry; Logan, Alexander G.; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Singer, Joel; Thornton, Jim G.; Welch, Ross; Magee, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    The CHIPS randomized controlled trial (Control of Hypertension in Pregnancy Study) found no difference in the primary perinatal or secondary maternal outcomes between planned “less tight” (target diastolic 100 mm Hg) and “tight” (target diastolic 85 mm Hg) blood pressure management strategies among women with chronic or gestational hypertension. This study examined which of these management strategies is more or less costly from a third-party payer perspective. A total of 981 women with singleton pregnancies and nonsevere, nonproteinuric chronic or gestational hypertension were randomized at 14 to 33 weeks to less tight or tight control. Resources used were collected from 94 centers in 15 countries and costed as if the trial took place in each of 3 Canadian provinces as a cost-sensitivity analysis. Eleven hospital ward and 24 health service costs were obtained from a similar trial and provincial government health insurance schedules of medical benefits. The mean total cost per woman–infant dyad was higher in less tight versus tight control, but the difference in mean total cost (DM) was not statistically significant in any province: Ontario ($30 191.62 versus $24 469.06; DM $5723, 95% confidence interval, −$296 to $12 272; P=0.0725); British Columbia ($30 593.69 versus $24 776.51; DM $5817; 95% confidence interval, −$385 to $12 349; P=0.0725); or Alberta ($31 510.72 versus $25 510.49; DM $6000.23; 95% confidence interval, −$154 to $12 781; P=0.0637). Tight control may benefit women without increasing risk to neonates (as shown in the main CHIPS trial), without additional (and possibly lower) cost to the healthcare system. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01192412. PMID:27550914

  1. Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2006-05-01

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.

  2. Tightness of slip-linked polymer chains.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Ralf; Hanke, Andreas; Dommersnes, Paul G; Kantor, Yacov; Kardar, Mehran

    2002-06-01

    We study the interplay between entropy and topological constraints for a polymer chain in which sliding rings (slip links) enforce pair contacts between monomers. These slip links divide a closed ring polymer into a number of subloops which can exchange length among each other. In the ideal chain limit, we find the joint probability density function for the sizes of segments within such a slip-linked polymer chain (paraknot). A particular segment is tight (small in size) or loose (of the order of the overall size of the paraknot) depending on both the number of slip links it incorporates and its competition with other segments. When self-avoiding interactions are included, scaling arguments can be used to predict the statistics of segment sizes for certain paraknot configurations.

  3. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    Building upon the partitioning of the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) that was conducted last quarter, the goal of the work this quarter has been to conclude evaluation of the Stratos well and the prototypical Green River Deep partition, and perform the fill resource evaluation of the Upper Cretaceous tight gas play, with the goal of defining target areas of enhanced natural fracturing. The work plan for the quarter of November 1-December 31, 1998 comprised four tasks: (1) Evaluation of the Green River Deep partition and the Stratos well and examination of potential opportunity for expanding the use of E and P technology to low permeability, naturally fractured gas reservoirs, (2) Gas field studies, and (3) Resource analysis of the balance of the partitions.

  4. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-30

    In March, work continued on characterizing probabilities for determining natural fracturing associated with the GGRB for the Upper Cretaceous tight gas plays. Structural complexity, based on potential field data and remote sensing data was completed. A resource estimate for the Frontier and Mesa Verde play was also completed. Further, work was also conducted to determine threshold economics for the play based on limited current production in the plays in the Wamsutter Ridge area. These analyses culminated in a presentation at FETC on 24 March 1999 where quantified natural fracture domains, mapped on a partition basis, which establish ''sweet spot'' probability for natural fracturing, were reviewed. That presentation is reproduced here as Appendix 1. The work plan for the quarter of January 1, 1999--March 31, 1999 comprised five tasks: (1) Evaluation of the GGRB partitions for structural complexity that can be associated with natural fractures, (2) Continued resource analysis of the balance of the partitions to determine areas with higher relative gas richness, (3) Gas field studies, (4) Threshold resource economics to determine which partitions would be the most prospective, and (5) Examination of the area around the Table Rock 4H well.

  5. Precise Countersinking Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Eric S.; Smith, William N.

    1992-01-01

    Tool countersinks holes precisely with only portable drill; does not require costly machine tool. Replaceable pilot stub aligns axis of tool with centerline of hole. Ensures precise cut even with imprecise drill. Designed for relatively low cutting speeds.

  6. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ``legally tight`` reservoirs. Additional production from ``geologically tight`` reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA`s tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government`s regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs.

  7. Precision agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  8. Tight Glycemic Control in Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Agus, Michael S D; Wypij, David; Hirshberg, Eliotte L; Srinivasan, Vijay; Faustino, E Vincent; Luckett, Peter M; Alexander, Jamin L; Asaro, Lisa A; Curley, Martha A Q; Steil, Garry M; Nadkarni, Vinay M

    2017-02-23

    Background In multicenter studies, tight glycemic control targeting a normal blood glucose level has not been shown to improve outcomes in critically ill adults or children after cardiac surgery. Studies involving critically ill children who have not undergone cardiac surgery are lacking. Methods In a 35-center trial, we randomly assigned critically ill children with confirmed hyperglycemia (excluding patients who had undergone cardiac surgery) to one of two ranges of glycemic control: 80 to 110 mg per deciliter (4.4 to 6.1 mmol per liter; lower-target group) or 150 to 180 mg per deciliter (8.3 to 10.0 mmol per liter; higher-target group). Clinicians were guided by continuous glucose monitoring and explicit methods for insulin adjustment. The primary outcome was the number of intensive care unit (ICU)-free days to day 28. Results The trial was stopped early, on the recommendation of the data and safety monitoring board, owing to a low likelihood of benefit and evidence of the possibility of harm. Of 713 patients, 360 were randomly assigned to the lower-target group and 353 to the higher-target group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the median number of ICU-free days did not differ significantly between the lower-target group and the higher-target group (19.4 days [interquartile range {IQR}, 0 to 24.2] and 19.4 days [IQR, 6.7 to 23.9], respectively; P=0.58). In per-protocol analyses, the median time-weighted average glucose level was significantly lower in the lower-target group (109 mg per deciliter [IQR, 102 to 118]; 6.1 mmol per liter [IQR, 5.7 to 6.6]) than in the higher-target group (123 mg per deciliter [IQR, 108 to 142]; 6.8 mmol per liter [IQR, 6.0 to 7.9]; P<0.001). Patients in the lower-target group also had higher rates of health care-associated infections than those in the higher-target group (12 of 349 patients [3.4%] vs. 4 of 349 [1.1%], P=0.04), as well as higher rates of severe hypoglycemia, defined as a blood glucose level below 40 mg per

  9. Digital Rock Studies of Tight Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Dmitriy

    2012-08-07

    This technical report summarizes some recently developed approaches to studies of rock properties at a pore scale. Digital rock approach is complementary to laboratory and field studies. It can be especially helpful in situations where experimental data are uncertain, or are difficult or impossible to obtain. Digitized binary images of the pore geometries of natural rocks obtained by different imaging techniques are the input data. Computer-generated models of natural rocks can be used instead of images in a case where microtomography data are unavailable, or the resolution of the tools is insufficient to adequately characterize the features of interest. Simulations of creeping viscous flow in pores produce estimates of Darcy permeability. Maximal Inscribed Spheres calculations estimate two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. A combination of both produce relative permeability curves. Computer-generated rock models were employed to study two-phase properties of fractured rocks, or tight sands with slit-like pores, too narrow to be characterized with micro-tomography. Various scenarios can simulate different fluid displacement mechanisms, from piston-like drainage to liquid dropout at the dew point. A finite differences discretization of Stokes equation is developed to simulate flow in the pore space of natural rocks. The numerical schemes are capable to handle both no-slip and slippage flows. An upscaling procedure estimates the permeability by subsampling a large data set. Capillary equilibrium and capillary pressure curves are efficiently estimated with the method of maximal inscribed spheres both an arbitrary contact angle. The algorithms can handle gigobytes of data on a desktop workstation. Customized QuickHull algorithms model natural rocks. Capillary pressure curves evaluated from computer-generated images mimic those obtained for microtomography data.

  10. Tight Junction Defects in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    De Benedetto, Anna; Rafaels, Nicholas M.; McGirt, Laura Y.; Ivanov, Andrei I.; Georas, Steve N.; Cheadle, Chris; Berger, Alan E.; Zhang, Kunzhong; Vidyasagar, Sadasivan; Yoshida, Takeshi; Boguniewicz, Mark; Hata, Tissa; Schneider, Lynda C.; Hanifin, Jon M.; Gallo, Richard L.; Novak, Natalija; Weidinger, Stephan; Beaty, Terri H.; Leung, Donald Y.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Beck, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by dry skin and a hyperreactive immune response to allergens, two cardinal features that are caused in part by epidermal barrier defects. Tight junctions (TJ) reside immediately below the stratum corneum and regulate the selective permeability of the paracellular pathway. Objective We evaluated the expression/function of the TJ protein, claudin-1 in epithelium from AD and nonatopic (NA) subjects and screened two American populations for SNPs in CLDN1. Methods Expression profiles of nonlesional epithelium from extrinsic AD, NA and psoriasis subjects were generated using Illumina’s BeadChips. Dysregulated intercellular proteins were validated by tissue staining and qPCR. Bioelectric properties of epithelium were measured in Ussing chambers. Functional relevance of claudin-1 was assessed using a knockdown approach in primary human keratinocytes (PHK). Twenty seven haplotype-tagging SNPs in CLDN1 were screened in two independent AD populations. Results We observed strikingly reduced expression of the TJ proteins claudin-1 and -23 only in AD, which were validated at the mRNA and protein levels. Claudin-1 expression inversely correlated with Th2 biomarkers. We observed a remarkable impairment of the bioelectric barrier function in AD epidermis. In vitro, we confirmed that silencing claudin-1 expression in human keratinocytes diminishes TJ function while enhancing keratinocyte proliferation. Finally, CLDN1 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed associations with AD in two North American populations. Conclusion Taken together, these data suggest that an impaired epidermal TJ is a novel feature of skin barrier dysfunction and immune dysregulation observed in AD, and that CLDN1 may be a new susceptibility gene in this disease. PMID:21163515

  11. Claudins and the Modulation of Tight Junction Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Günzel, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Claudins are tight junction membrane proteins that are expressed in epithelia and endothelia and form paracellular barriers and pores that determine tight junction permeability. This review summarizes our current knowledge of this large protein family and discusses recent advances in our understanding of their structure and physiological functions. PMID:23589827

  12. Smooth affine shear tight frames: digitization and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Xiaosheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we mainly discuss one of the recent developed directional multiscale representation systems: smooth affine shear tight frames. A directional wavelet tight frame is generated by isotropic dilations and translations of directional wavelet generators, while an affine shear tight frame is generated by anisotropic dilations, shears, and translations of shearlet generators. These two tight frames are actually connected in the sense that the affine shear tight frame can be obtained from a directional wavelet tight frame through subsampling. Consequently, an affine shear tight frame indeed has an underlying filter bank from the MRA structure of its associated directional wavelet tight frame. We call such filter banks affine shear filter banks, which can be designed completely in the frequency domain. We discuss the digitization of affine shear filter banks and their implementations: the forward and backward digital affine shear transforms. Redundancy rate and computational complexity of digital affine shear transforms are also investigated in this paper. Numerical experiments and comparisons in image/video processing show the advantages of digital affine shear transforms over many other state-of-art directional multiscale representation systems.

  13. 18 CFR 270.304 - Tight formation gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., where such gas could not have been produced from any completion location in existence in the well bore... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tight formation gas... Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.304 Tight formation gas. A person seeking...

  14. 18 CFR 270.304 - Tight formation gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., where such gas could not have been produced from any completion location in existence in the well bore... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tight formation gas... Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.304 Tight formation gas. A person seeking...

  15. Systematic Construction of Real Lapped Tight Frame Transforms

    PubMed Central

    Sandryhaila, Aliaksei; Chebira, Amina; Milo, Christina; Kovčcević, Jelena; Püschel, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We present a constructive algorithm for the design of real lapped equal-norm tight frame transforms. These transforms can be efficiently implemented through filter banks and have recently been proposed as a redundant counterpart to lapped orthogonal transforms, as well as an infinite-dimensional counterpart to harmonic tight frames. The proposed construction consists of two parts: First, we design a large class of new real lapped orthogonal transforms derived from submatrices of the discrete Fourier transform. Then, we seed these to obtain real lapped tight frame transforms corresponding to tight, equal-norm frames. We identify those frames that are maximally robust to erasures, and show that our construction leads to a large class of new lapped orthogonal transforms as well as new lapped tight frame transforms. PMID:20607116

  16. A two scale analysis of tight sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, P. M.; Davy, C. A.; Song, Y.; Troadec, D.; Hauss, G.; Skoczylas, F.

    2015-12-01

    Tight sandstones have a low porosity and a very small permeability K. Available models for K do not compare well with measurements. These sandstones are made of SiO_2 grains, with a typical size of several hundreds of micron. These grains are separated by a network of micro-cracks, with sizes ranging between microns down to tens of nm. Therefore, the structure can be schematized by Voronoi polyhedra separated by plane and permeable polygonal micro-cracks. Our goal is to estimate K based on a two scale analysis and to compare the results to measurements. For a particular sample [2], local measurements on several scales include FIB/SEM [3], CMT and 2D SEM. FIB/SEM is selected because the peak pore size given by Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry is of 350nm. FIB/SEM imaging (with 50 nm voxel size) identifies an individual crack of 180nm average opening, whereas CMT provides a connected porosity (individual crack) for 60 nm voxel size, of 4 micron average opening. Numerical modelling is performed by combining the micro-crack network scale (given by 2D SEM) and the 3D micro-crack scale (given by either FIB/SEM or CMT). Estimates of the micro-crack density are derived from 2D SEM trace maps by counting the intersections with scanlines, the surface density of traces, and the number of fracture intersections. K is deduced by using a semi empirical formula valid for identical, isotropic and uniformly distributed fractures [1]. This value is proportional to the micro-crack transmissivity sigma. Sigma is determined by solving the Stokes equation in the micro-cracks measured by FIB/SEM or CMT. K is obtained by combining the two previous results. Good correlation with measured values on centimetric plugs is found when using sigma from CMT data. The results are discussed and further research is proposed. [1] Adler et al, Fractured porous media, Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. [2] Duan et al, Int. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci., 65, p75, 2014. [3] Song et al, Marine and Petroleum Eng., 65, p63

  17. Precision performance lamp technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  18. [Precision and personalized medicine].

    PubMed

    Sipka, Sándor

    2016-10-01

    The author describes the concept of "personalized medicine" and the newly introduced "precision medicine". "Precision medicine" applies the terms of "phenotype", "endotype" and "biomarker" in order to characterize more precisely the various diseases. Using "biomarkers" the homogeneous type of a disease (a "phenotype") can be divided into subgroups called "endotypes" requiring different forms of treatment and financing. The good results of "precision medicine" have become especially apparent in relation with allergic and autoimmune diseases. The application of this new way of thinking is going to be necessary in Hungary, too, in the near future for participants, controllers and financing boards of healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(44), 1739-1741.

  19. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  20. Regulation and roles for claudin-family tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Mary K.; Koval, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins known as claudins play a critical role in tight junctions by regulating paracellular barrier permeability. The control of claudin assembly into tight junctions requires a complex interplay between several classes of claudins, other transmembrane proteins and scaffold proteins. Claudins are also subject to regulation by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and palmitoylation. Several human diseases have been linked to claudin mutations, underscoring the physiologic function of these proteins. Roles for claudins in regulating cell phenotype and growth control also are beginning to emerge, suggesting a multifaceted role for claudins in regulation of cells beyond serving as a simple structural element of tight junctions. PMID:19319969

  1. A new method of evaluating tight gas sands pore structure from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Xie, Xiu-hong

    2016-04-01

    Tight gas sands always display such characteristics of ultra-low porosity, permeability, high irreducible water, low resistivity contrast, complicated pore structure and strong heterogeneity, these make that the conventional methods are invalid. Many effective gas bearing formations are considered as dry zones or water saturated layers, and cannot be identified and exploited. To improve tight gas sands evaluation, the best method is quantitative characterizing rock pore structure. The mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves are advantageous in predicting formation pore structure. However, the MICP experimental measurements are limited due to the environment and economy factors, this leads formation pore structure cannot be consecutively evaluated. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs are considered to be promising in evaluating rock pore structure. Generally, to consecutively quantitatively evaluate tight gas sands pore structure, the best method is constructing pseudo Pc curves from NMR logs. In this paper, based on the analysis of lab experimental results for 20 core samples, which were drilled from tight gas sandstone reservoirs of Sichuan basin, and simultaneously applied for lab MICP and NMR measurements, the relationships of piecewise power function between nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation T2 time and pore-throat radius Rc are established. A novel method, which is used to transform NMR reverse cumulative curve as pseudo capillary pressure (Pc) curve is proposed, and the corresponding model is established based on formation classification. By using this model, formation pseudo Pc curves can be consecutively synthesized. The pore throat radius distribution, and pore structure evaluation parameters, such as the average pore throat radius (Rm), the threshold pressure (Pd), the maximum pore throat radius (Rmax) and so on, can also be precisely extracted. After this method is extended into field applications, several tight gas

  2. Precision antenna reflector structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedgepeth, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The assembly of the Large Precise Reflector Infrared Telescope is detailed. Also given are the specifications for the Aft Cargo Carrier and the Large Precision Reflector structure. Packaging concepts and options, stowage depth and support truss geometry are also considered. An example of a construction scenario is given.

  3. Precision Optics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert L.; And Others

    This guide outlines the competency-based, two-year precision optics curriculum that the American Precision Optics Manufacturers Association has proposed to fill the void that it suggests will soon exist as many of the master opticians currently employed retire. The model, which closely resembles the old European apprenticeship model, calls for 300…

  4. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  5. Precision volume measurement system.

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  6. An Ecological Perceptual Aid for Precision Vertical Landings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    flight parameters within tight constraints. These challenges are often associated with a high mental workload, therefore, a precision landing aid...displays altitude and vertical speed information in an integrated form including the display of flight parameter safety constraints. The display...instrument takes advantage of direct-perception interaction by leveraging ecological perception and emergent features to provide quick perception and comprehension of critical flight parameters in an integrated fashion.

  7. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  8. Optimetrics for Precise Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Guangning; Heckler, Gregory; Gramling, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Optimetrics for Precise Navigation will be implemented on existing optical communication links. The ranging and Doppler measurements are conducted over communication data frame and clock. The measurement accuracy is two orders of magnitude better than TDRSS. It also has other advantages of: The high optical carrier frequency enables: (1) Immunity from ionosphere and interplanetary Plasma noise floor, which is a performance limitation for RF tracking; and (2) High antenna gain reduces terminal size and volume, enables high precision tracking in Cubesat, and in deep space smallsat. High Optical Pointing Precision provides: (a) spacecraft orientation, (b) Minimal additional hardware to implement Precise Optimetrics over optical comm link; and (c) Continuous optical carrier phase measurement will enable the system presented here to accept future optical frequency standard with much higher clock accuracy.

  9. Precision Measurement in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  10. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  11. Precision medicine in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Antman, Elliott M; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2016-10-01

    The cardiovascular research and clinical communities are ideally positioned to address the epidemic of noncommunicable causes of death, as well as advance our understanding of human health and disease, through the development and implementation of precision medicine. New tools will be needed for describing the cardiovascular health status of individuals and populations, including 'omic' data, exposome and social determinants of health, the microbiome, behaviours and motivations, patient-generated data, and the array of data in electronic medical records. Cardiovascular specialists can build on their experience and use precision medicine to facilitate discovery science and improve the efficiency of clinical research, with the goal of providing more precise information to improve the health of individuals and populations. Overcoming the barriers to implementing precision medicine will require addressing a range of technical and sociopolitical issues. Health care under precision medicine will become a more integrated, dynamic system, in which patients are no longer a passive entity on whom measurements are made, but instead are central stakeholders who contribute data and participate actively in shared decision-making. Many traditionally defined diseases have common mechanisms; therefore, elimination of a siloed approach to medicine will ultimately pave the path to the creation of a universal precision medicine environment.

  12. The role of hamstring tightness in plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Labovitz, Jonathan M; Yu, Jenny; Kim, Chul

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if hamstring tightness was an increased risk in plantar fasciitis. It was thought that there is an increased risk of plantar fasciitis when hamstring tightness is present. A total of 105 patients (68 women, 37 men) were included in the study, 79 of whom were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and the presence of plantar fasciitis, equinus, and calcaneal spurs were assessed. The popliteal angle was measured using standard diagnostic techniques. Without controlling for covariates, BMI, the presence of a calcaneal spur, tightness in the gastrocnemius, gastrocnemius-soleus, and hamstring all had statistically significant association with plantar fasciitis. After controlling for covariates, patients with hamstring tightness were about 8.7 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis (P < .0001). Patients with BMI >35 were approximately 2.4 times as likely to experience plantar fasciitis compared with those with BMI <35 (P = .04). This study demonstrates that hamstring tightness plays a significant role in the presence of plantar fasciitis and should be addressed along with equinus and obesity when providing treatment to patients with this diagnosis.

  13. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  14. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P<0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P<0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression.

  15. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P < 0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P < 0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression. PMID:24966923

  16. The media of sociology: tight or loose translations?

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Sociologists have increasingly come to recognize that the discipline has unduly privileged textual representations, but efforts to incorporate visual and other media are still only in their beginning. This paper develops an analysis of the ways objects of knowledge are translated into other media, in order to understand the visual practices of sociology and to point out unused possibilities. I argue that the discourse on visual sociology, by assuming that photographs are less objective than text, is based on an asymmetric media-determinism and on a misleading notion of objectivity. Instead, I suggest to analyse media with the concept of translations. I introduce several kinds of translations, most centrally the distinction between tight and loose ones. I show that many sciences, such as biology, focus on tight translations, using a variety of media and manipulating both research objects and representations. Sociology, in contrast, uses both tight and loose translations, but uses the latter only for texts. For visuals, sociology restricts itself to what I call 'the documentary': focusing on mechanical recording technologies without manipulating either the object of research or the representation. I conclude by discussing three rare examples of what is largely excluded in sociology: visual loose translations, visual tight translations based on non-mechanical recording technologies, and visual tight translations based on mechanical recording technologies that include the manipulation of both object and representation.

  17. Altering wettability to recover more oil from tight formations

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick V.; Bryan, Charles R.; Thyne, Geoffrey; Li, Huina

    2016-06-03

    We describe here a method for chemically modifying fracturing fluids and overflushes to chemically increase oil recovery from tight formations. Oil wetting of tight formations is usually controlled by adhesion to illite, kerogen, or both; adhesion to carbonate minerals may also play a role. Oil-illite adhesion is sensitive to salinity, dissolved divalent cation content, and pH. We measure oil-rock adhesion with middle Bakken formation oil and core to verify a surface complexation model of reservoir wettability. The agreement between the model and experiments suggests that wettability trends in tight formations can be quantitatively predicted and that fracturing fluid and overflush compositions can be individually tailored to increase oil recovery.

  18. Altering wettability to recover more oil from tight formations

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, Patrick V.; Bryan, Charles R.; Thyne, Geoffrey; ...

    2016-06-03

    We describe here a method for chemically modifying fracturing fluids and overflushes to chemically increase oil recovery from tight formations. Oil wetting of tight formations is usually controlled by adhesion to illite, kerogen, or both; adhesion to carbonate minerals may also play a role. Oil-illite adhesion is sensitive to salinity, dissolved divalent cation content, and pH. We measure oil-rock adhesion with middle Bakken formation oil and core to verify a surface complexation model of reservoir wettability. The agreement between the model and experiments suggests that wettability trends in tight formations can be quantitatively predicted and that fracturing fluid and overflushmore » compositions can be individually tailored to increase oil recovery.« less

  19. Undersampled MR Image Reconstruction with Data-Driven Tight Frame

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianbo; Wang, Shanshan; Peng, Xi; Liang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Undersampled magnetic resonance image reconstruction employing sparsity regularization has fascinated many researchers in recent years under the support of compressed sensing theory. Nevertheless, most existing sparsity-regularized reconstruction methods either lack adaptability to capture the structure information or suffer from high computational load. With the aim of further improving image reconstruction accuracy without introducing too much computation, this paper proposes a data-driven tight frame magnetic image reconstruction (DDTF-MRI) method. By taking advantage of the efficiency and effectiveness of data-driven tight frame, DDTF-MRI trains an adaptive tight frame to sparsify the to-be-reconstructed MR image. Furthermore, a two-level Bregman iteration algorithm has been developed to solve the proposed model. The proposed method has been compared to two state-of-the-art methods on four datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved by DDTF-MRI. PMID:26199641

  20. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-08-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/sqrt{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/sqrt{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example, we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  1. Irinotecan disrupts tight junction proteins within the gut

    PubMed Central

    Wardill, Hannah R; Bowen, Joanne M; Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Sultani, Masooma; Bateman, Emma; Stansborough, Romany; Shirren, Joseph; Gibson, Rachel J

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer causes significant gut toxicity, leading to severe clinical manifestations and an increased economic burden. Despite much research, many of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood hindering effective treatment options. Recently there has been renewed interest in the role tight junctions play in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity. To delineate the underlying mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity, this study aimed to quantify the molecular changes in key tight junction proteins, ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin, using a well-established preclinical model of gut toxicity. Female tumor-bearing dark agouti rats received irinotecan or vehicle control and were assessed for validated parameters of gut toxicity including diarrhea and weight loss. Rats were killed at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h post-chemotherapy. Tight junction protein and mRNA expression in the small and large intestines were assessed using semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Significant changes in protein expression of tight junction proteins were seen in both the jejunum and colon, correlating with key histological changes and clinical features. mRNA levels of claudin-1 were significantly decreased early after irinotecan in the small and large intestines. ZO-1 and occludin mRNA levels remained stable across the time-course of gut toxicity. Findings strongly suggest irinotecan causes tight junction defects which lead to mucosal barrier dysfunction and the development of diarrhea. Detailed research is now warranted to investigate posttranslational regulation of tight junction proteins to delineate the underlying pathophysiology of gut toxicity and identify future therapeutic targets. PMID:24316664

  2. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-09-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  3. How Physics Got Precise

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppner, Daniel

    2005-01-19

    Although the ancients knew the length of the year to about ten parts per million, it was not until the end of the 19th century that precision measurements came to play a defining role in physics. Eventually such measurements made it possible to replace human-made artifacts for the standards of length and time with natural standards. For a new generation of atomic clocks, time keeping could be so precise that the effects of the local gravitational potentials on the clock rates would be important. This would force us to re-introduce an artifact into the definition of the second - the location of the primary clock. I will describe some of the events in the history of precision measurements that have led us to this pleasing conundrum, and some of the unexpected uses of atomic clocks today.

  4. Precision gap particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Miles, Robin; Jones, II., Leslie M.; Stockton, Cheryl

    2004-06-08

    A system for separating particles entrained in a fluid includes a base with a first channel and a second channel. A precision gap connects the first channel and the second channel. The precision gap is of a size that allows small particles to pass from the first channel into the second channel and prevents large particles from the first channel into the second channel. A cover is positioned over the base unit, the first channel, the precision gap, and the second channel. An port directs the fluid containing the entrained particles into the first channel. An output port directs the large particles out of the first channel. A port connected to the second channel directs the small particles out of the second channel.

  5. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chudakov, Eugene A.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  6. Precision electron polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudakov, E.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  7. Precision electron polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Chudakov, E.

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  8. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, M.J.; Bellman, R.A.

    1982-09-27

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  9. Precision manometer gauge

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Malcolm J.; Bellman, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A precision manometer gauge which locates a zero height and a measured height of liquid using an open tube in communication with a reservoir adapted to receive the pressure to be measured. The open tube has a reference section carried on a positioning plate which is moved vertically with machine tool precision. Double scales are provided to read the height of the positioning plate accurately, the reference section being inclined for accurate meniscus adjustment, and means being provided to accurately locate a zero or reference position.

  10. Precision Heating Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A heat sealing process was developed by SEBRA based on technology that originated in work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The project involved connecting and transferring blood and fluids between sterile plastic containers while maintaining a closed system. SEBRA markets the PIRF Process to manufacturers of medical catheters. It is a precisely controlled method of heating thermoplastic materials in a mold to form or weld catheters and other products. The process offers advantages in fast, precise welding or shape forming of catheters as well as applications in a variety of other industries.

  11. Real-time Kinematic Positioning of INS Tightly Aided Multi-GNSS Ionospheric Constrained PPP.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Shen, Wenbin; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Xiaoji; Ge, Maorong

    2016-07-29

    Real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is being widely applied for providing precise positioning services with the significant improvement on satellite precise products accuracy. With the rapid development of the multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (multi-GNSS), currently, about 80 navigation satellites are operational in orbit. Obviously, PPP performance is dramatically improved with all satellites compared to that of GPS-only PPP. However, the performance of PPP could be evidently affected by unexpected and unavoidable severe observing environments, especially in the dynamic applications. Consequently, we apply Inertial Navigation System (INS) to the Ionospheric-Constrained (IC) PPP to overcome such drawbacks. The INS tightly aided multi-GNSS IC-PPP model can make full use of GNSS and INS observations to improve the PPP performance in terms of accuracy, availability, continuity, and convergence speed. Then, a set of airborne data is analyzed to evaluate and validate the improvement of multi-GNSS and INS on the performance of IC-PPP.

  12. Real-time Kinematic Positioning of INS Tightly Aided Multi-GNSS Ionospheric Constrained PPP

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhouzheng; Shen, Wenbin; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Xiaoji; Ge, Maorong

    2016-01-01

    Real-time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is being widely applied for providing precise positioning services with the significant improvement on satellite precise products accuracy. With the rapid development of the multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (multi-GNSS), currently, about 80 navigation satellites are operational in orbit. Obviously, PPP performance is dramatically improved with all satellites compared to that of GPS-only PPP. However, the performance of PPP could be evidently affected by unexpected and unavoidable severe observing environments, especially in the dynamic applications. Consequently, we apply Inertial Navigation System (INS) to the Ionospheric-Constrained (IC) PPP to overcome such drawbacks. The INS tightly aided multi-GNSS IC-PPP model can make full use of GNSS and INS observations to improve the PPP performance in terms of accuracy, availability, continuity, and convergence speed. Then, a set of airborne data is analyzed to evaluate and validate the improvement of multi-GNSS and INS on the performance of IC-PPP. PMID:27470270

  13. Teaching with Precision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybould, Ted; Solity, Jonathan

    1982-01-01

    Use of precision teaching principles with learning problem students involves five steps: specifying performance, recording daily behavior, charting daily behavior, recording the teaching approach, and analyzing data. The approach has been successfully implemented through consultation of school psychologists in Walsall, England. (CL)

  14. Precision bolometer bridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    Prototype precision bolometer calibration bridge is manually balanced device for indicating dc bias and balance with either dc or ac power. An external galvanometer is used with the bridge for null indication, and the circuitry monitors voltage and current simultaneously without adapters in testing 100 and 200 ohm thin film bolometers.

  15. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  16. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  17. Bacterial expression system with tightly regulated gene expression and plasmid copy number.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Lisa M; Lapoint, Kathleen; Anthony, Larry; Pluciennik, Anna; Filutowicz, Marcin

    2004-09-29

    A new Escherichia coli host/vector system has been engineered to allow tight and uniform modulation of gene expression and gamma origin (ori) plasmid copy number. Regulation of gamma ori plasmid copy number is achieved through arabinose-inducible expression of the necessary Rep protein, pi, whose gene was integrated into the chromosome of the host strain under control of the P(BAD) promoter. gamma ori replication can be uniformly modulated over 100-fold by changing the concentration of l-arabinose in the growth medium. This strain avoids the problem of all-or-nothing induction of P(BAD) because it is deficient in both arabinose uptake and degradation genes. Arabinose enters the cell by a mutant LacY transporter, LacYA177C, which is expressed from the host chromosome. Although this strain could be compatible with any gamma ori plasmid, we describe the utility of a gamma ori expression vector that allows especially tight regulation of gene expression. With this host/vector system, it is possible to independently modulate gene expression and gene dosage, facilitating the cloning and overproduction of toxic gene products. We describe the successful use of this system for cloning a highly potent toxin, Colicin E3, in the absence of its cognate immunity protein. This system could be useful for cloning genes encoding other potent toxins, screening libraries for potential toxins, and maintaining any gamma ori vector at precise copy levels in a cell.

  18. Si Tight-Binding Parameters from Genetic Algorithm Fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimeck, G.; Bowen, R.; Boykin, T.; Salazar-Lazaro, C.; Cwik, T.; Stoica, A.

    1999-01-01

    Quantum mechanical simulations of carrier transport in Si require an accurate model of the complicated Si bandstructure. Tight-binding models are an attractive method of choice since they bear the full electronic structure symmetry in them and they can discretize a realistic device on an atomic scale.

  19. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Ahn, Kyuyoun

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230–240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication. PMID:27127786

  20. AB223. Expression of tight junction proteins in rat vagina

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Chung, Ho Suck; Ahn, Kyu Youn; Park, Kwangsung

    2014-01-01

    Aim Tight junction plays a role in apical cell-to-cell adhesion and epithelial polarity. In this study, we investigated the expression of tight junction proteins, such as Claudin-1, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, junction adhesion molecule (JAM)-A, and occludin in rat vagina. Methods Female Sprague-dawley rats (230-240 g, n=20) were divided into two groups: control (n=10) and bilateral ovariectomy (n=10). The expression and cellular localization of claudin-1, ZO-1, JAM-A, and occludin were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results Immunolabeling of ZO-1 was mainly expressed in the capillaries and venules of the vagina. Claudin-1, JAM-A, and occludin were expressed in the epithelium of the vagina. The immunoreactivity and protein expression of claudin-1 was significantly decreased in the ovariectomy group compared with the control group. Conclusions Our results suggest that tight junction proteins may have an important role in the vagina. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of each tight junction protein on vaginal lubrication.

  1. Estrogen Modulates Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Rat Vagina.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Suk; Ahn, Kyuyoun; Park, Kwangsung

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the localization of tight junctions and the modulation of zonula occludens- (ZO-) 1, occludin and claudin-1 expression by estrogen in castrated female rat vagina. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (230-240 g, n = 45) were divided into three groups and subjected to a sham operation (control group, n = 15), bilateral ovariectomy (Ovx group, n = 15), or bilateral ovariectomy followed by daily subcutaneous injection of 17β-estradiol (50 μg/kg/day, Ovx + Est group, n = 15). The cellular localization and expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 were determined in each group by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results. Expression of ZO-1 was diffuse in all groups, with the highest intensity in the superficial epithelium in the control group. Occludin was localized in the intermediate and basal epithelium. Claudin-1 was most intense in the superficial layer of the vaginal epithelium in the control group. Expression of ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 was significantly decreased after ovariectomy and was restored to the level of the control after estrogen replacement. Conclusions. Tight junctions are distinctly localized in rat vagina, and estrogen modulates the expression of tight junctions. Further researches are needed to clarify the functional role of tight junctions in vaginal lubrication.

  2. The Role of Temporary Agency Employment in Tight Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of six hospitals and five auto parts suppliers showed that in high-skilled occupations, employers paid more to temporary agency help than regular staff. In low-skilled occupations, temporary agencies facilitated use of riskier workers. Temporaries may relieve pressure to raise wages in tight labor markets, perhaps contributing to…

  3. Tight Junction Pore and Leak Pathways: A Dynamic Duo

    PubMed Central

    Raleigh, David R.; Yu, Dan; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue barriers that restrict passage of liquids, ions, and larger solutes are essential for the development of multicellular organisms. In simple organisms this allows distinct cell types to interface with the external environment. In more complex species, the diversity of cell types capable of forming barriers increases dramatically. Although the plasma membranes of these barrier-forming cells prevent flux of most hydrophilic solutes, the paracellular, or shunt, pathway between cells must also be sealed. This function is accomplished in vertebrates by the zonula occludens, or tight junction. The tight junction barrier is not absolute but is selectively permeable and is able to discriminate between solutes on the basis of size and charge. Many tight junction components have been identified over the past 20 years, and recent progress has provided new insights into the proteins and interactions that regulate structure and function. This review presents these data in a historical context and proposes an integrated model in which dynamic regulation of tight junction protein interactions determines barrier function. PMID:20936941

  4. Design and development of a leak tight helium II valve with low thermal impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Lambda Point Experiment is a precision measurement of the specific heat of liquid helium near the lambda point phase transition, in the low gravity of the space shuttle. It requires a valve for the helium sample chamber that operates at helium II temperature, has minimal thermal disturbance to the rest of the instrument, and is leak tight to helium II. A valve meeting these and all of the other science and engineering requirements of the mission has been developed by Ball. Initially, both torque and pressure actuated valve concepts were considered; the final flight design is pressure actuated. The rational for this decision as well as the rest of the valve design are given. The paper also discusses the manufacturing and testing of the prototype and flight valves. Test data is presented and discussed.

  5. Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance Doman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Landing and Hazard Avoidance (PL&HA) domain addresses the development, integration, testing, and spaceflight infusion of sensing, processing, and GN&C functions critical to the success and safety of future human and robotic exploration missions. PL&HA sensors also have applications to other mission events, such as rendezvous and docking. Autonomous PL&HA builds upon the core GN&C capabilities developed to enable soft, controlled landings on the Moon, Mars, and other solar system bodies. Through the addition of a Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) function, precision landing within tens of meters of a map-based target is possible. The addition of a 3-D terrain mapping lidar sensor improves the probability of a safe landing via autonomous, real-time Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA). PL&HA significantly improves the probability of mission success and enhances access to sites of scientific interest located in challenging terrain. PL&HA can also utilize external navigation aids, such as navigation satellites and surface beacons. Advanced Lidar Sensors High precision ranging, velocimetry, and 3-D terrain mapping Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) TRN compares onboard reconnaissance data with real-time terrain imaging data to update the S/C position estimate Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) Generates a high-resolution, 3-D terrain map in real-time during the approach trajectory to identify safe landing targets Inertial Navigation During Terminal Descent High precision surface relative sensors enable accurate inertial navigation during terminal descent and a tightly controlled touchdown within meters of the selected safe landing target.

  6. High-precision camera distortion measurements with a ``calibration harp''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhongwei; Grompone von Gioi, Rafael; Monasse, Pascal; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2012-10-01

    This paper addresses the high precision measurement of the distortion of a digital camera from photographs. Traditionally, this distortion is measured from photographs of a flat pattern which contains aligned elements. Nevertheless, it is nearly impossible to fabricate a very flat pattern and to validate its flatness. This fact limits the attainable measurable precisions. In contrast, it is much easier to obtain physically very precise straight lines by tightly stretching good quality strings on a frame. Taking literally "plumb-line methods", we built a "calibration harp" instead of the classic flat patterns to obtain a high precision measurement tool, demonstrably reaching 2/100 pixel precisions. The harp is complemented with the algorithms computing automatically from harp photographs two different and complementary lens distortion measurements. The precision of the method is evaluated on images corrected by state-of-the-art distortion correction algorithms, and by popular software. Three applications are shown: first an objective and reliable measurement of the result of any distortion correction. Second, the harp permits to control state-of-the art global camera calibration algorithms: It permits to select the right distortion model, thus avoiding internal compensation errors inherent to these methods. Third, the method replaces manual procedures in other distortion correction methods, makes them fully automatic, and increases their reliability and precision.

  7. A passion for precision

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  8. A passion for precision

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-19

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  9. Precision disablement aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  10. Ultra-Precision Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Under a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEMATECH, Inc., the Silicon Valley Group, Inc. and Tinsley Laboratories, known as SVG-Tinsley, developed an Ultra-Precision Optics Manufacturing System for space and microlithographic applications. Continuing improvements in optics manufacture will be able to meet unique NASA requirements and the production needs of the lithography industry for many years to come.

  11. Precision laser aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  12. GOCE Precise Science Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Heike; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Heinze, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs

    GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer), as the first ESA (European Space Agency) Earth Explorer Core Mission, is dedicated for gravity field recovery of unprece-dented accuracy using data from the gradiometer, its primary science instrument. Data from the secondary instrument, the 12-channel dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, is used for precise orbit determination of the satellite. These orbits are used to accu-rately geolocate the gradiometer observations and to provide complementary information for the long-wavelength part of the gravity field. A precise science orbit (PSO) product is provided by the GOCE High-Level Processing Facility (HPF) with a precision of about 2 cm and a 1-week latency. The reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit determination strategies for the PSO product are presented together with results of about one year of data. The focus is on the improvement achieved by the use of empirically derived azimuth-and elevation-dependent variations of the phase center of the GOCE GPS antenna. The orbits are validated with satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements.

  13. Precision of recombination frequency estimates after random intermating with finite population sizes.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Matthias; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2008-01-01

    Random intermating of F2 populations has been suggested for obtaining precise estimates of recombination frequencies between tightly linked loci. In a simulation study, sampling effects due to small population sizes in the intermating generations were found to abolish the advantages of random intermating that were reported in previous theoretical studies considering an infinite population size. We propose a mating scheme for intermating with planned crosses that yields more precise estimates than those under random intermating.

  14. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in

  15. High-precision image aided inertial navigation with known features: observability analysis and performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Li; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hui; Tang, Min; Hu, Xiangyun

    2014-10-17

    A high-precision image-aided inertial navigation system (INS) is proposed as an alternative to the carrier-phase-based differential Global Navigation Satellite Systems (CDGNSSs) when satellite-based navigation systems are unavailable. In this paper, the image/INS integrated algorithm is modeled by a tightly-coupled iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF). Tightly-coupled integration ensures that the integrated system is reliable, even if few known feature points (i.e., less than three) are observed in the images. A new global observability analysis of this tightly-coupled integration is presented to guarantee that the system is observable under the necessary conditions. The analysis conclusions were verified by simulations and field tests. The field tests also indicate that high-precision position (centimeter-level) and attitude (half-degree-level)-integrated solutions can be achieved in a global reference.

  16. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  17. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of < 20 nm. Overlay specification of single digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  18. New fracturing techniques reduce tight gas sand completion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, P.L.; Hunter, J.L. ); Kuhlman, R.D. ); Weinheimer, D.D. )

    1992-10-12

    This paper reports on new fracturing stimulation technology which contributed to solving problems in completing tight gas sands in the Carthage Cotton Valley field in Texas. These technologies included improved fluid systems, computer-controlled proppant placement, multiple isotope radioactive logs, mechanical properties logs, and innovative casing design. Drilling activity in the Carthage field commenced on a large scale in 1978 and 1979. At that time, the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA) first allowed higher gas prices. In 1980, low-permeability sandstones officially were classified as tight gas sands by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). This classification qualified the sands for NGPA incentive gas prices. After the Texas Railroad Commission (RRC) changed the field rules to 320 acre spacing, another round of development drilling began. In 1981 and 1982, Pennzoil drilled and completed 22 infill development wells before the gas market crashed in 1982.

