Science.gov

Sample records for precision machining applications

  1. Precision Machining Application and Technology: An Overview and Perspective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-24

    GR. Precision Machining Optics; Diamond Turning; Molding 005 2006 Optics; X - Ray Optics 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse i neceuary and identify by...applications of spinner mirrors, injection molding masters, and X - ray optics are discussed. Non-optical applications are included as well as precision grinding... X - ray optics are discussed. Non-optical applications are included as well as precision grinding materials incompatible with diamond turning. KEY WORDS

  2. Application of precision diamond machining to the manufacture of microphotonics components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Matthew A.; Evans, Christopher J.; Vohra, Rashmi R.; Bergner, Brent C.; Patterson, Steven R.

    2003-11-01

    The use of diamonds to generate precision patterns and precision surfaces on a micrometer or nanometer scale has a history that dates back centuries. Uses of diamond in semi-automated machinery can be traced to ruling machines, pantographs, and ornamental turning with "diamond turning" dating back about a century. Poor behavior in machining more common materials (e.g. ferrous alloys) has limited diamond use in traditional industrial machining. The niche of the single crystal diamond is its edge sharpness and the ability to produce near-optical finish in materials such as aluminum, copper and their alloys; however, due to machine limitations, diamond machining remained a novelty until relatively recently. A convergence of machine technologies developed for both weapons and commercial applications led to modern diamond turning. Current turnkey machines can produce contoured surfaces with surface finish in the range of 5 nm Ra and long range accuracy of micrometers or less. Macroscopic scale, three axis, diamond machining is a well-developed technology; machining of features on a micrometer and submicrometer scale is a new and rapidly developing application of single crystal diamond machining. The role of this technology in micro-optics replication has yet to be fully defined.

  3. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  4. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  5. FMS precision machining

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    In evaluating the technical obstacles and accuracy limits to producing a Precision Flexible Manufacturing System, a current system is subjected to an error budget analysis. It is noted that to make complex part geometries with tolerances in the lower thousandths range, machining to tenths is required for process control. Actual parts made to tenths are illustrated, along with a discussion of the requirements for automation and for process control.

  6. High-precision machining of materials for manufacturing applications using diode-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikumb, Suwas K.; Islam, M. U.

    2000-02-01

    While developments in the field of diode pumped solid state lasers provide a foundation for precision machining of parts with high accuracy and small feature sizes, this promise can not be realized without considering the interactions of individual processes, systems and material parameters. This paper presents our results on the precision machining of small features in various materials using diode pumped solid state lasers. The machined features are characterized geometrically by using optical inspection techniques and the tolerance data is analyzed statistically. Machining parameters relevant to motion system and tool path compensation are discussed along with their relevance to machined feature geometry. The effect of laser beam polarization on the machined kerf width, kerf surface and feature dimensions is reported.

  7. Application of machine vision based measurement in precise assembly of miniature parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cui; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiwen; Wang, Lin; Luo, Yi

    2010-08-01

    In manufacturing of precise miniature devices, automatic assembly is the trend to replace manual work for better quality and higher yield. Precise measurement is a critical issue during assembly process because the parts are often complicated and quite different in size, shapes, surface condition, etc. The position and orientation error must be determined precisely before assembly. In the developed automatic assembly system, microscopic machine vision and precise linear stages were integrated in the measurement system for higher detection resolution and larger measurement range in working space. As to the extract of contour of parts with different surface condition, dynamic illumination control and different combination of feature detection algorithms were applied. The errors brought by non-perpendicularity among precision linear stages were compensated and the movement errors were reduced with effective measurement strategy. The measuring accuracy was validated with a special fabricated precise template. Assembly tests were done with the developed system and results indicate that the required position and orientation accuracy can be met successfully and consequently the assembly task can be fulfilled.

  8. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Layton Carter

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  9. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  10. High-precision laser machining of ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; von Alvensleben, Ferdinand; Graumann, Christoph; Willmann, Guido

    1998-09-01

    The increasing demand for highly developed ceramic materials for various applications calls for innovative machining technologies yielding high accuracy and efficiency. Associated problems with conventional, i.e. mechanical methods, are unacceptable tool wear as well as force induced damages on ceramic components. Furthermore, the established grinding techniques often meet their limits if accurate complex 2D or 3D structures are required. In contrast to insufficient mechanical processes, UV-laser precision machining of ceramics offers not only a valuable technological alternative but a considerable economical aspect as well. In particular, excimer lasers provide a multitude of advantages for applications in high precision and micro technology. Within the UV wavelength range and pulses emitted in the nano-second region, minimal thermal effects on ceramics and polymers are observed. Thus, the ablation geometry can be controlled precisely in the lateral and vertical directions. In this paper, the excimer laser machining technology developed at the Laser Zentrum Hannover is explained. Representing current and future industrial applications, examinations concerning the precision cutting of alumina (Al2O3), and HF-composite materials, the ablation of ferrite ceramics for precision inductors and the structuring of SiC sealing and bearing rings are presented.

  11. Air Bearings Machined On Ultra Precision, Hydrostatic CNC-Lathe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knol, Pierre H.; Szepesi, Denis; Deurwaarder, Jan M.

    1987-01-01

    Micromachining of precision elements requires an adequate machine concept to meet the high demand of surface finish, dimensional and shape accuracy. The Hembrug ultra precision lathes have been exclusively designed with hydrostatic principles for main spindle and guideways. This concept is to be explained with some major advantages of hydrostatics compared with aerostatics at universal micromachining applications. Hembrug has originally developed the conventional Mikroturn ultra precision facing lathes, for diamond turning of computer memory discs. This first generation of machines was followed by the advanced computer numerically controlled types for machining of complex precision workpieces. One of these parts, an aerostatic bearing component has been succesfully machined on the Super-Mikroturn CNC. A case study of airbearing machining confirms the statement that a good result of the micromachining does not depend on machine performance alone, but also on the technology applied.

  12. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-15

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  13. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  14. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team.

    PubMed

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  15. Precision machining technology and metrology for AXAF study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The optical surfaces for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Facility (AXAF), was studied. The applicability of precision machining technology to the manufacture of the AXAF objective mirrors and the proposed and alternative methods for manufacturing and testing; (1) the AXAF technology mirrors and (2) the AXAF high resolution mirror assembly were reviewed. Surface shape and smoothness metrology for grazing incidence X-ray surfaces and the feasibility of applying heterodyne surface profilometry to nonflat surfaces were investigated. Three sets of scattering flats with known surface profiles and microtopographic character produced by precision machining and polished precision machine surfaces were analyzed.

  16. Review on the progress of ultra-precision machining technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Julong; Lyu, Binghai; Hang, Wei; Deng, Qianfa

    2017-06-01

    Ultra-precision machining technologies are the essential methods, to obtain the highest form accuracy and surface quality. As more research findings are published, such technologies now involve complicated systems engineering and been widely used in the production of components in various aerospace, national defense, optics, mechanics, electronics, and other high-tech applications. The conception, applications and history of ultra-precision machining are introduced in this article, and the developments of ultra-precision machining technologies, especially ultra-precision grinding, ultra-precision cutting and polishing are also reviewed. The current state and problems of this field in China are analyzed. Finally, the development trends of this field and the coping strategies employed in China to keep up with the trends are discussed.

  17. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  18. Precision Machining Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in precision machining technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and…

  19. Precision Machining Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in precision machining technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry settings, and…

  20. Advances in precision machining and moulding technology bring design opportunities.

    PubMed

    Glendening, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Machining of materials for medical applications has moved to a new level of precision. In parallel with this, moulding technology has improved through the increased use of sensors in moulds, enhanced design simulation and processes such as micromoulding. This article examines the opportunities offered by these developments and includes examples of mass produced parts that demonstrate the new capabilities useful to product designers.

  1. Precision machining of advanced materials with waterjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. T.

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in abrasive waterjet technology have elevated to the state that it often competes on equal footing with lasers and EDM for precision machining. Under the support of a National Science Foundation SBIR Phase II grant, OMAX has developed and commercialized micro abrasive water technology that is incorporated into a MicroMAX® JetMa- chining® Center. Waterjet technology, combined both abrasive waterjet and micro abrasive waterjet technology, is capable of machining most materials from macro to micro scales for a wide range of part size and thickness. Waterjet technology has technological and manufacturing merits that cannot be matched by most existing tools. As a cold cutting tool that creates no heat-affected zone, for example, waterjet cuts much faster than wire EDM and laser when measures to minimize a heat-affected zone are taken into account. In addition, waterjet is material independent; it cuts materials that cannot be cut or are difficult to cut otherwise. The versatility of waterjet has also demonstrated machining simulated nanomaterials with large gradients of material properties from metal, nonmetal, to anything in between. This paper presents waterjet-machined samples made of a wide range of advanced materials from macro to micro scales.

  2. Perspective on precision machining, polishing, and optical requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Sanger, G.M.

    1981-08-18

    While precision machining has been applied to the manufacture of optical components for a considerable period, the process has, in general, had its thinking restricted to producing only the accurate shapes required. The purpose of this paper is to show how optical components must be considered from an optical (functional) point of view and that the manufacturing process must be selected on that basis. To fill out this perspective, simplistic examples of how optical components are specified with respect to form and finish are given, a comparison between optical polishing and precision machining is made, and some thoughts on which technique should be selected for a specific application are presented. A short discussion of future trends related to accuracy, materials, and tools is included.

  3. Precision machining of pig intestine using ultrafast laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer J.; Góra, Wojciech S.; Carter, Richard M.; Gunadi, Sonny; Jayne, David; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-01

    Endoluminal surgery for the treatment of early stage colorectal cancer is typically based on electrocautery tools which imply restrictions on precision and the risk of harm through collateral thermal damage to the healthy tissue. As a potential alternative to mitigate these drawbacks we present laser machining of pig intestine by means of picosecond laser pulses. The high intensities of an ultrafast laser enable nonlinear absorption processes and a predominantly nonthermal ablation regime. Laser ablation results of square cavities with comparable thickness to early stage colorectal cancers are presented for a wavelength of 1030 nm using an industrial picosecond laser. The corresponding histology sections exhibit only minimal collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. The depth of the ablation can be controlled precisely by means of the pulse energy. Overall, the application of ultrafast lasers to ablate pig intestine enables significantly improved precision and reduced thermal damage to the surrounding tissue compared to conventional techniques.

  4. Tool simplifies machining of pipe ends for precision welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matus, S. T.

    1969-01-01

    Single tool prepares a pipe end for precision welding by simultaneously performing internal machining, end facing, and bevel cutting to specification standards. The machining operation requires only one milling adjustment, can be performed quickly, and produces the high quality pipe-end configurations required to ensure precision-welded joints.

  5. Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining 8754000 (IN48.052300) and Precision Machining MTR0470 (IN48.050300).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in basic precision machining and precision machining. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education programs in…

  6. Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining 8754000 (IN48.052300) and Precision Machining MTR0470 (IN48.050300).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based program guide provides course content information and procedures for secondary schools, postsecondary vocational schools, and community colleges in Florida that conduct programs in basic precision machining and precision machining. The first section is on legal authority, which applies to all vocational education programs in…

  7. Precision Machining and Measuring in Microinches

    SciTech Connect

    2011-10-03

    This historical film shows early technological advances in machining at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN. The introduction of the air bearing spindle was revolutionary and resulted in the ability to machine tolerances to within micro inches.

  8. Precision mechatronics based on high-precision measuring and positioning systems and machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Dorozhovets, Natalja; Hofmann, Norbert

    2007-06-01

    Precision mechatronics is defined in the paper as the science and engineering of a new generation of high precision systems and machines. Nanomeasuring and nanopositioning engineering represents important fields of precision mechatronics. The nanometrology is described as the today's limit of the precision engineering. The problem, how to design nanopositioning machines with uncertainties as small as possible will be discussed. The integration of several optical and tactile nanoprobes makes the 3D-nanopositioning machine suitable for various tasks, such as long range scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanotribology, nanoindentation, free form surface measurement as well as measurement of microoptics, precision molds, microgears, ring gauges and small holes.

  9. Machine learning for precise quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C

    2010-02-12

    Adaptive feedback schemes are promising for quantum-enhanced measurements yet are complicated to design. Machine learning can autonomously generate algorithms in a classical setting. Here we adapt machine learning for quantum information and use our framework to generate autonomous adaptive feedback schemes for quantum measurement. In particular, our approach replaces guesswork in quantum measurement by a logical, fully automatic, programable routine. We show that our method yields schemes that outperform the best known adaptive scheme for interferometric phase estimation.

  10. Precision Machining Technologies. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of precision machinist. The…

  11. Efficient machining of ultra precise steel moulds with freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, B.; Robertson, D. J.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2013-09-01

    Ultra precision diamond turning of hardened steel to produce optical quality surfaces can be realized by applying an ultrasonic assisted process. With this technology optical moulds used typically for injection moulding can be machined directly from steel without the requirement to overcoat the mould with a diamond machinable material such as Nickel Phosphor. This has both the advantage of increasing the mould tool lifetime and also reducing manufacture costs by dispensing with the relatively expensive plating process. This publication will present results we have obtained for generating free form moulds in hardened steel by means of ultrasonic assisted diamond turning with a vibration frequency of 80 kHz. To provide a baseline with which to characterize the system performance we perform plane cutting experiments on different steel alloys with different compositions. The baseline machining results provides us information on the surface roughness and on tool wear caused during machining and we relate these to material composition. Moving on to freeform surfaces, we will present a theoretical background to define the machine program parameters for generating free forms by applying slow slide servo machining techniques. A solution for optimal part generation is introduced which forms the basis for the freeform machining experiments. The entire process chain, from the raw material through to ultra precision machining is presented, with emphasis on maintaining surface alignment when moving a component from CNC pre-machining to final machining using ultrasonic assisted diamond turning. The free form moulds are qualified on the basis of the surface roughness measurements and a form error map comparing the machined surface with the originally defined surface. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of efficient free form machining applying ultrasonic assisted diamond turning of hardened steel.

  12. Development of active vibration isolation system for precision machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Z.; Lin, W. J.; Yang, G. L.

    2010-03-01

    It is a common understanding by manufacturers of precision machines that vibrations are a potentially disastrous threat to precision and throughput. To satisfy the quest for more stable processes and tighter critical dimension control in the microelectronics manufacturing industry, active vibration control becomes increasingly important for high-precision equipment developers. This paper introduced the development of an active vibration isolation system for precision machines. Innovative mechatronic approaches are investigated that can effectively suppress both environmental and payload-generated vibration. In this system, accelerometers are used as the feedback sensor, voice coil motors are used to generate the counter force, and a TI DSP controller is used to couple sensor measurements to actuator forces via specially designed control algorithms in real-time to counteract the vibration disturbances. Experimental results by using the developed AVI prototype showed promising performance on vibration attenuation. It demonstrated a reduction of the settling time from 2s to 0.1s under impulsive disturbances; and a vibration attenuation level of more than 20dB for harmonic disturbances. The technology can be used to suppress vibration for a wide range of precision machines to achieve fast settling time and higher accuracy.

  13. Development of active vibration isolation system for precision machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Z.; Lin, W. J.; Yang, G. L.

    2009-12-01

    It is a common understanding by manufacturers of precision machines that vibrations are a potentially disastrous threat to precision and throughput. To satisfy the quest for more stable processes and tighter critical dimension control in the microelectronics manufacturing industry, active vibration control becomes increasingly important for high-precision equipment developers. This paper introduced the development of an active vibration isolation system for precision machines. Innovative mechatronic approaches are investigated that can effectively suppress both environmental and payload-generated vibration. In this system, accelerometers are used as the feedback sensor, voice coil motors are used to generate the counter force, and a TI DSP controller is used to couple sensor measurements to actuator forces via specially designed control algorithms in real-time to counteract the vibration disturbances. Experimental results by using the developed AVI prototype showed promising performance on vibration attenuation. It demonstrated a reduction of the settling time from 2s to 0.1s under impulsive disturbances; and a vibration attenuation level of more than 20dB for harmonic disturbances. The technology can be used to suppress vibration for a wide range of precision machines to achieve fast settling time and higher accuracy.

  14. Machining of beryllium with the LLNL Precision Engineering Research Lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    In August 1984, six flat samples of beryllium, which were prepared by Brush-Wellmen Corp. using various pressing and sintering processes, were machined at LLNL on the recently completed Precision Engineering Research Lathe (PERL). The purpose of this study, which was conducted in cooperation with the Hughes Aircraft Corporation and partially funded by that organization, was to determine the optical properties of machined beryllium surfaces when prepared under highly controlled conditions using high quality machine tools and CBN (cubic boron nitrite) cutting tools. This report will summarize the materials properties, the machining conditions used on the PERL and a comparison of the completed samples using optical measuring techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mirror surface reflecting measurements in the IR region are to be made by the group at Hughes Aircraft and will be exchanged with LLNL as a part of this joint technical effort. 3 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Field precision machining technology of target chamber in ICF lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanli; Wu, Wenkai; Shi, Sucun; Duan, Lin; Chen, Gang; Wang, Baoxu; Song, Yugang; Liu, Huilin; Zhu, Mingzhi

    2016-10-01

    In ICF lasers, many independent laser beams are required to be positioned on target with a very high degree of accuracy during a shot. The target chamber provides a precision platform and datum reference for final optics assembly and target collimation and location system. The target chamber consists of shell with welded flanges, reinforced concrete pedestal, and lateral support structure. The field precision machining technology of target chamber in ICF lasers have been developed based on ShenGuangIII (SGIII). The same center of the target chamber is adopted in the process of design, fabrication, and alignment. The technologies of beam collimation and datum reference transformation are developed for the fabrication, positioning and adjustment of target chamber. A supporting and rotating mechanism and a special drilling machine are developed to bore the holes of ports. An adjustment mechanism is designed to accurately position the target chamber. In order to ensure the collimation requirements of the beam leading and focusing and the target positioning, custom-machined spacers are used to accurately correct the alignment error of the ports. Finally, this paper describes the chamber center, orientation, and centering alignment error measurements of SGIII. The measurements show the field precision machining of SGIII target chamber meet its design requirement. These information can be used on similar systems.

  16. MM&T: Precision Machining of Optical Components.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Et TABLE OF CONTENTS Paragraph Title Page FOR EWORD 1.0 Task V I 1.1 Foreword 1 1.1.1 Initial Crew Training 1 1.1.2 Precision Machining Crew 1 1.2...GFP Training Machine 2 1.3 Part Fixturing 3 1.4 Chip Removal - Coolant Flow 4 1. 5 Part Quality Determinants 5 1.6 Part Quality 6 1.7 IntOp Aspherical...interim report covers the period of July 1980 to September 1981. A description of the personnel, machinery and results of the crew training program, a

  17. High-precision micro/nano-scale machining system

    DOEpatents

    Kapoor, Shiv G.; Bourne, Keith Allen; DeVor, Richard E.

    2014-08-19

    A high precision micro/nanoscale machining system. A multi-axis movement machine provides relative movement along multiple axes between a workpiece and a tool holder. A cutting tool is disposed on a flexible cantilever held by the tool holder, the tool holder being movable to provide at least two of the axes to set the angle and distance of the cutting tool relative to the workpiece. A feedback control system uses measurement of deflection of the cantilever during cutting to maintain a desired cantilever deflection and hence a desired load on the cutting tool.

  18. Diamond Wire Saw for Precision Machining of Laser Target Components

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, M J; Bennett, D W

    2005-08-08

    The fabrication of precision laser targets requires a wide variety of specialized mesoscale manufacturing techniques. The diamond wire saw developed in this study provides the capability to precisely section meso-scale workpieces mounted on the assembly stations used by the Target Fabrication Group. This new capability greatly simplifies the fabrication of many types of targets and reduces the time and cost required to build the targets. A variety of materials are used to fabricate targets, including metals, plastics with custom designed chemical formulas, and aerogels of various densities. The materials are usually provided in the form of small pieces or cast rods that must be machined to the required shape. Many of these materials, such as metals and some plastics, can be trimmed using a parting tool on a diamond turning machine. However, other materials, such as aerogels and brittle materials, cannot be adequately cut with a parting tool. In addition, the geometry of the parts often requires that the workpieces be held in a special assembly station, which excludes the use of a parting tool. In the past, these materials were sectioned using a small, handheld coping saw that used a diamond-impregnated wire as a blade. This miniature coping saw was effective, but it required several hours to cut through certain materials. Furthermore, the saw was guided by hand and often caused significant damage to fragile aerogels. To solve these problems, the diamond wire saw shown in Figure 1 was developed. The diamond wire saw is designed to machine through materials that are mounted in the Target Fabrication Group's benchtop assembly stations. These assembly stations are the primary means of aligning and assembling target components, and there is often a need to machine materials while they are mounted in the assembly stations. Unfortunately, commercially available saws are designed for very different applications and are far too large to be used with the assembly stations

  19. Sensor and actuator considerations for precision, small machines: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S T; Seugling, R M

    2005-04-04

    This article reviews some design considerations for the scaling down in size of instruments and machines with a primary aim to identify technologies that may provide more optimal performance solutions than those, often established, technologies used at macroscopic, or conventional, scales. Dimensional metrology within emerging applications will be considered for meso- through micro-down to nanometer level systems with particular emphasis on systems for which precision is directly related to function. In this paper, attention is limited to some of the more fundamental issues associated with scaling. For example, actuator work or power densities or the effect of noise on the sensor signals can be readily evaluated and provide some guidance in the selection for any given size of device. However, with reductions in scale these parameters and/or phenomena that limit performance may change. Within this review, the authors have tried to assess these complex inter-relationships between performance and scale, again from a fundamental perspective. In practice, it is likely that the nuances of implementation and integration of sensor, actuator and/or mechanism designs will determine functionality and commercial viability of any particular system development.

  20. Protein function in precision medicine: deep understanding with machine learning.

    PubMed

    Rost, Burkhard; Radivojac, Predrag; Bromberg, Yana

    2016-08-01

    Precision medicine and personalized health efforts propose leveraging complex molecular, medical and family history, along with other types of personal data toward better life. We argue that this ambitious objective will require advanced and specialized machine learning solutions. Simply skimming some low-hanging results off the data wealth might have limited potential. Instead, we need to better understand all parts of the system to define medically relevant causes and effects: how do particular sequence variants affect particular proteins and pathways? How do these effects, in turn, cause the health or disease-related phenotype? Toward this end, deeper understanding will not simply diffuse from deeper machine learning, but from more explicit focus on understanding protein function, context-specific protein interaction networks, and impact of variation on both.

  1. Development of precision machining and inspection technology for structural ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Barkman, W.E.

    1997-03-06

    Finish machining operations contribute the majority of the costs associated with fabricating high quality ceramic products. These components are typically used in harsh environments such as diesel engines, the defense industry, and automotive applications. The required finishing operations involve a variety of technology areas including process controls, process analysis, product certification, etc. and are not limited only to component grinding methods. The broad range of manufacturing problem solving expertise available in Oak Ridge provided resources that were far beyond what is available to the Coors manufacturing sites. Coors contributed equipment, such as the computer controls and part handling mechanisms associated with a state-of-the-art inspection machine plus operation-specific experience base. In addition, addressing these challenging tasks enabled Oak Ridge personnel to maintain familarity with rapidly advancing technologies, such as those associated with machine vision equipment, process monitoring techniques, and computer control systems.

  2. Surface errors in the course of machining precision optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskup, H.; Haberl, A.; Rascher, R.

    2015-08-01

    Precision optical components are usually machined by grinding and polishing in several steps with increasing accuracy. Spherical surfaces will be finished in a last step with large tools to smooth the surface. The requested surface accuracy of non-spherical surfaces only can be achieved with tools in point contact to the surface. So called mid-frequency errors (MSFE) can accumulate with zonal processes. This work is on the formation of surface errors from grinding to polishing by conducting an analysis of the surfaces in their machining steps by non-contact interferometric methods. The errors on the surface can be distinguished as described in DIN 4760 whereby 2nd to 3rd order errors are the so-called MSFE. By appropriate filtering of the measured data frequencies of errors can be suppressed in a manner that only defined spatial frequencies will be shown in the surface plot. It can be observed that some frequencies already may be formed in the early machining steps like grinding and main-polishing. Additionally it is known that MSFE can be produced by the process itself and other side effects. Beside a description of surface errors based on the limits of measurement technologies, different formation mechanisms for selected spatial frequencies are presented. A correction may be only possible by tools that have a lateral size below the wavelength of the error structure. The presented considerations may be used to develop proposals to handle surface errors.

  3. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  4. New machining method of high precision infrared window part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Haicheng; Su, Ying; Xu, Zengqi; Guo, Rui; Li, Wenting; Zhang, Feng; Liu, Xuanmin

    2016-10-01

    Most of the spherical shell of the photoelectric multifunctional instrument was designed as multi optical channel mode to adapt to the different band of the sensor, there were mainly TV, laser and infrared channels. Without affecting the optical diameter, wind resistance and pneumatic performance of the optical system, the overall layout of the spherical shell was optimized to save space and reduce weight. Most of the shape of the optical windows were special-shaped, each optical window directly participated in the high resolution imaging of the corresponding sensor system, and the optical axis parallelism of each sensor needed to meet the accuracy requirement of 0.05mrad.Therefore precision machining of optical window parts quality will directly affect the photoelectric system's pointing accuracy and interchangeability. Processing and testing of the TV and laser window had been very mature, while because of the special nature of the material, transparent and high refractive rate, infrared window parts had the problems of imaging quality and the control of the minimum focal length and second level parallel in the processing. Based on years of practical experience, this paper was focused on how to control the shape and parallel difference precision of infrared window parts in the processing. Single pass rate was increased from 40% to more than 95%, the processing efficiency was significantly enhanced, an effective solution to the bottleneck problem in the actual processing, which effectively solve the bottlenecks in research and production.

  5. Standard surface grinder for precision machining of thin-wall tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A.; Kotora, J., Jr.; Rein, J.; Smith, S. V.; Strack, D.; Stuckey, D.

    1967-01-01

    Standard surface grinder performs precision machining of thin-wall stainless steel tubing by electrical discharge grinding. A related adaptation, a traveling wire electrode fixture, is used for machining slots in thin-walled tubing.

  6. Precision Measurement of Cylinder Surface Profile on an Ultra-Precision Machine Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Noh, Y. J.; Arai, Y.; Gao, W.; Park, C. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the measurement of the surface straightness profile of a cylinder workpiece on an ultra-precision machine tool which has a T-base design with a spindle, an X-slide and a Z-slide. The movement range of the X-slide is 220 mm and that of the Z-slide is 150 mm, which have roller bearings in common. Two capacitive sensors are employed to scan a cylinder workpiece mounted on the spindle along the Z-axis. The straightness error motion of the Z-slide is measured to be approximately 100 nm by the reversal method. The straightness profile of the cylinder workpiece is evaluated to be approximately 400 nm by separation of the motion error, simultaneously.

  7. Micro-machining for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeem, Mohammed; Collins, Peter

    2005-06-01

    The increasing complexity of microelectronics/ engineering devices and the requirement for higher yields and automated production systems place stringent demands on the assembly techniques and performance requirements of materials, machining and joining techniques. This has led to increasing interest in the use of low power lasers for machining, welding, soldering and marking of small assemblies. Of particular interest to micro-component industries is the ability of such lasers to apply controlled amounts of energy in precise areas, utilizing extremely low heat input, resulting in very low distortion, and coupled with the ability to operate at high production rates in a flexible manner. The majority of these applications comprise thin materials, less than 1mm thickness. This paper describes some of the cutting, joining, drilling and marking results achieved with a high beam quality low power pulsed Nd: YAG laser.

  8. Impact of Machine Virtualization on Timing Precision for Performance-critical Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, Kirill; Fedotova, Irina; Siemens, Eduard

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present a measurement study to characterize the impact of hardware virtualization on basic software timing, as well as on precise sleep operations of an operating system. We investigated how timer hardware is shared among heavily CPU-, I/O- and Network-bound tasks on a virtual machine as well as on the host machine. VMware ESXi and QEMU/KVM have been chosen as commonly used examples of hypervisor- and host-based models. Based on statistical parameters of retrieved distributions, our results provide a very good estimation of timing behavior. It is essential for real-time and performance-critical applications such as image processing or real-time control.

  9. Workshop on Fielded Applications of Machine Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-11

    This report summaries the talks presented at the Workshop on Fielded Applications of Machine Learning , and draws some initial conclusions about the state of machine learning and its potential for solving real-world problems.

  10. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  11. Effects of imbalance and geometric error on precision grinding machines

    SciTech Connect

    Bibler, J.E.

    1997-06-01

    To study balancing in grinding, a simple mechanical system was examined. It was essential to study such a well-defined system, as opposed to a large, complex system such as a machining center. The use of a compact, well-defined system enabled easy quantification of the imbalance force input, its phase angle to any geometric decentering, and good understanding of the machine mode shapes. It is important to understand a simple system such as the one I examined given that imbalance is so intimately coupled to machine dynamics. It is possible to extend the results presented here to industrial machines, although that is not part of this work. In addition to the empirical testing, a simple mechanical system to look at how mode shapes, balance, and geometric error interplay to yield spindle error motion was modelled. The results of this model will be presented along with the results from a more global grinding model. The global model, presented at ASPE in November 1996, allows one to examine the effects of changing global machine parameters like stiffness and damping. This geometrically abstract, one-dimensional model will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness of an abstract approach for first-order understanding but it will not be the main focus of this thesis. 19 refs., 36 figs., 10 tables.

  12. Computer controlled precision optical polishing on the diamond turning machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, P.R.; Day, R.D.; Hatch, D.

    1993-10-01

    This abstract reports the force and wear data required to predict the material removal, or wear, for the Numerical controlled (N/C) polishing program. The program`s aim is to provide the operator of a N/C diamond turning machine or N/C grinding machine with the wear characteristics necessary to achieve uniform material removal. The first phase of the program looks at a rotating polishing wheel, moving from near the center to edge of a rotating glass disc. future phases will look at more complex shapes.

  13. Remote sensing applications to precision farming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional mechanized agriculture treats large fields with uniform agronomic practices. Precision agriculture/precision farming brings a new concept to manage in-field variability with variable rate application of fertilizers and pesticides, site-specific water management, as well as planting, etc....

  14. In-process optical metrology for precision machining

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbeck, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: Optical technology in the Netherlands; Shape and microfinish as a function of machine performance and stiffness; Repsonse of material to ideal micromachining and diamond tools; Micromachined components in optical systems, scanning interferometry; Contactless microtopography and profilometry; and Automated interferometric validation scatterometry, ellipsometry.

  15. Aspects of ultra-high-precision diamond machining of RSA 443 optical aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoko, Z.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-08-01

    Optical aluminium alloys such as 6061-T6 are traditionally used in ultra-high precision manufacturing for making optical mirrors for aerospace and other applications. However, the optics industry has recently witnessed the development of more advanced optical aluminium grades that are capable of addressing some of the issues encountered when turning with single-point natural monocrystalline diamond cutters. The advent of rapidly solidified aluminium (RSA) grades has generally opened up new possibilities for ultra-high precision manufacturing of optical components. In this study, experiments were conducted with single-point diamond cutters on rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 443 material. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of depth of cut and feed rate at a fixed rotational speed on the tool wear rate and resulting surface roughness of diamond turned specimens. This is done to gain further understanding of the rate of wear on the diamond cutters versus the surface texture generated on the RSA 443 material. The diamond machining experiments yielded machined surfaces which are less reflective but with consistent surface roughness values. Cutting tools were observed for wear through scanning microscopy; relatively low wear pattern was evident on the diamond tool edge. The highest tool wear were obtained at higher depth of cut and increased feed rate.

  16. Precision holding prediction model for moving joint surfaces of large machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mulan; Chen, Xuanyu; Ding, Wenzheng; Xu, Kaiyun

    2017-01-01

    In large machine tool, the plastic guide rail is more and more widely used because of its good mechanical properties. Based on the actual operating conditions of the machine tool, this paper analyzes the precision holding performance of the main bearing surface of the large machine tool with plastic guide rail moving. The precision holding performance of the plastic sliding guide rail is studied in detail from several aspects, such as the lubrication condition, the operating parameters of the machine tool and the material properties. The precision holding model of the moving binding surface of the plastic coated guide rail is established. At the same time, the experimental research on the accuracy of the guide rail is carried out, which verifies the validity of the theoretical model.

  17. Advances in molecular dynamics simulation of ultra-precision machining of hard and brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaoguang; Li, Qiang; Liu, Tao; Kang, Renke; Jin, Zhuji; Guo, Dongming

    2016-12-01

    Hard and brittle materials, such as silicon, SiC, and optical glasses, are widely used in aerospace, military, integrated circuit, and other fields because of their excellent physical and chemical properties. However, these materials display poor machinability because of their hard and brittle properties. Damages such as surface micro-crack and subsurface damage often occur during machining of hard and brittle materials. Ultra-precision machining is widely used in processing hard and brittle materials to obtain nanoscale machining quality. However, the theoretical mechanism underlying this method remains unclear. This paper provides a review of present research on the molecular dynamics simulation of ultra-precision machining of hard and brittle materials. The future trends in this field are also discussed.

  18. Micro-optical fabrication by ultraprecision diamond machining and precision molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Li, Likai; Naples, Neil J.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Yi, Allen Y.

    2017-06-01

    Ultraprecision diamond machining and high volume molding for affordable high precision high performance optical elements are becoming a viable process in optical industry for low cost high quality microoptical component manufacturing. In this process, first high precision microoptical molds are fabricated using ultraprecision single point diamond machining followed by high volume production methods such as compression or injection molding. In the last two decades, there have been steady improvements in ultraprecision machine design and performance, particularly with the introduction of both slow tool and fast tool servo. Today optical molds, including freeform surfaces and microlens arrays, are routinely diamond machined to final finish without post machining polishing. For consumers, compression molding or injection molding provide efficient and high quality optics at extremely low cost. In this paper, first ultraprecision machine design and machining processes such as slow tool and fast too servo are described then both compression molding and injection molding of polymer optics are discussed. To implement precision optical manufacturing by molding, numerical modeling can be included in the future as a critical part of the manufacturing process to ensure high product quality.

  19. Visual Inspection of Machined Metallic High-Precision Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernkopf, Franz; O'Leary, Paul

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a surface inspection prototype of an automatic system for precision ground metallic surfaces, in this case bearing rolls. The surface reflectance properties are modeled and verified with optical experiments. The aim being to determine the optical arrangement for illumination and observation, where the contrast between errors and intact surface is maximized. A new adaptive threshold selection algorithm for segmentation is presented. Additionally, is included an evaluation of a large number of published sequential search algorithms for selection of the best subset of features for the classification with a comparison of their computational requirements. Finally, the results of classification for 540 flaw images are presented.

  20. Applications of Machine Learning and Rule Induction,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-15

    An important area of application for machine learning is in automating the acquisition of knowledge bases required for expert systems. In this paper...we review the major paradigms for machine learning , including neural networks, instance-based methods, genetic learning, rule induction, and analytic

  1. Conformal interpolating algorithm based on B-spline for aspheric ultra-precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenggui; Sun, Dan; Wang, Min

    2006-02-01

    Numeric control machining and on-line compensation for aspheric surface are key techniques for ultra-precision machining. In this paper, conformal cubic B-spline interpolating curve is first applied to fit the character curve of aspheric surface. Its algorithm and process are also proposed and imitated by Matlab7.0 software. To evaluate the performance of the conformal B-spline interpolation, comparison was made between linear and circular interpolations. The result verifies this method can ensure smoothness of interpolating spline curve and preserve original shape characters. The surface quality interpolated by B-spline is higher than by line and by circle arc. The algorithm is benefit to increasing the surface form precision of workpiece during ultra-precision machining.

  2. Comparison between predicted and actual accuracies for an Ultra-Precision CNC measuring machine

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.C.; Fix, B.L.

    1995-05-30

    At the 1989 CIRP annual meeting, we reported on the design of a specialized, ultra-precision CNC measuring machine, and on the error budget that was developed to guide the design process. In our paper we proposed a combinatorial rule for merging estimated and/or calculated values for all known sources of error, to yield a single overall predicted accuracy for the machine. In this paper we compare our original predictions with measured performance of the completed instrument.

  3. Lessons from Two Years of Building Fusion Ignition Targets with the Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Montesanti, R C; Alger, E T; Atherton, L J; Bhandarkar, S D; Castro, C; Dzenitis, E G; Hamza, A V; Klingmann, J L; Nikroo, A; Parham, T G; Reynolds, J L; Seugling, R M; Swisher, M F; Taylor, J S; Witte, M C

    2010-02-19

    The Precision Robotic Assembly Machine was developed to manufacture the small and intricate laser-driven fusion ignition targets that are being used in the world's largest and most energetic laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) goal of using the NIF to produce a self-sustaining nuclear fusion burn with energy gain - for the first time ever in a laboratory setting - requires targets that are demanding in materials fabrication, machining, and assembly. We provide an overview of the design and function of the machine, with emphasis on the aspects that revolutionized how NIC targets are manufactured.

  4. Precise Applications Of The Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1992-01-01

    Report represents overview of Global Positioning System (GPS). Emphasizes those aspects of theory, history, and status of GPS pertaining to potential utility for highly precise scientific measurements. Current and anticipated applications include measurements of crustal motions in seismically active regions of Earth, measurements of rate of rotation of Earth and orientation of poles, tracking of non-GPS spacecraft in orbit around Earth, surveying, measurements of radio-signal-propagation delays, determinations of coordinates of ground stations, and transfer of precise time signals worldwide.

  5. Precision Machining and Technology; Machine Shop Work--Advanced: 9557.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to assist the instructor in systematically planning and presenting a variety of meaningful lessons to facilitate the necessary training for the machine shop student. The material is designed to enable the student to learn the manipulative skills and related knowledge necessary to understand the jig…

  6. Ontological modelling of knowledge management for human-machine integrated design of ultra-precision grinding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Haibo; Yin, Yuehong; Chen, Xing

    2016-11-01

    Despite the rapid development of computer science and information technology, an efficient human-machine integrated enterprise information system for designing complex mechatronic products is still not fully accomplished, partly because of the inharmonious communication among collaborators. Therefore, one challenge in human-machine integration is how to establish an appropriate knowledge management (KM) model to support integration and sharing of heterogeneous product knowledge. Aiming at the diversity of design knowledge, this article proposes an ontology-based model to reach an unambiguous and normative representation of knowledge. First, an ontology-based human-machine integrated design framework is described, then corresponding ontologies and sub-ontologies are established according to different purposes and scopes. Second, a similarity calculation-based ontology integration method composed of ontology mapping and ontology merging is introduced. The ontology searching-based knowledge sharing method is then developed. Finally, a case of human-machine integrated design of a large ultra-precision grinding machine is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  7. Machine learning applications in genetics and genomics.

    PubMed

    Libbrecht, Maxwell W; Noble, William Stafford

    2015-06-01

    The field of machine learning, which aims to develop computer algorithms that improve with experience, holds promise to enable computers to assist humans in the analysis of large, complex data sets. Here, we provide an overview of machine learning applications for the analysis of genome sequencing data sets, including the annotation of sequence elements and epigenetic, proteomic or metabolomic data. We present considerations and recurrent challenges in the application of supervised, semi-supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods, as well as of generative and discriminative modelling approaches. We provide general guidelines to assist in the selection of these machine learning methods and their practical application for the analysis of genetic and genomic data sets.

  8. Research progress on ultra-precision machining technologies for soft-brittle crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hang; Wang, Xu; Guo, Dongming; Chen, Yuchuan

    2017-03-01

    Soft-brittle crystal materials are widely used in many fields, especially optics and microelectronics. However, these materials are difficult to machine through traditional machining methods because of their brittle, soft, and anisotropic nature. In this article, the characteristics and machining difficulties of soft-brittle and crystals are presented. Moreover, the latest research progress of novel machining technologies and their applications for softbrittle crystals are introduced by using some representative materials (e.g., potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)) as examples. This article reviews the research progress of soft-brittle crystals processing.

  9. Research progress on ultra-precision machining technologies for soft-brittle crystal materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hang; Wang, Xu; Guo, Dongming; Chen, Yuchuan

    2016-12-01

    Soft-brittle crystal materials are widely used in many fields, especially optics and microelectronics. However, these materials are difficult to machine through traditional machining methods because of their brittle, soft, and anisotropic nature. In this article, the characteristics and machining difficulties of soft-brittle and crystals are presented. Moreover, the latest research progress of novel machining technologies and their applications for softbrittle crystals are introduced by using some representative materials (e.g., potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), cadmium zinc telluride (CZT)) as examples. This article reviews the research progress of soft-brittle crystals processing.

  10. Engineering, Trade, and Technical Cluster. Task Analyses. Drafting and Design Technology, Precision Machining Technology, Electronics Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum and Resource Center.

    Developed in Virginia, this publication contains task analysis guides to support selected tech prep programs that prepare students for careers in the engineering, trade, and technical cluster. Three occupations are profiled: drafting and design technology, precision machining technology, and electronics technology. Each guide contains the…

  11. Machine Learning for Biological Trajectory Classification Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sbalzarini, Ivo F.; Theriot, Julie; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2002-01-01

    Machine-learning techniques, including clustering algorithms, support vector machines and hidden Markov models, are applied to the task of classifying trajectories of moving keratocyte cells. The different algorithms axe compared to each other as well as to expert and non-expert test persons, using concepts from signal-detection theory. The algorithms performed very well as compared to humans, suggesting a robust tool for trajectory classification in biological applications.

  12. A real-time surface inspection system for precision steel balls based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ji; Tsai, Jhy-Cherng; Hsu, Ya-Chen

    2016-07-01

    Precision steel balls are one of the most fundament components for motion and power transmission parts and they are widely used in industrial machinery and the automotive industry. As precision balls are crucial for the quality of these products, there is an urgent need to develop a fast and robust system for inspecting defects of precision steel balls. In this paper, a real-time system for inspecting surface defects of precision steel balls is developed based on machine vision. The developed system integrates a dual-lighting system, an unfolding mechanism and inspection algorithms for real-time signal processing and defect detection. The developed system is tested under feeding speeds of 4 pcs s-1 with a detection rate of 99.94% and an error rate of 0.10%. The minimum detectable surface flaw area is 0.01 mm2, which meets the requirement for inspecting ISO grade 100 precision steel balls.

  13. Manufacturing And Measuring Of Aspherics Integrated In One Ultra Precision Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knol, Pierre H.; Szepesi, Denes; Werner, P. Guenther; Knappert, Wilhelm

    1989-04-01

    Hembrug recently developed the method of tool-normality for machining aspherics on the Super-Mikroturn CNC ultra precision lathe. This method allows the single point diamond tool to be kept perpendicular to the surface and eliminates the influence of tool tip radius error. Due to the perpendicularity of the tool, this method also allows the integration of a dedicated sensor system for in-process measurement. The realisation is carried out by a hydrostatic, numerically controlled precision rotary table, together with a software package for 3-axis interpolation. To measure the surface topography and reflection value of metal optics, a non-contact sensor, consisting of a bundle of glass fibers concentrically arranged is now in development. A number of these fibers are connected to a light source and the remaining fibers are used to transmit the reflected light from the surface. The intensity of the reflected light versus the distance generates a diagram of which the shape characterizes the roughness and the reflection of the measured surface. The integration of such a dedicated sensor into an ultra precision machine tool in combination with the evaluated characteristic diagram makes it possible to obtain data of the shape of surface topography and reflection values performing the first step of an in-process adaptive control system. The paper will deal in greater detail with the development of this new concept of ultra precision machining and measuring problems connected to the process.

  14. Materials development for precision segmented reflector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.; Willis, Paul B.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements developed to guide the selection of current and future materials for precision segmented reflectors are presented along with a list of desirable properties. Some potential candidate materials including modified fiber reinforced organic matrix composites as well as carbon/carbon composites, graphite/glass composites, and metal matrix composites are identified. It is noted that in the near term, it is likely that modified fiber reinforced organic matrix composites have good applicability. In the longer term, materials such as carbon/carbon composites, graphite/glass composites and metal matrix composites may provide the best mix of properties.

  15. Apparatus for correcting precision errors in slide straightness in machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Samuel C.; Gerth, Howard L.

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a mechanism by which small deviations in slideway straightness and roll of a precision machining apparatus may be compensated for. The mechanism of the present invention comprises a fixture support disposed between the slideway carriage and the tool or workpiece fixture and provided with a hinge-like coupling between the carriage and the fixture support so as to allow for the minute and precise displacement of the fixture support in a direction normal to the direction of the slide path so as to readily compensate for slight deviations in the straightness and roll of the slide path.

  16. Apparatus for correcting precision errors in slide straigntness in machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, S.C.; Gerth, H.L.

    The present invention is directed to a mechanism by which small deviations in slideway straightness and roll of a precision machining apparatus may be compensated for. The mechanism of the present invention comprises a fixture support disposed between the slideway carriage and the tool or workpiece fixture and provided with a hinge-like coupling between the carriage and the fixture support so as to allow for the minute and precise displacement of the fixture support in a direction normal to the direction of the slide path soa as to readily compensate for slight deviations in the straightness and roll of the slide path.

  17. Precise on-machine extraction of the surface normal vector using an eddy current sensor array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongqing; Lian, Meng; Liu, Haibo; Ying, Yangwei; Sheng, Xianjun

    2016-11-01

    To satisfy the requirements of on-machine measurement of the surface normal during complex surface manufacturing, a highly robust normal vector extraction method using an Eddy current (EC) displacement sensor array is developed, the output of which is almost unaffected by surface brightness, machining coolant and environmental noise. A precise normal vector extraction model based on a triangular-distributed EC sensor array is first established. Calibration of the effects of object surface inclination and coupling interference on measurement results, and the relative position of EC sensors, is involved. A novel apparatus employing three EC sensors and a force transducer was designed, which can be easily integrated into the computer numerical control (CNC) machine tool spindle and/or robot terminal execution. Finally, to test the validity and practicability of the proposed method, typical experiments were conducted with specified testing pieces using the developed approach and system, such as an inclined plane and cylindrical and spherical surfaces.

  18. Application and machining of Zerodur for optical purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisert, Norbert

    1991-03-01

    'Zerodur' is a glass ceramic made by SCHOTT GLASWERKE, exhibiting special physical properties, while also being optimally suited for a variety of applications. Thermal expansion of 'Zerodur' is zero over a large temperature range and temperature variations, thus, have no bearing on the geometry of workpieces, which makes 'Zerodur' ideally suited for the use as mirror substrate blanks for astronomical telescopes, x-ray telescopes, or even for chips production, where maximum precision is a prime requirement. The temperature-independent base blocks of ring laser gyroscopes, as well as range spacers in laser resonators are likewise made of 'Zerodur'. 'Zerodur' can be machined like glass, but unlike with many optical glasses the warming generated upon cementing and polishing does not cause any deformations of tension at the surface. The paper aims to provide a general view of the most essential properties of 'Zerodur', its major fields of application, the manufacture and the machining in the forma of grinding and polishing.

  19. KrF excimer laser precision machining of hard and brittle ceramic biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Lu, Jian-Yi; Huang, Jin-Xia

    2014-06-01

    KrF excimer laser precision machining of porous hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials was studied to find a suitable way of machining the materials into various desired shapes and sizes without distorting their intrinsic structure and porosity. Calcium phosphate glass ceramics (CPGs) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were chosen for the study. It was found that KrF excimer laser can cut both CPGs and HA with high efficiency and precision. The ablation rates of CPGs and HA are respectively 0.081 µm/(pulse J cm(-2)) and 0.048 µm/(pulse  J cm(-2)), while their threshold fluences are individually 0.72 and 1.5 J cm(-2). The cutting quality (smoothness of the cut surface) is a function of laser repetition rate and cutting speed. The higher the repetition rate and lower the cutting speed, the better the cutting quality. A comparison between the cross sections of CPGs and HA cut using the excimer laser and using a conventional diamond cutting blade indicates that those cut by the excimer laser could retain their intrinsic porosity and geometry without distortion. In contrast, those cut by conventional machining had distorted geometry and most of their surface porosities were lost. Therefore, when cutting hard-brittle ceramic biomaterials to prepare scaffold and implant or when sectioning them for porosity evaluation, it is better to choose KrF excimer laser machining.

  20. Application of advanced materials to rotating machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    In discussing the application of advanced materials to rotating machinery, the following topics are covered: the torque speed characteristics of ac and dc machines, motor and transformer losses, the factors affecting core loss in motors, advanced magnetic materials and conductors, and design tradeoffs for samarium cobalt motors.

  1. Applications of Machine Learning for Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamoto, Takahiro

    Radiation therapy has been highly advanced as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) by making advantage of image engineering technologies. Recently, novel frameworks based on image engineering technologies as well as machine learning technologies have been studied for sophisticating the radiation therapy. In this review paper, the author introduces several researches of applications of machine learning for radiation therapy. For examples, a method to determine the threshold values for standardized uptake value (SUV) for estimation of gross tumor volume (GTV) in positron emission tomography (PET) images, an approach to estimate the multileaf collimator (MLC) position errors between treatment plans and radiation delivery time, and prediction frameworks for esophageal stenosis and radiation pneumonitis risk after radiation therapy are described. Finally, the author introduces seven issues that one should consider when applying machine learning models to radiation therapy.

  2. Mesoplasticity approach to studies of the cutting mechanism in ultra-precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rongbin W. B.; Wang, Hao; To, Suet; Cheung, Chi Fai; Chan, Chang Yuen

    2014-03-01

    There have been various theoretical attempts by researchers worldwide to link up different scales of plasticity studies from the nano-, micro- and macro-scale of observation, based on molecular dynamics, crystal plasticity and continuum mechanics. Very few attempts, however, have been reported in ultra-precision machining studies. A mesoplasticity approach advocated by Lee and Yang is adopted by the authors and is successfully applied to studies of the micro-cutting mechanisms in ultra-precision machining. Traditionally, the shear angle in metal cutting, as well as the cutting force variation, can only be determined from cutting tests. In the pioneering work of the authors, the use of mesoplasticity theory enables prediction of the fluctuation of the shear angle and micro-cutting force, shear band formation, chip morphology in diamond turning and size effect in nano-indentation. These findings are verified by experiments. The mesoplasticity formulation opens up a new direction of studies to enable how the plastic behaviour of materials and their constitutive representations in deformation processing, such as machining can be predicted, assessed and deduced from the basic properties of the materials measurable at the microscale.

  3. Precision machining and polishing of scintillating crystals for large calorimeters and hodoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuest, C. R.; Fuchs, B. A.; Holdener, F. R.; Heck, J. L., Jr.

    1994-04-01

    New machining and polishing techniques have been developed for large scintillating crystal arrays such as the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the GEM Detector at SSCL, the Crystal Clear Collaboration's cerium fluoride or lead tungstenate calorimeter at the proposed LHC and CERN, the PHENIX Detector at RHIC (barium fluoride), and the cesium iodide Calorimeter for the BaBar Detector at PEP-2 B Factory at SLAC. The machining and polishing methods to be presented in this paper provide crystalline surfaces without sub-surface damage or deformation as verified by Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS) analysis. Surface roughness of about 10-20 A and sub-micron mechanical tolerances have been demonstrated on large barium fluoride crystal samples. Mass production techniques have also been developed for machining the proper angled surfaces and polishing up to five 50 cm long crystals at one time. These techniques utilize kinematic mount technology developed at LLNL to allow precision machining and polishing of complex surfaces. They will present this technology along with detailed surface studies of barium fluoride and cerium fluoride crystals polished with this technique.

  4. Multiscale Modeling and Analysis of an Ultra-Precision Damage Free Machining Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Chaoliang; Peng, Wenqiang

    2016-06-01

    Under the condition of high laser flux, laser induced damage of optical element does not occur is the key to success of laser fusion ignition system. US government survey showed that the processing defects caused the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) to decrease is one of the three major challenges. Cracks and scratches caused by brittle and plastic removal machining are fatal flaws. Using hydrodynamic effect polishing method can obtain damage free surface on quartz glass. The material removal mechanism of this typical ultra-precision machining process was modeled in multiscale. In atomic scale, chemical modeling illustrated the weakening and breaking of chemical bond energy. In particle scale, micro contact modeling given the elastic remove mode boundary of materials. In slurry scale, hydrodynamic flow modeling showed the dynamic pressure and shear stress distribution which are relations with machining effect. Experiment was conducted on a numerically controlled system, and one quartz glass optical component was polished in the elastic mode. Results show that the damages are removed away layer by layer as the removal depth increases due to the high damage free machining ability of the HEP. And the LIDT of sample was greatly improved.

  5. Precision machining and polishing of scintillating crystals for large calorimeters and hodoscopes. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Fuchs, B.A.; Holdener, F.R.; Heck, J.L. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    New machining and polishing techniques have been developed for large scintillating crystal arrays such as the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter for the GEM Detector at SSCL, the Crystal Clear Collaboration`s cerium fluoride or lead tungstenate calorimeter at the proposed LHC and CERN, the PHENIX Detector at RHIC (barium fluoride), and the cesium iodide Calorimeter for the BaBar Detector at PEP-2 B Factory at SLAC. The machining and polishing methods to be presented in this paper provide crystalline surfaces without sub-surface damage or deformation as verified by Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS) analysis. Surface roughness of about 10--20 angstroms and sub-micron mechanical tolerances have been demonstrated on large barium fluoride crystal samples. Mass production techniques have also been developed for machining the proper angled surfaces and polishing up to five 50 cm long crystals at one time. These techniques utilize kinematic mount technology developed at LLNL to allow precision machining and polishing of complex surfaces. They will present this technology along with detailed surface studies of barium fluoride and cerium fluoride crystals polished with this technique.

  6. Geometrical aspects of laser-drilled high precision holes for flow control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giedl, Roswitha; Helml, H.-J.; Wagner, F. X.; Wild, Michael J.

    2003-11-01

    Laser drilling has become a valuable tool for the manufacture of high precision micro holes in a variety of materials. Laser drilled precision holes have applications in the automotive, aerospace, medical and sensor industry for flow control applications. The technology is competing with conventional machining micro electro-discharge machining in the field of fuel injection nozzle for combustion engines. Depending on the application, laser and optics have to be chosen which suits the requirements. In this paper, the results achieved with different lasers and drilling techniques will be compared to the hole specifications in flow control applications. The issue of geometry control of high aspect ratio laser drilled holes in metals will be investigated. The comparison of flow measurement results to microscopic hole dimension measurement show that flow characteristics strongly depend on cavitation number during flow.

  7. Precision aerial application for site-specific rice crop management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precision agriculture includes different technologies that allow agricultural professional to use information management tools to optimize agriculture production. The new technologies allow aerial application applicators to improve application accuracy and efficiency, which saves time and money for...

  8. Design and Optimization of Ultrasonic Vibration Mechanism using PZT for Precision Laser Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Jin; Lu, Fei; Cho, Sung-Hak; Park, Jong-Kweon; Lee, Moon G.

    As the aged population grows around the world, many medical instruments and devices have been developed recently. Among the devices, a drug delivery stent is a medical device which requires precision machining. Conventional drug delivery stent has problems of residual polymer and decoating because the drug is coated on the surface of stent with the polymer. If the drug is impregnated in the micro sized holes on the surface, the problems can be overcome because there is no need to use the polymer anymore. Micro sized holes are generally fabricated by laser machining; however, the fabricated holes do not have a high aspect ratio or a good surface finish. To overcome these problems, we propose a vibration-assisted machining mechanism with PZT (Piezoelectric Transducers) for the fabrication of micro sized holes. If the mechanism vibrates the eyepiece of the laser machining head, the laser spot on the workpiece will vibrate vertically because objective lens in the eyepiece shakes by the mechanism's vibration. According to the former researches, the vibrating frequency over 20 kHz and amplitude over 500 nm are preferable. The vibration mechanism has cylindrical guide, hollowed PZT and supports. In the cylinder, the eyepiece is mounted. The cylindrical guide has upper and low plates and side wall. The shape of plates and side wall are designed to have high resonating frequency and large amplitude of motion. The PZT is also selected to have high actuating force and high speed of motion. The support has symmetrical and rigid configuration. The mechanism secures linear motion of the eyepiece. This research includes sensitivity analysis and design of ultrasonic vibration mechanism. As a result of design, the requirements of high frequency and large amplitude are achieved.

  9. Temperature variable optimization for precision machine tool thermal error compensation on optimal threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Ye, Wenhua; Liang, Ruijun; Lou, Peihuang; Yang, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    Machine tool thermal error is an important reason for poor machining accuracy. Thermal error compensation is a primary technology in accuracy control. To build thermal error model, temperature variables are needed to be divided into several groups on an appropriate threshold. Currently, group threshold value is mainly determined by researchers experience. Few studies focus on group threshold in temperature variable grouping. Since the threshold is important in error compensation, this paper arms to find out an optimal threshold to realize temperature variable optimization in thermal error modeling. Firstly, correlation coefficient is used to express membership grade of temperature variables, and the theory of fuzzy transitive closure is applied to obtain relational matrix of temperature variables. Concepts as compact degree and separable degree are introduced. Then evaluation model of temperature variable clustering is built. The optimal threshold and the best temperature variable clustering can be obtained by setting the maximum value of evaluation model as the objective. Finally, correlation coefficients between temperature variables and thermal error are calculated in order to find out optimum temperature variables for thermal error modeling. An experiment is conducted on a precise horizontal machining center. In experiment, three displacement sensors are used to measure spindle thermal error and twenty-nine temperature sensors are utilized to detect the machining center temperature. Experimental result shows that the new method of temperature variable optimization on optimal threshold successfully worked out a best threshold value interval and chose seven temperature variables from twenty-nine temperature measuring points. The model residual of z direction is within 3 μm. Obviously, the proposed new variable optimization method has simple computing process and good modeling accuracy, which is quite fit for thermal error compensation.

  10. New methods to control quality and precision of micro-machining with femtosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Harzic, Ronan; Sanner, Nicolas; Huot, Nicolas; Donnet, C.; Audouard, Eric; Laporte, Pierre

    2003-11-01

    Due to the rapid development of ultrashort lasers, quality of the machining is of prime interest for several applications. For instance deep marking of various materials. In this case, the depth can be controlled, knowing the ablation rate for the corresponding material. The evolution of ablation rates of Al, Cu and Ni are given in relation to the energy density. In metals the effect of thermal diffusion has to be taken into account to control collateral effects and especially the heat affected zone.

  11. Machine learning applications in cell image analysis.

    PubMed

    Kan, Andrey

    2017-04-04

    Machine learning (ML) refers to a set of automatic pattern recognition methods that have been successfully applied across various problem domains, including biomedical image analysis. This review focuses on ML applications for image analysis in light microscopy experiments with typical tasks of segmenting and tracking individual cells, and modelling of reconstructed lineage trees. After describing a typical image analysis pipeline and highlighting challenges of automatic analysis (for example, variability in cell morphology, tracking in presence of clutters) this review gives a brief historical outlook of ML, followed by basic concepts and definitions required for understanding examples. This article then presents several example applications at various image processing stages, including the use of supervised learning methods for improving cell segmentation, and the application of active learning for tracking. The review concludes with remarks on parameter setting and future directions.Immunology and Cell Biology advance online publication, 4 April 2017; doi:10.1038/icb.2017.16.

  12. Laboratory directed research and development final report: Intelligent tools for on-machine acceptance of precision machined components

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.G.; Harwell, L.D.; Hazelton, A.

    1997-02-01

    On-Machine Acceptance (OMA) is an agile manufacturing concept being developed for machine tools at SNL. The concept behind OMA is the integration of product design, fabrication, and qualification processes by using the machining center as a fabrication and inspection tool. This report documents the final results of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development effort to qualify OMA.

  13. High energy green nanosecond and picosecond pulse delivery through a negative curvature fiber for precision micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Piotr; Yu, Fei; Carter, Richard M; Knight, Jonathan C; Shephard, Jonathan D; Hand, Duncan P

    2015-04-06

    In this paper we present an anti-resonant guiding, low-loss Negative Curvature Fiber (NCF) for the efficient delivery of high energy short (ns) and ultrashort (ps) pulsed laser light in the green spectral region. The fabricated NCF has an attenuation of 0.15 dB/m and 0.18 dB/m at 532 nm and 515 nm respectively, and provided robust transmission of nanosecond and picosecond pulses with energies of 0.57 mJ (10.4 kW peak power) and 30 µJ (5 MW peak power) respectively. It provides single-mode, stable (low bend-sensitivity) output and maintains spectral and temporal properties of the source laser beam. The practical application of fiber-delivered pulses has been demonstrated in precision micro-machining and marking of metals and glass.

  14. A Novel Gravity Compensation Method for High Precision Free-INS Based on "Extreme Learning Machine".

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Cai, Qingzhong; Wang, Jing

    2016-11-29

    In recent years, with the emergency of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros), gravity compensation has become a major source influencing the navigation accuracy in inertial navigation systems (INS), especially for high-precision INS. This paper presents preliminary results concerning the effect of gravity disturbance on INS. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a novel gravity compensation method for high-precision INS, which estimates the gravity disturbance on the track using the extreme learning machine (ELM) method based on measured gravity data on the geoid and processes the gravity disturbance to the height where INS has an upward continuation, then compensates the obtained gravity disturbance into the error equations of INS to restrain the INS error propagation. The estimation accuracy of the gravity disturbance data is verified by numerical tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) of the ELM estimation method can be improved by 23% and 44% compared with the bilinear interpolation method in plain and mountain areas, respectively. To further validate the proposed gravity compensation method, field experiments with an experimental vehicle were carried out in two regions. Test 1 was carried out in a plain area and Test 2 in a mountain area. The field experiment results also prove that the proposed gravity compensation method can significantly improve the positioning accuracy. During the 2-h field experiments, the positioning accuracy can be improved by 13% and 29% respectively, in Tests 1 and 2, when the navigation scheme is compensated by the proposed gravity compensation method.

  15. Data Collection Satellite Application in Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durào, O.

    2002-01-01

    's over Brazilian territory. There were 25 platforms when SCD-1 was launched. However this number is growing rapidly to 400 platforms, at first for measurements of water reservoir levels as well as other hydrology applications (The Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency - ANEEL is the customer), and for many other different applications such as meteorology, oceanography, environmental monitoring sciences, and people and animal tracking. The clear feeling is that users are discovering a satellite system whose benefits were not previously well understood when launched and being able to propose and come up with different and useful applications. A new field in the country that has a great potential to benefit from this system is agriculture. Per se, this is a very important sector of the Brazilian economy and its international trade. Combining it with space technology may justify the investment of new and low cost dedicated satellites. This paper describes a new proposal for use of the SCD-1,2,CBERS-1 satellite system for precision agriculture. New PCD's would be developed for measurements of chemical content of the soil, such as, for example, Nitrogen and others, beyond humidity and solar incidence. This can lead to a more efficient fertilization, harvesting and even the spray of chemical defensives, with the consequence of environment protection. The PCD's ground network so established, along with the information network already available, combined with the space segment of such a system may, as previously said, be able to justify the investment in low cost satellites with this sole purpose.

  16. Web Mining: Machine Learning for Web Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Chau, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Presents an overview of machine learning research and reviews methods used for evaluating machine learning systems. Ways that machine-learning algorithms were used in traditional information retrieval systems in the "pre-Web" era are described, and the field of Web mining and how machine learning has been used in different Web mining…

  17. Web Mining: Machine Learning for Web Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Chau, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Presents an overview of machine learning research and reviews methods used for evaluating machine learning systems. Ways that machine-learning algorithms were used in traditional information retrieval systems in the "pre-Web" era are described, and the field of Web mining and how machine learning has been used in different Web mining…

  18. Atomically Precise Metal Nanoclusters for Catalytic Application

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Rongchao

    2016-11-18

    The central goal of this project is to explore the catalytic application of atomically precise gold nanoclusters. By solving the total structures of ligand-protected nanoclusters, we aim to correlate the catalytic properties of metal nanoclusters with their atomic/electronic structures. Such correlation unravel some fundamental aspects of nanocatalysis, such as the nature of particle size effect, origin of catalytic selectivity, particle-support interactions, the identification of catalytically active centers, etc. The well-defined nanocluster catalysts mediate the knowledge gap between single crystal model catalysts and real-world conventional nanocatalysts. These nanoclusters also hold great promise in catalyzing certain types of reactions with extraordinarily high selectivity. These aims are in line with the overall goals of the catalytic science and technology of DOE and advance the BES mission “to support fundamental research to understand, predict, and ultimately control matter and energy at the level of electrons, atoms, and molecules”. Our group has successfully prepared different sized, robust gold nanoclusters protected by thiolates, such as Au25(SR)18, Au28(SR)20, Au38(SR)24, Au99(SR)42, Au144(SR)60, etc. Some of these nanoclusters have been crystallographically characterized through X-ray crystallography. These ultrasmall nanoclusters (< 2 nm diameter) exhibit discrete electronic structures due to quantum size effect, as opposed to quasicontinuous band structure of conventional metal nanoparticles or bulk metals. The available atomic structures (metal core plus surface ligands) of nanoclusters serve as the basis for structure-property correlations. We have investigated the unique catalytic properties of nanoclusters (i.e. not observed in conventional nanogold catalysts) and revealed the structure-selectivity relationships. Highlights of our

  19. High precision applications of the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of U.S. defense navigation satellites which can be used for military and civilian positioning applications. A wide variety of GPS scientific applications were identified and precise positioning capabilities with GPS were already demonstrated with data available from the present partial satellite constellation. Expected applications include: measurements of Earth crustal motion, particularly in seismically active regions; measurements of the Earth's rotation rate and pole orientation; high-precision Earth orbiter tracking; surveying; measurements of media propagation delays for calibration of deep space radiometric data in support of NASA planetary missions; determination of precise ground station coordinates; and precise time transfer worldwide.

  20. Applications and modelling of bulk HTSs in brushless ac machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, G. J.; McCulloch, M. D.; Dew-Hughes, D.

    2000-06-01

    The use of high temperature superconducting material in its bulk form for engineering applications is attractive due to the large power densities that can be achieved. In brushless electrical machines, there are essentially four properties that can be exploited; their hysteretic nature, their flux shielding properties, their ability to trap large flux densities and their ability to produce levitation. These properties translate to hysteresis machines, reluctance machines, trapped-field synchronous machines and linear motors respectively. Each one of these machines is addressed separately and computer simulations that reveal the current and field distributions within the machines are used to explain their operation.

  1. GA-Based Autonomous Design of Robust Fast and Precise Positioning Considering Machine Stand Vibration Suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kazuaki; Nagata, Ryo; Iwasaki, Makoto; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    This paper presents a novel Genetic Algorithm (GA)-based autonomous compensator design and position command shaping considering the stand vibration suppression for the fast-response and high-precision positioning of mechatronic systems. The positioning system is mainly composed of a robust 2-degrees-of-freedom (2DOF) controller based on the coprime factorization description. The feedback compensator based on H∞ design framework in the 2DOF controller ensures the robustness against the variations of resonant vibration mode. The feedforward compensator and position command, on the other hand, can be autonomously designed by the optimization capability of GA, in order to achieve the desired positioning performance and to suppress the machine stand vibration. The effectiveness of the proposed optimal design has been verified by experiments using a table drive system with ball screw.

  2. Research on some factors which influence the aperture of precision micro hole in electronical discharge machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Ma, Gangjian; Liu, Jianyong

    2017-06-01

    The factors which influence the size of the hole during the process of machining precision micro hole are studied in this paper. Through the way that using the same diameter of electrode wire to process large number of micro hole on different materials and different thickness, the processing time, electrode wire loss and pore size was written down. The law of the factors which influence the size of the micro hole is found by analysing the data. It can help to select the appropriate electrical processing parameters to ensure the quality of the aperture during actual operation process. And these are usually ensured by repeated testing and multiple measurements. This research get great help for improving processing efficiency. The study is of great guiding significance to the actual production.

  3. Out-of-squareness measurement on ultra-precision machine based on the error separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Tao; Liu, Junfeng; Chen, Shanyong; Guan, Chaoliang; Tie, Guipeng; Liao, Quan

    2017-06-01

    Traditional methods of measuring out-of-squareness of ultra-precision motion stage have many limitations, especially the errors caused by inaccuracy of standard specimens, such as bare L-square and optical pentaprism. And generally, the accurate of out-of-squareness measurement is lower than the accurate of interior angles of standard specimens. Based on the error separation, this paper presents a novel method of out-of-squareness measurement with a polygon artifact. The angles bounded with the guideways and the edges of polygon artifact are measured, and the out-of-squareness distraction is achieved by the principle that the sum of internal the angles of a convex polygon artifact is (n-2)π. A out-of-squareness metrical experiment is carried out on the profilometer by using an optical square brick with the out-of-squareness of interior angles at about 1140.2 arcsec. The results show that the measurement accuracy of three out-of-squareness of the profilometer is not affected by the internal angles. The measurementwith the method can be applied to measure the machine error more accurate and calibrate the out-of-squareness of machine.

  4. Rapid fabrication of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic capillary gel electrophoresis system utilizing high precision machining.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong S; Roy, Binayak; McCormick, Matthew T; Kuhr, Werner G; Brazill, Sara A

    2003-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a rapid protocol to address one of the major barriers that exists in the fabrication of chip devices, creating the micron-sized structures in the substrate material. This approach makes it possible to design, produce, and fabricate a microfluidic system with channel features >10 microm in poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) in under 8 hours utilizing instrumentation common to most machine shops. The procedure involves the creation of a master template with negative features, using high precision machining. This master is then employed to create an acrylic mold that is used in the final fabrication step to cast channel structures into the PDMS substrate. The performance of the microfluidic system prepared using this fabrication procedure is evaluated by constructing a miniaturized capillary gel electrophoresis (micro-CGE) system for the analysis of DNA fragments. Agarose is utilized as the sieving medium in the micro-CGE device and is shown to give reproducible (RSD (n= 34) approximately 5.0%) results for about 34 individual separations without replenishing the gel. To demonstrate the functionality of the micro-CGE device, a DNA restriction ladder (spanning 26-700 base pairs) and DNA fragments generated by PCR are separated and detected with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The microchip is shown to achieve a separation efficiency of 2.53 x 10(5) plates m(-1).

  5. Consequences of heavy machining vis à vis the machine structure - typical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuch, M.

    2011-12-01

    StarragHeckert has built 5 axis machines since the middle of the 80s for heavy duty milling. The STC-Centres are predominantly utilised in the aerospace industry, especially for milling structural workpieces, casings or Impellers made out of titanium and steel. StarragHeckert has a history of building machines for high performance milling. The machining of these components includes high forces thus spreading the wheat from the chaff. Although FEM calculations and multi-body simulations are carried out in the early stages of development, this paper will illustrate how the real process stability with modal analysis and cutting trials is determined. The experiment observes chatter stability to identify if the machine devices are adequate for the application or if the design has to be improved. Machining parameters of industrial applications are demonstrating the process stability for five axis heavy duties milling of StarragHeckert machine.

  6. Engagement Angle Modeling for Multiple-circle Continuous Machining and Its Application in the Pocket Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Shixiong; MA, Wei; BAI, Haiping; WANG, Chengyong; SONG, Yuexian

    2017-03-01

    The progressive cutting based on auxiliary paths is an effective machining method for the material accumulating region inside the mould pocket. But the method is commonly based on the radial depth of cut as the control parameter, further more there is no more appropriate adjustment and control approach. The end-users often fail to set the parameter correctly, which leads to excessive tool load in the process of actual machining. In order to make more reasonable control of the machining load and tool-path, an engagement angle modeling method for multiple-circle continuous machining is presented. The distribution mode of multiple circles, dynamic changing process of engagement angle, extreme and average value of engagement angle are carefully considered. Based on the engagement angle model, numerous application techniques for mould pocket machining are presented, involving the calculation of the milling force in multiple-circle continuous machining, and rough and finish machining path planning and load control for the material accumulating region inside the pocket, and other aspects. Simulation and actual machining experiments show that the engagement angle modeling method for multiple-circle continuous machining is correct and reliable, and the related numerous application techniques for pocket machining are feasible and effective. The proposed research contributes to the analysis and control tool load effectively and tool-path planning reasonably for the material accumulating region inside the mould pocket.

  7. Engagement Angle Modeling for Multiple-circle Continuous Machining and Its Application in the Pocket Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Shixiong; MA, Wei; BAI, Haiping; WANG, Chengyong; SONG, Yuexian

    2017-03-01

    The progressive cutting based on auxiliary paths is an effective machining method for the material accumulating region inside the mould pocket. But the method is commonly based on the radial depth of cut as the control parameter, further more there is no more appropriate adjustment and control approach. The end-users often fail to set the parameter correctly, which leads to excessive tool load in the process of actual machining. In order to make more reasonable control of the machining load and tool-path, an engagement angle modeling method for multiple-circle continuous machining is presented. The distribution mode of multiple circles, dynamic changing process of engagement angle, extreme and average value of engagement angle are carefully considered. Based on the engagement angle model, numerous application techniques for mould pocket machining are presented, involving the calculation of the milling force in multiple-circle continuous machining, and rough and finish machining path planning and load control for the material accumulating region inside the pocket, and other aspects. Simulation and actual machining experiments show that the engagement angle modeling method for multiple-circle continuous machining is correct and reliable, and the related numerous application techniques for pocket machining are feasible and effective. The proposed research contributes to the analysis and control tool load effectively and tool-path planning reasonably for the material accumulating region inside the mould pocket.

  8. [Application of precision medicine in the field of surgery].

    PubMed

    Deng, Aiwen; Xiong, Ribo; Zeng, Canjun

    2015-11-01

    Precision medicine, based on personalized medicine, is to provide personalized and precise treatment. The emergence of 3D printing technique as well as genome sequencing provides an effective way to realize precise and personalized treatment. The application of 3D printing technique in the field of surgery is listed as following: optimize operation plan to achieve precise and personalized surgery; design personalized navigation template; personalized prosthesis production; design of personalized tissue and organ. With the development of tissue engineering, new material technology and genome sequencing and the improvement in related polices and regulations, precision medicine will step on a higher level in the field of surgery. This review introduces the application of precision medicine in the field of surgery.

  9. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  10. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo; Mora-Martínez, José

    2016-01-01

    The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched. PMID:27455265

  11. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo; Mora-Martínez, José

    2016-07-22

    The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched.

  12. Intelligent Machine Learning Approaches for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyan, Anoop

    Machine Learning is a type of artificial intelligence that provides machines or networks the ability to learn from data without the need to explicitly program them. There are different kinds of machine learning techniques. This thesis discusses the applications of two of these approaches: Genetic Fuzzy Logic and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) is a powerful tool that can be used for a wide variety of applications. FLS is a universal approximator that reduces the need for complex mathematics and replaces it with expert knowledge of the system to produce an input-output mapping using If-Then rules. The expert knowledge of a system can help in obtaining the parameters for small-scale FLSs, but for larger networks we will need to use sophisticated approaches that can automatically train the network to meet the design requirements. This is where Genetic Algorithms (GA) and EVE come into the picture. Both GA and EVE can tune the FLS parameters to minimize a cost function that is designed to meet the requirements of the specific problem. EVE is an artificial intelligence developed by Psibernetix that is trained to tune large scale FLSs. The parameters of an FLS can include the membership functions and rulebase of the inherent Fuzzy Inference Systems (FISs). The main issue with using the GFS is that the number of parameters in a FIS increase exponentially with the number of inputs thus making it increasingly harder to tune them. To reduce this issue, the FLSs discussed in this thesis consist of 2-input-1-output FISs in cascade (Chapter 4) or as a layer of parallel FISs (Chapter 7). We have obtained extremely good results using GFS for different applications at a reduced computational cost compared to other algorithms that are commonly used to solve the corresponding problems. In this thesis, GFSs have been designed for controlling an inverted double pendulum, a task allocation problem of clustering targets amongst a set of UAVs, a fire

  13. Theoretical and experimental research on machine tool servo system for ultra-precision position compensation on CNC lathe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhichao; Hu, Leilei; Zhao, Hongwei; Wu, Boda; Peng, Zhenxing; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Hongguo; Zhu, Shuai; Xing, Lifeng; Hu, Huang

    2010-08-01

    The theories and techniques for improving machining accuracy via position control of diamond tool's tip and raising resolution of cutting depth on precise CNC lathes have been extremely focused on. A new piezo-driven ultra-precision machine tool servo system is designed and tested to improve manufacturing accuracy of workpiece. The mathematical model of machine tool servo system is established and the finite element analysis is carried out on parallel plate flexure hinges. The output position of diamond tool's tip driven by the machine tool servo system is tested via a contact capacitive displacement sensor. Proportional, integral, derivative (PID) feedback is also implemented to accommodate and compensate dynamical change owing cutting forces as well as the inherent non-linearity factors of the piezoelectric stack during cutting process. By closed loop feedback controlling strategy, the tracking error is limited to 0.8 μm. Experimental results have shown the proposed machine tool servo system could provide a tool positioning resolution of 12 nm, which is much accurate than the inherent CNC resolution magnitude. The stepped shaft of aluminum specimen with a step increment of cutting depth of 1 μm is tested, and the obtained contour illustrates the displacement command output from controller is accurately and real-time reflected on the machined part.

  14. Application of PLC in digitization control intelligence can-body high-speed resitance welding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaobo; Zhang, Ziqiang; Yan, Qiusheng; Zheng, Zhidan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Tianyu

    2003-09-01

    The application of position servo synchronously tracking system constituted with PLC and general AC servo system in digitalization control intelligence can-body high-speed resistance welding machine is introduced in this paper. By studying the digitalization control system of automatic can-body resistance welding machine, technologic upgrade of product is made, and application of PLC in controlling general AC servo motor multi-axes ganged system to replace conventional mechanical ganged mechanism is developed. It makes the coordination of movements between machine actions can be ensured and every correlative actions can quickly and precisely run synchronously, quondam mechanical branching driving can be replaced, and "mechanical locking" between quondam movements can be changed to the "electronic locking," complex mechanical structures such as cams, stepless speed changing machines and universal joints and so on can be omitted, so the working capability of whole machine can effectively be enhanced and synchronization between the machine actions can rapidly be reached. The application realizes digitalization process control, enhances reliability, stability and manufacturing efficiency of the machine, and reduces the manufacturing cost.

  15. Precision segmented reflectors for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Pawlik, Eugene V.; Meinel, Aden B.; Fichter, W. B.

    1990-01-01

    A project to develop precision segmented reflectors (PSRs) which operate at submillimeter wavelengths is described. The development of a light efficient means for the construction of large-aperture segmented reflecting space-based telescopes is the primary aim of the project. The 20-m Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) telescope is being developed for a survey mission, and it will make use of the reflector panels and materials, structures, and figure control being elaborated for the PSR. The surface accuracy of a 0.9-m PSR panel is shown to be 1.74-micron RMS, the goal of 100-micron RMS positioning accuracy has been achieved for a 4-m erectable structure. A voice-coil actuator for the figure control system architecture demonstrated 1-micron panel control accuracy in a 3-axis evaluation. The PSR technology is demonstrated to be of value for several NASA projects involving optical communications and interferometers as well as missions which make use of large-diameter segmented reflectors.

  16. Applications of Remote Sensing to Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, G. A.; Laguette, S.; Seelan, S.; Lawrence, R.; Henry, M.; Maynard, C.; Dalsted, K.; Rattling Leaf, J.

    2001-05-01

    The Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) has changed agricultural practices in the following ways: (1) farmers and ranchers have become partners with, not clients of, researchers; (2) experiments are carried out in the field rather than on small experimental plots; (3) the field is considered an agro-ecosystem, with all the complexities of multiple interactions, rather than attempting to isolate certain parameters and vary only a few; (4) both economic benefit to the producer and sound environmental stewardship for society are achievable. This approach has revealed that information is as significant an input to farm or ranch management as seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, and tillage. Accurate, timely information equips producers with the ability to make decisions during a growing season that optimize the yield at harvest time. An invaluable source of in-season information is imagery acquired from sensors on satellites or aircraft. In addition to sensing reflected sunlight in wavebands outside the visible, remote sensing's overview also reveals anomalous patterns in the vegetation cover that are difficult to spot on the ground. Anomalies can be caused by weeds, disease, water stress, inadequate nutrients, or other causes. Often, anomalies must be detected early or they spread too quickly to be addressed. The paper will demonstrate how remote sensing has been applied to (1) define management zones in farm fields, (2) prescribe variable rate applications of fertilizer, (3) detect pest infestations, and (4) manage cattle grazing according to forage available. The applications were possible because data were processed within 4-5 days of acquisition by the satellite, and then delivered by high-bandwidth satellite links to farmers, ranchers, and tribal government officials in minimal transit time. The applications research described was part of NASA's Synergy Program.

  17. Precision cleaning methods for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, L. E.; Lindewall, H.

    1988-01-01

    A small CO2 snow cleaning apparatus to clean both molecular films and particles from small and large components and surfaces was constructed. Various types of surfaces were cleaned using the CO2 technique. Vacuum deposited and sputtered metallic coatings such as germanium, aluminum, and silver and silicon wafers, and polished copper conical mirrors were purposely contaminated with everyday aerospace contaminants, including particle fallout and fingerprints. Precleaning characterization by Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), ellipsometry, nonvolatile residue, and microscopic particle evaluation served as evaluation of cleaning efficiency. Good results were obtained in trial application.

  18. Drilling High Precision Holes in Ti6Al4V Using Rotary Ultrasonic Machining and Uncertainties Underlying Cutting Force, Tool Wear, and Production Inaccuracies.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, M A K; Sharif Ullah, A M M; Anwar, Saqib

    2017-09-12

    Ti6Al4V alloys are difficult-to-cut materials that have extensive applications in the automotive and aerospace industry. A great deal of effort has been made to develop and improve the machining operations of Ti6Al4V alloys. This paper presents an experimental study that systematically analyzes the effects of the machining conditions (ultrasonic power, feed rate, spindle speed, and tool diameter) on the performance parameters (cutting force, tool wear, overcut error, and cylindricity error), while drilling high precision holes on the workpiece made of Ti6Al4V alloys using rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM). Numerical results were obtained by conducting experiments following the design of an experiment procedure. The effects of the machining conditions on each performance parameter have been determined by constructing a set of possibility distributions (i.e., trapezoidal fuzzy numbers) from the experimental data. A possibility distribution is a probability-distribution-neural representation of uncertainty, and is effective in quantifying the uncertainty underlying physical quantities when there is a limited number of data points which is the case here. Lastly, the optimal machining conditions have been identified using these possibility distributions.

  19. Drilling High Precision Holes in Ti6Al4V Using Rotary Ultrasonic Machining and Uncertainties Underlying Cutting Force, Tool Wear, and Production Inaccuracies

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, M. A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Ti6Al4V alloys are difficult-to-cut materials that have extensive applications in the automotive and aerospace industry. A great deal of effort has been made to develop and improve the machining operations of Ti6Al4V alloys. This paper presents an experimental study that systematically analyzes the effects of the machining conditions (ultrasonic power, feed rate, spindle speed, and tool diameter) on the performance parameters (cutting force, tool wear, overcut error, and cylindricity error), while drilling high precision holes on the workpiece made of Ti6Al4V alloys using rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM). Numerical results were obtained by conducting experiments following the design of an experiment procedure. The effects of the machining conditions on each performance parameter have been determined by constructing a set of possibility distributions (i.e., trapezoidal fuzzy numbers) from the experimental data. A possibility distribution is a probability-distribution-neural representation of uncertainty, and is effective in quantifying the uncertainty underlying physical quantities when there is a limited number of data points which is the case here. Lastly, the optimal machining conditions have been identified using these possibility distributions. PMID:28895876

  20. Adaptive Machining Of Large, Somewhat Flexible Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David; Wagner, Garrett; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive machining is method of machining large, somewhat flexible workpieces to close tolerances. Devised for machining precise weld lands on aft skirts of rocket nozzles, but underlying concept generally applicable to precise machining of any of large variety of workpieces deformed by thermal, gravitational, and/or machining forces. For example, in principle, method used to bore precise hole on unanchored end of long cantilever beam.

  1. Precise Head Tracking in Hearing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, A. M.; Pilinski, J.; Luhmann, T.

    2015-05-01

    The paper gives an overview about two research projects, both dealing with optical head tracking in hearing applications. As part of the project "Development of a real-time low-cost tracking system for medical and audiological problems (ELCoT)" a cost-effective single camera 3D tracking system has been developed which enables the detection of arm and head movements of human patients. Amongst others, the measuring system is designed for a new hearing test (based on the "Mainzer Kindertisch"), which analyzes the directional hearing capabilities of children in cooperation with the research project ERKI (Evaluation of acoustic sound source localization for children). As part of the research project framework "Hearing in everyday life (HALLO)" a stereo tracking system is being used for analyzing the head movement of human patients during complex acoustic events. Together with the consideration of biosignals like skin conductance the speech comprehension and listening effort of persons with reduced hearing ability, especially in situations with background noise, is evaluated. For both projects the system design, accuracy aspects and results of practical tests are discussed.

  2. Laser applications in machining slab materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping

    1990-10-01

    Since the invention of the laser back in 1960, laser technology has been extensively applied in many fields of science and technology. These has been a history of nearly two decades of using lasers as an energy source in machining materials, such as cutting, welding, ruling and boring, among other operations. With the development of flexible automation in production, the advantages of laser machining have has grown more and more obvious. The combination of laser technology and computer science further promotes the enhancement and upgrading of laser machining and related equipment. At present, many countries are building high quality laser equipment for machining slab materials, such as the Coherent and Spectra Physics corporations in the United States, the Trumpf Corporation in West Germany, the Amada Corporation in Japan, and the Bystronic Corporation in Switzerland, among other companies.

  3. Precision machining and polishing of scintillating crystals for large calorimeters and hodoscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.; Fuchs, B.A.

    1993-05-01

    New machining and polishing techniques have been developed for large barium fluoride scintillating crystals that provide crystalline surfaces without sub-surface damage or deformation as verified by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS) analyses. Surface roughness of about 10--20 angstroms and sub-micron mechanical tolerances have been demonstrated on large crystal samples. Mass production techniques have also been developed for machining and polishing up to five 50 cm long crystals at one time. We present this technology along with surface studies of barium fluoride crystals polished with this technique. This technology is applicable for a number of new crystal detectors proposed at Colliders including the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter at SSC, the Crystal Clear Collaboration`s cerium fluoride calorimeter at LHC, and the KTeV and PHENIX scintillating hodoscopes at Fermilab, and RHIC, respectively. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has an active program of study on barium fluoride scintillating crystals for the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter Collaboration and cerium fluoride and lead fluoride for the Crystal Clear Collaboration. This program has resulted in a number of significant improvements in the mechanical processing, polishing and coating of fluoride crystals. Techniques have been developed using diamond-loaded pitch lapping that can produce 15 angstrom RMS surface finishes over large areas. Also, special polishing fixtures have been designed based on mounting technology developed for the 1.1 m diameter optics used in LLNL`s Nova Laser. These fixtures allow as many as five 25--50 cm long crystals to be polished and lapped at the same time with tolerances satisfying the stringent requirements of crystal calorimeters. We also discuss results on coating barium fluoride with UV reflective layers of magnesium fluoride and aluminum.

  4. High precision batch mode micro-electro-discharge machining of metal alloys using DRIE silicon as a cutting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Bai, Qing; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports recent advances in batch mode micro-electro-discharge machining (µEDM) for high precision micromachining of metal alloys such as stainless steel. High-aspect-ratio silicon microstructures with fine feature sizes formed by deep reactive ion etching are used as cutting tools. To machine workpiece features with widths ≤10 µm, a silicon dioxide coating is necessary to passivate the sidewalls of the silicon tools from spurious discharges. In the machined workpieces, a minimum feature size of ≈7 µm and an aspect ratio up to 3.2 are demonstrated by the batch mode µEDM of stainless steel 304 and titanium (Grade 1) substrates. Machining rates up to ≈5 µm min-1 in feature depth are achieved in batch mode micromachining of typical microfluidic structures, including arrays of channels and cavities of different sizes. The machined features are uniform across a die-scale area of 5 × 5 mm2. Other machining characteristics are also discussed.

  5. Precision wildlife medicine: applications of the human-centred precision medicine revolution to species conservation.

    PubMed

    Whilde, Jenny; Martindale, Mark Q; Duffy, David J

    2017-05-01

    The current species extinction crisis is being exacerbated by an increased rate of emergence of epizootic disease. Human-induced factors including habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity and wildlife population reductions resulting in reduced genetic variation are accelerating disease emergence. Novel, efficient and effective approaches are required to combat these epizootic events. Here, we present the case for the application of human precision medicine approaches to wildlife medicine in order to enhance species conservation efforts. We consider how the precision medicine revolution, coupled with the advances made in genomics, may provide a powerful and feasible approach to identifying and treating wildlife diseases in a targeted, effective and streamlined manner. A number of case studies of threatened species are presented which demonstrate the applicability of precision medicine to wildlife conservation, including sea turtles, amphibians and Tasmanian devils. These examples show how species conservation could be improved by using precision medicine techniques to determine novel treatments and management strategies for the specific medical conditions hampering efforts to restore population levels. Additionally, a precision medicine approach to wildlife health has in turn the potential to provide deeper insights into human health and the possibility of stemming and alleviating the impacts of zoonotic diseases. The integration of the currently emerging Precision Medicine Initiative with the concepts of EcoHealth (aiming for sustainable health of people, animals and ecosystems through transdisciplinary action research) and One Health (recognizing the intimate connection of humans, animal and ecosystem health and addressing a wide range of risks at the animal-human-ecosystem interface through a coordinated, collaborative, interdisciplinary approach) has great potential to deliver a deeper and broader interdisciplinary-based understanding of both wildlife and human

  6. Building ultra-precision laser interferometers for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, David; Fitzsimons, Ewan; Killow, Christian; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Ward, Henry

    Laser interferometry for space applications typically requires both great precision of optical component placing and alignment and high long-term stability. Construction therefore requires both precision measurement and a jointing technique that allows extremely fine initial adjust-ment and which provides high ultimate strength. We present techniques that allow us to measure mm scale optical beams to better than 10 microns and 20 microrad. These measurements are then combined with precision alignment and hydroxy-catalysis bonding of optical components. The results of applying these techniques to the construction of the four interferometers on each of the LISA Pathfinder optical benches are discussed.