  19. Maximally Localized Radial Profiles for Tight Steerable Wavelet Frames.

    PubMed

    Pad, Pedram; Uhlmann, Virginie; Unser, Michael

    2016-03-22

    A crucial component of steerable wavelets is the radial profile of the generating function in the frequency domain. In this work, we present an infinite-dimensional optimization scheme that helps us find the optimal profile for a given criterion over the space of tight frames. We consider two classes of criteria that measure the localization of the wavelet. The first class specifies the spatial localization of the wavelet profile, and the second that of the resulting wavelet coefficients. From these metrics and the proposed algorithm, we construct tight wavelet frames that are optimally localized and provide their analytical expression. In particular, one of the considered criterion helps us finding back the popular Simoncelli wavelet profile. Finally, the investigation of local orientation estimation, image reconstruction from detected contours in the wavelet domain, and denoising, indicate that optimizing wavelet localization improves the performance of steerable wavelets, since our new wavelets outperform the traditional ones.

  20. Maximally Localized Radial Profiles for Tight Steerable Wavelet Frames.

    PubMed

    Pad, Pedram; Uhlmann, Virginie; Unser, Michael

    2016-05-01

    A crucial component of steerable wavelets is the radial profile of the generating function in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present an infinite-dimensional optimization scheme that helps us find the optimal profile for a given criterion over the space of tight frames. We consider two classes of criteria that measure the localization of the wavelet. The first class specifies the spatial localization of the wavelet profile, and the second that of the resulting wavelet coefficients. From these metrics and the proposed algorithm, we construct tight wavelet frames that are optimally localized and provide their analytical expression. In particular, one of the considered criterion helps us finding back the popular Simoncelli wavelet profile. Finally, the investigation of local orientation estimation, image reconstruction from detected contours in the wavelet domain, and denoising indicate that optimizing wavelet localization improves the performance of steerable wavelets, since our new wavelets outperform the traditional ones.

  1. Air quality in tightly sealed and passive homes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, L.A.

    1981-09-01

    Indoor air quality has attracted increasing attention during the past few yars. Pollutants generated from combustion, building materials, and human activities may reach significant levels in the indoor environment to produce adverse health effects. This report deals with the classes of pollutants and their sources, and the significance of reported levels, possible health effects, and control strategies in relation to tightly sealed and passive solar construction techniques. In tightly sealed homes, residential air-to-air heat exchangers, whose design and performance are discussed, offer one method of improving air quality at reasonable cost. It is recommended that further research be implemented to identify hazardous concentrations of pollutants and set standards to minimize health impacts in the search for new energy innovations.

  2. Space Station Freedom viewed as a 'tight building'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas F.; Taylor, Robert D.; Pierson, Duane L.; James, John T.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF), with a 30-year projected lifetime and a completely closed-loop Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), is perhaps the ultimate 'tight building'. Recognizing the potential for the development of 'tight building syndrome' (TBS), and initiating actions to minimize possible TBS occurrences on SSF, requires a multidisciplinary approach that begins with appropriate design concerns and ends with detection and control measures on board SSF. This paper presents a brief summary of current experience with TBS on earth. Air contamination, including volatile organic compounds and microorganisms, is the focus of the discussion. Preventive steps to avoid TBS, control of environmental factors that may lead to TBS, and use of real-time instrumentation for the detection of potential causes of TBS are also outlined.

  3. Limited weights neural networks: Very tight entropy based bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Beiu, V.; Draghici, S.

    1997-04-01

    Being given a set of m examples (i.e., data-set) from IR{sup n} belonging to k different classes, the problem is to compute the required number-of-bits (i.e., entropy) for correctly classifying the data-set. Very tight upper and lower bounds for a dichotomy (i.e., k = 2) will be presented, but they are valid for the general case.

  4. Vision-Aided Autonomous Precision Weapon Terminal Guidance Using a Tightly-Coupled INS and Predictive Rendering Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    200/-0 feet), 500 ±200 feet, and 2,000 ±200 feet AGL, at a speed of 120 ±10 Knots Indicated Air Speed (KIAS), with flaps set at 40%. A pitch rap or...assumptions. To help ensure all recorded data was being properly time-stamped, each data collection run was initiated with a pitch rap or wing rock. In...163 6.2 Recommendations for Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 6.2.1 Near-Term Follow- up Recommendations . . . . 164 6.2.2 Long-Term Follow

  5. Tightly Coupled Inertial Navigation System/Global Positioning System (TCMIG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Jackson, Kurt (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Many NASA applications planned for execution later this decade are seeking high performance, miniaturized, low power Inertial Management Units (IMU). Much research has gone into Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) over the past decade as a solution to these needs. While MEMS devices have proven to provide high accuracy acceleration measurements, they have not yet proven to have the accuracy required by many NASA missions in rotational measurements. Therefore, a new solution has been formulated integrating the best of all IMU technologies to address these mid-term needs in the form of a Tightly Coupled Micro Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) (TCMIG). The TCMIG consists of an INS and a GPS tightly coupled by a Kalman filter executing on an embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processor. The INS consists of a highly integrated Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyroscope (IFOG) and a MEMS accelerometer. The IFOG utilizes a tightly wound fiber coil to reduce volume and the high level of integration and advanced optical components to reduce power. The MEMS accelerometer utilizes a newly developed deep etch process to increase the proof mass and yield a highly accurate accelerometer. The GPS receiver consists of a low power miniaturized version of the Blackjack receiver. Such an IMU configuration is ideal to meet the mid-term needs of the NASA Science Enterprises and the new launch vehicles being developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI).

  6. Tight binding of proteins to membranes from older human cells.

    PubMed

    Truscott, Roger J W; Comte-Walters, Susana; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Schwacke, John H; Berry, Yoke; Korlimbinis, Anastasia; Friedrich, Michael G; Schey, Kevin L

    2011-12-01

    The lens is an ideal model system for the study of macromolecular aging and its consequences for cellular function, since there is no turnover of lens fibre cells. To examine biochemical processes that take place in the lens and that may also occur in other long-lived cells, membranes were isolated from defined regions of human lenses that are synthesised at different times during life, and assayed for the presence of tightly bound cytosolic proteins using quantitative iTRAQ proteomics technology. A majority of lens beta crystallins and all gamma crystallins became increasingly membrane bound with age, however, the chaperone proteins alpha A and alpha B crystallin, as well as the thermally-stable protein, βB2 crystallin, did not. Other proteins such as brain-associated signal protein 1 and paralemmin 1 became less tightly bound in the older regions of the lens. It is evident that protein-membrane interactions change significantly with age. Selected proteins that were formerly cytosolic become increasingly tightly bound to cell membranes with age and are not removed even by treatment with 7 M urea. It is likely that such processes reflect polypeptide denaturation over time and the untoward binding of proteins to membranes may alter membrane properties and contribute to impairment of communication between older cells.

  7. Tight junction regulates epidermal calcium ion gradient and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kurasawa, Masumi; Maeda, Tetsuo; Oba, Ai; Yamamoto, Takuya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki

    2011-03-25

    Research highlights: {yields} We disrupted epidermal tight junction barrier in reconstructed epidermis. {yields} It altered Ca{sup 2+} distribution and consequentially differentiation state as well. {yields} Tight junction should affect epidermal homeostasis by maintaining Ca{sup 2+} gradient. -- Abstract: It is well known that calcium ions (Ca{sup 2+}) induce keratinocyte differentiation. Ca{sup 2+} distributes to form a vertical gradient that peaks at the stratum granulosum. It is thought that the stratum corneum (SC) forms the Ca{sup 2+} gradient since it is considered the only permeability barrier in the skin. However, the epidermal tight junction (TJ) in the granulosum has recently been suggested to restrict molecular movement to assist the SC as a secondary barrier. The objective of this study was to clarify the contribution of the TJ to Ca{sup 2+} gradient and epidermal differentiation in reconstructed human epidermis. When the epidermal TJ barrier was disrupted by sodium caprate treatment, Ca{sup 2+} flux increased and the gradient changed in ion-capture cytochemistry images. Alterations of ultrastructures and proliferation/differentiation markers revealed that both hyperproliferation and precocious differentiation occurred regionally in the epidermis. These results suggest that the TJ plays a crucial role in maintaining epidermal homeostasis by controlling the Ca{sup 2+} gradient.

  8. Developmental Changes in Proximal Tubule Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    HADDAD, MAHA; LIN, FANGMING; DWARAKANATH, VANGIPURAM; CORDES, KIMBERLY; BAUM, MICHEL

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated previously that neonatal proximal tubules have a lower passive paracellular permeability to chloride ions and higher resistance than that of adult proximal tubules. In addition, administration of thyroid hormone to neonates, before the normal maturational increase in serum thyroid hormone levels, prematurely accelerates the developmental increase in chloride permeability to adult levels. To test the hypothesis that there is a maturational change in tight junction proteins and that thyroid hormone mediates these changes, we examined the two known tight junction proteins present in proximal tubules, occludin and claudin 2. Using immunoblot and immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that claudin 2 has a 4-fold greater abundance in neonatal proximal tubules than in adult tubules. Occludin, however, has a 4-fold greater expression in adult tubules than in neonatal tubules. Administration of thyroid hormone to neonates did not affect claudin 2 expression, occludin expression, or the transepithelial resistance in rat proximal tubule cells in vitro. In conclusion, there are postnatal maturational changes in tight junction proteins. The factors that cause these maturational changes are unknown but unlikely to be due solely to the maturational increase in thyroid hormone. PMID:15585672

  9. Existing approaches to tight rock laboratory petrophysics: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konoshonkin, D. V.; Parnachev, S. V.

    2015-02-01

    A review of the existing methods for tight rock porosity, saturation, and permeability determination was performed taking into account that these methods should be applicable for Bazhenov formation evaluation. The following methods were considered: Archimedes mercury immersion; mercury displacement; caliper; helium pycnometry on crushed samples; nuclear magnetic resonance; modified retort method; modified Dean-Stark extraction; pulse decay method; and pressure decay test on crushed samples. The applicability of the pressure decay test on a crushed sample for Bazhenov formation evaluation is checked experimentally with the SMP-200 commercial permeameter. All the above listed methods were combined into five protocols for tight rock petrophysical evaluation. These protocols were analyzed and compared according to the following criteria: accuracy of the results; usage experience; time of measurements; easiness of interpretation; reliability and safety; price. The obtained results revealed that the most effective protocol is the one that includes pressure pulse on a core plug for permeability determination, He pycnometry and modified retort analysis on crushed samples for porosity and saturation determination. As there were cases when the proposed protocol was less effective vs. other protocols, a special scheme was suggested in order to choose the most effective protocol for tight rock petrophysical properties evaluation in definite conditions.

  10. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  11. Precise Measurement for Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A metrology instrument known as PhaseCam supports a wide range of applications, from testing large optics to controlling factory production processes. This dynamic interferometer system enables precise measurement of three-dimensional surfaces in the manufacturing industry, delivering speed and high-resolution accuracy in even the most challenging environments.Compact and reliable, PhaseCam enables users to make interferometric measurements right on the factory floor. The system can be configured for many different applications, including mirror phasing, vacuum/cryogenic testing, motion/modal analysis, and flow visualization.

  12. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  13. Precision electroweak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup -} and {ital p{anti p}} colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct {ital m{sub t}} measurements. Using the world`s electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs` mass are discussed.

  14. Precision Joining Center

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.W.; Westphal, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10--12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of US industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  15. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-05-26

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or ``flyer`` is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices. 10 figs.

  16. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Lee, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or "flyer" is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices.

  17. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  18. Precision Joining Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The establishment of a Precision Joining Center (PJC) is proposed. The PJC will be a cooperatively operated center with participation from U.S. private industry, the Colorado School of Mines, and various government agencies, including the Department of Energy's Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). The PJC's primary mission will be as a training center for advanced joining technologies. This will accomplish the following objectives: (1) it will provide an effective mechanism to transfer joining technology from the NWC to private industry; (2) it will provide a center for testing new joining processes for the NWC and private industry; and (3) it will provide highly trained personnel to support advance joining processes for the NWC and private industry.

  19. Precision spectroscopy of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Cancio, P.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.; De Mauro, C.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Inguscio, M.

    2005-05-05

    Accurate Quantum-Electrodynamics (QED) tests of the simplest bound three body atomic system are performed by precise laser spectroscopic measurements in atomic Helium. In this paper, we present a review of measurements between triplet states at 1083 nm (23S-23P) and at 389 nm (23S-33P). In 4He, such data have been used to measure the fine structure of the triplet P levels and, then, to determine the fine structure constant when compared with equally accurate theoretical calculations. Moreover, the absolute frequencies of the optical transitions have been used for Lamb-shift determinations of the levels involved with unprecedented accuracy. Finally, determination of the He isotopes nuclear structure and, in particular, a measurement of the nuclear charge radius, are performed by using hyperfine structure and isotope-shift measurements.

  20. Precision Spectroscopy of Tellurium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, J.; Furneaux, J. E.

    2013-06-01

    Tellurium (Te_2) is widely used as a frequency reference, largely due to the fact that it has an optical transition roughly every 2-3 GHz throughout a large portion of the visible spectrum. Although a standard atlas encompassing over 5200 cm^{-1} already exists [1], Doppler broadening present in that work buries a significant portion of the features [2]. More recent studies of Te_2 exist which do not exhibit Doppler broadening, such as Refs. [3-5], and each covers different parts of the spectrum. This work adds to that knowledge a few hundred transitions in the vicinity of 444 nm, measured with high precision in order to improve measurement of the spectroscopic constants of Te_2's excited states. Using a Fabry Perot cavity in a shock-absorbing, temperature and pressure regulated chamber, locked to a Zeeman stabilized HeNe laser, we measure changes in frequency of our diode laser to ˜1 MHz precision. This diode laser is scanned over 1000 GHz for use in a saturated-absorption spectroscopy cell filled with Te_2 vapor. Details of the cavity and its short and long-term stability are discussed, as well as spectroscopic properties of Te_2. References: J. Cariou, and P. Luc, Atlas du spectre d'absorption de la molecule de tellure, Laboratoire Aime-Cotton (1980). J. Coker et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B {28}, 2934 (2011). J. Verges et al., Physica Scripta {25}, 338 (1982). Ph. Courteille et al., Appl. Phys. B {59}, 187 (1994) T.J. Scholl et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. B {22}, 1128 (2005).

  1. Mathematics for modern precision engineering.

    PubMed

    Scott, Paul J; Forbes, Alistair B

    2012-08-28

    The aim of precision engineering is the accurate control of geometry. For this reason, mathematics has a long association with precision engineering: from the calculation and correction of angular scales used in surveying and astronomical instrumentation to statistical averaging techniques used to increase precision. This study illustrates the enabling role the mathematical sciences are playing in precision engineering: modelling physical processes, instruments and complex geometries, statistical characterization of metrology systems and error compensation.

  2. Role of tight junction proteins in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with impaired epithelial barrier function that is regulated by cell-cell contacts. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression pattern of selected components involved in the formation of tight junctions in relation to GERD. Methods Eighty-four patients with GERD-related symptoms with endoscopic signs (erosive: n = 47) or without them (non-erosive: n = 37) as well as 26 patients lacking GERD-specific symptoms as controls were included. Endoscopic and histological characterization of esophagitis was performed according to the Los Angeles and adapted Ismeil-Beigi criteria, respectively. Mucosal biopsies from distal esophagus were taken for analysis by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of five genes encoding tight junction components [Occludin, Claudin-1, -2, Zona occludens (ZO-1, -2)]. Results Histopathology confirmed GERD-specific alterations as dilated intercellular spaces in the esophageal mucosa of patients with GERD compared to controls (P < 0.05). Claudin-1 and −2 were 2- to 6-fold upregulation on transcript (P < 0.01) and in part on protein level (P < 0.015) in GERD, while subgroup analysis of revealed this upregulation for ERD only. In both erosive and non-erosive reflux disease, expression levels of Occludin and ZO-1,-2 were not significantly affected. Notably, the induced expression of both claudins did not correlate with histopathological parameters (basal cell hyperplasia, dilated intercellular spaces) in patients with GERD. Conclusions Taken together, the missing correlation between the expression of tight junction-related components and histomorphological GERD-specific alterations does not support a major role of the five proteins studied in the pathogenesis of GERD. PMID:22994974

  3. Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex pulse.

    PubMed

    Hnatovsky, Cyril; Shvedov, Vladlen G; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Rode, Andrei V

    2010-10-15

    In this Letter we present the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of material modification using tightly focused single femtosecond laser vortex pulses. Double-charge femtosecond vortices were synthesized with a polarization-singularity beam converter based on light propagation in a uniaxial anisotropic medium and then focused using moderate- and high-NA optics (viz., NA=0.45 and 0.9) to ablate fused silica and soda-lime glass. By controlling the pulse energy, we consistently machine micrometer-size ring-shaped structures with <100nm uniform groove thickness.

  4. Hydrologic testing of tight zones in southeastern New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; Davis, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Increased attention is being directed toward the investigation of tight zones in relation to the storage and disposal of hazardous wastes. Shut-in tests, slug tests, and pressure-slug tests are being used at the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, New Mexico, to evaluate the fluid-transmitting properties of several zones above the proposed repository zone. All three testing methods were used in various combinations to obtain values for the hydraulic properties of the test zones. Multiple testing on the same zone produced similar results. -from Authors

  5. A tight-binding potential for helium in carbon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granot, Rebecca; Baer, Roi

    2008-12-01

    The presence of helium in carbon systems, such as diamonds and fullerenes is of interest for planetary sciences, geophysics, astrophysics, and evolution biology. Such systems typically involve a large number of atoms and require a fast method for assessing the interaction potential and forces. We developed a tight-binding approach, based on density functional calculations, which includes a many-body potential term. This latter term is essential for consolidating the density functional results of helium in bulky diamond and Helium passing through a benzene ring which is important for helium-fullerene applications. The method is simple to apply and exhibits good transferability properties.

  6. Tight glycemic control in the ICU - is the earth flat?

    PubMed

    Steil, Garry M; Agus, Michael S D

    2014-06-27

    Tight glycemic control in the ICU has been shown to reduce mortality in some but not all prospective randomized control trials. Confounding the interpretation of these studies are differences in how the control was achieved and underlying incidence of hypoglycemia, which can be expected to be affected by the introduction of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). In this issue of Critical Care, a consensus panel provides a list of the research priorities they believe are needed for CGM to become routine practice in the ICU. We reflect on these recommendations and consider the implications for using CGM today.

  7. Quantum correlations are tightly bound by the exclusivity principle.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bin

    2013-06-28

    It is a fundamental problem in physics of what principle limits the correlations as predicted by our current description of nature, based on quantum mechanics. One possible explanation is the "global exclusivity" principle recently discussed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060402 (2013). In this work we show that this principle actually has a much stronger restriction on the probability distribution. We provide a tight constraint inequality imposed by this principle and prove that this principle singles out quantum correlations in scenarios represented by any graph. Our result implies that the exclusivity principle might be one of the fundamental principles of nature.

  8. Tight Lower Bound for Percolation Threshold on an Infinite Graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kathleen E.; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2014-11-01

    We construct a tight lower bound for the site percolation threshold on an infinite graph, which becomes exact for an infinite tree. The bound is given by the inverse of the maximal eigenvalue of the Hashimoto matrix used to count nonbacktracking walks on the original graph. Our bound always exceeds the inverse spectral radius of the graph's adjacency matrix, and it is also generally tighter than the existing bound in terms of the maximum degree. We give a constructive proof for existence of such an eigenvalue in the case of a connected infinite quasitransitive graph, a graph-theoretic analog of a translationally invariant system.

  9. Scattering matrix of arbitrary tight-binding Hamiltonians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, C.; Medina-Amayo, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    A novel efficient method to calculate the scattering matrix (SM) of arbitrary tight-binding Hamiltonians is proposed, including cases with multiterminal structures. In particular, the SM of two kinds of fundamental structures is given, which can be used to obtain the SM of bigger systems iteratively. Also, a procedure to obtain the SM of layer-composed periodic leads is described. This method allows renormalization approaches, which permits computations over macroscopic length systems without introducing additional approximations. Finally, the transmission coefficient of a ring-shaped multiterminal system and the transmission function of a square-lattice nanoribbon with a reduced width region are calculated.

  10. Precision cosmological parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, William Ashton, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Experimental efforts of the last few decades have brought. a golden age to mankind's endeavor to understand tine physical properties of the Universe throughout its history. Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong confirmation of the standard big bang paradigm, as well as introducing new mysteries, to unexplained by current physical models. In the following decades. even more ambitious scientific endeavours will begin to shed light on the new physics by looking at the detailed structure of the Universe both at very early and recent times. Modern data has allowed us to begins to test inflationary models of the early Universe, and the near future will bring higher precision data and much stronger tests. Cracking the codes hidden in these cosmological observables is a difficult and computationally intensive problem. The challenges will continue to increase as future experiments bring larger and more precise data sets. Because of the complexity of the problem, we are forced to use approximate techniques and make simplifying assumptions to ease the computational workload. While this has been reasonably sufficient until now, hints of the limitations of our techniques have begun to come to light. For example, the likelihood approximation used for analysis of CMB data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe (WMAP) satellite was shown to have short falls, leading to pre-emptive conclusions drawn about current cosmological theories. Also it can he shown that an approximate method used by all current analysis codes to describe the recombination history of the Universe will not be sufficiently accurate for future experiments. With a new CMB satellite scheduled for launch in the coming months, it is vital that we develop techniques to improve the analysis of cosmological data. This work develops a novel technique of both avoiding the use of approximate computational codes as well as allowing the application of new, more precise analysis

  11. Precision grid and hand motion for accurate needle insertion in brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, a grid is used to guide a needle tip toward a preplanned location within the tissue. During insertion, the needle deflects en route resulting in target misplacement. In this paper, 18-gauge needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed to test effects of three parameters, which include the clearance between the grid hole and needle, the thickness of the grid, and the needle insertion speed. Measurement apparatus that consisted of two datum surfaces and digital depth gauge was developed to quantify needle deflections. Methods: The gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR and R) test was performed on the measurement apparatus, and it proved to be capable of measuring a 2 mm tolerance from the target. Replicated experiments were performed on a 2{sup 3} factorial design (three parameters at two levels) and analysis included averages and standard deviation along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: Results showed that grid with tight clearance hole and slow needle speed increased precision and accuracy of needle insertion. The tight grid was vital to enhance precision and accuracy of needle insertion for both slow and fast insertion speed; additionally, at slow speed the tight, thick grid improved needle precision and accuracy. Conclusions: In summary, the tight grid is important, regardless of speed. The grid design, which shows the capability to reduce the needle deflection in brachytherapy procedures, can potentially be implemented in the brachytherapy procedure.

  12. Precise measurement of planeness.

    PubMed

    Schulz, G; Schwider, J

    1967-06-01

    Interference methods are reviewed-particularly those developed at the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin-with which the deviations of an optically flat surface from the ideal plane can be measured with a high degree of exactness. One aid to achieve this is the relative methods which measure the differences in planeness between two surfaces. These are then used in the absolute methods which determine the absolute planeness of a surface. This absolute determination can be effected in connection with a liquid surface, or (as done by the authors) only by suitable evaluation of relative measurements between unknown plates in various positional combinations. Experimentally, one uses two- or multiple-beam interference fringes of equal thickness(1) or of equal inclination. The fringes are observed visually, scanned, or photographed, and in part several wavelengths or curves of equal density (Aquidensiten) are employed. The survey also brings the following new methods: a relative method, where, with the aid of fringes of superposition, the fringe separation is subdivided equidistantly thus achieving an increase of measuring precision, and an absolute method which determines the deviations of a surface from ideal planeness along arbitrary central sections, without a liquid surface, from four relative interference photographs.

  13. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  14. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  15. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gas causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design production

  16. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gasmore » causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design

  17. Pore-throat sizes in sandstones, tight sandstones, and shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.

    2009-01-01

    Pore-throat sizes in silidclastic rocks form a continuum from the submillimeter to the nanometer scale. That continuum is documented in this article using previously published data on the pore and pore-throat sizes of conventional reservoir rocks, tight-gas sandstones, and shales. For measures of central tendency (mean, mode, median), pore-throat sizes (diameters) are generally greater than 2 μm in conventional reservoir rocks, range from about 2 to 0.03 μm in tight-gas sandstones, and range from 0.1 to 0.005 μm in shales. Hydrocarbon molecules, asphaltenes, ring structures, paraffins, and methane, form another continuum, ranging from 100 Å (0.01 μm for asphaltenes to 3.8 A (0.00038 μm) for methane. The pore-throat size continuum provides a useful perspective for considering (1) the emplacement of petroleum in consolidated siliciclastics and (2) fluid flow through fine-grained source rocks now being exploited as reservoirs.

  18. Evaluation of the Sparton tight-tolerance AXBT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Janice D.; Linzell, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    Forty-six near-simultaneous pairs of conductivity - temperature - depth (CTD) and Sparton 'tight tolerance' air expendable bathythermograph (AXBT) temperature profiles were obtained in summer 1991 from a location in the Sargasso Sea. The data were analyzed to assess the temperature and depth accuracies of the Sparton AXBTs. The tight-tolerance criterion was not achieved using the manufacturer's equations but may have been achieved using customized equations computed from the CTD data. The temperature data from the customized equations had a one standard deviation error of 0.13 C. A customized elapsed fall time-to-depth conversion equation was found to be z = 1.620t - 2.2384 x 10(exp -4) t(exp 2) + 1.291 x 10(exp -7) t(exp 3), with z the depth in meters and t the elapsed fall time after probe release in seconds. The standard deviation of the depth error was about 5 m; a rule of thumb for estimating maximum bounds on the depth error below 100 m could be expressed as +/-2% of depth or +/- 10 m, whichever is greater. This equation gave greater depth accuracy than either the manufacturer's supplied equation or the navy standard equation.

  19. E.coli swims faster in tight microtunnels (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizsnyiczai, Gaszton; Saglimbeni, Filippo; Frangipane, Giacomo; Bianchi, Silvio; Maggi, Claudio; Di Leonardo, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Swimming bacteria exploit viscous drag forces to generate propulsion in low Reynolds number environments. A rotating helical flagellar bundle can propel the cell body at typical speeds of ten body lengths per second. Not surprisingly, this ability to efficiently swim is preserved even in confining micro-environments which constitute their typical habitat. Quantitative studies would require the ability of fabricating complex environments with controlled geometrical properties. Experimental studies so far were limited to large diameter micro capillaries or 2D confinement. In this last case, E.coli has been shown to swim with an unaltered speed even when the gap size is slightly larger than the cell body thickness. The case of tight 1D confinement is however more challenging requiring 3D fabrication capabilities. Using two-photon polymerization we fabricate 3D microstructures that can confine swimming bacteria in quasi 1D geometries. We observe individual E.coli cells swimming through a sequence of micro-tunnels with progressively decreasing diameters. We demonstrate that E.coli motility is preserved also in tight 1D confinement. Moreover we find that there's an optimal channel diameter for which the increase in flagellar thrust due to 1D confinement can even overcome the increased drag on the cell body resulting in swimming speeds that can be up to 15% larger then the bulk speed.

  20. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-05-27

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system's performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions.

  1. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system’s performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions. PMID:27240369

  2. Trehazolin, a slow, tight-binding inhibitor of silkworm trehalase.

    PubMed

    Ando, O; Nakajima, M; Kifune, M; Fang, H; Tanzawa, K

    1995-06-09

    Mechanisms of enzyme inhibition by trehazolin, a new inhibitor of trehalase (Ando et al. (1991) J. Antibiot. 44, 1165), were investigated using purified soluble silkworm trehalase and other glycosidases. Trehazolin inhibited trehalase with an IC50 value of 27 nM, whereas some other exo-alpha-glucosidases were inhibited only weakly, with IC50 values ranging from 7 to 370 microM. Other glycosidases tested were not inhibited by 500 microM trehazolin. The inhibition of trehalase by trehazolin was competitive with respect to trehalose. A notable feature of the inhibition was a slow progression of the association and dissociation of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. Preincubation of the enzyme and the inhibitor at 37 degrees C potentiated the inhibition by 10-times in a time-dependent manner up to 6 h. Dialysis of the inactivated enzyme recovered the enzymatic activity very slowly, and the rate constant for the dissociation at 37 degrees C was (7.3).10(-2) h-1. Trehalamine, a deglucosylated form of trehazolin, inhibited both silkworm trehalase and exo-alpha-glucosidases only weakly. The inhibition of trehalase by trehalamine was reversible. Rat isomaltase inhibition by trehazolin and sucrase inhibition by trehalamine were also reversible. Taken together, trehazolin is a specific slow, tight-binding inhibitor of trehalase, and the glucose moiety of the inhibitor is essential to the tight binding.

  3. Evaluation of the Sparton tight-tolerance AXBT

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.D.; Linzell, R.S. |

    1993-12-01

    Forty-six near-simultaneous pairs of conductivity - temperature - depth (CTD) and Sparton `tight tolerance` air expendable bathythermograph (AXBT) temperature profiles were obtained in summer 1991 from a location in the Sargasso Sea. The data were analyzed to assess the temperature and depth accuracies of the Sparton AXBTs. The tight-tolerance criterion was not achieved using the manufacturer`s equations but may have been achieved using customized equations computed from the CTD data. The temperature data from the customized equations had a one standard deviation error of 0.13 C. A customized elapsed fall time-to-depth conversion equation was found to be z = 1.620t - 2.2384 x 10(exp -4) t(exp 2) + 1.291 x 10(exp -7) t(exp 3), with z the depth in meters and t the elapsed fall time after probe release in seconds. The standard deviation of the depth error was about 5 m; a rule of thumb for estimating maximum bounds on the depth error below 100 m could be expressed as +/-2% of depth or +/- 10 m, whichever is greater. This equation gave greater depth accuracy than either the manufacturer`s supplied equation or the navy standard equation.

  4. Tight Fits for Americas Next Moon Rocket, Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Fisher, Wyatt; Richardson, Lea

    2010-01-01

    America has begun the development of a new heavy lift rocket which will enable humans to return to the moon and reach even farther destinations. Five decades ago, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration designed a system (called Saturn/Apollo) to carry men to the moon and back; the rocket which boosted them to the moon was the Saturn V. Saturn V was huge relative to contemporary rockets and is still the largest rocket ever launched. The new moon rocket is called Ares V. It will insert 40% more payload into low earth orbit than Saturn V; and after docking with the crew spacecraft, it will insert 50% more payload onto the translunar trajectory than Saturn V. The current design of Ares V calls for two liquid-fueled stages and 2 "strap-on" solid rockets. The solid rockets are extended-length versions of the solid rockets used on the Shuttle. The diameter of the liquid stages is at least as large as the first stage of the Saturn V; the height of the lower liquid stage (called the core stage) is longer than the external tank of the Shuttle. Huge rockets require huge infrastructure and, during the Saturn/Apollo era, America invested significantly in manufacturing, assembly and launch facilities which are still in use today. Since the Saturn/Apollo era, America has invested in additional infrastructure for the Shuttle program. Ares V must utilize this existing infrastructure, with reasonable modifications. Building a rocket with 50% more capability in the same buildings, testing it in the same test stands, shipping on the same canals under the same bridges, assembling it in the same building, rolling it to the pad on the same crawler, and launching it from the same launch pad is an engineering and logistics challenge which goes hand-in-hand with designing the structure, tanks, turbines, engines, software, etc. necessary to carry such a large payload to earth orbit and to the moon. This paper quantitatively discusses the significant "tight fits" that are

  5. MANAGING TIGHT BINDING RECEPTORS FOR NEW SPEARATIONS TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    DARYLE H BUSCH RICHARD S GIVENS

    2004-12-10

    Much of the earth's pollution involves compounds of the metallic elements, including actinides, strontium, cesium, technetium, and RCRA metals. Metal ions bind to molecules called ligands, which are the molecular tools that can manipulate the metal ions under most conditions. This DOE-EMSP sponsored program strives (1) to provide the foundations for using the most powerful ligands in transformational separations technologies and (2) to produce seminal examples of their applications to separations appropriate to the DOE EM mission. These ultra tight-binding ligands can capture metal ions in the most competitive of circumstances (from mineralized sites, lesser ligands, and even extremely dilute solutions), but they react so slowly that they are useless in traditional separations methodologies. Two attacks on this problem are underway. The first accommodates to the challenging molecular lethargy by developing a seminal slow separations methodology termed the soil poultice. The second designs ligands that are only tight-binding while wrapped around the targeted metal ion, but can be put in place by switch-binding and removed by switch-release. We envision a kind of molecular switching process to accelerate the union between metal ion and tight-binding ligand. Molecular switching processes are suggested for overcoming the slow natural equilibration rate with which ultra tight-binding ligands combine with metal ions. Ligands that bind relatively weakly combine with metal ions rapidly, so the trick is to convert a ligand from a weak, rapidly binding species to a powerful, slow releasing ligand--during the binding of the ligand to the metal ion. Such switch-binding ligands must react with themselves, and the reaction must take place under the influence of the metal ion. For example, our generation 1 ligands showed that a well-designed linear ligand with ends that readily combine, forms a cyclic molecule when it wraps around a metal ion. Our generation 2 ligands are even

  6. Total energies in the tight-binding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Walter A.

    1981-05-01

    The density-functional theory of interaction between closed-shell atoms is simplified sufficiently to be carried out analytically. The resulting form is V0(d)=-η0ɛpμdexp(-5μd3), where the valence p-state energy is related to μ by ɛp=-ℏ2μ22m. In universal-parameter tight-binding theory of ionic crystals a band-structure energy is added, but no Madelung energy. η0 is adjusted from its theoretical value of 71 to give the correct equilibrium spacing for the potassium halides, giving η0=44,86,103, and 146 for 2p, 3p, 4p, and 5p anions, respectively. Then using average values of μ based upon Herman-Skillman term values the equilibrium spacing, cohesive energy, and elastic constants are predicted for the monovalent, divalent, and trivalent compounds in the rocksalt structure. Such a theory based upon tight-binding energies rather than Madelung energies provides an alternative to the Born theory. It is of comparable accuracy but has much wider applicability. The theory also predicts an approximate equality between the band gap and the cohesive energy per ion pair for the alkali halides and between twice the band gap and the cohesive energy for their divalent counterparts, in reasonable accord with experiment. By identifying the overlap interaction in covalent solids with nonorthogonality terms in tight-binding theory it is shown that direct application of the closed-shell theory to covalent solids underestimates the kinetic-energy term by a factor of 22/3. Making this correction to the earlier calculations for Si and Ge by Harrison and Sokel brings them into reasonable accord with experiment. This overlap interaction is then approximated by the same analytic form as for closed-shell systems but based upon hybrid, rather than p-state, parameters. The coefficient η0 is adjusted, from its theoretical value of 47, to 46 for C, 57 for Si, 61 for Ge, and 73 for Sn in order to fit the observed atomic spacing. The resulting overlap interaction plus the bonding energy

  7. Precise Truss Assembly using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, William R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2013-01-01

    We describe an Intelligent Precision Jigging Robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly of commodity parts with low-precision bonding. We present preliminary experiments in 2D that are motivated by the problem of assembling a space telescope optical bench on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local assembly site in place while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (in this case, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. We report the challenges of designing the IPJR hardware and software, analyze the error in assembly, document the test results over several experiments including a large-scale ring structure, and describe future work to implement the IPJR in 3D and with micron precision.

  8. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  9. [Precision nutrition in the era of precision medicine].

    PubMed

    Chen, P Z; Wang, H

    2016-12-06

    Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals. Three major components should be considered in precision nutrition, including individual criteria for sufficient nutritional status, biomarker monitoring or techniques for nutrient detection and the applicable therapeutic or intervention methods. It was suggested that, in clinical practice, many inherited and chronic metabolic diseases might be prevented or managed through precision nutritional intervention. For generally healthy populations, because lifestyles, dietary factors, genetic factors and environmental exposures vary among individuals, precision nutrition is warranted to improve their physical activity and reduce disease risks. In summary, research and practice is leading toward precision nutrition becoming an integral constituent of clinical nutrition and disease prevention in the era of precision medicine.

  10. GEOLOGIC ASPECTS OF TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe some geologic characteristics of tight gas reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs usually have an in-situ permeability to gas of 0. 1 md or less and can be classified into four general geologic and engineering categories: (1) marginal marine blanket, (2) lenticular, (3) chalk, and (4) marine blanket shallow. Microscopic study of pore/permeability relationships indicates the existence of two varieties of tight reservoirs. One variety is tight because of the fine grain size of the rock. The second variety is tight because the rock is relatively tightly cemented and the pores are poorly connected by small pore throats and capillaries.

  11. Disruptive advancement in precision lens mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Doucet, Michel; Côté, Patrice; Gauvin, Jonny; Anctil, Geneviève

    2015-09-01

    Threaded rings are used to fix lenses in a large portion of opto-mechanical assemblies. This is the case for the low cost drop-in approach in which the lenses are dropped into cavities cut into a barrel and clamped with threaded rings. The walls of a cavity are generally used to constrain the lateral and axial position of the lens within the cavity. In general, the drop-in approach is low cost but imposes fundamental limitations especially on the optical performances. On the other hand, active alignment methods provide a high level of centering accuracy but increase the cost of the optical assembly. This paper first presents a review of the most common lens mounting techniques used to secure and center lenses in optical systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each mounting technique are discussed in terms of precision and cost. Then, the different contributors which affect the centering of a lens when using the drop-in approach, such as the threaded ring, friction, and manufacturing errors, are detailed. Finally, a patent pending lens mounting technique developed at INO that alleviates the drawbacks of the drop-in and the active alignment approaches is introduced. This innovative auto-centering method requires a very low assembly time, does not need tight manufacturing tolerances and offers a very high level of centering accuracy, usually less than 5 μm. Centering test results performed on real optical assemblies are also presented.

  12. Ischemic preconditioning enhances integrity of coronary endothelial tight junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhao; Jin, Zhu-Qiu

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac tight junctions are present between coronary endothelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning preserves the structural and functional integrity of tight junctions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Myocardial edema is prevented in hearts subjected to ischemic preconditioning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ischemic preconditioning enhances translocation of ZO-2 from cytosol to cytoskeleton. -- Abstract: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is one of the most effective procedures known to protect hearts against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Tight junction (TJ) barriers occur between coronary endothelial cells. TJs provide barrier function to maintain the homeostasis of the inner environment of tissues. However, the effect of IPC on the structure and function of cardiac TJs remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that myocardial IR injury ruptures the structure of TJs and impairs endothelial permeability whereas IPC preserves the structural and functional integrity of TJs in the blood-heart barrier. Langendorff hearts from C57BL/6J mice were prepared and perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Cardiac function, creatine kinase release, and myocardial edema were measured. Cardiac TJ function was evaluated by measuring Evans blue-conjugated albumin (EBA) content in the extravascular compartment of hearts. Expression and translocation of zonula occludens (ZO)-2 in IR and IPC hearts were detected with Western blot. A subset of hearts was processed for the observation of ultra-structure of cardiac TJs with transmission electron microscopy. There were clear TJs between coronary endothelial cells of mouse hearts. IR caused the collapse of TJs whereas IPC sustained the structure of TJs. IR increased extravascular EBA content in the heart and myocardial edema but decreased the expression of ZO-2 in the cytoskeleton. IPC maintained the structure of TJs. Cardiac EBA content and edema were reduced in IPC hearts. IPC

  13. Apparatus Makes Precisely Saturated Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc L.

    1989-01-01

    Simple laboratory apparatus establishes equilibrium conditions of temperature and concentration in solutions for use in precise measurements of saturation conditions. With equipment typical measurement of saturation concentration of protein in solution established and measured within about 24 hours. Precisely saturated solution made by passing solvent or solution slowly along column packed with solute at precisely controlled temperature. If necessary, flow stopped for experimentally determined interval to allow equilibrium to be established in column.

  14. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    1987-01-13

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values. 3 figs.

  15. Consequences of a tight squeeze: Nuclear envelope rupture and repair.

    PubMed

    Isermann, Philipp; Lammerding, Jan

    2017-03-13

    Cell migration through tight spaces can induce substantial deformations of the nucleus and cause nuclear envelope (NE) rupture, resulting in uncontrolled exchange of nuclear and cytosolic proteins. These events can cause DNA damage and, in severe cases, nuclear fragmentation, challenging the integrity of the genomic material. Cells overcome NE ruptures during interphase by repairing the NE using components of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery. Paralleling the molecular mechanism employed during NE reformation in late mitosis, ESCRT-III subunits and the associated AAA-ATPase VPS4B are recruited to NE rupture sites and help restore NE integrity. While these findings are common to many cell types, they are particularly relevant in the context of cancer metastasis, where nuclear deformation and rupture could drive genomic instability in invading cells and further promote cancer progression. At the same time, inhibiting NE repair may offer new therapeutic approaches to specifically target invasive cancer cells.

  16. Tightly Coupled Multiphysics Algorithm for Pebble Bed Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    HyeongKae Park; Dana Knoll; Derek Gaston; Richard Martineau

    2010-10-01

    We have developed a tightly coupled multiphysics simulation tool for the pebble-bed reactor (PBR) concept, a type of Very High-Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR). The simulation tool, PRONGHORN, takes advantages of the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment library, and is capable of solving multidimensional thermal-fluid and neutronics problems implicitly with a Newton-based approach. Expensive Jacobian matrix formation is alleviated via the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and physics-based preconditioning is applied to minimize Krylov iterations. Motivation for the work is provided via analysis and numerical experiments on simpler multiphysics reactor models. We then provide detail of the physical models and numerical methods in PRONGHORN. Finally, PRONGHORN's algorithmic capability is demonstrated on a number of PBR test cases.

  17. Claudin-21 Has a Paracellular Channel Role at Tight Junctions.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroo; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Kashihara, Hiroka; Yamazaki, Yuji; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Takeuchi, Kosei; Tamura, Atsushi; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2016-01-04

    Claudin protein family members, of which there are at least 27 in humans and mice, polymerize to form tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells, in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner. Claudins have a paracellular barrier function. In addition, certain claudins function as paracellular channels for small ions and/or solutes by forming selective pores at the TJs, although the specific claudins involved and their functional mechanisms are still in question. Here we show for the first time that claudin-21, which is more highly expressed in the embryonic than the postnatal stages, acts as a paracellular channel for small cations, such as Na(+), similar to the typical channel-type claudins claudin-2 and -15. Claudin-21 also allows the paracellular passage of larger solutes. Our findings suggest that claudin-21-based TJs allow the passage of small and larger solutes by both paracellular channel-based and some additional mechanisms.

  18. Tight-binding approach to penta-graphene

    PubMed Central

    Stauber, T.; Beltrán, J. I.; Schliemann, J.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an effective tight-binding model to discuss penta-graphene and present an analytical solution. This model only involves the π-orbitals of the sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and reproduces the two highest valence bands. By introducing energy-dependent hopping elements, originating from the elimination of the sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, also the two lowest conduction bands can be well approximated - but only after the inclusion of a Hubbard onsite interaction as well as of assisted hopping terms. The eigenfunctions can be approximated analytically for the effective model without energy-dependent hopping elements and the optical absorption is discussed. We find large isotropic absorption ranging from 7.5% up to 24% for transitions at the Γ-point. PMID:26940279

  19. Endocytosis and Recycling of Tight Junction Proteins in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Utech, Markus; Mennigen, Rudolf; Bruewer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A critical function of the epithelial lining is to form a barrier that separates luminal contents from the underlying interstitium. This barrier function is primarily regulated by the apical junctional complex (AJC) consisting of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) and is compromised under inflammatory conditions. In intestinal epithelial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, for example, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), induce internalization of TJ proteins by endocytosis. Endocytosed TJ proteins are passed into early and recycling endosomes, suggesting the involvement of recycling of internalized TJ proteins. This review summarizes mechanisms by which TJ proteins under inflammatory conditions are internalized in intestinal epithelial cells and point out comparable mechanism in nonintestinal epithelial cells. PMID:20011071

  20. Exploiting Ultra Tight-Binding Ligands for Separations Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, Daryle; Givens, Richard S.; Zuo, Xiaobin; Zhang, Chi; Mosha, Donnati; Lee, Jong0Ill; Bushan, K. Mani; Hassan, Mansour M.; Loving, Galen

    2003-09-10

    The classic slowness that has kept the most powerful ligands from being used in separations applications is under attack in two ways: (1) replacing metal ion - ligand equilibration with switch binding and release as the mode of complexation. By exploiting the tight-binding capabilities of cryptands, the capture of selected metal ions isolates them from their environment. These cryptands are constructed with photoactivatable functions that sever the cryptand, releasing encapsulated metal ions. The precursors have been modified to capture the metal ion concomitant with crytate formation. (2) developing a methodology (the soil poultice) so slow that powerful ligands can be used. A solution containing the specially designed ligand is mixed with a solid macroporous imprinted polymer (MIPs) and applied to the contaminated area. The ligand captures the metal ion and the MIPs captures the resulting complex. Current studies focus on combinations of MIPs-complex interactions to optimize strength of binding and selectivity.

  1. Methods and apparatus for measuring the tightness of enclosures

    DOEpatents

    Modera, Mark P.; Sherman, Max H.

    1987-01-13

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for measuring tightness of an enclosure such as a building by utilizing alternating pressurization techniques. One method comprises providing apparatus capable of causing an internal volume change for the enclosure, the apparatus including a means for determining the instantaneous volume change, and a means for determining the instantaneous pressure within the enclosure. The apparatus is operated within the enclosure to change the volume thereof, and at least one of the frequency and the displacement is adjusted to achieve a root mean square pressure in the enclosure approximately equal to a reference pressure. At that pressure, the leakage of the enclosure is determined from the instantaneous displacement and instantaneous pressure values.

  2. Trends in drug delivery through tissue barriers containing tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Tscheik, Christian; Blasig, Ingolf E.; Winkler, Lars

    2013-01-01

    A limitation in the uptake of many drugs is the restricted permeation through tissue barriers. There are two general ways to cross barriers formed by cell layers: by transcytosis or by diffusion through the intercellular space. In the latter, tight junctions (TJs) play the decisive role in the regulation of the barrier permeability. Thus, transient modulation of TJs is a potent strategy to improve drug delivery. There have been extensive studies on surfactant-like absorption enhancers. One of the most effective enhancers found is sodium caprate. However, this modulates TJs in an unspecific fashion. A novel approach would be the specific modulation of TJ-associated marvel proteins and claudins, which are the main structural components of the TJs. Recent studies have identified synthetic peptidomimetics and RNA interference techniques to downregulate the expression of targeted TJ proteins. This review summarizes current progress and discusses the impact on TJs' barrier function. PMID:24665392

  3. Qutrit Magic State Distillation Tight in Some Directions.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Hillary; Howard, Mark

    2015-07-17

    Magic state distillation is a crucial component in the leading approaches to implementing universal fault-tolerant quantum computation, with existing protocols for both qubit and higher dimensional systems. Early work focused on determining the region of distillable states for qubit protocols; yet comparatively little is known about which states can be distilled and with what distillable region for d>2. Here we focus on d=3 and present new four-qutrit distillation schemes that improve upon the known distillable region, and achieve distillation tight to the boundary of undistillable states for some classes of state. As a consequence of recent results, this implies that there is a family of quantum states that enable universality if and only if they exhibit contextuality with respect to stabilizer measurements. We also identify a new routine whose fixed point is a magic state with maximal sum negativity; i.e., it is maximally nonstablizer in a specific sense.

  4. S0 Tight Loop Studies on ICHIRO 9-Cell Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Fumio; Konomi, T.; Saito, Kenji; Bice, Damon; Crawford, Anthony C.; Geng, Rongli

    2009-11-01

    We have continued high gradient R&D of ICHIRO 9-cell cavities at KEK. ICHIRO 9-cell cavity #5 (I9#5) that has no end groups on beam tube to focus on high gradient sent to Jlab as S0 tight loop study. Surface treatments and vertical test were repeated 3 times at Jlab, and then I9#5 sent back to KEK. We also repeated surface treatments and test at KEK. Maximum gradients were 36.5MV/m at Jlab, and 33.7MV/m at KEK so far. Now we are struggling with the puzzle why the results of singles do not work well on 9-cell cavities.

  5. Electron acceleration by a tightly focused cylindrical vector Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Yang, Zhen-Jun; Li, Jian-Xing; Zang, Wei-Ping

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the electron acceleration by a tightly focused cylindrical vector Gaussian beam. Different from the Lax series field, cylindrical vector Gaussian beams are vector-beam solutions of Maxwell’s equations and its focusing property can be numerically analyzed by the Richards-Wolf vectorial diffraction theory. Field differences exist between the cylindrical vector Gaussian beam and the Lax series field. The cylindrical vector Gaussian beam increases the asymmetry of the electromagnetic fields, which is more beneficial to the electron acceleration. When the beam waist falls down to the order of the wavelength, the high laser intensity zone is more proper to define the reflection, capture and transmission conditions of the electrons. The injection energy and the injected angle of the electron and the initial phase of the laser beam play important roles for the electron to enter and be trapped by the high laser intensity zone.

  6. Multiporosity Flow of Gases in Tight Shale Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Heath, J. E.; Gardner, P.; Robinson, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Flow and transport in low-permeability fractured systems is important in both groundwater applications and low-permeability hydrocarbon systems. We have adapted the multirate solute transport model to the flow of single-phase natural tracers in low-permeability hydrocarbon source rocks, termed the multiporosity model. We illustrate the ability of the multiporosity model to generalize double-porosity models, of both the pseudo-steady (e.g., Warren and Root) and transient (Kazemi) interporosity flow types. We use the model to explore both production (pressure and flowrate) and compositional data obtained from tight gas shale formations using a Baeysian uncertainty quantification approach.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Transport in tight-binding bond percolation models.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, Daniel; Khodja, Abdellah; Gemmer, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    Most of the investigations to date on tight-binding, quantum percolation models focused on the quantum percolation threshold, i.e., the analog to the Anderson transition. It appears to occur if roughly 30% of the hopping terms are actually present. Thus, models in the delocalized regime may still be substantially disordered, hence analyzing their transport properties is a nontrivial task which we pursue in the paper at hand. Using a method based on quantum typicality to numerically perform linear response theory we find that conductivity and mean free paths are in good accord with results from very simple heuristic considerations. Furthermore we find that depending on the percentage of actually present hopping terms, the transport properties may or may not be described by a Drude model. An investigation of the Einstein relation is also presented.

  8. Many-body tight-binding model for aluminum nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Staszewska, Grazyna; Staszewski, Przemyslaw; Schultz, Nathan E.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2005-01-15

    A new, parametrized many-body tight-binding model is proposed for calculating the potential energy surface for aluminum nanoparticles. The parameters have been fitted to reproduce the energies for a variety of aluminum clusters (Al{sub 2}, Al{sub 3}, Al{sub 4}, Al{sub 7}, Al{sub 13}) calculated recently by the PBE0/MG3 method as well as the experimental face-centered-cubic cohesive energy, lattice constant, and a small set of Al cluster ionization potentials. Several types of parametrization are presented and compared. The mean unsigned error per atom for the best model is less than 0.03 eV.

  9. Scattering and transport properties of tight-binding random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Mendoza, A. J.; Alcazar-López, A.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    We study numerically scattering and transport statistical properties of tight-binding random networks characterized by the number of nodes N and the average connectivity α. We use a scattering approach to electronic transport and concentrate on the case of a small number of single-channel attached leads. We observe a smooth crossover from insulating to metallic behavior in the average scattering matrix elements <|Smn|2>, the conductance probability distribution w(T), the average conductance , the shot noise power P, and the elastic enhancement factor F by varying α from small (α→0) to large (α→1) values. We also show that all these quantities are invariant for fixed ξ=αN. Moreover, we proposes a heuristic and universal relation between <|Smn|2>, , and P and the disorder parameter ξ.

  10. Blood-brain barrier tight junction permeability and ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Karin E; Witt, Ken A

    2008-11-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the endothelial cells of cerebral microvessels, providing a dynamic interface between the peripheral circulation and the central nervous system. The tight junctions (TJs) between the endothelial cells serve to restrict blood-borne substances from entering the brain. Under ischemic stroke conditions decreased BBB TJ integrity results in increased paracellular permeability, directly contributing to cerebral vasogenic edema, hemorrhagic transformation, and increased mortality. This loss of TJ integrity occurs in a phasic manner, which is contingent on several interdependent mechanisms (ionic dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, enzymatic activity, and angiogenesis). Understanding the inter-relation of these mechanisms is critical for the development of new therapies. This review focuses on those aspects of ischemic stroke impacting BBB TJ integrity and the principle regulatory pathways, respective to the phases of paracellular permeability.

  11. Propagation equation for tight-focusing by a parabolic mirror.

    PubMed

    Couairon, A; Kosareva, O G; Panov, N A; Shipilo, D E; Andreeva, V A; Jukna, V; Nesa, F

    2015-11-30

    Part of the chain in petawatt laser systems may involve extreme focusing conditions for which nonparaxial and vectorial effects have high impact on the propagation of radiation. We investigate the possibility of using propagation equations to simulate numerically the focal spot under these conditions. We derive a unidirectional propagation equation for the Hertz vector, describing linear and nonlinear propagation under situations where nonparaxial diffraction and vectorial effects become significant. By comparing our simulations to the results of vector diffraction integrals in the case of linear tight-focusing by a parabolic mirror, we establish a practical criterion for the critical f -number below which initializing a propagation equation with a parabolic input phase becomes inaccurate. We propose a method to find suitable input conditions for propagation equations beyond this limit. Extreme focusing conditions are shown to be modeled accurately by means of numerical simulations of the unidirectional Hertz-vector propagation equation initialized with suitable input conditions.

  12. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-02-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry`s practice of maintaining crude stocks at ``Just in time`` inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers` information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996.

  13. Effective Hamiltonians for fastly driven tight-binding chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itin, A. P.; Neishtadt, A. I.

    2014-02-01

    We consider a single particle tunnelling in a tight-binding model with nearest-neighbour couplings, in the presence of a periodic high-frequency force. An effective Hamiltonian for the particle is derived using an averaging method resembling classical canonical perturbation theory. Three cases are considered: uniform lattice with periodic and open boundary conditions, and lattice with a parabolic potential. We find that in the latter case, interplay of the potential and driving leads to appearance of the effective next-nearest neighbour couplings. In the uniform case with periodic boundary conditions the second- and third-order corrections to the averaged Hamiltonian are completely absent, while in the case with open boundary conditions they have a very simple form, found before in some particular cases by S. Longhi (2008) [10]. These general results may found applications in designing effective Hamiltonian models in experiments with ultracold atoms in optical lattices, e.g. for simulating solid-state phenomena.

  14. Experiments on Exhaust Noise of Tightly Integrated Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Brown, Clifford A.; Bozak, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    A wide-ranging series of tests have been completed that seek to map the effects of installation, including jet by jet interaction effects, on exhaust noise from various nozzles in forward flight. The primary data was far-field acoustic spectral directivity. The goals of the test series were (i) to generate enough data for empirical models of the different effects, and (ii) to provide data for advanced computational noise predictions methods applied to simplified yet realistic configurations. Data is presented that demonstrate several checks on data quality and that provide an overview of trends observed to date. Among the findings presented here: (i) Data was repeatable between jet rigs for single nozzles with and without surfaces to within +/- 0.5 dB. (ii) The presence of a second jet caused a strong reduction of the summed noise in the plane of the two plumes and an increase over the expected source doubling in most other azimuthal planes. (iii) The impact of the second jet was reduced when the jets were unheated. (iv) The impact of adding a second isolated rectangular jet was relatively independent of the nozzle aspect ratio up to aspect ratio 8:1. (v) Forward flight had similar impact on a high aspect ratio (8:1) jet as on an axisymmetric jet, except at the peak noise angle where the impact was less. (vi) The effect of adding a second round jet to a tightly integrated nozzle where the nozzle lip was less than a diameter from the surface was very dependent upon the length of the surface downstream of the nozzle. (vii) When the nozzles were rectangular and tightly integrated with the airframe surface the impact of a second jet was very dependent upon how close together the two jets were. This paper serves as an overview of the test; other papers presented in the same conference will give more detailed analysis of the results.

  15. Centroid precision and orientation precision of planar localization microscopy.

    PubMed

    McGray, C; Copeland, C R; Stavis, S M; Geist, J

    2016-09-01

    The concept of localization precision, which is essential to localization microscopy, is formally extended from optical point sources to microscopic rigid bodies. Measurement functions are presented to calculate the planar pose and motion of microscopic rigid bodies from localization microscopy data. Physical lower bounds on the associated uncertainties - termed centroid precision and orientation precision - are derived analytically in terms of the characteristics of the optical measurement system and validated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations. The practical utility of these expressions is demonstrated experimentally by an analysis of the motion of a microelectromechanical goniometer indicated by a sparse constellation of fluorescent nanoparticles. Centroid precision and orientation precision, as developed here, are useful concepts due to the generality of the expressions and the widespread interest in localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and particle tracking.

  16. More Questions on Precision Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Precision teaching can accelerate basic skills progress of special needs children. Issues discussed include using probes as performance tests, charting daily progress, using the charted data to modify teaching methods, determining appropriate age levels, assessing the number of students to be precision taught, and carefully allocating time. (JDD)

  17. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exercise.

    PubMed

    Dokladny, Karol; Zuhl, Micah N; Moseley, Pope L

    2016-03-15

    A single layer of enterocytes and tight junctions (intercellular multiprotein complexes) form the intestinal epithelial barrier that controls transport of molecules through transcellular and paracellular pathways. A dysfunctional or "leaky" intestinal tight junction barrier allows augmented permeation of luminal antigens, endotoxins, and bacteria into the blood stream. Various substances and conditions have been shown to affect the maintenance of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. The primary focus of the present review is to analyze the effects of exertional or nonexertional (passive hyperthermia) heat stress on tight junction barrier function in in vitro and in vivo (animals and humans) models. Our secondary focus is to review changes in tight junction proteins in response to exercise or hyperthermic conditions. Finally, we discuss some pharmacological or nutritional interventions that may affect the cellular mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier during heat stress or exercise.

  18. Intestinal epithelial barrier function and tight junction proteins with heat and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Zuhl, Micah N.; Moseley, Pope L.

    2015-01-01

    A single layer of enterocytes and tight junctions (intercellular multiprotein complexes) form the intestinal epithelial barrier that controls transport of molecules through transcellular and paracellular pathways. A dysfunctional or “leaky” intestinal tight junction barrier allows augmented permeation of luminal antigens, endotoxins, and bacteria into the blood stream. Various substances and conditions have been shown to affect the maintenance of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier. The primary focus of the present review is to analyze the effects of exertional or nonexertional (passive hyperthermia) heat stress on tight junction barrier function in in vitro and in vivo (animals and humans) models. Our secondary focus is to review changes in tight junction proteins in response to exercise or hyperthermic conditions. Finally, we discuss some pharmacological or nutritional interventions that may affect the cellular mechanisms involved in maintaining homeostasis of the intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier during heat stress or exercise. PMID:26359485

  19. The effects of different quantum feedback types on the tightness of the variance-based uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiao; Zhang, Guo-Feng

    2017-03-01

    The effect of the quantum feedback on the tightness of the variance-based uncertainty, the possibility of using quantum feedback to prepare the state with a better tightness, and the relationship between the tightness of the uncertainty and the mixedness of the system are studied. It is found that the tightness of Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty (SUR) relation has a strict liner relationship with the mixedness of the system. As for the Robertson uncertainty relation (RUR), we find that the tightness can be enhanced by tuning the feedback at the beginning of the evolution. In addition, we deduce that the tightness of RUR has an inverse relationship with the mixedness and the relationship turns into a strict linear one when the system reach the steady state.

  20. Precision optical navigation guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubov, D.; McCormick, K.; Nolan, P.; Johnson, D.; Dellosa, M.; Volfson, L.; Fallahpour, A.; Willner, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the new precision optical navigation guidance system approach that provides continuous, high quality range and bearing data to fixed wing aircraft during landing approach to an aircraft carrier. The system uses infrared optical communications to measure range between ship and aircraft with accuracy and precision better than 1 meter at ranges more than 7.5 km. The innovative receiver design measures bearing from aircraft to ship with accuracy and precision better than 0.5 mRad. The system provides real-time range and bearing updates to multiple aircraft at rates up to several kHz, and duplex data transmission between ship and aircraft.

  1. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: tight linkage to chromosome 2q.

    PubMed Central

    Fink, J. K.; Rainer, S.; Wilkowski, J.; Jones, S. M.; Kume, A.; Hedera, P.; Albin, R.; Mathay, J.; Girbach, L.; Varvil, T.; Otterud, B.; Leppert, M.

    1996-01-01

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is characterized by attacks of involuntary movements that last up to several hours and occur at rest both spontaneously and following caffeine or alcohol consumption. We analyzed a Polish-American kindred with autosomal dominant PDC and identified tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 2q (maximum two-point LOD score 4.77; recombination fraction 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant PDC on distal chromosome 2q. The fact that three other paroxysmal neurological disorders (periodic ataxia with myokymia and hypo- and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) are due to mutation in ion-channel genes raises the possibility that PDC is also due to an ion-channel gene mutation. It is noteworthy that a cluster of sodium-channel genes is located on distal chromosome 2q, near the PDC locus. Identifying the PDC locus on chromosome 2q will facilitate discovery of the PDC gene and enable investigators to determine whether PDC is genetically homogeneous and whether other paroxysmal movement disorders are also genetically linked to the PDC locus. PMID:8659518

  2. Tight-binding model for materials at mesoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Yuan-Yen; Choi, Hongchul; Zhu, Wei; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2016-12-21

    TBM3 is an open source package for computational simulations of quantum materials at multiple scales in length and time. The project originated to investigate the multiferroic behavior in transition-metal oxide heterostructures. The framework has also been designed to study emergent phemona in other quantum materials like 2-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, graphene, topological insulators, and skyrmion in materials, etc. In the long term, we will enable the package for transport and time-resolved phenomena. TBM3 is currently a C++ based numerical tool package and framework for the design and construction of any kind of lattice structures with multi-orbital and spin degrees of freedom. The fortran based portion of the package will be added in the near future. The design of TBM3 is in a highly flexible and reusable framework and the tight-binding parameters can be modeled or informed by DFT calculations. It is currently GPU enabled and feature of CPU enabled MPI will be added in the future.

  3. Prediction of Gas Leak Tightness of Superplastically Formed Products

    SciTech Connect

    Snippe, Corijn H. C.; Meinders, T.

    2010-06-15

    In some applications, in this case an aluminium box in a subatomic particle detector containing highly sensitive detecting devices, it is important that a formed sheet should show no gas leak from one side to the other. In order to prevent a trial-and-error procedure to make this leak tight box, a method is set up to predict if a formed sheet conforms to the maximum leak constraint. The technique of superplastic forming (SPF) is used in order to attain very high plastic strains before failure. Since only a few of these boxes are needed, this makes, this generally slow, process an attractive production method. To predict the gas leak of a superplastically formed aluminium sheet in an accurate way, finite element simulations are used in combination with a user-defined material model. This constitutive model couples the leak rate with the void volume fraction. This void volume fraction is then dependent on both the equivalent plastic strain and the applied hydrostatic pressure during the bulge process (backpressure).

  4. Symmetry-Based Tight Binding Modeling of Halide Perovskite Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Boyer-Richard, Soline; Katan, Claudine; Traoré, Boubacar; Scholz, Reinhard; Jancu, Jean-Marc; Even, Jacky

    2016-10-06

    On the basis of a general symmetry analysis, this paper presents an empirical tight-binding (TB) model for the reference Pm-3m perovskite cubic phase of halide perovskites of general formula ABX3. The TB electronic band diagram, with and without spin orbit coupling effect of MAPbI3 has been determined based on state of the art density functional theory results including many body corrections (DFT+GW). It affords access to various properties, including distorted structures, at a significantly reduced computational cost. This is illustrated with the calculation of the band-to-band absorption spectrum, the variation of the band gap under volumetric strain, as well as the Rashba effect for a uniaxial symmetry breaking. Compared to DFT approaches, this empirical model will help to tackle larger issues, such as the electronic band structure of large nanostructures, including many-body effects, or heterostructures relevant to perovskite device modeling suited to the description of atomic-scale features.

  5. Distribution of Tight Junction Proteins in Adult Human Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Ola M.; Kim, Jung-Wan Martin; Gerstenhaber, Jonathan A.; Baum, Bruce J.; Tran, Simon D.

    2008-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are an essential structure of fluid-secreting cells, such as those in salivary glands. Three major families of integral membrane proteins have been identified as components of the TJ: claudins, occludin, and junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), plus the cytosolic protein zonula occludens (ZO). We have been working to develop an orally implantable artificial salivary gland that would be suitable for treating patients lacking salivary parenchymal tissue. To date, little is known about the distribution of TJ proteins in adult human salivary cells and thus what key molecular components might be desirable for the cellular component of an artificial salivary gland device. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of TJ proteins in human salivary glands. Salivary gland samples were obtained from 10 patients. Frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained using IHC methods. Claudin-1 was expressed in ductal, endothelial, and ∼25% of serous cells. Claudins-2, -3, and -4 and JAM-A were expressed in both ductal and acinar cells, whereas claudin-5 was expressed only in endothelial cells. Occludin and ZO-1 were expressed in acinar, ductal, and endothelial cells. These results provide new information on TJ proteins in two major human salivary glands and should serve as a reference for future studies to assess the presence of appropriate TJ proteins in a tissue-engineered human salivary gland. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:1093–1098, 2008) PMID:18765838

  6. Tight Junction Proteins in Human Schwann Cell Autotypic Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Alanne, Maria H.; Pummi, Kati; Heape, Anthony M.; Grènman, Reidar; Peltonen, Juha; Peltonen, Sirkku

    2009-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) form physical barriers in various tissues and regulate paracellular transport of ions, water, and molecules. Myelinating Schwann cells form highly organized structures, including compact myelin, nodes of Ranvier, paranodal regions, Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, periaxonal cytoplasmic collars, and mesaxons. Autotypic TJs are formed in non-compacted myelin compartments between adjacent membrane lamellae of the same Schwann cell. Using indirect immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, we analyzed the expression of adherens junction (E-cadherin) and TJ [claudins, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin] components in human peripheral nerve endoneurium, showing clear differences with published rodent profiles. Adult nerve paranodal regions contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, and ZO-1. Schmidt-Lanterman incisures contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, claudin-5, ZO-1, and occludin. Mesaxons contained E-cadherin, claudin-1, claudin-2, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin. None of the proteins studied were associated with nodal inter-Schwann cell junctions. Fetal nerve expression of claudin-1, claudin-3, ZO-1, and occludin was predominantly punctate, with a mesaxonal labeling pattern, but paranodal (ZO-1, claudin-3) and Schmidt-Lanterman incisure (claudins-1 and -3) expression profiles typical of compact myelin were visible by gestational week 37. The clear differences observed between human and published rodent nerve profiles emphasize the importance of human studies when translating the results of animal models to human diseases. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:523–529, 2009) PMID:19153196

  7. Characterization of Tight Junction Proteins in Cultured Human Urothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rickard, Alice; Dorokhov, Nikolay; Ryerse, Jan; Klumpp, David J.; McHowat, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are essential for normal function of epithelia, restricting paracellular diffusion and contributing to the maintainance of cell surface polarity. Superficial cells of the urothelium develop TJs, the basis for the paracellular permeability barrier of the bladder against diffusion of urinary solutes. Focusing on the superficial cell layer of stratified cell cultures of an immortalized human ureteral cell line, TEU-2 cells, we have examined the presence of TJ and TJ-associated proteins. TEU-2 cells were treated with calcium chloride and fetal bovine serum culture conditions used to induce stratification that resembles the normal transitional epithelial phenotype. Cultures were examined for TJ and TJ-associated proteins by confocal immuno-fluorescence microscopy and evaluated for TJ mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR). TEU-2 cultures exhibited immunoreactivity at intercellular margins for claudins 1, 4, 5, 7, 14 and 16 whereas claudins 2, 8 and 12 were intracellular. RT-PCR corroborated the presence of these claudins at the mRNA level. The TJ-associated proteins occludin, JAM-1, and zonula occludens (ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3) were localized at cell margins. We have found that numerous TJs and TJ-associated proteins are expressed in stratified TEU-2 cultures. Further, we propose TEU-2s provide a useful ureteral model for future studies on the involvement of TJs proteins in the normal and pathological physiology of the human urinary system. PMID:18553212

  8. Emerging Multifunctional Roles of Claudin Tight Junction Proteins in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Alshbool, Fatima. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The imbalance between bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling has been documented to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Recent evidence suggests a significant role for the tight junction proteins, Claudins (Cldns), in the regulation of bone remodeling processes. In terms of function, whereas Cldns act “canonically” as key determinants of paracellular permeability, there is considerable recent evidence to suggest that Cldns also participate in cell signaling, ie, a “noncanonical function”. To this end, Cldns have been shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression in a variety of cell types. The present review will discuss Cldns' structure, their expression profile, regulation of expression, and their canonical and non- canonical functions in general with special emphasis on bone cells. In order to shed light on the noncanonical functions of Cldns in bone, we will highlight the role of Cldn-18 in regulating bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, we hope to provide a framework for guiding future research on understanding how Cldns modulate osteoblast and osteoclast function and overall bone homeostasis. Such studies should provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and may highlight Cldns as novel targets for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of osteoporosis. PMID:24758302

  9. Emerging multifunctional roles of Claudin tight junction proteins in bone.

    PubMed

    Alshbool, Fatima Z; Mohan, Subburaman

    2014-07-01

    The imbalance between bone formation and resorption during bone remodeling has been documented to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Recent evidence suggests a significant role for the tight junction proteins, Claudins (Cldns), in the regulation of bone remodeling processes. In terms of function, whereas Cldns act "canonically" as key determinants of paracellular permeability, there is considerable recent evidence to suggest that Cldns also participate in cell signaling, ie, a "noncanonical function". To this end, Cldns have been shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression in a variety of cell types. The present review will discuss Cldns' structure, their expression profile, regulation of expression, and their canonical and non- canonical functions in general with special emphasis on bone cells. In order to shed light on the noncanonical functions of Cldns in bone, we will highlight the role of Cldn-18 in regulating bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation. Collectively, we hope to provide a framework for guiding future research on understanding how Cldns modulate osteoblast and osteoclast function and overall bone homeostasis. Such studies should provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, and may highlight Cldns as novel targets for the diagnosis and therapeutic management of osteoporosis.

  10. Service company alliance reduces tight sands frac costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, J.L. ); Stuchly, S.G. )

    1994-08-15

    Smaller, multiple-stage fracture treatments, worked out by an alliance between a producing and a service company, were a significant element in reducing costs for fracturing Carthage Cotton Valley infill wells in Panola County, Texas. Pennzoil's infill drilling program takes advantage of the Texas Railroad Commission's (RRC) ruling that allows optional 80-acre well spacing in this tight gas-sand reservoir. Pennzoil spudded 29 wells between September 1992 and December 1993 and expects to spud 20 more in 1994. The Pennzoil-Halliburton alliance began in September 1992 for the purpose of drilling and completing Cotton Valley infill wells through 1993. The two companies share the cost of new technology development, with Pennzoil providing the rig times to test Halliburton technology. To date, the alliance has experimented with an elastic strain relaxation, a six-arm extensometer, and a water-recovery surfactant. Some of the features of the alliance are: Halliburton guarantees the availability of crews and equipment to meet Pennzoil's drilling and completion schedule; Halliburton technical advisor studies existing wells to find candidates for workover or refracture; the technical advisor analyzes, plants, and evaluates the ongoing program; and the alliance is not rigidly structured, and other service companies perform part of the work. Both parties have benefited financially from the alliance and well performance has met or exceeded expectations. The alliance has enabled Pennzoil to stay on a rigid and aggressive drilling schedule and through efforts of the alliance, fracture orientation has been confirmed.

  11. Proteins tightly bound to DNA: new data and old problems.

    PubMed

    Sjakste, N; Bagdoniene, L; Gutcaits, A; Labeikyte, D; Bielskiene, K; Trapiņa, I; Muižnieks, I; Vassetzky, Y; Sjakste, T

    2010-10-01

    Proteins tightly bound to DNA (TBP) comprise a group of proteins that remain bound to DNA after usual deproteinization procedures such as salting out and treatment with phenol or chloroform. TBP bind to DNA by covalent phosphotriester and noncovalent ionic and hydrogen bonds. Some TBP are conservative, and they are usually covalently bound to DNA. However, the TBP composition is very diverse and significantly different in different tissues and in different organisms. TBP include transcription factors, enzymes of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, phosphatases, protein kinases, serpins, and proteins of retrotransposons. Their distribution within the genome is nonrandom. However, the DNA primary structure or DNA curvatures do not define the affinity of TBP to DNA. But there are repetitive DNA sequences with which TBP interact more often. The TBP distribution within genes and chromosomes depends on a cell's physiological state, differentiation type, and stage of organism development. TBP do not interact with DNA in the sites of its association with nuclear matrix and most likely they are not components of the latter.

  12. Diagnosing the tight building syndrome or diagnosing chemical hypersensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, S.A. )

    1989-01-01

    The abrupt exposure to urea foam formaldehyde insulation served as an alert to its spectrum of symptoms, including attacks of headache, flushing, laryngitis, dizziness, nausea, extreme weakness or exhaustion, arthralgia, an inability to concentrate, unwarranted depression, arrhythmia, or muscle spasms, and baffled physicians from many specialties. Later it was learned that toluene, xylene, benzene, natural gas, trichloroethylene, and many other chemicals were also capable of triggering chemical hypersensitivity. Other names for this condition include Environmentally Induced Illness (EI), the Tight Building Syndrome (TBS), the Sick Building Syndrome, and Building-Related Illness. The very symptoms patients complain of can be provoked within minutes and then subsequently alleviated with an intradermal injection of the appropriate strength of the triggering chemical. This technique aids in convincing the patient of the EI or TBS triggers so that the patient can begin to relate symptoms to environmental exposures and initiate measure to bring the disease under control. The key to safer buildings is increased ventilation, increased filtration of air, and decreased use of off-gassing synthetic materials.

  13. Tight-binding Hamiltonian for LaFeAsO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.; Mehl, Michael; Johannes, Michelle; Parker, David

    2010-03-01

    We construct a realistic tight-binding Hamiltonian (TB) fitted to first-principles band structure calculations of the pnictide parent compound LaFeAsO. We have come to the conclusion that most previously derived (TB) Hamiltonians poorly reproduce the first-principles results. Here we use the NRL-TB method to fit our LAPW results as a function of volume and As displacement. The TB basis includes the Fe d, As p, and O p-orbitals. We omit the La d-orbitals, which only contribute to states well above the Fermi level. We find a TB band structure that fits an LAPW range of energies with a width of 3.5 eV. The bands near the Fermi level fit the LAPW results very well, reproducing the Fermi surface near γ and M. The TB densities of states agree with first-principles results. We also study the variation of the total energy with respect to the position of the As atoms. We find that the TB total energies fit the LAPW values very well even for structures not included in our fit. We use our accurate hopping parameters to uncover the origin of the so far unexplained pseudogap near the Fermi energy and explore the evolution of this gap with magnetism.

  14. Analytical approach to atomic multichannel collisions in tight harmonic waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heß, Benjamin; Giannakeas, Panagiotis; Schmelcher, Peter

    2015-08-01

    We perform an analytical investigation in the framework of generalized K -matrix theory of the scattering problem in tight isotropic and harmonic waveguides allowing for several open scattering channels. The scattering behavior is explored for identical bosons and fermions, as well as for distinguishable particles, the main aspect being the confinement-induced resonances (CIR) which are attributed to different partial waves. In particular, we present the unitarity bounds which emerge when considering a quasi-one-dimensional system. Unitarity bounds are also given for the transition coefficients, which show the limitations for efficient transversal (de)excitations by means of CIRs. We analyze the CIR for d waves and find the intriguing phenomenon of a strong transmission suppression in the presence of more than one open channel, which represents an interesting regime to be applied in the corresponding many-particle systems. The corresponding channel threshold singularities are studied and it is shown that these are solely determined by the symmetry class of the partial wave.

  15. US Geological Survey publications on western tight gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupa, M.P.; Spencer, C.W.

    1989-02-01

    This bibliography includes reports published from 1977 through August 1988. In 1977 the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy's, (DOE), Western Gas Sands Research program, initiated a geological program to identify and characterize natural gas resources in low-permeability (tight) reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs are present at depths of less than 2,000 ft (610 m) to greater than 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Only published reports readily available to the public are included in this report. Where appropriate, USGS researchers have incorporated administrative report information into later published studies. These studies cover a broad range of research from basic research on gas origin and migration to applied studies of production potential of reservoirs in individual wells. The early research included construction of regional well-log cross sections. These sections provide a basic stratigraphic framework for individual areas and basins. Most of these sections include drill-stem test and other well-test data so that the gas-bearing reservoirs can be seen in vertical and areal dimensions. For the convenience of the reader, the publications listed in this report have been indexed by general categories of (1) authors, (2) states, (3) geologic basins, (4) cross sections, (5) maps (6) studies of gas origin and migration, (7) reservoir or mineralogic studies, and (8) other reports of a regional or specific topical nature.

  16. Sparse representation utilizing tight frame for phase retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Baoshun; Lian, Qiusheng; Chen, Shuzhen

    2015-12-01

    We treat the phase retrieval (PR) problem of reconstructing the interest signal from its Fourier magnitude. Since the Fourier phase information is lost, the problem is ill-posed. Several techniques have been used to address this problem by utilizing various priors such as non-negative, support, and Fourier magnitude constraints. Recent methods exploiting sparsity are developed to improve the reconstruction quality. However, the previous algorithms of utilizing sparsity prior suffer from either the low reconstruction quality at low oversampled factors or being sensitive to noise. To address these issues, we propose a framework that exploits sparsity of the signal in the translation invariant Haar pyramid (TIHP) tight frame. Based on this sparsity prior, we formulate the sparse representation regularization term and incorporate it into the PR optimization problem. We propose the alternating iterative algorithm for solving the corresponding non-convex problem by dividing the problem into several subproblems. We give the optimal solution to each subproblem, and experimental simulations under the noise-free and noisy scenario indicate that our proposed algorithm can obtain a better reconstruction quality compared to the conventional alternative projection methods, even outperform the recent sparsity-based algorithms in terms of reconstruction quality.

  17. Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis: Tight linkage to chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Rainier, S.; Wilkowski, J.; Jones, S.M.

    1996-07-01

    Paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC) is characterized by attacks of involuntary movements that last up to several hours and occur at rest both spontaneously and following caffeine or alcohol consumption. We analyzed a Polish-American kindred with autosomal dominant PDC and identified tight linkage between the disorder and microsatellite markers on chromosome 2q (maximum two-point LOD score 4.77; recombination fraction 0). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant PDC on distal chromosome 2q. The fact that three other paroxysmal neurological disorders (periodic ataxia with myokymia and hypo- and hyperkalemic periodic paralysis) are due to mutation in ion-channel genes raises the possibility that PDC is also due to an ion-channel gene mutation. It is noteworthy that a cluster of sodium-channel genes is located on distal chromosome 2q, near the PDC locus. Identifying the PDC locus on chromosome 2q will facilitate discovery whether PDC is genetically homogeneous and whether other paroxysmal movement disorders are also genetically linked to the PDC locus. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Nanoscale capacitance: A quantum tight-binding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Feng; Wu, Jian; Li, Yang; Lu, Jun-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Landauer-Buttiker formalism with the assumption of semi-infinite electrodes as reservoirs has been the standard approach in modeling steady electron transport through nanoscale devices. However, modeling dynamic electron transport properties, especially nanoscale capacitance, is a challenging problem because of dynamic contributions from electrodes, which is neglectable in modeling macroscopic capacitance and mesoscopic conductance. We implement a self-consistent quantum tight-binding model to calculate capacitance of a nano-gap system consisting of an electrode capacitance C‧ and an effective capacitance Cd of the middle device. From the calculations on a nano-gap made of carbon nanotube with a buckyball therein, we show that when the electrode length increases, the electrode capacitance C‧ moves up while the effective capacitance Cd converges to a value which is much smaller than the electrode capacitance C‧. Our results reveal the importance of electrodes in modeling nanoscale ac circuits, and indicate that the concepts of semi-infinite electrodes and reservoirs well-accepted in the steady electron transport theory may be not applicable in modeling dynamic transport properties.

  19. A tight-binding study of single-atom transistors.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hoon; Lee, Sunhee; Fuechsle, Martin; Miwa, Jill A; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Simmons, Michelle Y; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2015-01-21

    A detailed theoretical study of the electronic and transport properties of a single atom transistor, where a single phosphorus atom is embedded within a single crystal transistor architecture, is presented. Using a recently reported deterministic single-atom transistor as a reference, the electronic structure of the device is represented atomistically with a tight-binding model, and the channel modulation is simulated self-consistently with a Thomas-Fermi method. The multi-scale modeling approach used allows confirmation of the charging energy of the one-electron donor charge state and explains how the electrostatic environments of the device electrodes affects the donor confinement potential and hence extent in gate voltage of the two-electron charge state. Importantly, whilst devices are relatively insensitive to dopant ordering in the highly doped leads, a ∼1% variation of the charging energy is observed when a dopant is moved just one lattice spacing within the device. The multi-scale modeling method presented here lays a strong foundation for the understanding of single-atom device structures: essential for both classical and quantum information processing.

  20. Tight binding of NAP-22 with acidic membrane lipids.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, Shohei; Kobayashi, Yuumi; Morita, Mitsuhiro; Suzaki, Toshinobu

    2015-07-23

    Recovery of various signal transduction molecules in the detergent-resistant membrane microdomain (DRM) fraction suggests the importance of this region in cellular functions. Insolubility of the outer leaflet of DRM to the non-ionic detergent is ascribed to the tight association of cholesterol and sphingolipid. Since, poor localization of sphingolipid is observed in the inner leaflet, the physicochemical background of the insolubility of the inner leaflet is hence still an enigma. NAP-22 (also called BASP1 or CAP-23) is a neuron-enriched calmodulin-binding protein and one of the major proteins in the DRM of the neuronal cell membrane. A previous study showed the presence of several lipids in a NAP-22 fraction after the process of extraction and column chromatography. In this study, the effect of lipid extraction on NAP-22 was studied through native-gel electrophoresis, ultracentrifugation, and electron microscopic observation. The mobility of NAP-22 in native-PAGE was shifted from low to high after delipidation. Delipidated NAP-22 bound phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinosotol, and ganglioside. Some part of the mixture of PS and NAP-22 was recovered in the insoluble fraction after Triton X-100 treatment and the addition of cholesterol enhanced the amount of NAP-22 in the insoluble fraction.

  1. Modified fracs increase recovery from Oklahoma tight formations

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, D.L. , Houston, TX )

    1994-01-24

    Staged fracture stimulations with high sand concentrations have added recoverable reserves and improved the economics for developing tight formations in the Golden Trend of southern Oklahoma. Since the early 1950s, the Sycamore and Hunton formations have been recognized as formations requiring fracture stimulation for commercial production. Throughout the trend, numerous frac techniques have been used to stimulate the massive interval. Until 1992, high volume, slick water, and modified Kiel fracs were the favorite treatments because of low cost and relatively high initial producing rates. Because of the low gas prices that continued into the early part of 1992, new completions in the Golden Trend were attractive to only those companies that could take advantage of Section 29 tax credits. However, of the low gas prices that continued into the early part of 1992, new completions in the Golden Trend were attractive to only those companies that could take advantage of Section 29 tax credits. However, Chesapeake Energy Corp. could not use the tax credits and therefore focused on increasing gas recoveries and the rate of return from this area. By re-engineering the traditional completion and drilling practices, Chesapeake Energy added more than 1 bcf and 20,000 bbl of oil/well. Ultimate recoveries from each well are about 1.5--2.0 bcf and 30,000--40,000 bbl of oil. The paper describes the frac design, the frac team, treatment procedures, and production results after the first six months from 44 completions.

  2. Environmental Public Health Dimensions of Shale and Tight Gas Development

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The United States has experienced a boom in natural gas production due to recent technological innovations that have enabled this resource to be produced from shale formations. Objectives: We reviewed the body of evidence related to exposure pathways in order to evaluate the potential environmental public health impacts of shale gas development. We highlight what is currently known and identify data gaps and research limitations by addressing matters of toxicity, exposure pathways, air quality, and water quality. Discussion: There is evidence of potential environmental public health risks associated with shale gas development. Several studies suggest that shale gas development contributes to ambient air concentrations of pollutants known to be associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Similarly, an increasing body of studies suggest that water contamination risks exist through a variety of environmental pathways, most notably during wastewater transport and disposal, and via poor zonal isolation of gases and fluids due to structural integrity impairment of cement in gas wells. Conclusion: Despite a growing body of evidence, data gaps persist. Most important, there is a need for more epidemiological studies to assess associations between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health outcomes among populations living in close proximity to shale gas operations. Citation: Shonkoff SB, Hays J, Finkel ML. 2014. Environmental public health dimensions of shale and tight gas development. Environ Health Perspect 122:787–795; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307866 PMID:24736097

  3. The role of tight junctions in mammary gland function.

    PubMed

    Stelwagen, Kerst; Singh, Kuljeet

    2014-03-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) are cellular structures that facilitate cell-cell communication and are important in maintaining the three-dimensional structure of epithelia. It is only during the last two decades that the molecular make-up of TJ is becoming unravelled, with two major transmembrane-spanning structural protein families, called occludin and claudins, being the true constituents of the TJ. These TJ proteins are linked via specific scaffolding proteins to the cell's cytoskeleton. In the mammary gland TJ between adjacent secretory epithelial cells are formed during lactogenesis and are instrumental in establishing and maintaining milk synthesis and secretion, whereas TJ integrity is compromised during mammary involution and also as result of mastitis and periods of mammary inflamation (including mastitis). They prevent the paracellular transport of ions and small molecules between the blood and milk compartments. Formation of intact TJ at the start of lactation is important for the establishment of the lactation. Conversely, loss of TJ integrity has been linked to reduced milk secretion and mammary function and increased paracellular transport of blood components into the milk and vice versa. In addition to acting as a paracellular barrier, the TJ is increasingly linked to playing an active role in intracellular signalling. This review focusses on the role of TJ in mammary function of the normal, non-malignant mammary gland, predominantly in ruminants, the major dairy producing species.

  4. Two-scale analysis of a tight gas sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Davy, C. A.; Nguyen Kim, Thang; Troadec, D.; Hauss, G.; Jeannin, L.; Adler, P. M.