  7. Feasibility Study of a Precision Cast Loading Machine for Small Ammunition Items

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    conjunction with pressure feed and/or vacuum exhaust to produce finished surfaces and cavi- ties requiring no future machining. The machine control...item, the core will ha withdrawn, severing the two risers from the loaded item which will require no future machining. The ris- ers will be...steel mold was inadequate if only considering the separation from the loaded item and therefore not considered for future use. The problem of

  8. The application of unmanned aerial vehicle to precision agriculture: Chlorophyll, nitrogen, and evapotranspiration estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elarab, Manal

    Precision agriculture (PA) is an integration of a set of technologies aiming to improve productivity and profitability while sustaining the quality of the surrounding environment. It is a process that vastly relies on high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. This dissertation explored the usage of multispectral high resolution aerial imagery acquired by an unmanned aerial systems (UAS) platform to serve precision agriculture application. The UAS acquired imagery in the visual, near infrared and thermal infrared spectra with a resolution of less than a meter (15--60 cm). This research focused on developing two models to estimate cm-scale chlorophyll content and leaf nitrogen. To achieve the estimations a well-established machine learning algorithm (relevance vector machine) was used. The two models were trained on a dataset of in situ collected leaf chlorophyll and leaf nitrogen measurements, and the machine learning algorithm intelligently selected the most appropriate bands and indices for building regressions with the highest prediction accuracy. In addition, this research explored the usage of the high resolution imagery to estimate crop evapotranspiration (ET) at 15 cm resolution. A comparison was also made between the high resolution ET and Landsat derived ET over two different crop cover (field crops and vineyards) to assess the advantages of UAS based high resolution ET. This research aimed to bridge the information embedded in the high resolution imagery with ground crop parameters to provide site specific information to assist farmers adopting precision agriculture. The framework of this dissertation consisted of three components that provide tools to support precision agriculture operational decisions. In general, the results for each of the methods developed were satisfactory, relevant, and encouraging.

  9. Study on feasible applications of stirling cycle machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-03-01

    The feasibily study of a stirling cycle machine was made on its application to air conditioners and refrigerating machines as well as on the utilization of various heat sources such as LNG cryogenic heat, solar energy, and that of incinerator waste heat. Its application to the air conditioners was technically verified already by the development research which has been made by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization. Its application research on the field of the refrigerating machines is promoted, but it is considered that the machines will also play an important role in promoting the latest leading techniques such as superconductivity. LNG cryogenic power generation is the new field which has been technically developed first in Japan in the world in which country a large quantity of LNG is consumed, and the high efficiency utilization of the stirling cycle machines in this field is expected to be realized in future. It is a important problem to establish the technical basis of a solar energy stirling cycle machine, and they are promoting to develop this machine for practical use not only in Japan but also in many countries in the world. Further, the technical development of the stirling cycle machines utilizing heat sources such as waste heat, geothermal heat, and woody fuel, is also laid on an important situation.

  10. Future Cyborgs: Human-Machine Interface for Virtual Reality Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    FUTURE CYBORGS : HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE FOR VIRTUAL REALITY APPLICATIONS Robert R. Powell, Major, USAF April 2007 Blue Horizons...SUBTITLE Future Cyborgs : Human-Machine Interface for Virtual Reality Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Nicholas Negroponte, Being Digital (New York: Alfred A Knopf, Inc, 1995), 123. 23 Ibid. 24 Andy Clark, Natural-Born Cyborgs (New York: Oxford

  11. Remote machine engineering applications for nuclear facilities decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Toto, G.; Wyle, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning of a nuclear facility require the application of techniques that protect the worker and the enviroment from radiological contamination and radiation. Remotely operated portable robotic arms, machines, and devices can be applied. The use of advanced systems should enhance the productivity, safety, and cost facets of the efforts; remote automatic tooling and systems may be used on any job where job hazard and other factors justify application. Many problems based on costs, enviromental impact, health, waste generation, and political issues may be mitigated by use of remotely operated machines. The work that man can not do or should not do will have to be done by machines.

  12. Estimating chlorophyll with thermal and broadband multispectral high resolution imagery from an unmanned aerial system using relevance vector machines for precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elarab, Manal; Ticlavilca, Andres M.; Torres-Rua, Alfonso F.; Maslova, Inga; McKee, Mac

    2015-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. Actionable information about crop and field status must be acquired at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high spatial resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial system called AggieAirTM. Simultaneously with the AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling for plant chlorophyll was conducted at precisely determined locations. This study reports the application of a relevance vector machine coupled with cross validation and backward elimination to a dataset composed of reflectance from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery (VIS-NIR), thermal infrared imagery, and vegetative indices, in conjunction with in situ SPAD measurements from which chlorophyll concentrations were derived, to estimate chlorophyll concentration from remotely sensed data at 15-cm resolution. The results indicate that a relevance vector machine with a thin plate spline kernel type and kernel width of 5.4, having LAI, NDVI, thermal and red bands as the selected set of inputs, can be used to spatially estimate chlorophyll concentration with a root-mean-squared-error of 5.31 μg cm-2, efficiency of 0.76, and 9 relevance vectors.

  13. A study on ultra-precision machining technique for Al6061-T6 to fabricate space infrared optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Geun-man; Lee, Gil-jae; Hyun, Sang-won; Sung, Ha-yeong; Chung, Euisik; Kim, Geon-hee

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, analysis of variance on designed experiments with full factorial design was applied to determine the optimized machining parameters for ultra-precision fabrication of the secondary aspheric mirror, which is one of the key elements of the space cryogenic infrared optics. A single point diamond turning machine (SPDTM, Nanotech 4μpL Moore) was adopted to fabricate the material, AL6061-T6, and the three machining parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected. With several randomly assigned experimental conditions, surface roughness of each condition was measured by a non-contact optical profiler (NT2000; Vecco). As a result of analysis using Minitab, the optimum cutting condition was determined as following; cutting speed: 122 m/min, feed rate: 3 mm/min and depth of cut: 1 μm. Finally, a 120 mm diameter aspheric secondary mirror was attached to a particularly designed jig by using mixture of paraffin and wax and successfully fabricated under the optimum machining parameters. The profile of machined surface was measured by a high-accuracy 3-D profilometer(UA3P; Panasonic) and we obtained the geometrical errors of 30.6 nm(RMS) and 262.4 nm(PV), which satisfy the requirements of the space cryogenic infrared optics.

  14. Micro-machining of 3D geometries for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomar, J.; Amaro, A.; Vázquez, E.; Ciurana, J.; Rodríguez, C.

    2012-04-01

    The use of conventional machining processes has been subject to important decline probably due to the increment in the use of emerging technologies. Therefore, the main applications of these traditional processes, such as automotive industry, are in crisis. In order to have a chance to compete successfully in the new trends, the machining industry must meet the needs of alternative sectors such as biomedical field. The aim of this study is to prove the capacity of micro-milling, by machining complex micro-cavities on aluminum workpiece using a conventional milling machine. Results are obtained by evaluating accuracy and geometric features. This study finds that the feed per tooth is a significant factor in order to obtain better results. The use of coolant increases the tool wear and therefore dimensional errors. This scope is a potential opportunity to reutilize the conventional machines from a new approach.

  15. Remote sensing with unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Federal Aviation Administration is revising regulations for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace. An important potential application of UAS may be as a remote-sensing platform for precision agriculture, but simply down-scaling remote sensing methodologies developed usi...

  16. Good Applications for Crummy Machine Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    multilingual 16 computational linguistics __.__n _____ODE 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICTION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...relatively few keystrokes. Peter Brown (personal communication) once remarked that such a super-fast typewriter ought to be possible in the monolingual case... Multilingual System under Development, Computational Linguistics, 11:2-3, pp. 155-169. [81 Kay, M. (1980) "The Proper Place of Men and Machines in Language

  17. An autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Samuel M. Y.; Cheung, Benny C. F.; Whitehouse, David; Cheng, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-11-01

    An in situ measurement is of prime importance when trying to maintain the position of the workpiece for further compensation processes in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the precision machining of three dimensional (3D) surfaces. However, the coordinates of most of the machine tools with closed machine interfaces and control system are not accessible for users, which make it difficult to use the motion axes of the machine tool for in situ measurements. This paper presents an autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools. It makes use of a designed tool path and an additional motion sensor to assist the registration of time-space data for the position estimation of a 2D laser scanner which measures the surface with a high lateral resolution and large area without the need to interface with the machine tool system. A prototype system was built and integrated into an ultra-precision polishing machine. Experimental results show that it measures the 3D surfaces with high resolution, high repeatability, and large measurement range. The system not only improves the efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining process but also extends the capability of machine tools.

  18. Ultrabroadband optical chirp linearization for precision metrology applications.

    PubMed

    Roos, Peter A; Reibel, Randy R; Berg, Trenton; Kaylor, Brant; Barber, Zeb W; Babbitt, Wm Randall

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate precise linearization of ultrabroadband laser frequency chirps via a fiber-based self-heterodyne technique to enable extremely high-resolution, frequency-modulated cw laser-radar (LADAR) and a wide range of other metrology applications. Our frequency chirps cover bandwidths up to nearly 5 THz with frequency errors as low as 170 kHz, relative to linearity. We show that this performance enables 31-mum transform-limited LADAR range resolution (FWHM) and 86 nm range precisions over a 1.5 m range baseline. Much longer range baselines are possible but are limited by atmospheric turbulence and fiber dispersion.

  19. In pursuit of precision: the calibration of minds and machines in late nineteenth-century psychology.

    PubMed

    Benschop, R; Draaisma, D

    2000-01-01

    A prominent feature of late nineteenth-century psychology was its intense preoccupation with precision. Precision was at once an ideal and an argument: the quest for precision helped psychology to establish its status as a mature science, sharing a characteristic concern with the natural sciences. We will analyse how psychologists set out to produce precision in 'mental chronometry', the measurement of the duration of psychological processes. In his Leipzig laboratory, Wundt inaugurated an elaborate research programme on mental chronometry. We will look at the problem of calibration of experimental apparatus and will describe the intricate material, literary, and social technologies involved in the manufacture of precision. First, we shall discuss some of the technical problems involved in the measurement of ever shorter time-spans. Next, the Cattell-Berger experiments will help us to argue against the received view that all the precision went into the hardware, and practically none into the social organization of experimentation. Experimenters made deliberate efforts to bring themselves and their subjects under a regime of control and calibration similar to that which reigned over the experimental machinery. In Leipzig psychology, the particular blend of material and social technology resulted in a specific object of study: the generalized mind. We will then show that the distribution of precision in experimental psychology outside Leipzig demanded a concerted effort of instruments, texts, and people. It will appear that the forceful attempts to produce precision and uniformity had some rather paradoxical consequences.

  20. Engineering artificial machines from designable DNA materials for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hao; Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng; Wang, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications.

  1. Engineering Artificial Machines from Designable DNA Materials for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guoyou; Han, Yulong; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Yuhui; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) emerges as building bricks for the fabrication of nanostructure with complete artificial architecture and geometry. The amazing ability of DNA in building two- and three-dimensional structures raises the possibility of developing smart nanomachines with versatile controllability for various applications. Here, we overviewed the recent progresses in engineering DNA machines for specific bioengineering and biomedical applications. PMID:25547514

  2. On-machine precision preparation and dressing of ball-headed diamond wheel for the grinding of fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingjun; Li, Ziang; Yu, Bo; Peng, Hui; Fang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    In the grinding of high quality fused silica parts with complex surface or structure using ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel with small diameter, the existing dressing methods are not suitable to dress the ball-headed diamond wheel precisely due to that they are either on-line in process dressing which may causes collision problem or without consideration for the effects of the tool setting error and electrode wear. An on-machine precision preparation and dressing method is proposed for ball-headed diamond wheel based on electrical discharge machining. By using this method the cylindrical diamond wheel with small diameter is manufactured to hemispherical-headed form. The obtained ball-headed diamond wheel is dressed after several grinding passes to recover geometrical accuracy and sharpness which is lost due to the wheel wear. A tool setting method based on high precision optical system is presented to reduce the wheel center setting error and dimension error. The effect of electrode tool wear is investigated by electrical dressing experiments, and the electrode tool wear compensation model is established based on the experimental results which show that the value of wear ratio coefficient K' tends to be constant with the increasing of the feed length of electrode and the mean value of K' is 0.156. Grinding experiments of fused silica are carried out on a test bench to evaluate the performance of the preparation and dressing method. The experimental results show that the surface roughness of the finished workpiece is 0.03 μm. The effect of the grinding parameter and dressing frequency on the surface roughness is investigated based on the measurement results of the surface roughness. This research provides an on-machine preparation and dressing method for ball-headed metal bonded diamond wheel used in the grinding of fused silica, which provides a solution to the tool setting method and the effect of electrode tool wear.

  3. Approach towards sensor placement, selection and fusion for real-time condition monitoring of precision machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Er, Poi Voon; Teo, Chek Sing; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-02-01

    Moving mechanical parts in a machine will inevitably generate vibration profiles reflecting its operating conditions. Vibration profile analysis is a useful tool for real-time condition monitoring to avoid loss of performance and unwanted machine downtime. In this paper, we propose and validate an approach for sensor placement, selection and fusion for continuous machine condition monitoring. The main idea is to use a minimal series of sensors mounted at key locations of a machine to measure and infer the actual vibration spectrum at a critical point where it is not suitable to mount a sensor. The locations for sensors' mountings which are subsequently used for vibration inference are identified based on sensitivity calibration at these locations moderated with normalized Fisher Information (NFI) associated with the measurement quality of the sensor at that location. Each of the identified sensor placement location is associated with one or more sensitive frequencies for which it ranks top in terms of the moderated sensitivities calibrated. A set of Radial Basis Function (RBF), each of them associated with a range of sensitive frequencies, is used to infer the vibration at the critical point for that frequency. The overall vibration spectrum of the critical point is then fused from these components. A comprehensive set of experimental results for validation of the proposed approach is provided in the paper.

  4. Precision Machining. FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC). 2002 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This publication provided the competencies and key indicators for a program that enables students to prepare for a number of occupations within the broader metalworking industry. Specializations include machinist, computer numerical control programmers, and maintenance and machine builders. Competencies and the related key indicators are presented…

  5. Precision biopolymers from protein precursors for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Seah Ling; Wu, Yuzhou; Weil, Tanja

    2013-03-12

    The synthesis of biohybrid materials with tailored functional properties represents a topic of emerging interest. Combining proteins as natural, macromolecular building blocks, and synthetic polymers opens access to giant brush-like biopolymers of high structural definition. The properties of these precision polypeptide copolymers can be tailored through various chemical modifications along their polypeptide backbone, which expands the repertoire of known protein-based materials to address biomedical applications. In this article, the synthetic strategies for the design of precision biopolymers from proteins through amino acid specific conjugation reagents are highlighted and the different functionalization strategies, their characterization, and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A Study on Improvement of Machining Precision in a Medical Milling Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Naohiko; Osa, Takayuki; Nakajima, Yoshikazu; Mori, Masahiko; Saraie, Hidenori; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    Minimal invasiveness and increasing of precision have recently become important issues in orthopedic surgery. The femur and tibia must be cut precisely for successful knee arthroplasty. The recent trend towards Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has increased surgical difficulty since the incision length and open access area are small. In this paper, the result of deformation analysis of the robot and an active compensation method of robot deformation, which is based on an error map, are proposed and evaluated.

  7. Software architecture for time-constrained machine vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Molleda, Julio; García, Daniel F.; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2013-01-01

    Real-time image and video processing applications require skilled architects, and recent trends in the hardware platform make the design and implementation of these applications increasingly complex. Many frameworks and libraries have been proposed or commercialized to simplify the design and tuning of real-time image processing applications. However, they tend to lack flexibility, because they are normally oriented toward particular types of applications, or they impose specific data processing models such as the pipeline. Other issues include large memory footprints, difficulty for reuse, and inefficient execution on multicore processors. We present a novel software architecture for time-constrained machine vision applications that addresses these issues. The architecture is divided into three layers. The platform abstraction layer provides a high-level application programming interface for the rest of the architecture. The messaging layer provides a message-passing interface based on a dynamic publish/subscribe pattern. A topic-based filtering in which messages are published to topics is used to route the messages from the publishers to the subscribers interested in a particular type of message. The application layer provides a repository for reusable application modules designed for machine vision applications. These modules, which include acquisition, visualization, communication, user interface, and data processing, take advantage of the power of well-known libraries such as OpenCV, Intel IPP, or CUDA. Finally, the proposed architecture is applied to a real machine vision application: a jam detector for steel pickling lines.

  8. The Synthesis of Precise Rotating Machine Mathematical Model, Operating Natural Signals and Virtual Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilenkov, A. A.; Kapitonov, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    It is known that synchronous machines catalogue data are presented for the case of two-phase machine in rotating coordinate system, e.g. for their description with Park-Gorev’s equation system. Nevertheless, many problems require control of phase currents and voltages, for instance, in modeling of the systems, in which synchronous generators supply powerful rectifiers. Modeling of complex systems with synchronous generators, semiconductor convertors and etc. (with phase currents control necessary for power switch commutation algorithms) becomes achievable with the equation system described in this article. Given model can be used in digital control systems with internal model. It doesn’t require high capacity of computing resources and provides sufficient modeling accuracy.

  9. Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Z.; Ahmed, A.; Husain, I.; Muljadi, E.

    2015-04-02

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction applications using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to the Halbach array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite-element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from finite element analysis (FEA) show that the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet (PM) machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct-drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  10. A Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Vehicle Traction Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Zhao; Ahmed, Adeeb; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-10-05

    A novel transverse flux machine topology for electric vehicle traction application using ferrite magnets is presented in this paper. The proposed transverse flux topology utilizes novel magnet arrangements in the rotor that are similar to Halbach-array to boost flux linkage; on the stator side, cores are alternately arranged around a pair of ring windings in each phase to make use of the entire rotor flux that eliminates end windings. Analytical design considerations and finite element methods are used for an optimized design of a scooter in-wheel motor. Simulation results from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) show the motor achieved comparable torque density to conventional rare-earth permanent magnet machines. This machine is a viable candidate for direct drive applications with low cost and high torque density.

  11. Machine vision for high-precision volume measurement applied to levitated containerless material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, R.C.; Schmidt, D.P.; Rogers, J.R.; Kelton, K.F.; Hyers, R.W.

    2005-12-15

    By combining the best practices in optical dilatometry with numerical methods, a high-speed and high-precision technique has been developed to measure the volume of levitated, containerlessly processed samples with subpixel resolution. Containerless processing provides the ability to study highly reactive materials without the possibility of contamination affecting thermophysical properties. Levitation is a common technique used to isolate a sample as it is being processed. Noncontact optical measurement of thermophysical properties is very important as traditional measuring methods cannot be used. Modern, digitally recorded images require advanced numerical routines to recover the subpixel locations of sample edges and, in turn, produce high-precision measurements.

  12. Applications of high power lasers. [using reflection holograms for machining and surface treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of computer generated, reflection holograms in conjunction with high power lasers for precision machining of metals and ceramics was investigated. The Reflection holograms which were developed and made to work at both optical wavelength (He-Ne, 6328 A) and infrared (CO2, 10.6) meet the primary practical requirement of ruggedness and are relatively economical and simple to fabricate. The technology is sufficiently advanced now so that reflection holography could indeed be used as a practical manufacturing device in certain applications requiring low power densities. However, the present holograms are energy inefficient and much of the laser power is lost in the zero order spot and higher diffraction orders. Improvements of laser machining over conventional methods are discussed and addition applications are listed. Possible uses in the electronics industry include drilling holes in printed circuit boards making soldered connections, and resistor trimming.

  13. Applications of Machine Learning in Cancer Prediction and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Joseph A.; Wishart, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Machine learning is a branch of artificial intelligence that employs a variety of statistical, probabilistic and optimization techniques that allows computers to “learn” from past examples and to detect hard-to-discern patterns from large, noisy or complex data sets. This capability is particularly well-suited to medical applications, especially those that depend on complex proteomic and genomic measurements. As a result, machine learning is frequently used in cancer diagnosis and detection. More recently machine learning has been applied to cancer prognosis and prediction. This latter approach is particularly interesting as it is part of a growing trend towards personalized, predictive medicine. In assembling this review we conducted a broad survey of the different types of machine learning methods being used, the types of data being integrated and the performance of these methods in cancer prediction and prognosis. A number of trends are noted, including a growing dependence on protein biomarkers and microarray data, a strong bias towards applications in prostate and breast cancer, and a heavy reliance on “older” technologies such artificial neural networks (ANNs) instead of more recently developed or more easily interpretable machine learning methods. A number of published studies also appear to lack an appropriate level of validation or testing. Among the better designed and validated studies it is clear that machine learning methods can be used to substantially (15–25%) improve the accuracy of predicting cancer susceptibility, recurrence and mortality. At a more fundamental level, it is also evident that machine learning is also helping to improve our basic understanding of cancer development and progression. PMID:19458758

  14. Calculation of the performance of magnetic lenses with limited machining precision.

    PubMed

    Sháněl, O; Zlámal, J; Oral, M

    2014-02-01

    To meet a required STEM resolution, the mechanical precision of the pole pieces of a magnetic lens needs to be determined. A tolerancing plugin in the EOD software is used to determine a configuration which both meets the optical specifications and is cost effective under the constraints of current manufacturing technologies together with a suitable combination of correction elements.

  15. Generation of gear tooth surfaces by application of CNC machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Chen, N. X.

    1994-04-01

    This study will demonstrate the importance of application of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines in generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. This topology decreases gear vibration and will extend the gear capacity and service life. A preliminary investigation by a tooth contact analysis (TCA) program has shown that gear tooth surfaces in line contact (for instance, involute helical gears with parallel axes, worm gear drives with cylindrical worms, etc.) are very sensitive to angular errors of misalignment that cause edge contact and an unfavorable shape of transmission errors and vibration. The new topology of gear tooth surfaces is based on the localization of bearing contact, and the synthesis of a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to absorb a piecewise linear function of transmission errors caused by gear misalignment. The report will describe the following topics: description of kinematics of CNC machines with six degrees of freedom that can be applied for generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. A new method for grinding of gear tooth surfaces by a cone surface or surface of revolution based on application of CNC machines is described. This method provides an optimal approximation of the ground surface to the given one. This method is especially beneficial when undeveloped ruled surfaces are to be ground. Execution of motions of the CNC machine is also described. The solution to this problem can be applied as well for the transfer of machine tool settings from a conventional generator to the CNC machine. The developed theory required the derivation of a modified equation of meshing based on application of the concept of space curves, space curves represented on surfaces, geodesic curvature, surface torsion, etc. Condensed information on these topics of differential geometry is provided as well.

  16. Generation of gear tooth surfaces by application of CNC machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Chen, N. X.

    1994-01-01

    This study will demonstrate the importance of application of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines in generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. This topology decreases gear vibration and will extend the gear capacity and service life. A preliminary investigation by a tooth contact analysis (TCA) program has shown that gear tooth surfaces in line contact (for instance, involute helical gears with parallel axes, worm gear drives with cylindrical worms, etc.) are very sensitive to angular errors of misalignment that cause edge contact and an unfavorable shape of transmission errors and vibration. The new topology of gear tooth surfaces is based on the localization of bearing contact, and the synthesis of a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to absorb a piecewise linear function of transmission errors caused by gear misalignment. The report will describe the following topics: description of kinematics of CNC machines with six degrees of freedom that can be applied for generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. A new method for grinding of gear tooth surfaces by a cone surface or surface of revolution based on application of CNC machines is described. This method provides an optimal approximation of the ground surface to the given one. This method is especially beneficial when undeveloped ruled surfaces are to be ground. Execution of motions of the CNC machine is also described. The solution to this problem can be applied as well for the transfer of machine tool settings from a conventional generator to the CNC machine. The developed theory required the derivation of a modified equation of meshing based on application of the concept of space curves, space curves represented on surfaces, geodesic curvature, surface torsion, etc. Condensed information on these topics of differential geometry is provided as well.

  17. Application of an On-machine Gage for Diameter Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the design analysis and application of a laser based gage made specifically for measuring parts on the machine tool to a high accuracy. The tri-beam gage uses three beams of light to measure the local curvature of the part in a manner similar to a V-block gage. The properties of this design include: calibration that is independent of the machine tool scales, non-contact damage free operation, low cost of the gage, and the ability to measure parts in motion.

  18. Polarimetric millimetre wave SAR for precision farming applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essen, H.; Nüßler, D.; Krebs, C.; Schimpf, H.; Johannes, W.; Wahlen, A.

    2010-10-01

    A high resolution imaging millimetre wave SAR delivers three key parameters important for precision farming applications, namely range, reflectivity and polarization state. The reflectivity gives information upon the type of crop and its humidity. Especially in the millimeter wave region young growing green plants exhibit a considerably higher reflectivity than older, dry leaves. Dependent on the transmit-receive polarization also indications are given upon the humidity of the underlying soil. Polarimetry also allows to judge the ripeness of the grain as the geometry of the ear is changing during the ripening process.

  19. Precise time and time interval applications to electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    There are many applications of precise time and time interval (frequency) in operating modern electric power systems. Many generators and customer loads are operated in parallel. The reliable transfer of electrical power to the consumer partly depends on measuring power system frequency consistently in many locations. The internal oscillators in the widely dispersed frequency measuring units must be syntonized. Elaborate protection and control systems guard the high voltage equipment from short and open circuits. For the highest reliability of electric service, engineers need to study all control system operations. Precise timekeeping networks aid in the analysis of power system operations by synchronizing the clocks on recording instruments. Utility engineers want to reproduce events that caused loss of service to customers. Precise timekeeping networks can synchronize protective relay test-sets. For dependable electrical service, all generators and large motors must remain close to speed synchronism. The stable response of a power system to perturbations is critical to continuity of electrical service. Research shows that measurement of the power system state vector can aid in the monitoring and control of system stability. If power system operators know that a lightning storm is approaching a critical transmission line or transformer, they can modify operating strategies. Knowledge of the location of a short circuit fault can speed the re-energizing of a transmission line. One fault location technique requires clocks synchronized to one microsecond. Current research seeks to find out if one microsecond timekeeping can aid and improve power system control and operation.

  20. Precise time and time interval applications to electric power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    There are many applications of precise time and time interval (frequency) in operating modern electric power systems. Many generators and customer loads are operated in parallel. The reliable transfer of electrical power to the consumer partly depends on measuring power system frequency consistently in many locations. The internal oscillators in the widely dispersed frequency measuring units must be syntonized. Elaborate protection and control systems guard the high voltage equipment from short and open circuits. For the highest reliability of electric service, engineers need to study all control system operations. Precise timekeeping networks aid in the analysis of power system operations by synchronizing the clocks on recording instruments. Utility engineers want to reproduce events that caused loss of service to customers. Precise timekeeping networks can synchronize protective relay test-sets. For dependable electrical service, all generators and large motors must remain close to speed synchronism. The stable response of a power system to perturbations is critical to continuity of electrical service. Research shows that measurement of the power system state vector can aid in the monitoring and control of system stability. If power system operators know that a lightning storm is approaching a critical transmission line or transformer, they can modify operating strategies. Knowledge of the location of a short circuit fault can speed the re-energizing of a transmission line. One fault location technique requires clocks synchronized to one microsecond. Current research seeks to find out if one microsecond timekeeping can aid and improve power system control and operation.

  1. Evaluation of a high-precision gear measuring machine for helix measurement using helix and wedge artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Tetsuya; Kondo, Yohan

    2016-08-01

    High-precision gears are required for advanced motion and power transmission. The reliability of the measured value becomes important as the gear accuracy increases, and the establishment of a traceability system is needed. Therefore, a high-precision gear measuring machine (GMM) with a smaller uncertainty is expected to improve the gear calibration uncertainty. For this purpose, we developed a prototype of a high-precision GMM that adopts a direct drive mechanism and other features. Then, the high measurement capability of the developed GMM was verified using gear artifacts. Recently, some new measurement methods using simple shapes such as spheres and planes have been proposed as standards. We have verified the tooth profile measurement using a sphere artifact and reported the results that the developed GMM had a high capability in tooth profile measurement. Therefore, we attempted to devise a new evaluation method for helix measurement using a wedge artifact (WA) whose plane was treated as the tooth flank, and the high measurement capability of the developed GMM was verified. The results will provide a part of information to fully assess measurement uncertainty as our future work. This paper describes the evaluation results of the developed GMM for helix measurement using both a helix artifact and the WA, and discusses the effectiveness of the WA as a new artifact to evaluate the GMMs.

  2. Precision measurements and applications of femtosecond frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Jason

    2002-05-01

    The merging of femtosecond (fs) laser physics with the field of optical f requency metrology over recent years has had a profound impact on both di sciplines. Precision control of the broad frequency bandwidth from fs la sers has enabled new areas of exploration in ultrafast physics and revolu tionized optical frequency measurement and precision spectroscopy. Most recently, the transition frequency of the length standard at 514.7 nm,^ 127I2 P(13) 43-0 a3 has been measured in our lab with an improvement of more than 100 times in precision. Interesting molecular dynamics and s tructure are being explored using absolute frequency map of molecular tra nsitions over a large wavelength range. The iodine transition at 532 nm h as been used to establish an optical atomic clock with a fs comb providin g both an RF standard with stability comparable to the best atomic clocks and millions of optical frequencies across the visible and near IR spect rum, each stable to the Hz level. Work is presently underway to directly compare the iodine optical clocks at JILA with the Hg and Ca optical cloc ks currently being refined at NIST via a direct optical fiber link. A wi dely tunable single frequency laser in combination with a fs comb has bee n employed to realize an optical frequency synthesizer. Frequency combs of two independent ultrafast lasers have been coherently locked, enablin g several different avenues of application such as synthesis of arbitrary waveforms, coherent control of quantum systems, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. This talk will review these recent accompl ishments from our lab and discuss plans for further improving the control and precision of fs laser based measurements. te

  3. Application of Hollow Sphere Structures and Composites in Processing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöler, Martin; Mauermann, Marc; Majschak, Jens-Peter

    The term processing machines refers to a large variety of machines and equipment for the mass production of consumer goods. Processing machines are often specially tailored according to the particular processing task they have to fulfill, such as pasteurising milk or packing goods. Furthermore the vast majority is characterised by large production outputs, demanding high processing velocities and fast moving parts. A special application is that of the food and drug processing area. Due to high quality standards there are special requirements for material surfaces to be considered if surfaces are in contact with the manufactured product. This chapter deals with the special demands concerning dedicated engineering materials that occur from state of the art processing machines. Specific requirements ranging from high damping abilities for support components to high stiffness and low weight for fast moving tools are presented by means of a general classification of processing machines into four functional areas. Accordingly, the proposed hollow sphere structures and similar material classes are presented and applied on each of these four areas.

  4. Metrology CT technology and its applications in the precision engineering industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Gerhard

    2009-12-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a fast and powerful method to extract the geometrical features of complex parts. CT reconstructs an object from X-ray projection images and has long been used for qualitative investigation of internal structures in industrial applications. Recently, cone-beam CT has been adapted to the task of high-precision dimensional metrology of machined parts, providing a method of rapidly acquiring comprehensive and quantitative data on parts of arbitrary complexity. High-power micro-focus X-ray tubes, large-size flat panel X-ray detectors, very accurate linear and rotary drives and a high-performance reconstruction solution are combined to image and measure a wide spectrum of parts manufactured from polymer and metal alloys according to established metrology standards. Various calibration techniques are used at the several stages of the measurement process to e.g. characterize the behavior of X-ray tube and detector and precisely define the imaging geometry. To verify the measurement accuracy, suitable objects such as geometrical elements are calibrated according to international standards and then measured using the CT. CT can then be used as an accurate tool for non-destructive testing (such as porosity analysis and assembly checks), reverse engineering, nominal-actual comparisons and dimensional metrology of industrial precision parts.

  5. Metrology CT technology and its applications in the precision engineering industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Gerhard

    2010-03-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) provides a fast and powerful method to extract the geometrical features of complex parts. CT reconstructs an object from X-ray projection images and has long been used for qualitative investigation of internal structures in industrial applications. Recently, cone-beam CT has been adapted to the task of high-precision dimensional metrology of machined parts, providing a method of rapidly acquiring comprehensive and quantitative data on parts of arbitrary complexity. High-power micro-focus X-ray tubes, large-size flat panel X-ray detectors, very accurate linear and rotary drives and a high-performance reconstruction solution are combined to image and measure a wide spectrum of parts manufactured from polymer and metal alloys according to established metrology standards. Various calibration techniques are used at the several stages of the measurement process to e.g. characterize the behavior of X-ray tube and detector and precisely define the imaging geometry. To verify the measurement accuracy, suitable objects such as geometrical elements are calibrated according to international standards and then measured using the CT. CT can then be used as an accurate tool for non-destructive testing (such as porosity analysis and assembly checks), reverse engineering, nominal-actual comparisons and dimensional metrology of industrial precision parts.

  6. a Precise, Low-Cost Rtk Gnss System for Uav Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stempfhuber, W.; Buchholz, M.

    2011-09-01

    High accuracy with real-time positioning of moving objects has been considered a standard task of engineering geodesy for 10 to 15 years. An absolute positioning accuracy of 1-3 cm is generally possible worldwide and is further used in many areas of machine guidance (machine control and guidance), and farming (precision farming) as well as for various special applications (e.g. railway trolley, mining, etc.). The cost of the measuring instruments required for the use of geodetic L1/L2 receivers with a local reference station amounts to approximately USD 30,000 to 50,000. Therefore, dual frequency RTK GNSS receivers are not used in the mass market. Affordable GPS/GNSS modules have already reached the mass market in various areas such as mobile phones, car navigation, the leisure industry, etc. Kinematic real-time positioning applications with centimetre or decimetre levels could also evolve into a mass product. In order for this to happen, the costs for such systems must lie between USD 1,000 to 2,000. What exactly low-cost means is determined by the precise specifications of the given individual application. Several university studies in geodesy focus on the approach of high-accuracy positioning by means of single frequency receivers for static applications [e.g. GLABSCH et. al. 2009, SCHWIEGER and GLÄSER 2005, ALKAN 2010, REALINI et. al. 2010, KORTH and HOFMANN 2011]. Although intelligent approaches have been developed that compute a trajectory in the post-processing mode [REALINI et. al., 2010], at present, there are only a very few GNSS Low-Cost Systems that enable real-time processing. This approach to precise position determination by means of the computation of static raw data with single frequency receivers is currently being explored in a research project at the Beuth Hochschule für Technik Berlin - and is being further developed for kinematic applications. The project is embedded in the European Social Fund. It is a follow-up project in the area of

  7. Machine learning to analyze images of shocked materials for precise and accurate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresselhaus-Cooper, Leora; Howard, Marylesa; Hock, Margaret C.; Meehan, B. T.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, Cindy A.; Sandberg, Richard L.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2017-09-01

    A supervised machine learning algorithm, called locally adaptive discriminant analysis (LADA), has been developed to locate boundaries between identifiable image features that have varying intensities. LADA is an adaptation of image segmentation, which includes techniques that find the positions of image features (classes) using statistical intensity distributions for each class in the image. In order to place a pixel in the proper class, LADA considers the intensity at that pixel and the distribution of intensities in local (nearby) pixels. This paper presents the use of LADA to provide, with statistical uncertainties, the positions and shapes of features within ultrafast images of shock waves. We demonstrate the ability to locate image features including crystals, density changes associated with shock waves, and material jetting caused by shock waves. This algorithm can analyze images that exhibit a wide range of physical phenomena because it does not rely on comparison to a model. LADA enables analysis of images from shock physics with statistical rigor independent of underlying models or simulations.

  8. A Fast and Precise Indoor Localization Algorithm Based on an Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Han; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Jiang, Hao; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, developing indoor positioning systems (IPSs) has become an attractive research topic due to the increasing demands on location-based service (LBS) in indoor environments. WiFi technology has been studied and explored to provide indoor positioning service for years in view of the wide deployment and availability of existing WiFi infrastructures in indoor environments. A large body of WiFi-based IPSs adopt fingerprinting approaches for localization. However, these IPSs suffer from two major problems: the intensive costs of manpower and time for offline site survey and the inflexibility to environmental dynamics. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) to address the above problems accordingly. The fast learning speed of OS-ELM can reduce the time and manpower costs for the offline site survey. Meanwhile, its online sequential learning ability enables the proposed localization algorithm to adapt in a timely manner to environmental dynamics. Experiments under specific environmental changes, such as variations of occupancy distribution and events of opening or closing of doors, are conducted to evaluate the performance of OS-ELM. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed localization algorithm can provide higher localization accuracy than traditional approaches, due to its fast adaptation to various environmental dynamics. PMID:25599427

  9. A fast and precise indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Zou, Han; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Jiang, Hao; Xie, Lihua

    2015-01-15

    Nowadays, developing indoor positioning systems (IPSs) has become an attractive research topic due to the increasing demands on location-based service (LBS) in indoor environments. WiFi technology has been studied and explored to provide indoor positioning service for years in view of the wide deployment and availability of existing WiFi infrastructures in indoor environments. A large body of WiFi-based IPSs adopt fingerprinting approaches for localization. However, these IPSs suffer from two major problems: the intensive costs of manpower and time for offline site survey and the inflexibility to environmental dynamics. In this paper, we propose an indoor localization algorithm based on an online sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) to address the above problems accordingly. The fast learning speed of OS-ELM can reduce the time and manpower costs for the offline site survey. Meanwhile, its online sequential learning ability enables the proposed localization algorithm to adapt in a timely manner to environmental dynamics. Experiments under specific environmental changes, such as variations of occupancy distribution and events of opening or closing of doors, are conducted to evaluate the performance of OS-ELM. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed localization algorithm can provide higher localization accuracy than traditional approaches, due to its fast adaptation to various environmental dynamics.

  10. Application of a positioning and measuring machine for metrological long-range scanning force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausotte, T.; Jaeger, G.; Manske, E.; Hofmann, N.; Dorozhovets, N.

    2005-08-01

    This article deals with a high-precision three-dimensional positioning and measuring machine and its application as a metrological long-range scanning force microscope. At the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Technische Universitaet Ilmenau an interferometric nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine has been developed. Which is able to achieve a resolution of less than 0.1 nm over the entire positioning and measurement range of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm and is traceable to the length standard. The Abbe offset-free design in conjunction with a corner mirror as a reference coordinate system provides extraordinary accuracy. The integration of several probe systems and nanotools (AFM, STM, focus sensor, tactile probes) makes the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine suitable for various tasks in the micro- and nanotechnologies. Various probe systems have been integrated in the last few years. For example, a commercial piezo tube AFM was integrated and tested. Additionally, interferometeric measurement systems of the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine enables the calibration of probe systems. Also in order to achieve the best possible measurement results special probe systems have been developed and tested and are discussed briefly.

  11. Application of Smart Infrastructure Systems approach to precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R; Annaswamy, Anuradha M

    2015-12-01

    All biological variation is hierarchically organized dynamic network system of genomic components, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, families, populations and metapopulations. Individuals are axial in this hierarchy, as they represent antecedent, attendant and anticipated aspects of health, disease, evolution and medical care. Humans show individual specific genetic and clinical features such as complexity, cooperation, resilience, robustness, vulnerability, self-organization, latent and emergent behavior during their development, growth and senescence. Accurate collection, measurement, organization and analyses of individual specific data, embedded at all stratified levels of biological, demographic and cultural diversity - the big data - is necessary to make informed decisions on health, disease and longevity; which is a central theme of precision medicine initiative (PMI). This initiative also calls for the development of novel analytical approaches to handle complex multidimensional data. Here we suggest the application of Smart Infrastructure Systems (SIS) approach to accomplish some of the goals set forth by the PMI on the premise that biological systems and the SIS share many common features. The latter has been successfully employed in managing complex networks of non-linear adaptive controls, commonly encountered in smart engineering systems. We highlight their concordance and discuss the utility of the SIS approach in precision medicine programs.

  12. Application of Smart Infrastructure Systems approach to precision medicine

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2015-01-01

    All biological variation is hierarchically organized dynamic network system of genomic components, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, individuals, families, populations and metapopulations. Individuals are axial in this hierarchy, as they represent antecedent, attendant and anticipated aspects of health, disease, evolution and medical care. Humans show individual specific genetic and clinical features such as complexity, cooperation, resilience, robustness, vulnerability, self-organization, latent and emergent behavior during their development, growth and senescence. Accurate collection, measurement, organization and analyses of individual specific data, embedded at all stratified levels of biological, demographic and cultural diversity – the big data – is necessary to make informed decisions on health, disease and longevity; which is a central theme of precision medicine initiative (PMI). This initiative also calls for the development of novel analytical approaches to handle complex multidimensional data. Here we suggest the application of Smart Infrastructure Systems (SIS) approach to accomplish some of the goals set forth by the PMI on the premise that biological systems and the SIS share many common features. The latter has been successfully employed in managing complex networks of non-linear adaptive controls, commonly encountered in smart engineering systems. We highlight their concordance and discuss the utility of the SIS approach in precision medicine programs. PMID:27054084

  13. Precision Laser Transmission Spectroscopy: Applications to Nanoparticle Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Carol; Li, Frank; Hwang, Ching-Ting; Schafer, Robert; Ruggiero, Steven

    2011-05-01

    We describe the implementation of precision laser transmission spectroscopy (LTS) for determining the size, shape, and number of nanoparticles in suspension. Our apparatus incorporates a tunable laser and balanced optical system, which measures light transmission over a wide wavelength range (210-2300 nm) with high precision and sensitivity. Spectral inversion is employed to determine both the particle size distribution and the absolute number density of particles ranging in diameter from 5 to 3000 nm with ~3 nm resolution. With respect to density, the sensitivity or our measurement system ranges from ~1000 particles/mL up to 1010 particles/mL (5×10-8 vol.% to 0.5 vol. %). The size range of applicability is comparable to that of dynamic light scattering (DLS) but with approximately six orders of magnitude higher sensitivity and five times the resolution. The technique also allows us to determine the length and width of rod shaped particles including biological objects. Currently, LTS is being applied as a tool to investigate various biological and non-biological nanoparticle systems including: metals, oxides, carbon, organic materials, proteins, viruses, bacteria, liposomes, DNA, etc. We acknowledge the support of the University of Notre Dame Office of the Vice President for Research and NDnano/MIND.

  14. Multi-agent cooperative systems applied to precision applications

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.D.; Anderson, M.O.; Gunderson, R.W.; Flann, N.; Abbott, B.

    1998-03-01

    Regulatory agencies are imposing limits and constraints to protect the operator and/or the environment. While generally necessary, these controls also tend to increase cost and decrease efficiency and productivity. Intelligent computer systems can be made to perform these hazardous tasks with greater efficiency and precision without danger to the operators. The Idaho national Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems at Utah State University have developed a series of autonomous all-terrain multi-agent systems capable of performing automated tasks within hazardous environments. This paper discusses the development and application of cooperative small-scale and large-scale robots for use in various activities associated with radiologically contaminated areas, prescription farming, and unexploded ordinances.

  15. Matching brain-machine interface performance to space applications.

    PubMed

    Citi, Luca; Tonet, Oliver; Marinelli, Martina

    2009-01-01

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) is a particular class of human-machine interface (HMI). BMIs have so far been studied mostly as a communication means for people who have little or no voluntary control of muscle activity. For able-bodied users, such as astronauts, a BMI would only be practical if conceived as an augmenting interface. A method is presented for pointing out effective combinations of HMIs and applications of robotics and automation to space. Latency and throughput are selected as performance measures for a hybrid bionic system (HBS), that is, the combination of a user, a device, and a HMI. We classify and briefly describe HMIs and space applications and then compare the performance of classes of interfaces with the requirements of classes of applications, both in terms of latency and throughput. Regions of overlap correspond to effective combinations. Devices requiring simpler control, such as a rover, a robotic camera, or environmental controls are suitable to be driven by means of BMI technology. Free flyers and other devices with six degrees of freedom can be controlled, but only at low-interactivity levels. More demanding applications require conventional interfaces, although they could be controlled by BMIs once the same levels of performance as currently recorded in animal experiments are attained. Robotic arms and manipulators could be the next frontier for noninvasive BMIs. Integrating smart controllers in HBSs could improve interactivity and boost the use of BMI technology in space applications.

  16. Molecular reactors and machines: applications, potential, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Easton, Christopher J; Lincoln, Stephen F; Barr, Lorna; Onagi, Hideki

    2004-07-05

    Molecular reactors are miniature vessels for the assembly of reactants at the molecular level, in order to change the nature of chemical transformations. It seems probable that those that will find most immediate applications are those that change product ratios or give products which would not readily form in the absence of the reactors, and thereby afford easy access to materials that are otherwise difficult to obtain. Molecular machines consist of interrelated parts with separate functions and perform some kind of work, at the molecular level. Practical examples are likely to be relatively uncomplicated and not based on individual functions of single-molecule devices. Instead they will probably rely on extensive redundancy of the molecular components and their interactions and reactions, as well as of the machines themselves.