    2016-10-01

    Tight gas sandstones are low porosity media, with a very small permeability (i.e., below 1 mD). Their porosity is below 10%, and it is mainly composed of fine noncemented microcracks, which are present between neighboring quartz grains. While empirical models of permeability are available, their predictions, which do not compare well with macroscopic measurements, are not reliable to assess gas well productivity. The purpose of this work is to compare the permeability measured on centimetric plugs to predictions based on pore structure data. Two macroscopic measurements are performed, namely dry gas permeability and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), together with a series of local measurements including focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM), x-ray computed microtomography (CMT), and standard two-dimensional (2D) SEM. Numerical modeling is performed by combining analyses on two scales, namely the microcrack network scale (given by 2D SEM) and the individual 3D microcrack scale (given by either FIB-SEM or CMT). The network permeability is calculated by means of techniques developed for fracture networks. This permeability is proportional to the microcrack transmissivity, which is determined by solving the Stokes equation in the microcracks measured by FIB-SEM or CMT. Good correlation with experimental permeability values is only found when using transmissivity from 3D CMT data.

  5. Gastrointestinal mucositis: the role of MMP-tight junction interactions in tissue injury.

    PubMed

    Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Wardill, Hannah R; Gibson, Rachel J

    2014-07-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer causes significant gut toxicity known as mucositis. The pathogenesis of mucositis is ill defined. Recent clinical research guidelines have highlighted epithelial junctional complexes as emerging targets within mucositis research. Given the robust biological evidence linking tight junctions and matrix metalloproteinases, key mediators of mucositis, tight junction proteins have received significant attention. Despite this, the link between tight junctions, matrix metalloproteinases and mucositis development is yet to be established. This critical review therefore aims to describe the role of matrix metalloproteinases in mucositis, and how matrix metalloproteinase-dependent tight junction disruption may contribute to the pathobiology of mucositis.

  6. Tight and uniform layer of covalently bound aminoethylophenyl groups perpendicular to gold surface for attachment of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Fau, Michal; Kowalczyk, Agata; Olejnik, Piotr; Nowicka, Anna M

    2011-12-15

    Strongly adhered layers of the compound with the primary amino group directed toward the solution were obtained at the gold surface by chronoamperometric electroreduction of 4-aminoethylobenzenodiazonium salt (AEBD) in acetonitrile solution at appropriately selected potential. The used techniques (EQCM, AFM, EIS, PM, IRRAS) showed that the nature and thickness of formed aminoethylophenyl layer strongly depend on the potential applied to the electrode. Electroreduction of AEBD salt at a potential more negative than -0.6 V (vs Ag/AgCl) leads to about monolayer on the gold surface. Additionally, such a layer was very tight and uniform. The electrochemical measurements indicate that the efficient and precise attachment of biomolecules to the aminoethylophenyl layer is only possible when this layer is formed at appropriate potential. This was shown for ss- and dsDNA.

  7. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  8. Precision radiotherapy for brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ying; Guo, Zhanwen; Zhang, Haibo; Wang, Ning; Xu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Precision radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of brain tumors. This study aimed to identify global research trends in precision radiotherapy for brain tumors using a bibliometric analysis of the Web of Science. DATA RETRIEVAL: We performed a bibliometric analysis of data retrievals for precision radiotherapy for brain tumors containing the key words cerebral tumor, brain tumor, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, imaging-guided radiotherapy, dose-guided radiotherapy, stereotactic brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiotherapy using the Web of Science. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria: (a) peer-reviewed articles on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors which were published and indexed in the Web of Science; (b) type of articles: original research articles and reviews; (c) year of publication: 2002-2011. Exclusion criteria: (a) articles that required manual searching or telephone access; (b) Corrected papers or book chapters. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Annual publication output; (2) distribution according to country; (3) distribution according to institution; (4) top cited publications; (5) distribution according to journals; and (6) comparison of study results on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. RESULTS: The stereotactic radiotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and imaging-guided radiotherapy are three major methods of precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. There were 260 research articles addressing precision radiotherapy for brain tumors found within the Web of Science. The USA published the most papers on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors, followed by Germany and France. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, German Cancer Research Center and Heidelberg University were the most prolific research institutes for publications on precision radiotherapy for brain tumors. Among the top 13 research institutes publishing in this field, seven

  9. Precision Timed Infrastructure: Design Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-19

    recognized the need to precisely model and control time. Mod- elica [30], Simulink [28], and Ptolemy II [12] can precisely model time in both physical and...languages have different ways of expressing computations and timing constraints [5]. For instance, Mod- elica [30], Simulink [28], Giotto [17], Ptolemy ...Languages Intermediate Languages Assembly Languages Modelica Ptolemy IIGiotto and E machine Modelyze PRET Compilation Hide machine dependent details

  10. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Based on the research, the area of precise ephemerides for GPS satellites, the following observations can be made pertaining to the status and future work needed regarding orbit accuracy. There are several aspects which need to be addressed in discussing determination of precise orbits, such as force models, kinematic models, measurement models, data reduction/estimation methods, etc. Although each one of these aspects was studied at CSR in research efforts, only points pertaining to the force modeling aspect are addressed.

  11. Fundamental Physics and Precision Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, T. W.

    2006-11-01

    "Very high precision physics has always appealed to me. The steady improvement in technologies that afford higher and higher precision has been a regular source of excitement and challenge during my career. In science, as in most things, whenever one looks at something more closely, new aspects almost always come into play …" With these word from the book "How the Laser happened", Charles H. Townes expresses a passion for precision that is now shared by many scientists. Masers and lasers have become indispensible tools for precision measurements. During the past few years, the advent of femtosecond laser frequency comb synthesizers has revolutionized the art of directly comparing optical and microwave frequencies. Inspired by the needs of precision laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom, such frequency combs are now enabling ultra-precise spectroscopy over wide spectral ranges. Recent laboratory experiments are already setting stringent limits for possible slow variations of fundamental constants. Laser frequency combs also provide the long missing clockwork for optical atomic clocks that may ultimately reach a precision of parts in 1018 and beyond. Such tools will open intriguing new opportunities for fundamental experiments including new tests of special and general relativity. In the future, frequency comb techniques may be extended into the extreme ultraviolet and soft xray regime, opening a vast new spectral territory to precision measurements. Frequency combs have also become a key tool for the emerging new field of attosecond science, since they can control the electric field of ultrashort laser pulses on an unprecedented time scale. The biggest surprise in these endeavours would be if we found no surprise.

  12. Gonadotropins regulate rat testicular tight junctions in vivo.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Mark J; Tarulli, Gerard A; Meachem, Sarah J; Robertson, David M; Smooker, Peter M; Stanton, Peter G

    2010-06-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG +/- FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs.

  13. Conservative tightly-coupled simulations of stochastic multiscale systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taverniers, Søren; Pigarov, Alexander Y.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2016-05-01

    Multiphysics problems often involve components whose macroscopic dynamics is driven by microscopic random fluctuations. The fidelity of simulations of such systems depends on their ability to propagate these random fluctuations throughout a computational domain, including subdomains represented by deterministic solvers. When the constituent processes take place in nonoverlapping subdomains, system behavior can be modeled via a domain-decomposition approach that couples separate components at the interfaces between these subdomains. Its coupling algorithm has to maintain a stable and efficient numerical time integration even at high noise strength. We propose a conservative domain-decomposition algorithm in which tight coupling is achieved by employing either Picard's or Newton's iterative method. Coupled diffusion equations, one of which has a Gaussian white-noise source term, provide a computational testbed for analysis of these two coupling strategies. Fully-converged ("implicit") coupling with Newton's method typically outperforms its Picard counterpart, especially at high noise levels. This is because the number of Newton iterations scales linearly with the amplitude of the Gaussian noise, while the number of Picard iterations can scale superlinearly. At large time intervals between two subsequent inter-solver communications, the solution error for single-iteration ("explicit") Picard's coupling can be several orders of magnitude higher than that for implicit coupling. Increasing the explicit coupling's communication frequency reduces this difference, but the resulting increase in computational cost can make it less efficient than implicit coupling at similar levels of solution error, depending on the communication frequency of the latter and the noise strength. This trend carries over into higher dimensions, although at high noise strength explicit coupling may be the only computationally viable option.

  14. Fibrinogen Induces Alterations of Endothelial Cell Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    PATIBANDLA, PHANI K.; TYAGI, NEETU; DEAN, WILLIAM L.; TYAGI, SURESH C.; ROBERTS, ANDREW M.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that an elevated content of fibrinogen (Fg) increased formation of filamentous actin and enhanced endothelial layer permeability. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that Fg binding to endothelial cells (ECs) alters expression of actin-associated endothelial tight junction proteins (TJP). Rat cardiac microvascular ECs were grown in gold plated chambers of an electrical cell-substrate impedance system, 8-well chambered, or in 12-well plates. Confluent ECs were treated with Fg (2 or 4 mg/ml), Fg (4 mg/ml) with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) kinase inhibitors (PD98059 or U0126), Fg (4 mg/ml) with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or BQ788 (endothelin type B receptor blocker), endothelin-1, endothelin-1 with BQ788, or medium alone for 24 h. Fg induced a dose-dependent decrease in EC junction integrity as determined by transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER). Western blot analysis and RT-PCR data showed that the higher dose of Fg decreased the contents of TJPs, occludin, zona occluden-1 (ZO-1), and zona occluden-2 (ZO-2) in ECs. Fg-induced decreases in contents of the TJPs were blocked by PD98059, U0126, or anti-ICAM-1 antibody. While BQ788 inhibited endothelin-1-induced decrease in TEER, it did not affect Fg-induced decrease in TEER. These data suggest that Fg increases EC layer permeability via the MEK kinase signaling pathway by affecting occludin, ZO-1, and ZO-2, TJPs, which are bound to actin filaments. Therefore, increased binding of Fg to its major EC receptor, ICAM-1, during cardiovascular diseases may increase microvascular permeability by altering the content and possibly subcellular localization of endothelial TJPs. PMID:19507189

  15. Tight-binding Hamiltonian for LaOFeAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaconstantopoulos, D. A.; Mehl, M. J.; Johannes, M. D.

    2010-08-01

    First-principles electronic-structure calculations have been very useful in understanding some of the properties of the new iron-based superconductors. Further explorations of the role of the individual atomic orbitals in explaining various aspects of research in these materials, including experimental work, would benefit from the availability of a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian that accurately reproduces the first-principles band-structure results. In this work we have used the Naval Research Laboratory-TB method to construct a TB Hamiltonian from linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) results. Our TB model includes the Fed orbitals and the p orbitals from both As and O for the prototype material LaOFeAs. The resulting TB band structure agrees well with that of the LAPW calculations from 2.7 eV below to 0.8 eV above the Fermi level, ɛF , and the Fermi surface matches perfectly to that of the LAPW. The TB densities of states (DOSs) are also in very good agreement with those from the LAPW in the above energy range, including the per orbital decomposition. We use our results to provide insights on the existence of a pseudogap in the DOS just above the Fermi level. We have also performed a separate TB fit to a database of LAPW results as a function of volume and with variations in the As positions. This fit although less accurate regarding the band structure near ɛF , reproduces the LAPW total energies very well and has transferability to nonfitted energies.

  16. Gonadotropins Regulate Rat Testicular Tight Junctions in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Mark J.; Tarulli, Gerard A.; Meachem, Sarah J.; Robertson, David M.; Smooker, Peter M.; Stanton, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG ± FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs. PMID:20357222

  17. PLEKHA7 modulates epithelial tight junction barrier function

    PubMed Central

    Paschoud, Serge; Jond, Lionel; Guerrera, Diego; Citi, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    PLEKHA7 is a recently identified protein of the epithelial zonula adhaerens (ZA), and is part of a protein complex that stabilizes the ZA, by linking it to microtubules. Since the ZA is important in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJ), we asked whether PLEKHA7 is involved in modulating epithelial TJ barrier function. We generated clonal MDCK cell lines in which one of four different constructs of PLEKHA7 was inducibly expressed. All constructs were localized at junctions, but constructs lacking the C-terminal region were also distributed diffusely in the cytoplasm. Inducible expression of PLEKHA7 constructs did not affect the expression and localization of TJ proteins, the steady-state value of transepithelial resistance (TER), the development of TER during the calcium switch, and the flux of large molecules across confluent monolayers. In contrast, expression of three out of four constructs resulted both in enhanced recruitment of E-cadherin and associated proteins at the apical ZA and at lateral puncta adherentia (PA), a decreased TER at 18 h after assembly at normal calcium, and an attenuation in the fall in TER after extracellular calcium removal. This latter effect was inhibited when cells were treated with nocodazole. Immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PLEKHA7 forms a complex with the cytoplasmic TJ proteins ZO-1 and cingulin, and this association does not depend on the integrity of microtubules. These results suggest that PLEKHA7 modulates the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of the TJ barrier, through E-cadherin protein complex- and microtubule-dependent mechanisms. PMID:24843844

  18. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-19

    This DOE-funded research into seismic detection of natural fractures is one of six projects within the DOE`s Detection and Analysis of Naturally Fractured Gas Reservoirs Program, a multidisciplinary research initiative to develop technology for prediction, detection, and mapping of naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The demonstration of successful seismic techniques to locate subsurface zones of high fracture density and to guide drilling orientation for enhanced fracture permeability will enable better returns on investments in the development of the vast gas reserves held in tight formations beneath the Rocky Mountains. The seismic techniques used in this project were designed to capture the azimuthal anisotropy within the seismic response. This seismic anisotropy is the result of the symmetry in the rock fabric created by aligned fractures and/or unequal horizontal stresses. These results may be compared and related to other lines of evidence to provide cross-validation. The authors undertook investigations along the following lines: Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-wave seismic data; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in a nine-component (P- and S-sources, three-component receivers) vertical seismic profile; Characterization of the seismic anisotropy in three-dimensional, P-to-S converted wave seismic data (P-wave source, three-component receivers); and Description of geological and reservoir-engineering data that corroborate the anisotropy: natural fractures observed at the target level and at the surface, estimation of the maximum horizontal stress in situ, and examination of the flow characteristics of the reservoir.

  19. Conservative tightly-coupled simulations of stochastic multiscale systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taverniers, Søren; Pigarov, Alexander Y.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    2016-05-15

    Multiphysics problems often involve components whose macroscopic dynamics is driven by microscopic random fluctuations. The fidelity of simulations of such systems depends on their ability to propagate these random fluctuations throughout a computational domain, including subdomains represented by deterministic solvers. When the constituent processes take place in nonoverlapping subdomains, system behavior can be modeled via a domain-decomposition approach that couples separate components at the interfaces between these subdomains. Its coupling algorithm has to maintain a stable and efficient numerical time integration even at high noise strength. We propose a conservative domain-decomposition algorithm in which tight coupling is achieved by employing either Picard's or Newton's iterative method. Coupled diffusion equations, one of which has a Gaussian white-noise source term, provide a computational testbed for analysis of these two coupling strategies. Fully-converged (“implicit”) coupling with Newton's method typically outperforms its Picard counterpart, especially at high noise levels. This is because the number of Newton iterations scales linearly with the amplitude of the Gaussian noise, while the number of Picard iterations can scale superlinearly. At large time intervals between two subsequent inter-solver communications, the solution error for single-iteration (“explicit”) Picard's coupling can be several orders of magnitude higher than that for implicit coupling. Increasing the explicit coupling's communication frequency reduces this difference, but the resulting increase in computational cost can make it less efficient than implicit coupling at similar levels of solution error, depending on the communication frequency of the latter and the noise strength. This trend carries over into higher dimensions, although at high noise strength explicit coupling may be the only computationally viable option.

  20. Ultrahigh precision cosmology from gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, Curt; Holz, Daniel E.

    2009-11-15

    We show that the Big Bang Observer (BBO), a proposed space-based gravitational-wave (GW) detector, would provide ultraprecise measurements of cosmological parameters. By detecting {approx}3x10{sup 5} compact-star binaries, and utilizing them as standard sirens, BBO would determine the Hubble constant to {approx}0.1%, and the dark-energy parameters w{sub 0} and w{sub a} to {approx}0.01 and {approx}0.1, respectively. BBO's dark-energy figure-of-merit would be approximately an order of magnitude better than all other proposed, dedicated dark-energy missions. To date, BBO has been designed with the primary goal of searching for gravitational waves from inflation, down to the level {omega}{sub GW}{approx}10{sup -17}; this requirement determines BBO's frequency band (deci-Hz) and its sensitivity requirement (strain measured to {approx}10{sup -24}). To observe an inflationary GW background, BBO would first have to detect and subtract out {approx}3x10{sup 5} merging compact-star binaries, out to a redshift z{approx}5. It is precisely this carefully measured foreground which would enable high-precision cosmology. BBO would determine the luminosity distance to each binary to {approx} percent accuracy. In addition, BBO's angular resolution would be sufficient to uniquely identify the host galaxy for the majority of binaries; a coordinated optical/infrared observing campaign could obtain the redshifts. Combining the GW-derived distances and the electromagnetically-derived redshifts for such a large sample of objects, out to such high redshift, naturally leads to extraordinarily tight constraints on cosmological parameters. We emphasize that such 'standard siren' measurements of cosmology avoid many of the systematic errors associated with other techniques: GWs offer a physics-based, absolute measurement of distance. In addition, we show that BBO would also serve as an exceptionally powerful gravitational-lensing mission, and we briefly discuss other astronomical uses of BBO

  1. Ultrahigh precision cosmology from gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Curt; Holz, Daniel E.

    2009-11-01

    We show that the Big Bang Observer (BBO), a proposed space-based gravitational-wave (GW) detector, would provide ultraprecise measurements of cosmological parameters. By detecting ˜3×105 compact-star binaries, and utilizing them as standard sirens, BBO would determine the Hubble constant to ˜0.1%, and the dark-energy parameters w0 and wa to ˜0.01 and ˜0.1, respectively. BBO’s dark-energy figure-of-merit would be approximately an order of magnitude better than all other proposed, dedicated dark-energy missions. To date, BBO has been designed with the primary goal of searching for gravitational waves from inflation, down to the level ΩGW˜10-17; this requirement determines BBO’s frequency band (deci-Hz) and its sensitivity requirement (strain measured to ˜10-24). To observe an inflationary GW background, BBO would first have to detect and subtract out ˜3×105 merging compact-star binaries, out to a redshift z˜5. It is precisely this carefully measured foreground which would enable high-precision cosmology. BBO would determine the luminosity distance to each binary to ˜ percent accuracy. In addition, BBO’s angular resolution would be sufficient to uniquely identify the host galaxy for the majority of binaries; a coordinated optical/infrared observing campaign could obtain the redshifts. Combining the GW-derived distances and the electromagnetically-derived redshifts for such a large sample of objects, out to such high redshift, naturally leads to extraordinarily tight constraints on cosmological parameters. We emphasize that such “standard siren” measurements of cosmology avoid many of the systematic errors associated with other techniques: GWs offer a physics-based, absolute measurement of distance. In addition, we show that BBO would also serve as an exceptionally powerful gravitational-lensing mission, and we briefly discuss other astronomical uses of BBO, including providing an early warning system for all short/hard gamma-ray bursts.

  2. Exploring a Transformative Orientation to Sustainability in Universities: A Question of Loose and Tight Framings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, William A. H.

    2015-01-01

    This review essay examines three new books on higher education and sustainability. It explores a number of the issues raised in the books, in particular, the meaning of a transformative orientation towards sustainability. The idea of loose and tight conceptual framings of sustainability is employed. A tight framing is where an institution embodies…

  3. [Relationship between tight junction proteins and Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Jiang, Mi-Zu

    2014-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection is an important cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, but their pathogenesis is unclear. The role of gastric mucosal barrier dysfunction induced by impaired structure and function of tight junction in the pathogenesis of Hp-associated gastric diseases has received considerable attention in recent years. Tight junction is composed of a variety of proteins and molecules, including 3 integral membrane proteins (occludin, claudins, and junctional adhesion molecules) and a cytoplasmic protein (zonula occludens). This paper mainly describes the composition and function of various tight junction proteins, changes in tight junction protein function induced by Hp infection and their relationship with the incidence of gastric diseases, and the significance of enhancing the tight junction protein function in the prevention and treatment of Hp-associated gastric diseases.

  4. Across-Time Change and Variation in Cultural Tightness-Looseness

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, Anne; Realo, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Cultural tightness-looseness, a dimension which describes the strength, multitude, and clarity of social norms in a culture, has proved significant in explaining differences between cultures. Although several studies have compared different cultures on this domain, this study is the first that targets both within-country differences and across-time variation in tightness-looseness. Using data from two nationally representative samples of Estonians, we found that the general tightness level had changed over a period of 10 years but the effect size of the change was small. A significant within country variance in 2002 had disappeared by 2012. Our results suggest that tightness-looseness, similarly to cultural value orientations, is a relatively stable and robust characteristic of culture–that is, change indeed takes place, but slowly. Future studies about across-time change and within-country variance in tightness-looseness should target more culturally diverse and socially divided societies. PMID:26683813

  5. Injuries and disorders among young ice skaters: relationship with generalized joint laxity and tightness.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Shinobu; Wada, Naoki; Tazawa, Masayuki; Sohmiya, Makoto; Ibe, Yoko; Shimizu, Toru; Usuda, Shigeru; Shirakura, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    This study retrospectively investigated 192 teenage speed and figure skaters with prior injuries documented by an athletes' questionnaire, who underwent a physical examination to assess their muscle tightness and generalized joint laxity. In all athletes, the degree of muscle tightness and joint laxity were measured by a standardized physical examination. A descriptive report of the types of injuries showed a predominance of fractures, ligament injuries, enthesitis, and lower back pain. Approximately 5% of all skaters tested positive for tightness, while 25.8% of figure skaters and 15.2% of speed skaters had generalized ligamentous laxity. Statistical testing showed an association between ankle sprains and muscle tightness, and an association between knee enthesitis and muscle tightness in skating athletes. There was also an association between lower back pain and generalized joint laxity, which held true only for the male skaters.

  6. Identity-Based Encryptions with Tight Security Reductions to the BDH Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Mototsugu

    We present IND-ID-CPA secure identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes with tight reductions to the bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) problem. Since the methods for obtaining IND-ID-CCA secure schemes from IND-ID-CPA secure schemes with tight reductions are already known, we can consequently obtain IND-ID-CCA secure schemes with tight reductions to the BDH problem. Our constructions are based on IBE schemes with tight reductions to the list bilinear Diffie-Hellman (LBDH) problem, and the schemes are converted to those with tight reductions to the BDH problem. Interestingly, it can be shown that there exists a black box construction, in which the former IBE schemes are given as black boxes. Our constructions are very simple and reasonably efficient.

  7. Injuries and disorders among young ice skaters: relationship with generalized joint laxity and tightness

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Shinobu; Wada, Naoki; Tazawa, Masayuki; Sohmiya, Makoto; Ibe, Yoko; Shimizu, Toru; Usuda, Shigeru; Shirakura, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    This study retrospectively investigated 192 teenage speed and figure skaters with prior injuries documented by an athletes’ questionnaire, who underwent a physical examination to assess their muscle tightness and generalized joint laxity. In all athletes, the degree of muscle tightness and joint laxity were measured by a standardized physical examination. A descriptive report of the types of injuries showed a predominance of fractures, ligament injuries, enthesitis, and lower back pain. Approximately 5% of all skaters tested positive for tightness, while 25.8% of figure skaters and 15.2% of speed skaters had generalized ligamentous laxity. Statistical testing showed an association between ankle sprains and muscle tightness, and an association between knee enthesitis and muscle tightness in skating athletes. There was also an association between lower back pain and generalized joint laxity, which held true only for the male skaters. PMID:25177155

  8. Homeostasis of phospholipids — The level of phosphatidylethanolamine tightly adapts to changes in ethanolamine plasmalogens

    PubMed Central

    Dorninger, Fabian; Brodde, Alexander; Braverman, Nancy E.; Moser, Ann B.; Just, Wilhelm W.; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Brügger, Britta; Berger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Ethanolamine plasmalogens constitute a group of ether glycerophospholipids that, due to their unique biophysical and biochemical properties, are essential components of mammalian cellular membranes. Their importance is emphasized by the consequences of defects in plasmalogen biosynthesis, which in humans cause the fatal disease rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP). In the present lipidomic study, we used fibroblasts derived from RCDP patients, as well as brain tissue from plasmalogen-deficient mice, to examine the compensatory mechanisms of lipid homeostasis in response to plasmalogen deficiency. Our results show that phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), a diacyl glycerophospholipid, which like ethanolamine plasmalogens carries the head group ethanolamine, is the main player in the adaptation to plasmalogen insufficiency. PE levels were tightly adjusted to the amount of ethanolamine plasmalogens so that their combined levels were kept constant. Similarly, the total amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in ethanolamine phospholipids was maintained upon plasmalogen deficiency. However, we found an increased incorporation of arachidonic acid at the expense of docosahexaenoic acid in the PE fraction of plasmalogen-deficient tissues. These data show that under conditions of reduced plasmalogen levels, the amount of total ethanolamine phospholipids is precisely maintained by a rise in PE. At the same time, a shift in the ratio between ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs occurs, which might have unfavorable, long-term biological consequences. Therefore, our findings are not only of interest for RCDP but may have more widespread implications also for other disease conditions, as for example Alzheimer's disease, that have been associated with a decline in plasmalogens. PMID:25463479

  9. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  10. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  11. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  12. A precision mechanical nerve stimulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping; Supplee, Frank H., Jr.; Prass, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    An electromechanical device, used to apply and monitor stimulating pulses to a mammalian motor nerve, has been successfully developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Two existing force transducers, a flight skin friction balance and a miniature skin friction balance which were designed for making aerodynamic drag measurements, were modified and incorporated to form this precision instrument. The nerve stimulator is a type one servomechanism capable of applying and monitoring stimulating pulses of 0 to 10 grams with a precision of better than +/- 0.05 grams. Additionally, the device can be independently used to apply stimulating pulses by displacing the nerve from 0 to 0.25 mm with a precision of better than +/- 0.001 mm while measuring the level of the load applied.

  13. Precision-guaranteed quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Takanori

    2015-04-01

    Quantum metrology is a general term for methods to precisely estimate the value of an unknown parameter by actively using quantum resources. In particular, some classes of entangled states can be used to significantly suppress the estimation error. Here we derive a formula for rigorously evaluating an upper bound for the estimation error in a general setting of quantum metrology with arbitrary finite data sets. Unlike in the standard approach, where lower bounds for the error are evaluated in an ideal setting with almost infinite data, our method rigorously guarantees the estimation precision in realistic settings with finite data. We also prove that our upper bound shows the Heisenberg limit scaling whenever the linearized uncertainty, which is a popular benchmark in the standard approach, shows it. As an example, we apply our result to a Ramsey interferometer, and numerically show that the upper bound can exhibit the quantum enhancement of precision for finite data.

  14. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory.

  15. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory. Previously announced in STAR as N82-32733

  16. The Role of IRE-XBP1 Pathway in Regulation of Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tight Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jacey H.; Wang, Joshua J.; Li, Junhua; Pfeffer, Bruce A.; Zhong, Yiming; Zhang, Sarah X.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tight junctions play a pivotal role in maintaining the homeostatic environment of the neural retina. Herein, we investigated the role of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-responsive transcription factor, in regulation of RPE tight junctions. Methods Human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) and primary primate RPE cells were used for in vitro experiments and RPE-specific XBP1 knockout (KO) mice were used for in vivo study. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was induced by a sublethal dose of thapsigargin or tunicamycin. XBP1 activation was manipulated by IRE inhibitor 4μ8C, which suppresses XBP1 mRNA splicing. The integrity of tight junctions and the involvement of calcium-dependent RhoA/Rho kinase pathway were examined. Results Induction of ER stress by thapsigargin, but not tunicamycin, disrupted RPE tight junctions in ARPE-19 cells. Inhibition of XBP1 activation by 4μ8C resulted in a remarkable downregulation of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) and defects in tight junction formation in the presence or absence of ER stress inducers. Overexpression of active XBP1 partially reversed 4μ8C-induced anomalies in tight junctions. Mechanistically, XBP1 inhibition resulted in increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, upregulation of RhoA expression, redistribution of F-actin, and tight junction damage, which was attenuated by Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. In vivo, deletion of XBP1 in the RPE resulted in defective RPE tight junctions accompanied by increased VEGF expression. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest a protective role of XBP1 in maintaining RPE tight junctions possibly through regulation of calcium-dependent RhoA/Rho kinase signaling and actin cytoskeletal reorganization. PMID:27701635

  17. Precision protection through indirect correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Yao

    2016-04-15

    The dynamics of the quantum Fisher information of the parameters of the initial atomic state is studied, in the framework of open quantum systems, for a pair of static two-level atoms coupled to a bath of fluctuating vacuum scalar fields. Our results show that the correlations between the two atoms as well as the precision limit in quantum metrology are determined by the separation between the two atoms. Remarkably, when the separation between the two atoms approaches zero, the quantum Fisher information, thus the precision limit of the estimation of the parameters of the initial atomic state will be survived from the vacuum fluctuations after long time evolution.

  18. Precision Manipulation with Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroupe, Ashley; Huntsberger, Terry; Okon, Avi; Aghzarian, Hrand

    2005-01-01

    This work addresses several challenges of cooperative transportThis work addresses several challenges of cooperative transport and precision manipulation. Precision manipulation requires a rigid grasp, which places a hard constraint on the relative rover formation that must be accommodated, even though the rovers cannot directly observe their relative poses. Additionally, rovers must jointly select appropriate actions based on all available sensor information. Lastly, rovers cannot act on independent sensor information, but must fuse information to move jointly; the methods for fusing information must be determined.

  19. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  20. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  1. PRECISION RADIAL VELOCITIES WITH CSHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Christopher J.; Prato, L.; Mahmud, Naved I.; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Beichman, Charles A. E-mail: lprato@lowell.edu E-mail: cmj@rice.edu

    2011-07-10

    Radial velocity (RV) identification of extrasolar planets has historically been dominated by optical surveys. Interest in expanding exoplanet searches to M dwarfs and young stars, however, has motivated a push to improve the precision of near-infrared RV techniques. We present our methodology for achieving 58 m s{sup -1} precision in the K band on the M0 dwarf GJ 281 using the CSHELL spectrograph at the 3 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We also demonstrate our ability to recover the known 4 M{sub JUP} exoplanet Gl 86 b and discuss the implications for success in detecting planets around 1-3 Myr old T Tauri stars.

  2. Precision agriculture and food security.

    PubMed

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  3. Sensor fusion for precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information-based management of crop production systems known as precision agriculture relies on different sensor technologies aimed at characterization of spatial heterogeneity of a cropping environment. Remote and proximal sensing systems have been deployed to obtain high-resolution data pertainin...

  4. Drilling Precise Orifices and Slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, C. W.; Seidler, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Reaction control thrustor injector requires precisely machined orifices and slots. Tooling setup consists of rotary table, numerical control system and torque sensitive drill press. Components used to drill oxidizer orifices. Electric discharge machine drills fuel-feed orifices. Device automates production of identical parts so several are completed in less time than previously.

  5. Precision Teaching ... and All That!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Two proponents of the precision teaching approach to teaching the handicapped discuss such principles as: the problem of partial application of the method; relationship to behaviorism; relationship to experiential learning; and the importance of fluency in task performance, mastery learning, and recordkeeping. (DB)

  6. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  7. Precision GPS ephemerides and baselines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The emphasis of this grant was focused on precision ephemerides for the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites for geodynamics applications. During the period of this grant, major activities were in the areas of thermal force modeling, numerical integration accuracy improvement for eclipsing satellites, analysis of GIG '91 campaign data, and the Southwest Pacific campaign data analysis.

  8. Cushing's disease: towards precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ursula B

    2015-06-01

    The pathogenesis of Cushing's disease is poorly understood; two recent reports identifying somatic mutations in USP8 in pituitary corticotroph tumors provide exciting advances in this field. These mutations alter EGFR trafficking and signaling, raising the prospect that EGFR inhibitors may move the treatment of this disease into the era of precision medicine.

  9. Precision Efficacy Analysis for Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Gordon P.

    When multiple linear regression is used to develop a prediction model, sample size must be large enough to ensure stable coefficients. If the derivation sample size is inadequate, the model may not predict well for future subjects. The precision efficacy analysis for regression (PEAR) method uses a cross- validity approach to select sample sizes…

  10. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  11. Terrestrial tight oil reservoir characteristics and Graded Resource Assessment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shejiao; Wu, Xiaozhi; Guo, Giulin

    2016-04-01

    The success of shale/tight plays and the advanced exploitation technology applied in North America have triggered interest in exploring and exploiting tight oil in China. Due to the increased support of exploration and exploitation,great progress has been made in Erdos basin, Songliao basin, Junggar basin, Santanghu basin, Bohai Bay basin, Qaidam Basin, and Sichuan basin currently. China's first tight oil field has been found in Erdos basin in 2015, called xinanbian oil field, with over one hundred million tons oil reserves and one million tons of production scale. Several hundred million tons of tight oil reserve has been found in other basins, showing a great potential in China. Tight oil in China mainly developed in terrestrial sedimentary environment. According to the relations of source rock and reservoir, the source-reservoir combination of tight oil can be divided into three types, which are bottom generating and top storing tight oil,self- generating and self-storing tight oil,top generating and bottom storing tight oil. The self- generating and self-storing tight oil is the main type discovered at present. This type of tight oil has following characteristics:(1) The formation and distribution of tight oil are controlled by high quality source rocks. Terrestrial tight oil source rocks in China are mainly formed in the deep to half deep lacustrine facies. The lithology includes dark mudstone, shale, argillaceous limestone and dolomite. These source rocks with thickness between 20m-150m, kerogen type mostly I-II, and peak oil generation thermal maturity(Ro 0.6-1.4%), have great hydrocarbon generating potential. Most discovered tight oil is distributed in the area of TOC greater than 2 %.( 2) the reservoir with strong heterogeneity is very tight. In these low porosity and permeability reservoir,the resources distribution is controlled by the physical property. Tight sandstone, carbonate and hybrid sedimentary rocks are three main tight reservoir types in

  12. 76 FR 35024 - Precision Dynamics Corporation San Fernando, CA; Precision Dynamics Corporation, Also Known as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Precision Dynamics Corporation San Fernando, CA; Precision Dynamics... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 28, 2011, applicable to workers of Precision Dynamics... the subject firm. The Valencia, California location of Precision Dynamics Corporation, also known...

  13. A Synthetic Peptide Corresponding to the Extracellular Domain of Occludin Perturbs the Tight Junction Permeability Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Vivian; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    1997-01-01

    Occludin, the putative tight junction integral membrane protein, is an attractive candidate for a protein that forms the actual sealing element of the tight junction. To study the role of occludin in the formation of the tight junction seal, synthetic peptides (OCC1 and OCC2) corresponding to the two putative extracellular domains of occludin were assayed for their ability to alter tight junctions in Xenopus kidney epithelial cell line A6. Transepithelial electrical resistance and paracellular tracer flux measurements indicated that the second extracellular domain peptide (OCC2) reversibly disrupted the transepithelial permeability barrier at concentrations of < 5 μM. Despite the increased paracellular permeability, there were no changes in gross epithelial cell morphology as determined by scanning EM. The OCC2 peptide decreased the amount of occludin present at the tight junction, as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, as well as decreased total cellular content of occludin, as assessed by Western blot analysis. Pulse-labeling and metabolic chase analysis suggested that this decrease in occludin level could be attributed to an increase in turnover of cellular occludin rather than a decrease in occludin synthesis. The effect on occludin was specific because other tight junction components, ZO-1, ZO-2, cingulin, and the adherens junction protein E-cadherin, were unaltered by OCC2 treatment. Therefore, the peptide corresponding to the second extracellular domain of occludin perturbs the tight junction permeability barrier in a very specific manner. The correlation between a decrease in occludin levels and the perturbation of the tight junction permeability barrier provides evidence for a role of occludin in the formation of the tight junction seal. PMID:9015310

  14. Beyond precision surgery: Molecularly motivated precision care for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y Y; Cheong, J-H

    2017-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite the high disease prevalence, gastric cancer research has not gained much attention. Recently, genome-scale technology has made it possible to explore the characteristics of gastric cancer at the molecular level. Accordingly, gastric cancer can be classified into molecular subtypes that convey more detailed information of tumor than histopathological characteristics, and these subtypes are associated with clinical outcomes. Furthermore, this molecular knowledge helps to identify new actionable targets and develop novel therapeutic strategies. To advance the concept of precision patient care in the clinic, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have recently been developed. PDX models not only represent histology and genomic features, but also predict responsiveness to investigational drugs in patient tumors. Molecularly curated PDX cohorts will be instrumental in hypothesis generation, biomarker discovery, and drug screening and testing in proof-of-concept preclinical trials for precision therapy. In the era of precision medicine, molecularly tailored therapeutic strategies should be individualized for cancer patients. To improve the overall clinical outcome, a multimodal approach is indispensable for advanced cancer patients. Careful, oncological principle-based surgery, combined with a molecularly guided multidisciplinary approach, will open new horizons in surgical oncology.

  15. A proposed route to independent measurements of tight junction conductance at discrete cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lushan; Zeng, Yuhan; Baker, Lane A; Hou, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    Direct recording of tight junction permeability is of pivotal importance to many biologic fields. Previous approaches bear an intrinsic disadvantage due to the difficulty of separating tight junction conductance from nearby membrane conductance. Here, we propose the design of Double whole-cell Voltage Clamp - Ion Conductance Microscopy (DVC-ICM) based on previously demonstrated potentiometric scanning of local conductive pathways. As proposed, DVC-ICM utilizes two coordinated whole-cell patch-clamps to neutralize the apical membrane current during potentiometric scanning, which in models described here will profoundly enhance the specificity of tight junction recording. Several potential pitfalls are considered, evaluated and addressed with alternative countermeasures. PMID:26716077

  16. Proteomic and bioinformatic analysis of epithelial tight junction reveals an unexpected cluster of synaptic molecules

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Vivian W

    2006-01-01

    Background Zonula occludens, also known as the tight junction, is a specialized cell-cell interaction characterized by membrane "kisses" between epithelial cells. A cytoplasmic plaque of ~100 nm corresponding to a meshwork of densely packed proteins underlies the tight junction membrane domain. Due to its enormous size and difficulties in obtaining a biochemically pure fraction, the molecular composition of the tight junction remains largely unknown. Results A novel biochemical purification protocol has been developed to isolate tight junction protein complexes from cultured human epithelial cells. After identification of proteins by mass spectroscopy and fingerprint analysis, candidate proteins are scored and assessed individually. A simple algorithm has been devised to incorporate transmembrane domains and protein modification sites for scoring membrane proteins. Using this new scoring system, a total of 912 proteins have been identified. These 912 hits are analyzed using a bioinformatics approach to bin the hits in 4 categories: configuration, molecular function, cellular function, and specialized process. Prominent clusters of proteins related to the cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and vesicular traffic have been identified. Weaker clusters of proteins associated with cell growth, cell migration, translation, and transcription are also found. However, the strongest clusters belong to synaptic proteins and signaling molecules. Localization studies of key components of synaptic transmission have confirmed the presence of both presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins at the tight junction domain. To correlate proteomics data with structure, the tight junction has been examined using electron microscopy. This has revealed many novel structures including end-on cytoskeletal attachments, vesicles fusing/budding at the tight junction membrane domain, secreted substances encased between the tight junction kisses, endocytosis of tight junction double membranes, satellite

  17. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  18. Method for grinding precision components

    DOEpatents

    Ramanath, Srinivasan; Kuo, Shih Yee; Williston, William H.; Buljan, Sergej-Tomislav

    2000-01-01

    A method for precision cylindrical grinding of hard brittle materials, such as ceramics or glass and composites comprising ceramics or glass, provides material removal rates as high as 19-380 cm.sup.3 /min/cm. The abrasive tools used in the method comprise a strong, light weight wheel core bonded to a continuous rim of abrasive segments containing superabrasive grain in a dense metal bond matrix.

  19. Method for grinding precision components

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanath, S.; Kuo, S.Y.; Williston, W.H.; Buljan, S.T.

    2000-02-01

    A method for precision cylindrical grinding of hard brittle materials, such as ceramics or glass and composites comprising ceramics or glass, provides material removal rates as high as 19--380 cm{sup 3}/min/cm. The abrasive tools used in the method comprise a strong, light weight wheel core bonded to a continuous rim of abrasive segments containing superabrasive grain in a dense metal bond matrix.

  20. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  1. High precision triangular waveform generator

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Theodore R.

    1983-01-01

    An ultra-linear ramp generator having separately programmable ascending and descending ramp rates and voltages is provided. Two constant current sources provide the ramp through an integrator. Switching of the current at current source inputs rather than at the integrator input eliminates switching transients and contributes to the waveform precision. The triangular waveforms produced by the waveform generator are characterized by accurate reproduction and low drift over periods of several hours. The ascending and descending slopes are independently selectable.

  2. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  3. Precision optical metrology without lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Ralf B.; Burke, Jan; Falldorf, Claas

    2015-07-01

    Optical metrology is a key technique when it comes to precise and fast measurement with a resolution down to the micrometer or even nanometer regime. The choice of a particular optical metrology technique and the quality of results depends on sample parameters such as size, geometry and surface roughness as well as user requirements such as resolution, measurement time and robustness. Interferometry-based techniques are well known for their low measurement uncertainty in the nm range, but usually require careful isolation against vibration and a laser source that often needs shielding for reasons of eye-safety. In this paper, we concentrate on high precision optical metrology without lasers by using the gradient based measurement technique of deflectometry and the finite difference based technique of shear interferometry. Careful calibration of deflectometry systems allows one to investigate virtually all kinds of reflecting surfaces including aspheres or free-form surfaces with measurement uncertainties below the μm level. Computational Shear Interferometry (CoSI) allows us to combine interferometric accuracy and the possibility to use cheap and eye-safe low-brilliance light sources such as e.g. fiber coupled LEDs or even liquid crystal displays. We use CoSI e.g. for quantitative phase contrast imaging in microscopy. We highlight the advantages of both methods, discuss their transfer functions and present results on the precision of both techniques.

  4. Paving the road for hydraulic fracturing in Paleozoic tight gas reservoirs in Abu Dhabi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzarouni, Asim

    This study contributes to the ongoing efforts of Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) to improve gas production and supply in view of increasing demand and diminishing conventional gas reservoirs in the region. The conditions of most gas reservoirs with potentially economical volumes of gas in Abu Dhabi are tight abrasive deep sand reservoirs at high temperature and pressures. Thus it inevitably tests the limit of both conventional thinking and technology. Accurate prediction of well performance is a major challenge that arises during planning phase. The primary aim is to determine technical feasibility for the implementation of the hydraulic fracture technology in a new area. The ultimate goal is to make economical production curves possible and pave the road to tap new resource of clean hydrocarbon energy source. The formation targeted in this study is characterized by quartzitic sandstone layers and variably colored shale and siltstones with thin layers of anhydrites. It dates back from late Permian to Carboniferous age. It forms rocks at the lower reservoir permeability ranging from 0.2 to less than 1 millidarcy (mD). When fractured, the expected well flow in Abu Dhabi offshore deep gas wells will be close to similar tight gas reservoir in the region. In other words, gas production can be described as transient initially with high rates and rapidly declining towards a pseudo-steady sustainable flow. The study results estimated fracturing gradient range from 0.85 psi/ft to 0.91 psi/ft. In other words, the technology can be implemented successfully to the expected rating without highly weighted brine. Hence, it would be a remarkable step to conduct the first hydraulic fracturing successfully in Abu Dhabi which can pave the road to tapping on a clean energy resource. The models predicted a remarkable conductivity enhancement and an increase of production between 3 to 4 times after fracturing. Moreover, a sustainable rate above 25 MMSCFD between 6 to 10 years is

  5. Do not let precision medicine be kidnapped.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    Obama’s precision medicine initiative made the medical community boil over after the initiative’s release. Precision medicine has been advocated by the majority of scientists and doctors. However, some experts have questioned this concept. This article does not oppose precision medicine. However, the incentive of vigorously promoting precision medicine at present is a concern.