  17. Machine-learning approaches in drug discovery: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    During the past decade, virtual screening (VS) has evolved from traditional similarity searching, which utilizes single reference compounds, into an advanced application domain for data mining and machine-learning approaches, which require large and representative training-set compounds to learn robust decision rules. The explosive growth in the amount of public domain-available chemical and biological data has generated huge effort to design, analyze, and apply novel learning methodologies. Here, I focus on machine-learning techniques within the context of ligand-based VS (LBVS). In addition, I analyze several relevant VS studies from recent publications, providing a detailed view of the current state-of-the-art in this field and highlighting not only the problematic issues, but also the successes and opportunities for further advances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Precise Point Positioning Inertial Navigation Integration for Kinematic Airborne Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Ryan

    UAVs have the potential for autonomous airborne remote sensing applications that require rapid response to natural hazards (e.g. volcano eruptions, earthquakes). As these applications require very accurate positioning, tightly coupled Global Positioning System (GPS) Precise Point Positioning (PPP) Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) are an attractive method to perform real-time aircraft positioning. In particular, PPP can achieve a level of positioning accuracy that is similar to Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS, without the need of a relatively close GPS reference station. However, the PPP method is known to converge to accurate positioning estimate more slowly when compared to RTK, a drawback of PPP that is amplified whenever the receiver platform is faced with GPS challenged environments, such as poor satellite visibility and frequent phase breaks. This thesis presents the use of a simulation environment that characterizes the position estimation performance sensitivity of PPP/INS through a Monte Carlo analysis that is considered under various conditions: such as, the intensity of multipath errors, the number of phase breaks, the satellite geometry, the atmospheric conditions, the noise characteristics of the inertial sensor, and the accuracy of GPS orbit products. After the PPP/INS formulation was verified in a simulation environment, the INS formulation was incorporated into NASA JPL's Real-Time GIPSY-x. This software was then verified using eight recorded flight data sets provided by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) program called Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D).

  19. Precision truss structures from concept to hardware reality: application to the Micro-Precision Interferometer Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sword, Lee F.; Carne, Thomas G.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the development of the truss structure at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory that forms the backbone of JPL's Micro-Precision Interferometer (MPI) Testbed. The Micro- Precision Interferometer (MPI) Testbed is the third generation of Control Structure Interaction (CSI) Testbeds constructed by JPL aimed at developing and validating control concepts. The MPI testbed is essentially a space-based Michelson interferometer suspended in a ground- based laboratory. This instrument, mounted to the flexible truss, requires nanometer level precision alignment and positioning of its optical elements to achieve science objectives. A layered control architecture, utilizing isolation, structural control, and active optical control technologies, allow the system to meet its vibration attenuation goals. Success of the structural control design, which involves replacement of truss struts with active and/or passive elements, depends heavily on high fidelity models of the structure to evaluate strut placement locations. The first step in obtaining an accurate structure model is to build a structure which is linear.

  20. Mining the Galaxy Zoo Database: Machine Learning Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, Kirk D.; Wallin, J.; Vedachalam, A.; Baehr, S.; Lintott, C.; Darg, D.; Smith, A.; Fortson, L.

    2010-01-01

    The new Zooniverse initiative is addressing the data flood in the sciences through a transformative partnership between professional scientists, volunteer citizen scientists, and machines. As part of this project, we are exploring the application of machine learning techniques to data mining problems associated with the large and growing database of volunteer science results gathered by the Galaxy Zoo citizen science project. We will describe the basic challenge, some machine learning approaches, and early results. One of the motivators for this study is the acquisition (through the Galaxy Zoo results database) of approximately 100 million classification labels for roughly one million galaxies, yielding a tremendously large and rich set of training examples for improving automated galaxy morphological classification algorithms. In our first case study, the goal is to learn which morphological and photometric features in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database correlate most strongly with user-selected galaxy morphological class. As a corollary to this study, we are also aiming to identify which galaxy parameters in the SDSS database correspond to galaxies that have been the most difficult to classify (based upon large dispersion in their volunter-provided classifications). Our second case study will focus on similar data mining analyses and machine leaning algorithms applied to the Galaxy Zoo catalog of merging and interacting galaxies. The outcomes of this project will have applications in future large sky surveys, such as the LSST (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope) project, which will generate a catalog of 20 billion galaxies and will produce an additional astronomical alert database of approximately 100 thousand events each night for 10 years -- the capabilities and algorithms that we are exploring will assist in the rapid characterization and classification of such massive data streams. This research has been supported in part through NSF award #0941610.

  1. A Machine-to-Machine protocol benchmark for eHealth applications - Use case: Respiratory rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Talaminos-Barroso, Alejandro; Estudillo-Valderrama, Miguel A; Roa, Laura M; Reina-Tosina, Javier; Ortega-Ruiz, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    M2M (Machine-to-Machine) communications represent one of the main pillars of the new paradigm of the Internet of Things (IoT), and is making possible new opportunities for the eHealth business. Nevertheless, the large number of M2M protocols currently available hinders the election of a suitable solution that satisfies the requirements that can demand eHealth applications. In the first place, to develop a tool that provides a benchmarking analysis in order to objectively select among the most relevant M2M protocols for eHealth solutions. In the second place, to validate the tool with a particular use case: the respiratory rehabilitation. A software tool, called Distributed Computing Framework (DFC), has been designed and developed to execute the benchmarking tests and facilitate the deployment in environments with a large number of machines, with independence of the protocol and performance metrics selected. DDS, MQTT, CoAP, JMS, AMQP and XMPP protocols were evaluated considering different specific performance metrics, including CPU usage, memory usage, bandwidth consumption, latency and jitter. The results obtained allowed to validate a case of use: respiratory rehabilitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in two scenarios with different types of requirement: Home-Based and Ambulatory. The results of the benchmark comparison can guide eHealth developers in the choice of M2M technologies. In this regard, the framework presented is a simple and powerful tool for the deployment of benchmark tests under specific environments and conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New linear piezomotors for high-force precise positioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Letty, Ronan; Claeyssen, Frank; Barillot, Francois; Six, Marc F.; Bouchilloux, Philippe

    1998-07-01

    Piezomotors are an increasingly competitive alternative to electromagnetic stepper motors, especially in applications where large bandwidths and/or precise positioning control are desired. Piezomotors use a combination of electromechanical and frictional forces and, compared to conventional electromagnetic motors, have the advantages that no power supply is required to maintain the motor in position and no lubrication is necessary in the device. The operating principle of these motors relies on the use of an ultrasonic vibration, which is created via the piezoelectric effect (at resonance in most cases), in order to generate vibration forces at the `stator/rotor' contact interface. A mechanical preload is also applied at this contact interface and is responsible for the motor's holding force at rest. To meet the specifications of an aerospace application, we developed a new design of Linear PiezoMotors (LPMs). The first prototype we built shows very promising results, and makes the LPM a serious candidate to replace conventional stepper motors. The LPM features the following characteristics: a standing force of 100 N, a blocked force of 37 N, a maximum actuation speed of 23 mm/s, a maximum run of 10 mm, a mass of 500 g, an electrical power of 2.2 W, and a position accuracy superior to 1 micrometers . To our knowledge, the driving force delivered by the LPM has never before been achieved in resonant devices. This paper describes the physical operating principles of the LPM, as well as the modeling tools and experimental techniques we used for its development. Several implementation schemes are also presented and show the wide range of possible applications offered by the linear piezomotor.

  3. Machine learning approaches: from theory to application in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Elisa; Castellani, Umberto; Peruzzo, Denis; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, machine learning approaches have been successfully applied for analysis of neuroimaging data, to help in the context of disease diagnosis. We provide, in this paper, an overview of recent support vector machine-based methods developed and applied in psychiatric neuroimaging for the investigation of schizophrenia. In particular, we focus on the algorithms implemented by our group, which have been applied to classify subjects affected by schizophrenia and healthy controls, comparing them in terms of accuracy results with other recently published studies. First we give a description of the basic terminology used in pattern recognition and machine learning. Then we separately summarize and explain each study, highlighting the main features that characterize each method. Finally, as an outcome of the comparison of the results obtained applying the described different techniques, conclusions are drawn in order to understand how much automatic classification approaches can be considered a useful tool in understanding the biological underpinnings of schizophrenia. We then conclude by discussing the main implications achievable by the application of these methods into clinical practice.

  4. Application of Machine Learning to Rotorcraft Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, Tyler; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning is a powerful tool for data exploration and model building with large data sets. This project aimed to use machine learning techniques to explore the inherent structure of data from rotorcraft gear tests, relationships between features and damage states, and to build a system for predicting gear health for future rotorcraft transmission applications. Classical machine learning techniques are difficult, if not irresponsible to apply to time series data because many make the assumption of independence between samples. To overcome this, Hidden Markov Models were used to create a binary classifier for identifying scuffing transitions and Recurrent Neural Networks were used to leverage long distance relationships in predicting discrete damage states. When combined in a workflow, where the binary classifier acted as a filter for the fatigue monitor, the system was able to demonstrate accuracy in damage state prediction and scuffing identification. The time dependent nature of the data restricted data exploration to collecting and analyzing data from the model selection process. The limited amount of available data was unable to give useful information, and the division of training and testing sets tended to heavily influence the scores of the models across combinations of features and hyper-parameters. This work built a framework for tracking scuffing and fatigue on streaming data and demonstrates that machine learning has much to offer rotorcraft health monitoring by using Bayesian learning and deep learning methods to capture the time dependent nature of the data. Suggested future work is to implement the framework developed in this project using a larger variety of data sets to test the generalization capabilities of the models and allow for data exploration.

  5. IAS15: a fast, adaptive, high-order integrator for gravitational dynamics, accurate to machine precision over a billion orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rein, Hanno; Spiegel, David S.

    2015-01-01

    We present IAS15, a 15th-order integrator to simulate gravitational dynamics. The integrator is based on a Gauß-Radau quadrature and can handle conservative as well as non-conservative forces. We develop a step-size control that can automatically choose an optimal timestep. The algorithm can handle close encounters and high-eccentricity orbits. The systematic errors are kept well below machine precision, and long-term orbit integrations over 109 orbits show that IAS15 is optimal in the sense that it follows Brouwer's law, i.e. the energy error behaves like a random walk. Our tests show that IAS15 is superior to a mixed-variable symplectic integrator and other popular integrators, including high-order ones, in both speed and accuracy. In fact, IAS15 preserves the symplecticity of Hamiltonian systems better than the commonly used nominally symplectic integrators to which we compared it. We provide an open-source implementation of IAS15. The package comes with several easy-to-extend examples involving resonant planetary systems, Kozai-Lidov cycles, close encounters, radiation pressure, quadrupole moment and generic damping functions that can, among other things, be used to simulate planet-disc interactions. Other non-conservative forces can be added easily.

  6. Extreme learning machine for ranking: generalization analysis and applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Peng, Jiangtao; Zhou, Yicong; Li, Luoqing; Pan, Zhibin

    2014-05-01

    The extreme learning machine (ELM) has attracted increasing attention recently with its successful applications in classification and regression. In this paper, we investigate the generalization performance of ELM-based ranking. A new regularized ranking algorithm is proposed based on the combinations of activation functions in ELM. The generalization analysis is established for the ELM-based ranking (ELMRank) in terms of the covering numbers of hypothesis space. Empirical results on the benchmark datasets show the competitive performance of the ELMRank over the state-of-the-art ranking methods.

  7. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Machine Vision Flame Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    4-e __________________________ PERFORMING ORGANiZATION REPORT NUN ER(S) S. MONITORING :;RGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) ESL -TR-90-49 6a. 𔃾 AM E OF PERFO...export is restricted by the Arms Export Control Act (Title 22, U.S.C., Sec 2751 et seq.) or Executive Order 12470. Violations of these export laws are...visual and acoustic cues in human speech for machine-based speech recognition applications (Yuhas, 1990). Neural network-based acoustic sensing has

  8. Application of Virtual Manufacturing in Fields Cultivate Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Li, Yan; Li, Zhou

    The paper introduces virtual manufacturing application in the Fields Cultivate Machines and mainly discusses the model-building of rotary-cultivate part, physical model and mathematical model included. With the model, the rotary knife is optimized, the force on the bend part is decreased, and therefore, the service life is prolonged. At the same time, with dynamic analysis software Adams, the moment curve of the rotary knife is simulated, which provides a basis for the improvement of stability and farther research in future.

  9. [Application of precision medicine in obesity and metabolic disease surgery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cunchuan; Gao, Zhiguang

    2016-01-01

    The U. S. A. president Obama called for a new initiative to fund precision medicine during his State of Union Address on January 20th, 2015, which meant that the human medicine enters a new era. The meaning of "precision medicine" is significantly similar to the concept of precision obesity and metabolic disease surgery, which was proposed by the author in early August 2011. Nowadays, obesity and metabolic disease surgery has been transformed from open surgery to laparoscopic surgery, the extensive mode to the precision mode. The key value concept is to minimize postoperative complication, minimize postoperative hospital stay and obtain the best effect of weight loss by accurate preoperative assessment, delicate operation, excellent postoperative management and scientific follow-up. The precision obesity and metabolic disease surgery has more development space in the future.

  10. Waste reduction using carbon dioxide: A solvent substitute for precision cleaning applications

    SciTech Connect

    Phelphs, M.R.; Hogan, M.O.; Snowden-Swan, L.J.

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Industrial Waste Program (IWP) has been sponsoring the research, development, and commercialization of supercritical fluid cleaning technology for replacement of traditional solvent cleaning processes. Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest Laboratory have been working through this collaborative effort to test the efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) cleaning. Tests were performed on a variety of substrates at various solvent conditions for a large number of common contaminants to characterize cleaning performance. Cleaning efficiencies with respect to system dynamics were also studied. Results of these tests show that supercritical and near-critical carbon dioxide is not only an effective solvent for precision cleaning applications of parts such as gyroscopes, bearing assemblies, and machine tools but is also feasible for bulk cleaning operations for a variety of industrial needs. It has been tested and shown to be effective for a range of substrates including laser optics components, computer disk drives, and cloth rags. Metals, including stainless steel, beryllium, gold, silver, copper and others; ceramics; and elastomeric seals such as Teflon, silicone, and epoxy potting compounds are highly compatible with SuperCritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}). Many contaminants, including silicones, Krytox, hydrocarbons, esters, fluorocarbons, gyroscope damping and fill fluids, and machining oils and lubricating oils, will dissolve in SCCO{sub 2}. In general, nonpolar, hydrophobic contaminants such as oils dissolve well, while hydrophilic contaminants such as inorganic salts do not. The parts and contaminants mentioned here are not the only applications for SCCO, cleaning, as the full range of possibilities is still being defined by developers and users of the technology. The many advantages of SCCO{sub 2} indicate that it is a technology that should carry industrial cleaning operations into the future.

  11. Precision grinding process development for brittle materials

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L; Davis, P J; Piscotty, M A

    1999-04-01

    High performance, brittle materials are the materials of choice for many of today's engineering applications. This paper describes three separate precision grinding processes developed at Lawrence Liver-more National Laboratory to machine precision ceramic components. Included in the discussion of the precision processes is a variety of grinding wheel dressing, truing and profiling techniques.

  12. Security Aspects of Smart Cards vs. Embedded Security in Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Advanced Mobile Network Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyerstein, Mike; Cha, Inhyok; Shah, Yogendra

    The Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standardisation group currently discusses advanced applications of mobile networks such as Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication. Several security issues arise in these contexts which warrant a fresh look at mobile networks’ security foundations, resting on smart cards. This paper contributes a security/efficiency analysis to this discussion and highlights the role of trusted platform technology to approach these issues.

  13. Ultra Precision Machining

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-20

    that of a patient under observation. Certain disorders, such as epilepsy, dyslexia and some sensory dis- orders can then be diagnosed based on the way...and spectra. This can be used in the following ways: 1. A data processing " language " can be defined in which the programs are composed of the

  14. Ultra Precision Machining.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    literature review has turned up very little information . One citation (Nanometer Positioning Characteristics of Closed Looped Differential Hydro or Aerostatic... systems provide information that allows sources to be distinguished and noise extracted from signals. The latter has been done by Chaturvedi and Thomas...the accessability and the friendliness of information to the operator. These areas are summarized below in this order with sensing, actuation, and

  15. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery through a hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber for micro-machining applications.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Piotr; Yu, Fei; Maier, Robert R J; Wadsworth, William J; Knight, Jonathan C; Shephard, Jonathan D; Hand, Duncan P

    2013-09-23

    We present high average power picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery at 1030 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths respectively through a novel hollow-core Negative Curvature Fiber (NCF) for high-precision micro-machining applications. Picosecond pulses with an average power above 36 W and energies of 92 µJ, corresponding to a peak power density of 1.5 TWcm⁻² have been transmitted through the fiber without introducing any damage to the input and output fiber end-faces. High-energy nanosecond pulses (>1 mJ), which are ideal for micro-machining have been successfully delivered through the NCF with a coupling efficiency of 92%. Picosecond and nanosecond pulse delivery have been demonstrated in fiber-based laser micro-machining of fused silica, aluminum and titanium.

  16. Machine learning for epigenetics and future medical applications.

    PubMed

    Holder, Lawrence B; Haque, M Muksitul; Skinner, Michael K

    2017-07-03

    Understanding epigenetic processes holds immense promise for medical applications. Advances in Machine Learning (ML) are critical to realize this promise. Previous studies used epigenetic data sets associated with the germline transmission of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and novel ML approaches to predict genome-wide locations of critical epimutations. A combination of Active Learning (ACL) and Imbalanced Class Learning (ICL) was used to address past problems with ML to develop a more efficient feature selection process and address the imbalance problem in all genomic data sets. The power of this novel ML approach and our ability to predict epigenetic phenomena and associated disease is suggested. The current approach requires extensive computation of features over the genome. A promising new approach is to introduce Deep Learning (DL) for the generation and simultaneous computation of novel genomic features tuned to the classification task. This approach can be used with any genomic or biological data set applied to medicine. The application of molecular epigenetic data in advanced machine learning analysis to medicine is the focus of this review.

  17. Precise satellite orbit determination with particular application to ERS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Maria Joana Afonso Pereira

    The motivation behind this study is twofold. First to assess the accuracy of ERS-1 long arc ephemerides using state of the art models. Second, to develop improved methods for determining precise ERS-1 orbits using either short or long arc techniques. The SATAN programs, for the computation of satellite orbits using laser data were used. Several facilities were added to the original programs: the processing of PRARE range and altimeter data, and a number of algorithms that allow more flexible solutions by adjusting a number of additional parameters. The first part of this study, before the launch of ERS-1, was done with SEAS AT data. The accuracy of SEASAT orbits computed with PRARE simulated data has been determined. The effect of temporal distribution of tracking data along the arc and the extent to which altimetry can replace range data have been investigated. The second part starts with the computation of ERS-1 long arc solutions using laser data. Some aspects of modelling the two main forces affecting ERS-l's orbit are investigated. With regard to the gravitational forces, the adjustment of a set of geopotential coefficients has been considered. With respect to atmospheric drag, extensive research has been carried out on determining the influence on orbit accuracy of the measurements of solar fluxes (P10.7 indices) and geomagnetic activity (Kp indices) used by the atmospheric model in the computation of atmospheric density at satellite height. Two new short arc methods have been developed: the Constrained and the Bayesian method. Both methods are dynamic and consist of solving for the 6 osculating elements. Using different techniques, both methods overcome the problem of normal matrix ill- conditioning by constraining the solution. The accuracy and applicability of these methods are discussed and compared with the traditional non-dynamic TAR method.

  18. Successful fabrication of a convex platform PMMA cell-counting slide using a high-precision perpendicular dual-spindle CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Chang, Chih-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a novel approach to the fabrication of a biomedical-mold for producing convex platform PMMA (poly-methyl-meth-acrylate) slides for counting cells. These slides allow for the microscopic examination of urine sediment cells. Manufacturing of such slides incorporates three important procedures: (1) the development of a tabletop high-precision dual-spindle CNC (computerized numerical control) machine tool; (2) the formation of a boron-doped polycrystalline composite diamond (BD-PCD) wheel-tool on the machine tool developed in procedure (1); and (3) the cutting of a multi-groove-biomedical-mold array using the formed diamond wheel-tool in situ on the developed machine. The machine incorporates a hybrid working platform providing wheel-tool thinning using spark erosion to cut, polish, and deburr microgrooves on NAK80 steel directly. With consideration given for the electrical conductive properties of BD-PCD, the diamond wheel-tool is thinned to a thickness of 5 µm by rotary wire electrical discharge machining. The thinned wheel-tool can grind microgrooves 10 µm wide. An embedded design, which inserts a close fitting precision core into the biomedical-mold to create step-difference (concave inward) of 50 µm in height between the core and the mold, is also proposed and realized. The perpendicular dual-spindles and precision rotary stage are features that allow for biomedical-mold machining without the necessity of uploading and repositioning materials until all tasks are completed. A PMMA biomedical-slide with a plurality of juxtaposed counting chambers is formed and its usefulness verified.

  19. Integration of USB and firewire cameras in machine vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy E.; Britton, Douglas F.; Daley, Wayne D.; Carey, Richard

    1999-08-01

    Digital cameras have been around for many years, but a new breed of consumer market cameras is hitting the main stream. By using these devices, system designers and integrators will be well posited to take advantage of technological advances developed to support multimedia and imaging applications on the PC platform. Having these new cameras on the consumer market means lower cost, but it does not necessarily guarantee ease of integration. There are many issues that need to be accounted for like image quality, maintainable frame rates, image size and resolution, supported operating system, and ease of software integration. This paper will describe briefly a couple of the consumer digital standards, and then discuss some of the advantages and pitfalls of integrating both USB and Firewire cameras into computer/machine vision applications.

  20. Annular denuder systems: Precision and applicability to stratospheric sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randtke, Stephen J.; Lane, Dennis D.

    1991-01-01

    Annular denuder systems (ADS) are designed to sample both gases and particles from ambient air without cross interference. The ADS's were used to detect chemical gradients over rural forest canopies. Accurate and precise methods for the sampling and analysis of low concentrations of gaseous and particulate species over short sampling periods were developed. Typical analytical precision data for nitrate and sulfate are shown. Both sampling and analytical precision data for a 2 hour test using four collocated ADS's are presented. On this particular day, the overall precision for HNO3 was unusually poor. The overall precision for the major constituents of interest is generally about 3 to 5 percent for typical ambient concentrations. The ADS's could potentially be used to determine the concentrations of HNO3 and fine-particle nitrate in the stratosphere, and to simultaneously characterize the chemical composition of stratospheric aerosols. Assuming 50 mb pressure, a 2 hour sampling time, a 50 Lpm sampling rate, and a low blank value, an overal precision of about 15 percent should be possible for 1 ppbv of HNO3 or nitrate, which would include nitric-acid trihydrate (NAT); and pump-driven systems could accommodate more complex systems involving denuders and filter packs in sequence. Alternate coatings could possibly be developed to selectively sample species such as Cl2 and ClNO3. The ADS's might also be useful in laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemical reactions involving NAT aerosols.

  1. Application of machine learning on brain cancer multiclass classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panca, V.; Rustam, Z.

    2017-07-01

    Classification of brain cancer is a problem of multiclass classification. One approach to solve this problem is by first transforming it into several binary problems. The microarray gene expression dataset has the two main characteristics of medical data: extremely many features (genes) and only a few number of samples. The application of machine learning on microarray gene expression dataset mainly consists of two steps: feature selection and classification. In this paper, the features are selected using a method based on support vector machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) principle which is improved to solve multiclass classification, called multiple multiclass SVM-RFE. Instead of using only the selected features on a single classifier, this method combines the result of multiple classifiers. The features are divided into subsets and SVM-RFE is used on each subset. Then, the selected features on each subset are put on separate classifiers. This method enhances the feature selection ability of each single SVM-RFE. Twin support vector machine (TWSVM) is used as the method of the classifier to reduce computational complexity. While ordinary SVM finds single optimum hyperplane, the main objective Twin SVM is to find two non-parallel optimum hyperplanes. The experiment on the brain cancer microarray gene expression dataset shows this method could classify 71,4% of the overall test data correctly, using 100 and 1000 genes selected from multiple multiclass SVM-RFE feature selection method. Furthermore, the per class results show that this method could classify data of normal and MD class with 100% accuracy.

  2. Fault Modeling of Extreme Scale Applications Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Dam, Hubertus van; Tallent, Nathan R.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2016-05-01

    Faults are commonplace in large scale systems. These systems experience a variety of faults such as transient, permanent and intermittent. Multi-bit faults are typically not corrected by the hardware resulting in an error. Here, this paper attempts to answer an important question: Given a multi-bit fault in main memory, will it result in an application error — and hence a recovery algorithm should be invoked — or can it be safely ignored? We propose an application fault modeling methodology to answer this question. Given a fault signature (a set of attributes comprising of system and application state), we use machine learning to create a model which predicts whether a multibit permanent/transient main memory fault will likely result in error. We present the design elements such as the fault injection methodology for covering important data structures, the application and system attributes which should be used for learning the model, the supervised learning algorithms (and potentially ensembles), and important metrics. Lastly, we use three applications — NWChem, LULESH and SVM — as examples for demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed fault modeling methodology.

  3. Fault Modeling of Extreme Scale Applications Using Machine Learning

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Dam, Hubertus van; Tallent, Nathan R.; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2016-05-01

    Faults are commonplace in large scale systems. These systems experience a variety of faults such as transient, permanent and intermittent. Multi-bit faults are typically not corrected by the hardware resulting in an error. Here, this paper attempts to answer an important question: Given a multi-bit fault in main memory, will it result in an application error — and hence a recovery algorithm should be invoked — or can it be safely ignored? We propose an application fault modeling methodology to answer this question. Given a fault signature (a set of attributes comprising of system and application state), we use machine learning to create a model which predicts whether a multibit permanent/transient main memory fault will likely result in error. We present the design elements such as the fault injection methodology for covering important data structures, the application and system attributes which should be used for learning the model, the supervised learning algorithms (and potentially ensembles), and important metrics. Lastly, we use three applications — NWChem, LULESH and SVM — as examples for demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed fault modeling methodology.

  4. Investigating inhomogeneous Szekeres models and their applications to precision cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peel, Austin Chandler

    Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations that can describe the evolution of complex structures in the universe provide complementary frameworks to standard perturbation theory in which to analyze cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. The flexibility and generality of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres metric make it the best known exact solution to explore nonlinearities in the universe. We study applications of Szekeres models to precision cosmology, focusing on the influence of inhomogeneities in two primary contexts---the growth rate of cosmic structures and biases in distance determinations to remote sources. We first define and derive evolution equations for a Szekeres density contrast, which quantifies exact deviations from a smooth background cosmology. Solving these equations and comparing to the usual perturbative approach, we find that for models with the same matter content, the Szekeres growth rate is larger through the matter-dominated cosmic era. Including a cosmological constant, we consider exact global perturbations, as well as the evolution of a single extended structure surrounded by an almost homogeneous background. For the former, we use growth data to obtain a best fit Szekeres model and find that it can fit the data as well as the standard Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmological model but with different cosmological parameters. Next, to study effects of inhomogeneities on distance measures, we build an exact relativistic Swiss-cheese model of the universe, where a large number of non-symmetric and randomly placed Szekeres structures are embedded within a LCDM background. Solving the full relativistic propagation equations, light beams are traced through the model, where they traverse the inhomogeneous structures in a way that mimics the paths of real light beams in the universe. For beams crossing a single structure, their magnification or demagnification reflects primarily the net density encountered along the path

  5. Open Quantum Systems with Applications to Precision Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tieri, David

    A spectrally pure coherent light source is an important component in precision measurement applications, such as an atomic clock. The more spectrally pure the coherent light source, or the narrower the linewidth of its power spectrum, the better for atomic clock experiments. A coherent light light source, such as a laser, is intrinsically an open quantum system, meaning that it gains and loses energy from an external environment. The aim of this thesis is to study various open quantum systems in an attempt to discover a scheme in which an extremely spectrally pure coherent light source might be realized. Therefore, this thesis begins by introducing the two main approaches to treating open quantum systems, the quantum master equation approach, and the quantum Langevin equation approach. In addition to deriving these from first principles, many of the solution methods to these approaches are given and then demonstrated using computer simulations. These include the quantum jump algorithm, the quantum state diffusion algorithm, the cumulant expansion method, and the method of c-number Langevin equations. Using these methods, the theory of the crossover between lasing and steady state superradiance is presented. It is shown that lasing and steady state superradiance might be demonstrated in the same physical system, but in different parameter regimes. The parameter space between these two extreme limits is explored, and the benefits and drawbacks of operating a system at a given set of parameters, i.e. to achieve the most spectrally pure light source, are discussed. We also consider the phase stability of a laser that is locked to a cavity QED system comprised of atoms with an ultra-narrow optical transition. Although the atomic motion introduces Doppler broadening, the standing wave nature of the cavity causes saturated absorption, which can be used to achieve an extremely high degree of phase stabilization. The inhomogeneity introduced by finite atomic velocities can

  6. Guest Editorial Electric Machines in Renewable Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Aliprantis, Dionysios; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed; Muljadi, Eduard; Brown, Ian; Chiba, Akira; Dorrell, David; Erlich, Istvan; Kerszenbaum, Isidor Izzy; Levi, Emil; Mayor, Kevin; Mohammed, Osama; Papathanassiou, Stavros; Popescu, Mircea; Qiao, Wei; Wu, Dezheng

    2015-12-01

    The main objective of this special issue is to collect and disseminate publications that highlight recent advances and breakthroughs in the area of renewable energy resources. The use of these resources for production of electricity is increasing rapidly worldwide. As of 2015, a majority of countries have set renewable electricity targets in the 10%-40% range to be achieved by 2020-2030, with a few notable exceptions aiming for 100% generation by renewables. We are experiencing a truly unprecedented transition away from fossil fuels, driven by environmental, energy security, and socio-economic factors.Electric machines can be found in a wide range of renewable energy applications, such as wind turbines, hydropower and hydrokinetic systems, flywheel energy storage devices, and low-power energy harvesting systems. Hence, the design of reliable, efficient, cost-effective, and controllable electric machines is crucial in enabling even higher penetrations of renewable energy systems in the smart grid of the future. In addition, power electronic converter design and control is critical, as they provide essential controllability, flexibility, grid interface, and integration functions.

  7. Application of a virtual coordinate measuring machine for measurement uncertainty estimation of aspherical lens parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küng, Alain; Meli, Felix; Nicolet, Anaïs; Thalmann, Rudolf

    2014-09-01

    Tactile ultra-precise coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) are very attractive for accurately measuring optical components with high slopes, such as aspheres. The METAS µ-CMM, which exhibits a single point measurement repeatability of a few nanometres, is routinely used for measurement services of microparts, including optical lenses. However, estimating the measurement uncertainty is very demanding. Because of the many combined influencing factors, an analytic determination of the uncertainty of parameters that are obtained by numerical fitting of the measured surface points is almost impossible. The application of numerical simulation (Monte Carlo methods) using a parametric fitting algorithm coupled with a virtual CMM based on a realistic model of the machine errors offers an ideal solution to this complex problem: to each measurement data point, a simulated measurement variation calculated from the numerical model of the METAS µ-CMM is added. Repeated several hundred times, these virtual measurements deliver the statistical data for calculating the probability density function, and thus the measurement uncertainty for each parameter. Additionally, the eventual cross-correlation between parameters can be analyzed. This method can be applied for the calibration and uncertainty estimation of any parameter of the equation representing a geometric element. In this article, we present the numerical simulation model of the METAS µ-CMM and the application of a Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty estimation of measured asphere parameters.

  8. [Emphasis on the application of precision medicine in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Sun, X D; Zhu, H

    2016-02-01

    Accompany with dramatically growth of large-scale biological databases (such as human genome sequence), improvement of life science and development of international clinical trials, science offers great potential for improving health care through precision medicine. As a hot topic recently, precision medicine might launch a revolution of the methodology in medical research. How to achieve precision medicine in clinical ophthalmology by means of biological data mining is a challenge for ophthalmologist-scientists. The best approach for advanced individual medicine is to buildup the digital ophthalmology, which includes human eye biobank, national biological databases network, clinical department, basic research lab, and international clinical trial center. The system of digital ophthalmology could explore the methods for ophthalmology research, integrate the source of eye biologic databases, promote international cooperation, and thus eventually supply the opportunity for translational medicine.

  9. An iterative learning control method with application for CNC machine tools

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, D.I.; Kim, S.

    1996-01-01

    A proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) type iterative learning controller is proposed for precise tracking control of industrial robots and computer numerical controller (CNC) machine tools performing repetitive tasks. The convergence of the output error by the proposed learning controller is guaranteed under a certain condition even when the system parameters are not known exactly and unknown external disturbances exist. As the proposed learning controller is repeatedly applied to the industrial robot or the CNC machine tool with the path-dependent repetitive task, the distance difference between the desired path and the actual tracked or machined path, which is one of the most significant factors in the evaluation of control performance, is progressively reduced. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed learning controller can improve machining accuracy when the CNC machine tool performs repetitive machining tasks.

  10. Clinical applications of the continuous flow blood separator machine.

    PubMed Central

    Oon, C J; Hobbs, J R

    1975-01-01

    The NCl/IBM or Aminco Continuous Flow Blood Separator Machine is a safe apparatus for the selective removal or exchange of either packed red blood cells, leucocyte-rich or platelet-rich layers or plasma. Abnormal fractions from any of these layers may be collected and discarded. Normal constituents may be collected for therapeutic uses. The wide scope of its applications includes important uses in clinical immunology: temporary provision of good leucocytes or platelets; harvesting of immune leucocytes (preparation of transfer factor at up to 10 units per harvest); removal of cryo- or macro-globulins, immune complexes or blocking factors; replacement therapy for antibody or complement deficiencies. Examples are given of such uses together with some of the medical problems so far encountered. Images FIG. 6 PMID:1106917

  11. Monitoring frog communities: An application of machine learning

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.; Watson, G.; Grigg, G.; McCallum, H.

    1996-12-31

    Automatic recognition of animal vocalizations would be a valuable tool for a variety of biological research and environmental monitoring applications. We report the development of a software system which can recognize the vocalizations of 22 species of frogs which occur in an area of northern Australia. This software system will be used in unattended operation to monitor the effect on frog populations of the introduced Cane Toad. The system is based around classification of local peaks in the spectrogram of the audio signal using Quinlan`s machine learning system, C4.5. Unreliable identifications of peaks are aggregated together using a hierarchical structure of segments based on the typical temporal vocalization species` patterns. This produces robust system performance.

  12. Computer Aided Design Of Electrical Machines For Variable Speed Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, R.; Aravind, S.; Materu, P.

    1987-10-01

    In recent years, the product life cycle has decreased and demands for new products have emerged due to competition, modern industrial needs and rapidly changing technology. This has necessitated changes in design, development and manufacturing processes so as to improve quality and efficiency as well as reducing costs. Computer Aided Design (CAD) helps to meet this challenge in the design evaluation and final product design stages. This paper presents the development of an interactive software for the optimal design of a motor intended for variable speed applications. The use of finite element analysis methods is proposed as an indispensable part of the CAD system for electrical machine design. An illustration of the method is given for the design of a switched reluctance motor.

  13. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Application and Planning Meeting. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardrip, S. C. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Thirty eight papers are presented addressing various aspects of precise time and time interval applications. Areas discussed include: past accomplishments; state of the art systems; new and useful applications, procedures, and techniques; and fruitful directions for research efforts.

  14. Machine learning applications in cancer prognosis and prediction.

    PubMed

    Kourou, Konstantina; Exarchos, Themis P; Exarchos, Konstantinos P; Karamouzis, Michalis V; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has been characterized as a heterogeneous disease consisting of many different subtypes. The early diagnosis and prognosis of a cancer type have become a necessity in cancer research, as it can facilitate the subsequent clinical management of patients. The importance of classifying cancer patients into high or low risk groups has led many research teams, from the biomedical and the bioinformatics field, to study the application of machine learning (ML) methods. Therefore, these techniques have been utilized as an aim to model the progression and treatment of cancerous conditions. In addition, the ability of ML tools to detect key features from complex datasets reveals their importance. A variety of these techniques, including Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Bayesian Networks (BNs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Decision Trees (DTs) have been widely applied in cancer research for the development of predictive models, resulting in effective and accurate decision making. Even though it is evident that the use of ML methods can improve our understanding of cancer progression, an appropriate level of validation is needed in order for these methods to be considered in the everyday clinical practice. In this work, we present a review of recent ML approaches employed in the modeling of cancer progression. The predictive models discussed here are based on various supervised ML techniques as well as on different input features and data samples. Given the growing trend on the application of ML methods in cancer research, we present here the most recent publications that employ these techniques as an aim to model cancer risk or patient outcomes.

  15. The Navy Precision Optical Interferometer for SSA Applications: An Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the Navy Precision Optical Interferometer (NPOI) located in Flagstaff AZ and finally the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope...bootstrapping approach. Lastly, we also mention that our current program, jointly with our partners at USNO and Lowell Observatory , for the

  16. Application of Geo-refrenced Geophysical Measurements to Precision Agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop yield varies within a field because conventional farming manages fields uniformly with no consideration for spatial variability. Site-specific management units (SSMUs), a key component of precision agriculture, have been proposed as a means of handling the spatial variability of various factor...

  17. Applications of an automated stem measurer for precision forestry

    Treesearch

    N. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Accurate stem measurements are required for the determination of many silvicultural prescriptions, i.e., what are we going to do with a stand of trees. This would only be amplified in a precision forestry context. Many methods have been proposed for optimal ways to evaluate stems for a variety of characteristics. These methods usually involve the acquisition of total...

  18. HARNESSING BIG DATA FOR PRECISION MEDICINE: INFRASTRUCTURES AND APPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Hart, Steven N; Goldfeder, Rachel; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Parker, Stephen C J; Snyder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is a health management approach that accounts for individual differences in genetic backgrounds and environmental exposures. With the recent advancements in high-throughput omics profiling technologies, collections of large study cohorts, and the developments of data mining algorithms, big data in biomedicine is expected to provide novel insights into health and disease states, which can be translated into personalized disease prevention and treatment plans. However, petabytes of biomedical data generated by multiple measurement modalities poses a significant challenge for data analysis, integration, storage, and result interpretation. In addition, patient privacy preservation, coordination between participating medical centers and data analysis working groups, as well as discrepancies in data sharing policies remain important topics of discussion. In this workshop, we invite experts in omics integration, biobank research, and data management to share their perspectives on leveraging big data to enable precision medicine.Workshop website: http://tinyurl.com/PSB17BigData; HashTag: #PSB17BigData.

  19. Application of extreme learning machine for estimation of wind speed distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Mohammadi, Kasra; Tong, Chong Wen; Petković, Dalibor; Porcu, Emilio; Mostafaeipour, Ali; Ch, Sudheer; Sedaghat, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    The knowledge of the probabilistic wind speed distribution is of particular significance in reliable evaluation of the wind energy potential and effective adoption of site specific wind turbines. Among all proposed probability density functions, the two-parameter Weibull function has been extensively endorsed and utilized to model wind speeds and express wind speed distribution in various locations. In this research work, extreme learning machine (ELM) is employed to compute the shape ( k) and scale ( c) factors of Weibull distribution function. The developed ELM model is trained and tested based upon two widely successful methods used to estimate k and c parameters. The efficiency and accuracy of ELM is compared against support vector machine, artificial neural network and genetic programming for estimating the same Weibull parameters. The survey results reveal that applying ELM approach is eventuated in attaining further precision for estimation of both Weibull parameters compared to other methods evaluated. Mean absolute percentage error, mean absolute bias error and root mean square error for k are 8.4600 %, 0.1783 and 0.2371, while for c are 0.2143 %, 0.0118 and 0.0192 m/s, respectively. In conclusion, it is conclusively found that application of ELM is particularly promising as an alternative method to estimate Weibull k and c factors.

  20. Supervised machine learning on a network scale: application to seismic event classification and detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynen, Andrew; Audet, Pascal

    2017-09-01

    A new method using a machine learning technique is applied to event classification and detection at seismic networks. This method is applicable to a variety of network sizes and settings. The algorithm makes use of a small catalogue of known observations across the entire network. Two attributes, the polarization and frequency content, are used as input to regression. These attributes are extracted at predicted arrival times for P and S waves using only an approximate velocity model, as attributes are calculated over large time spans. This method of waveform characterization is shown to be able to distinguish between blasts and earthquakes with 99 per cent accuracy using a network of 13 stations located in Southern California. The combination of machine learning with generalized waveform features is further applied to event detection in Oklahoma, United States. The event detection algorithm makes use of a pair of unique seismic phases to locate events, with a precision directly related to the sampling rate of the generalized waveform features. Over a week of data from 30 stations in Oklahoma, United States are used to automatically detect 25 times more events than the catalogue of the local geological survey, with a false detection rate of less than 2 per cent. This method provides a highly confident way of detecting and locating events. Furthermore, a large number of seismic events can be automatically detected with low false alarm, allowing for a larger automatic event catalogue with a high degree of trust.

  1. [Application to dental casting machine of the rapid heating infrared image furnace (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Etchu, Y; Noguchi, H

    1980-10-01

    The authors tried to manufacture a casting machine in dentistry by application of the infrared image furnace with a high heating speed and an easy control of a heating temperature. This machine melts an alloy in a carbon crucible set in the furnace, held in the horizontal position. Then, the furnace is turned to the vertical position to drop a melted alloy on the casting mold, and the alloy is cast in the mold by the pressure of Argon gas. The functions of trial casting machine were follows. 1. The trial casting machine was capable of heating to 1250 degrees C within one minute under 4 kW electric power. 2. The castability of the 20% Au-Pd-Ag commercial alloy cast in all casting conditions by the trial casting machine was higher than that of Thermotrol D-2 automatic centrifugal casting machine. 3. Castings of the trial casting machine showed higher tensile strength and elongation than those of the centrifugal casting machine, and the deviation of values got by the trial casting machine was small. In particular, some casting of the trial casting machine showed three times or over elongation values as compared with those of the centrifugal casting machine. 4. When casting conditions (casting temperature, casting pressure) of the trial casting machine changed, the physical properties of castings did not change so much. However, when the mold was not prevented from heating by the furnace in casting, the elongation of castings increased.

  2. Development of ultrahigh-precision coherent control and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Ohmori, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    Coherent control is based on optical manipulation of the amplitudes and phases of wave functions. It is expected to be a key technique to develop novel quantum technologies such as bond-selective chemistry and quantum computing, and to better understand the quantum worldview founded on wave-particle duality. We have developed high-precision coherent control by imprinting optical amplitudes and phases of ultrashort laser pulses on the quantum amplitudes and phases of molecular wave functions. The history and perspective of coherent control and our recent achievements are described. PMID:18941296

  3. A floating-point/multiple-precision processor for airborne applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, R.

    1982-01-01

    A compact input output (I/O) numerical processor capable of performing floating-point, multiple precision and other arithmetic functions at execution times which are at least 100 times faster than comparable software emulation is described. The I/O device is a microcomputer system containing a 16 bit microprocessor, a numerical coprocessor with eight 80 bit registers running at a 5 MHz clock rate, 18K random access memory (RAM) and 16K electrically programmable read only memory (EPROM). The processor acts as an intelligent slave to the host computer and can be programmed in high order languages such as FORTRAN and PL/M-86.

  4. Long-range nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine for application to micro- and nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Gerd; Hausotte, Tino; Büchner, Hans-Joachim; Manske, Eberhard; Schmidt, Ingomar; Mastylo, Rostyslav

    2006-03-01

    The paper describes the operation of a high-precision long range three-dimensional nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPM-Machine). The NPM-Machine has been developed by the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Technische Universität Ilmenau. The machine was successfully tested and continually improved in the last few years. The machines are operating successfully in several German and foreign research institutes including the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). Three plane mirror miniature interferometers are installed into the NPM-machine having a resolution of less than 0,1 nm over the entire positioning and measuring range of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm. An Abbe offset-free design of the three miniature plane mirror interferometers and applying a new concept for compensating systematic errors resulting from mechanical guide systems provide extraordinary accuracy with an expanded uncertainty of only 5 - 10 nm. The integration of several, optical and tactile probe systems and nanotools makes the NPM-Machine suitable for various tasks, such as large-area scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanostructuring, biotechnology and genetic engineering as well as measuring mechanical precision workpieces, precision treatment and for engineering new material. Various developed probe systems have been integrated into the NPM-Machine. The measurement results of a focus sensor, metrological AFM, white light sensor, tactile stylus probe and of a 3D-micro-touch-probe are presented. Single beam-, double beam- and triple beam interferometers built in the NPM-Machine for six degrees of freedom measurements are described.

  5. Proceedings of the 7th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Proceedings contain the papers presented at the Seventh Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting and the edited record of the discussion period following each paper. This meeting provided a forum to promote more effective, efficient, economical and skillful applications of PTTI technology to the many problem areas to which PTTI offers solutions. Specifically the purpose of the meeting is to: disseminate, coordinate, and exchange practical information associated with precise time and frequency; acquaint systems engineers, technicians and managers with precise time and frequency technology and its applications; and review present and future requirements for PTTI.

  6. Application of case-based reasoning for machining parameters selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowik, C.; Kalinowski, K.; Krenczyk, D.; Paprocka, I.; Kempa, W.