  6. Keratin 76 is required for tight junction function and maintenance of the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    DiTommaso, Tia; Cottle, Denny L; Pearson, Helen B; Schlüter, Holger; Kaur, Pritinder; Humbert, Patrick O; Smyth, Ian M

    2014-10-01

    Keratins are cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are increasingly being recognised for their diverse cellular functions. Here we report the consequences of germ line inactivation of Keratin 76 (Krt76) in mice. Homozygous disruption of this epidermally expressed gene causes neonatal skin flaking, hyperpigmentation, inflammation, impaired wound healing, and death prior to 12 weeks of age. We show that this phenotype is associated with functionally defective tight junctions that are characterised by mislocalization of the integral protein CLDN1. We further demonstrate that KRT76 interacts with CLDN1 and propose that this interaction is necessary to correctly position CLDN1 in tight junctions. The mislocalization of CLDN1 has been associated in various dermopathies, including the inflammatory disease, psoriasis. These observations establish a previously unknown connection between the intermediate filament cytoskeleton network and tight junctions and showcase Krt76 null mice as a possible model to study aberrant tight junction driven skin diseases.

  7. Keratin 76 Is Required for Tight Junction Function and Maintenance of the Skin Barrier

    PubMed Central

    DiTommaso, Tia; Cottle, Denny L.; Pearson, Helen B.; Schlüter, Holger; Kaur, Pritinder; Humbert, Patrick O.; Smyth, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Keratins are cytoskeletal intermediate filament proteins that are increasingly being recognised for their diverse cellular functions. Here we report the consequences of germ line inactivation of Keratin 76 (Krt76) in mice. Homozygous disruption of this epidermally expressed gene causes neonatal skin flaking, hyperpigmentation, inflammation, impaired wound healing, and death prior to 12 weeks of age. We show that this phenotype is associated with functionally defective tight junctions that are characterised by mislocalization of the integral protein CLDN1. We further demonstrate that KRT76 interacts with CLDN1 and propose that this interaction is necessary to correctly position CLDN1 in tight junctions. The mislocalization of CLDN1 has been associated in various dermopathies, including the inflammatory disease, psoriasis. These observations establish a previously unknown connection between the intermediate filament cytoskeleton network and tight junctions and showcase Krt76 null mice as a possible model to study aberrant tight junction driven skin diseases. PMID:25340345

  8. Tight detection efficiency bounds of Bell tests in no-signaling theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Zhu; Peng, Tianyi

    2016-10-01

    No-signaling theories, which can contain nonlocal correlations stronger than quantum correlations but limited by the no-signaling condition, have deepened our understanding of the quantum theory. In practice, Bell tests are powerful tools to certify nonlocality, but their effectiveness is limited by the detector efficiency. In this work, we provide almost tight detection efficiency bounds for showing the nonlocality of no-signaling theories, by introducing a general class of Bell inequalities. In particular, we provide a tight bound for the bipartite case and an asymptotic tight bound for the multipartite case. The tightness of these bounds shows that they well characterize the structure of no-signaling theories. The bounds also imply that the detector efficiency requirement can be made arbitrarily low in both bipartite and multipartite cases by increasing the number of measurement settings. Furthermore, our work sheds light on the detector efficiency requirement for showing the nonlocality of the quantum theory.

  9. Effect of tight clothes on cervical and thoracic spine muscles during shoulder abduction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was investigated the effect of tight clothes on cervical and thoracic spine muscles activities during shoulder abduction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy males. The subjects performed two shoulder abduction trials for each of two jacket-wearing conditions. The right upper, middle, and lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscles activities were measured using a surface electromyography system during right shoulder abduction. [Results] The upper and middle trapezius muscle activities during shoulder abduction were significantly increased under the tight-jacket conditions compared with the general-jacket conditions. The lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscle activities were significantly decreased under the tight-jacket conditions compared with the general-jacket conditions. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that normal scapular movements did not occur sufficiently when wearing a tight jacket. PMID:27313348

  10. Effect of tight clothes on cervical and thoracic spine muscles during shoulder abduction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was investigated the effect of tight clothes on cervical and thoracic spine muscles activities during shoulder abduction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy males. The subjects performed two shoulder abduction trials for each of two jacket-wearing conditions. The right upper, middle, and lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscles activities were measured using a surface electromyography system during right shoulder abduction. [Results] The upper and middle trapezius muscle activities during shoulder abduction were significantly increased under the tight-jacket conditions compared with the general-jacket conditions. The lower trapezius and serratus anterior muscle activities were significantly decreased under the tight-jacket conditions compared with the general-jacket conditions. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that normal scapular movements did not occur sufficiently when wearing a tight jacket.

  11. MicroRNAs regulate tight junction proteins and modulate epithelial/endothelial barrier functions.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Christoph; Sabharwal, Harshana; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tightly controlled epithelial and endothelial barriers are a prerequisite for life as these barriers separate multicellular organisms from their environment and serve as first lines of defense. Barriers between neighboring epithelial cells are formed by multiple intercellular junctions including the 'apical junctional complex-AJC' with tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and desmosomes. TJ consist of tetraspan transmembrane proteins like occludin, various claudins that directly control paracellular permeability, and the 'Junctional Adhesion Molecules' (JAMs). For establishing tight barriers TJ are essential but at the same time have to allow also selective permeability. For this, TJ need to be tightly regulated and controlled. This is organized by a variety of adaptor molecules, i.e., protein kinases, phosphatases and GTPases, which in turn are regulated and fine-tuned involving microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review we summarize available data on the role and targeting of miRNAs in the maintenance of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers.

  12. Summary report for the tank tightness testing of underground storage tanks, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    Between August 14, 1989, and August 26, 1989, 16 underground storage tanks were tank tightness tested for leaks as part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory tank management program. This report summarizes the results of these tank tightness tests, the modifications and repairs made to the tank systems, fuel transfer records, and any problems that affected the tank testing schedule. Of the 16 underground storage tanks tested, five failed the tank tightness test. Attempts were made to repair the tanks that failed the tank tightness test. Of those tanks, two were tested three times (one passed and one failed), and three were tested twice (two passed and one failed). The five failed tanks were removed and will be replaced with tanks that meet the Environmental Protection Agency regulations of underground storage tanks. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-20

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  14. Tight junction disruption: Helicobacter pylori and dysregulation of the gastric mucosal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Tyler J; Scott, Kathleen E; Fox, James G; Hagen, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a risk factor for gastric cancer development. In the multi-step process that leads to gastric cancer, tight junction dysfunction is thought to occur and serve as a risk factor by permitting the permeation of luminal contents across an otherwise tight mucosa. Mechanisms that regulate tight junction function and structure in the normal stomach, or dysfunction in the infected stomach, however, are largely unknown. Although conventional tight junction components are expressed in gastric epithelial cells, claudins regulate paracellular permeability and are likely the target of inflammation or H. pylori itself. There are 27 different claudin molecules, each with unique properties that render the mucosa an intact barrier that is permselective in a way that is consistent with cell physiology. Understanding the architecture of tight junctions in the normal stomach and then changes that occur during infection is important but challenging, because most of the reports that catalog claudin expression in gastric cancer pathogenesis are contradictory. Furthermore, the role of H. pylori virulence factors, such as cytotoxin-associated gene A and vacoulating cytotoxin, in regulating tight junction dysfunction during infection is inconsistent in different gastric cell lines and in vivo, likely because non-gastric epithelial cell cultures were initially used to unravel the details of their effects on the stomach. Hampering further study, as well, is the relative lack of cultured cell models that have tight junction claudins that are consistent with native tissues. This summary will review the current state of knowledge about gastric tight junctions, normally and in H. pylori infection, and make predictions about the consequences of claudin reorganization during H. pylori infection. PMID:26523106

  15. Diabetes management at the end of life: transitioning from tight glycemic control to comfort.

    PubMed

    Tice, Martha A

    2006-05-01

    Tight glycemic control has become the standard of care for prevention of the long-term side effects of diabetes mellitus. When individuals with diabetes approach the end of life from advanced cancer or another chronic illness, they often become anorexic. The result is an increased risk for hypoglycemic episodes. It is appropriate to shift the goal of therapy from tight control of blood sugar to maintaining comfort and enhancing quality of life.

  16. Selective release of the digital extensor hood to reduce intrinsic tightness in tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Reinholdt, Carina; Fridén, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Patients with tetraplegia may have various degrees of spasticity in the hand ranging from a completely clenched fist to reduced control of grip at triggered spasticity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the functional effect of the distal ulnar intrinsic release procedure to reduce intrinsic tightness. Seventeen patients with tetraplegia (37 fingers) and with prominent intrinsic tightness were operated on for distal intrinsic release with a modification of the procedure to include only the ulnar side of the proximal phalanx. All the patients had more pronounced tightness on the ulnar than on the radial side of the affected finger. Long fingers were consistently the most affected digits. The intrinsic tightness was released completely in all patients and the range of motion (ROM) was improved by 25%, and up to 45% in mild and severe cases, respectively. The good immediate effects of treatment as shown by increased ROM remained intact by 6 months postoperatively. These data suggest that the distal ulnar intrinsic release procedure is a simple and valuable way of reducing intrinsic tightness and improving hand function and grip for patients with intrinsic tightness. This procedure can be added to other procedures such as lengthening and transfer of tendons. PMID:21504278

  17. Hepatic immunohistochemical localization of the tight junction protein ZO-1 in rat models of cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. M.; Glade, J. L.; Stevenson, B. R.; Boyer, J. L.; Mooseker, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural alterations in hepatocyte tight junctions accompanying cholestasis were investigated using immunolocalization of ZO-1, the first known protein component of the tight junction. Disruption in the paracellular barrier function of the tight junction has been proposed to allow reflux of bile into the blood. Cholestasis was induced in 210 to 235 g male Sprague-Dawley rats either by five consecutive daily subcutaneous injections of 17-alpha-ethinyl estradiol (0.5 mg/kg/d in propylene glycol) or ligation of the common bile duct for 72 hours. The structural organization of the tight junction was assessed in each model by indirect immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase staining for ZO-1 on frozen sections of liver and compared with controls. In control, sham-operated, and estradiol-injected animals, ZO-1 localizes in a uniform continuous manner along the margins of the canaliculi. In contrast, bile duct ligation results in the appearance of numerous discontinuities in ZO-1 staining accompanied by dilation or collapse of the lumenal space. Tissue content of the ZO-1 protein, as determined by quantitative immunoblotting, was unaffected in either cholestatic model compared with controls. These findings indicate that the molecular organization of the tight junction can be assessed from immunostaining patterns of ZO-1 in frozen sections of cholestatic livers. Under these experimental conditions, the organization of the tight junction at the level of the ZO-1 protein is altered by bile duct obstruction but not by ethinyl estradiol. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2719075

  18. Measurement and Visualization of Tight Rock Exposed to CO2 Using NMR Relaxometry and MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Lun, Zengmin; Lv, Chengyuan; Lang, Dongjiang; Ji, Bingyu; Luo, Ming; Pan, Weiyi; Wang, Rui; Gong, Kai

    2017-03-10

    Understanding mechanisms of oil mobilization of tight matrix during CO2 injection is crucial for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration engineering design. In this study exposure behavior between CO2 and tight rock of the Ordos Basin has been studied experimentally by using nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time (NMR T2) spectrum and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under the reservoir pressure and temperature. Quantitative analysis of recovery at the pore scale and visualization of oil mobilization are achieved. Effects of CO2 injection, exposure times and pressure on recovery performance have been investigated. The experimental results indicate that oil in all pores can be gradually mobilized to the surface of rock by CO2 injection. Oil mobilization in tight rock is time-consuming while oil on the surface of tight rock can be mobilized easily. CO2 injection can effectively mobilize oil in all pores of tight rock, especially big size pores. This understanding of process of matrix exposed to CO2 could support the CO2 EOR in tight reservoirs.

  19. Exploring tight junction alteration using double fluorescent probe combination of lanthanide complex with gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Na; Yuan, Lan; Li, Na; Wang, Junxia; Yang, Xiaoda

    2016-08-01

    Tight junctions play a key role in restricting or regulating passage of liquids, ions and large solutes through various biological barriers by the paracellular route. Changes in paracellular permeation indicate alteration of the tight junction. However, it is very difficult to obtain the structural change information by measuring paracellular flux based on transepithelial electrical resistance or using fluorescein-labeled dextrans. Here we show that the BSA and GSH stabilized gold nanoclusters exhibit marginal cytotoxicity and pass through the MDCK monolayer exclusively through the paracellular pathway. We propose a double fluorescence probe strategy, the combination of a proven paracellular indicator (europium complex) with fluorescent gold nanoclusters. We calculate changes of structural parameters in tight junctions based on determination of the diffusion coefficients of the probes. Two different types of tight junction openers are used to validate our strategy. Results show that EDTA disrupts tight junction structures and induces large and smooth paracellular pore paths with an average radius of 17 nm, but vanadyl complexes induce paths with the radius of 6 nm. The work suggests that the double fluorescence probe strategy is a useful and convenient approach for in vitro investigation of tight junction structural alternations caused by pharmacological or pathological events.

  20. Exploring tight junction alteration using double fluorescent probe combination of lanthanide complex with gold nanoclusters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Na; Yuan, Lan; Li, Na; Wang, Junxia; Yang, Xiaoda

    2016-01-01

    Tight junctions play a key role in restricting or regulating passage of liquids, ions and large solutes through various biological barriers by the paracellular route. Changes in paracellular permeation indicate alteration of the tight junction. However, it is very difficult to obtain the structural change information by measuring paracellular flux based on transepithelial electrical resistance or using fluorescein-labeled dextrans. Here we show that the BSA and GSH stabilized gold nanoclusters exhibit marginal cytotoxicity and pass through the MDCK monolayer exclusively through the paracellular pathway. We propose a double fluorescence probe strategy, the combination of a proven paracellular indicator (europium complex) with fluorescent gold nanoclusters. We calculate changes of structural parameters in tight junctions based on determination of the diffusion coefficients of the probes. Two different types of tight junction openers are used to validate our strategy. Results show that EDTA disrupts tight junction structures and induces large and smooth paracellular pore paths with an average radius of 17 nm, but vanadyl complexes induce paths with the radius of 6 nm. The work suggests that the double fluorescence probe strategy is a useful and convenient approach for in vitro investigation of tight junction structural alternations caused by pharmacological or pathological events. PMID:27574102

  1. Measurement and Visualization of Tight Rock Exposed to CO2 Using NMR Relaxometry and MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haitao; Lun, Zengmin; Lv, Chengyuan; Lang, Dongjiang; Ji, Bingyu; Luo, Ming; Pan, Weiyi; Wang, Rui; Gong, Kai

    2017-03-01

    Understanding mechanisms of oil mobilization of tight matrix during CO2 injection is crucial for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration engineering design. In this study exposure behavior between CO2 and tight rock of the Ordos Basin has been studied experimentally by using nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time (NMR T2) spectrum and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under the reservoir pressure and temperature. Quantitative analysis of recovery at the pore scale and visualization of oil mobilization are achieved. Effects of CO2 injection, exposure times and pressure on recovery performance have been investigated. The experimental results indicate that oil in all pores can be gradually mobilized to the surface of rock by CO2 injection. Oil mobilization in tight rock is time-consuming while oil on the surface of tight rock can be mobilized easily. CO2 injection can effectively mobilize oil in all pores of tight rock, especially big size pores. This understanding of process of matrix exposed to CO2 could support the CO2 EOR in tight reservoirs.

  2. Measurement and Visualization of Tight Rock Exposed to CO2 Using NMR Relaxometry and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haitao; Lun, Zengmin; Lv, Chengyuan; Lang, Dongjiang; Ji, Bingyu; Luo, Ming; Pan, Weiyi; Wang, Rui; Gong, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms of oil mobilization of tight matrix during CO2 injection is crucial for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration engineering design. In this study exposure behavior between CO2 and tight rock of the Ordos Basin has been studied experimentally by using nuclear magnetic resonance transverse relaxation time (NMR T2) spectrum and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under the reservoir pressure and temperature. Quantitative analysis of recovery at the pore scale and visualization of oil mobilization are achieved. Effects of CO2 injection, exposure times and pressure on recovery performance have been investigated. The experimental results indicate that oil in all pores can be gradually mobilized to the surface of rock by CO2 injection. Oil mobilization in tight rock is time-consuming while oil on the surface of tight rock can be mobilized easily. CO2 injection can effectively mobilize oil in all pores of tight rock, especially big size pores. This understanding of process of matrix exposed to CO2 could support the CO2 EOR in tight reservoirs. PMID:28281697

  3. High precision optomechanical assembly using threads as mechanical reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Bergeron, Guy; Cantin, Mario

    2016-09-01

    A convenient method to assemble optomechanical components is to use threaded interface. For example, lenses are often secured inside barrels using threaded rings. In other cases, multiple optical sub-assemblies such as lens barrels can be threaded to each other. Threads have the advantage to provide a simple assembly method, to be easy to manufacture, and to offer a compact mechanical design. On the other hand, threads are not considered to provide accurate centering between parts because of the assembly clearance between the inner and outer threads. For that reason, threads are often used in conjunction with precision cylindrical surfaces to limit the radial clearance between the parts to be centered. Therefore, tight manufacturing tolerances are needed on these pilot diameters, which affect the cost of the optical assembly. This paper presents a new optomechanical approach that uses threads as mechanical reference. This innovative method relies on geometric principles to auto-center parts to each other with a very low centering error that is usually less than 5 μm. The method allows to auto-center an optical group in a main barrel, to perform an axial adjustment of an optical group inside a main barrel, and to perform stacking of multiple barrels. In conjunction with the lens auto-centering method that also used threads as a mechanical reference, this novel solution opens new possibilities to realize a variety of different high precision optomechanical assemblies at lower cost.

  4. Synaptic Mechanisms of Tight Spike Synchrony at Gamma Frequency in Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Salkoff, David B.; Zagha, Edward; Yüzgeç, Özge

    2015-01-01

    During the generation of higher-frequency (e.g., gamma) oscillations, cortical neurons can exhibit pairwise tight (<10 ms) spike synchrony. To understand how synaptic currents contribute to rhythmic activity and spike synchrony, we performed dual whole-cell recordings in mouse entorhinal cortical slices generating periodic activity (the slow oscillation). This preparation exhibited a significant amount of gamma-coherent spike synchrony during the active phase of the slow oscillation (Up state), particularly among fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons. IPSCs arriving in pairs of either pyramidal or fast-spiking neurons during the Up state were highly synchronized and exhibited significant coherence at frequencies from 10 to 100 Hz, peaking at ∼40 Hz, suggesting both synchronous discharge of, and synaptic divergence from, nearby inhibitory neurons. By inferring synaptic currents related to spike generation in simultaneously recorded pyramidal or fast-spiking neurons, we detected a decay of inhibition ∼20 ms before spiking. In fast-spiking interneurons, this was followed by an even larger excitatory input immediately before spike generation. Consistent with an important role for phasic excitation in driving spiking, we found that the correlation of excitatory inputs was highly predictive of spike synchrony in pairs of fast-spiking interneurons. Interestingly, spike synchrony in fast-spiking interneurons was not related to the strength of gap junctional coupling, and was still prevalent in connexin 36 knock-out animals. Our results support the pyramidal-interneuron gamma model of fast rhythmic oscillation in the cerebral cortex and suggest that spike synchrony and phase preference arises from the precise interaction of excitatory–inhibitory postsynaptic currents. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We dissected the cellular and synaptic basis of spike synchrony occurring at gamma frequency (30–80 Hz). We used simultaneous targeted whole-cell recordings in an active slice

  5. What can we learn from ultrasonic velocities monitoring during hydraulic fracturing of tight shale ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Jérôme; Stanchits, Sergei

    2016-04-01

    Methods of prediction the size and aperture of created hydraulic fracture are essential for a proper design of unconventional reservoir well stimulation. Several theoretical models describing hydraulic fracture propagation have been developed. However, there is a lack of direct field measurements of hydraulic fracture dimensions, verifying results of these models. Monitoring of elastic wave parameters may be a useful tool to estimate fracture dimensions. Indeed, the elastic wave velocity in a medium containing a fracture is sensitive to the fracture geometry and its conditions: dry fracture or saturated with fluid. In this paper, we focus on ultrasonic velocities monitoring during hydraulic fracturing of tight shale. We report the results of hydraulic fracturing of Niobrara shale outcrop block of 279 x 279 x 381 mm size from Colorado, USA. In this experiment, the block was loaded in a polyaxial loading frame made by TerraTek, a Schlumberger Company. Stresses were applied to the rock blocks independently in three directions using flat jacks. Then viscous fluid was injected into borehole at a constant flow rate. 20 PZT sensors were embedded into pockets drilled in the rock. They were used for registration of Acoustic Emission (AE) signals and for periodical ultrasonic transmissions to measure P-wave velocities in different directions. Our results show that ultrasonic measurements can be useful for understanding the mechanics of the crack growth. More precisely, from the evolution of the P-velocities and their amplitudes during the loading, we are able: (i) to estimate the velocity of the hydraulic fracture which was found to be 0.15 mm/s (that is close to the fracture velocity inferred from the dynamic of AE spatial evolution). (ii) In addition, the evolution of the P-velocities during the loading shows that a liquid-free crack always precedes the liquid front. In our experiment, the lag is estimated to be 15 mm. (iii) Finally, at fixed distances from the borehole

  6. Development and testing of an ion probe for tightly-bunched particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, M.; Pasour, J.

    1996-06-01

    Many high-energy physics experiments require a high-quality and well-diagnosed charged-particle beam (CPB). Precise knowledge of beam size, position, and charge distribution is often crucial to the success of the experiment. It is also important in many applications that the diagnostic used to determine the beam parameters be nonintercepting and nonperturbing. This requirement rules out many diagnostics, such as wire scanners, thin foils which produce Cerenkov or transition radiation, and even some rf cavity diagnostics. Particularly difficult to diagnose are tightly-focused (r{sub b} << 1 mm), short-duration (psec) beams, such as those in state-of-the-art or next-generation particle colliders. In this paper we describe an ion probe that is capable of penetrating the space-charge field of densely bunched CPBs without perturbation, thereby enabling the measurement of the microstructure of the bunch. This diagnostic probe uses a finely-focused stream of ions to interact with the CPB. Related techniques have been discussed in the literature. In fact, the present work evolved from an electron deflection diagnostic for CPBs that we previously described. A similar electron probe was tested even earlier at TRIUMF and in the Former Soviet Union. Electron probes have also been used to measure plasma sheaths and potentials and the neutralization of heavy ion beams. Also, Mendel has used an ion beam (22 keV He{sup +}) to probe rapidly varying fields in plasmas. The probe ions are injected across the beam tube and into the path of the high-energy CPB. The ions are deflected by the CPB, and the direction and magnitude of the deflection are directly related to the spatial and temporal charge distribution of the CPB. Easily-resolved deflections can be produced by microbunches having total charge on the order of a nCoul and pulse durations of a few psec. The deflected ions are monitored with a suitable detector, in this case a microchannel plate capable of detecting single ions.

  7. Algorithms for searching Fast radio bursts and pulsars in tight binary systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zackay, Barak

    2017-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRB's) are an exciting, recently discovered, astrophysical transients which their origins are unknown.Currently, these bursts are believed to be coming from cosmological distances, allowing us to probe the electron content on cosmological length scales. Even though their precise localization is crucial for the determination of their origin, radio interferometers were not extensively employed in searching for them due to computational limitations.I will briefly present the Fast Dispersion Measure Transform (FDMT) algorithm,that allows to reduce the operation count in blind incoherent dedispersion by 2-3 orders of magnitude.In addition, FDMT enables to probe the unexplored domain of sub-microsecond astrophysical pulses.Pulsars in tight binary systems are among the most important astrophysical objects as they provide us our best tests of general relativity in the strong field regime.I will provide a preview to a novel algorithm that enables the detection of pulsars in short binary systems using observation times longer than an orbital period.Current pulsar search programs limit their searches for integration times shorter than a few percents of the orbital period.Until now, searching for pulsars in binary systems using observation times longer than an orbital period was considered impossible as one has to blindly enumerate all options for the Keplerian parameters, the pulsar rotation period, and the unknown DM.Using the current state of the art pulsar search techniques and all computers on the earth, such an enumeration would take longer than a Hubble time. I will demonstrate that using the new algorithm, it is possible to conduct such an enumeration on a laptop using real data of the double pulsar PSR J0737-3039.Among the other applications of this algorithm are:1) Searching for all pulsars on all sky positions in gamma ray observations of the Fermi LAT satellite.2) Blind searching for continuous gravitational wave sources emitted by pulsars with

  8. Axion Bounds from Precision Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Raffelt, G. G.; Hamann, J.; Hannestad, S.; Mirizzi, A.; Wong, Y. Y. Y.

    2010-08-30

    Depending on their mass, axions produced in the early universe can leave different imprints in cosmic structures. If axions have masses in the eV-range, they contribute a hot dark matter fraction, allowing one to constrain m{sub a} in analogy to neutrinos. In the more favored scenario where axions play the role of cold dark matter and if reheating after inflation does not restore the Peccei-Quinn symmetry, the axion field provides isocurvature fluctuations that are severely constrained by precision cosmology. There remains a small sliver in parameter space where isocurvature fluctuations could still show up in future probes.

  9. Precision alignment and mounting apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alignment and mounting apparatus for mounting two modules (10,12) includes a first portion having a cylindrical alignment pin (16) projecting normal to a module surface, a second portion having a three-stage alignment guide (18) including a shoehorn flange (34), a Y-slot (42) and a V-block (22) which sequentially guide the alignment pin (16) with successively finer precision and a third portion in the form of a spring-loaded captive fastener (20) for connecting the two modules after alignment is achieved.

  10. Precision Measurement Of Corneal Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Paul R.; Macri, Timothy F.; Telfair, William B.; Bennett, Peter S.; Martin, Clifford A.; Warner, John W.

    1989-05-01

    We describe a new electro-optical device being developed to provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional topography of the human cornea. This device, called a digital keratoscope, is intended primarily for use in preparing for and determining the effect of corneal surgery procedures such as laser refractive keratectomy, radial keratotomy or corneal transplant on the refractive power of the cornea. It also may serve as an aid in prescribing contact lenses. The basic design features of the hardware and of the associated computer software are discussed, the means for alignment and calibration are described and typical results are given.

  11. Precision ozone vapor pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D.; Mauersberger, K.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure above liquid ozone has been measured with a high accuracy over a temperature range of 85 to 95 K. At the boiling point of liquid argon (87.3 K) an ozone vapor pressure of 0.0403 Torr was obtained with an accuracy of + or - 0.7 percent. A least square fit of the data provided the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for liquid ozone; a latent heat of 82.7 cal/g was calculated. High-precision vapor pressure data are expected to aid research in atmospheric ozone measurements and in many laboratory ozone studies such as measurements of cross sections and reaction rates.

  12. Antihydrogen production and precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, M.M.; Goldman, T.; Holzscheiter, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The study of CPT invariance with the highest achievable precision in all particle sectors is of fundamental importance for physics. Equally important is the question of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. In recent years, impressive progress has been achieved in capturing antiprotons in specially designed Penning traps, in cooling them to energies of a few milli-electron volts, and in storing them for hours in a small volume of space. Positrons have been accumulated in large numbers in similar traps, and low energy positron or positronium beams have been generated. Finally, steady progress has been made in trapping and cooling neutral atoms. Thus the ingredients to form antihydrogen at rest are at hand. Once antihydrogen atoms have been captured at low energy, spectroscopic methods can be applied to interrogate their atomic structure with extremely high precision and compare it to its normal matter counterpart, the hydrogen atom. Especially the 1S-2S transition, with a lifetime of the excited state of 122 msec and thereby a natural linewidth of 5 parts in 10{sup 16}, offers in principle the possibility to directly compare matter and antimatter properties at a level of 1 part in 10{sup 16}.

  13. Automatic precision measurement of spectrograms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B A; Sansonetti, C J; Andrew, K L

    1978-08-01

    A fully automatic comparator has been designed and implemented to determine precision wavelengths from high-resolution spectrograms. The accuracy attained is superior to that of an experienced operator using a semiautomatic comparator with a photoelectric setting device. The system consists of a comparator, slightly modified for simultaneous data acquisition from two parallel scans of the spectrogram, interfaced to a minicomputer. The software which controls the system embodies three innovations of special interest. (1) Data acquired from two parallel scans are compared and used to separate unknown from standard lines, to eliminate spurious lines, to identify blends of unknown with standard lines, to improve the accuracy of the measured positions, and to flag lines which require special examination. (2) Two classes of lines are automatically recognized and appropriate line finding methods are applied to each. This provides precision measurement for both simple and complex line profiles. (3) Wavelength determination using a least-squares fitted grating equation is supported in addition to polynomial interpolation. This is most useful in spectral regions with sparsely distributed standards. The principles and implementation of these techniques are fully described.

  14. Precision Measurements in 37K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anholm, Melissa; Ashery, Daniel; Behling, Spencer; Fenker, Benjamin; Melconian, Dan; Mehlman, Michael; Behr, John; Gorelov, Alexandre; Olchanski, Konstantin; Preston, Claire; Warner, Claire; Gwinner, Gerald

    2015-10-01

    We have performed precision measurements of the kinematics of the daughter particles in the decay of 37K. This isotope decays by β+ emission in a mixed Fermi/Gamow-Teller transition to its isobaric analog, 37Ar. Because the higher-order standard model corrections to this decay process are well understood, it is an ideal candidate for for improving constraints on interactions beyond the standard model. Our setup utilizes a magneto-optical trap to confine and cool samples of 37K, which are then spin-polarized by optical pumping. This allows us to perform measurements on both polarized and unpolarized nuclei, which is valuable for a complete understanding of systematic effects. Precision measurements of this decay are expected to be sensitive to the presence of right-handed vector currents, as well as a linear combination of scalar and tensor currents. Progress towards a final result is presented here. Support provided by: NSERC, NRC through TRIUMF, DOE ER40773, Early Career ER41747, Israel Science Foundation.

  15. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  16. Helium 3 neutron precision polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Measuring neutron polarization to a high degree of precision is critical for the next generation of neutron decay correlation experiments. Polarized neutrons are also used in experiments to probe the hadronic weak interaction which contributes a small portion (˜10-7) of the force between nucleons. Using a beam of cold neutrons at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), we polarized neutrons and measured their absolute polarization to ˜0.1%. Neutrons were polarized by passing them through a ^3He spin filter, relying on the maximally spin dependent 3He neutron absorption cross section. The neutron polarization can be determined by measuring the wavelength-dependent neutron transmission through the ^3He cell. An independent measurement of the neutron polarization was also obtained by passing the polarized beam through an RF spin flipper and a second polarized ^3He cell, used as an analyzer. To measure the efficiency of the spin flipper, the same measurements were made after reversing the ^3He polarization in the polarizer by using NMR techniques (adiabatic fast passage). We will show the consistency of these two measurements and the resulting precision of neutron polarimetry using these techniques.

  17. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  18. Precision Mass Measurements at CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascar, D.; van Schelt, J.; Savard, G.; Caldwell, S.; Chaudhuri, A.; Clark, J. A.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Sternberg, M.; Sun, T.; Zabransky, B. J.; Segel, R.; Sharma, K.

    2010-02-01

    Neutron separation energies (Sn) are essential inputs to models of explosive r-process nucleosynthesis. However, for nuclei farther from stability, the precision of Sn decreases as production decreases and observation of those nuclei become more difficult. Many of the most critical inputs to the models are based on extrapolations from measurements of masses closer to stability than the predicted r-process path. Measuring masses that approach and lie on the predicted r-process path will further constrain the systematic uncertainties in these extrapolated values. The Canadian Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer (CPT) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has measured the masses of more than 160 nuclei to high precision. A recent move to the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) at ANL has given the CPT unique access to weakly produced nuclei that cannot be easily reached via proton induced fission of ^238U. CARIBU will eventually use a 1 Ci source of ^252Cf to produce these nuclei. Installation of the CPT at CARIBU as well as the first CPT mass measurements of neutron rich nuclei at CARIBU will be discussed. )

  19. Superallowed nuclear beta decay: Precision measurements for basic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    For 60 years, superallowed 0+→0+ nuclear beta decay has been used to probe the weak interaction, currently verifying the conservation of the vector current (CVC) to high precision (±0.01%) and anchoring the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix (±0.06%), a fundamental pillar of the electroweak standard model. Each superallowed transition is characterized by its ft-value, a result obtained from three measured quantities: the total decay energy of the transition, its branching ratio, and the half-life of the parent state. Today's data set is composed of some 150 independent measurements of 13 separate superallowed transitions covering a wide range of parent nuclei from 10C to 74Rb. Excellent consistency among the average results for all 13 transitions - a prediction of CVC - also confirms the validity of the small transition-dependent theoretical corrections that have been applied to account for isospin symmetry breaking. With CVC consistency established, the value of the vector coupling constant, GV, has been extracted from the data and used to determine the top left element of the CKM matrix, Vud. With this result the top-row unitarity test of the CKM matrix yields the value 0.99995(61), a result that sets a tight limit on possible new physics beyond the standard model. To have any impact on these fundamental weak-interaction tests, any measurement must be made with a precision of 0.1% or better - a substantial experimental challenge well beyond the requirements of most nuclear physics measurements. I overview the current state of the field and outline some of the requirements that need to be met by experimentalists if they aim to make measurements with this high level of precision.

  20. Superallowed nuclear beta decay: Precision measurements for basic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J. C.

    2012-11-20

    For 60 years, superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +} nuclear beta decay has been used to probe the weak interaction, currently verifying the conservation of the vector current (CVC) to high precision ({+-}0.01%) and anchoring the most demanding available test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix ({+-}0.06%), a fundamental pillar of the electroweak standard model. Each superallowed transition is characterized by its ft-value, a result obtained from three measured quantities: the total decay energy of the transition, its branching ratio, and the half-life of the parent state. Today's data set is composed of some 150 independent measurements of 13 separate superallowed transitions covering a wide range of parent nuclei from {sup 10}C to {sup 74}Rb. Excellent consistency among the average results for all 13 transitions - a prediction of CVC - also confirms the validity of the small transition-dependent theoretical corrections that have been applied to account for isospin symmetry breaking. With CVC consistency established, the value of the vector coupling constant, G{sub V}, has been extracted from the data and used to determine the top left element of the CKM matrix, V{sub ud}. With this result the top-row unitarity test of the CKM matrix yields the value 0.99995(61), a result that sets a tight limit on possible new physics beyond the standard model. To have any impact on these fundamental weak-interaction tests, any measurement must be made with a precision of 0.1% or better - a substantial experimental challenge well beyond the requirements of most nuclear physics measurements. I overview the current state of the field and outline some of the requirements that need to be met by experimentalists if they aim to make measurements with this high level of precision.

  1. Sparsity-aware tight frame learning with adaptive subspace recognition for multiple fault diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han; Chen, Xuefeng; Du, Zhaohui; Yang, Boyuan

    2017-09-01

    It is a challenging problem to design excellent dictionaries to sparsely represent diverse fault information and simultaneously discriminate different fault sources. Therefore, this paper describes and analyzes a novel multiple feature recognition framework which incorporates the tight frame learning technique with an adaptive subspace recognition strategy. The proposed framework consists of four stages. Firstly, by introducing the tight frame constraint into the popular dictionary learning model, the proposed tight frame learning model could be formulated as a nonconvex optimization problem which can be solved by alternatively implementing hard thresholding operation and singular value decomposition. Secondly, the noises are effectively eliminated through transform sparse coding techniques. Thirdly, the denoised signal is decoupled into discriminative feature subspaces by each tight frame filter. Finally, in guidance of elaborately designed fault related sensitive indexes, latent fault feature subspaces can be adaptively recognized and multiple faults are diagnosed simultaneously. Extensive numerical experiments are sequently implemented to investigate the sparsifying capability of the learned tight frame as well as its comprehensive denoising performance. Most importantly, the feasibility and superiority of the proposed framework is verified through performing multiple fault diagnosis of motor bearings. Compared with the state-of-the-art fault detection techniques, some important advantages have been observed: firstly, the proposed framework incorporates the physical prior with the data-driven strategy and naturally multiple fault feature with similar oscillation morphology can be adaptively decoupled. Secondly, the tight frame dictionary directly learned from the noisy observation can significantly promote the sparsity of fault features compared to analytical tight frames. Thirdly, a satisfactory complete signal space description property is guaranteed and thus

  2. The Precision Field Lysimeter Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fank, J.

    2009-04-01

    The understanding and interpretation of leaching processes have improved significantly during the past decades. Unlike laboratory experiments, which are mostly performed under very controlled conditions (e.g. homogeneous, uniform packing of pre-treated test material, saturated steady-state flow conditions, and controlled uniform hydraulic conditions), lysimeter experiments generally simulate actual field conditions. Lysimeters may be classified according to different criteria such as type of soil block used (monolithic or reconstructed), drainage (drainage by gravity or vacuum or a water table may be maintained), or weighing or non-weighing lysimeters. In 2004 experimental investigations have been set up to assess the impact of different farming systems on groundwater quality of the shallow floodplain aquifer of the river Mur in Wagna (Styria, Austria). The sediment is characterized by a thin layer (30 - 100 cm) of sandy Dystric Cambisol and underlying gravel and sand. Three precisely weighing equilibrium tension block lysimeters have been installed in agricultural test fields to compare water flow and solute transport under (i) organic farming, (ii) conventional low input farming and (iii) extensification by mulching grass. Specific monitoring equipment is used to reduce the well known shortcomings of lysimeter investigations: The lysimeter core is excavated as an undisturbed monolithic block (circular, 1 m2 surface area, 2 m depth) to prevent destruction of the natural soil structure, and pore system. Tracing experiments have been achieved to investigate the occurrence of artificial preferential flow and transport along the walls of the lysimeters. The results show that such effects can be neglected. Precisely weighing load cells are used to constantly determine the weight loss of the lysimeter due to evaporation and transpiration and to measure different forms of precipitation. The accuracy of the weighing apparatus is 0.05 kg, or 0.05 mm water equivalent

  3. Precision grip and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fellows, S J; Noth, J; Schwarz, M

    1998-09-01

    In order to investigate sensorimotor processing and force development in Parkinson's disease, 16 patients, four patients with hemiparkinsonism and 12 age-matched normal subjects were assessed during lifting and holding of an object in a precision grip between thumb and forefinger, or holding the object in this grip at a fixed height above a table. In the former case, object loading could be changed between lifts without warning. In the latter case, unexpected step load changes to the object were applied to the object with a torque motor. All procedures could be applied with or without visual control of the hand and the object. Normal subjects lifted an unpredictable load employing the grip force parameters used in the preceding lift. If a load change was encountered, the parameters became adapted to the new conditions during the lift, modulating grip forces to match the loading. Parkinsonian patients retained this strategy and the ability to regulate grip forces according to load. Under all conditions, however, parkinsonian subjects developed abnormally high grip forces in both the lift and the hold phase, although the ratio of these forces remained normal. Lifting height was normal in parkinsonian subjects, but the duration of the lifting task was significantly prolonged, due to a marked slowing in the rate of grip force development in the lead-up to object lift-off and to prolongation of the movement phase. Forewarning of object loading, with or without visual control, did not reduce timing deficits or improve the rate of grip force development. However, it did allow parkinsonian subjects to reduce the safety margin significantly. Responses to step load changes imposed during holding without visual control showed minor abnormalities in the parkinsonian patients: onset latencies and EMG activity in the first dorsal interosseus and thenar muscles were normal up to 140 ms after displacement. Subsequent EMG activity in the first dorsal interosseus remained largely

  4. Tightly bound soil water introduces isotopic memory effects on mobile and extractable soil water pools.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Sarah L; Prechsl, Ulrich E; Pace, Matthew; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-03-23

    Cryogenic vacuum extraction is the well-established method of extracting water from soil for isotopic analyses of waters moving through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. We investigate if soils can alter the isotopic composition of water through isotope memory effects, and determined which mechanisms are responsible for it. Soils with differing physicochemical properties were re-wetted with reference water and subsequently extracted by cryogenic water distillation. Results suggest some reference waters bind tightly to the soil and not all of this tightly bound water is removed during cryogenic vacuum extraction. Kinetic isotopic fractionation occurring when reference water binds to the soil is likely responsible for the (18)O-depletion of re-extracted reference water, suggesting an enrichment of the tightly bound soil water pool. Further re-wetting of cryogenically extracted soils indicates an isotopic memory effect of tightly bound soil water on water added to the soil. The data suggest tightly bound soil water can influence the isotopic composition of mobile soil water. Findings show that soils influence the isotope composition of soil water by (i) kinetic fractionation when water is bound to the soil and (ii) equilibrium fractionation between different soil water pools. These findings could be relevant for plant water uptake investigations and complicate ecohydrological and paleohydrological studies.

  5. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  6. Structure of the tight junctions of the human eccrine sweat gland.

    PubMed

    Briggman, J V; Bank, H L; Bigelow, J B; Graves, J S; Spicer, S S

    1981-12-01

    The human eccrine sweat gland contains two anatomically and functionally discrete segments: the secretory coil, which produces an isotonic or slightly hypertonic precursor fluid, and the coiled duct, which reabsorbs Na+ and Cl- to yield a hypotonic sweat. We examined the freeze-fracture morphology of tight junctions from isolated secretory coil and coiled duct segments to assess indirectly the contribution of paracellular ion transport in secretion and resorption in the sweat gland. In the secretory coil, tight junctions of the intercellular canaliculus and main lumen consisted of approximately 9 and 6, closely spaced, parallel or anastomosing elements, respectively. Tight junctions of the coiled duct were similar in appearance to those at the main lumen of the secretory coil. In both the secretory coil and coiled duct, and average of 2 to 3, widely spaced junctional elements were usually observed basolateral to the closely spaced junctional elements in the region corresponding to the location of the zonula adherens in Epon sections. The complexity of the tight junctions of the secretory coil exceeded what we expected for an epithelium secreting an isosmotic fluid. The elaborate tight junctions of the coiled duct support other evidence for an intermediate to high transepithelial resistance.

  7. The effects of elastic tights on the post-exercise response.

    PubMed

    Berry, M J; Bailey, S P; Simpkins, L S; TeWinkle, J A

    1990-12-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that graduated compression stockings will affect the post-exercise venous lactate profile. To determine the effects of elastic tights on venous lactate levels and the post-exercise response, eight males completed three exercise bouts on a motor driven treadmill. Each subject ran on the treadmill for up to three minutes at 110% of his VO2max. The conditions for the three exercise bouts were: elastic tights worn during exercise and recovery, elastic tights worn only during exercise, and no elastic tights worn during exercise or recovery. Oxygen consumption, heart rates and venous blood samples, for lactate and hematocrit determination, were obtained at rest and at 5, 15 and 30 min post-exercise. Analysis revealed no significant differences (p greater than 0.05) in any of the above variables between the three trials at any of the measurement times. These results indicate that the use of elastic tights will not significantly affect the post-exercise response or circulating lactate levels.