    2016-08-01

    Process planning, as one of the most important stage of the technological production preparation, consists in selection of manufacturing operations taking into account the minimal manufacturing cost. The minimal manufacturing cost could be achieved by selection of the best sequence of manufacturing operations, machine tools, manufacturing tools, and accompanying machining parameters selection. On the other hand, it is almost impossible, especially in industrial conditions, to design an optimal process plan, first of all due to restrictions imposed by the installed in the factory machine park. Taking into consideration above, machining parameter selection seems to be one of the potential areas of optimization. In manual process planning process engineers select machining parameters using selection rules and data stored in manuals and tool catalogues. It makes this process time and labour consuming and non-error free. On the other hand, in workshop practice, machine operators select parameters having their skills and habits in mind. It could be a reason for suboptimal process planning. Considering this, new methods of machining parameters selection free of human factor influence are still sought. In our approach, we propose to apply case-based reasoning for machining parameter selection. In the paper, a detailed description of our approach is presented.

  7. Waveguide Stub Tuner Analysis for CEBAF Machine Application

    SciTech Connect

    Haipeng Wang; Michael Tiefenback

    2004-08-01

    Three-stub WR650 waveguide tuners have been used on the CEBAF superconducting cavities for two changes of the external quality factors (Qext): increasing the Qext from 3.4-7.6 x 10{sup 6} to 8 x 10{sup 6}6 on 5-cell cavities to reduce klystron power at operating gradients and decreasing the Qext from 1.7-2.4 x 10{sup 7} to 8 x 10{sup 6} on 7-cell cavities to simplify control of Lorenz Force detuning. To understand the reactive tuning effects in the machine operations with beam current and mechanical tuning, a network analysis model was developed. The S parameters of the stub tuner were simulated by MAFIA and measured on the bench. We used this stub tuner model to study tuning range, sensitivity, and frequency pulling, as well as cold waveguide (WG) and window heating problems. Detailed experimental results are compared against this model. Pros and cons of this stub tuner application are summarized.

  8. Engineered CVD Diamond Coatings for Machining and Tribological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumpala, Ravikumar; Chandran, Maneesh; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    Diamond is an allotropes of carbon and is unique because of its extreme hardness (~100 GPa), low friction coefficient (<0.05), high thermal conductivity (~2000 Wm-1 K-1), and high chemical inertness. Diamond is being synthesized artificially in bulk form as well as in the form of surface coatings for various engineering applications. The mechanical characteristics of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond coatings such as hardness, adhesion, friction coefficient, and fracture toughness can be tuned by controlling the grain size of the coatings from a few microns to a few nanometers. In this review, characteristics and performance of the CVD diamond coatings deposited on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) substrates were discussed with an emphasis on WC-Co grade selection, substrate pretreatment, nanocrystallinity and microcrystallinity of the coating, mechanical and tribological characteristics, coating architecture, and interfacial adhesion integrity. Engineered coating substrate architecture is essential for CVD diamond coatings to perform well under harsh and highly abrasive machining and tribological conditions.

  9. Design of a smart ultrasonic transducer for interconnecting machine applications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tian-Hong; Wang, Wei; Chen, Xue-Dong; Li, Qing; Xu, Chang

    2009-01-01

    A high-frequency ultrasonic transducer for copper or gold wire bonding has been designed, analyzed, prototyped and tested. Modeling techniques were used in the design phase and a practical design procedure was established and used. The transducer was decomposed into its elementary components. For each component, an initial design was obtained with simulations using a finite elements model (FEM). Simulated ultrasonic modules were built and characterized experimentally through the Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and electrical resonance spectra. Compared with experimental data, the FEM could be iteratively adjusted and updated. Having achieved a remarkably highly-predictive FEM of the whole transducer, the design parameters could be tuned for the desired applications, then the transducer is fixed on the wire bonder with a complete holder clamping was calculated by the FEM. The approach to mount ultrasonic transducers on wire bonding machines also is of major importance for wire bonding in modern electronic packaging. The presented method can lead to obtaining a nearly complete decoupling clamper design of the transducer to the wire bonder.

  10. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  11. Proceedings of the 8th Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Proceedings contain the papers presented at the Eight Annual Precise Time and Tme Interval PTTI Applications and Planning Meeting. The edited record of the discussions following the papers and the panel discussions are also included. This meeting provided a forum for the exchange of information on precise time and frequency technology among members of the scientific community and persons with program applications. The 282 registered attendees came from various U.S. Government agencies, private industry, universities and a number of foreign countries were represented. In this meeting, papers were presented that emphasized: (1) definitions and international regulations of precise time sources and users, (2) the scientific foundations of Hydrogen Maser standards, the current developments in this field and the application experience, and (3) how to measure the stability performance properties of precise standards. As in the previous meetings, update and new papers were presented on system applications with past, present and future requirements identified.

  12. Application of GPS in a high precision engineering survey network

    SciTech Connect

    Ruland, R.; Leick, A.

    1985-04-01

    A GPS satellite survey was carried out with the Macrometer to support construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The network consists of 16 stations of which 9 stations were part of the Macrometer network. The horizontal and vertical accuracy of the GPS survey is estimated to be 1 to 2 mm and 2 to 3 mm respectively. The horizontal accuracy of the terrestrial survey, consisting of angles and distances, equals that of the GPS survey only in the ''loop'' portion of the network. All stations are part of a precise level network. The ellipsoidal heights obtained from the GPS survey and the orthometric heights of the level network are used to compute geoid undulations. A geoid profile along the linac was computed by the National Geodetic Survey in 1963. This profile agreed with the observed geoid within the standard deviation of the GPS survey. Angles and distances were adjusted together (TERRA), and all terrestrial observations were combined with the GPS vector observations in a combination adjustment (COMB). A comparison of COMB and TERRA revealed systematic errors in the terrestrial solution. A scale factor of 1.5 ppM +- .8 ppM was estimated. This value is of the same magnitude as the over-all horizontal accuracy of both networks. 10 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Current status and future directions of precision agriculture for aerial application in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precision aerial application in the USA is less than a decade old since the development of the first variable-rate aerial application system. Many areas of the United States rely on readily available agricultural airplanes or helicopters for pest management. Variable-rate aerial application provides...

  14. Development and application of an automated precision solar radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Gang-gang; Li, Xin; Zhang, Quan; Zheng, Xiao-bing; Yan, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Automated filed vicarious calibration is becoming a growing trend for satellite remote sensor, which require a solar radiometer have to automatic measure reliable data for a long time whatever the weather conditions and transfer measurement data to the user office. An automated precision solar radiometer has been developed. It is used in measuring the solar spectral irradiance received at the Earth surface. The instrument consists of 8 parallel separate silicon-photodiode-based channels with narrow band-pass filters from the visible to near-IR regions. Each channel has a 2.0° full-angle Filed of View (FOV). The detectors and filters are temperature stabilized using a Thermal Energy Converter at 30+/-0.2°. The instrument is pointed toward the sun via an auto-tracking system that actively tracks the sun within a +/-0.1°. It collects data automatically and communicates with user terminal through BDS (China's BeiDou Navigation Satellite System) while records data as a redundant in internal memory, including working state and error. The solar radiometer is automated in the sense that it requires no supervision throughout the whole process of working. It calculates start-time and stop-time every day matched with the time of sunrise and sunset, and stop working once the precipitation. Calibrated via Langley curves and simultaneous observed with CE318, the different of Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) is within 5%. The solar radiometer had run in all kinds of harsh weather condition in Gobi in Dunhuang and obtain the AODs nearly eight months continuously. This paper presents instrument design analysis, atmospheric optical depth retrievals as well as the experiment result.

  15. Applications for precision cutting of sharpening CVD diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Fuminori; Yoshikawa, Masanori

    1995-12-31

    A thick CVD diamond has been expected to the applications for cutting tools. But it is difficult to sharpen thick CVD diamond films by means of a conventional sharpening method using diamond grinding wheel for forming a large chipping of scores of micrometers at the cutting edge. Accordingly, we have made a thermochemical polishing n apparatus capable of polishing a sharpening for cutting tool and thick CVD diamond films were processed by this apparatus. And then the cutting test by aluminum alloy was conducted and the cutting performance of thick CVD diamond films polished by thermochemical polishing method was evaluated.

  16. 3D sensing for machine guidance in meat cutting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, Wayne; Britton, Doug; Usher, Colin; Diao, Mamadou; Ruffin, Kevin

    2005-11-01

    Most cutting and deboning operations in meat processing require accurate cuts be made to obtain maximum yield and ensure food safety. This is a significant concern for purveyors of deboned product. This task is made more difficult by the variability that is present in most natural products. The specific application of interest in this paper is the production of deboned poultry breast. This is typically obtained from a cut of the broiler called a 'front half' that includes the breast and the wings. The deboning operation typically consists of a cut that starts at the shoulder joint and then continues along the scapula. Attentive humans with training do a very good job of making this cut. The breast meat is then removed by pulling on the wings. Inaccurate cuts lead to poor yield (amount of boneless meat obtained relative to the weight of the whole carcass) and increase the probability that bone fragments might end up in the product. As equipment designers seek to automate the deboning operation, the cutting task has been a significant obstacle to developing automation that maximizes yield without generating unacceptable levels of bone fragments. The current solution is to sort the bone-in product into different weight ranges and then to adjust the deboning machines to the average of these weight ranges. We propose an approach for obtaining key cut points by extrapolation from external reference points based on the anatomy of the bird. We show that this approach can be implemented using a stereo imaging system, and the accuracy in locating the cut points of interest is significantly improved. This should result in more accurate cuts and with this concomitantly improved yield while reducing the incidence of bones. We also believe the approach could be extended to the processing of other species.

  17. Multimode vibration reduction concept for machine tools and automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Drossel, Welf-Guntram; Kranz, Burkhard; Kunze, Holger

    2005-05-01

    This paper reports a numerical and experimental study on a new multi mode vibration reduction concept for struts of machine tools or shafts of automotives. The example described in detail validates this new concept for high dynamic parallel kinematic struts. The structural advantages of parallel kinematic mechanisms are undisputed. However statical and dynamical bending and torsional loads must be considered during the design process of the structure and thus effect the shape of the strut geometry. The here described new actuator concept for multi mode vibration reduction is to influence these bending and torsional loads. It uses piezopatches based on the MFC technology licensed by NASA. Initial simulation and experimental tests were done at an one side clamped aluminium beam with applicated 45°-MFC's on both sides. Simulation results show, that driving the piezos in opposite direction leads to a bending deflection of the beam, driving them in the same phase leads to a torsional deflection of the aluminium beam. Experimental measurements confirm the simulation results. The benefit we get is a decreased number of actuators for multimode vibration reduction. Likewise these actuators allow the separation or selective combination of bending and torsion. This new actuation concept is not limited on beams. Further simulations for cylindrical struts result in a design of a MFC-ring with eight segments with changing fiber orientation for separation of bending and torsion on struts and shafts. The selective controlled activation of each of the segments leads to bending in x-direction, bending in y-direction or torsion.

  18. A macro-micro robot for precise force applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Wang, Yulun

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an 8 degree-of-freedom macro-micro robot capable of performing tasks which require accurate force control. Applications such as polishing, finishing, grinding, deburring, and cleaning are a few examples of tasks which need this capability. Currently these tasks are either performed manually or with dedicated machinery because of the lack of a flexible and cost effective tool, such as a programmable force-controlled robot. The basic design and control of the macro-micro robot is described in this paper. A modular high-performance multiprocessor control system was designed to provide sufficient compute power for executing advanced control methods. An 8 degree of freedom macro-micro mechanism was constructed to enable accurate tip forces. Control algorithms based on the impedance control method were derived, coded, and load balanced for maximum execution speed on the multiprocessor system.

  19. A forestry application simulation of man-machine techniques for analyzing remotely sensed data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, J.; Russell, J.; Lube, B.

    1976-01-01

    The typical steps in the analysis of remotely sensed data for a forestry applications example are simulated. The example uses numerically-oriented pattern recognition techniques and emphasizes man-machine interaction.

  20. Fast Nonparametric Machine Learning Algorithms for High-Dimensional Massive Data and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Mapreduce : Simplified data processing on large clusters . In Symposium on Operating System Design and Implementation, 2004. 6.3.2 S. C. Deerwester, S. T...Fast Nonparametric Machine Learning Algorithms for High-dimensional Massive Data and Applications Ting Liu CMU-CS-06-124 March 2006 School of...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fast Nonparametric Machine Learning Algorithms for High-dimensional Massive Data and Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  1. Tunnel Boring Machine Technology for a Deeply Based Missile System. Volume I, Application Feasibility. Part 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    AD-A091 976 COLORADO SCHOOL OF MINES GOLDEN F/G 13/2 NNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYS-ETC(U) .UA 80 G B CLARK. L...TR-79-120, Vol. I, Pt. 1 AFWL-TR- 79-120 Vol. I ~Pt. I TUNNEL BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYSTEM Volume I of 11 lApplication... BORING MACHINE TECHNOLOGY FOR A DEEPLY BASED MISSILE SYSTEM Final Report Vol I of II: Application Feasibility 6. PERFORMINGORO. REPORTNUMM Part I of 2 7

  2. Component based modelling of piezoelectric ultrasonic actuators for machining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, A.; Salah, M.; Ahmed, N.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonically Assisted Machining (UAM) is an emerging technology that has been utilized to improve the surface finishing in machining processes such as turning, milling, and drilling. In this context, piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers are being used to vibrate the cutting tip while machining at predetermined amplitude and frequency. However, modelling and simulation of these transducers is a tedious and difficult task. This is due to the inherent nonlinearities associated with smart materials. Therefore, this paper presents a component-based model of ultrasonic transducers that mimics the nonlinear behaviour of such a system. The system is decomposed into components, a mathematical model of each component is created, and the whole system model is accomplished by aggregating the basic components' model. System parameters are identified using Finite Element technique which then has been used to simulate the system in Matlab/SIMULINK. Various operation conditions are tested and performed to demonstrate the system performance.

  3. Characteristic Analysis of Vuilleumier Cycle Machine and Its Application to Air-Conditioning Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Hiroshi

    The Vuilleumier (VM) cycle machine is realized as a regenerative and external-combustion machine in the same way as a Stirling (ST) cycle machine. In the VM cycle, heat enters the cyc1e from hot and cold temperature heat sources and is delivered to an intermediate temperature heat source by a working gas. In consequence of the theoretical cycle, output power is not produced. The VM cycle machine is made of the same elements as the ST cycle machine and also closely connected with the ST cycle machine in its working principle. By means of analysis using an isothermal model, it is found that the VM cycle machine is internally divided into a ST engine and a ST refrigerator. In addition, the calculated results by a simulation model based on a so-called 3rd-order method clarify that the VM cycle machine has different featuers from the ST cycle macine with regard to the working gas behavior, the energy flow and the performance depending on the revolution speed. Application of the VM cycle machine to a heat pump for heating and cooling takes effect on the environment and energy problems arising on a terrestrial scale. In reacent years, research and development have been making on the VM haet pumps.

  4. The 25th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Papers in the following categories are presented: recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; international and transnational applications of precise time and time interval (PTTI) technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunication; applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; application of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communications satellites.

  5. The 26th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 26th Annual PTTI Applications and Planning Meeting. Papers are in the following categories: (1) Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; (2) International and transnational applications of Precise Time and Time Interval technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; (3) Applications of Precise Time and Time Interval technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; (4) Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and (5) Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communications satellites.

  6. The evolution and practical application of machine translation system (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Isao; Sato, Masayuki

    This paper describes a development, practical applicatioin, problem of a system, evaluation of practical system, and development trend of machine translation. Most recent system contains next four problems. 1) the vagueness of a text, 2) a difference of the definition of the terminology between different language, 3) the preparing of a large-scale translation dictionary, 4) the development of a software for the logical inference. Machine translation system is already used practically in many industry fields. However, many problems are not solved. The implementation of an ideal system will be after 15 years. Also, this paper described seven evaluation items detailedly. This English abstract was made by Mu system.

  7. Programmable phase plate for tool modification in laser machining applications

    DOEpatents

    Thompson Jr., Charles A.; Kartz, Michael W.; Brase, James M.; Pennington, Deanna; Perry, Michael D.

    2004-04-06

    A system for laser machining includes a laser source for propagating a laser beam toward a target location, and a spatial light modulator having individual controllable elements capable of modifying a phase profile of the laser beam to produce a corresponding irradiance pattern on the target location. The system also includes a controller operably connected to the spatial light modulator for controlling the individual controllable elements. By controlling the individual controllable elements, the phase profile of the laser beam may be modified into a desired phase profile so as to produce a corresponding desired irradiance pattern on the target location capable of performing a machining operation on the target location.

  8. Identification of Tool Wear when Machining of Austenitic Steels and Titatium by Miniature Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilc, Jozef; Kameník, Roman; Varga, Daniel; Martinček, Juraj; Sadilek, Marek

    2016-12-01

    Application of miniature machining is currently rapidly increasing mainly in biomedical industry and machining of hard-to-machine materials. Machinability of materials with increased level of toughness depends on factors that are important in the final state of surface integrity. Because of this, it is necessary to achieve high precision (varying in microns) in miniature machining. If we want to guarantee machining high precision, it is necessary to analyse tool wear intensity in direct interaction with given machined materials. During long-term cutting process, different cutting wedge deformations occur, leading in most cases to a rapid wear and destruction of the cutting wedge. This article deal with experimental monitoring of tool wear intensity during miniature machining.

  9. Design of a high-performance slide and drive system for a small precision machining research lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.R.; Maddux, A.S.

    1984-03-01

    The development of high-accuracy machine tools, principally through interest in diamond turning, plus the availability of new cutting tool materials, offers the possibility of improving workpiece accuracy for a much larger variety of materials than that addressed by diamond tools. This paper describes the design and measured performance of a slideway and servo-drive system for a small lathe intended as a tool for research on the above subject, with emphasis on the servo-control design. The slide system provides high accuracy and stiffness over a travel of 100 mm, utilizing oil hydrostatic bearings and a capstan roller drive with integral dc motor and tachometer.

  10. Of Genes and Machines: Application of a Combination of Machine Learning Tools to Astronomy Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinis, S.; Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Waters, C.

    2016-04-01

    We apply a combination of genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) machine learning algorithms to solve two important problems faced by the astronomical community: star-galaxy separation and photometric redshift estimation of galaxies in survey catalogs. We use the GA to select the relevant features in the first step, followed by optimization of SVM parameters in the second step to obtain an optimal set of parameters to classify or regress, in the process of which we avoid overfitting. We apply our method to star-galaxy separation in Pan-STARRS1 data. We show that our method correctly classifies 98% of objects down to {i}{{P1}}=24.5, with a completeness (or true positive rate) of 99% for galaxies and 88% for stars. By combining colors with morphology, our star-galaxy separation method yields better results than the new SExtractor classifier spread_model, in particular at the faint end ({i}{{P1}}\\gt 22). We also use our method to derive photometric redshifts for galaxies in the COSMOS bright multiwavelength data set down to an error in (1+z) of σ =0.013, which compares well with estimates from spectral energy distribution fitting on the same data (σ =0.007) while making a significantly smaller number of assumptions.

  11. Design of piezo-based AVC system for machine tool applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggogeri, F.; Al-Bender, F.; Brunner, B.; Elsaid, M.; Mazzola, M.; Merlo, A.; Ricciardi, D.; de la O Rodriguez, M.; Salvi, E.

    2013-03-01

    The goal of machine tools for Ultra High Precision Machining is to guarantee high specified performances and to maintain them over life cycle time. In this paper the design of an innovative mechatronic subsystem (platform) for Active Vibration Control (AVC) of Ultra High Precision micromilling Machines is presented. The platform integrates piezoelectric stack actuators and a novel sensor concept. During the machining process (e.g. milling), the contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece surface at the tool tip point generates chattering vibrations. Any vibration is recorded on the workpiece surface, directly affecting its roughness. Consequently, uncontrolled vibrations lead to poor surface finishing, unacceptable in high precision milling. The proposed Smart Platform aims to improve the surface finishing of the workpiece exploiting a broadband AVC strategy. The paper describes the steps throughout the design phase of the platform, beginning from the actuator/sensor criteria selection taking into account both performance and durability. The novel actuation principle and mechanism and the related FE analysis are also presented. Finally, an integrated mechatronic model able to predict in closed-loop the active damping and vibration-suppression capability of the integrated system is presented and simulation results are discussed.

  12. Application of machine learning using support vector machines for crater detection from Martian digital topography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamunićcar, Goran; Lončarić, Sven

    In our previous work, in order to extend the GT-57633 catalogue [PSS, 56 (15), 1992-2008] with still uncatalogued impact-craters, the following has been done [GRS, 48 (5), in press, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2009.2037750]: (1) the crater detection algorithm (CDA) based on digital elevation model (DEM) was developed; (2) using 1/128° MOLA data, this CDA proposed 414631 crater-candidates; (3) each crater-candidate was analyzed manually; and (4) 57592 were confirmed as correct detections. The resulting GT-115225 catalog is the significant result of this effort. However, to check such a large number of crater-candidates manually was a demanding task. This was the main motivation for work on improvement of the CDA in order to provide better classification of craters as true and false detections. To achieve this, we extended the CDA with the machine learning capability, using support vector machines (SVM). In the first step, the CDA (re)calculates numerous terrain morphometric attributes from DEM. For this purpose, already existing modules of the CDA from our previous work were reused in order to be capable to prepare these attributes. In addition, new attributes were introduced such as ellipse eccentricity and tilt. For machine learning purpose, the CDA is additionally extended to provide 2-D topography-profile and 3-D shape for each crater-candidate. The latter two are a performance problem because of the large number of crater-candidates in combination with the large number of attributes. As a solution, we developed a CDA architecture wherein it is possible to combine the SVM with a radial basis function (RBF) or any other kernel (for initial set of attributes), with the SVM with linear kernel (for the cases when 2-D and 3-D data are included as well). Another challenge is that, in addition to diversity of possible crater types, there are numerous morphological differences between the smallest (mostly very circular bowl-shaped craters) and the largest (multi-ring) impact

  13. Application of Machine Learning Approaches for Protein-protein Interactions Prediction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengying; Su, Qiang; Lu, Yi; Zhao, Manman; Niu, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Proteomics endeavors to study the structures, functions and interactions of proteins. Information of the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) helps to improve our knowledge of the functions and the 3D structures of proteins. Thus determining the PPIs is essential for the study of the proteomics. In this review, in order to study the application of machine learning in predicting PPI, some machine learning approaches such as support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural networks (ANNs) and random forest (RF) were selected, and the examples of its applications in PPIs were listed. SVM and RF are two commonly used methods. Nowadays, more researchers predict PPIs by combining more than two methods. This review presents the application of machine learning approaches in predicting PPI. Many examples of success in identification and prediction in the area of PPI prediction have been discussed, and the PPIs research is still in progress. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. A novel triple-actuating mechanism of an active air mount for vibration control of precision manufacturing machines: experimental work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyung-Tae; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Choi, Seung-Bok; Moon, Seok-Jun; Song, Won-Gil

    2014-07-01

    With the goal of vibration control and isolation in a clean room, we propose a new type of air mount which consists of pneumatic, electromagnetic (EM), and magnetorheological (MR) actuators. The air mount is installed below a semiconductor manufacturing machine to reduce the adverse effects caused by unwanted vibration. The proposed mechanism integrates the forces in a parallel connection of the three actuators. The MR part is designed to operate in an air spring in which the EM part is installed. The control logic is developed with a classical method and a switching mode to avoid operational mismatch among the forces developed. Based on extended microprocessors, a portable, embedded controller is installed to execute both nonlinear logic and digital communication with the peripherals. The pneumatic forces constantly support the heavy weight of an upper structure and maintain the level of the air mount. The MR damper handles the transient response, while the EM controller reduces the resonance response, which is switched mutually with a threshold. Vibration is detected by laser displacement sensors which have submicron resolution. The impact test results of three tons load weight demonstrate practical feasibility by showing that the proposed triple-actuating mechanism can reduce the transient response as well as the resonance in the air mount, resulting in accurate motion of the semiconductor manufacturing machine.

  15. Materials processing and machine applications of bulk HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Tsuzuki, K.; Xu, Y.; Deng, Z.; Izumi, M.; Hayakawa, H.; Morita, M.; Teshima, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a refrigeration system for rotating machines associated with the enhancement of the trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) field poles. A novel cryogenic system was designed and fabricated. It is composed of a low-loss rotary joint connecting the rotor and a closed-cycle thermosiphon under a GM cryocooler using a refrigerant. Condensed neon gas was adopted as a suitable cryogen for the operation of HTS rotating machines with field poles composed of RE-Ba-Cu-O family materials, where RE is a rare-earth metal. Regarding the materials processing of the bulks HTS, thanks to the addition of magnetic particles to GdBa2Cu3O7 - d (Gd123) bulk superconductors an increase of more than 20% in the trapped magnetic flux density was achieved at liquid nitrogen temperature. Field-pole Gd123 bulks up to 46 mm in diameter were synthesized with the addition of Fe-B alloy magnetic particles and assembled into the synchronous machine rotor to be tested. Successful cooling of the magnetized rotor field poles down to 35 K and low-output-power rotating operation was achieved up to 720 rpm in the test machine with eight field-pole bulks. The present results show a substantial basis for making a prototype system of rotating machinery of applied HTS bulks.

  16. Application of TRIZ approach to machine vibration condition monitoring problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cempel, Czesław

    2013-12-01

    Up to now machine condition monitoring has not been seriously approached by TRIZ1TRIZ= Russian acronym for Inventive Problem Solving System, created by G. Altshuller ca 50 years ago. users, and the knowledge of TRIZ methodology has not been applied there intensively. However, there are some introductory papers of present author posted on Diagnostic Congress in Cracow (Cempel, in press [11]), and Diagnostyka Journal as well. But it seems to be further need to make such approach from different sides in order to see, if some new knowledge and technology will emerge. In doing this we need at first to define the ideal final result (IFR) of our innovation problem. As a next we need a set of parameters to describe the problems of system condition monitoring (CM) in terms of TRIZ language and set of inventive principles possible to apply, on the way to IFR. This means we should present the machine CM problem by means of contradiction and contradiction matrix. When specifying the problem parameters and inventive principles, one should use analogy and metaphorical thinking, which by definition is not exact but fuzzy, and leads sometimes to unexpected results and outcomes. The paper undertakes this important problem again and brings some new insight into system and machine CM problems. This may mean for example the minimal dimensionality of TRIZ engineering parameter set for the description of machine CM problems, and the set of most useful inventive principles applied to given engineering parameter and contradictions of TRIZ.

  17. Machine Learning Through Signature Trees. Applications to Human Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George M.

    A signature tree is a binary decision tree used to classify unknown patterns. An attempt was made to develop a computer program for manipulating signature trees as a general research tool for exploring machine learning and pattern recognition. The program was applied to the problem of speech recognition to test its effectiveness for a specific…

  18. The Application of Machine Learning to Student Modelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, John

    1986-01-01

    Considers possibility of developing a computer tutor around an explicit concept-learning theory derived from machine learning techniques. Some problems with using the focusing (and similar) algorithms in this role are discussed and possible solutions are developed. Design for a guided discovery learning system for tutoring concepts is proposed.…

  19. Femtosecond micro- and nano-machining of materials for microfluidic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Yelena V.; Parrish, Matthew; Li, Xiaoxuan; Davis, Lloyd M.; Hofmeister, William

    2008-08-01

    Ultrafast laser micromachining is a promising candidate for micro- and nano-fabrication technology. Due to the high precision of femtosecond ablation, laser-machined features can be added to devices prototyped by lithography. To accomplish that, parametric studies of laser interrogation of materials of interest are necessary. We present femtosecond laser ablation studies of glass, PDMS, fused silica, and diamond films. Samples were ablated by a 800 nm laser beam with pulse width of 200 fs laser and repetition rates of up to 250 kHz. Our results include single- and multi-pulse laser machining for fluidic and photonic devices. Feature size and structural dependences on ablation rates are discussed.

  20. Machine Tool Advanced Skills Technology (MAST). Common Ground: Toward a Standards-Based Training System for the U.S. Machine Tool and Metal Related Industries. Volume 15: Administrative Information, of a 15-Volume Set of Skill Standards and Curriculum Training Materials for the Precision Manufacturing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Waco.

    This volume developed by the Machine Tool Advanced Skill Technology (MAST) program contains key administrative documents and provides additional sources for machine tool and precision manufacturing information and important points of contact in the industry. The document contains the following sections: a foreword; grant award letter; timeline for…

  1. Performance characterization of precision micro robot using a machine vision system over the Internet for guaranteed positioning accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Yongjin; Chiou, Richard; Rauniar, Shreepud; Sosa, Horacio

    2005-11-01

    There is a missing link between a virtual development environment (e.g., a CAD/CAM driven offline robotic programming) and production requirements of the actual robotic workcell. Simulated robot path planning and generation of pick-and-place coordinate points will not exactly coincide with the robot performance due to lack of consideration in variations in individual robot repeatability and thermal expansion of robot linkages. This is especially important when robots are controlled and programmed remotely (e.g., through Internet or Ethernet) since remote users have no physical contact with robotic systems. Using the current technology in Internet-based manufacturing that is limited to a web camera for live image transfer has been a significant challenge for the robot task performance. Consequently, the calibration and accuracy quantification of robot critical to precision assembly have to be performed on-site and the verification of robot positioning accuracy cannot be ascertained remotely. In worst case, the remote users have to assume the robot performance envelope provided by the manufacturers, which may causes a potentially serious hazard for system crash and damage to the parts and robot arms. Currently, there is no reliable methodology for remotely calibrating the robot performance. The objective of this research is, therefore, to advance the current state-of-the-art in Internet-based control and monitoring technology, with a specific aim in the accuracy calibration of micro precision robotic system for the development of a novel methodology utilizing Ethernet-based smart image sensors and other advanced precision sensory control network.

  2. Robust Extreme Learning Machine With its Application to Indoor Positioning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxuan; Zou, Han; Zhou, Hongming; Xie, Lihua; Huang, Guang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demands of location-based services have spurred the rapid development of indoor positioning system and indoor localization system interchangeably (IPSs). However, the performance of IPSs suffers from noisy measurements. In this paper, two kinds of robust extreme learning machines (RELMs), corresponding to the close-to-mean constraint, and the small-residual constraint, have been proposed to address the issue of noisy measurements in IPSs. Based on whether the feature mapping in extreme learning machine is explicit, we respectively provide random-hidden-nodes and kernelized formulations of RELMs by second order cone programming. Furthermore, the computation of the covariance in feature space is discussed. Simulations and real-world indoor localization experiments are extensively carried out and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms can not only improve the accuracy and repeatability, but also reduce the deviation and worst case error of IPSs compared with other baseline algorithms.

  3. Spectral kurtosis for fault detection, diagnosis and prognostics of rotating machines: A review with applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxue; Xiang, Jiawei; Markert, Richard; Liang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Condition-based maintenance via vibration signal processing plays an important role to reduce unscheduled machine downtime and avoid catastrophic accidents in industrial enterprises. Many machine faults, such as local defects in rotating machines, manifest themselves in the acquired vibration signals as a series of impulsive events. The spectral kurtosis (SK) technique extends the concept of kurtosis to that of a function of frequency that indicates how the impulsiveness of a signal. This work intends to review and summarize the recent research developments on the SK theories, for instance, short-time Fourier transform-based SK, kurtogram, adaptive SK and protrugram, as well as the corresponding applications in fault detection and diagnosis of the rotating machines. The potential prospects of prognostics using SK technique are also designated. Some examples have been presented to illustrate their performances. The expectation is that further research and applications of the SK technique will flourish in the future, especially in the fields of the prognostics.

  4. Precise Countersinking Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, Eric S.; Smith, William N.

    1992-01-01

    Tool countersinks holes precisely with only portable drill; does not require costly machine tool. Replaceable pilot stub aligns axis of tool with centerline of hole. Ensures precise cut even with imprecise drill. Designed for relatively low cutting speeds.

  5. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggars, S.R.

    1991-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. The 24th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of technical papers presented at the 24th Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting held in Dec. 1992 is presented. Papers are in the following categories: recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; international and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales, and international telecommunications; applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, and platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, Loran, and synchronous communications satellites.

  7. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of technical papers, from the 23rd annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, is presented. Papers were given in the following categories: (1) developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; (2) international and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, comparison of national time scales and international communications; (3) applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; (4) applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and (5) dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, Loran, and synchronous communications satellites.

  8. 27th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 27th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, held November 29 - December 1, 1995 at San Diego, CA. Papers are in the following categories: Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards; and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; International and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; Applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Satellite Navigation System (GLONASS), MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communications satellites.

  9. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Sydnor, R.L.

    1992-07-01

    A compilation of technical papers, from the 23rd annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, is presented. Papers were given in the following categories: (1) developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; (2) international and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, comparison of national time scales and international communications; (3) applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; (4) applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and (5) dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, Loran, and synchronous communications satellites.

  10. The 24th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of technical papers presented at the 24th Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting held in Dec. 1992 is presented. Papers are in the following categories: recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based frequency standards, and in cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; international and transnational applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales, and international telecommunications; applications of PTTI technology to the telecommunications, power distribution, and platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; applications of PTTI technology to evolving military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, Loran, and synchronous communications satellites.

  11. Fabrication of continuous flow microfluidics device with 3D electrode structures for high throughput DEP applications using mechanical machining.

    PubMed

    Zeinali, Soheila; Çetin, Barbaros; Oliaei, Samad Nadimi Bavil; Karpat, Yiğit

    2015-07-01

    Microfluidics is the combination of micro/nano fabrication techniques with fluid flow at microscale to pursue powerful techniques in controlling and manipulating chemical and biological processes. Sorting and separation of bio-particles are highly considered in diagnostics and biological analyses. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has offered unique advantages for microfluidic devices. In DEP devices, asymmetric pair of planar electrodes could be employed to generate non-uniform electric fields. In DEP applications, facing 3D sidewall electrodes is considered to be one of the key solutions to increase device throughput due to the generated homogeneous electric fields along the height of microchannels. Despite the advantages, fabrication of 3D vertical electrodes requires a considerable challenge. In this study, two alternative fabrication techniques have been proposed for the fabrication of a microfluidic device with 3D sidewall electrodes. In the first method, both the mold and the electrodes are fabricated using high precision machining. In the second method, the mold with tilted sidewalls is fabricated using high precision machining and the electrodes are deposited on the sidewall using sputtering together with a shadow mask fabricated by electric discharge machining. Both fabrication processes are assessed as highly repeatable and robust. Moreover, the two methods are found to be complementary with respect to the channel height. Only the manipulation of particles with negative-DEP is demonstrated in the experiments, and the throughput values up to 105 particles / min is reached in a continuous flow. The experimental results are compared with the simulation results and the limitations on the fabrication techniques are also discussed.

  12. [Brain-machine interface (BMI) - application to neurological disorders].

    PubMed

    Yoshimine, Toshiki; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Hirata, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Brain-machine interface (BMI) is a new technology to receive input from the brain which is translated to operate a computer or other external device in real time. After significant progress during the recent 10 years, this technology is now very close to the clinical use to restore neural functions of patients with severe neurologic impairment. This technology is also a strong tool to investigate the mode of neuro-signal processing in the brain and to understand the mechanism of neural dysfunction which leads to the development of novel neurotechnology for the treatment of various sorts of neurological disorders.

  13. Application of Montague grammar to English-Japanese machine translation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, T.; Doshita, S.

    1983-01-01

    English-Japanese machine translation requires a large amount of structural transformation in both grammatical and conceptual level. In order to make the control structure clearer and more understandable, this paper proposes a model based on Montague grammar. The translation process is modelled as a data flow computation process. Formal description tools are developed and a prototype system is constructed. Various problems which arise in this modelling and their solutions are described. Results of experiments are shown and the extent to which initial goals are achieved is discussed. 14 references.

  14. Application of Two-Valued and Fuzzy Logics Teaching in Understanding the Precise and Approximate Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayekolaei, Mehraneh Delaviz; Nor, Norjoharuddeen Bin Mohd; Sohaei, Reza; Berneti, Abdul Karim Maleki; Zerafat, Romina; Saravi, Hanieh Rasouli

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to examine the application of two-valued and fuzzy logics teaching in better understanding the precise approximate concepts of chapter 4 of Sixth grade mathematics. Participants of this study were 30 Sixth grade mathematics students from an elementary school in Sari (a city in the north of Iran) in the academic year of…

  15. Precision Modeling and Bit-width Optimization of Floating-Point Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-23

    Miriam Leeser Alternative System Concepts, Inc. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering... Alternative System Concepts, Inc. Windham, NH; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Northeastern University Boston, MA 8. PERFORMING...pp. 108-120. Precision Modeling and Bitwidth Optimization of Floating-Point Applications Zhihong Zhao Miriam Leeser Alternative System Concepts

  16. Precise calibration of CCD images with a small field of view. Application to observations of Phoebe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Q.; Vienne, A.; Han, Y. B.; Li, Z. L.

    2004-09-01

    A precise astrometric calibration method is presented for a CCD image with a small field of view. Its detailed computational formulae are given, and its feasibility and accuracy are tested by the observations of both the star and Phoebe, the 9th satellite of Saturn. This new method can also be applicable to other planetary satellites, asteroids and optical counterparts of extragalactic radio sources.

  17. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare pixel sampling with plot-scale metrics for the remo...

  18. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardrip, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    Proceedings of an annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting are summarized. A transparent view of the state-of-the-art, an opportunity to express needs, a view of important future trends, and a review of relevant past accomplishments were considered for PTTI managers, systems engineers, and program planner. Specific aims were: to provide PTTI users with new and useful applications, procedures, and techniques; to allow the PTTI researcher to better assess fruitful directions for research efforts.

  19. An experimental result of estimating an application volume by machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tatsuhito; Koshino, Makoto; Kimura, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we improved the usability of smartphones by automating a user's operations. We developed an intelligent system using machine learning techniques that periodically detects a user's context on a smartphone. We selected the Android operating system because it has the largest market share and highest flexibility of its development environment. In this paper, we describe an application that automatically adjusts application volume. Adjusting the volume can be easily forgotten because users need to push the volume buttons to alter the volume depending on the given situation. Therefore, we developed an application that automatically adjusts the volume based on learned user settings. Application volume can be set differently from ringtone volume on Android devices, and these volume settings are associated with each specific application including games. Our application records a user's location, the volume setting, the foreground application name and other such attributes as learning data, thereby estimating whether the volume should be adjusted using machine learning techniques via Weka.

  20. Vision-Based People Detection System for Heavy Machine Applications.

    PubMed

    Fremont, Vincent; Bui, Manh Tuan; Boukerroui, Djamal; Letort, Pierrick

    2016-01-20

    This paper presents a vision-based people detection system for improving safety in heavy machines. We propose a perception system composed of a monocular fisheye camera and a LiDAR. Fisheye cameras have the advantage of a wide field-of-view, but the strong distortions that they create must be handled at the detection stage. Since people detection in fisheye images has not been well studied, we focus on investigating and quantifying the impact that strong radial distortions have on the appearance of people, and we propose approaches for handling this specificity, adapted from state-of-the-art people detection approaches. These adaptive approaches nevertheless have the drawback of high computational cost and complexity. Consequently, we also present a framework for harnessing the LiDAR modality in order to enhance the detection algorithm for different camera positions. A sequential LiDAR-based fusion architecture is used, which addresses directly the problem of reducing false detections and computational cost in an exclusively vision-based system. A heavy machine dataset was built, and different experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the system. The results are promising, in terms of both processing speed and performance.

  1. Geological applications of machine learning on hyperspectral remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, C. H.; Li, Yi-liang; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2015-02-01

    The CRISM imaging spectrometer orbiting Mars has been producing a vast amount of data in the visible to infrared wavelengths in the form of hyperspectral data cubes. These data, compared with those obtained from previous remote sensing techniques, yield an unprecedented level of detailed spectral resolution in additional to an ever increasing level of spatial information. A major challenge brought about by the data is the burden of processing and interpreting these datasets and extract the relevant information from it. This research aims at approaching the challenge by exploring machine learning methods especially unsupervised learning to achieve cluster density estimation and classification, and ultimately devising an efficient means leading to identification of minerals. A set of software tools have been constructed by Python to access and experiment with CRISM hyperspectral cubes selected from two specific Mars locations. A machine learning pipeline is proposed and unsupervised learning methods were implemented onto pre-processed datasets. The resulting data clusters are compared with the published ASTER spectral library and browse data products from the Planetary Data System (PDS). The result demonstrated that this approach is capable of processing the huge amount of hyperspectral data and potentially providing guidance to scientists for more detailed studies.

  2. Vision-Based People Detection System for Heavy Machine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Fremont, Vincent; Bui, Manh Tuan; Boukerroui, Djamal; Letort, Pierrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a vision-based people detection system for improving safety in heavy machines. We propose a perception system composed of a monocular fisheye camera and a LiDAR. Fisheye cameras have the advantage of a wide field-of-view, but the strong distortions that they create must be handled at the detection stage. Since people detection in fisheye images has not been well studied, we focus on investigating and quantifying the impact that strong radial distortions have on the appearance of people, and we propose approaches for handling this specificity, adapted from state-of-the-art people detection approaches. These adaptive approaches nevertheless have the drawback of high computational cost and complexity. Consequently, we also present a framework for harnessing the LiDAR modality in order to enhance the detection algorithm for different camera positions. A sequential LiDAR-based fusion architecture is used, which addresses directly the problem of reducing false detections and computational cost in an exclusively vision-based system. A heavy machine dataset was built, and different experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of the system. The results are promising, in terms of both processing speed and performance. PMID:26805838

  3. Application of Machine Learning to the Prediction of Vegetation Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Emily; Nay, John J.; Gilligan, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    This project applies machine learning techniques to remotely sensed imagery to train and validate predictive models of vegetation health in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. For both locations, we downloaded and processed eleven years of imagery from multiple MODIS datasets which were combined and transformed into two-dimensional matrices. We applied a gradient boosted machines model to the lagged dataset values to forecast future values of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). The predictive power of raw spectral data MODIS products were compared across time periods and land use categories. Our models have significantly more predictive power on held-out datasets than a baseline. Though the tool was built to increase capacity to monitor vegetation health in data scarce regions like South Asia, users may include ancillary spatiotemporal datasets relevant to their region of interest to increase predictive power and to facilitate interpretation of model results. The tool can automatically update predictions as new MODIS data is made available by NASA. The tool is particularly well-suited for decision makers interested in understanding and predicting vegetation health dynamics in countries in which environmental data is scarce and cloud cover is a significant concern.

  4. Development of Fractal Pattern Making Application using L-System for Enhanced Machine Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Alexander A. S.; Linggarjati, Jimmy; Wijaya, Yandi

    2014-03-01

    One big issue facing the industry today is an automated machine lack of flexibility for customization because it is designed by the manufacturers based on certain standards. In this research, it is developed customized application software for CNC (Computer Numerically Controlled) machines using open source platform. The application is enable us to create designs by means of fractal patterns using L-System, developed by turtle geometry interpretation and Python programming languages. The result of the application is the G-Code of fractal pattern formed by the method of L-System. In the experiment on the CNC machine, the G-Code of fractal pattern which involving the branching structure has been able to run well.

  5. Application of TPM indicators for analyzing work time of machines used in the pressure die casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Stanisław; Czajkowska, Agnieszka; Stasiak-Betlejewska, Renata; Borade, Atul B.

    2014-05-01

    The article presents the application of total productive maintenance (TPM) to analyze the working time indicators of casting machines with particular emphasis on failures and unplanned downtime to reduce the proportion of emergency operation for preventive maintenance and diagnostics. The article presents that the influence of individual factors of complex machinery maintenance (TPM) is different and depends on the machines' modernity level. In an original way, by using correlation graphs, research findings on the impact of individual TPM factors on the castings quality were presented and interpreted. The examination results conducted for machines with varying modernity degrees allowed to determine changes within the impact of individual TPM factors depending on machine parameters. These results provide a rich source of information for the improvement processes on casting quality of the foundry industry that satisfies the automotive industry demand.

  6. Application of autoregressive distributed lag model to thermal error compensation of machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Enming; Niu, Pengcheng; Fei, Yetai; Yan, Yan

    2011-12-01

    Since Thermal error in precision CNC machine tools cannot be ignored, it is essential to construct a simple and effective thermal error compensation mathematical model. In this paper, three modeling methods are introduced in detail. The first is multiple linear regression model; the second is congruence model, which combines multiple linear regression model with AR model of its residual error; and the third is autoregressive distributed lag model(ADL), which is compared and analyzed. Multiple linear regression analysis is used most commonly in thermal error compensation, since it is a simple and quick modeling method. But thermal error is nonlinear and interactive, so it is difficult to model a precise least squares model of thermal error. The congruence model and autoregressive distributed lag model belong to time series analysis method which has the advantage of establishing a precise mathematical model. The distinctions between the two models are that: the congruence model divides the parameter into two parts to estimate them respectively, but autoregressive distributed lag model estimates parameter uniformly, so congruence model is less accurate than autoregressive distributed lag model in modeling. This paper, based upon an actual example, concludes that autoregressive distributed lag model for thermal error of precision CNC machine tools is a good way to improve modeling accuracy.

  7. The 22nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Sydnor, R.L.

    1990-05-01

    Papers presented at the 22nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: Rb, Cs, and H-based frequency standards and cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MIL<550>STAR, LORAN, and synchronous communication satellites.

  8. The 22nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Papers presented at the 22nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: Rb, Cs, and H-based frequency standards and cryogenic and trapped-ion technology; satellite laser tracking networks, GLONASS timing, intercomparison of national time scales and international telecommunications; telecommunications, power distribution, platform positioning, and geophysical survey industries; military communications and navigation systems; and dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, GLONASS, MILSTAR, LORAN, and synchronous communication satellites.

  9. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  10. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakiron, Lee A. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This document is a compilation of technical papers presented at the 30th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Systems and Applications Meeting held 1-3 December 1998 at the Hyatt Regency Hotel at Reston Town Center, Reston, Virginia. Papers are in the following categories: 1) Recent developments in rubidium, cesium, and hydrogen-based atomic frequency standards, and in trapped-ion and space clock technology; 2) National and international applications of PTTI technology with emphasis on GPS and GLONASS timing, atomic time scales, and telecommunications; 3) Applications of PTTI technology to evolving military navigation and communication systems; geodesy; aviation; and pulsars; and 4) Dissemination of precise time and frequency by means of GPS, geosynchronous communication satellites, computer networks, WAAS, and LORAN.

  11. Application of Support Vector Machine to Forex Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, Joarder; Sarker, Ruhul A.

    Previous studies have demonstrated superior performance of artificial neural network (ANN) based forex forecasting models over traditional regression models. This paper applies support vector machines to build a forecasting model from the historical data using six simple technical indicators and presents a comparison with an ANN based model trained by scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) learning algorithm. The models are evaluated and compared on the basis of five commonly used performance metrics that measure closeness of prediction as well as correctness in directional change. Forecasting results of six different currencies against Australian dollar reveal superior performance of SVM model using simple linear kernel over ANN-SCG model in terms of all the evaluation metrics. The effect of SVM parameter selection on prediction performance is also investigated and analyzed.

  12. e-Learning Application for Machine Maintenance Process using Iterative Method in XYZ Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurunisa, Suaidah; Kurniawati, Amelia; Pramuditya Soesanto, Rayinda; Yunan Kurnia Septo Hediyanto, Umar

    2016-02-01

    XYZ Company is a company based on manufacturing part for airplane, one of the machine that is categorized as key facility in the company is Millac 5H6P. As a key facility, the machines should be assured to work well and in peak condition, therefore, maintenance process is needed periodically. From the data gathering, it is known that there are lack of competency from the maintenance staff to maintain different type of machine which is not assigned by the supervisor, this indicate that knowledge which possessed by maintenance staff are uneven. The purpose of this research is to create knowledge-based e-learning application as a realization from externalization process in knowledge transfer process to maintain the machine. The application feature are adjusted for maintenance purpose using e-learning framework for maintenance process, the content of the application support multimedia for learning purpose. QFD is used in this research to understand the needs from user. The application is built using moodle with iterative method for software development cycle and UML Diagram. The result from this research is e-learning application as sharing knowledge media for maintenance staff in the company. From the test, it is known that the application make maintenance staff easy to understand the competencies.

  13. Atomically precise edge chlorination of nanographenes and its application in graphene nanoribbons

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yuan-Zhi; Yang, Bo; Parvez, Khaled; Narita, Akimitsu; Osella, Silvio; Beljonne, David; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Chemical functionalization is one of the most powerful and widely used strategies to control the properties of nanomaterials, particularly in the field of graphene. However, the ill-defined structure of the present functionalized graphene inhibits atomically precise structural characterization and structure-correlated property modulation. Here we present a general edge chlorination protocol for atomically precise functionalization of nanographenes at different scales from 1.2 to 3.4 nm and its application in graphene nanoribbons. The well-defined edge chlorination is unambiguously confirmed by X-ray single-crystal analysis, which also discloses the characteristic non-planar molecular shape and detailed bond lengths of chlorinated nanographenes. Chlorinated nanographenes and graphene nanoribbons manifest enhanced solution processability associated with decreases in the optical band gap and frontier molecular orbital energy levels, exemplifying the structure-correlated property modulation by precise edge chlorination. PMID:24212200

  14. Precise calibration of a GNSS antenna array for adaptive beamforming applications.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Saeed; Sokhandan, Negin; Zaeri-Amirani, Mohammad; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2014-05-30

    The use of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) antenna arrays for applications such as interference counter-measure, attitude determination and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement is attracting significant attention. However, precise antenna array calibration remains a major challenge. This paper proposes a new method for calibrating a GNSS antenna array using live signals and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Moreover, a second method that employs the calibration results for the estimation of steering vectors is also proposed. These two methods are applied to the receiver in two modes, namely calibration and operation. In the calibration mode, a two-stage optimization for precise calibration is used; in the first stage, constant uncertainties are estimated while in the second stage, the dependency of each antenna element gain and phase patterns to the received signal direction of arrival (DOA) is considered for refined calibration. In the operation mode, a low-complexity iterative and fast-converging method is applied to estimate the satellite signal steering vectors using the calibration results. This makes the technique suitable for real-time applications employing a precisely calibrated antenna array. The proposed calibration method is applied to GPS signals to verify its applicability and assess its performance. Furthermore, the data set is used to evaluate the proposed iterative method in the receiver operation mode for two different applications, namely attitude determination and SNR enhancement.

  15. Precise Calibration of a GNSS Antenna Array for Adaptive Beamforming Applications

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Saeed; Sokhandan, Negin; Zaeri-Amirani, Mohammad; Lachapelle, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The use of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) antenna arrays for applications such as interference counter-measure, attitude determination and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement is attracting significant attention. However, precise antenna array calibration remains a major challenge. This paper proposes a new method for calibrating a GNSS antenna array using live signals and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). Moreover, a second method that employs the calibration results for the estimation of steering vectors is also proposed. These two methods are applied to the receiver in two modes, namely calibration and operation. In the calibration mode, a two-stage optimization for precise calibration is used; in the first stage, constant uncertainties are estimated while in the second stage, the dependency of each antenna element gain and phase patterns to the received signal direction of arrival (DOA) is considered for refined calibration. In the operation mode, a low-complexity iterative and fast-converging method is applied to estimate the satellite signal steering vectors using the calibration results. This makes the technique suitable for real-time applications employing a precisely calibrated antenna array. The proposed calibration method is applied to GPS signals to verify its applicability and assess its performance. Furthermore, the data set is used to evaluate the proposed iterative method in the receiver operation mode for two different applications, namely attitude determination and SNR enhancement. PMID:24887043

  16. Design Enhancement and Performance Examination of External Rotor Switched Flux Permanent Magnet Machine for Downhole Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Sulaiman, E.; Soomro, H. A.; Jusoh, L. I.; Bahrim, F. S.; Omar, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    The recent change in innovation and employments of high-temperature magnets, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) has turned out to be one of the suitable contenders for seaward boring, however, less intended for downhole because of high atmospheric temperature. Subsequently, this extensive review manages the design enhancement and performance examination of external rotor PMFSM for the downhole application. Preparatory, the essential design parameters required for machine configuration are computed numerically. At that point, the design enhancement strategy is actualized through deterministic technique. At last, preliminary and refined execution of the machine is contrasted and as a consequence, the yield torque is raised from 16.39Nm to 33.57Nm while depreciating the cogging torque and PM weight up to 1.77Nm and 0.79kg, individually. In this manner, it is inferred that purposed enhanced design of 12slot-22pole with external rotor is convenient for the downhole application.

  17. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 1: Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Potential applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and to their related ground support functions are explored. The specific tasks which will be required by future space projects are identified. ARAMIS options which are candidates for those space project tasks and the relative merits of these options are defined and evaluated. Promising applications of ARAMIS and specific areas for further research are identified. The ARAMIS options defined and researched by the study group span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  18. Brain-machine interfaces for space applications-research, technological development, and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Summerer, Leopold; Izzo, Dario; Rossini, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in brain research and brain-machine interfaces suggest these devices could play a central role in future generation computer interfaces. Successes in the use of brain machine interfaces for patients affected by motor paralysis, as well as first developments of games and gadgets based on this technology have matured the field and brought brain-machine interfaces to the brink of more general usability and eventually of opening new markets. In human space flight, astronauts are the most precious "payload" and astronaut time is extremely valuable. Astronauts operate under difficult and unusual conditions since the absence of gravity renders some of the very simple tasks tedious and cumbersome. Therefore, computer interfaces are generally designed for safety and functionality. All improvements and technical aids to enhance their functionality and efficiency, while not compromising safety or overall mass requirements, are therefore of great interest. Brain machine interfaces show some interesting properties in this respect. It is however not obvious that devices developed for functioning on-ground can be used as hands-free interfaces for astronauts. This chapter intends to highlight the research directions of brain machine interfaces with the perceived highest potential impact on future space applications, and to present an overview of the long-term plans with respect to human space flight. We conclude by suggesting research and development steps considered necessary to include brain-machine interface technology in future architectures for human space flight.

  19. Workshop on Fielded Applications of Machine Learning Held in Amherst, Massachusetts on 30 June-1 July 1993. Abstracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    engineering has led to many AI systems that are now regularly used in industry and elsewhere. The ultimate test of machine learning , the subfield of Al that...applications of machine learning suggest the time was ripe for a meeting on this topic. For this reason, Pat Langley (Siemens Corporate Research) and Yves...Kodratoff (Universite de Paris, Sud) organized an invited workshop on applications of machine learning . The goal of the gathering was to familiarize

  20. The application of machine learning to structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Worden, Keith; Manson, Graeme

    2007-02-15

    In broad terms, there are two approaches to damage identification. Model-driven methods establish a high-fidelity physical model of the structure, usually by finite element analysis, and then establish a comparison metric between the model and the measured data from the real structure. If the model is for a system or structure in normal (i.e. undamaged) condition, any departures indicate that the structure has deviated from normal condition and damage is inferred. Data-driven approaches also establish a model, but this is usually a statistical representation of the system, e.g. a probability density function of the normal condition. Departures from normality are then signalled by measured data appearing in regions of very low density. The algorithms that have been developed over the years for data-driven approaches are mainly drawn from the discipline of pattern recognition, or more broadly, machine learning. The object of this paper is to illustrate the utility of the data-driven approach to damage identification by means of a number of case studies.

  1. Physiological cognitive state assessment: applications for designing effective human-machine systems.

    PubMed

    Estepp, Justin R; Christensen, James C

    2011-01-01

    Significant growth in the field of neuroscience has occurred over the last decade such that new application areas for basic research techniques are opening up to practitioners in many other areas. Of particular interest to many is the principle of neuroergonomics, by which the traditional work in neuroscience and its related topics can be applied to non-traditional areas such as human-machine system design. While work in neuroergonomics certainly predates the use of the term in the literature (previously identified by others as applied neuroscience, operational neuroscience, etc.), there is great promise in the larger framework that is represented by the general context of the terminology. Here, we focus on the very specific concept that principles in brain-computer interfaces, neural prosthetics and the larger realm of machine learning using physiological inputs can be applied directly to the design and implementation of augmented human-machine systems. Indeed, work in this area has been ongoing for more than 25 years with very little cross-talk and collaboration between clinical and applied researchers. We propose that, given increased interest in augmented human-machine systems based on cognitive state, further progress will require research in the same vein as that being done in the aforementioned communities, and that all researchers with a vested interest in physiologically-based machine learning techniques can benefit from increased collaboration. We thereby seek to describe the current state of cognitive state assessment in human-machine systems, the problems and challenges faced, and the tightly-coupled relationship with other research areas. This supports the larger work of the Cognitive State Assessment 2011 Competition by setting the stage for the purpose of the session by showing the need to increase research in the machine learning techniques used by practitioners of augmented human-machine system design.

  2. A bright future for precision medicine: advances in fluorescent chemical probe design and their clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Megan; Yim, Joshua J.; Bogyo, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Medicine Initiative aims to use advances in basic and clinical research to develop therapeutics that selectively target and kill cancer cells. Under the same doctrine of precision medicine, there is an equally important need to visualize these diseased cells to enable diagnosis, facilitate surgical resection and monitor therapeutic response. Therefore, there is a great opportunity for chemists to develop chemically tractable probes that can image cancer in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of optical probes as well as their current and future applications in the clinical management of cancer. The progress in probe development described here suggests that optical imaging is an important and rapidly developing field of study that encourages continued collaboration between chemists, biologists and clinicians to further refine these tools for interventional surgical imaging, as well as for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26933740

  3. Melt-growth bulk superconductors and application to an axial-gap-type rotating machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Zhou, Difan; Ida, Tetsuya; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-01

    The present manuscript addresses key issues in the course of our study of materials processing of bulk high-temperature superconductors, trapped flux and its application to a prototype axial-gap-type rotating machine. The TUMSAT group has conducted a series of studies since 2003 on the growth of GdBa2Cu3O7-δ bulk material and its application in a compact low-speed high-torque rotating machine. In the stage of material growth, gaining the advantage of a large motive torque density requires large integrated flux in the motor/generators. A large grain surface might be required with sophisticated techniques for the melt-growth texture in the bulk with optimal flux pinning. In the second stage, the in situ magnetization procedure for bulk superconductors in the applied machine is a crucial part of the technology. Pulsed current excitation by using an armature copper winding has magnetized field pole bulks on the rotor. The axial-gap flux synchronous machine studied in the past decade is a condensed technology and indicates that further scientific development is required for a future compact machine to be superior to conventional ones in accordance with the cryogenic periphery and flux stabilization.

  4. Application of Satellite-Derived Wind Profiles to Joint Precision Airdrop System (JPADS) Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (BAE, 2010). A 31 schematic diagram of the AIRS instrument configuration is presented in Figure 13. Figure 14...Technology., March 2007. Hattis, Philip, Kai Angemueller, Thomas Fill, Robert Wright, Richard Benney, and David LeMoine. An In-flight Precision Airdrop...C. Holt, Timothy, J. Schmit, Robert M. Aune, Anthony J. Schreiner, Gary S. Wade and Donald G. Gray. Application of GOES-8/9 Soundings to Weather

  5. Application of support vector machines and relevance vector machines in predicting uniaxial compressive strength of volcanic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceryan, Nurcihan

    2014-12-01

    The uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) of intact rocks is an important and pertinent property for characterizing a rock mass. It is known that standard UCS tests are destructive, expensive and time-consuming task, which is particularly true for thinly bedded, highly fractured, foliated, highly porous and weak rocks. Consequently, prediction models have become an attractive alternative for engineering geologists. In the last several years, a new, alternative kernel-based technique, support vector machines (SVMs), has been popular in modeling studies. Despite superior SVM performance, this technique has certain significant, practical drawbacks. Hence, the relevance vector machines (RVMs) approach has been proposed to recast the main ideas underlying SVMs in a Bayesian context. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the applicability and capability of RVM and SVM models for predicting the UCS of volcanic rocks from NE Turkey and comparing its performance with ANN models. In these models, the porosity and P-durability index representing microstructural variables are the input parameters. The study results indicate that these methods can successfully predict the UCS for the volcanic rocks. The SVM and RVM performed better than the ANN model. When these kernel based models are considered, RVM model found successful in terms of statistical performance criterions (e.g., performance index, PI values for training and testing data are computed as 1.579 and 1.449). These values for SVM are 1.509 and 1.307. Although SVM and RVM models are powerful techniques, the RVM run time was considerably faster, and it yielded the highest accuracy.

  6. Fault Modeling of Extreme Scale Applications Using Machine Learning

    DOE PAGES

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Dam, Hubertus van; Tallent, Nathan R.; ...

    2016-05-01

    Faults are commonplace in large scale systems. These systems experience a variety of faults such as transient, permanent and intermittent. Multi-bit faults are typically not corrected by the hardware resulting in an error. Here, this paper attempts to answer an important question: Given a multi-bit fault in main memory, will it result in an application error — and hence a recovery algorithm should be invoked — or can it be safely ignored? We propose an application fault modeling methodology to answer this question. Given a fault signature (a set of attributes comprising of system and application state), we use machinemore » learning to create a model which predicts whether a multibit permanent/transient main memory fault will likely result in error. We present the design elements such as the fault injection methodology for covering important data structures, the application and system attributes which should be used for learning the model, the supervised learning algorithms (and potentially ensembles), and important metrics. Lastly, we use three applications — NWChem, LULESH and SVM — as examples for demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed fault modeling methodology.« less

  7. Florida Vocational Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining, Precision Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide has been developed to provide information that will be useful to local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committee members, regional coordinating councils, and others charged with the responsibility of offering vocational education programs in Florida. It identifies the major…

  8. Florida Vocational Program Guide for Basic Precision Machining, Precision Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide has been developed to provide information that will be useful to local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committee members, regional coordinating councils, and others charged with the responsibility of offering vocational education programs in Florida. It identifies the major…

  9. Application of Learning Machines and Combinatorial Algorithms in Water Resources Management and Hydrologic Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Abedalrazq F.; Kaheil, Yasir H.; Gill, Kashif; Mckee, Mac

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary and water resources engineering and management rely increasingly on pattern recognition techniques that have the ability to capitalize on the unrelenting accumulation of data that is made possible by modern information technology and remote sensing methods. In response to the growing information needs of modern water systems, advanced computational models and tools have been devised to identify and extract relevant information from the mass of data that is now available. This chapter presents innovative applications from computational learning science within the fields of hydrology, hydrogeology, hydroclimatology, and water management. The success of machine learning is evident from the growing number of studies involving the application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Relevance Vector Machines (RVM), and Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) to address various issues in hydrologic sciences. The applications that will be discussed within the chapter employ the abovementioned machine learning techniques for intelligent modeling of reservoir operations, temporal downscaling of precipitation, spatial downscaling of soil moisture and evapotranspiration, comparisons of various techniques for groundwater quality modeling, and forecasting of chaotic time series behavior. Combinatorial algorithms to capture the intrinsic complexities in the modeled phenomena and to overcome disparate scales are developed; for example, learning machines have been coupled with geostatistical techniques, non-homogenous hidden Markov models, wavelets, and evolutionary computing techniques. This chapter does not intend to be exhaustive; it reviews the progress that has been made over the past decade in the use of learning machines in applied hydrologic sciences and presents a summary of future needs and challenges for further advancement of these methods.

  10. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  11. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  12. Techniques and applications for binaural sound manipulation in human-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of binaural sound to speech and auditory sound cues (auditory icons) is addressed from both an applications and technical standpoint. Techniques overviewed include processing by means of filtering with head-related transfer functions. Application to advanced cockpit human interface systems is discussed, although the techniques are extendable to any human-machine interface. Research issues pertaining to three-dimensional sound displays under investigation at the Aerospace Human Factors Division at NASA Ames Research Center are described.

  13. Applications of hand-arm models in the investigation of the interaction between man and machine.

    PubMed

    Jahn, R; Hesse, M

    1986-08-01

    The mode of vibration of hand-held tools cannot be considered without knowledge of the influence of the operator's hand-arm system. Therefore some technical applications of hand-arm models were realized for drill hammers by the University of Dortmund. These applications are a software program to simulate the motion of machine components, a horizontal drilling jig, and a chucking device in a drilling rig.

  14. Application of Multi-Sensor Information Fusion Method Based on Rough Sets and Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jinxue; Wang, Guohu; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Cui, Fengkui

    In order to improve the precision and date processing speed of multi-sensor information fusion, a kind of multi-sensor data fusion process algorithm has been studied in this paper. First, based on rough set theory (RS) to attribute reduction the parameter set, we use the advantages of rough set theory in dealing with large amount of data to eliminate redundant information. Then, the data can be trained and classified by Support Vector Machine (SYM). Experimental results showed that this method can improve the speed and accuracy of multi-sensor fusion system.

  15. Achieving Small Structures in Thin NiTi Sheets for Medical Applications with Water Jet and Micro Machining: A Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frotscher, M.; Kahleyss, F.; Simon, T.; Biermann, D.; Eggeler, G.

    2011-07-01

    NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) are used for a variety of applications including medical implants and tools as well as actuators, making use of their unique properties. However, due to the hardness and strength, in combination with the high elasticity of the material, the machining of components can be challenging. The most common machining techniques used today are laser cutting and electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this study, we report on the machining of small structures into binary NiTi sheets, applying alternative processing methods being well-established for other metallic materials. Our results indicate that water jet machining and micro milling can be used to machine delicate structures, even in very thin NiTi sheets. Further work is required to optimize the cut quality and the machining speed in order to increase the cost-effectiveness and to make both methods more competitive.

  16. Two-axis Beam Steering Mirror Control system for Precision Pointing and Tracking Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ulander, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Precision pointing and tracking of laser beams is critical in numerous military and industrial applications. This is particularly true for systems requiring atmospheric beam propagation. Such systems are plagued by environmental influences which cause the optical signal to break up and wander. Example applications include laser communications, precision targeting, active imaging, chemical remote sensing, and laser vibrometry. The goal of this project is to build a beam steering system using a two-axis mirror to maintain precise pointing control. Ultimately, position control to 0.08% accuracy (40 {micro}rad) with a bandwidth of 200 Hz is desired. The work described encompasses evaluation of the instrumentation system and the subsequent design and implementation of an analog electronic controller for a two-axis mirror used to steer the beam. The controller operates over a wide temperature range, through multiple mirror resonances, and is independent of specific mirrors. The design was built and successfully fielded in a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory free-space optics experiment. All measurements and performance parameters are derived from measurements made on actual hardware that was built and field tested. In some cases, specific design details have been omitted that involve proprietary information pertaining to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory patent positions and claims. These omissions in no way impact the general validity of the work or concepts presented in this thesis.

  17. A Low-Cost, Accurate, and High-Precision Fluid Dispensing System for Microscale Application.

    PubMed

    Das, Champak; Wang, Guochun; Nguyen, Chien

    2017-04-01

    We present here the development of a low-cost, accurate, and precise fluid dispensing system. It can be used with peristaltic or any other pump to improve the flow characteristics. The dispensing system has a range of 1 to 100 µL with accuracy of ~99.5% and standard deviation at ~150 nL over the entire range. The system developed does not depend on the accuracy or precision of the driving pump; therefore, any positive displacement pump can be used to get similar accuracy and precision, which gives an opportunity to reduce the cost of the system. The dispensing system does not require periodic calibration and can also be miniaturized for microfluidic application. Although primarily designed for aqueous liquid, it can be extended for different nonconductive liquids as well with modifications. The unit is further used for near real-time measurement of lactate from microdialysate. The individual components can easily be made disposable or sterilized for use in biomedical applications.

  18. Light-driven artificial molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yue Bing; Hao, Qingzhen; Yang, Ying-Wei; Kiraly, Brian; Chiang, I.-Kao; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-08-01

    Artificial molecular machines represent a growing field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Stimulated by chemical reagents, electricity, or light, artificial molecular machines exhibit precisely controlled motion at the molecular level; with this ability molecular machines have the potential to make significant impacts in numerous engineering applications. Compared with molecular machines powered by chemical or electrical energy, light-driven molecular machines have several advantages: light can be switched much faster, work without producing chemical waste, and be used for dual purposes-inducing (writing) as well as detecting (reading) molecular motions. The following issues are significant for light-driven artificial molecular machines in the following aspects: their chemical structures, motion mechanisms, assembly and characterization on solid-state surfaces. Applications in different fields of nanotechnology such as molecular electronics, nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS), nanophotonics, and nanomedicine are envisaged.

  19. Application of Machine Learning to Proteomics Data: Classification and Biomarker Identification in Postgenomics Biology

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Anna Louise; Mobasheri, Ali; Allaway, David; Liddell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for the characterization of biological samples and is increasingly used in omics studies because of its targeted, nontargeted, and high throughput abilities. However, due to the large datasets generated, it requires informatics approaches such as machine learning techniques to analyze and interpret relevant data. Machine learning can be applied to MS-derived proteomics data in two ways. First, directly to mass spectral peaks and second, to proteins identified by sequence database searching, although relative protein quantification is required for the latter. Machine learning has been applied to mass spectrometry data from different biological disciplines, particularly for various cancers. The aims of such investigations have been to identify biomarkers and to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of specific diseases. This review describes how machine learning has been applied to proteomics tandem mass spectrometry data. This includes how it can be used to identify proteins suitable for use as biomarkers of disease and for classification of samples into disease or treatment groups, which may be applicable for diagnostics. It also includes the challenges faced by such investigations, such as prediction of proteins present, protein quantification, planning for the use of machine learning, and small sample sizes. PMID:24116388

  20. Application of machine learning to proteomics data: classification and biomarker identification in postgenomics biology.

    PubMed

    Swan, Anna Louise; Mobasheri, Ali; Allaway, David; Liddell, Susan; Bacardit, Jaume

    2013-12-01

    Mass spectrometry is an analytical technique for the characterization of biological samples and is increasingly used in omics studies because of its targeted, nontargeted, and high throughput abilities. However, due to the large datasets generated, it requires informatics approaches such as machine learning techniques to analyze and interpret relevant data. Machine learning can be applied to MS-derived proteomics data in two ways. First, directly to mass spectral peaks and second, to proteins identified by sequence database searching, although relative protein quantification is required for the latter. Machine learning has been applied to mass spectrometry data from different biological disciplines, particularly for various cancers. The aims of such investigations have been to identify biomarkers and to aid in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of specific diseases. This review describes how machine learning has been applied to proteomics tandem mass spectrometry data. This includes how it can be used to identify proteins suitable for use as biomarkers of disease and for classification of samples into disease or treatment groups, which may be applicable for diagnostics. It also includes the challenges faced by such investigations, such as prediction of proteins present, protein quantification, planning for the use of machine learning, and small sample sizes.

  1. Precision machining of steel decahedrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, W. J.; Sealy, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Production of highly accurate decahedron prisms from hardened stainless steel is discussed. Prism is used to check angular alignment of mounting pads of strapdown inertial guidance system. Accuracies obtainable using recommended process and details of operation are described. Photographic illustration of production device is included.

  2. Sliding mode control of magnetic suspensions for precision pointing and tracking applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misovec, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Johnson, Bruce G.; Hedrick, J. Karl

    1991-01-01

    A recently developed nonlinear control method, sliding mode control, is examined as a means of advancing the achievable performance of space-based precision pointing and tracking systems that use nonlinear magnetic actuators. Analytic results indicate that sliding mode control improves performance compared to linear control approaches. In order to realize these performance improvements, precise knowledge of the plant is required. Additionally, the interaction of an estimating scheme and the sliding mode controller has not been fully examined in the literature. Estimation schemes were designed for use with this sliding mode controller that do not seriously degrade system performance. The authors designed and built a laboratory testbed to determine the feasibility of utilizing sliding mode control in these types of applications. Using this testbed, experimental verification of the authors' analyses is ongoing.

  3. Method to improve precision of rotating inertia and friction measurements in turbomachinery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povey, Thomas; Paniagua, Guillermo

    2012-07-01

    This short communication presents a method to determine the rotating inertia with superior measurement precision. The performance of free wheel devices requires an accurate evaluation of both friction and rotating inertia. The present methodology consists on spinning the rotor with a mass attached, then separating the mass from the rotor and allowing the rotor to spin down. The technique allows precise measurements without disassembling the rotor housing. The new approach models frictional torque as a linear function in speed, using optimization data reduction techniques to fit the experimental data to a multidimensional system of non-linear equations. Theoretical and experimental results are used to demonstrate the applicability of the technique with high accuracy.

  4. Accuracy and precision of smartphone applications and commercially available motion sensors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Balto, Julia M; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique L; Motl, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the application of smartphone applications and wearable motion sensors among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study examined the accuracy and precision of common smartphone applications and motion sensors for measuring steps taken by MS patients while walking on a treadmill. Forty-five MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) = 1.0-5.0) underwent two 500-step walking trials at comfortable walking speed on a treadmill. Participants wore five motion sensors: the Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometer (Yamax), the UP2 and UP Move (Jawbone), and the Flex and One (Fitbit). The smartphone applications were Health (Apple), Health Mate (Withings), and Moves (ProtoGeo Oy). The Fitbit One had the best absolute (mean = 490.6 steps, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 485.6-495.5 steps) and relative accuracy (1.9% error), and absolute (SD = 16.4) and relative precision (coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.0), for the first 500-step walking trial; this was repeated with the second trial. Relative accuracy was correlated with slower walking speed for the first (rs = -.53) and second (rs = -.53) trials. The results suggest that the waist-worn Fitbit One is the most precise and accurate sensor for measuring steps when walking on a treadmill, but future research is needed (testing the device across a broader range of disability, at different speeds, and in real-life walking conditions) before inclusion in clinical research and practice with MS patients.

  5. Accuracy and precision of smartphone applications and commercially available motion sensors in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balto, Julia M; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique L

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increased interest in the application of smartphone applications and wearable motion sensors among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Objective This study examined the accuracy and precision of common smartphone applications and motion sensors for measuring steps taken by MS patients while walking on a treadmill. Methods Forty-five MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) = 1.0–5.0) underwent two 500-step walking trials at comfortable walking speed on a treadmill. Participants wore five motion sensors: the Digi-Walker SW-200 pedometer (Yamax), the UP2 and UP Move (Jawbone), and the Flex and One (Fitbit). The smartphone applications were Health (Apple), Health Mate (Withings), and Moves (ProtoGeo Oy). Results The Fitbit One had the best absolute (mean = 490.6 steps, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 485.6–495.5 steps) and relative accuracy (1.9% error), and absolute (SD = 16.4) and relative precision (coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.0), for the first 500-step walking trial; this was repeated with the second trial. Relative accuracy was correlated with slower walking speed for the first (rs = −.53) and second (rs = −.53) trials. Conclusion The results suggest that the waist-worn Fitbit One is the most precise and accurate sensor for measuring steps when walking on a treadmill, but future research is needed (testing the device across a broader range of disability, at different speeds, and in real-life walking conditions) before inclusion in clinical research and practice with MS patients. PMID:28607720

  6. Application of the SNoW machine learning paradigm to a set of transportation imaging problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Peter; Burry, Aaron M.; Wang, Yuheng; Kozitsky, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Machine learning methods have been successfully applied to image object classification problems where there is clear distinction between classes and where a comprehensive set of training samples and ground truth are readily available. The transportation domain is an area where machine learning methods are particularly applicable, since the classification problems typically have well defined class boundaries and, due to high traffic volumes in most applications, massive roadway data is available. Though these classes tend to be well defined, the particular image noises and variations can be challenging. Another challenge is the extremely high accuracy typically required in most traffic applications. Incorrect assignment of fines or tolls due to imaging mistakes is not acceptable in most applications. For the front seat vehicle occupancy detection problem, classification amounts to determining whether one face (driver only) or two faces (driver + passenger) are detected in the front seat of a vehicle on a roadway. For automatic license plate recognition, the classification problem is a type of optical character recognition problem encompassing multiple class classification. The SNoW machine learning classifier using local SMQT features is shown to be successful in these two transportation imaging applications.

  7. Semi-supervised least squares support vector machine algorithm: application to offshore oil reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wei-Ping; Li, Hong-Qi; Shi, Ning

    2016-06-01

    At the early stages of deep-water oil exploration and development, fewer and further apart wells are drilled than in onshore oilfields. Supervised least squares support vector machine algorithms are used to predict the reservoir parameters but the prediction accuracy is low. We combined the least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm with semi-supervised learning and established a semi-supervised regression model, which we call the semi-supervised least squares support vector machine (SLSSVM) model. The iterative matrix inversion is also introduced to improve the training ability and training time of the model. We use the UCI data to test the generalization of a semi-supervised and a supervised LSSVM models. The test results suggest that the generalization performance of the LSSVM model greatly improves and with decreasing training samples the generalization performance is better. Moreover, for small-sample models, the SLSSVM method has higher precision than the semi-supervised K-nearest neighbor (SKNN) method. The new semisupervised LSSVM algorithm was used to predict the distribution of porosity and sandstone in the Jingzhou study area.

  8. Developing a New Wireless Sensor Network Platform and Its Application in Precision Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Aquino-Santos, Raúl; González-Potes, Apolinar; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Virgen-Ortiz, Raúl Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are gaining greater attention from the research community and industrial professionals because these small pieces of “smart dust” offer great advantages due to their small size, low power consumption, easy integration and support for “green” applications. Green applications are considered a hot topic in intelligent environments, ubiquitous and pervasive computing. This work evaluates a new wireless sensor network platform and its application in precision agriculture, including its embedded operating system and its routing algorithm. To validate the technological platform and the embedded operating system, two different routing strategies were compared: hierarchical and flat. Both of these routing algorithms were tested in a small-scale network applied to a watermelon field. However, we strongly believe that this technological platform can be also applied to precision agriculture because it incorporates a modified version of LORA-CBF, a wireless location-based routing algorithm that uses cluster-based flooding. Cluster-based flooding addresses the scalability concerns of wireless sensor networks, while the modified LORA-CBF routing algorithm includes a metric to monitor residual battery energy. Furthermore, results show that the modified version of LORA-CBF functions well with both the flat and hierarchical algorithms, although it functions better with the flat algorithm in a small-scale agricultural network. PMID:22346622

  9. Developing a new wireless sensor network platform and its application in precision agriculture.

    PubMed

    Aquino-Santos, Raúl; González-Potes, Apolinar; Edwards-Block, Arthur; Virgen-Ortiz, Raúl Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks are gaining greater attention from the research community and industrial professionals because these small pieces of "smart dust" offer great advantages due to their small size, low power consumption, easy integration and support for "green" applications. Green applications are considered a hot topic in intelligent environments, ubiquitous and pervasive computing. This work evaluates a new wireless sensor network platform and its application in precision agriculture, including its embedded operating system and its routing algorithm. To validate the technological platform and the embedded operating system, two different routing strategies were compared: hierarchical and flat. Both of these routing algorithms were tested in a small-scale network applied to a watermelon field. However, we strongly believe that this technological platform can be also applied to precision agriculture because it incorporates a modified version of LORA-CBF, a wireless location-based routing algorithm that uses cluster-based flooding. Cluster-based flooding addresses the scalability concerns of wireless sensor networks, while the modified LORA-CBF routing algorithm includes a metric to monitor residual battery energy. Furthermore, results show that the modified version of LORA-CBF functions well with both the flat and hierarchical algorithms, although it functions better with the flat algorithm in a small-scale agricultural network.

  10. Development of a Hybrid Uav Sensor Platform Suitable for Farm-Scale Applications in Precision Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pircher, M.; Geipel, J.; Kusnierek, K.; Korsaeth, A.

    2017-08-01

    Today's modern precision agriculture applications have a huge demand for data with high spatial and temporal resolution. This leads to the need of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as sensor platforms providing both, easy use and a high area coverage. This study shows the successful development of a prototype hybrid UAV for practical applications in precision agriculture. The UAV consists of an off-the-shelf fixed-wing fuselage, which has been enhanced with multi-rotor functionality. It was programmed to perform pre-defined waypoint missions completely autonomously, including vertical take-off, horizontal flight, and vertical landing. The UAV was tested for its return-to-home (RTH) accuracy, power consumption and general flight performance at different wind speeds. The RTH accuracy was 43.7 cm in average, with a root-mean-square error of 39.9 cm. The power consumption raised with an increase in wind speed. An extrapolation of the analysed power consumption to conditions without wind resulted in an estimated 40 km travel range, when we assumed a 25 % safety margin of remaining battery capacity. This translates to a maximal area coverage of 300 ha for a scenario with 18 m/s airspeed, 50 minutes flight time, 120 m AGL altitude, and a desired 70 % of image side-lap and 85 % forward-lap. The ground sample distance with an in-built RGB camera was 3.5 cm, which we consider sufficient for farm-scale mapping missions for most precision agriculture applications.

  11. Precise quantification of pulsatility is a necessity for direct comparisons of six different pediatric heart-lung machines in a neonatal CPB model.

    PubMed

    Undar, Akif; Eichstaedt, Harald C; Masai, Takafumi; Bigley, Joyce E; Kunselman, Allen R

    2005-01-01

    Generation of pulsatile flow depends on an energy gradient. Surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) is the extra hemodynamic energy generated by a pulsatile device when the adequate pulsatility is achieved. The objective of this study was to precisely quantify and compare pressure-flow waveforms in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy levels of six different pediatric heart-lung machines in a neonatal piglet model during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Thirty-nine piglets (average weight, 3 kg) were subjected to CPB with a hydraulically driven physiologic pulsatile pump (PPP; n=7), Jostra-HL 20 pulsatile roller pump (Jostra-PR; n=6), Stockert Sill pulsatile roller pump (SIII-PR; n=6), Stockert Sill mast-mounted pulsatile roller pump with a miniature roller head (Mast-PR; n=7), Stockert Sill mast-mounted nonpulsatile roller pump (Mast-NP; n=7), or Stockert CAPS nonpulsatile roller pump (CAPS-NP, n=7). Once CPB was begun, each animal underwent 20 minutes of hypothermia, 60 minutes of DHCA, 10 minutes of cold reperfusion, and 40 minutes of rewarming. The pump flow rate was maintained at 150 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 45 mm Hg. In the pulsatile experiments, the pump rate was kept at 150 bpm and the stroke volume at 1 ml/kg. The SHE (ergs/cm3) = 1,332 ([(integral fpdt) / (integral fdt)] - MAP) was calculated at each experimental stage. During normothermic CPB (15 minutes on pump), the physiologic pulsatile pump generated the highest surplus hemodynamic energy (8563 +/- 1918 ergs/cm3, p < 0.001) compared with all other pumps. The Jostra HL-20 and Stockert Sill pulsatile roller pumps also produced adequate surplus hemodynamic energy. Nonpulsatile roller pumps and the Stockert Sill mast-mounted pulsatile roller pump did not generate any extra hemodynamic energy. During hypothermic CPB and after DHCA and rewarming, the results were extremely similar to those seen during normothermic CPB. The

  12. Robustness of thermal error compensation model of CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xianli; Miao, Enming; Gong, Yayun; Niu, Pengcheng; Xu, Zhishang

    2013-01-01

    Thermal error is the major factor in restricting the accuracy of CNC machining. The modeling accuracy is the key of thermal error compensation which can achieve precision machining of CNC machine tool. The traditional thermal error compensation models mostly focus on the fitting accuracy without considering the robustness of the models, it makes the research results into practice is difficult. In this paper, the experiment of model robustness is done in different spinde speeds of leaderway V-450 machine tool. Combining fuzzy clustering and grey relevance selects temperature-sensitive points of thermal error. Using multiple linear regression model (MLR) and distributed lag model (DL) establishes model of the multi-batch experimental data and then gives robustness analysis, demonstrates the difference between fitting precision and prediction precision in engineering application, and provides a reference method to choose thermal error compensation model of CNC machine tool in the practical engineering application.

  13. Defining brain-machine interface applications by matching interface performance with device requirements.

    PubMed

    Tonet, Oliver; Marinelli, Martina; Citi, Luca; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Rossini, Luca; Megali, Giuseppe; Dario, Paolo

    2008-01-15

    Interaction with machines is mediated by human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a particular class of HMIs and have so far been studied as a communication means for people who have little or no voluntary control of muscle activity. In this context, low-performing interfaces can be considered as prosthetic applications. On the other hand, for able-bodied users, a BMI would only be practical if conceived as an augmenting interface. In this paper, a method is introduced for pointing out effective combinations of interfaces and devices for creating real-world applications. First, devices for domotics, rehabilitation and assistive robotics, and their requirements, in terms of throughput and latency, are described. Second, HMIs are classified and their performance described, still in terms of throughput and latency. Then device requirements are matched with performance of available interfaces. Simple rehabilitation and domotics devices can be easily controlled by means of BMI technology. Prosthetic hands and wheelchairs are suitable applications but do not attain optimal interactivity. Regarding humanoid robotics, the head and the trunk can be controlled by means of BMIs, while other parts require too much throughput. Robotic arms, which have been controlled by means of cortical invasive interfaces in animal studies, could be the next frontier for non-invasive BMIs. Combining smart controllers with BMIs could improve interactivity and boost BMI applications.

  14. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Yi; Chen, Xian-Xia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2016-12-20

    The arrival of precision medicine plan brings new opportunities and challenges for patients undergoing precision diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of medical imaging, information on different modality imaging can be integrated and comprehensively analyzed by imaging fusion system. This review aimed to update the application of multimodality imaging fusion technology in the precise diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors under the precision medicine plan. We introduced several multimodality imaging fusion technologies and their application to the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors in clinical practice. The data cited in this review were obtained mainly from the PubMed database from 1996 to 2016, using the keywords of "precision medicine", "fusion imaging", "multimodality", and "tumor diagnosis and treatment". Original articles, clinical practice, reviews, and other relevant literatures published in English were reviewed. Papers focusing on precision medicine, fusion imaging, multimodality, and tumor diagnosis and treatment were selected. Duplicated papers were excluded. Multimodality imaging fusion technology plays an important role in tumor diagnosis and treatment under the precision medicine plan, such as accurate location, qualitative diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment plan design, and real-time intraoperative monitoring. Multimodality imaging fusion systems could provide more imaging information of tumors from different dimensions and angles, thereby offing strong technical support for the implementation of precision oncology. Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice.

  15. Correction for Self-Heating When Using Thermometers as Heaters in Precision Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ressler, Michael E.; Cho, Hyung J.; Sukhatme, Kalyani G.

    2011-01-01

    In precision control applications, thermometers have temperature-dependent electrical resistance with germanium or other semiconductor material thermistors, diodes, metal film and wire, or carbon film resistors. Because resistance readout requires excitation current flowing through the sensor, there is always ohmic heating that leads to a temperature difference between the sensing element and the monitored object. In this work, a thermistor can be operated as a thermometer and a heater, simultaneously, by continuously measuring the excitation current and the corresponding voltage. This work involves a method of temperature readout where the temperature offset due to self-heating is subtracted exactly.

  16. Monte-Carlo Method Application for Precising Meteor Velocity from TV Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, P.

    2014-12-01

    Monte-Carlo method (method of statistical trials) as an application for meteor observations processing was developed in author's Ph.D. thesis in 2005 and first used in his works in 2008. The idea of using the method consists in that if we generate random values of input data – equatorial coordinates of the meteor head in a sequence of TV frames – in accordance with their statistical distributions we get a possibility to plot the probability density distributions for all its kinematical parameters, and to obtain their mean values and dispersions. At that the theoretical possibility appears to precise the most important parameter – geocentric velocity of a meteor – which has the highest influence onto precision of meteor heliocentric orbit elements calculation. In classical approach the velocity vector was calculated in two stages: first we calculate the vector direction as a vector multiplication of vectors of poles of meteor trajectory big circles, calculated from two observational points. Then we calculated the absolute value of velocity independently from each observational point selecting any of them from some reasons as a final parameter. In the given method we propose to obtain a statistical distribution of velocity absolute value as an intersection of two distributions corresponding to velocity values obtained from different points. We suppose that such an approach has to substantially increase the precision of meteor velocity calculation and remove any subjective inaccuracies.

  17. Development of high precision laser measurement to Space Debris and Applications in SHAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongping; Chen, Juping; Xiong, Yaoheng; Han, Xingwei

    2016-07-01

    Artificial space debris has become the focus during the space exploration because of producing the damage for the future active spacecrafts and high precision measurement for space debris are required for debris surveillance and collision avoidance. Laser ranging technology is inherently high accurate and will play an important role in precise orbit determination, accurate catalog of space debris. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) of CAS, has been developing the technology of laser measurement to space debris for several years. According to characteristics of laser echoes from space debris and the experiences of relevant activities, high repetition rate, high power laser system and low dark noise APD detector with high quantum efficiency and high transmissivity of narrow bandwidth spectral filter are applied to laser measurement to space debris in SHAO. With these configurations, great achievements of laser measurement to space debris are made with hundreds of passes of laser data from space debris in the distance between 500km and 2500km with Radar Cross Section (RCS) of more than 10 m^{2} to less than 0.5m^{2} at the measuring precision of less than 1m (RMS). For better application of laser ranging technology, Chinese Space Debris Observation network, consisting of Shanghai, Changchun and Kunming station, has been preliminary developed and the coordinated observation has been performed to increase the measuring efficiency for space debris. It is referred from data that laser ranging technology can be as the essential high accuracy measurement technology in the study of space debris.

  18. [Role and management of cancer clinical database in the application of gastric cancer precision medicine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanfang; Zhou, Zhiwei

    2016-02-01

    Precision medicine is a new medical concept and medical model, which is based on personalized medicine, rapid progress of genome sequencing technology and cross application of biological information and big data science. Precision medicine improves the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer to provide more convenience through more profound analyses of characteristics, pathogenesis and other core issues in gastric cancer. Cancer clinical database is important to promote the development of precision medicine. Therefore, it is necessary to pay close attention to the construction and management of the database. The clinical database of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center is composed of medical record database, blood specimen bank, tissue bank and medical imaging database. In order to ensure the good quality of the database, the design and management of the database should follow the strict standard operation procedure(SOP) model. Data sharing is an important way to improve medical research in the era of medical big data. The construction and management of clinical database must also be strengthened and innovated.

  19. High Precision Isotope Analyses Using Multi-Collector SIMS: Applications to Earth and Planetary Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, N. T.; Ushikubo, T.; Valley, J. W.