  8. Chitosan encapsulation modulates the effect of capsaicin on the tight junctions of MDCK cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, M.; Pereira, S.; Pohl, L.; Ketelhut, S.; Kemper, B.; Gorzelanny, C.; Galla, H. -J.; Moerschbacher, B. M.; Goycoolea, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin has known pharmacological effects including the ability to reversibly open cellular tight junctions, among others. The aim of this study was to develop a strategy to enhance the paracellular transport of a substance with low permeability (FITC-dextran) across an epithelial cell monolayer via reversible opening of cellular tight junctions using a nanosystem comprised by capsaicin and of chitosan. We compared the biophysical properties of free capsaicin and capsaicin-loaded chitosan nanocapsules, including their cytotoxicity towards epithelial MDCK-C7 cells and their effect on the integrity of tight junctions, membrane permeability and cellular uptake. The cytotoxic response of MDCK-C7 cells to capsaicin at a concentration of 500 μM, which was evident for the free compound, is not observable following its encapsulation. The interaction between nanocapsules and the tight junctions of MDCK-C7 cells was investigated by impedance spectroscopy, digital holographic microscopy and structured illumination fluorescence microscopy. The nanocapsules modulated the interaction between capsaicin and tight junctions as shown by the different time profile of trans-epithelial electrical resistance and the enhanced permeability of monolayers incubated with FITC-dextran. Structured illumination fluorescence microscopy showed that the nanocapsules were internalized by MDCK-C7 cells. The capsaicin-loaded nanocapsules could be further developed as drug nanocarriers with enhanced epithelial permeability. PMID:25970096

  9. Brittleness index and seismic rock physics model for anisotropic tight-oil sandstone reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin-Rui; Huang, Jian-Ping; Li, Zhen-Chun; Yang, Qin-Yong; Sun, Qi-Xing; Cui, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Brittleness analysis becomes important when looking for sweet spots in tight-oil sandstone reservoirs. Hence, appropriate indices are required as accurate brittleness evaluation criteria. We construct a seismic rock physics model for tight-oil sandstone reservoirs with vertical fractures. Because of the complexities in lithology and pore structure and the anisotropic characteristics of tight-oil sandstone reservoirs, the proposed model is based on the solid components, pore connectivity, pore type, and fractures to better describe the sandstone reservoir microstructure. Using the model, we analyze the brittleness sensitivity of the elastic parameters in an anisotropic medium and establish a new brittleness index. We show the applicability of the proposed brittleness index for tight-oil sandstone reservoirs by considering the brittleness sensitivity, the rock physics response characteristics, and cross-plots. Compared with conventional brittleness indexes, the new brittleness index has high brittleness sensitivity and it is the highest in oil-bearing brittle zones with relatively high porosity. The results also suggest that the new brittleness index is much more sensitive to elastic properties variations, and thus can presumably better predict the brittleness characteristics of sweet spots in tight-oil sandstone reservoirs.

  10. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  11. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  12. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  13. RaDARSAT precision transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, R. K.; Teany, L. D.; Srivastava, S.; Tam, S. Y. K.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the set of four RADARSAT Precision Transponders (RPTs) developed for the Canadian Space Agency for the calibration and qualification of the spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) carried on the Canadian remote sensing satellite known as RADARSAT, launched in November, 1995. The transponder system block diagram, RF diagram, and specification development are described, as well as the overall program which gives the transponder function in the calibration program for RADARSAT. The transponders are deployed at four strategically situated sites across Canada: Fredericton, NB; Ottawa, Ont.; Prince Albert, Sask.; and Resolute, NWT. Some details of the sites and their sensor visitation characteristics are given. Also provided are some early results showing the use and performance of the transponders using ERS-1/2 and RADARSAT.

  14. Precision QCD measurements at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirumov, Hayk

    2014-11-01

    A review of recent experimental results on perturbative QCD from the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS is presented. All inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering are combined. They span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q2, and in Bjorken x. This data set is used as the sole input to NLO and NNLO QCD analyses to determine new sets of parton distributions, HERAPDF2.0, with small experimental uncertainties and an estimate of model and parametrisation uncertainties. Also shown are new results on inclusive jet, dijet and trijet differential cross sections measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering. The precision jet data is used to extract the strong coupling αs at NLO with small experimental errors.

  15. System for precise position registration

    DOEpatents

    Sundelin, Ronald M.; Wang, Tong

    2005-11-22

    An apparatus for enabling accurate retaining of a precise position, such as for reacquisition of a microscopic spot or feature having a size of 0.1 mm or less, on broad-area surfaces after non-in situ processing. The apparatus includes a sample and sample holder. The sample holder includes a base and three support posts. Two of the support posts interact with a cylindrical hole and a U-groove in the sample to establish location of one point on the sample and a line through the sample. Simultaneous contact of the third support post with the surface of the sample defines a plane through the sample. All points of the sample are therefore uniquely defined by the sample and sample holder. The position registration system of the current invention provides accuracy, as measured in x, y repeatability, of at least 140 .mu.m.

  16. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  17. Retrospective study on the effect of tight glucose control in postoperative sepsis patients using an artificial pancreas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Gaku; Matsumoto, Naoya; Shozushima, Tatsuyori; Onodera, Chiaki; Kan, Shigenori; Akitomi, Shinji; Hoshikawa, Koichi; Kikkawa, Tomohiro; Kojika, Masahiro; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Kenji; Wakabayashi, Go; Endo, Shigeatsu

    2011-12-01

    Tight glucose control (TGC) using a sliding scale based on intermittent blood glucose measurements occasionally can have a fatal outcome as a result of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. The present study was undertaken to examine whether the use of an artificial pancreas to achieve TGC would be possible in postoperative patients with sepsis. The retrospective study was carried out as an exploratory study, focusing on the possibility of precise evaluation of the significance of TGC as a beneficial intervention by serological monitoring of various mediators. TGC was accomplished using an artificial pancreas (STG-22; (Nikkiso, Tokyo, Japan). The patients were divided into two groups: the TGC group (6 patients with sepsis in whom the target blood glucose level set at <150 mg/dl was attempted using the artificial pancreas), and the glucose control (GC) group (6 patients with sepsis in whom glucose control was attempted using a sliding scale; target blood glucose level was set at 200 mg/dl or lower). The mean blood glucose level was 129.7 ± 9.7 mg/dl in the TGC group and 200.9 ± 14.7 mg/dl in the GC group (P < 0.01, ANOVA). No hypoglycemia associated with the artificial pancreas was seen in any of the patients. The serum levels of S100A12 and HMGB-1 tended to decrease, and those of sRAGE tended to increase, in the TGC group. Further data collection from a larger number of cases would be expected to allow a precise assessment of TGC as a potentially beneficial intervention in sepsis patients.

  18. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  19. SmallSat Precision Navigation with Low-Cost MEMS IMU Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, John; Bishop, Robert; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The continued advancement of small satellite-based science missions requires the solution to a number of important technical challenges. Of particular note is that small satellite missions are characterized by tight constraints on cost, mass, power, and volume that make them unable to fly the high-quality Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) required for orbital missions demanding precise orientation and positioning. Instead, small satellite missions typically fly low-cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) IMUs. Unfortunately, the performance characteristics of these MEMS IMUs make them ineffectual in many spaceflight applications when employed in a single IMU system configuration.

  20. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A

    1999-04-01

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques.

  1. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  3. Precision Farming and Conservation Advances Agricultural Sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To many, Precision Farming, more formally termed Precision Agriculture, seems like an oxymoron. Yet site-specific management makes sense to an exponentially growing number of farmers. So where is Precision Farming headed? The short answer is that it is being extended from a focus on crop productio...

  4. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ACROMIOCLAVICULAR JOINT DISLOCATION BY TIGHT ROPE TECHNIQUE (ARTHREX®)

    PubMed Central

    GÓmez Vieira, Luis Alfredo; Visco, Adalberto; Daneu Fernandes, Luis Filipe; GÓmez Cordero, Nicolas Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Presenting the arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope - Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation and to evaluate results obtained with this procedure. Methods: Between August 2006 and May 2007, 10 shoulders of 10 patients with acute acromioclavicular dislocation were submitted to arthroscopic repair using the Tight Rope - Arthrex® system. Minimum follow-up was 12 months, with a mean of 15 months. Age ranged from 26 to 42, mean 34 years. All patients were male. Radiology evaluation was made by trauma series x-ray. The patients were assisted in the first month weekly and after three months after the procedure. Clinical evaluation was based on the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) criteria. Results: All patients were satisfied after the arthroscopic procedure and the mean UCLA score was 32,5. Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment by Tight Rope – Arthrex® system for acute acromioclavicular dislocation showed to be an efficient technique. PMID:26998453

  5. Loose and Tight GNSS/INS Integrations: Comparison of Performance Assessed in Real Urban Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Falco, Gianluca; Pini, Marco; Marucco, Gianluca

    2017-01-29

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) remain the principal mean of positioning in many applications and systems, but in several types of environment, the performance of standalone receivers is degraded. Although many works show the benefits of the integration between GNSS and Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs), tightly-coupled architectures are mainly implemented in professional devices and are based on high-grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). This paper investigates the performance improvements enabled by the tight integration, using low-cost sensors and a mass-market GNSS receiver. Performance is assessed through a series of tests carried out in real urban scenarios and is compared against commercial modules, operating in standalone mode or featuring loosely-coupled integrations. The paper describes the developed tight-integration algorithms with a terse mathematical model and assesses their efficacy from a practical perspective.

  6. Loose and Tight GNSS/INS Integrations: Comparison of Performance Assessed in Real Urban Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Falco, Gianluca; Pini, Marco; Marucco, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) remain the principal mean of positioning in many applications and systems, but in several types of environment, the performance of standalone receivers is degraded. Although many works show the benefits of the integration between GNSS and Inertial Navigation Systems (INSs), tightly-coupled architectures are mainly implemented in professional devices and are based on high-grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). This paper investigates the performance improvements enabled by the tight integration, using low-cost sensors and a mass-market GNSS receiver. Performance is assessed through a series of tests carried out in real urban scenarios and is compared against commercial modules, operating in standalone mode or featuring loosely-coupled integrations. The paper describes the developed tight-integration algorithms with a terse mathematical model and assesses their efficacy from a practical perspective. PMID:28146058

  7. Rapid method of quantification of tight-junction organization using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Christine; Sellami, Mehdi; Fichel, Caroline; Diebold, Marie-Danielle; Gangloff, Sophie; Le Naour, Richard; Polette, Myriam; Zahm, Jean-Marie

    2013-02-01

    The spatial organization of proteins in a cell population or in tissues is an important parameter to study the functionality of biological specimens. In this article, we have focused on tight junctions which form network-like features in immunofluorescence microscopy images. Usually, the organization or disorganization of tight junctions is noticed qualitatively. The aim of this article is to present a simple method to quantify the organization level of tight junction network using image analysis with a dedicated macro developed with Image J software. The method has been validated with simulated images displaying regular decrease of network organization. Then, the macro has been applied to immunofluorescence microscopy images of cells in culture and of tissue sections.

  8. Microwave emulations and tight-binding calculations of transport in polyacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Thomas; Franco-Villafañe, John A.; Ortiz, Yenni P.; Kuhl, Ulrich; Mortessagne, Fabrice; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    A novel approach to investigate the electron transport of cis- and trans-polyacetylene chains in the single-electron approximation is presented by using microwave emulation measurements and tight-binding calculations. In the emulation we take into account the different electronic couplings due to the double bonds leading to coupled dimer chains. The relative coupling constants are adjusted by DFT calculations. For sufficiently long chains a transport band gap is observed if the double bonds are present, whereas for identical couplings no band gap opens. The band gap can be observed also in relatively short chains, if additional edge atoms are absent, which cause strong resonance peaks within the band gap. The experimental results are in agreement with our tight-binding calculations using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The tight-binding calculations show that it is crucial to include third nearest neighbor couplings to obtain the gap in the cis-polyacetylene.

  9. Structurally controlled and aligned tight gas reservoir compartmentalization in the San Juan and Piceance Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, A.D.; Kuuskraa, V.A.; Klawitter, A.L.

    1995-10-01

    Recurrent basement faulting is the primary controlling mechanism for aligning and compartmentalizing upper Cretaceous aged tight gas reservoirs of the San Juan and Piceance Basins. Northwest trending structural lineaments that formed in conjunction with the Uncompahgre Highlands have profoundly influenced sedimentation trends and created boundaries for gas migration; sealing and compartmentalizing sedimentary packages in both basins. Fractures which formed over the structural lineaments provide permeability pathways which allowing gas recovery from otherwise tight gas reservoirs. Structural alignments and associated reservoir compartments have been accurately targeted by integrating advanced remote sensing imagery, high resolution aeromagnetics, seismic interpretation, stratigraphic mapping and dynamic structural modelling. This unifying methodology is a powerful tool for exploration geologists and is also a systematic approach to tight gas resource assessment in frontier basins.

  10. Sequoia: A fault-tolerant tightly coupled multiprocessor for transaction processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, P.A.

    1988-02-01

    The Sequoia computer is a tightly coupled multiprocessor, and thus attains the performance advantages of this style of architecture. It avoids most of the fault-tolerance disadvantages of tight coupling by using a new fault-tolerance design. The Sequoia architecture is similar to other multimicroprocessor architectures, such as those of Encore and Sequent, in that it gives dozens of microprocessors shared access to a large main memory. It resembles the Stratus architecture in its extensive use of hardware fault-detection techniques. It resembles Stratus and Auragen in its ability to quickly recover all processes after a single point failure, transparently to the user. However, Sequoia is unique in its combination of a large-scale tightly coupled architecture with a hardware approach to fault tolerance. This article gives an overview of how the hardware architecture and operating systems (OS) work together to provide a high degree of fault tolerance with good system performance.

  11. Method Of Making A Vacuum-Tight Continuous Cable Feedthrough Device

    DOEpatents

    Bazizi, Kamel Abdel; Haelen, Thomas Eugene; Lobkowicz, Frederick; Slattery, Paul Francis

    2001-07-17

    A vacuum-tight cable feedthrough device includes a metallic first flange that is penetrated by a slot. Passing through the slot is a flat stripline cable that includes a plurality of conductive signal channels encompassed by a dielectric material on whose upper and lower surfaces is disposed a conductive material includes a ground. The stripline cable is sealed within the slot to provide a substantially vacuum-tight seal between the cable and the first flange. In a preferred embodiment, the cable feedthrough device includes a plurality, at least 16, of stripline cables. In a further preferred embodiment, the device includes a second flange and a bellows sealably connecting the first and second flanges, thereby providing a substantially vacuum-tight, flexible housing for the plurality of cables.

  12. Destruction of attractive bosonic cloud due to high spatial coherence in tight trap

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Anindya; Das, Tapan Kumar; Chakrabarti, Barnali

    2011-10-15

    We study coherence of a trapped bosonic cloud with attractive finite-range interaction in a tight harmonic trap. One-body density and pair-distribution function in the ground state for different trap sizes are calculated. We also calculate healing length and the correlation length which signify the presence of high spatial coherence in a very tight trap leading to the destruction of the condensate for a fixed particle number. This is in marked variance with the usual collapse of the attractive metastable condensate when N>N{sub cr}. Thus we investigate the critical frequency and critical size of the trap for the existence of attractive Bose-Einstein condensation. The finite-range interaction gives a nonlocal effect in the effective many-body potential, and we observe a high-density stable branch besides the known metastable branch. Moreover, the new branch shows universal behavior even in the very tight trap.

  13. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27003989

  14. Map of assessed tight-gas resources in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R. H.; ,

    2014-01-01

    This report presents a digital map of tight-gas resource assessments in the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS quantitatively estimated potential volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable natural gas resources within tight-gas assessment units (AUs). This is the second digital map product in a series of USGS unconventional oil and gas resource maps. The map plate included in this report can be printed in hard-copy form or downloaded in a Geographic Information System (GIS) data package, including an ArcGIS ArcMap document (.mxd), geodatabase (.gdb), and published map file (.pmf). In addition, the publication access table contains hyperlinks to current USGS tight-gas assessment publications and web pages.

  15. Irinotecan disrupts tight junction proteins within the gut : implications for chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wardill, Hannah R; Bowen, Joanne M; Al-Dasooqi, Noor; Sultani, Masooma; Bateman, Emma; Stansborough, Romany; Shirren, Joseph; Gibson, Rachel J

    2014-02-01

    Chemotherapy for cancer causes significant gut toxicity, leading to severe clinical manifestations and an increased economic burden. Despite much research, many of the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood hindering effective treatment options. Recently there has been renewed interest in the role tight junctions play in the pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity. To delineate the underlying mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity, this study aimed to quantify the molecular changes in key tight junction proteins, ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin, using a well-established preclinical model of gut toxicity. Female tumor-bearing dark agouti rats received irinotecan or vehicle control and were assessed for validated parameters of gut toxicity including diarrhea and weight loss. Rats were killed at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h post-chemotherapy. Tight junction protein and mRNA expression in the small and large intestines were assessed using semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Significant changes in protein expression of tight junction proteins were seen in both the jejunum and colon, correlating with key histological changes and clinical features. mRNA levels of claudin-1 were significantly decreased early after irinotecan in the small and large intestines. ZO-1 and occludin mRNA levels remained stable across the time-course of gut toxicity. Findings strongly suggest irinotecan causes tight junction defects which lead to mucosal barrier dysfunction and the development of diarrhea. Detailed research is now warranted to investigate posttranslational regulation of tight junction proteins to delineate the underlying pathophysiology of gut toxicity and identify future therapeutic targets.

  16. Airplane transport isolators may loose leak tightness after rapid cabin decompression.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Roland; Kunz, Andres; Voelckel, Wolfgang G

    2015-02-08

    Air medical transport of patients suffering of highly infectious diseases is typically performed employing portable isolation chambers. Although the likelihood of decompression flight emergencies is low, sustainability of the devices used is crucial. When a standard isolation unit was subjected to an explosive cabin decompression of 493 hPa, simulating a 32808 ft flight level accident, leak tightness of the unit was lost due to rupture of the bag caused by over expansion. When the pressure chamber experiment was repeated with a modified unit, distension was minimized by an additional compensation air bag, thus ensuring leak tightness.

  17. FDTD approach to optical forces of tightly focused vector beams on metal particles.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Qi; Wang, Xi-Lin; Jia, Ding; Chen, Jing; Fan, Ya-Xian; Ding, Jianping; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2009-05-11

    We propose an improved FDTD method to calculate the optical forces of tightly focused beams on microscopic metal particles. Comparison study on different kinds of tightly focused beams indicates that trapping efficiency can be altered by adjusting the polarization of the incident field. The results also show the size-dependence of trapping forces exerted on metal particles. Transverse tapping forces produced by different illumination wavelengths are also evaluated. The numeric simulation demonstrates the possibility of trapping moderate-sized metal particles whose radii are comparable to wavelength.

  18. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  19. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  20. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, Kar-Keung David

    1998-01-01

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degreed of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns.

  1. Precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization.

    PubMed

    Gottstein, Claudia; Wu, Guohui; Wong, Benjamin J; Zasadzinski, Joseph Anthony

    2013-06-25

    Nanoparticles have opened new exciting avenues for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in human disease, and targeted nanoparticles are increasingly used as specific drug delivery vehicles. The precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization is of importance to measure the impact of physical and chemical properties on the uptake of nanoparticles into target cells or into cells responsible for rapid clearance. Internalization of nanoparticles has been measured by various techniques, but comparability of data between different laboratories is impeded by lack of a generally accepted standardized assay. Furthermore, the distinction between associated and internalized particles has been a challenge for many years, although this distinction is critical for most research questions. Previously used methods to verify intracellular location are typically not quantitative and do not lend themselves to high-throughput analysis. Here, we developed a mathematical model which integrates the data from high-throughput flow cytometry measurements with data from quantitative confocal microscopy. The generic method described here will be a useful tool in biomedical nanotechnology studies. The method was then applied to measure the impact of surface coatings of vesosomes on their internalization by cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). RES cells are responsible for rapid clearance of nanoparticles, and the resulting fast blood clearance is one of the major challenges in biomedical applications of nanoparticles. Coating of vesosomes with long chain polyethylene glycol showed a trend for lower internalization by RES cells.

  2. High precision redundant robotic manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Young, K.K.D.

    1998-09-22

    A high precision redundant robotic manipulator for overcoming contents imposed by obstacles or imposed by a highly congested work space is disclosed. One embodiment of the manipulator has four degrees of freedom and another embodiment has seven degrees of freedom. Each of the embodiments utilize a first selective compliant assembly robot arm (SCARA) configuration to provide high stiffness in the vertical plane, a second SCARA configuration to provide high stiffness in the horizontal plane. The seven degree of freedom embodiment also utilizes kinematic redundancy to provide the capability of avoiding obstacles that lie between the base of the manipulator and the end effector or link of the manipulator. These additional three degrees of freedom are added at the wrist link of the manipulator to provide pitch, yaw and roll. The seven degrees of freedom embodiment uses one revolute point per degree of freedom. For each of the revolute joints, a harmonic gear coupled to an electric motor is introduced, and together with properly designed based servo controllers provide an end point repeatability of less than 10 microns. 3 figs.

  3. PRECISION TIME-DELAY GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Carr, B.J.; Peckham, V.D.

    1959-06-16

    A precision time-delay generator circuit with low jitter is described. The first thyratron has a series resonant circuit and a diode which is connected to the second thyratron. The first thyratron is triggered at the begin-ning of a time delay and a capacitor is discharged through the first thyratron and the diode, thereby, triggering the second thyratron. (T.R.H.) l6l9O The instrument described can measure pressures between sea level and 300,000 ft. The pressure- sensing transducer of the instrument is a small cylindrical tube with a thin foil of titanium-tritium fastened around the inside of the tube. Output is a digital signal which can be used for storage or telemetering more conveniently than an analog signal. (W.D.M.) l6l9l An experimental study was made on rolling contacts in the temperature range of 550 to 1000 deg F. Variables such as material composition, hardness, and operating conditions were investigated in a rolling test stand. Ball bearing tests were run to determine the effect of design parameters, bearing materials, lubricants, and operating conditions. (auth)

  4. Control of precision pointing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zheng

    Distributed-parameter modeling of tube with moving mass using Magnetic Compressional Damping Treatment (MCDT) is developed. Hamilton's principle is utilized to develop the model and boundary condition of a tube with moving mass using MCDT. Based on the electromagnetic theory, the relation between the generated magnet force of the actuator (MCDT) and the control current is determined. A stable control strategy is developed to damp out the vibration of the tube with moving mass using MCDT system. The fundamental characteristics of an active and a passive version of the Magnetic Compressional Damping Treatment (MCDT) are investigated by the finite element method. The damping characteristics of tube/MCDT system are modeled by Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method in order to predict the tube response in the time domain. The numerical results are verified through experimentation using a cantilevered tube treated with MCDT at the free end. The tube vibration due to an internally moving load is controlled by the MCDT using a deflection feedback controller. Close agreement is obtained between theory and experiments. The effectiveness of the MCDT in attenuating structural vibration of the tube has also been clearly demonstrated in the time and frequency domains. The developed theoretical and experimental techniques present invaluable tools for designing and predicting the performance of precision pointing tubes different damping treatments when subjected to moving loads.

  5. Precision of circular systematic sampling.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Orive, L M; Gual-Arnau, X

    2002-09-01

    In design stereology, many estimators require isotropic orientation of a test probe relative to the object in order to attain unbiasedness. In such cases, systematic sampling of orientations becomes imperative on grounds of efficiency and practical applicability. For instance, the planar nucleator and the vertical rotator imply systematic sampling on the circle, whereas the Buffon-Steinhaus method to estimate curve length in the plane, or the vertical designs to estimate surface area and curve length, imply systematic sampling on the semicircle. This leads to the need for predicting the precision of systematic sampling on the circle and the semicircle from a single sample. There are two main prediction approaches, namely the classical one of G. Matheron for non-necessarily periodic measurement functions, and a recent approach based on a global symmetric model of the covariogram, more specific for periodic measurement functions. The latter approach seems at least as satisfactory as the former for small sample sizes, and it is developed here incorporating local errors. Detailed examples illustrating common stereological tools are included.

  6. Ultra-precision positioning assembly

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  7. Scoring of precision spur gears

    SciTech Connect

    Budinski, K.G. )

    1994-09-01

    A group of manufacturing machines employed precision spur gears as the timing mechanism for machine operations. These machines had worked successfully for about ten years with little or no problems with gear wear or deterioration. When new machines were brought on line with recently made gears there were immediate problems with gear tooth scoring. A laboratory study was conducted to determine if metallurgical conditions were related to the gear scoring. Recent gears were made from a modification of the alloy used in early gears. The new alloy has been modified to make it more resistant to softening in coating operations. Reciprocating wear tests and galling tests were conducted to compare the tribological characteristics of the old and new gear steels. It was determined that the threshold galling stress of the gear steels was strongly dependent on the hardness. The reciprocating wear tests indicated that the wear resistance was affected by the volume fraction of hard phases in the steels. The recommended short-term solution was to alter the tempering procedure for the steel to keep Rockwell C hardness above 60; the long-term solution was to change the gear material and lubrication.

  8. A polyphenylene dendrimer drug transporter with precisely positioned amphiphilic surface patches.

    PubMed

    Stangenberg, René; Wu, Yuzhou; Hedrich, Jana; Kurzbach, Dennis; Wehner, Daniel; Weidinger, Gilbert; Kuan, Seah Ling; Jansen, Malin Insa; Jelezko, Fedor; Luhmann, Heiko J; Hinderberger, Dariush; Weil, Tanja; Müllen, Klaus

    2015-02-18

    The design and synthesis of a polyphenylene dendrimer (PPD 3) with discrete binding sites for lipophilic guest molecules and characteristic surface patterns is presented. Its semi-rigidity in combination with a precise positioning of hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups at the periphery yields a refined architecture with lipophilic binding pockets that accommodate defined numbers of biologically relevant guest molecules such as fatty acids or the drug doxorubicin. The size, architecture, and surface textures allow to even penetrate brain endothelial cells that are a major component of the extremely tight blood-brain barrier. In addition, low to no toxicity is observed in in vivo studies using zebrafish embryos. The unique PPD scaffold allows the precise placement of functional groups in a given environment and offers a universal platform for designing drug transporters that closely mimic many features of proteins.

  9. Future paradigms for precision oncology.

    PubMed

    Klement, Giannoula Lakka; Arkun, Knarik; Valik, Dalibor; Roffidal, Tina; Hashemi, Ali; Klement, Christos; Carmassi, Paolo; Rietman, Edward; Slaby, Ondrej; Mazanek, Pavel; Mudry, Peter; Kovacs, Gabor; Kiss, Csongor; Norga, Koen; Konstantinov, Dobrin; André, Nicolas; Slavc, Irene; van Den Berg, Henk; Kolenova, Alexandra; Kren, Leos; Tuma, Jiri; Skotakova, Jarmila; Sterba, Jaroslav

    2016-07-19

    Research has exposed cancer to be a heterogeneous disease with a high degree of inter-tumoral and intra-tumoral variability. Individual tumors have unique profiles, and these molecular signatures make the use of traditional histology-based treatments problematic. The conventional diagnostic categories, while necessary for care, thwart the use of molecular information for treatment as molecular characteristics cross tissue types.This is compounded by the struggle to keep abreast the scientific advances made in all fields of science, and by the enormous challenge to organize, cross-reference, and apply molecular data for patient benefit. In order to supplement the site-specific, histology-driven diagnosis with genomic, proteomic and metabolomics information, a paradigm shift in diagnosis and treatment of patients is required.While most physicians are open and keen to use the emerging data for therapy, even those versed in molecular therapeutics are overwhelmed with the amount of available data. It is not surprising that even though The Human Genome Project was completed thirteen years ago, our patients have not benefited from the information. Physicians cannot, and should not be asked to process the gigabytes of genomic and proteomic information on their own in order to provide patients with safe therapies. The following consensus summary identifies the needed for practice changes, proposes potential solutions to the present crisis of informational overload, suggests ways of providing physicians with the tools necessary for interpreting patient specific molecular profiles, and facilitates the implementation of quantitative precision medicine. It also provides two case studies where this approach has been used.

  10. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    PubMed

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  11. Future paradigms for precision oncology

    PubMed Central

    Klement, Giannoula Lakka; Arkun, Knarik; Valik, Dalibor; Roffidal, Tina; Hashemi, Ali; Klement, Christos; Carmassi, Paolo; Rietman, Edward; Slaby, Ondrej; Mazanek, Pavel; Mudry, Peter; Kovacs, Gabor; Kiss, Csongor; Norga, Koen; Konstantinov, Dobrin; André, Nicolas; Slavc, Irene; van Den Berg, Henk; Kolenova, Alexandra; Kren, Leos; Tuma, Jiri; Skotakova, Jarmila; Sterba, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Research has exposed cancer to be a heterogeneous disease with a high degree of inter-tumoral and intra-tumoral variability. Individual tumors have unique profiles, and these molecular signatures make the use of traditional histology-based treatments problematic. The conventional diagnostic categories, while necessary for care, thwart the use of molecular information for treatment as molecular characteristics cross tissue types. This is compounded by the struggle to keep abreast the scientific advances made in all fields of science, and by the enormous challenge to organize, cross-reference, and apply molecular data for patient benefit. In order to supplement the site-specific, histology-driven diagnosis with genomic, proteomic and metabolomics information, a paradigm shift in diagnosis and treatment of patients is required. While most physicians are open and keen to use the emerging data for therapy, even those versed in molecular therapeutics are overwhelmed with the amount of available data. It is not surprising that even though The Human Genome Project was completed thirteen years ago, our patients have not benefited from the information. Physicians cannot, and should not be asked to process the gigabytes of genomic and proteomic information on their own in order to provide patients with safe therapies. The following consensus summary identifies the needed for practice changes, proposes potential solutions to the present crisis of informational overload, suggests ways of providing physicians with the tools necessary for interpreting patient specific molecular profiles, and facilitates the implementation of quantitative precision medicine. It also provides two case studies where this approach has been used. PMID:27223079

  12. Assessment of Permian tight oil and gas resources in the Junggar basin of China, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-04-05

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 764 million barrels of oil and 3.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in tight reservoirs in the Permian Lucaogou Formation in the Junggar basin of northwestern China.

  13. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Cecilia Bravo; Mariano Gurfinkel

    2005-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying possible relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. Based on a critical review of the available literature, a better understanding of the main weaknesses of the current state of the art of modeling and simulation for tight sand reservoirs has been reached. Progress has been made in the development and implementation of a simple reservoir simulator that is still able to overcome some of the deficiencies detected. The simulator will be used to quantify the impact of microscopic phenomena in the macroscopic behavior of tight sand gas reservoirs. Phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization are being considered as part of this study. To date, the adequate modeling of gas slippage in porous media has been determined to be of great relevance in order to explain unexpected fluid flow behavior in tight sand reservoirs.

  14. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Research continued on methods to detect naturally fractured tight gas reservoirs. This report contains a seismic survey map, and reports on efforts towards a source test to select the source parameters for a 37 square mile compressional wave 3-D seismic survey. Considerations of the source tests are discussed.

  15. Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands: Annual report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dandge, V.; Graham, M.; Gonzales, B.; Coker, D.

    1987-12-01

    Tight gas sands are a vast future source of natural gas. These sands are characterized as having very low porosity and permeability. The main resource development problem is efficiently extracting the gas from the reservoir. Future production depends on a combination of gas price and technological advances. Gas production can be enhanced by fracturing. Studies have shown that many aspects of fracture design and gas production are influenced by properties of the rock matrix. Computer models for stimulation procedures require accurate knowledge of flow properties of both the rock matrix and the fractured regions. In the proposed work, these properties will be measured along with advanced core analysis procedure aimed at understanding the relationship between pore structure and properties. The objective of this project is to develop reliable core analysis techniques for measuring the petrophysical properties of tight gas sands. Recent research has indicated that the flow conditions in the reservoir can be greatly enhanced by the presence of natural fractures, which serve as a transport path for gas from the less permeable matrix. The study is mainly concerned with the dependence of flow in tight gas matrix and healed tectonic fractures on water saturation and confining pressure. This dependency is to be related to the detailed pore structure of tight sands as typified by cores recovered in the Multi-Well experiment. 22 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Side-stream smoking reduces intestinal inflammation and increases expression of tight junction proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Hu, Nan; Ren, Jun; Du, Min; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of side-stream smoking on gut microflora composition, intestinal inflammation and expression of tight junction proteins. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to side-stream cigarette smoking for one hour daily over eight weeks. Cecal contents were collected for microbial composition analysis. Large intestine was collected for immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses of the inflammatory pathway and tight junction proteins. RESULTS: Side-stream smoking induced significant changes in the gut microbiota with increased mouse intestinal bacteria, Clostridium but decreased Fermicutes (Lactoccoci and Ruminococcus), Enterobacteriaceae family and Segmented filamentous baceteria compared to the control mice. Meanwhile, side-stream smoking inhibited the nuclear factor-κB pathway with reduced phosphorylation of p65 and IκBα, accompanied with unchanged mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α or interleukin-6. The contents of tight junction proteins, claudin3 and ZO2 were up-regulated in the large intestine of mice exposed side-stream smoking. In addition, side-stream smoking increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK kinase signaling, while inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase in the large intestine. CONCLUSION: Side-stream smoking altered gut microflora composition and reduced the inflammatory response, which was associated with increased expression of tight junction proteins. PMID:22611310

  17. MicroRNAs regulate tight junction proteins and modulate epithelial/endothelial barrier functions

    PubMed Central

    Cichon, Christoph; Sabharwal, Harshana; Rüter, Christian; Schmidt, M Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Tightly controlled epithelial and endothelial barriers are a prerequisite for life as these barriers separate multicellular organisms from their environment and serve as first lines of defense. Barriers between neighboring epithelial cells are formed by multiple intercellular junctions including the ‘apical junctional complex—AJC’ with tight junctions (TJ), adherens junctions (AJ), and desmosomes. TJ consist of tetraspan transmembrane proteins like occludin, various claudins that directly control paracellular permeability, and the ‘Junctional Adhesion Molecules’ (JAMs). For establishing tight barriers TJ are essential but at the same time have to allow also selective permeability. For this, TJ need to be tightly regulated and controlled. This is organized by a variety of adaptor molecules, i.e., protein kinases, phosphatases and GTPases, which in turn are regulated and fine-tuned involving microRNAs (miRNAs). In this review we summarize available data on the role and targeting of miRNAs in the maintenance of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers. PMID:25610754

  18. The Role of Temporary Help Employment in Tight Labor Markets. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

    The impact of hiring temporary workers during the tight labor markets of the 1990s was examined through case studies of six hospitals and five automobile plants. The hospitals varied in size from 450 to 6,000 employees. The auto suppliers included unionized and nonunionized small and large companies. The case studies included extensive interviews…

  19. Results from tight and loose coupled multiphysics in nuclear fuels performance simulations using BISON

    SciTech Connect

    Novascone, S. R.; Spencer, B. W.; Andrs, D.; Williamson, R. L.; Hales, J. D.; Perez, D. M.

    2013-07-01

    The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled won't converge and vice versa. (authors)

  20. Electron-hole correlations in semiconductor quantum dots with tight-binding wave fuctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seungwon, L.; Jonsson, L.; Wilkins, J.; Bryant, G.; Klimeck, G.

    2001-01-01

    The electron-hole states of semiconductor quantum dots are investigated within the framework of empirical tight-binding descriptions for Si, as an example of an indirect-gap material, and InAs and CdSe as examples of typical III-V and II-VI direct-gap materials.

  1. Quantum confined Stark effect in Gaussian quantum wells: A tight-binding study

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez-Morales, A.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I.

    2014-05-15

    The main characteristics of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) are studied theoretically in quantum wells of Gaussian profile. The semi-empirical tight-binding model and the Green function formalism are applied in the numerical calculations. A comparison of the QCSE in quantum wells with different kinds of confining potential is presented.

  2. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less... dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter,...

  3. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less... dusts, fumes, and mists having an air contamination level less than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter,...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT THE PROTECTOSEAL COMPANY PIN-TECH BUBBLE TIGHT < 500 PPM RELIEF VENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a pressure relief valve for protection of storage tanks that operate at pressures of 15 psig or less. Four Pin-Tech Bubble Tight <500 ppm Relief Vent valves manufactured by the Protectose...

  5. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lagus, P.L.; DuBois, L.J.; Fleming, K.M.

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  6. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter, or against radionuclides; minimum requirements. 84.1142 Section 84.1142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Masks § 84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection...

  7. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter, or against radionuclides; minimum requirements. 84.1142 Section 84.1142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Masks § 84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... than 0.05 milligram per cubic meter, or against radionuclides; minimum requirements. 84.1142 Section 84.1142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Masks § 84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection...

  9. AUV Positioning Method Based on Tightly Coupled SINS/LBL for Underwater Acoustic Multipath Propagation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Shi, Hongfei; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao; Tong, Jinwu

    2016-03-11

    This paper researches an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) positioning method based on SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System)/LBL (Long Base Line) tightly coupled algorithm. This algorithm mainly includes SINS-assisted searching method of optimum slant-range of underwater acoustic propagation multipath, SINS/LBL tightly coupled model and multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. Fuzzy correlation peak problem of underwater LBL acoustic propagation multipath could be solved based on SINS positional information, thus improving LBL positional accuracy. Moreover, introduction of SINS-centered LBL locating information could compensate accumulative AUV position error effectively and regularly. Compared to loosely coupled algorithm, this tightly coupled algorithm can still provide accurate location information when there are fewer than four available hydrophones (or within the signal receiving range). Therefore, effective positional calibration area of tightly coupled system based on LBL array is wider and has higher reliability and fault tolerance than loosely coupled. It is more applicable to AUV positioning based on SINS/LBL.

  10. Assessment of tight-gas resources in Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean resources of 5 trillion cubic feet of gas and 187 million barrels of natural gas liquids in tight-gas assessment units in the Canyon sandstones of the Val Verde Basin, Texas.

  11. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    EIA retained Turner, Mason & Company to provide analysis of the implications of increasing domestic light tight oil production for U.S. refining, focusing on regional crude supply/demand balances, refinery crude slates, operations, capital investment, product yields, crude oil exports/imports, petroleum product exports, infrastructure constraints and expansions, and crude oil price relationships.

  12. a Mixed-Fractal Flow Model for Stimulated Fractured Vertical Wells in Tight Oil Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuliang; Sheng, Guanglong; Wang, Wendong; Zhang, Qi; Lu, Mingjing; Ren, Long

    2016-02-01

    Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) with large fracture networks can be generated near hydraulic fractured vertical wells (HFVWs) in tight oil reservoirs. Statistics show that natural microfractures and fracture networks stimulated by SRV were self-similar in statistical sense. Currently, various analytical models have been presented to study pressure behaviors of HFVWs in tight oil reservoirs. However, most of the existing models did not take the distribution and self-similarity of fractures into consideration. To account for stimulated characteristic and self-similarity of fractures in tight oil reservoirs, a mixed-fractal flow model was presented. In this model, there are two distinct regions, stimulated region and unstimulated region. Dual-porosity model and single porosity model were used to model stimulated and unstimulated regions, respectively. Fractal geometry is employed to describe fractal permeability and porosity relationship (FPPR) in tight oil reservoirs. Solutions for the mixed-fractal flow model were derived in the Laplace domain and were validated among range of the reservoir parameters. The pressure transient behavior and production rate derivative were used to analyze flow regimes. The type curves show that the fluid flow in HFVWs can be divided into six main flow periods. Finally, effect of fractal parameters and SRV size on flow periods were also discussed. The results show that the SRV size and fractal parameters of fracture network have great effect on the former periods and fractal parameters of matrix mainly influence the later flow periods.

  13. Universality of energy conversion efficiency for optimal tight-coupling heat engines and refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z. C.

    2013-10-01

    A unified χ-criterion for heat devices (including heat engines and refrigerators), which is defined as the product of the energy conversion efficiency and the heat absorbed per unit time by the working substance (de Tomás et al 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 010104), is optimized for tight-coupling heat engines and refrigerators operating between two heat baths at temperatures Tc and Th( > Tc). By taking a new convention on the thermodynamic flux related to the heat transfer between two baths, we find that for a refrigerator tightly and symmetrically coupled with two heat baths, the coefficient of performance (i.e., the energy conversion efficiency of refrigerators) at maximum χ asymptotically approaches \\sqrt{\\varepsilon _C} when the relative temperature difference between two heat baths \\varepsilon _C^{-1}\\equiv (T_h-T_c)/T_c is sufficiently small. Correspondingly, the efficiency at maximum χ (equivalent to maximum power) for a heat engine tightly and symmetrically coupled with two heat baths is proved to be \\eta _C/2+\\eta _C^2/8 up to the second order term of ηC ≡ (Th - Tc)/Th, which reverts to the universal efficiency at maximum power for tight-coupling heat engines operating between two heat baths at small temperature difference in the presence of left-right symmetry (Esposito et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 130602).

  14. Sonic and electrical properties of partially saturated tight-gas sands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, A.

    1983-03-01

    This study was aimed at relating the seismic and the electrical properties of tight-gas rocks to their pore-space geometry, permeability, and level of water saturation. Here we report results of a laboratory experimental study of wave propagation in Cotton Valley and Spirit River Sandstones as a function of partial water saturation (SW) and wave frequency. We find that wave velocities and the velocity ratio are sensitive to the presence of gas. Furthermore, wave attenuation is sensitive to the amount of gas in the pore space. Ultrasonic measurements in tight-gas sands tend to yield higher velocity values, due to the inability of the pore fluid pressure to homogenize during the passage of waves. Laboratory measurements were made also of the complex electrical response of selected tight rocks, and compared with normal permeability Berea Sandstone. The results show that the dielectric property of tight-gas sands is very sensitive to partial water saturation, and may give not only insight into the nature of the pore space, but also provide a practical measure of S/sub w/ in situ. 35 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Results from Tight and Loose Coupled Multiphysics in Nuclear Fuels Performance Simulations using BISON

    SciTech Connect

    S. R. Novascone; B. W. Spencer; D. Andrs; R. L. Williamson; J. D. Hales; D. M. Perez

    2013-05-01

    The behavior of nuclear fuel in the reactor environment is affected by multiple physics, most notably heat conduction and solid mechanics, which can have a strong influence on each other. To provide credible solutions, a fuel performance simulation code must have the ability to obtain solutions for each of the physics, including coupling between them. Solution strategies for solving systems of coupled equations can be categorized as loosely-coupled, where the individual physics are solved separately, keeping the solutions for the other physics fixed at each iteration, or tightly coupled, where the nonlinear solver simultaneously drives down the residual for each physics, taking into account the coupling between the physics in each nonlinear iteration. In this paper, we compare the performance of loosely and tightly coupled solution algorithms for thermomechanical problems involving coupled thermal and mechanical contact, which is a primary source of interdependence between thermal and mechanical solutions in fuel performance models. The results indicate that loosely-coupled simulations require significantly more nonlinear iterations, and may lead to convergence trouble when the thermal conductivity of the gap is too small. We also apply the tightly coupled solution strategy to a nuclear fuel simulation of an experiment in a test reactor. Studying the results from these simulations indicates that perhaps convergence for either approach may be problem dependent, i.e., there may be problems for which a loose coupled approach converges, where tightly coupled won’t converge and vice versa.