    2008-05-01

    The CAMECA IMS-1280 large radius, multicollector ion microprobe at the Wisc-SIMS National Facility is capable of high accuracy and precision for in situ analysis of isotope ratios. With improved hardware stability and software capability, high precision isotope analyses are routinely performed, typically 5 min per spot. We have developed analytical protocols for stable isotope analyses of oxygen, carbon, Mg, Si and Sulfur using multi-collector Faraday Cups (MCFC) and achieved precision of 0.1-0.2 ‰ (1SD) from a typically 10μm spot analyses. A number of isotopically homogeneous mineral standards have been prepared and calibrated in order to certify the accuracy of analyses in the same level. When spatial resolution is critical, spot size is reduced down to sub- μm for δ 18O to obtain better than 0.5‰ (1SD) precision by using electron multiplier (EM) on multi-collection system. Multi-collection EM analysis is also applied at 10 ppm level to Li isotope ratios in zircon with precision better than 2‰ (1SD). A few applications will be presented. (1) Oxygen three isotope analyses of chondrules in ordinary chondrites revealed both mass dependent and mass independent oxygen isotope fractionations among chondrules as well as within individual chondrules. The results give constraints on the process of chondrule formation and origin of isotope reservoirs in the early solar system. (2) High precision 26Al-26Mg (half life of 0.73 Ma) chronology is applied to zoned melilite and anorthite from Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAI) in Leoville meteorite, and a well-defined internal isochron is obtained. The results indicate the Al- Mg system was remained closed within 40ky of the crystallization of melilite and anorthite in this CAI. (3) Sub- μm spot analyses of δ18O in isotopically zoned zircon from high-grade metamorphism reveals a diffusion profile of ~6‰ over 2μm, indicating slow diffusion of oxygen in zircon. This result also implies that old Archean detrital zircons (> 4

  20. Micromechanical Machining Processes and their Application to Aerospace Structures, Devices and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedrich, Craig R.; Warrington, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Micromechanical machining processes are those micro fabrication techniques which directly remove work piece material by either a physical cutting tool or an energy process. These processes are direct and therefore they can help reduce the cost and time for prototype development of micro mechanical components and systems. This is especially true for aerospace applications where size and weight are critical, and reliability and the operating environment are an integral part of the design and development process. The micromechanical machining processes are rapidly being recognized as a complementary set of tools to traditional lithographic processes (such as LIGA) for the fabrication of micromechanical components. Worldwide efforts in the U.S., Germany, and Japan are leading to results which sometimes rival lithography at a fraction of the time and cost. Efforts to develop processes and systems specific to aerospace applications are well underway.

  1. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2: Space projects overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  2. Space applications of automation, robotics and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS). Volume 2. Space projects overview

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Minsky, M.L.; Smith, D.B.S.

    1982-08-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and their related ground support functions are studied so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The space project breakdowns, which are used to identify tasks ('functional elements'), are described. The study method concentrates on the production of a matrix relating space project tasks to pieces of ARAMIS.

  3. Manipulating Crop Density to Optimize Nitrogen and Water Use: An Application of Precision Agroecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T. T.; Huggins, D. R.; Smith, J. L.; Keller, C. K.; Kruger, C.

    2011-12-01

    Rising levels of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment coupled with increasing population positions agriculture as a major contributor for supplying food and ecosystem services to the world. The concept of Precision Agroecology (PA) explicitly recognizes the importance of time and place by combining the principles of precision farming with ecology creating a framework that can lead to improvements in Nr use efficiency. In the Palouse region of the Pacific Northwest, USA, relationships between productivity, N dynamics and cycling, water availability, and environmental impacts result from intricate spatial and temporal variations in soil, ecosystem processes, and socioeconomic factors. Our research goal is to investigate N use efficiency (NUE) in the context of factors that regulate site-specific environmental and economic conditions and to develop the concept of PA for use in sustainable agroecosystems and science-based Nr policy. Nitrogen and plant density field trials with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were conducted at the Washington State University Cook Agronomy Farm near Pullman, WA under long-term no-tillage management in 2010 and 2011. Treatments were imposed across environmentally heterogeneous field conditions to assess soil, crop and environmental interactions. Microplots with a split N application using 15N-labeled fertilizer were established in 2011 to examine the impact of N timing on uptake of fertilizer and soil N throughout the growing season for two plant density treatments. Preliminary data show that plant density manipulation combined with precision N applications regulated water and N use and resulted in greater wheat yield with less seed and N inputs. These findings indicate that improvements to NUE and agroecosystem sustainability should consider landscape-scale patterns driving productivity (e.g., spatial and temporal dynamics of water availability and N transformations) and would benefit from policy incentives that promote a PA

  4. Human facial neural activities and gesture recognition for machine-interfacing applications

    PubMed Central

    Hamedi, M; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Tan, TS; Ismail, K; Ali, J; Dee-Uam, C; Pavaganun, C; Yupapin, PP

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a new method of recognizing different human facial gestures through their neural activities and muscle movements, which can be used in machine-interfacing applications. Human–machine interface (HMI) technology utilizes human neural activities as input controllers for the machine. Recently, much work has been done on the specific application of facial electromyography (EMG)-based HMI, which have used limited and fixed numbers of facial gestures. In this work, a multipurpose interface is suggested that can support 2–11 control commands that can be applied to various HMI systems. The significance of this work is finding the most accurate facial gestures for any application with a maximum of eleven control commands. Eleven facial gesture EMGs are recorded from ten volunteers. Detected EMGs are passed through a band-pass filter and root mean square features are extracted. Various combinations of gestures with a different number of gestures in each group are made from the existing facial gestures. Finally, all combinations are trained and classified by a Fuzzy c-means classifier. In conclusion, combinations with the highest recognition accuracy in each group are chosen. An average accuracy >90% of chosen combinations proved their ability to be used as command controllers. PMID:22267930

  5. Human facial neural activities and gesture recognition for machine-interfacing applications.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, M; Salleh, Sh-Hussain; Tan, T S; Ismail, K; Ali, J; Dee-Uam, C; Pavaganun, C; Yupapin, P P

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a new method of recognizing different human facial gestures through their neural activities and muscle movements, which can be used in machine-interfacing applications. Human-machine interface (HMI) technology utilizes human neural activities as input controllers for the machine. Recently, much work has been done on the specific application of facial electromyography (EMG)-based HMI, which have used limited and fixed numbers of facial gestures. In this work, a multipurpose interface is suggested that can support 2-11 control commands that can be applied to various HMI systems. The significance of this work is finding the most accurate facial gestures for any application with a maximum of eleven control commands. Eleven facial gesture EMGs are recorded from ten volunteers. Detected EMGs are passed through a band-pass filter and root mean square features are extracted. Various combinations of gestures with a different number of gestures in each group are made from the existing facial gestures. Finally, all combinations are trained and classified by a Fuzzy c-means classifier. In conclusion, combinations with the highest recognition accuracy in each group are chosen. An average accuracy >90% of chosen combinations proved their ability to be used as command controllers.

  6. Contributions a l'etude et a l'application industrielle de la machine asynchrone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouhrouche, Mohand-Ameziane

    The work presented in this thesis, done in the Electrical Drives Laboratory of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, deals with the industrial applications of a three-phase induction machine (electrical drives and electricity generation). This thesis, characterized by its multidisciplinary content, has two major parts. The first one deals with the on-line and off-line parametric identification of the induction machine model necessary to achieve accurate vector control strategy. The second part, which is a resume of a research work sponsored by Hydro-Quebec, deals with the application of an induction machine in Asynchronous Non Utility Generators units (ANUG). As it is shown in the following, major scientific contributions are made in both two parts. In the first part of our research work, we propose a new speed sensorless vector control strategy for an induction machine, which is adaptive to the rotor resistance variations. The proposed control strategy is based on the Extended Kalman Filter approach and a decoupling controller which takes into account the rotor resistance variations. The consideration of coupled electrical and mechanical modes leads to a fifth order nonlinear model of the induction machine. The load torque is taken as a function of the rotor angular speed. The Extended Kalman Filter, based on the process's nonlinear (bilinear) model, estimate simultaneously the rotor resistance, angular speed and the flux vector from the startup to the steady state equilibrium point. The machine-converter-control system is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment and the obtained results confirm the robustness of the proposed scheme. As in the electrical drives erea, the induction machine is now widely used by small to medium power Non Utility Generator units (NUG) to produce electricity. In Quebec, these NUGs units are integrated into the Hydro-Quebec 25 kV distribution system via transformer which exhibit nonlinear characteristics. We have shown by

  7. Estimated results analysis and application of the precise point positioning based high-accuracy ionosphere delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-tai; Peng, Jun-huan

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of ionosphere delay estimated with precise point positioning is analyzed in this paper. The estimation, interpolation and application of the ionosphere delay are studied based on the processing of 24-h data from 5 observation stations. The results show that the estimated ionosphere delay is affected by the hardware delay bias from receiver so that there is a difference between the estimated and interpolated results. The results also show that the RMSs (root mean squares) are bigger, while the STDs (standard deviations) are better than 0.11 m. When the satellite difference is used, the hardware delay bias can be canceled. The interpolated satellite-differenced ionosphere delay is better than 0.11 m. Although there is a difference between the between the estimated and interpolated ionosphere delay results it cannot affect its application in single-frequency positioning and the positioning accuracy can reach cm level.

  8. Measurement of the knee flexion angle with a Smartphone-application is precise and accurate.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Jean-Yves

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that the measurement of the knee flexion angle measured with a specific Smartphone application was different from the reference measurement with a navigation system designed for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Ten consecutive patients operated on for navigation assisted TKA were selected. Six navigated and 6 Smartphone measurements of knee flexion angle were obtained for each patient. The paired difference between measurements and their correlation were analyzed. The mean paired difference between navigated and Smartphone measurements was -1.1° ± 6.8° (n.s.). There was a significant correlation between both measurements. The coherence between both measurements was good. The intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility were good. The Smartphone application used may be considered as precise and accurate. The accuracy may be higher than other conventional measurement techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated application of uniform design and least-squares support vector machines to transfection optimization.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin-Shui; Hong, Mei-Zhu; Zhou, Qi-Feng; Cai, Jia-Yan; Wang, Hua-Zhen; Luo, Lin-Kai; Yang, De-Qiang; Dong, Jing; Shi, Hua-Xiu; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2009-05-31

    Transfection in mammalian cells based on liposome presents great challenge for biological professionals. To protect themselves from exogenous insults, mammalian cells tend to manifest poor transfection efficiency. In order to gain high efficiency, we have to optimize several conditions of transfection, such as amount of liposome, amount of plasmid, and cell density at transfection. However, this process may be time-consuming and energy-consuming. Fortunately, several mathematical methods, developed in the past decades, may facilitate the resolution of this issue. This study investigates the possibility of optimizing transfection efficiency by using a method referred to as least-squares support vector machine, which requires only a few experiments and maintains fairly high accuracy. A protocol consists of 15 experiments was performed according to the principle of uniform design. In this protocol, amount of liposome, amount of plasmid, and the number of seeded cells 24 h before transfection were set as independent variables and transfection efficiency was set as dependent variable. A model was deduced from independent variables and their respective dependent variable. Another protocol made up by 10 experiments was performed to test the accuracy of the model. The model manifested a high accuracy. Compared to traditional method, the integrated application of uniform design and least-squares support vector machine greatly reduced the number of required experiments. What's more, higher transfection efficiency was achieved. The integrated application of uniform design and least-squares support vector machine is a simple technique for obtaining high transfection efficiency. Using this novel method, the number of required experiments would be greatly cut down while higher efficiency would be gained. Least-squares support vector machine may be applicable to many other problems that need to be optimized.

  10. Clustering and Candidate Motif Detection in Exosomal miRNAs by Application of Machine Learning Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Pallavi; Chaturvedi, Anoop

    2017-07-22

    The clustering pattern and motifs give immense information about any biological data. An application of machine learning algorithms for clustering and candidate motif detection in miRNAs derived from exosomes is depicted in this paper. Recent progress in the field of exosome research and more particularly regarding exosomal miRNAs has led much bioinformatic-based research to come into existence. The information on clustering pattern and candidate motifs in miRNAs of exosomal origin would help in analyzing existing, as well as newly discovered miRNAs within exosomes. Along with obtaining clustering pattern and candidate motifs in exosomal miRNAs, this work also elaborates the usefulness of the machine learning algorithms that can be efficiently used and executed on various programming languages/platforms. Data were clustered and sequence candidate motifs were detected successfully. The results were compared and validated with some available web tools such as 'BLASTN' and 'MEME suite'. The machine learning algorithms for aforementioned objectives were applied successfully. This work elaborated utility of machine learning algorithms and language platforms to achieve the tasks of clustering and candidate motif detection in exosomal miRNAs. With the information on mentioned objectives, deeper insight would be gained for analyses of newly discovered miRNAs in exosomes which are considered to be circulating biomarkers. In addition, the execution of machine learning algorithms on various language platforms gives more flexibility to users to try multiple iterations according to their requirements. This approach can be applied to other biological data-mining tasks as well.

  11. Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Cholerton, Brenna; Larson, Eric B.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Mata, Ignacio F.; Keene, C. Dirk; Flanagan, Margaret; Crane, Paul K.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Montine, Kathleen S.; Montine, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Three key elements to precision medicine are stratification by risk, detection of pathophysiological processes as early as possible (even before clinical presentation), and alignment of mechanism of action of intervention(s) with an individual's molecular driver(s) of disease. Used for decades in the management of some rare diseases and now gaining broad currency in cancer care, a precision medicine approach is beginning to be adapted to cognitive impairment and dementia. This review focuses on the application of precision medicine to address the clinical and biological complexity of two common neurodegenerative causes of dementia: Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. PMID:26724389

  12. Perspective on plating for precision finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1991-04-01

    This paper is intended as an overview on platings for precision finishing operations. After a brief review of the two processes (polishing and precision machining) by which a coating on a part can be converted to a precision surface, the coatings which work successfully in these applications will be discussed. Then adhesion and stress aspects of deposits will be covered. Electroless nickel, which is a particularly attractive coating for precision finishing applications, will be discussed in some detail, from its early years as the Kanigen'' process to the present. Since microstructural changes in deposits are important for precision parts, this aspect will be covered for electroless nickel, copper and silver deposits. Lastly, some words will be directed at potential future electrodeposited coatings including nickel-phosphorus alloys, and various silver alloys. 41 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  13. On the Applicability of Brain Reading for Predictive Human-Machine Interfaces in Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Kim, Su Kyoung; Straube, Sirko; Seeland, Anett; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Krell, Mario Michael; Tabie, Marc; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The ability of today's robots to autonomously support humans in their daily activities is still limited. To improve this, predictive human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can be applied to better support future interaction between human and machine. To infer upcoming context-based behavior relevant brain states of the human have to be detected. This is achieved by brain reading (BR), a passive approach for single trial EEG analysis that makes use of supervised machine learning (ML) methods. In this work we propose that BR is able to detect concrete states of the interacting human. To support this, we show that BR detects patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that can be related to event-related activity in the EEG like the P300, which are indicators of concrete states or brain processes like target recognition processes. Further, we improve the robustness and applicability of BR in application-oriented scenarios by identifying and combining most relevant training data for single trial classification and by applying classifier transfer. We show that training and testing, i.e., application of the classifier, can be carried out on different classes, if the samples of both classes miss a relevant pattern. Classifier transfer is important for the usage of BR in application scenarios, where only small amounts of training examples are available. Finally, we demonstrate a dual BR application in an experimental setup that requires similar behavior as performed during the teleoperation of a robotic arm. Here, target recognition processes and movement preparation processes are detected simultaneously. In summary, our findings contribute to the development of robust and stable predictive HMIs that enable the simultaneous support of different interaction behaviors. PMID:24358125

  14. On the applicability of brain reading for predictive human-machine interfaces in robotics.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Kim, Su Kyoung; Straube, Sirko; Seeland, Anett; Wöhrle, Hendrik; Krell, Mario Michael; Tabie, Marc; Fahle, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The ability of today's robots to autonomously support humans in their daily activities is still limited. To improve this, predictive human-machine interfaces (HMIs) can be applied to better support future interaction between human and machine. To infer upcoming context-based behavior relevant brain states of the human have to be detected. This is achieved by brain reading (BR), a passive approach for single trial EEG analysis that makes use of supervised machine learning (ML) methods. In this work we propose that BR is able to detect concrete states of the interacting human. To support this, we show that BR detects patterns in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that can be related to event-related activity in the EEG like the P300, which are indicators of concrete states or brain processes like target recognition processes. Further, we improve the robustness and applicability of BR in application-oriented scenarios by identifying and combining most relevant training data for single trial classification and by applying classifier transfer. We show that training and testing, i.e., application of the classifier, can be carried out on different classes, if the samples of both classes miss a relevant pattern. Classifier transfer is important for the usage of BR in application scenarios, where only small amounts of training examples are available. Finally, we demonstrate a dual BR application in an experimental setup that requires similar behavior as performed during the teleoperation of a robotic arm. Here, target recognition processes and movement preparation processes are detected simultaneously. In summary, our findings contribute to the development of robust and stable predictive HMIs that enable the simultaneous support of different interaction behaviors.

  15. Precision glass molding of complex shaped chalcogenide glass lenses for IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staasmeyer, Jan-Helge; Wang, Yang; Liu, Gang; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, Fritz

    2016-09-01

    The use of chalcogenide glass in the thermal infrared domain is an emerging alternative to commonly used crystalline materials such as germanium. The main advantage of chalcogenide glass is the possibility of mass production of complex shaped geometries with replicative processes such as precision glass molding. Thus costly single point diamond turning processes are shifted to mold manufacturing and do not have to be applied to every single lens produced. The usage of FEM-Simulation is mandatory for developing a molding process for complex e.g. non rotational symmetric chalcogenide glass lenses in order to predict the flow of glass. This talk will present state of the art modelling of the precision glass molding process for chalcogenide glass lenses, based on thermal- and mechanical models. Input data for modelling are a set of material properties of the specific chalcogenide glass in conjunction with properties of mold material and wear protective coatings. Specific properties for the mold-glass interaction such as stress relaxation or friction at the glassmold interface cannot be obtained from datasheets and must be determined experimentally. A qualified model is a powerful tool to optimize mold and preform designs in advance in order to achieve sufficient mold filling and compensate for glass shrinkage. Application of these models in an FEM-Simulation "case study" for molding a complex shaped non-rotational symmetric lens is shown. The outlook will examine relevant issues for modelling the precision glass molding process of chalcogenide glasses in order to realize scaled up production in terms of multi cavity- and wafer level molding.

  16. Application of support vector machine and particle swarm optimization in micro near infrared spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yuhong; Liu, Yunxiang; Shu, Minglei

    2016-10-01

    In the process of actual measurement and analysis of micro near infrared spectrometer, genetic algorithm is used to select the wavelengths and then partial least square method is used for modeling and analyzing. Because genetic algorithm has the disadvantages of slow convergence and difficult parameter setting, and partial least square method in dealing with nonlinear data is far from being satisfactory, the practical application effect of partial least square method based on genetic algorithm is severely affected negatively. The paper introduces the fundamental principles of particle swarm optimization and support vector machine, and proposes a support vector machine method based on particle swarm optimization. The method can overcome the disadvantage of partial least squares method based on genetic algorithm to a certain extent. Finally, the method is tested by an example, and the results show that the method is effective.

  17. Lifelong personal health data and application software via virtual machines in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Van Gorp, Pieter; Comuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Personal Health Records (PHRs) should remain the lifelong property of patients, who should be able to show them conveniently and securely to selected caregivers and institutions. In this paper, we present MyPHRMachines, a cloud-based PHR system taking a radically new architectural solution to health record portability. In MyPHRMachines, health-related data and the application software to view and/or analyze it are separately deployed in the PHR system. After uploading their medical data to MyPHRMachines, patients can access them again from remote virtual machines that contain the right software to visualize and analyze them without any need for conversion. Patients can share their remote virtual machine session with selected caregivers, who will need only a Web browser to access the pre-loaded fragments of their lifelong PHR. We discuss a prototype of MyPHRMachines applied to two use cases, i.e., radiology image sharing and personalized medicine.

  18. A wearable computing platform for developing cloud-based machine learning models for health monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shyamal; McGinnis, Ryan S; Silva, Ikaro; DiCristofaro, Steve; Mahadevan, Nikhil; Jortberg, Elise; Franco, Jaime; Martin, Albert; Lust, Joseph; Raj, Milan; McGrane, Bryan; DePetrillo, Paolo; Aranyosi, A J; Ceruolo, Melissa; Pindado, Jesus; Ghaffari, Roozbeh

    2016-08-01

    Wearable sensors have the potential to enable clinical-grade ambulatory health monitoring outside the clinic. Technological advances have enabled development of devices that can measure vital signs with great precision and significant progress has been made towards extracting clinically meaningful information from these devices in research studies. However, translating measurement accuracies achieved in the controlled settings such as the lab and clinic to unconstrained environments such as the home remains a challenge. In this paper, we present a novel wearable computing platform for unobtrusive collection of labeled datasets and a new paradigm for continuous development, deployment and evaluation of machine learning models to ensure robust model performance as we transition from the lab to home. Using this system, we train activity classification models across two studies and track changes in model performance as we go from constrained to unconstrained settings.

  19. Extended precision data types for the development of the original computer aided engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pescaru, A.; Oanta, E.; Axinte, T.; Dascalescu, A.-D.

    2015-11-01

    Computer aided engineering is based on models of the phenomena which are expressed as algorithms. The implementations of the algorithms are usually software applications which are processing a large volume of numerical data, regardless the size of the input data. In this way, the finite element method applications used to have an input data generator which was creating the entire volume of geometrical data, starting from the initial geometrical information and the parameters stored in the input data file. Moreover, there were several data processing stages, such as: renumbering of the nodes meant to minimize the size of the band length of the system of equations to be solved, computation of the equivalent nodal forces, computation of the element stiffness matrix, assemblation of system of equations, solving the system of equations, computation of the secondary variables. The modern software application use pre-processing and post-processing programs to easily handle the information. Beside this example, CAE applications use various stages of complex computation, being very interesting the accuracy of the final results. Along time, the development of CAE applications was a constant concern of the authors and the accuracy of the results was a very important target. The paper presents the various computing techniques which were imagined and implemented in the resulting applications: finite element method programs, finite difference element method programs, applied general numerical methods applications, data generators, graphical applications, experimental data reduction programs. In this context, the use of the extended precision data types was one of the solutions, the limitations being imposed by the size of the memory which may be allocated. To avoid the memory-related problems the data was stored in files. To minimize the execution time, part of the file was accessed using the dynamic memory allocation facilities. One of the most important consequences of the

  20. Design and control of a macro-micro robot for precise force applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yulun; Mangaser, Amante; Laby, Keith; Jordan, Steve; Wilson, Jeff

    1993-01-01

    Creating a robot which can delicately interact with its environment has been the goal of much research. Primarily two difficulties have made this goal hard to attain. The execution of control strategies which enable precise force manipulations are difficult to implement in real time because such algorithms have been too computationally complex for available controllers. Also, a robot mechanism which can quickly and precisely execute a force command is difficult to design. Actuation joints must be sufficiently stiff, frictionless, and lightweight so that desired torques can be accurately applied. This paper describes a robotic system which is capable of delicate manipulations. A modular high-performance multiprocessor control system was designed to provide sufficient compute power for executing advanced control methods. An 8 degree of freedom macro-micro mechanism was constructed to enable accurate tip forces. Control algorithms based on the impedance control method were derived, coded, and load balanced for maximum execution speed on the multiprocessor system. Delicate force tasks such as polishing, finishing, cleaning, and deburring, are the target applications of the robot.

  1. Independent Mars spacecraft precise orbit determination software development and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jianguo; Yang, Xuan; Ye, Mao; Li, Fei; Jin, Weitong; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present an independent software for Mars spacecraft precise orbit determination and gravity field recovery we call the Mars Gravity Recovery and Analysis Software (MAGREAS), which is aimed to analyze tracking data from the Chinese Mars exploration mission and similar NASA and ESA Mars-related projects. The design structure, module distribution, and functions of the software are described in this manuscript. A detailed cross validation with the mature precise orbit determination platform Geodyn-II was done. Additionally, we use MAGREAS to process the MEX orbital tracking data with two-way and three-way tracking modes separately. Measurement residuals and the difference from the reconstructed ephemeris provided by Royal Observatory of Belgium indicate that our software is reliable. In addition to describe of our software and validate with Geodyn-II, we give a simulation case close to Chinese Mars exploration mission to indicate the application of our software. We present a simulation of a four-way tracking mode between Earth tracking station, Mars orbiter, and Mars lander to validate the effectiveness of our MAGREAS-based approach for Mars orbiter determination and lander positioning. Experimental results show that our proposed tracking mode significantly improves positioning accuracy. This work will provide a reference for the design of the Chinese Mars exploration mission as well as for the processing of Chinese Mars mission orbital tracking data.

  2. Optimized spectroscopic scheme for enhanced precision CO measurements with applications to urban source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottrott, A.; Hoffnagle, J.; Farinas, A.; Rella, C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an urban pollutant generated by internal combustion engines which contributes to the formation of ground level ozone (smog). CO is also an excellent tracer for emissions from mobile combustion sources. In this work we present an optimized spectroscopic sampling scheme that enables enhanced precision CO measurements. The scheme was implemented on the Picarro G2401 Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer which measures CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O at 0.2 Hz. The optimized scheme improved the raw precision of CO measurements by 40% from 5 ppb to 3 ppb. Correlations of measured CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O from an urban tower were partitioned by wind direction and combined with a concentration footprint model for source attribution. The application of a concentration footprint for source attribution has several advantages. The upwind extent of the concentration footprint for a given sensor is much larger than the flux footprint. Measurements of mean concentration at the sensor location can be used to estimate source strength from a concentration footprint, while measurements of the vertical concentration flux are necessary to determine source strength from the flux footprint. Direct measurement of vertical concentration flux requires high frequency temporal sampling and increases the cost and complexity of the measurement system.

  3. Application of precision harmonic gear drive in focusing mechanism of space camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinjie; Yan, Changxiang

    2010-10-01

    A kind of precision harmonic gear drive in the focusing mechanism of space camera is studied, which adopt external meshing complex wave transmission mode. Wave generator is combined with an elliptic cam and a flexible bearing around it. Flexspline is a structure of single wave with the same teeth. The output shaft is supported by a single crossroller bearing. Ball screws connected the output shaft translate the rotational motion to the linear motion, and drive the focusing mirror repeated moving along the linear guide. The output rigid wheel is connected with absolute encoder to detect displacement of focusing movement. It has the characteristics of big transmission ratio, high precision, compact structure, high efficiency and smooth running etc. According to the practical application of this harmonic gear drive in the space camera, the location relationship between the displacement of focusing structure and the focal plane movement is derived, and the system error is analyzed, its accuracy is tested with the open-loop control method. Experimental results show that transmission ratio of the instrument is 1:70, repeated positional accuracy is 2μm, which meet the requirements for use.

  4. Application of the spherical harmonic gravity model in high precision inertial navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Li, Xiangyun; Zhou, Xiao

    2016-09-01

    The spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) may, in general, be considered as a suitable alternative to the normal gravity model (NGM), because it represents the Earth’s gravitational field more accurately. However, the high-resolution SHM has never been used in current inertial navigation systems (INSs) due to its extremely complex expression. In this paper, the feasibility and accuracy of a truncated SHM are discussed for application in a real-time free-INS with a precision demand better than 0.8 nm h-1. In particular, the time and space complexity are analyzed mathematically to verify the feasibility of the SHM. Also, a test on a typical navigation computer shows a storable range of cut-off degrees. To further evaluate the appropriate degree and accuracy of the truncated SHM, analyses of covariance and truncation error are proposed. Finally, a SHM of degree 12 is demonstrated to be the appropriate model for routine INSs in the precision range of 0.4-0.75 nm h-1. Flight simulations and road tests show its outstanding performance over the traditional NGM.

  5. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy for enhancing production and application of medical isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCutchan, E. A.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Smith, S. V.; Muench, L.; Nino, M.; Greene, J. P.; Carpenter, M. P.; Zhu, S.; Chillery, T.; Chowdhury, P.; Harding, R.; Lister, C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear medicine is a field which requires precise decay data for use in planning radionuclide production and in imaging and therapeutic applications. To address deficiencies in decay data, sources of medical isotopes were produced and purified at the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory where high-precision, gamma-ray measurements were performed using Gammasphere. New decay schemes for a number of PET isotopes and the impact on dose calculations will be presented. To investigate the production of next-generation theranostic or radiotherapeutic isotopes, cross section measurements with high energy protons have also been explored at BLIP. The 100-200 MeV proton energy regime is relatively unexplored for isotope production, thus offering high discovery potential but at the same time a challenging analysis due to the large number of open channels at these energies. Results of cross sections deduced from Compton-suppressed, coincidence gamma-ray spectroscopy performed at Lowell will be presented, focusing on the production of platinum isotopes by irradiating natural platinum foils with 100 to 200 MeV protons. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  6. Total AC loss study of 2G HTS coils for fully HTS machine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Yuan, Weijia; Kvitkovic, Jozef; Pamidi, Sastry

    2015-11-01

    The application of HTS coils for fully HTS machines has become a new research focus. In the stator of an electrical machine, HTS coils are subjected to a combination of an AC applied current and AC external magnetic field. There is a phase shift between the AC current and AC magnetic field. In order to understand and estimate the total AC loss of HTS coils for electrical machines, we designed and performed a calorimetric measurement for a 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our measurement indicates that the total AC loss is greatly influenced by the phase shift between the applied current and the external magnetic field when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the tape surface. When the applied current and the external magnetic field are in phase, the total AC loss is the highest. When there is a 90 degree phase difference, the total AC loss is the lowest. In order to explain this phenomenon, we employ H formulation and finite element method to model the 2G HTS racetrack coil. Our calculation agrees well with experimental measurements. Two parameters are defined to describe the modulation of the total AC loss in terms of phase difference. The calculation further reveals that the influence of phase difference varies with magnetic field direction. The greatest influence of phase difference is in the perpendicular direction. The study provides key information for large-scale 2G HTS applications, e.g. fully HTS machines and superconducting magnetic energy storage, where the total AC loss subjected to both applied currents and external magnetic fields is a critical parameter for the design.

  7. Complex extreme learning machine applications in terahertz pulsed signals feature sets.

    PubMed

    Yin, X-X; Hadjiloucas, S; Zhang, Y

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the automatic classification of very large data sets composed of terahertz pulse transient signals, highlighting their potential use in biochemical, biomedical, pharmaceutical and security applications. Two different types of THz spectra are considered in the classification process. Firstly a binary classification study of poly-A and poly-C ribonucleic acid samples is performed. This is then contrasted with a difficult multi-class classification problem of spectra from six different powder samples that although have fairly indistinguishable features in the optical spectrum, they also possess a few discernable spectral features in the terahertz part of the spectrum. Classification is performed using a complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithm that takes into account features in both the amplitude as well as the phase of the recorded spectra. Classification speed and accuracy are contrasted with that achieved using a support vector machine classifier. The study systematically compares the classifier performance achieved after adopting different Gaussian kernels when separating amplitude and phase signatures. The two signatures are presented as feature vectors for both training and testing purposes. The study confirms the utility of complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithms for classification of the very large data sets generated with current terahertz imaging spectrometers. The classifier can take into consideration heterogeneous layers within an object as would be required within a tomographic setting and is sufficiently robust to detect patterns hidden inside noisy terahertz data sets. The proposed study opens up the opportunity for the establishment of complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithms as new chemometric tools that will assist the wider proliferation of terahertz sensing technology for chemical sensing, quality control, security screening and clinic diagnosis. Furthermore, the proposed

  8. Kinematic calibration of precise 6-DOF Stewart platform-type positioning systems for radio telescope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jáuregui, Juan Carlos; Hernández, Eusebio E.; Ceccarelli, Marco; López-Cajún, Carlos; García, Alejandro

    2013-09-01

    The pose accuracy of a parallel robot is a function of the mobile platform posture. Thus, there is no a single value of the robot's accuracy. In this paper, two novel methods for estimating the accuracy of parallel robots are presented. In the first method, the pose accuracy estimation is calculated by considering the propagation of each error, i.e., error variations are considered as a function of the actuator's stroke. In the second method, it is considered that each actuator has a constant error at any stroke. Both methods can predict pose accuracy of precise robots at design stages, and/or can reduce calibration time of existing robots. An example of a six degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator is included to show the application of the proposed methods.

  9. High-precision control of LSRM based X-Y table for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Pan, J F; Cheung, Norbert C; Zou, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The design of an X-Y table applying direct-drive linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) principle is proposed in this paper. The proposed X-Y table has the characteristics of low cost, simple and stable mechanical structure. After the design procedure is introduced, an adaptive position control method based on online parameter identification and pole-placement regulation scheme is developed for the X-Y table. Experimental results prove the feasibility and its priority over a traditional PID controller with better dynamic response, static performance and robustness to disturbances. It is expected that the novel two-dimensional direct-drive system find its applications in high-precision manufacture area. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EFICAz2.5: application of a high-precision enzyme function predictor to 396 proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narendra; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Summary: High-quality enzyme function annotation is essential for understanding the biochemistry, metabolism and disease processes of organisms. Previously, we developed a multi-component high-precision enzyme function predictor, EFICAz2 (enzyme function inference by a combined approach). Here, we present an updated improved version, EFICAz2.5, that is trained on a significantly larger data set of enzyme sequences and PROSITE patterns. We also present the results of the application of EFICAz2.5 to the enzyme reannotation of 396 genomes cataloged in the ENSEMBL database. Availability: The EFICAz2.5 server and database is freely available with a use-friendly interface at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/EFICAz2.5. Contact: skolnick@gatech.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22923291

  11. EFICAz2.5: application of a high-precision enzyme function predictor to 396 proteomes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narendra; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2012-10-15

    High-quality enzyme function annotation is essential for understanding the biochemistry, metabolism and disease processes of organisms. Previously, we developed a multi-component high-precision enzyme function predictor, EFICAz(2) (enzyme function inference by a combined approach). Here, we present an updated improved version, EFICAz(2.5), that is trained on a significantly larger data set of enzyme sequences and PROSITE patterns. We also present the results of the application of EFICAz(2.5) to the enzyme reannotation of 396 genomes cataloged in the ENSEMBL database. The EFICAz(2.5) server and database is freely available with a use-friendly interface at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/EFICAz2.5.

  12. Precision neutron flux measurements and applications using the Alpha Gamma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eamon; Alpha Gamma; BL2 Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Alpha Gamma device is a totally-absorbing 10 B neutron detector designed to measure the absolute detection efficiency of a thin-film lithium neutron monitor on a monoenergetic neutron beam. The detector has been shown to measure neutron fluence with an absolute accuracy of 0.06%. This capability has been used to perform the first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n , t) 4He cross section at sub-thermal energy, improve the neutron fluence determination in a past beam neutron lifetime measurement by a factor of five, and is being used to calibrate the neutron monitors for use in the upcoming beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2 (NIST Beam Lifetime 2). The principle of the measurement method will presented and the applications will be discussed. We would like to acknowledge support of this research through the NSF-PHY-1068712 grant as well as the NIST Precision Measurement Grant program.

  13. Precision neutron flux measurements and applications using the Alpha Gamma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eamon

    2016-03-01

    The Alpha Gamma device is a totally-absorbing 10 B neutron detector designed to measure the absolute detection efficiency of a thin-film lithium neutron monitor on a monoenergetic neutron beam. The detector has been shown to measure neutron fluence with an absolute accuracy of 0.06%. This capability has been used to perform the first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n,t) 4He cross section at sub-thermal energy, improve the neutron fluence determination in a past beam neutron lifetime measurement by a factor of five, and is being used to calibrate the neutron monitors for use in the upcoming beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2 (NIST Beam Lifetime 2). The principle of the measurement method will presented and the applications will be discussed. We would like to acknowledge support of this research through the NSF-PHY-1068712 Grant as well as the NIST Precision Measurement Grant program.

  14. Machining lead wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Schamaun, R.T.

    1987-09-01

    Recently, MEC-6 machined some 4-inch-diameter lead wafers to precision tolerances. The tolerance on the wafer thickness was +-0.000080 inch. A diamond tool was used to machine the wafers on a Moore No. 3 lathe. This report discusses the methods used to machine the wafers, the fixtures used to hold the wafers, and the inspection methods and results.

  15. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Koelpin, Alexander; Lurz, Fabian; Linz, Sarah; Mann, Sebastian; Will, Christoph; Lindner, Stefan

    2016-09-22

    Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement principle nearly forgotten over the years has recently gained more and more attention in both academia and industry: the six-port interferometer. This paper reviews the basic concept, investigates promising applications in remote, as well as contact-based sensing and compares the system with state-of-the-art metrology. The significant advantages will be discussed just as the limitations of the six-port architecture. Particular attention will be paid to impairment effects and non-ideal behavior, as well as compensation and linearization concepts. It will be shown that in application fields, like remote distance sensing, precise alignment measurements, as well as interferometrically-evaluated mechanical strain analysis, the six-port architecture delivers extraordinary measurement results combined with high measurement data update rates for reasonable system costs. This makes the six-port architecture a promising candidate for industrial metrology.

  16. Six-Port Based Interferometry for Precise Radar and Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Koelpin, Alexander; Lurz, Fabian; Linz, Sarah; Mann, Sebastian; Will, Christoph; Lindner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement principle nearly forgotten over the years has recently gained more and more attention in both academia and industry: the six-port interferometer. This paper reviews the basic concept, investigates promising applications in remote, as well as contact-based sensing and compares the system with state-of-the-art metrology. The significant advantages will be discussed just as the limitations of the six-port architecture. Particular attention will be paid to impairment effects and non-ideal behavior, as well as compensation and linearization concepts. It will be shown that in application fields, like remote distance sensing, precise alignment measurements, as well as interferometrically-evaluated mechanical strain analysis, the six-port architecture delivers extraordinary measurement results combined with high measurement data update rates for reasonable system costs. This makes the six-port architecture a promising candidate for industrial metrology. PMID:27669246

  17. Applications of remote sensing to precision agriculture with dual economic and environmental benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seielstad, George; Laguette, Soizik; Seelan, Santhosh K.; Lawrence, Rick; Nielsen, Gerald A.; Clay, David; Dalsted, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    In the U.S. Northern Great Plains, growing seasons are short but extremely productive. Farms and ranches are large, so many of precision agriculture's early adopters reside in the region. Crop yield maps at season's end reveal sizable variations across fields. Farm management relying upon uniform chemical applications is ineffective and wasteful. We provided information about crop and range status in near- real-time, so that in-season decisions could be made to optimize final yields and minimize environmental degradation. We created learning communities, in which information is shared among scientists, farmers, ranchers, and data providers. The new information for agricultural producers was satellite and aerial imagery. Value-added information was derived from ETM+, AVHRR, IKONOS, and MIDOS sensors. The emphasis was on reducing the time between acquisition of data by a satellite and delivery of value-added products to farmers and ranchers. To distribute large spatial data sets in short times to rural users we relied upon satellite transmission (Direct PC). Results include: (1) management zone delineation, (2) variable-rate fertilizer applications, (3) weed detection, (4) irrigation efficiency determination, (5) detection of insect infestation, (6) specification of crop damage due to inadvertent chemical application, and (7) determination of livestock carrying capabilities on rangelands.

  18. Investigation of fault modes in permanent magnet synchronous machines for traction applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Gilsu

    Over the past few decades, electric motor drives have been more widely adopted to power the transportation sector to reduce our dependence on foreign oil and carbon emissions. Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are popular in many applications in the aerospace and automotive industries that require high power density and high efficiency. However, the presence of magnets that cannot be turned off in the event of a fault has always been an issue that hinders adoption of PMSMs in these demanding applications. This work investigates the design and analysis of PMSMs for automotive traction applications with particular emphasis on fault-mode operation caused by faults appearing at the terminals of the machine. New models and analytical techniques are introduced for evaluating the steady-state and dynamic response of PMSM drives to various fault conditions. Attention is focused on modeling the PMSM drive including nonlinear magnetic behavior under several different fault conditions, evaluating the risks of irreversible demagnetization caused by the large fault currents, as well as developing fault mitigation techniques in terms of both the fault currents and demagnetization risks. Of the major classes of machine terminal faults that can occur in PMSMs, short-circuit (SC) faults produce much more dangerous fault currents than open-circuit faults. The impact of different PMSM topologies and parameters on their responses to symmetrical and asymmetrical short-circuit (SSC & ASC) faults has been investigated. A detailed investigation on both the SSC and ASC faults is presented including both closed-form and numerical analysis. The demagnetization characteristics caused by high fault-mode stator currents (i.e., armature reaction) for different types of PMSMs are investigated. A thorough analysis and comparison of the relative demagnetization vulnerability for different types of PMSMs is presented. This analysis includes design guidelines and recommendations for

  19. Precise Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles for Electronic, Optical and Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Cihan

    Assembly of nano building blocks offers a versatile route to the creation of complex 1, 2 and 3-dimensional homogenous or hybrid nanostructures with unique properties to be used in many applications including electronics, optics, energy, and biotechnology. Bottom-up directed assembly of nanoparticles has been recently considered as one of the best approaches to manufacture such functional and novel nanostructures. However, current directed assembly techniques have not been shown to make nanostructures homogeneous or hybrid materials with nanoscale precision at a high yield. This is mainly due to the lack of fundamental understanding of the forces driving the assembly of nanoparticles into organized nanostructures on surfaces and the difficulties in precisely controlling these forces to enable the repeatable and reliable assembly of various types of organic or inorganic nanoparticles. We experimentally and numerically investigated the fundamental mechanism of the electrophoretic directed assembly for different sizes and types of nanoparticles. The results showed that unlike large (such as 500nm) Polysterene Latex (PSL) particles, the electrophoretic assembly of 50nm and smaller PSL particles is significantly influenced by the Brownian diffusion. This results in random and low yield assembly for the smaller nanoparticles. In order to overcome the Brownian diffusion-limited assembly of 50nm or smaller particles, the electrophoretic velocity of the particles must be increased. This can be accomplished by increasing the electrophoretic force, which is a function of particle surface charge and applied voltage. The surface charge of the PSL particles is greatly influenced by the pH of the solution. At high pH values (pH 10.1 or above), the nanoparticles attain higher charge, which increases the electrophoretic force. Consequently, the Brownian diffusion can also be overcome by increasing the pH of the solution. Overcoming the Brownian motion at low pH values (<10

  20. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  1. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  2. Multispectral data processing from unmanned aerial vehicles: application in precision agriculture using different sensors and platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piermattei, Livia; Bozzi, Carlo Alberto; Mancini, Adriano; Tassetti, Anna Nora; Karel, Wilfried; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in combination with consumer grade cameras have become standard tools for photogrammetric applications and surveying. The recent generation of multispectral, cost-efficient and lightweight cameras has fostered a breakthrough in the practical application of UAVs for precision agriculture. For this application, multispectral cameras typically use Green, Red, Red-Edge (RE) and Near Infrared (NIR) wavebands to capture both visible and invisible images of crops and vegetation. These bands are very effective for deriving characteristics like soil productivity, plant health and overall growth. However, the quality of results is affected by the sensor architecture, the spatial and spectral resolutions, the pattern of image collection, and the processing of the multispectral images. In particular, collecting data with multiple sensors requires an accurate spatial co-registration of the various UAV image datasets. Multispectral processed data in precision agriculture are mainly presented as orthorectified mosaics used to export information maps and vegetation indices. This work aims to investigate the acquisition parameters and processing approaches of this new type of image data in order to generate orthoimages using different sensors and UAV platforms. Within our experimental area we placed a grid of artificial targets, whose position was determined with differential global positioning system (dGPS) measurements. Targets were used as ground control points to georeference the images and as checkpoints to verify the accuracy of the georeferenced mosaics. The primary aim is to present a method for the spatial co-registration of visible, Red-Edge, and NIR image sets. To demonstrate the applicability and accuracy of our methodology, multi-sensor datasets were collected over the same area and approximately at the same time using the fixed-wing UAV senseFly "eBee". The images were acquired with the camera Canon S110 RGB, the multispectral cameras

  3. Application of Multimodality Imaging Fusion Technology in Diagnosis and Treatment of Malignant Tumors under the Precision Medicine Plan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shun-Yi; Chen, Xian-Xia; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The arrival of precision medicine plan brings new opportunities and challenges for patients undergoing precision diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors. With the development of medical imaging, information on different modality imaging can be integrated and comprehensively analyzed by imaging fusion system. This review aimed to update the application of multimodality imaging fusion technology in the precise diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors under the precision medicine plan. We introduced several multimodality imaging fusion technologies and their application to the diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumors in clinical practice. Date Sources: The data cited in this review were obtained mainly from the PubMed database from 1996 to 2016, using the keywords of “precision medicine”, “fusion imaging”, “multimodality”, and “tumor diagnosis and treatment”. Study Selection: Original articles, clinical practice, reviews, and other relevant literatures published in English were reviewed. Papers focusing on precision medicine, fusion imaging, multimodality, and tumor diagnosis and treatment were selected. Duplicated papers were excluded. Results: Multimodality imaging fusion technology plays an important role in tumor diagnosis and treatment under the precision medicine plan, such as accurate location, qualitative diagnosis, tumor staging, treatment plan design, and real-time intraoperative monitoring. Multimodality imaging fusion systems could provide more imaging information of tumors from different dimensions and angles, thereby offing strong technical support for the implementation of precision oncology. Conclusion: Under the precision medicine plan, personalized treatment of tumors is a distinct possibility. We believe that multimodality imaging fusion technology will find an increasingly wide application in clinical practice. PMID:27958232

  4. Application of neural networks and other machine learning algorithms to DNA sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lapedes, A.; Barnes, C.; Burks, C.; Farber, R.; Sirotkin, K.