  16. Precisely parameterized experimental and computational models of tissue organization†

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Rajesh B.; Blake, Robert; Park, JinSeok; Trayanova, Natalia A.; Tung, Leslie; Levchenko, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of cellular organization in diverse tissues frequently display a complex geometry and topology tightly related to the tissue function. Progressive disorganization of tissue morphology can lead to pathologic remodeling, necessitating the development of experimental and theoretical methods of analysis of the tolerance of normal tissue function to structural alterations. A systematic way to investigate the relationship of diverse cell organization to tissue function is to engineer two-dimensional cell monolayers replicating key aspects of the in vivo tissue architecture. However, it is still not clear how this can be accomplished on a tissue level scale in a parameterized fashion, allowing for a mathematically precise definition of the model tissue organization and properties down to a cellular scale with a parameter dependent gradual change in model tissue organization. Here, we describe and use a method of designing precisely parameterized, geometrically complex patterns that are then used to control cell alignment and communication of model tissues. We demonstrate direct application of this method to guiding the growth of cardiac cell cultures and developing mathematical models of cell function that correspond to the underlying experimental patterns. Several anisotropic patterned cultures spanning a broad range of multicellular organization, mimicking the cardiac tissue organization of different regions of the heart, were found to be similar to each other and to isotropic cell monolayers in terms of local cell–cell interactions, reflected in similar confluency, morphology and connexin-43 expression. However, in agreement with the model predictions, different anisotropic patterns of cell organization, paralleling in vivo alterations of cardiac tissue morphology, resulted in variable and novel functional responses with important implications for the initiation and maintenance of cardiac arrhythmias. We conclude that variations of tissue geometry and

  17. MultiView High Precision VLBI Astrometry at Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioja, María J.; Dodson, Richard; Orosz, Gabor; Imai, Hiroshi; Frey, Sandor

    2017-03-01

    The arrival of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will revitalize all aspects of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) astronomy at lower frequencies. In the last decade, there have been huge strides toward routinely achieving high precision VLBI astrometry at frequencies dominated by tropospheric contributions, most notably at 22 GHz, using advanced phase-referencing techniques. Nevertheless, to increase the capability for high precision astrometric measurements at low radio frequencies (<8 GHz), an effective calibration strategy of the systematic ionospheric propagation effects that is widely applicable is required. Observations at low frequencies are dominated by distinct direction-dependent ionospheric propagation errors, which place a very tight limit on the angular separation of a suitable phase-referencing calibrator. The MultiView technique holds the key to compensating for atmospheric spatial-structure errors, by using observations of multiple calibrators and two-dimensional interpolation in the visibility domain. In this paper we present the first demonstration of the power of MultiView using three calibrators, several degrees from the target, along with a comparative study of the astrometric accuracy between MultiView and phase-referencing techniques. MultiView calibration provides an order of magnitude improvement in astrometry with respect to conventional phase referencing, achieving ∼100 μas astrometry errors in a single epoch of observations, effectively reaching the thermal noise limit. MultiView will achieve its full potential with the enhanced sensitivity and multibeam capabilities of SKA and the pathfinders, which will enable simultaneous observations of the target and calibrators. Our demonstration indicates that the 10 μas goal of astrometry at ∼1.6 GHz using VLBI with SKA is feasible using the MultiView technique.

  18. Laboratory Measurements of Fluid Transport Properties on Tight Gas Sandstones and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Daniel; Reitenbach, Viktor

    2014-05-01

    Deep gas reservoirs are of great interest for the E&P industry. Large areas of such reservoirs have permeabilities below 1 mD. The reservoir rocks in these areas show a strong stress sensitivity of the fluid transport properties and a considerable productivity decline due to changing stress conditions during the production process. For correct modeling and simulation of Tight Gas reservoirs it is important to know the behavior of the fluid transport properties under the changing stress condition the reservoir experiences. In several measurement series the effects of changing overburden and pore pressure on Rotliegend sandstone samples from north German Tight Gas reservoirs have been quantified and used to set up correlation functions. With the correlation functions from the own measurements and additional data and correlations from literature a Rock Data Catalog has been developed as tool to help reservoir engineers with modeling and simulation of such reservoirs. The Rock Data Catalog consists of the Rock Database and the Correlation Module. The Rock Database contains general and petrophysical rock data. The Correlation Module uses this data to generate secondary data of e.g. in-situ capillary and hydraulic rock properties with appropriate correlation functions. Viability of the economic gas production from Tight Gas Reservoirs strongly depends on reservoir quality. Therefore identification of high quality reservoir parts or so called Sweet Spots for placing production wells and planning hydraulic fracturing stimulation, is one of key issues of the tight gas reservoir characterization and evaluation. The data and correlation functions collected in the Rock Data Catalog could also be used to identify Sweet Spots in Tight Gas reservoirs. Several rock parameters and properties, which affect the fluid flow in a reservoir (like lithology, clay content, water saturation, permeability, pore size distribution) can be identified and used to set up a Sweet Spot Index as a

  19. Diffusion of nonelectrolytes in the canine trachea: effect of tight junction.

    PubMed

    George, S C; Babb, A L; Deffebach, M E; Hlastala, M P

    1996-05-01

    We recently demonstrated through theoretical modeling that the exhaled ethanol (EtOH) profile from humans is consistent with a molecular diffusion coefficient (cm2/s) in the bronchial mucosa (Dti) that is only 8% of the diffusion coefficient in water (Dw; J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2439-2449, 1993). Because of the small oil-water partition coefficient (lambda o:w) of EtOH (lambda o:w = 0.074), the reduced diffusion coefficient may be due, in part, to the epithelial tight junction in the paracellular pathway. We hypothesized that opening the tight junction would open an aqueous pathway and increase the diffusion coefficient of small (mol wt < 100) hydrophilic compounds. We mounted the mucosa from the membranous canine trachea in an Ussing-type diffusion cell and measured the diffusion coefficient of 2-ethoxyethanol (2-Ethx; lambda o:w = 0.042), EtOH, and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK; lambda o:w = 1.04) in the presence and absence of the epithelial tight junction. The tight junction was opened using a phosphate-buffered saline free of Ca2+ and Mg2+ with 0.5 mM ethylene glycol-bis (beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, and its integrity was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance. Dti/Dw in the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ was 0.39, 0.34, and 0.39 for 2-Ethx, EtOH, and MEK, respectively, and increased 24.6, 11.7, and 1.11% in the absence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. We conclude that the effect of the tight junction on Dti increases with increasing water solubility but can account for only a small portion of the reduced Dti of EtOH as predicted by exhaled profiles.

  20. Potential restrictions for CO2 sequestration sites due to shale and tight gas production.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T R; Celia, M A

    2012-04-03

    Carbon capture and geological sequestration is the only available technology that both allows continued use of fossil fuels in the power sector and reduces significantly the associated CO(2) emissions. Geological sequestration requires a deep permeable geological formation into which captured CO(2)can be injected, and an overlying impermeable formation, called a caprock, that keeps the buoyant CO(2) within the injection formation. Shale formations typically have very low permeability and are considered to be good caprock formations. Production of natural gas from shale and other tight formations involves fracturing the shale with the explicit objective to greatly increase the permeability of the shale. As such, shale gas production is in direct conflict with the use of shale formations as a caprock barrier to CO(2) migration. We have examined the locations in the United States where deep saline aquifers, suitable for CO(2) sequestration, exist, as well as the locations of gas production from shale and other tight formations. While estimated sequestration capacity for CO(2) sequestration in deep saline aquifers is large, up to 80% of that capacity has areal overlap with potential shale-gas production regions and, therefore, could be adversely affected by shale and tight gas production. Analysis of stationary sources of CO(2) shows a similar effect: about two-thirds of the total emissions from these sources are located within 20 miles of a deep saline aquifer, but shale and tight gas production could affect up to 85% of these sources. These analyses indicate that colocation of deep saline aquifers with shale and tight gas production could significantly affect the sequestration capacity for CCS operations. This suggests that a more comprehensive management strategy for subsurface resource utilization should be developed.

  1. Diesel exhaust particles modulate the tight junction protein occludin in lung cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Andrea D; Blank, Fabian; Baum, Oliver; Gehr, Peter; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara M

    2009-01-01

    Background Using an in vitro triple cell co-culture model consisting of human epithelial cells (16HBE14o-), monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells, it was recently demonstrated that macrophages and dendritic cells create a transepithelial network between the epithelial cells to capture antigens without disrupting the epithelial tightness. The expression of the different tight junction proteins in macrophages and dendritic cells, and the formation of tight junction-like structures with epithelial cells has been demonstrated. Immunofluorescent methods combined with laser scanning microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate if exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) (0.5, 5, 50, 125 μg/ml), for 24 h, can modulate the expression of the tight junction mRNA/protein of occludin, in all three cell types. Results Only the highest dose of DEP (125 μg/ml) seemed to reduce the occludin mRNA in the cells of the defence system however not in epithelial cells, although the occludin arrangement in the latter cell type was disrupted. The transepithelial electrical resistance was reduced in epithelial cell mono-cultures but not in the triple cell co-cultures, following exposure to high DEP concentration. Cytotoxicity was not found, in either epithelial mono-cultures nor in triple cell co-cultures, after exposure to the different DEP concentrations. Conclusion We concluded that high concentrations of DEP (125 μg/ml) can modulate the tight junction occludin mRNA in the cells of the defence system and that those cells play an important role maintaining the epithelial integrity following exposure to particulate antigens in lung cells. PMID:19814802

  2. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Cartigny, A.; Blakely, E.A.; Lyman, J.T.; Zink, S.R.

    1985-02-01

    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons.

  3. Precision Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease and Hunting Elephants.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine postulates improved prediction, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease based on patient specific factors especially DNA sequence (i.e., gene) variants. Ideas related to precision medicine stem from the much anticipated "genetic revolution in medicine" arising seamlessly from the human genome project (HGP). In this essay I deconstruct the concept of precision medicine and raise questions about the validity of the paradigm in general and its application to cardiovascular disease. Thus far precision medicine has underperformed based on the vision promulgated by enthusiasts. While niche successes for precision medicine are likely, the promises of broad based transformation should be viewed with skepticism. Open discussion and debate related to precision medicine are urgently needed to avoid misapplication of resources, hype, iatrogenic interventions, and distraction from established approaches with ongoing utility. Failure to engage in such debate will lead to negative unintended consequences from a revolution that might never come.

  4. High precision modeling for fundamental physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rievers, Benny; Nesemann, Leo; Costea, Adrian; Andres, Michael; Stephan, Ernst P.; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    With growing experimental accuracies and high precision requirements for fundamental physics space missions the needs for accurate numerical modeling techniques are increasing. Motivated by the challenge of length stability in cavities and optical resonators we propose the develop-ment of a high precision modeling tool for the simulation of thermomechanical effects up to a numerical precision of 10-20 . Exemplary calculations for simplified test cases demonstrate the general feasibility of high precision calculations and point out the high complexity of the task. A tool for high precision analysis of complex geometries will have to use new data types, advanced FE solver routines and implement new methods for the evaluation of numerical precision.

  5. [Progress in precision medicine: a scientific perspective].

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Li, L M

    2017-01-10

    Precision medicine is a new strategy for disease prevention and treatment by taking into account differences in genetics, environment and lifestyles among individuals and making precise diseases classification and diagnosis, which can provide patients with personalized, targeted prevention and treatment. Large-scale population cohort studies are fundamental for precision medicine research, and could produce best evidence for precision medicine practices. Current criticisms on precision medicine mainly focus on the very small proportion of benefited patients, the neglect of social determinants for health, and the possible waste of limited medical resources. In spite of this, precision medicine is still a most hopeful research area, and would become a health care practice model in the future.

  6. Toward precision medicine in neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lin; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-03-01

    Technological development has paved the way for accelerated genomic discovery and is bringing precision medicine into view. The goal of precision medicine is to deliver optimally targeted and timed interventions tailored to an individual's molecular drivers of disease. Neurological diseases are promisingly suited models for precision medicine because of the rapidly expanding genetic knowledge base, phenotypic classification, the development of biomarkers and the potential modifying treatments. Moving forward, it is crucial that through these integrated research platforms to provide analysis both for accurate personal genome analysis and gene and drug discovery. Here we describe our vision of how precision medicine can bring greater clarity to the clinical and biological complexity of neurological diseases.

  7. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  8. The Performance Analysis of AN Akf Based Tightly-Coupled Ins/gps Integrated Positioning and Orientation Scheme with Odometer and Non-Holonomic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, K.-Y.; Lin, C.-A.; Chiang, K.-W.

    2012-08-01

    INS/GPS integration scheme can overcome the shortcoming of GPS or INS alone to provide superior performance, thus this study implements a tightly-coupled INS/GPS integration scheme using AKF as the core estimator by tuning the measurement noise matrix R adaptively. The AKF is based on the maximum likelihood criterion for choosing the most appropriate weight and thus the Kalman gain factors. The conventional EKF implementation suffers uncertain results while the update measurement noise matrix R and/or the process noise matrix Q does not meet the case. The primary advantage of AKF is that the filter has less relationship with the priori statistical information because R and/or Q vary with time. The innovation sequence is used to derive the measurement weights through the covariance matrices, innovation-based adaptive estimation (IAE) in this study. The covariance matrices R are adapted in the study when measurements update with time. A window based approach is implemented to update the quality of GPS pseudo-range measurements by adaptively replace the measurement weights through the latest estimated covariance matrices R. The use of odometer is particularly recommended when a low cost and precise vehicle localization system has to be implemented and there is the risk of GPS coverage failure, which is prone to happen when the vehicle enters a tunnel or cross deep valleys. Odometers are applied in land-vehicle navigation to provide augmented host velocity observations for standalone INS system in this study. There are two non-holonomic constraints (NHC) available for land vehicles. Land vehicles will not jump off the ground or slid on the ground under normal condition. Using these constraints, the velocity of the vehicle in the plane perpendicular to the forward direction is almost zero. EKF and AKF based tightly-coupled scheme with NHC is implemented in the study. To validate the performance of AKF based tightly-coupled INS/GPS integration scheme with odometer and

  9. "Tight" and "Loose" Are Not Created Equal: An Asymmetry Underlying the Representation of "Fit" in English- and Korean-Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Heather M.; Waxman, Sandra R.; Song, Hyun-Joo

    2008-01-01

    Research concerning the spatial dimension "fit" ("tight" versus "loose") has been based on a tacit but untested assumption that the dimension "fit" is symmetrical, with tight- and loose-fitting relations highlighting the dimension "fit" with equal force. We propose a reformulation, documenting that adult speakers of English (Experiment 1) and…

  10. High-precision analysis of the solar twin HIP 100963

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yana Galarza, Jhon; Meléndez, Jorge; Ramírez, Ivan; Yong, David; Karakas, Amanda I.; Asplund, Martin; Liu, Fan

    2016-05-01

    Context. HIP 100963 was one of the first solar twins identified. Although some high-precision analyses are available, a comprehensive high-precision study of chemical elements from different nucleosynthetic sources is still lacking from which to obtain potential new insights on planets, stellar evolution, and Galactic chemical evolution (GCE). Aims: We analyze and investigate the origin of the abundance pattern of HIP 100963 in detail, in particular the pattern of the light element Li, the volatile and refractory elements, and heavy elements from the s- and r-processes. Methods: We used the HIRES spectrograph on the Keck I telescope to acquire high-resolution (R ≈ 70 000) spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 400-650 per pixel) of HIP 100963 and the Sun for a differential abundance analysis. We measured the equivalent widths (EWs) of iron lines to determine the stellar parameters by employing the differential spectroscopic equilibrium. We determined the composition of volatile, refractory, and neutron-capture elements through a differential abundance analysis with respect to the Sun. Results: The stellar parameters we found are Teff = 5818 ± 4 K, log g = 4.49 ± 0.01 dex, vt = 1.03 ± 0.01km s-1, and [Fe/H] = -0.003 ± 0.004 dex. These low errors allow us to compute a precise mass (1.03+0.02-0.01 M⊙) and age (2.0 ± 0.4 Gyr), obtained using Yonsei-Yale isochrones. Using our [Y/Mg] ratio, we have determined an age of 2.1 ± 0.4 Gyr, in agreement with the age computed using isochrones. Our isochronal age also agrees with the age determined from stellar activity (2.4 ± 0.3 Gyr). We study the abundance pattern with condensation temperature (Tcond) taking corrections by the GCE into account. We show that the enhancements of neutron-capture elements are explained by contributions from both the s- and r-process. The lithium abundance follows the tight Li-age correlation seen in other solar twins. Conclusions: We confirm that HIP 100963 is a solar twin

  11. Developing and implementing a high precision setup system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lee-Cheng

    The demand for high-precision radiotherapy (HPRT) was first implemented in stereotactic radiosurgery using a rigid, invasive stereotactic head frame. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with a frameless device was developed along a growing interest in sophisticated treatment with a tight margin and high-dose gradient. This dissertation establishes the complete management for HPRT in the process of frameless SRT, including image-guided localization, immobilization, and dose evaluation. The most ideal and precise positioning system can allow for ease of relocation, real-time patient movement assessment, high accuracy, and no additional dose in daily use. A new image-guided stereotactic positioning system (IGSPS), the Align RT3C 3D surface camera system (ART, VisionRT), which combines 3D surface images and uses a real-time tracking technique, was developed to ensure accurate positioning at the first place. The uncertainties of current optical tracking system, which causes patient discomfort due to additional bite plates using the dental impression technique and external markers, are found. The accuracy and feasibility of ART is validated by comparisons with the optical tracking and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems. Additionally, an effective daily quality assurance (QA) program for the linear accelerator and multiple IGSPSs is the most important factor to ensure system performance in daily use. Currently, systematic errors from the phantom variety and long measurement time caused by switching phantoms were discovered. We investigated the use of a commercially available daily QA device to improve the efficiency and thoroughness. Reasonable action level has been established by considering dosimetric relevance and clinic flow. As for intricate treatments, the effect of dose deviation caused by setup errors remains uncertain on tumor coverage and toxicity on OARs. The lack of adequate dosimetric simulations based on the true treatment coordinates from

  12. Precision constraints on extra fermion generations.

    PubMed

    Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul

    2010-07-16

    There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.

  13. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  15. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-01-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  16. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-12-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  17. Visual thread quality for precision miniature mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-04-01

    Threaded features have eight visual appearance factors which can affect their function in precision miniature mechanisms. The Bendix practice in deburring, finishing, and accepting these conditions on miniature threads is described as is their impact in assemblies of precision miniature electromechanical assemblies.

  18. Remote sensing applications to precision farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional mechanized agriculture treats large fields with uniform agronomic practices. Precision agriculture/precision farming brings a new concept to manage in-field variability with variable rate application of fertilizers and pesticides, site-specific water management, as well as planting, etc....

  19. Impairments in neurogenesis are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Iascone, Daniel M; Padidam, Sneha; Pyfer, Mark S; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijuan; Chin, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is also associated with depression. Although the precise mechanisms that lead to depression in AD are unknown, the impairments in adult hippocampal neurogenesis observed in AD may play a role. Adult-born neurons play a critical role in regulating both cognition and mood, and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with depression in other neurological disorders. To assess the relationship between Alzheimer's disease, neurogenesis, and depression, we studied human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) transgenic mice, a well-characterized model of AD. We report that reductions in hippocampal neurogenesis are evident early in disease progression in hAPP mice, but a mild depressive phenotype manifests only in later stages of disease. We found that hAPP mice exhibited a reduction in BrdU-positive cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus, as well as a reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells, relative to nontransgenic controls at 5-7 months of age. These alterations in neurogenesis appeared to worsen with age, as the magnitude of reduction in doublecortin-expressing cells was greater in hAPP mice at 13-15 months of age. Only 13-15 month old hAPP mice exhibited depressive behavior in the tail suspension test. However, mice at both age groups exhibited deficits in spatial memory, which was observed in the Morris water maze test for hippocampus-dependent memory. These findings indicate that neurogenesis impairments are accompanied by cognitive deficits, but are not tightly linked to depressive behavior in hAPP mice.

  20. Tight junction between endothelial cells: the interaction between nanoparticles and blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Summary Since nanoparticles are now widely applied as food additives, in cosmetics and other industries, especially in medical therapy and diagnosis, we ask here whether nanoparticles can cause several adverse effects to human health. In this review, based on research on nanotoxicity, we mainly discuss the negative influence of nanoparticles on blood vessels in several aspects and the potential mechanism for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers of blood vessels, which are the sites of phosphorylation of tight junction proteins (claudins, occludins, and ZO (Zonula occludens)) proteins, oxidative stress and shear stress. We propose a connection between the presence of nanoparticles and the regulation of the tight junction, which might be the key approach for nanoparticles to penetrate endothelial layers and then have an impact on other tissues and organs. PMID:27335757

  1. Structural Models of Amorphous Carbon and its Surfaces by Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Haerle, R.; Baldereschi, A.; Galli, G.

    1999-10-26

    We use liner-scaling tight-binding molecular dynamics to generate three structural models of bulk amorphous carbon with different atomic density. Amorphous carbon surfaces are then obtained by imposing tensile strain on these computer generated networks until fracture occurs. Our results show that for a given density, the formation energy of surfaces obtained with different tensile strains differ by only a few 10{sup -1} eV/atom and their structural properties are qualitatively similar. The presence of sp sites at the surface is observed at all densities, but with different values of the concentration. The surface thicknesses obtained in our simulations agree with experimental data. Furthermore we find that surface roughness increases with the amount of graphitic component in the bulk sample. The same trends of the macroscopic properties are obtained when using a two-center tight-binding Hamiltonian, an environmental dependent one, and first principles calculations.

  2. They Must Hold Tight: Junction Proteins, Microbiota And Immunity In Intestinal Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Angela; Favero de Aguiar, Cristhiane; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro Manoel; Olsen Saraiva Câmara, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of the immune system depends on several factors. The gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in maintaining our immune system. With this aim, the intestinal immune system interacts with epithelial barrier molecules, especially tight junction proteins, that are key molecules involved in controlling paracellular permeability to increase the protection barrier against external antigens or possibly to respond to commensal microorganisms. During intestinal inflammatory diseases, the expression of innate immune receptors in intestinal epithelial cells and infiltration of immune cells are related, but it is still unclear how the immune system induces modulation of paracellular permeability. In this review, we provide an overview of the understanding of how the immune system modulates the expression of tight junctions to maintain the mucosal immune system.

  3. Specificity of Interaction between Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin and Claudin-Family Tight Junction Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Leslie A.; Koval, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a major cause of food poisoning, forms physical pores in the plasma membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. The ability of CPE to recognize the epithelium is due to the C-terminal binding domain, which binds to a specific motif on the second extracellular loop of tight junction proteins known as claudins. The interaction between claudins and CPE plays a key role in mediating CPE toxicity by facilitating pore formation and by promoting tight junction disassembly. Recently, the ability of CPE to distinguish between specific claudins has been used to develop tools for studying roles for claudins in epithelial barrier function. Moreover, the high affinity of CPE to selected claudins makes CPE a useful platform for targeted drug delivery to tumors expressing these claudins. PMID:22069652

  4. Autosomal dominant familial spastic paraplegia: Tight linkage to chromosome 15q

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.; Wu, C.B.; Jones, S.M.; Lesicki, A.; Reinglass, T.; Sharp, G.B.; Lange, B.M.; Varvil, T.; Otterud, B.; Leppert, M.

    1995-01-01

    Autosomal dominant, uncomplicated familial spastic paraplegia (FSP) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by insidiously progressive lower-extremity spasticity. Recently, a locus on chromosome 14q was shown to be tightly linked with the disorder in one of three families. We performed linkage analysis in a kindred with autosomal dominant uncomplicated FSP. After excluding the chromosome 14q locus, we observed tight linkage of the disorder to a group of markers on chromosome 15q (maximum two-point lod score 9.70; {theta} = .05). Our results clearly establish the existence of a locus for autosomal dominant FSP in the centromeric region of chromosome 15q. Comparing clinical and genetic features in FSP families linked to chromosome 14q with those linked to chromosome 15q may provide insight into the pathophysiology of this disorder. 34 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Nanoscale rotary apparatus formed from tight-fitting 3D DNA components

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Philip; Willner, Elena M.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    We report a nanoscale rotary mechanism that reproduces some of the dynamic properties of biological rotary motors in the absence of an energy source, such as random walks on a circle with dwells at docking sites. Our mechanism is built modularly from tight-fitting components that were self-assembled using multilayer DNA origami. The apparatus has greater structural complexity than previous mechanically interlocked objects and features a well-defined angular degree of freedom without restricting the range of rotation. We studied the dynamics of our mechanism using single-particle experiments analogous to those performed previously with actin-labeled adenosine triphosphate synthases. In our mechanism, rotor mobility, the number of docking sites, and the dwell times at these sites may be controlled through rational design. Our prototype thus realizes a working platform toward creating synthetic nanoscale rotary motors. Our methods will support creating other complex nanoscale mechanisms based on tightly fitting, sterically constrained, but mobile, DNA components. PMID:26989778

  6. Extended Lagrangian Density Functional Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics for Molecules and Solids

    DOE PAGES

    Aradi, Bálint; Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2015-06-26

    A computationally fast quantum mechanical molecular dynamics scheme using an extended Lagrangian density functional tight-binding formulation has been developed and implemented in the DFTB+ electronic structure program package for simulations of solids and molecular systems. The scheme combines the computational speed of self-consistent density functional tight-binding theory with the efficiency and long-term accuracy of extended Lagrangian Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Furthermore, for systems without self-consistent charge instabilities, only a single diagonalization or construction of the single-particle density matrix is required in each time step. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme can also be applied to a broad range of problems in materialsmore » science, chemistry, and biology.« less

  7. Evaluation of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during night periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Detelin

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-understand procedure for prediction of indoor air composition time variation in air-tight occupied spaces during the night periods. The mathematical model is based on the assumptions for homogeneity and perfect mixing of the indoor air, the ideal gas model for non-reacting gas mixtures, mass conservation equations for the entire system and for each species, a model for prediction of basal metabolic rate of humans as well as a model for prediction of O2 consumption rate and both CO2 and H2O generation rates by breathing. Time variation of indoor air composition is predicted at constant indoor air temperature for three scenarios based on the analytical solution of the mathematical model. The results achieved reveal both the most probable scenario for indoor air time variation in air-tight occupied spaces as well as the cause for morning tiredness after having a sleep in a modern energy efficient space.

  8. A remotely operated serial sampler for collecting gas-tight fluid samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun; Ding, Kang; Tan, Chun-yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and preliminary test results for a gas-tight serial sampler intended to be deployed at seafloor for long-term operation to take time-series fluid samples from deep-sea environments such as cold seeps, water column and hydrothermal vents. The serial sampler is a modular system that is based on independent and identical sampling modules, which are designed to collect six 160 ml gas-tight fluid samples maintained at high pressure to a depth of 4000 meters. With two working modes, the sampler can be deployed either with seafloor cabled observatory for remote control or as a stand-alone device for autonomous operation. A prototype of the instrument has been constructed and tested on the MARS cabled observatory for two months. The laboratory and field tests proved the success of the design and construction of the serial sampler, and indicated the potential for future ocean sciences.

  9. Tight-binding calculation studies of vacancy and adatom defects in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Hong-Xing; ...

    2016-02-19

    Computational studies of complex defects in graphene usually need to deal with a larger number of atoms than the current first-principles methods can handle. We show a recently developed three-center tight-binding potential for carbon is very efficient for large scale atomistic simulations and can accurately describe the structures and energies of various defects in graphene. Using the three-center tight-binding potential, we have systematically studied the stable structures and formation energies of vacancy and embedded-atom defects of various sizes up to 4 vacancies and 4 embedded atoms in graphene. In conclusion, our calculations reveal low-energy defect structures and provide a moremore » comprehensive understanding of the structures and stability of defects in graphene.« less

  10. Secondary migration and leakage of methane from a major tight-gas system

    PubMed Central

    Wood, James M.; Sanei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Tight-gas and shale-gas systems can undergo significant depressurization during basin uplift and erosion of overburden due primarily to the natural leakage of hydrocarbon fluids. To date, geologic factors governing hydrocarbon leakage from such systems are poorly documented and understood. Here we show, in a study of produced natural gas from 1,907 petroleum wells drilled into a Triassic tight-gas system in western Canada, that hydrocarbon fluid loss is focused along distinct curvilinear pathways controlled by stratigraphic trends with superior matrix permeability and likely also structural trends with enhanced fracture permeability. Natural gas along these pathways is preferentially enriched in methane because of selective secondary migration and phase separation processes. The leakage and secondary migration of thermogenic methane to surficial strata is part of an ongoing carbon cycle in which organic carbon in the deep sedimentary basin transforms into methane, and ultimately reaches the near-surface groundwater and atmosphere. PMID:27874012

  11. Estimation of Permeability from NMR Logs Based on Formation Classification Method in Tight Gas Sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Deng-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Peng; Hu, Xiao-Xin; Xu, Rui; Zhu, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    The Schlumberger Doll Research (SDR) model and cross plot of porosity versus permeability cannot be directly used in tight gas sands. In this study, the HFU approach is introduced to classify rocks, and determine the involved parameters in the SDR model. Based on the difference of FZI, 87 core samples, drilled from tight gas sandstones reservoirs of E basin in northwest China and applied for laboratory NMR measurements, were classified into three types, and the involved parameters in the SDR model are calibrated separately. Meanwhile, relationships of porosity versus permeability are also established. The statistical model is used to calculate consecutive FZI from conventional logs. Field examples illustrate that the calibrated SDR models are applicable in permeability estimation; models established from routine core analyzed results are effective in reservoirs with permeability lower than 0.3 mD, while the unified SDR model is only valid in reservoirs with permeability ranges from 0.1 to 0.3 mD.

  12. Second harmonic generation polarization microscopy with tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, E. Y. S.; Sheppard, C. J. R.

    2007-07-01

    Second harmonic generation microscopy was conducted on rat-tail tendons with linearly and radially polarized beams. Transverse and axial field components were generated in the focal region through tight focusing of linearly and radially polarized. It was found that the generated SHG signals could not be qualitatively explained with a scalar approximation to the electric field at the focus. Only by accounting for the interactions of the axial and transverse components of the electric field interacting through the nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) tensor could the SHG images be explained. For the case of collagen we find that the SHG signal varies as a function of the analyzer angle with a cos2 or sin2 dependency for linearly polarized beams. For tightly focused radially polarized beams we find that the output SHG is radially polarized after collimation and is independent of the analyzer angle.

  13. Extended Lagrangian Density Functional Tight-Binding Molecular Dynamics for Molecules and Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Aradi, Bálint; Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Frauenheim, Thomas

    2015-06-26

    A computationally fast quantum mechanical molecular dynamics scheme using an extended Lagrangian density functional tight-binding formulation has been developed and implemented in the DFTB+ electronic structure program package for simulations of solids and molecular systems. The scheme combines the computational speed of self-consistent density functional tight-binding theory with the efficiency and long-term accuracy of extended Lagrangian Born–Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Furthermore, for systems without self-consistent charge instabilities, only a single diagonalization or construction of the single-particle density matrix is required in each time step. The molecular dynamics simulation scheme can also be applied to a broad range of problems in materials science, chemistry, and biology.

  14. Nearest neighbor tight binding models with an exact mobility edge in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Ganeshan, Sriram; Pixley, J H; Das Sarma, S

    2015-04-10

    We investigate localization properties in a family of deterministic (i.e., no disorder) nearest neighbor tight binding models with quasiperiodic on site modulation. We prove that this family is self-dual under a generalized duality transformation. The self-dual condition for this general model turns out to be a simple closed form function of the model parameters and energy. We introduce the typical density of states as an order parameter for localization in quasiperiodic systems. By direct calculations of the inverse participation ratio and the typical density of states we numerically verify that this self-dual line indeed defines a mobility edge in energy separating localized and extended states. Our model is a first example of a nearest neighbor tight binding model manifesting a mobility edge protected by a duality symmetry. We propose a realistic experimental scheme to realize our results in atomic optical lattices and photonic waveguides.

  15. Far-field radiation patterns of second harmonic generation from gold nanoparticles under tightly focused illumination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingwei; Wang, Xianghui; Chang, Shengjiang; Zeng, Ming; Shen, Si; Zhang, Na

    2016-04-04

    We study far-field angular radiation patterns of second harmonic generation (SHG) from gold nanosphere, nanocube, nanorod, and nanocup illuminated by tightly focused linearly and radially polarized beams, respectively. It is found that under linearly polarized illumination, far-field forward-scattering SHG (FSHG) dominates second harmonic (SH) responses generated by those gold particles. On the contrary, it is amazing that significant backward-scattering SHG (BSHG) can be observed when those gold nanoparticles are excited by a focused radially polarized beam. For the case of gold nanosphere, the effective point dipole systems are developed to reasonably elucidate this interesting difference. Our investigations suggest that for SHG microscopy with backward detection scheme, tightly focused radially polarized beam could be a promising excitation field to improve the backward SH signal.

  16. Tight-binding calculation studies of vacancy and adatom defects in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wei; Lu, Wen-Cai; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Ho, K. M.; Wang, C. Z.

    2016-02-19

    Computational studies of complex defects in graphene usually need to deal with a larger number of atoms than the current first-principles methods can handle. We show a recently developed three-center tight-binding potential for carbon is very efficient for large scale atomistic simulations and can accurately describe the structures and energies of various defects in graphene. Using the three-center tight-binding potential, we have systematically studied the stable structures and formation energies of vacancy and embedded-atom defects of various sizes up to 4 vacancies and 4 embedded atoms in graphene. In conclusion, our calculations reveal low-energy defect structures and provide a more comprehensive understanding of the structures and stability of defects in graphene.

  17. Secondary migration and leakage of methane from a major tight-gas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, James M.; Sanei, Hamed

    2016-11-01

    Tight-gas and shale-gas systems can undergo significant depressurization during basin uplift and erosion of overburden due primarily to the natural leakage of hydrocarbon fluids. To date, geologic factors governing hydrocarbon leakage from such systems are poorly documented and understood. Here we show, in a study of produced natural gas from 1,907 petroleum wells drilled into a Triassic tight-gas system in western Canada, that hydrocarbon fluid loss is focused along distinct curvilinear pathways controlled by stratigraphic trends with superior matrix permeability and likely also structural trends with enhanced fracture permeability. Natural gas along these pathways is preferentially enriched in methane because of selective secondary migration and phase separation processes. The leakage and secondary migration of thermogenic methane to surficial strata is part of an ongoing carbon cycle in which organic carbon in the deep sedimentary basin transforms into methane, and ultimately reaches the near-surface groundwater and atmosphere.

  18. Study on the pressure self-adaptive water-tight junction box in underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Haocai; Ye, Yanying; Leng, Jianxing; Yuan, Zhuoli; Chen, Ying

    2012-09-01

    Underwater vehicles play a very important role in underwater engineering. Water-tight junction box (WJB) is one of the key components in underwater vehicle. This paper puts forward a pressure self-adaptive water-tight junction box (PSAWJB) which improves the reliability of the WJB significantly by solving the sealing and pressure problems in conventional WJB design. By redundancy design method, the pressure self-adaptive equalizer (PSAE) is designed in such a way that it consists of a piston pressure-adaptive compensator (PPAC) and a titanium film pressureadaptive compensator (TFPAC). According to hydro-mechanical simulations, the operating volume of the PSAE is more than or equal to 11.6 % of the volume of WJB liquid system. Furthermore, the required operating volume of the PSAE also increases as the gas content of oil, hydrostatic pressure or temperature difference increases. The reliability of the PSAWJB is proved by hyperbaric chamber tests

  19. Formation of tight junctions between neighboring podocytes is an early ultrastructural feature in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Succar, Lena; Boadle, Ross A; Harris, David C; Rangan, Gopala K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs) triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. Methods Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN) from day 1 to day 14. Morphometric analysis was conducted on randomly selected glomeruli captured on TEM digital images. Results On day 1 of NSN, there was widespread formation of focal contacts between the cell bodies of neighboring podocytes, and tight junctions were evident at the site of cell-to-cell contact. This was confirmed by the increased expression of the tight junction molecule, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), which localized to the points of podocyte cell–cell body contact. On day 2, the interpodocyte distance decreased and the glomerular basement membrane thickness increased. Foot process effacement (FPE) was segmental on day 3 and diffuse by day 5, accompanied by the formation of podocyte cellular bridges with Bowman’s capsule, as confirmed by a decrease in podocyte-to-PEC distance. Fibrinoid necrosis and cellular crescents were evident in all glomeruli by days 7 and 14. In vitro, the exposure of podocytes to macrophage-conditioned media altered cellular morphology and caused an intracellular redistribution of ZO-1. Conclusion The formation of tight junctions between podocytes is an early ultrastructural abnormality in CGN, preceding FPE and podocyte bridge formation and occurring in response to inflammatory injury. Podocyte-to-podocyte tight junction formation may be a compensatory mechanism to maintain the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier following severe endocapillary injury. PMID:27920570

  20. Comparison analysis of fractal characteristics for tight sandstones using different calculation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wu, Caifang; Li, Teng

    2017-02-01

    The micropore structure of a tight sandstone is the decisive factor in determining its reserve and seepage characteristics. An accurate description of the pore structures and a complete characterization of the gas-water permeability are critical when exploring for tight sandstone gas. One simple and effective way to quantitatively characterize the heterogeneity and complexity of the pore structures in a low permeability reservoir is the fractal dimension. In this study, three different methods, each utilizing mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) data, were adopted to analyze the fractal dimensions and the fractal curves of sandstones from the no. 8 layer of the Xiashihezi Formation (He 8 member) in the Linxing block, dated from the Middle Permian. The morphological features of the fractal curves, the characteristics of the fractal dimensions and the theoretical differences between these three methods were also discussed. The results show that the fractal dimensions obtained by method I reflect the characteristics of the remaining pores that are not intruded by mercury, and they show that the involved pore scales are more comprehensive. While in methods II and III, both obtain the fractal dimensions of the pores intruded by mercury, the difference between them is in the selection of a simplified pore shape model, which results in the fractal dimensions differing by a value of 1 between them. No matter which method is adopted, the pore structures of tight sandstone reservoirs in the Linxing block exhibit fractal characteristics. However, the fractal dimensions obtained by method I are more suitable for describing the complexity and petrophysical properties of the tight sandstone pores in the He 8 member of the Linxing block. The fractal curves obtained by different methods are consistent to a certain extent in terms of morphological changes. Small pores (r max-point) are the critical

  1. Creating Ground State Molecules with Optical Feshbach Resonances in Tight Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Christiane P.; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2005-05-20

    We propose to create ultracold ground state molecules in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate by adiabatic crossing of an optical Feshbach resonance. We envision a scheme where the laser intensity and possibly also frequency are linearly ramped over the resonance. Our calculations for {sup 87}Rb show that for sufficiently tight traps it is possible to avoid spontaneous emission while retaining adiabaticity, and conversion efficiencies of up to 50% can be expected.

  2. Secretion of Alpha-Hemolysin by Escherichia coli Disrupts Tight Junctions in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Du, Zhengyu; Struve, Carsten; Charbon, Godefroid; Karczewski, Jurgen; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Wells, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to damage the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was investigated. Methods: E. coli strains isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls were tested for virulence capacity by molecular techniques and cytotoxic assays and transepithelial electric resistance (TER). E. coli isolate p19A was selected, and deletion mutants were created for alpha-hemolysin (α-hemolysin) (hly) clusters and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Probiotic E. coli Nissle and pathogenic E. coli LF82 were used as controls. Results: E. coli strains from patients with active UC completely disrupted epithelial cell tight junctions shortly after inoculation. These strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are all α-hemolysin positive. In contrast, probiotic E. coli Nissle, pathogenic E. coli LF82, four E. coli from patients with inactive UC and three E. coli strains from healthy controls did not disrupt tight junctions. E. coli p19A WT as well as cnf1, and single loci of hly mutants from cluster I and II were all able to damage Caco-2 (Heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) cell tight junctions. However, this phenotype was lost in a mutant with knockout (Δ) of both hly loci (P<0.001). Conclusions: UC-associated E. coli producing α-hemolysin can cause rapid loss of tight junction integrity in differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. This effect was abolished in a mutant unable to express α-hemolysin. These results suggest that high Hly expression may be a mechanism by which specific strains of E. coli pathobionts can contribute to epithelial barrier dysfunction and pathophysiology of disease in IBD. PMID:26938480

  3. Selection of a fracture proppant in a tight gas field, bauxite vs. sand, Wamsutter area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Seccombe, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Sintered bauxite was used as a propping agent in several recent fracture stimulations in the Wamsutter tight formation gas area to evaluate its effectiveness at increasing well productivity and recoverable reserves. Historically, sand has been used as a propping agent in this area. This study shows that for reservoirs with closure stresses similar to those found in Wamsutter, there is a critical formation permeability below which sand should be used as a propping agent.

  4. Assessment of unconvential (tight) gas resources in Upper Cook Inlet Basin, South-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Anderson, Christopher P.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    A geologic model was developed for the assessment of potential Mesozoic tight-gas resources in the deep, central part of upper Cook Inlet Basin, south-central Alaska. The basic premise of the geologic model is that organic-bearing marine shales of the Middle Jurassic Tuxedni Group achieved adequate thermal maturity for oil and gas generation in the central part of the basin largely due to several kilometers of Paleogene and Neogene burial. In this model, hydrocarbons generated in Tuxedni source rocks resulted in overpressure, causing fracturing and local migration of oil and possibly gas into low-permeability sandstone and siltstone reservoirs in the Jurassic Tuxedni Group and Chinitna and Naknek Formations. Oil that was generated either remained in the source rock and subsequently was cracked to gas which then migrated into low-permeability reservoirs, or oil initially migrated into adjacent low-permeability reservoirs, where it subsequently cracked to gas as adequate thermal maturation was reached in the central part of the basin. Geologic uncertainty exists on the (1) presence of adequate marine source rocks, (2) degree and timing of thermal maturation, generation, and expulsion, (3) migration of hydrocarbons into low-permeability reservoirs, and (4) preservation of this petroleum system. Given these uncertainties and using known U.S. tight gas reservoirs as geologic and production analogs, a mean volume of 0.64 trillion cubic feet of gas was assessed in the basin-center tight-gas system that is postulated to exist in Mesozoic rocks of the upper Cook Inlet Basin. This assessment of Mesozoic basin-center tight gas does not include potential gas accumulations in Cenozoic low-permeability reservoirs.

  5. Tight versus standard blood pressure control in patients with hypertension with and without cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Angeli, Fabio; de Simone, Giovanni; Staessen, Jan A; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    An excessive blood pressure (BP) reduction might be dangerous in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease. In the Studio Italiano Sugli Effetti CARDIOvascolari del Controllo della Pressione Arteriosa SIStolica (Cardio-Sis), 1111 nondiabetic patients with systolic BP ≥150 mm Hg were randomly assigned to a systolic BP target <140 mm Hg (standard control) or <130 mm Hg (tight control). We stratified patients by absence (n=895) or presence (n=216) of established cardiovascular disease at entry. Antihypertensive treatment was open-label and tailored to each patient's needs. After 2-year follow-up, the primary end point of the study, electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy, occurred less frequently in the tight than in the standard control group in the patients without (10.8% versus 15.2%) and with (14.1% versus 23.5%) established cardiovascular disease (P for interaction=0.82). The main secondary end point, a composite of cardiovascular events and all-cause death, occurred less frequently in the tight than in the standard control group both in patients without (1.47 versus 3.68 patient-years; P=0.016) and with (7.87 versus 11.22 patient-years; P=0.049) previous cardiovascular disease. In a multivariable Cox model, allocation to tight BP control reduced the risk of cardiovascular events to a similar extent in patients with or without overt cardiovascular disease at randomization (P for interaction=0.43). In conclusion, an intensive treatment aimed to lower systolic BP<130 mm Hg reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved clinical outcomes to a similar extent in patients with hypertension and without established cardiovascular disease.

  6. Effects of soybean agglutinin on intestinal barrier permeability and tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuan; Qin, Guixin; Sun, Zewei; Che, Dongsheng; Bao, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    This study was developed to provide further information on the intestinal barrier permeability and the tight junction protein expression in weaned piglets fed with different levels of soybean agglutinin (SBA). Twenty-five weaned crossbred barrows (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected and randomly allotted to five groups, each group with five replicates. The piglets in the control group were not fed with leguminous products. 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2% SBA was added to the control diet to form four experimental diets, respectively. After the experimental period of 7 days (for each group), all the piglets were anesthetized with excess procaine and slaughtered. The d-lactic acid in plasma and the Ileal mucosa diamine oxidase (DAO) was analyzed to observe the change in the intestinal permeability. The tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 in the jejunum tissue distribution and relative expression were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results illustrated that a high dose of SBA (0.1-0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no significant affects. The contents of DAO, d-lactic acid, occludin or ZO-1, had a linear relationship with the SBA levels (0-0.2%) in diets. The high dose SBA (0.1-0.2%) could increase the intestinal permeability and reduce piglet intestinal epithelial tight junction protein occludin or ZO-1 expression, while low dose of SBA (0.05% of total diet) had no affects.

  7. Naturally fractured tight gas reservoir detection optimization. Quarterly report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the quarterly report dated January 1-March 31, 1997 for the Naturally Fractured Tight Gas Reservoir Detection Optimization project. Topics covered in this report include AVOA modeling using paraxial ray tracing, AVOA modeling for gas- and water-filled fractures, 3-D and 3-C processing, and technology transfer material. Several presentations from a Geophysical Applications Workshop workbook, workshop schedule, and list of workshop attendees are also included.

  8. Detailing the equivalence between real equiangular tight frames and certain strongly regular graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickus, Matthew; Watson, Cody E.

    2015-08-01

    An equiangular tight frame (ETF) is a set of unit vectors whose coherence achieves the Welch bound, and so is as incoherent as possible. They arise in numerous applications. It is well known that real ETFs are equivalent to a certain subclass of strongly regular graphs. In this note, we give some alternative techniques for understanding this equivalence. In a later document, we will use these techniques to further generalize this theory.

  9. Numerical simulation of multi-dimensional NMR response in tight sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiangfeng; Xie, Ranhong; Zou, Youlong; Ding, Yejiao

    2016-06-01

    Conventional logging methods have limitations in the evaluation of tight sandstone reservoirs. The multi-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging method has the advantage that it can simultaneously measure transverse relaxation time (T 2), longitudinal relaxation time (T 1) and diffusion coefficient (D). In this paper, we simulate NMR measurements of tight sandstone with different wettability and saturations by the random walk method and obtain the magnetization decays of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequences with different wait times (TW) and echo spacings (TE) under a magnetic field gradient, resulting in D-T 2-T 1 maps by the multiple echo trains joint inversion method. We also study the effects of wettability, saturation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of data and restricted diffusion on the D-T 2-T 1 maps in tight sandstone. The results show that with decreasing wetting fluid saturation, the surface relaxation rate of the wetting fluid gradually increases and the restricted diffusion phenomenon becomes more and more obvious, which leads to the wetting fluid signal moving along the direction of short relaxation and the direction of the diffusion coefficient decreasing in D-T 2-T 1 maps. Meanwhile, the non-wetting fluid position in D-T 2-T 1 maps does not change with saturation variation. With decreasing SNR, the ability to identify water and oil signals based on NMR maps gradually decreases. The wetting fluid D-T 1 and D-T 2 correlations in NMR diffusion-relaxation maps of tight sandstone are obtained through expanding the wetting fluid restricted diffusion models, and are further applied to recognize the wetting fluid in simulated D-T 2 maps and D-T 1 maps.

  10. Adiabatic quantum state transfer in tight-binding chains using periodic driving fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, S.

    2014-09-01

    A method for high-fidelity coherent adiabatic transport in a zig-zag tight-binding chain, based on application of two external periodic driving fields, is theoretically proposed. The method turns out to be robust against imperfections and disorder of the static lattice Hamiltonian, is tolerant to next-nearest neighborhood interactions, and enables coherent transport in long chains without the need for a local control and timing of the trapping potential.

  11. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and freshwater consumption associated with Bakken tight oil.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, Ian J; Bergerson, Joule A; Motazedi, Kavan

    2016-11-29

    In recent years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have been applied to extract crude oil from tight reservoirs, including the Bakken formation. There is growing interest in understanding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the development of tight oil. We conducted a life cycle assessment of Bakken crude using data from operations throughout the supply chain, including drilling and completion, refining, and use of refined products. If associated gas is gathered throughout the Bakken well life cycle, then the well to wheel GHG emissions are estimated to be 89 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 87-94) of Bakken-derived gasoline and 90 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 88-94) of diesel. If associated gas is flared for the first 12 mo of production, then life cycle GHG emissions increase by 5% on average. Regardless of the level of flaring, the Bakken life cycle GHG emissions are comparable to those of other crudes refined in the United States because flaring GHG emissions are largely offset at the refinery due to the physical properties of this tight oil. We also assessed the life cycle freshwater consumptions of Bakken-derived gasoline and diesel to be 1.14 (80% CI, 0.67-2.15) and 1.22 barrel/barrel (80% CI, 0.71-2.29), respectively, 13% of which is associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  12. Group A Streptococcus exploits human plasminogen for bacterial translocation across epithelial barrier via tricellular tight junctions

    PubMed Central

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for local suppurative and life-threatening invasive systemic diseases. Interaction of GAS with human plasminogen (PLG) is a salient characteristic for promoting their systemic dissemination. In the present study, a serotype M28 strain was found predominantly localized in tricellular tight junctions of epithelial cells cultured in the presence of PLG. Several lines of evidence indicated that interaction of PLG with tricellulin, a major component of tricellular tight junctions, is crucial for bacterial localization. A site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed that lysine residues at positions 217 and 252 within the extracellular loop of tricellulin play important roles in PLG-binding activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that PLG functions as a molecular bridge between tricellulin and streptococcal surface enolase (SEN). The wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer, accompanied by cleavage of transmembrane junctional proteins. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in the PLG-binding motif of SEN markedly compromised those activities. Notably, the interaction of PLG with SEN was dependent on PLG species specificity, which influenced the efficiency of bacterial penetration. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which GAS exploits host PLG for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. PMID:26822058

  13. GPS/UWB/MEMS-IMU tightly coupled navigation with improved robust Kalman filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zengke; Chang, Guobin; Gao, Jingxiang; Wang, Jian; Hernandez, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    The integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) with Inertial Navigation System (INS) has been very intensively developed and widely applied in multiple areas. To further enhance the reliability and availability of GPS/INS integrated navigation in GPS challenging environment, range observation through ultra-wideband (UWB) is introduced in GPS/INS tightly coupled navigation. An improved robust Kalman filter is proposed and used to resist the influence of gross error from UWB observation in GPS/UWB/IMU tightly coupled navigation. The variance of the squared Mahalanobis distance in moving window is calculated, which brings as new judgement factor for gross errors in order to decrease the rate of false outlier identification. A simulation analysis shows that the improved robust Kalman filter is able to correctly identify gross errors and the rate of false judgment as zero. In order to validate the new robust filter, a real experiment is conducted. The results indicate that the improved robust Kalman filter used in GPS/UWB/INS tightly coupled navigation is able to remove the harmful effect of gross error in UWB observation. It clearly illustrates that the improved robust Kalman filter is very effective, and all the simulated small and large gross errors added to UWB distance observation are successfully identified.

  14. First-order strong-field QED processes in a tightly focused laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Piazza, A.

    2017-03-01

    In a previous article [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 213201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.213201] we have determined the angular resolved and the total energy spectrum of a positron produced via nonlinear Breit-Wheeler pair production by a high-energy photon counterpropagating with respect to a tightly focused laser beam. Here, we first generalize the results in that article by including the possibility that the incoming photon is not exactly counterpropagating with respect to the laser field. As main focus of the present paper, we determine the photon angular resolved and total energy spectrum for the related process of nonlinear Compton scattering by an electron impinging into a tightly focused laser beam. Analytical integral expressions are obtained under the realistic assumption that the energy of the incoming electron is the largest dynamical energy of the problem and that the electron is initially almost counterpropagating with respect to the laser field. The crossing symmetry relation between the two processes in a tightly focused laser beam is also elucidated.

  15. Effective tight-binding models for excitons in branched conjugated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2013-08-01

    Effective tight-binding models have been introduced to describe vertical electronic excitations in branched conjugated molecules. The excited-state electronic structure is characterized by quantum particles (excitons) that reside on an irregular lattice (graph) that reflects the molecular structure. The methodology allows for the exciton spectra and energy-dependent exciton scattering matrices to be described in terms of a small number of lattice parameters which can be obtained from quantum-chemical computations using the exciton scattering approach as a tool. We illustrate the tight-binding model approach using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock computations in phenylacetylene oligomers. The on-site energies and hopping constants have been identified from the exciton dispersion and scattering matrices. In particular, resonant, as well as bound states, are reproduced for a symmetric quadruple branching center. The capability of the tight-binding model approach to describe the exciton-phonon coupling and energetic disorder in large branched conjugated molecules is briefly discussed.

  16. Manufactured Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles Decrease Expression of Tight Junction Proteins in Brain Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Yokel, Robert A.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Manufactured nanoparticles of aluminum oxide (nano-alumina) have been widely used in the environment; however, their potential toxicity provides a growing concern for human health. The present study focuses on the hypothesis that nano-alumina can affect the blood-brain barrier and induce endothelial toxicity. In the first series of experiments, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) were exposed to alumina and control nanoparticles in dose- and time-responsive manners. Treatment with nano-alumina markedly reduced HBMEC viability, altered mitochondrial potential, increased cellular oxidation, and decreased tight junction protein expression as compared to control nanoparticles. Alterations of tight junction protein levels were prevented by cellular enrichment with glutathione. In the second series of experiments, rats were infused with nano-alumina at the dose of 29 mg/kg and the brains were stained for expression of tight junction proteins. Treatment with nano-alumina resulted in a marked fragmentation and disruption of integrity of claudin-5 and occludin. These results indicate that cerebral vasculature can be affected by nano-alumina. In addition, our data indicate that alterations of mitochondrial functions may be the underlying mechanism of nano-alumina toxicity. PMID:18830698

  17. ACUTE EFFECTS OF DRY NEEDLING ON POSTERIOR SHOULDER TIGHTNESS. A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Plebani, Giuseppe; Poser, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Posterior shoulder tightness has been associated with numerous shoulder disorders. Methods to increase posterior shoulder mobility may be beneficial. The purpose of this case report is to report the outcomes of a subject with posterior shoulder tightness treated with dry needling as a primary intervention strategy. Case description The subject was a 46-year-old man who was referred to physical therapy with primary symptoms of shoulder pain and loss of motion consistent with subacromial impingement syndrome. Clinical findings upon examination revealed glenohumeral internal rotation and horizontal adduction losses of motion and reproduction of pain symptoms upon palpation of the infraspinatus, teres minor, and posterior deltoid. A single treatment of trigger point dry needling was used to decrease pain and improve range of motion. Outcomes Following the intervention, clinically meaningful improvements were seen in pain and shoulder range of motion. Discussion This case report describes the use of trigger point dry needling in the treatment of a subject with posterior shoulder tightness. The immediate improvement seen in this subject following the dry needling to the infraspinatus, teres minor, and posterior deltoid muscles suggests that muscles may be a significant source of pain and range of motion limitation in this condition. Level of Evidence Level 4 PMID:27104059

  18. Paracellin-1 and the modulation of ion selectivity of tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jianghui; Paul, David L; Goodenough, Daniel A

    2005-11-01

    Tight junctions play a key selectivity role in the paracellular conductance of ions. Paracellin-1 is a member of the tight junction claudin protein family and mutations in the paracellin-1 gene cause a human hereditary disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) with severe renal Mg2+ wasting. The mechanism of paracellin-1 function and its role in FHHNC are not known. Here, we report that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells paracellin-1 modulated the ion selectivity of the tight junction by selectively and significantly increasing the permeability of Na+ (with no effects on Cl-) and generated a high permeability ratio of Na+ to Cl-. Mutagenesis studies identified a locus of amino acids in paracellin-1 critical for this function. Mg2+ flux across cell monolayers showed a far less-pronounced change (compared to monovalent alkali cations) following exogenous protein expression, suggesting that paracellin-1 did not form Mg2+-selective paracellular channels. We hypothesize that in the thick ascending limb of the nephron, paracellin-1 dysfunction, with a concomitant loss of cation selectivity, could contribute to the dissipation of the lumen-positive potential that is the driving force for the reabsorption of Mg2+.

  19. Deriving tight error-trade-off relations for approximate joint measurements of incompatible quantum observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciard, Cyril

    2014-02-01

    The quantification of the "measurement uncertainty"aspect of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle—that is, the study of trade-offs between accuracy and disturbance, or between accuracies in an approximate joint measurement on two incompatible observables—has regained a lot of interest recently. Several approaches have been proposed and debated. In this paper we consider Ozawa's definitions for inaccuracies (as root-mean-square errors) in approximate joint measurements, and study how these are constrained in different cases, whether one specifies certain properties of the approximations—namely their standard deviations and/or their bias—or not. Extending our previous work [C. Branciard, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 6742 (2013), 10.1073/pnas.1219331110], we derive error-trade-off relations, which we prove to be tight for pure states. We show explicitly how all previously known relations for Ozawa's inaccuracies follow from ours. While our relations are in general not tight for mixed states, we show how these can be strengthened and how tight relations can still be obtained in that case.

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  1. Manufactured aluminum oxide nanoparticles decrease expression of tight junction proteins in brain vasculature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Yokel, Robert A; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2008-12-01

    Manufactured nanoparticles of aluminum oxide (nano-alumina) have been widely used in the environment; however, their potential toxicity provides a growing concern for human health. The present study focuses on the hypothesis that nano-alumina can affect the blood-brain barrier and induce endothelial toxicity. In the first series of experiments, human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) were exposed to alumina and control nanoparticles in dose- and time-responsive manners. Treatment with nano-alumina markedly reduced HBMEC viability, altered mitochondrial potential, increased cellular oxidation, and decreased tight junction protein expression as compared to control nanoparticles. Alterations of tight junction protein levels were prevented by cellular enrichment with glutathione. In the second series of experiments, rats were infused with nano-alumina at the dose of 29 mg/kg and the brains were stained for expression of tight junction proteins. Treatment with nano-alumina resulted in a marked fragmentation and disruption of integrity of claudin-5 and occludin. These results indicate that cerebral vasculature can be affected by nano-alumina. In addition, our data indicate that alterations of mitochondrial functions may be the underlying mechanism of nano-alumina toxicity.

  2. Two-Layer Tight Frame Sparsifying Model for Compressed Sensing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xi; Dong, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CSMRI) employs image sparsity to reconstruct MR images from incoherently undersampled K-space data. Existing CSMRI approaches have exploited analysis transform, synthesis dictionary, and their variants to trigger image sparsity. Nevertheless, the accuracy, efficiency, or acceleration rate of existing CSMRI methods can still be improved due to either lack of adaptability, high complexity of the training, or insufficient sparsity promotion. To properly balance the three factors, this paper proposes a two-layer tight frame sparsifying (TRIMS) model for CSMRI by sparsifying the image with a product of a fixed tight frame and an adaptively learned tight frame. The two-layer sparsifying and adaptive learning nature of TRIMS has enabled accurate MR reconstruction from highly undersampled data with efficiency. To solve the reconstruction problem, a three-level Bregman numerical algorithm is developed. The proposed approach has been compared to three state-of-the-art methods over scanned physical phantom and in vivo MR datasets and encouraging performances have been achieved. PMID:27747226

  3. FY16/Q2 status report on initial dispersion calculations for tight crude oils project

    SciTech Connect

    Luketa, Anay; Rudeen, David Keith

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to assess dispersion distances of a vapor mixture of species released from a railcar containing a tight crude oil. Tight crude oils can have higher levels of light ends as compared to conventional crude oils [1], which if released and dispersed could pose a potential hazard with regards to a flash fire, explosion, and/or asphyxiation. A historical accident involving rail transport in Viareggio, Italy illustrates how the spillage of LPG can lead to severe damage as a result of a propagating vapor cloud [2]. One of 14 railcars was punctured after derailment, releasing about 110 m3 of LPG into a densely populated area (2000 persons/km2 ). The resulting vapor cloud propagated and infiltrated nearby buildings and houses which were an average of 10 m in height. Ignition of the cloud occurred approximately 100 to 300 seconds after the start of the spill. A flash fire and explosions resulted, killing 31 people. Evidence suggests that most deaths occurred due to the asphyxiation and thermal hazards from the flash fire. Thus, the motivation for this work is to assess if significant vapors can develop from a railcar carrying a tight crude oil and if this cloud could disperse potentially to nearby populations.

  4. Experimental Investigation on Oil Enhancement Mechanism of Hot Water Injection in tight reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongmao, Hao; Mingjing, Lu; Chengshun, Dong; Jianpeng, Jia; Yuliang, Su; Guanglong, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at enhancing the oil recovery of tight reservoirs, the mechanism of hot water flooding was studied in this paper. Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of hot water injection on oil properties, and the interaction between rock and fluid, petrophysical property of the reservoirs. Results show that with the injected water temperature increasing, the oil/water viscosity ratio falls slightly in a tight reservoir which has little effect on oil recovery. Further it shows that the volume factor of oil increases significantly which can increase the formation energy and thus raise the formation pressure. At the same time, oil/water interfacial tension decreases slightly which has a positive effect on production though the reduction is not obvious. Meanwhile, the irreducible water saturation and the residual oil saturation are both reduced, the common percolation area of two phases is widened and the general shape of the curve improves. The threshold pressure gradient that crude oil starts to flow also decreases. It relates the power function to the temperature, which means it will be easier for oil production and water injection. Further the pore characteristics of reservoir rocks improves which leads to better water displacement. Based on the experimental results and influence of temperature on different aspects of hot water injection, the flow velocity expression of two-phase of oil and water after hot water injection in tight reservoirs is obtained.

  5. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and freshwater consumption associated with Bakken tight oil

    PubMed Central

    Laurenzi, Ian J.; Bergerson, Joule A.; Motazedi, Kavan

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have been applied to extract crude oil from tight reservoirs, including the Bakken formation. There is growing interest in understanding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the development of tight oil. We conducted a life cycle assessment of Bakken crude using data from operations throughout the supply chain, including drilling and completion, refining, and use of refined products. If associated gas is gathered throughout the Bakken well life cycle, then the well to wheel GHG emissions are estimated to be 89 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 87–94) of Bakken-derived gasoline and 90 g CO2eq/MJ (80% CI, 88–94) of diesel. If associated gas is flared for the first 12 mo of production, then life cycle GHG emissions increase by 5% on average. Regardless of the level of flaring, the Bakken life cycle GHG emissions are comparable to those of other crudes refined in the United States because flaring GHG emissions are largely offset at the refinery due to the physical properties of this tight oil. We also assessed the life cycle freshwater consumptions of Bakken-derived gasoline and diesel to be 1.14 (80% CI, 0.67–2.15) and 1.22 barrel/barrel (80% CI, 0.71–2.29), respectively, 13% of which is associated with hydraulic fracturing. PMID:27849573

  6. Imaging pore space in tight gas sandstone reservoir: insights from broad ion beam cross-sectioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, G.; Enzmann, F.; Urai, J. L.; Baerle, C.; Kukla, P. A.; Konstanty, J.

    2010-06-01

    Monetization of tight gas reservoirs, which contain significant gas reserves world-wide, represents a challenge for the entire oil and gas industry. The development of new technologies to enhance tight gas reservoir productivity is strongly dependent on an improved understanding of the rock properties and especially the pore framework. Numerous methods are now available to characterize sandstone cores. However, the pore space characterization at pore scale remains difficult due to the fine pore size and delicate sample preparation, and has thus been mostly indirectly inferred until now. Here we propose a new method of ultra high-resolution petrography combining high resolution SEM and argon ion beam cross sectioning (BIB, Broad Ion Beam) which prepares smooth and damage free surfaces. We demonstrate this method using the example of Permian (Rotliegend) age tight gas sandstone core samples. The combination of Ar-beam cross-sectioning facility and high-resolution SEM imaging has the potential to result in a step change in the understanding of pore geometries, in terms of its morphology, spatial distribution and evolution based on the generation of unprecedented image quality and resolution enhancing the predictive reliability of image analysis.

  7. Tight coupling UFMArcGIS for simulating inundation depth in densely area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. H.

    2010-07-01

    The integration of hydrological models and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) usually takes two approaches: loose coupling and tight coupling. This paper presents a tight coupling approach within a GIS environment that is achieved by integrating the urban flood model with the macro language of GIS. Such an approach affords an uncomplicated way to capitalize on the GIS visualization and spatial analysis functions, thereby significantly supporting the dynamic simulation process of hydrological modeling. The tight coupling approach is illustrated by UFMArcGIS (Urban Flood Model with ArcGIS), which is a realization of an urban flood model integrated with the VBA (visual basic of application) language of ArcGIS. Within this model, major stages of model structures are created from the initial parameter input and transformation of datasets, intermediate maps are then visualized, and the results are finally presented in various graphical formats in their geographic context. This approach provides a convenient and single environment in which users can visually interact with the model, e.g. by adjusting parameters while simultaneously observing the corresponding results. This significantly facilitates users in the exploratory data analysis and decision-making stages in terms of the model applications.

  8. Methods for estimating petrophysical parameters from well logs in tight oil reservoirs: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peiqiang; Zhuang, Wen; Sun, Zhongchun; Wang, Zhenlin; Luo, Xingping; Mao, Zhiqiang; Tong, Zemin

    2016-02-01

    Estimating petrophysical parameters from well logs plays a significant role in the exploration and development of tight oil resources, but faces challenges. What’s more, the methods for petrophysical parameters from well logs are paid little attention at present. In this paper, the typical tight oil reservoirs of Northwest China are used as an example. Based on the characteristics of mineralogy and fluids in the study field, the rock is assumed into five components which are clays, quartz and feldspar, carbonates, kerogen and pore fluids (porosity). The sum of kerogen content and porosity is defined as the apparent porosity. Then, two porosity log response equations are established. Once the clay content is determined by an individual method, the quartz and feldspar content, carbonate content and apparent porosity are calculated through the established equations. The kerogen content is the difference of the apparent porosity and porosity from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs. This paper also presents a new approach that combines the complex refractive index method (CRIM) and pseudo Archie method to compute saturation from dielectric logs, which avoids selection for the dielectric constants of each of the minerals. The effectiveness and reliability of these methods are verified by the successful application in the study of the target tight oil play in Northwest China.

  9. Prestack forward modeling of tight reservoirs based on the Xu-White model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chao; Guo, Qing-Xin; Gong, Qing-Shun; Liu, Zhan-Guo; Li, Sen-Ming; Huang, Ge-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Inversion methods for conventional reservoirs cannot be used in tight reservoirs because of small differences in wave impedance between tight reservoirs and surrounding rocks. Tight reservoirs in western China are characterized by strong heterogeneity; thus, it is difficult to predict favorable zones using conventional reservoir inversion methods. In this study, we propose an inversion method based on the Xu-White model. First, we modify the test parameters of the Xu-White model until model P- and S-wave velocities and density values agree with well-logging data. Then, we calculate P- and S-wave velocities, density, and Poisson ratio for different lithologies and oil saturation and construct different geological models for interbedded sand and shale. Subsequently, we use approximations to Zoeppritz equations to perform prestack forward modeling and analyze the response characteristics of prestack gathers for different physical properties, lithology, and oil saturation. We analyze the response of thirteen types of elastic parameters to porosity, clay content, and oil saturation. After the optimization of the real prestack gathers in the Z area of western China, we select an elastic parameter that is the most sensitive to lithology and oil saturation to predict the distribution of oil-producing reservoirs with high accuracy.

  10. The cultural dimension of tightness-looseness: An analysis of situational constraint in Estonia and Greece.

    PubMed

    Realo, Anu; Linnamägi, Karmen; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-06-01

    The importance of tightness-looseness as a dimension that explains a considerable amount of variance between cultures was demonstrated by Gelfand et al. (2011). Tight nations have many strong norms and a low tolerance of deviant behaviour, whereas loose nations have weak social norms and a high tolerance of deviant behaviour. The main aim of the current studies was to examine situational constraint in Estonia and Greece: that is, how the cultural dimension of tightness-looseness is manifested in everyday situations in those two countries. The findings of a questionnaire study (Study 1) suggested that, in general, there is higher constraint across everyday situations in Greece than in Estonia, but situational constraint in Greece is especially strong in school and organisational settings where people have hierarchically structured roles. The results of an observational study (Study 2) revealed a relatively high agreement between appropriateness of certain behaviours as judged by the respondents in Study 1 and the frequencies of observed behaviours in the two countries. Our findings suggest that the strength of situations may substantially vary both within and across cultures, and that the attitudes of the members about situational strength in their respective cultures are in concordance with observations of situations by neutral observers in how people in general behave in their culture.

  11. The Too-Much-Precision Effect.

    PubMed

    Loschelder, David D; Friese, Malte; Schaerer, Michael; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-12-01

    Past research has suggested a fundamental principle of price precision: The more precise an opening price, the more it anchors counteroffers. The present research challenges this principle by demonstrating a too-much-precision effect. Five experiments (involving 1,320 experts and amateurs in real-estate, jewelry, car, and human-resources negotiations) showed that increasing the precision of an opening offer had positive linear effects for amateurs but inverted-U-shaped effects for experts. Anchor precision backfired because experts saw too much precision as reflecting a lack of competence. This negative effect held unless first movers gave rationales that boosted experts' perception of their competence. Statistical mediation and experimental moderation established the critical role of competence attributions. This research disentangles competing theoretical accounts (attribution of competence vs. scale granularity) and qualifies two putative truisms: that anchors affect experts and amateurs equally, and that more precise prices are linearly more potent anchors. The results refine current theoretical understanding of anchoring and have significant implications for everyday life.

  12. Toward precision medicine in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Christiane

    2016-03-01

    In Western societies, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the sixth leading cause of death. In recent years, the concept of precision medicine, an approach for disease prevention and treatment that is personalized to an individual's specific pattern of genetic variability, environment and lifestyle factors, has emerged. While for some diseases, in particular select cancers and a few monogenetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, significant advances in precision medicine have been made over the past years, for most other diseases precision medicine is only in its beginning. To advance the application of precision medicine to a wider spectrum of disorders, governments around the world are starting to launch Precision Medicine Initiatives, major efforts to generate the extensive scientific knowledge needed to integrate the model of precision medicine into every day clinical practice. In this article we summarize the state of precision medicine in AD, review major obstacles in its development, and discuss its benefits in this highly prevalent, clinically and pathologically complex disease.

  13. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  14. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada’s GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference. PMID:26102495

  15. Performance Analysis of Several GPS/Galileo Precise Point Positioning Models.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2015-06-19

    This paper examines the performance of several precise point positioning (PPP) models, which combine dual-frequency GPS/Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. We take advantage of the IGS-MGEX network products to correct for the satellite differential code biases and the orbital and satellite clock errors. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to handle the various GPS/Galileo PPP models. A total of six data sets of GPS and Galileo observations at six IGS stations are processed to examine the performance of the various PPP models. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and the semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the precision of the estimated parameters by about 50% and 25% when the loose and the tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model. Comparable results are obtained through the tight combination when either a GPS or a Galileo satellite is selected as a reference.

  16. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  17. The forthcoming era of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Gamulin, Stjepan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients' groups). Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism ("big data"), development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care.

  18. Precision measurement for particle physics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Axions and other light particles are strongly motivated. For example, the axion is the crucial element in the recently proposed solution to the hierarchy problem using dynamical relaxation in the early universe. However, such particles are challenging to search for experimentally. Precision measurement technologies such as atom interferometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, high precision magnetometry, and torsion balances allow novel, highly sensitive experiments for direct detection of such light dark matter and of gravitational waves. Thus precision measurement technologies open new avenues for probing the origin and composition of the universe.

  19. Precision mechatronics based on high-precision measuring and positioning systems and machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Dorozhovets, Natalja; Hofmann, Norbert

    2007-06-01

    Precision mechatronics is defined in the paper as the science and engineering of a new generation of high precision systems and machines. Nanomeasuring and nanopositioning engineering represents important fields of precision mechatronics. The nanometrology is described as the today's limit of the precision engineering. The problem, how to design nanopositioning machines with uncertainties as small as possible will be discussed. The integration of several optical and tactile nanoprobes makes the 3D-nanopositioning machine suitable for various tasks, such as long range scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanotribology, nanoindentation, free form surface measurement as well as measurement of microoptics, precision molds, microgears, ring gauges and small holes.

  20. Revisiting tight glycemic control in perioperative and critically ill patients: when one size may not fit all.

    PubMed

    Abdelmalak, Basem B; Lansang, M Cecilia

    2013-09-01

    Glycemic control has received intense scrutiny in the last decade as an important aspect of patient care. Earlier studies suggested that tight glycemic control (target level of 80 - 110 mg/dL) improved outcomes in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Subsequent trials did not confirm the same benefit. Moreover, increased mortality was found in association with such tight control compared with a less strict target. As a result, tight glucose control has become less popular. The interaction between diabetic status and outcomes in relation to glucose control strategies and/or chronic glycemic state in perioperative and critically ill patients was examined. Tight glucose control appears to be more beneficial in patients without diabetes than in those with known diabetes. It also may be more beneficial in improving outcomes in surgical rather than nonsurgical ICU patients, and in decreasing sepsis rather than mortality. Tight glycemic control was associated with a high incidence of hypoglycemia, which may offset some of its potential benefits. Tight glycemic control in the perioperative and intensive care settings should not be totally abandoned either as a clinical practice or as a subject of future research. Beneficial effects of tight glycemic control may be demonstrated when the appropriate glycemic targets are matched to the appropriate population.

  1. Nanoagonist-mediated endothelial tight junction opening: A strategy for safely increasing brain drug delivery in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xihui; Wang, Yuan-Cheng; Liu, Yikang; Yue, Qi; Liu, Zining; Ke, Mengjing; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Cong

    2017-04-01

    Even though opening endothelial tight junctions is an efficient way to up-regulate brain drug delivery, the extravasation of blood-borne components from the compromised tight junctions can result in adverse consequences such as edema and neuronal injuries. In this work, we developed a nanoagonist that temporarily opened tight junctions by signaling adenosine 2A receptor, a type of G protein-coupled receptor expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated remarkable blood-brain barrier permeability enhancements and significantly increased brain uptakes of both small molecular and macromolecular paramagnetic agents after nanoagonist administration. Gamma ray imaging and transmission electron microscope observed tight junction opening followed by spontaneous recovery after nanoagonist treatment. Immunofluorescence staining showed the unspoiled basal membrane, pericytes and astrocyte endfeet that enwrapped the vascular endothelium. Importantly, edema, apoptosis and neuronal injuries observed after hypertonic agent mediated tight junction-opening were not observed after nanoagonist intervention. The uncompromised neurovascular units may prevent the leakage of blood-borne constituents into brain parenchyma and accelerate tight junction recovery. Considering blood-brain barrier impermeability is a major obstacle in the treatment of central nervous system diseases, nanoagonist-mediated tight junction opening provides a promising strategy to enhance brain drug delivery with minimized adverse effects.

  2. Changes in intestinal tight junction permeability associated with industrial food additives explain the rising incidence of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of autoimmune diseases is increasing along with the expansion of industrial food processing and food additive consumption. The intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junction, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self-antigens. As a result, particular attention is being placed on the role of tight junction dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. Tight junction leakage is enhanced by many luminal components, commonly used industrial food additives being some of them. Glucose, salt, emulsifiers, organic solvents, gluten, microbial transglutaminase, and nanoparticles are extensively and increasingly used by the food industry, claim the manufacturers, to improve the qualities of food. However, all of the aforementioned additives increase intestinal permeability by breaching the integrity of tight junction paracellular transfer. In fact, tight junction dysfunction is common in multiple autoimmune diseases and the central part played by the tight junction in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis is extensively described. It is hypothesized that commonly used industrial food additives abrogate human epithelial barrier function, thus, increasing intestinal permeability through the opened tight junction, resulting in entry of foreign immunogenic antigens and activation of the autoimmune cascade. Future research on food additives exposure-intestinal permeability-autoimmunity interplay will enhance our knowledge of the common mechanisms associated with autoimmune progression.

  3. High-Precision Shock Wave Measurements of Deuterium: Evaluation of Exchange-Correlation Functionals at the Molecular-to-Atomic Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudson, M. D.; Desjarlais, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    We present shock compression data for deuterium through the molecular-to-atomic transition along the principal Hugoniot with unprecedented precision, enabling discrimination between subtle differences in first-principle theoretical predictions. These observations, supported through reshock measurements, provide tight constraints in a regime directly relevant to planetary interiors. Our findings are in best agreement with density functional theory; however, no one exchange-correlation functional describes well both the onset of dissociation and the maximum compression along the Hugoniot.

  4. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  5. Precision controllability of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Matheny, N. W.

    1979-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on a preproduction F-15 airplane permitted an assessment to be made of its precision controllability in the high subsonic and low transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. Precision controllability, or gunsight tracking, studies were conducted in windup turn maneuvers with the gunsight in the caged pipper mode and depressed 70 mils. This evaluation showed the F-15 airplane to experience severe buffet and mild-to-moderate wing rock at the higher angles of attack. It showed the F-15 airplane radial tracking precision to vary from approximately 6 to 20 mils over the load factor range tested. Tracking in the presence of wing rock essentially doubled the radial tracking error generated at the lower angles of attack. The stability augmentation system affected the tracking precision of the F-15 airplane more than it did that of previous aircraft studied.

  6. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75 percent or greater gold and metals of the platinum group intended for use in prosthetic dentistry...

  7. Courseware Review: Vernier Software: Precision Timer II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Vernier Software: Precision Timer II" for high school through college mechanics. Introduces 14 different modes including pulse time, pendulum timer, bouncer timer, gate timer, collision timers, and stroke calibration. Provides two typical displays and ratings of the software. (YP)

  8. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  9. Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Carl E.

    2013-11-07

    We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.

  10. Toward precision medicine in neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lin; Jiang, Teng

    2016-01-01

    Technological development has paved the way for accelerated genomic discovery and is bringing precision medicine into view. The goal of precision medicine is to deliver optimally targeted and timed interventions tailored to an individual’s molecular drivers of disease. Neurological diseases are promisingly suited models for precision medicine because of the rapidly expanding genetic knowledge base, phenotypic classification, the development of biomarkers and the potential modifying treatments. Moving forward, it is crucial that through these integrated research platforms to provide analysis both for accurate personal genome analysis and gene and drug discovery. Here we describe our vision of how precision medicine can bring greater clarity to the clinical and biological complexity of neurological diseases. PMID:27127757

  11. Precision Engineering within the National Ignition Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J S; Carlisle, K; Klingmann, J L; Geraghty, P; Saito, T T; Montesanti, R C

    2010-02-17

    In this very brief talk, we'll discuss how precision engineering impacts 4 key areas of NIF: (1) Diamond turning of KDP crystals; (2) Mitigation of laser damage on optics; (3) Alignment of lasers, targets, diagnostics; (4) Target fabrication.

  12. The role of precise time in IFF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    The application of precise time to the identification of friend or foe (IFF) problem is discussed. The simple concept of knowing when to expect each signal is exploited in a variety of ways to achieve an IFF system which is hard to detect, minimally exploitable and difficult to jam. Precise clocks are the backbone of the concept and the various candidates for this role are discussed. The compact rubidium-controlled oscillator is the only practical candidate.

  13. Towards precision spectroscopy of baryonic resonances

    DOE PAGES

    Doring, Michael; Mai, Maxim; Ronchen, Deborah

    2017-01-26

    Recent progress in baryon spectroscopy is reviewed. In a common effort, various groups have analyzed a set of new high-precision polarization observables from ELSA. The Julich-Bonn group has finalized the analysis of pion-induced meson-baryon production, the potoproduction of pions and eta mesons, and (almost) the KΛ final state. Lastly, as data become preciser, statistical aspects in the analysis of excited baryons become increasingly relevant and several advances in this direction are proposed.

  14. Precise predictions for slepton pair production

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres Freitas; Andreas von Manteuffel

    2002-11-07

    At a future linear collider, the masses and couplings of scalar leptons can be measured with high accuracy, thus requiring precise theoretical predictions for the relevant processes. In this work, after a discussion of the expected experimental precision, the complete one-loop corrections to smuon and selectron pair production in the MSSM are presented and the effect of different contributions in the result is analyzed.

  15. A path to precision in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Maslove, David M; Lamontagne, Francois; Marshall, John C; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-04-03

    Precision medicine is increasingly touted as a groundbreaking new paradigm in biomedicine. In the ICU, the complexity and ambiguity of critical illness syndromes have been identified as fundamental justifications for the adoption of a precision approach to research and practice. Inherently protean diseases states such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome have manifestations that are physiologically and anatomically diffuse, and that fluctuate over short periods of time. This leads to considerable heterogeneity among patients, and conditions in which a "one size fits all" approach to therapy can lead to widely divergent results. Current ICU therapy can thus be seen as imprecise, with the potential to realize substantial gains from the adoption of precision medicine approaches. A number of challenges still face the development and adoption of precision critical care, a transition that may occur incrementally rather than wholesale. This article describes a few concrete approaches to addressing these challenges.First, novel clinical trial designs, including registry randomized controlled trials and platform trials, suggest ways in which conventional trials can be adapted to better accommodate the physiologic heterogeneity of critical illness. Second, beyond the "omics" technologies already synonymous with precision medicine, the data-rich environment of the ICU can generate complex physiologic signatures that could fuel precision-minded research and practice. Third, the role of computing infrastructure and modern informatics methods will be central to the pursuit of precision medicine in the ICU, necessitating close collaboration with data scientists. As work toward precision critical care continues, small proof-of-concept studies may prove useful in highlighting the potential of this approach.

  16. High-precision arithmetic in mathematical physics

    DOE PAGES

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2015-05-12

    For many scientific calculations, particularly those involving empirical data, IEEE 32-bit floating-point arithmetic produces results of sufficient accuracy, while for other applications IEEE 64-bit floating-point is more appropriate. But for some very demanding applications, even higher levels of precision are often required. Furthermore, this article discusses the challenge of high-precision computation, in the context of mathematical physics, and highlights what facilities are required to support future computation, in light of emerging developments in computer architecture.

  17. Principles of precision medicine in stroke.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Rost, Natalia S; Leung, Thomas W; Montaner, Joan; Muir, Keith W; Brown, Scott; Arenillas, Juan F; Feldmann, Edward; Liebeskind, David S

    2017-01-01

    The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health. Existing data may be leveraged with novel technologies, informatics and practical clinical paradigms to apply these principles in stroke and realise the promise of precision medicine. Importantly, precision medicine in stroke will only be realised once efforts to collect, value and synthesise the wealth of data collected in clinical trials and routine care starts. Stroke theranostics, the ultimate vision of synchronising tailored therapeutic strategies based on specific diagnostic data, demand cerebrovascular expertise on big data approaches to clinically relevant paradigms. This review considers such challenges and delineates the principles on a roadmap for rational application of precision medicine to stroke and cerebrovascular health.

  18. Platform Precision Autopilot Overview and Mission Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strovers, Brian K.; Lee, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The Platform Precision Autopilot is an instrument landing system-interfaced autopilot system, developed to enable an aircraft to repeatedly fly nearly the same trajectory hours, days, or weeks later. The Platform Precision Autopilot uses a novel design to interface with a NASA Gulfstream III jet by imitating the output of an instrument landing system approach. This technique minimizes, as much as possible, modifications to the baseline Gulfstream III jet and retains the safety features of the aircraft autopilot. The Platform Precision Autopilot requirement is to fly within a 5-m (16.4-ft) radius tube for distances to 200 km (108 nmi) in the presence of light turbulence for at least 90 percent of the time. This capability allows precise repeat-pass interferometry for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar program, whose primary objective is to develop a miniaturized, polarimetric, L-band synthetic aperture radar. Precise navigation is achieved using an accurate differential global positioning system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Flight-testing has demonstrated the ability of the Platform Precision Autopilot to control the aircraft within the specified tolerance greater than 90 percent of the time in the presence of aircraft system noise and nonlinearities, constant pilot throttle adjustments, and light turbulence.

  19. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness.

    PubMed

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2016-11-22

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task. We contrast precision to concreteness, a common measure of abstractness based on the proportion of sensory-based information associated with a concept. Since concreteness facilitates cognitive processing, we predict that while both concreteness and precision are measures of abstractness, they will have opposite effects on performance. In two studies we found empirical support for our hypothesis. Precision and concreteness had opposite effects on latency and accuracy in a lexical decision task, and these opposite effects were observable while controlling for word length, word frequency, affective content and semantic diversity. Our results support the view that concepts organization includes amodal semantic structures which are independent of sensory information. They also suggest that we should distinguish between sensory-based and amount-of-information-based abstractness.

  20. Toward precision medicine in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Bu, Lu-Lu; Yang, Ke; Xiong, Wei-Xi; Liu, Feng-Tao; Anderson, Boyd; Wang, Ye; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine refers to an innovative approach selected for disease prevention and health promotion according to the individual characteristics of each patient. The goal of precision medicine is to formulate prevention and treatment strategies based on each individual with novel physiological and pathological insights into a certain disease. A multidimensional data-driven approach is about to upgrade "precision medicine" to a higher level of greater individualization in healthcare, a shift towards the treatment of individual patients rather than treating a certain disease including Parkinson's disease (PD). As one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, PD is a lifelong chronic disease with clinical and pathophysiologic complexity, currently it is treatable but neither preventable nor curable. At its advanced stage, PD is associated with devastating chronic complications including both motor dysfunction and non-motor symptoms which impose an immense burden on the life quality of patients. Advances in computational approaches provide opportunity to establish the patient's personalized disease data at the multidimensional levels, which finally meeting the need for the current concept of precision medicine via achieving the minimal side effects and maximal benefits individually. Hence, in this review, we focus on highlighting the perspectives of precision medicine in PD based on multi-dimensional information about OMICS, molecular imaging, deep brain stimulation (DBS) and wearable sensors. Precision medicine in PD is expected to integrate the best evidence-based knowledge to individualize optimal management in future health care for those with PD.