    1988-01-01

    In this article we report initial, quantitative results on application of simple neutral networks, and simple machine learning methods, to two problems in DNA sequence analysis. The two problems we consider are: (1) determination of whether procaryotic and eucaryotic DNA sequences segments are translated to protein. An accuracy of 99.4% is reported for procaryotic DNA (E. coli) and 98.4% for eucaryotic DNA (H. Sapiens genes known to be expressed in liver); (2) determination of whether eucaryotic DNA sequence segments containing the dinucleotides ''AG'' or ''GT'' are transcribed to RNA splice junctions. Accuracy of 91.2% was achieved on intron/exon splice junctions (acceptor sites) and 92.8% on exon/intron splice junctions (donor sites). The solution of these two problems, by use of information processing algorithms operating on unannotated base sequences and without recourse to biological laboratory work, is relevant to the Human Genome Project. A variety of neural network, machine learning, and information theoretic algorithms are used. The accuracies obtained exceed those of previous investigations for which quantitative results are available in the literature. They result from an ongoing program of research that applies machine learning algorithms to the problem of determining biological function of DNA sequences. Some predictions of possible new genes using these methods are listed -- although a complete survey of the H. sapiens and E. coli sections of GenBank will be given elsewhere. 36 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. A review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syazwani, H.; Mebrahitom, G.; Azmir, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses a review on nozzle wear in abrasive water jet machining application. Wear of the nozzle becomes a major problem since it may affect the water jet machining performance. Design, materials, and life of the nozzle give significance effect to the nozzle wear. There are various parameters that may influence the wear rate of the nozzle such as nozzle length, nozzle inlet angle, nozzle diameter, orifice diameter, abrasive flow rate and water pressure. The wear rate of the nozzle can be minimized by controlling these parameters. The mechanism of wear in the nozzle is similar to other traditional machining processes which uses a cutting tool. The high pressure of the water and hard abrasive particles may erode the nozzle wall. A new nozzle using a tungsten carbide-based material has been developed to reduce the wear rate and improve the nozzle life. Apart from that, prevention of the nozzle wear has been achieved using porous lubricated nozzle. This paper presents a comprehensive review about the wear of abrasive water jet nozzle.

  6. [Application of least square support vector machine based on particle swarm optimization in quantitative analysis of gas mixture].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Jun-Hua

    2010-03-01

    According to the difficulty in selecting parameter of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) when modeling on the gas mixture, and the high computational complexity of the infrared spectrum data, LS-SVM optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was proposed to build an infrared spectrum quantitative analysis model with feature extracted by principal component analysis (PCA). Firstly, seven feature variables were extracted by PCA as the input of the model from 550 infrared spectrum data of the main absorption apex field, so the computational complexity was reduced. This model aimed at three components of gas mixture, in which methane, ethane and propane gases are included. The concentration of each component ranged from 0.1% to 1%, 0.1% to 1% and 0.1% to 1.5% respectively. Each component quantitative analysis model was built by LS-SVM and the parameters were optimized by PSO algorithm, then the regression model would be reconstructed according to the optimal parameters. This method replaced the traditional ergodic optimization. The experiment results show that the time of offline modeling by PSO was reduced to one fortieth of that of ergodic optimizing. The precision of the model was corresponsive. It can meet the requirement of the measure. PSO algorithm has more superior performance on global optimization and convergence speed. So it is feasible to combine PSO algorithm with LS-SVM to create the infrared spectrum quantitative analysis model. It has definite practice significance and application value.

  7. Ultrahigh-precision GPS applications using real-time kinematic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Langley, R. B.

    2003-04-01

    RTK (real-time kinematic) processing is a GPS technique pioneered by surveyors and geodesists for determining the coordinates of points with centimetre-level accuracy or better in "real-time". GPS carrier-phase measurements must be used to attain the required positioning accuracies. As improvements are made in positioning accuracies which can be achieved in real-time, RTK techniques are being embraced for an increasing number of applications so that the distinction between navigation and geodesy applications is becoming less distinct. This is evident in high-precision, real-time, scientific and civil applications such as establishing geodetic control networks, mitigating earthquake hazards, monitoring dam and bridge deformation, auto-steering gantry cranes and so on. These applications require positioning accuracies better than a few centimetres with extremely high reliability in either static or kinematic mode and in both post-processing and real-time situations. The University of New Brunswick (UNB) RTK software, initially designed for a gantry crane auto-steering system at Korea International Terminals' Kwangyang Port in South Korea, is able to provide navigation solutions in real time at an up to 25 Hz update rate commensurate with the dual-frequency data rate. The software works in conjunction with a GPS receiver and 2.4 GHz wireless LAN (WLAN) master unit at a base station and two dual-frequency GPS receivers and a WLAN adapter installed on the cranes. We have explored the capabilities of the software in new GPS applications. Recently, tests of this software for deformation monitoring have been carried out at Highland Valley Copper Mine in British Columbia, Canada. Also, tests to investigate the performance of the software under long-baseline situations including on-land and offshore environments are planned. UHF point-to-point, WLAN and LAN communications will be used for real-time testing. In this contribution, we introduce the UNB RTK approach. Technical

  8. A Novel Extreme Learning Machine Classification Model for e-Nose Application Based on the Multiple Kernel Approach.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yulin; Huang, Daoyu; Yan, Jia; Lu, Kun; Huang, Ying; Wen, Tailai; Zeng, Tanyue; Zhong, Shijie; Xie, Qilong

    2017-06-19

    A novel classification model, named the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO)-based weighted multiple kernel extreme learning machine (QWMK-ELM), is proposed in this paper. Experimental validation is carried out with two different electronic nose (e-nose) datasets. Being different from the existing multiple kernel extreme learning machine (MK-ELM) algorithms, the combination coefficients of base kernels are regarded as external parameters of single-hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs). The combination coefficients of base kernels, the model parameters of each base kernel, and the regularization parameter are optimized by QPSO simultaneously before implementing the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) with the composite kernel function. Four types of common single kernel functions (Gaussian kernel, polynomial kernel, sigmoid kernel, and wavelet kernel) are utilized to constitute different composite kernel functions. Moreover, the method is also compared with other existing classification methods: extreme learning machine (ELM), kernel extreme learning machine (KELM), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), multi-layer perceptron (MLP), radical basis function neural network (RBFNN), and probabilistic neural network (PNN). The results have demonstrated that the proposed QWMK-ELM outperforms the aforementioned methods, not only in precision, but also in efficiency for gas classification.

  9. A Novel Extreme Learning Machine Classification Model for e-Nose Application Based on the Multiple Kernel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yulin; Huang, Daoyu; Yan, Jia; Lu, Kun; Huang, Ying; Wen, Tailai; Zeng, Tanyue; Zhong, Shijie; Xie, Qilong

    2017-01-01

    A novel classification model, named the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO)-based weighted multiple kernel extreme learning machine (QWMK-ELM), is proposed in this paper. Experimental validation is carried out with two different electronic nose (e-nose) datasets. Being different from the existing multiple kernel extreme learning machine (MK-ELM) algorithms, the combination coefficients of base kernels are regarded as external parameters of single-hidden layer feedforward neural networks (SLFNs). The combination coefficients of base kernels, the model parameters of each base kernel, and the regularization parameter are optimized by QPSO simultaneously before implementing the kernel extreme learning machine (KELM) with the composite kernel function. Four types of common single kernel functions (Gaussian kernel, polynomial kernel, sigmoid kernel, and wavelet kernel) are utilized to constitute different composite kernel functions. Moreover, the method is also compared with other existing classification methods: extreme learning machine (ELM), kernel extreme learning machine (KELM), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), multi-layer perceptron (MLP), radical basis function neural network (RBFNN), and probabilistic neural network (PNN). The results have demonstrated that the proposed QWMK-ELM outperforms the aforementioned methods, not only in precision, but also in efficiency for gas classification. PMID:28629202

  10. Application of artificial neural network with extreme learning machine for economic growth estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milačić, Ljubiša; Jović, Srđan; Vujović, Tanja; Miljković, Jovica

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop and apply the artificial neural network (ANN) with extreme learning machine (ELM) to forecast gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate. The economic growth forecasting was analyzed based on agriculture, manufacturing, industry and services value added in GDP. The results were compared with ANN with back propagation (BP) learning approach since BP could be considered as conventional learning methodology. The reliability of the computational models was accessed based on simulation results and using several statistical indicators. Based on results, it was shown that ANN with ELM learning methodology can be applied effectively in applications of GDP forecasting.

  11. Contributions to the study of ultrasonic machining. [characteristics of ultrasonic sound generators for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savii, G.; Iclanzan, T.

    1974-01-01

    Problems in the industrial application of ultrasounds are discussed. Starting from the industrial characteristics of ultrasonic working, especially of hard and fragile materials that are difficult to work by means of conventional methods, the characteristics of the feed system, the circulation system of the abrasive suspension, and the ultra-acoustic unit of machines for ultrasonic working are described. Experiments on the behavior of different types of ultra-acoustic unit design and on the optimal operating conditions connected with the manner of execution, fixation, and excitation conditions are analyzed.

  12. Application of neural adaptive power system stabilizer in a multi-machine power system

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsollahi, P.; Malik, O.P.

    1999-09-01

    Application of a neural adaptive power system stabilizer (NAPSS) to a five-machine power system is described in this paper. The proposed NAPSS comprises two subnetworks. The adaptive neuro-identifier (ANI) to dynamically identify the non-linear plant, and the adaptive neuro-controller (ANC) to damp output oscillations. The back-propagation training method is used on-line to train these subnetworks. The effectiveness of the proposed NAPSS in damping both local and inter-area modes of oscillations and its self-coordination ability are demonstrated.

  13. Contributions to the study of ultrasonic machining. [characteristics of ultrasonic sound generators for industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savii, G.; Iclanzan, T.

    1974-01-01

    Problems in the industrial application of ultrasounds are discussed. Starting from the industrial characteristics of ultrasonic working, especially of hard and fragile materials that are difficult to work by means of conventional methods, the characteristics of the feed system, the circulation system of the abrasive suspension, and the ultra-acoustic unit of machines for ultrasonic working are described. Experiments on the behavior of different types of ultra-acoustic unit design and on the optimal operating conditions connected with the manner of execution, fixation, and excitation conditions are analyzed.

  14. Application of machine learning techniques to analyse the effects of physical exercise in ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Juan; Soria-Olivas, Emilio; Bataller, Manuel; Serrano, Antonio J; Such-Miquel, Luis; Vila-Francés, Joan; Guerrero, Juan F

    2014-02-01

    This work presents the application of machine learning techniques to analyse the influence of physical exercise in the physiological properties of the heart, during ventricular fibrillation. To this end, different kinds of classifiers (linear and neural models) are used to classify between trained and sedentary rabbit hearts. The use of those classifiers in combination with a wrapper feature selection algorithm allows to extract knowledge about the most relevant features in the problem. The obtained results show that neural models outperform linear classifiers (better performance indices and a better dimensionality reduction). The most relevant features to describe the benefits of physical exercise are those related to myocardial heterogeneity, mean activation rate and activation complexity.

  15. A fast algorithm to compute precise type-2 centroids for real-time control applications.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sumantra; Konar, Amit; Ralescu, Anca; Pal, Nikhil R

    2015-02-01

    An interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2 FS) is characterized by its upper and lower membership functions containing all possible embedded fuzzy sets, which together is referred to as the footprint of uncertainty (FOU). The FOU results in a span of uncertainty measured in the defuzzified space and is determined by the positional difference of the centroids of all the embedded fuzzy sets taken together. This paper provides a closed-form formula to evaluate the span of uncertainty of an IT2 FS. The closed-form formula offers a precise measurement of the degree of uncertainty in an IT2 FS with a runtime complexity less than that of the classical iterative Karnik-Mendel algorithm and other formulations employing the iterative Newton-Raphson algorithm. This paper also demonstrates a real-time control application using the proposed closed-form formula of centroids with reduced root mean square error and computational overhead than those of the existing methods. Computer simulations for this real-time control application indicate that parallel realization of the IT2 defuzzification outperforms its competitors with respect to maximum overshoot even at high sampling rates. Furthermore, in the presence of measurement noise in system (plant) states, the proposed IT2 FS based scheme outperforms its type-1 counterpart with respect to peak overshoot and root mean square error in plant response.

  16. Neural prostheses in clinical applications--trends from precision mechanics towards biomedical microsystems in neurological rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, T; Schuettler, M; Koch, K P

    2004-04-01

    Neural prostheses partially restore body functions by technical nerve excitation after trauma or neurological diseases. External devices and implants have been developed since the early 1960s for many applications. Several systems have reached nowadays clinical practice: Cochlea implants help the deaf to hear, micturition is induced by bladder stimulators in paralyzed persons and deep brain stimulation helps patients with Parkinson's disease to participate in daily life again. So far, clinical neural prostheses are fabricated with means of precision mechanics. Since microsystem technology opens the opportunity to design and develop complex systems with a high number of electrodes to interface with the nervous systems, the opportunity for selective stimulation and complex implant scenarios seems to be feasible in the near future. The potentials and limitations with regard to biomedical microdevices are introduced and discussed in this paper. Target specifications are derived from existing implants and are discussed on selected applications that has been investigated in experimental research: a micromachined implant to interface a nerve stump with a sieve electrode, cuff electrodes with integrated electronics, and an epiretinal vision prosthesis.

  17. Precise time dissemination and applications development on the Bonneville Power Administration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ken E.; Esztergalyos, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) uses IRIG-B transmitted over microwave as its primary system time dissemination. Problems with accuracy and reliability have led to ongoing research into better methods. BPA has also developed and deployed a unique fault locator which uses precise clocks synchronized by a pulse over microwaves. It automatically transmits the data to a central computer for analysis. A proposed system could combine fault location timing and time dissemination into a Global Position System (GPS) timing receiver and close the verification loop through a master station at the Dittmer Control Center. Such a system would have many advantages, including lower cost, higher reliability, and wider industry support. Test results indicate the GPS has sufficient accuracy and reliability for this and other current timing requirements including synchronous phase angle measurements. A phasor measurement system which provides phase angle has recently been tested with excellent results. Phase angle is a key parameter in power system control applications including dynamic braking, DC modulation, remedial action schemes, and system state estimation. Further research is required to determine the applications which can most effectively use real-time phase angle measurements and the best method to apply them.

  18. Amelioration de la precision d'un bras robotise pour une application d'ebavurage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailhot, David

    Process automation is a more and more referred solution when it comes to complex, tedious or even dangerous tasks for human. Flexibility, low cost and compactness make industrial robots very attractive for automation. Even if many developments have been made to enhance robot's performances, they still can not meet some industries requirements. For instance, aerospace industry requires very tight tolerances on a large variety of parts, which is not what robots were designed for at first. When it comes to robotic deburring, robot imprecision is a major problem that needs to be addressed before it can be implemented in production. This master's thesis explores different calibration techniques for robot's dimensions that could overcome the problem and make the robotic deburring application possible. Some calibration techniques that are easy to implement in production environment are simulated and compared. A calibration technique for tool's dimensions is simulated and implemented to evaluate its potential. The most efficient technique will be used within the application. Finally, the production environment and requirements are explained. The remaining imprecision will be compensated by the use of a force/torque sensor integrated with the robot's controller and by the use of a camera. Many tests are made to define the best parameters to use to deburr a specific feature on a chosen part. Concluding tests are shown and demonstrate the potential use of robotic deburring. Keywords: robotic calibration, robotic arm, robotic precision, robotic deburring

  19. Precise time dissemination and applications development on the Bonneville Power Administration system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ken E.; Esztergalyos, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) uses IRIG-B transmitted over microwave as its primary system time dissemination. Problems with accuracy and reliability have led to ongoing research into better methods. BPA has also developed and deployed a unique fault locator which uses precise clocks synchronized by a pulse over microwaves. It automatically transmits the data to a central computer for analysis. A proposed system could combine fault location timing and time dissemination into a Global Position System (GPS) timing receiver and close the verification loop through a master station at the Dittmer Control Center. Such a system would have many advantages, including lower cost, higher reliability, and wider industry support. Test results indicate the GPS has sufficient accuracy and reliability for this and other current timing requirements including synchronous phase angle measurements. A phasor measurement system which provides phase angle has recently been tested with excellent results. Phase angle is a key parameter in power system control applications including dynamic braking, DC modulation, remedial action schemes, and system state estimation. Further research is required to determine the applications which can most effectively use real-time phase angle measurements and the best method to apply them.

  20. Machining aspects of nickel-phosphorus coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.

    1992-07-01

    Nickel-phosphorus coatings with greater than 10% phosphorus have been widely used for diamond turning applications such as fabrication of large optics and other high precision parts. This paper discusses the importance of phosphorus content of the alloy on wear of the diamond tool and provides some speculation on the role of phosphorus on machining characteristics.

  1. Estimation of the applicability domain of kernel-based machine learning models for virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The virtual screening of large compound databases is an important application of structural-activity relationship models. Due to the high structural diversity of these data sets, it is impossible for machine learning based QSAR models, which rely on a specific training set, to give reliable results for all compounds. Thus, it is important to consider the subset of the chemical space in which the model is applicable. The approaches to this problem that have been published so far mostly use vectorial descriptor representations to define this domain of applicability of the model. Unfortunately, these cannot be extended easily to structured kernel-based machine learning models. For this reason, we propose three approaches to estimate the domain of applicability of a kernel-based QSAR model. Results We evaluated three kernel-based applicability domain estimations using three different structured kernels on three virtual screening tasks. Each experiment consisted of the training of a kernel-based QSAR model using support vector regression and the ranking of a disjoint screening data set according to the predicted activity. For each prediction, the applicability of the model for the respective compound is quantitatively described using a score obtained by an applicability domain formulation. The suitability of the applicability domain estimation is evaluated by comparing the model performance on the subsets of the screening data sets obtained by different thresholds for the applicability scores. This comparison indicates that it is possible to separate the part of the chemspace, in which the model gives reliable predictions, from the part consisting of structures too dissimilar to the training set to apply the model successfully. A closer inspection reveals that the virtual screening performance of the model is considerably improved if half of the molecules, those with the lowest applicability scores, are omitted from the screening. Conclusion The proposed

  2. Injection molding of high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Christian; Röbig, Malte

    2016-03-09

    Light Emitting Diodes (LED) conquer the growing global market of lighting technologies. Due to their advantages, they are increasingly used in consumer products, in lighting applications in the home and in the mobility sector as well as in industrial applications. Particularly, with regard to the increasing use of high-power LED (HP-LED) the materials in the surrounding area of the light emitting semiconductor chip are of utmost importance. While the materials behind the semiconductor chip are optimized for maximum heat dissipation, the materials currently used for the encapsulation of the semiconductor chip (primary optics) and the secondary optics encounter their limits due to the high temperatures. In addition certain amounts of blue UV radiation degrade the currently used materials such as epoxy resins or polyurethanes for primary optics. In the context of an ongoing joint research project with various partners from the industry, an innovative manufacturing method for high precision optics for LED applications made of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) is analyzed at the Institut of Plastics Processing (IKV), Aachen. The aim of this project is to utilize the material-specific advantages of high transparent LSR, especially the excellent high temperature resistance and the great freedom in design. Therefore, a high integrated injection molding process is developed. For the production of combined LED primary and secondary optics a LED board is placed in an injection mold and overmolded with LSR. Due to the integrated process and the reduction of subcomponents like the secondary optics the economics of the production process can be improved significantly. Furthermore combined LED optics offer an improved effectiveness, because there are no losses of the light power at the transition of the primary and secondary optics.

  3. Prompt and Precise Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    For Sanders Design International, Inc., of Wilton, New Hampshire, every passing second between the concept and realization of a product is essential to succeed in the rapid prototyping industry where amongst heavy competition, faster time-to-market means more business. To separate itself from its rivals, Sanders Design aligned with NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center to develop what it considers to be the most accurate rapid prototyping machine for fabrication of extremely precise tooling prototypes. The company's Rapid ToolMaker System has revolutionized production of high quality, small-to-medium sized prototype patterns and tooling molds with an exactness that surpasses that of computer numerically-controlled (CNC) machining devices. Created with funding and support from Marshall under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Rapid ToolMaker is a dual-use technology with applications in both commercial and military aerospace fields. The advanced technology provides cost savings in the design and manufacturing of automotive, electronic, and medical parts, as well as in other areas of consumer interest, such as jewelry and toys. For aerospace applications, the Rapid ToolMaker enables fabrication of high-quality turbine and compressor blades for jet engines on unmanned air vehicles, aircraft, and missiles.

  4. What is the cost per millimetre? Challenging traditional GNSS equipment for precise geosciences and engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, William; Boreham, Nicholas; Benedetti, Elisa; Roberts, William

    2017-04-01

    Surveyors, civil and geotechnical engineers are the typical users of professional grade GNSS receiver that is capable of achieving positioning accuracies of sub-centimetre and navigation accuracies of 1-2cm. When choosing the equipment for their needs, they are often faced with a dilemma with each additional frequency, constellation and feature coming at a cost, resulting in professional GNSS equipment being regarded as high-priced specialist equipment. Indeed there are many users that have discounted GNSS on the grounds that it is too expensive and too operationally complex to warrant purchase. Having identified this situation, Nottingham Scientific Ltd (NSL) set about the development of equipment that would break down this barrier making high accuracy GNSS affordable to new users and applications and more cost effective to existing users. NSL created "STICK" which is a single frequency, multi-constellation, IMU-integrated GNSS sensor for precise movement detection of the natural and built environments and infrastructures, at approximately 1/20th of the price of a professional grade GNSS system. STICK has been developed within the context of three European Space Agency (ESA) Integrated Applications Programme Demonstration projects that use space assets to monitor the land stability and the status of different types of infrastructure, each with its own operational challenges. However through the careful selection of components, the implementation of certain operational constraints and the use of advanced statistical data processing, sub-centimetre positioning can be achieved for monitoring purposes. This paper describes STICK, the applications for which it has been developed, and the environments within which it is operating. We then explore the performance by directly comparing STICK to geodetic GNSS receivers setup in an operational, test bed environment. This test bed allows the receivers/antennas to be subjected to a three-dimensional displacement in the order

  5. Military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, C J

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7479718

  6. Military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, C J

    1995-10-24

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs.

  7. Military and Government Applications of Human-Machine Communication by Voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Clifford J.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a range of opportunities for military and government applications of human-machine communication by voice, based on visits and contacts with numerous user organizations in the United States. The applications include some that appear to be feasible by careful integration of current state-of-the-art technology and others that will require a varying mix of advances in speech technology and in integration of the technology into applications environments. Applications that are described include (1) speech recognition and synthesis for mobile command and control; (2) speech processing for a portable multifunction soldier's computer; (3) speech- and language-based technology for naval combat team tactical training; (4) speech technology for command and control on a carrier flight deck; (5) control of auxiliary systems, and alert and warning generation, in fighter aircraft and helicopters; and (6) voice check-in, report entry, and communication for law enforcement agents or special forces. A phased approach for transfer of the technology into applications is advocated, where integration of applications systems is pursued in parallel with advanced research to meet future needs.

  8. High-intensity fibre laser design for micro-machining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Neria, D. I.; Martinez-Piñón, F.; Hernandez-Escamilla, H.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

    2010-11-01

    This work is focused on the design of a 250W high-intensity continuous-wave fibre optic laser with a 15μm spot size beam and a beam parameter product (BPP) of 1.8 for its use on Laser-assisted Cold Spray process (LCS) in the micro-machining areas. The metal-powder deposition process LCS, is a novel method based on Cold Spray technique (CS) assisted by laser technology. The LCS accelerates metal powders by the use of a high-pressure gas in order to achieve flash welding of particles over substrate. In LCS, the critical velocity of impact is lower with respect with CS while the powder particle is heated before the deposition by a laser beam. Furthermore, LCS does not heat the powder to achieve high temperatures as it happens in plasma processes. This property puts aside cooling problems which normally happen in sintered processes with high oxygen/nitrogen concentration levels. LCS will be used not only in deposition of thin layers. After careful design, proof of concept, experimental data, and prototype development, it should be feasible to perform micro-machining precise work with the use of the highintensity fibre laser presented in this work, and selective deposition of particles, in a similar way to the well-known Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS). The fibre laser consists on a large-mode area, Yb3+-doped, semi-diffraction limited, 25-m fibre laser cavity, operating in continuous wave regime. The fibre shows an arguably high slope-efficiency with no signs of roll-over. The measured M2 value is 1.8 and doping concentration of 15000ppm. It was made with a slight modification of the traditional MCVD technique. A full optical characterization will be presented.

  9. Applied machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included the link between fixed and flexible automation, general applications of machine vision, the development of a specification for a machine vision system, machine vision technology, machine vision non-contact gaging, and vision in electronics manufacturing.

  10. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  11. Uav Multispectral Survey to Map Soil and Crop for Precision Farming Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonaa, Giovanna; Passoni, Daniele; Pinto, Livio; Pagliari, Diana; Masseroni, Daniele; Ortuani, Bianca; Facchi, Arianna

    2016-06-01

    New sensors mounted on UAV and optimal procedures for survey, data acquisition and analysis are continuously developed and tested for applications in precision farming. Procedures to integrate multispectral aerial data about soil and crop and ground-based proximal geophysical data are a recent research topic aimed to delineate homogeneous zones for the management of agricultural inputs (i.e., water, nutrients). Multispectral and multitemporal orthomosaics were produced over a test field (a 100 m x 200 m plot within a maize field), to map vegetation and soil indices, as well as crop heights, with suitable ground resolution. UAV flights were performed in two moments during the crop season, before sowing on bare soil, and just before flowering when maize was nearly at the maximum height. Two cameras, for color (RGB) and false color (NIR-RG) images, were used. The images were processed in Agisoft Photoscan to produce Digital Surface Model (DSM) of bare soil and crop, and multispectral orthophotos. To overcome some difficulties in the automatic searching of matching points for the block adjustment of the crop image, also the scientific software developed by Politecnico of Milan was used to enhance images orientation. Surveys and image processing are described, as well as results about classification of multispectral-multitemporal orthophotos and soil indices.

  12. MicroRNA applications for prostate, ovarian, and breast cancer in the era of precision medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bethany; Agarwal, Priyanka; Bhowmick, Neil A

    2017-03-13

    The high degree of conservation in microRNA from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans has enabled relatively rapid implementation of findings in model systems to the clinic. The convergence of the capacity for genomic screening being implemented in the prevailing precision medicine initiative and the capabilities of microRNA to address these changes holds significant promise. However, prostate, ovarian, and breast cancers are heterogeneous and face issues of evolving therapeutic resistance. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling axis plays an important role in the progression of each of these cancers, in part through microRNA regulation, and reciprocally, microRNA regulation of TGF-ß actions. As biomarkers of disease progression and therapeutic targeting of microRNA-based therapies are considered one must consider the tumor microenvironment on both counts. The differential expression pattern of microRNAs in health and disease, therapeutic response and resistance, has resulted in its application as robust biomarkers. With two microRNA mimetcs in ongoing restorative clinical trials, the paradigm for future clinical studies rests on the current observational trials to validate microRNA markers of disease progression. Some of todays biomarkers can be translated to the next generation of microRNA-based therapies.

  13. Element-free precise integration method and its applications in seismic modelling and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaofeng; Hu, Tianyue

    2006-07-01

    In this paper the theory of the element-free precise integration method (EFPIM) is presented as well as its applications in seismic modelling and imaging. The key point of this method is the absence of elements, which makes nodes free from the elemental restraint. Due to the moving least-squares (MLS) fitting instead of interpolation, the EFPIM results in high accuracy for both the dependent variable and its gradient. The EFPIM improves the implicit element-free method (EFM) by cutting the computational cost significantly. At the same time, the accuracy of this method keeps as good as that of the implicit EFM. The scheme of EFPIM is shown for the full scalar wave equation. Numerical stability is examined for the scheme subsequently. Based on the theory, a simple example of vibrant film is discussed in details to indicate the effectivity of the EFPIM. Main factors affecting the accuracy of the method are illustrated. Furthermore, we show some synthetic examples to demonstrate good performance of the EFPIM in seismic modelling and imaging problems. Both post-stack and pre-stack cases are considered. Combined with appropriate absorbing boundary conditions, the EFPIM can generate sections with accurate traveltimes and amplitudes. Complex structures can be imaged clearly such as high-angle dip and embedded high-velocity anomalies.

  14. Structural Analysis and Testing of an Erectable Truss for Precision Segmented Reflector Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Timothy J.; Fichter, W. B.; Adams, Richard R.; Javeed, Mehzad

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes analysis and test results obtained at Langley Research Center (LaRC) on a doubly curved testbed support truss for precision reflector applications. Descriptions of test procedures and experimental results that expand upon previous investigations are presented. A brief description of the truss is given, and finite-element-analysis models are described. Static-load and vibration test procedures are discussed, and experimental results are shown to be repeatable and in generally good agreement with linear finite-element predictions. Truss structural performance (as determined by static deflection and vibration testing) is shown to be predictable and very close to linear. Vibration test results presented herein confirm that an anomalous mode observed during initial testing was due to the flexibility of the truss support system. Photogrammetric surveys with two 131-in. reference scales show that the root-mean-square (rms) truss-surface accuracy is about 0.0025 in. Photogrammetric measurements also indicate that the truss coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is in good agreement with that predicted by analysis. A detailed description of the photogrammetric procedures is included as an appendix.

  15. Reusable heat-sensitive phantom for precise estimation of thermal profile in hyperthermia application.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Ali; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Ramasindarum, Chanthiriga

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of thermal modalities has promoted the use of heat-sensitive phantoms for calibration, measurement, and verification purposes. However, development of durable phantoms with high precision ability to represent the temperature distribution remains a challenge. This study aims to introduce a reusable phantom that provides an accurate assessment of the heated region in various thermal modalities. The phantom contains a thermochromic dye that is transparent blue at room temperature and becomes colourless after exceeding a threshold temperature. In order to determine the threshold temperature of the phantom, spectrophotometry analysis was performed. The various thermal (specific heat, thermal conductivity, melting point and latent heat of melting) and acoustic (sound speed, attenuation) properties of this phantom were measured and compared with those of the reference phantom without dye. The application of this phantom for radio-frequency and magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound modalities was also examined. The spectrophotometry analysis showed a threshold temperature of 50 ± 3 °C for this phantom. The results also demonstrated a 6 °C difference between the onset and ending temperatures of the discolouration process. Moreover, the starting temperature of colouration during cooling was found to be 4 °C lower than the ending temperature of discolouration. The sound speed, attenuation, specific heat, thermal conductivity and melting point of the heat-sensitive phantom were statistically equal to those of the reference phantom; however, the latent heat, and onset temperature of the melting of the heat-sensitive phantom were decreased by addition of the dye. The developed phantom is applicable for accurate evaluation of temperature variations in various thermal modalities.

  16. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft imagery for precision agriculture applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, E. Raymond; Daughtry, Craig S.T.; Mirsky, Steven B.; Hively, W. Dean

    2014-01-01

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare information obtained from two different pixel sizes, one about a meter (the size of a small vegetation plot) and one about a millimeter. Cereal rye (Secale cereale) was planted at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center for a winter cover crop with fall and spring fertilizer applications, which produced differences in biomass and leaf chlorophyll content. UAS imagery was simulated by placing a Fuji IS-Pro UVIR digital camera at 3-m height looking nadir. An external UV-IR cut filter was used to acquire true-color images; an external red cut filter was used to obtain color-infrared-like images with bands at near-infrared, green, and blue wavelengths. Plot-scale Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was correlated with dry aboveground biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.58$ ), whereas the Triangular Greenness Index (TGI) was not correlated with chlorophyll content. We used the SamplePoint program to select 100 pixels systematically; we visually identified the cover type and acquired the digital numbers. The number of rye pixels in each image was better correlated with biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.73$ ), and the average TGI from only leaf pixels was negatively correlated with chlorophyll content ( ${mbi {r}} = -0.72$ ). Thus, better information for crop requirements may be obtained using very small pixel sizes, but new algorithms based on computer vision are needed for analysis. It may not be necessary to geospatially register large numbers of photographs with very small pixel sizes. Instead, images could be analyzed as single plots along field transects.

  17. Automating High-Precision X-Ray and Neutron Imaging Applications with Robotics

    DOE PAGES

    Hashem, Joseph Anthony; Pryor, Mitch; Landsberger, Sheldon; ...

    2017-03-28

    Los Alamos National Laboratory and the University of Texas at Austin recently implemented a robotically controlled nondestructive testing (NDT) system for X-ray and neutron imaging. This system is intended to address the need for accurate measurements for a variety of parts and, be able to track measurement geometry at every imaging location, and is designed for high-throughput applications. This system was deployed in a beam port at a nuclear research reactor and in an operational inspection X-ray bay. The nuclear research reactor system consisted of a precision industrial seven-axis robot, 1.1-MW TRIGA research reactor, and a scintillator-mirror-camera-based imaging system. Themore » X-ray bay system incorporated the same robot, a 225-keV microfocus X-ray source, and a custom flat panel digital detector. The robotic positioning arm is programmable and allows imaging in multiple configurations, including planar, cylindrical, as well as other user defined geometries that provide enhanced engineering evaluation capability. The imaging acquisition device is coupled with the robot for automated image acquisition. The robot can achieve target positional repeatability within 17 μm in the 3-D space. Flexible automation with nondestructive imaging saves costs, reduces dosage, adds imaging techniques, and achieves better quality results in less time. Specifics regarding the robotic system and imaging acquisition and evaluation processes are presented. In conclusion, this paper reviews the comprehensive testing and system evaluation to affirm the feasibility of robotic NDT, presents the system configuration, and reviews results for both X-ray and neutron radiography imaging applications.« less

  18. Application de la methode de la reponse frequentielle a l'arret "SSFR", sur une machine synchrone a poles saillants de grande puissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belqorchi, Abdelghafour

    Forty years after Watson and Manchur conducted the Stand-Still Frequency Response (SSFR) test on a large turbogenerator, the applicability of this technic on a powerful salient pole synchronous generator has yet to be confirmed. The scientific literature on the subject is rare and very few have attempted to compare SSFR parameter results with those deduced by classical tests. The validity of SSFR on large salient pole machines has still to be proven. The present work aims in participating to fill this knowledge gap. It can be used to build a database of measurements highly needed to draw the validity of the technic. Also, the author hopes to demonstrate the potential of SSFR model to represent the machine, not only in cases of weak disturbances but also strong ones such as instantaneous three-phase short-circuit faults. The difficulties raised by previous searchers are: The lack of accuracy in very low frequency measurements; The difficulty in rotor positioning, according to d and q axes, in case of salient pole machines; The measurement current level influence on magnetizing inductances, in axes-d and; The rotation impact on damper circuits for some rotors design. Aware of the above difficulties, the author conducted an SSFR test on a large salient pole machine (285 MVA). The generator under test has laminated non isolated rotor and an integral slot number. The damper windings in adjacent poles are connected together, via the polar core and the rotor rim. Finally, the damping circuit is unaffected by rotation. To improve the measurement accuracy, in very low frequencies, the most precise frequency response analyser available on the market was used. Besides, the frequency responses of the signals conditioning modules (i.e., isolation, amplification...) were accounted for to correct the four measured SSFR transfer functions. Immunization against noise and use of instrumentation in their optimum range, were other technics rigorously applied. Magnetizing inductances

  19. Precision, accuracy, and application of diver-towed underwater GPS receivers.

    PubMed

    Schories, Dirk; Niedzwiedz, Gerd

    2012-04-01

    Diver-towed global positioning systems (GPS) handhelds have been used for a few years in underwater monitoring studies. We modeled the accuracy of this method using the software KABKURR originally developed by the University of Rostock for fishing and marine engineering. Additionally, three field experiments were conducted to estimate the precision of the method and apply it in the field: (1) an experiment of underwater transects from 5 to 35 m in the Southern Chile fjord region, (2) a transect from 5 to 30 m under extreme climatic conditions in the Antarctic, and (3) an underwater tracking experiment at Lake Ranco, Southern Chile. The coiled cable length in relation to water depth is the main error source besides the signal quality of the GPS under calm weather conditions. The forces used in the model resulted in a displacement of 2.3 m in a depth of 5 m, 3.2 m at a 10-m depth, 4.6 m in a 20-m depth, 5.5 m at a 30-m depth, and 6.8 m in a 40-m depth, when only an additional 0.5 m cable extension was used compared to the water depth. The GPS buoy requires good buoyancy in order to keep its position at the water surface when the diver is trying to minimize any additional cable extension error. The diver has to apply a tensile force for shortening the cable length at the lower cable end. Repeated diving along transect lines from 5 to 35 m resulted only in small deviations independent of water depth indicating the precision of the method for monitoring studies. Routing of given reference points with a Garmin 76CSx handheld placed in an underwater housing resulted in mean deviances less than 6 m at a water depth of 10 m. Thus, we can confirm that diver-towed GPS handhelds give promising results when used for underwater research in shallow water and open a wide field of applicability, but no submeter accuracy is possible due to the different error sources.

  20. Autoresonant control of nonlinear mode in ultrasonic transducer for machining applications.

    PubMed

    Babitsky, V I; Astashev, V K; Kalashnikov, A N

    2004-04-01

    Experiments conducted in several countries have shown that the improvement of machining quality can be promoted through conversion of the cutting process into one involving controllable high-frequency vibration at the cutting zone. This is achieved through the generation and maintenance of ultrasonic vibration of the cutting tool to alter the fracture process of work-piece material cutting to one in which loading of the materials at the tool tip is incremental, repetitive and controlled. It was shown that excitation of the high-frequency vibro-impact mode of the tool-workpiece interaction is the most effective way of ultrasonic influence on the dynamic characteristics of machining. The exploitation of this nonlinear mode needs a new method of adaptive control for excitation and stabilisation of ultrasonic vibration known as autoresonance. An approach has been developed to design an autoresonant ultrasonic cutting unit as an oscillating system with an intelligent electronic feedback controlling self-excitation in the entire mechatronic system. The feedback produces the exciting force by means of transformation and amplification of the motion signal. This allows realisation for robust control of fine resonant tuning to bring the nonlinear high Q-factor systems into technological application. The autoresonant control provides the possibility of self-tuning and self-adaptation mechanisms for the system to keep the nonlinear resonant mode of oscillation under unpredictable variation of load, structure and parameters. This allows simple regulation of intensity of the process whilst keeping maximum efficiency at all times. An autoresonant system with supervisory computer control was developed, tested and used for the control of the piezoelectric transducer during ultrasonically assisted cutting. The system has been developed as combined analog-digital, where analog devices process the control signal, and parameters of the devices are controlled digitally by computer. The

  1. Decoherence of entangled states by colored noise: application to precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Axel; Sorensen, Anders; Lukin, Mikhail; van der Wal, Caspar

    2003-05-01

    Controlled manipulation of quantum systems can lead to a number of exciting new applications in quantum information science, from quantum computation to applications in precision measurements. In many such applications, decoherence is a key factor to take into account and ultimately determines the feasibility or usefulness of the proposal. The decoherence of quantum mechanical degrees of freedom is usually modeled through their interaction with a bath consisting of a large number of harmonic oscillators. The separation of energy scales between the energy of the oscillators and the interaction energy leads to separation of time scales so that the decoherence process can be modeled effectively by a markovian process (infinitely short reservoir correlation time). Low-lying state are long-lived and are therefore ideally suited for storage of quantum information and long-lived quantum memory. Due to their long lifetime, these states are sensitive to the low frequency noise of the environment. In particular 1/f noise is dominating at low frequencies and this changes the form of the decoherence. In this case, non-exponential decay is to be expected so that the importance of decoherence depends on the time-scale. We consider the accuracy of frequency measurements using the Ramsey technique when the ensemble of atoms is subject to colored noise during the measurement. It has been shown that the use of entangled states of atomic ensembles (so-called spin squeezed states) may lead to an improvement in the accuracy of frequency measurements when the system is noiseless [1]. To assess the usefulness in a real setup decoherence has to be taken into account. It has been shown that for white noise spectra the net improvement is very small [2], this conclusion is however changed significantly when the system is influenced by colored noise. We study phase noise of the reference oscillator in frequency measurements and show that for non-white noise spectra (e.g. when the noise power

  2. The Effects of Different Electrode Types for Obtaining Surface Machining Shape on Shape Memory Alloy Using Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. G.; Kim, S. H.; Choi, W. K.; Moon, G. C.; Lee, E. S.

    2017-06-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) is important material used for the medicine and aerospace industry due to its characteristics called the shape memory effect, which involves the recovery of deformed alloy to its original state through the application of temperature or stress. Consumers in modern society demand stability in parts. Electrochemical machining is one of the methods for obtained these stabilities in parts requirements. These parts of shape memory alloy require fine patterns in some applications. In order to machine a fine pattern, the electrochemical machining method is suitable. For precision electrochemical machining using different shape electrodes, the current density should be controlled precisely. And electrode shape is required for precise electrochemical machining. It is possible to obtain precise square holes on the SMA if the insulation layer controlled the unnecessary current between electrode and workpiece. If it is adjusting the unnecessary current to obtain the desired shape, it will be a great contribution to the medical industry and the aerospace industry. It is possible to process a desired shape to the shape memory alloy by micro controlling the unnecessary current. In case of the square electrode without insulation layer, it derives inexact square holes due to the unnecessary current. The results using the insulated electrode in only side show precise square holes. The removal rate improved in case of insulated electrode than others because insulation layer concentrate the applied current to the machining zone.

  3. Towards smart energy systems: application of kernel machine regression for medium term electricity load forecasting.

    PubMed

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Bargiotas, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Integration of energy systems with information technologies has facilitated the realization of smart energy systems that utilize information to optimize system operation. To that end, crucial in optimizing energy system operation is the accurate, ahead-of-time forecasting of load demand. In particular, load forecasting allows planning of system expansion, and decision making for enhancing system safety and reliability. In this paper, the application of two types of kernel machines for medium term load forecasting (MTLF) is presented and their performance is recorded based on a set of historical electricity load demand data. The two kernel machine models and more specifically Gaussian process regression (GPR) and relevance vector regression (RVR) are utilized for making predictions over future load demand. Both models, i.e., GPR and RVR, are equipped with a Gaussian kernel and are tested on daily predictions for a 30-day-ahead horizon taken from the New England Area. Furthermore, their performance is compared to the ARMA(2,2) model with respect to mean average percentage error and squared correlation coefficient. Results demonstrate the superiority of RVR over the other forecasting models in performing MTLF.

  4. SMARTbot: A Behavioral Analysis Framework Augmented with Machine Learning to Identify Mobile Botnet Applications.

    PubMed

    Karim, Ahmad; Salleh, Rosli; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Botnet phenomenon in smartphones is evolving with the proliferation in mobile phone technologies after leaving imperative impact on personal computers. It refers to the network of computers, laptops, mobile devices or tablets which is remotely controlled by the cybercriminals to initiate various distributed coordinated attacks including spam emails, ad-click fraud, Bitcoin mining, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), disseminating other malwares and much more. Likewise traditional PC based botnet, Mobile botnets have the same operational impact except the target audience is particular to smartphone users. Therefore, it is import to uncover this security issue prior to its widespread adaptation. We propose SMARTbot, a novel dynamic analysis framework augmented with machine learning techniques to automatically detect botnet binaries from malicious corpus. SMARTbot is a component based off-device behavioral analysis framework which can generate mobile botnet learning model by inducing Artificial Neural Networks' back-propagation method. Moreover, this framework can detect mobile botnet binaries with remarkable accuracy even in case of obfuscated program code. The results conclude that, a classifier model based on simple logistic regression outperform other machine learning classifier for botnet apps' detection, i.e 99.49% accuracy is achieved. Further, from manual inspection of botnet dataset we have extracted interesting trends in those applications. As an outcome of this research, a mobile botnet dataset is devised which will become the benchmark for future studies.

  5. SMARTbot: A Behavioral Analysis Framework Augmented with Machine Learning to Identify Mobile Botnet Applications

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Ahmad; Salleh, Rosli; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Botnet phenomenon in smartphones is evolving with the proliferation in mobile phone technologies after leaving imperative impact on personal computers. It refers to the network of computers, laptops, mobile devices or tablets which is remotely controlled by the cybercriminals to initiate various distributed coordinated attacks including spam emails, ad-click fraud, Bitcoin mining, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS), disseminating other malwares and much more. Likewise traditional PC based botnet, Mobile botnets have the same operational impact except the target audience is particular to smartphone users. Therefore, it is import to uncover this security issue prior to its widespread adaptation. We propose SMARTbot, a novel dynamic analysis framework augmented with machine learning techniques to automatically detect botnet binaries from malicious corpus. SMARTbot is a component based off-device behavioral analysis framework which can generate mobile botnet learning model by inducing Artificial Neural Networks’ back-propagation method. Moreover, this framework can detect mobile botnet binaries with remarkable accuracy even in case of obfuscated program code. The results conclude that, a classifier model based on simple logistic regression outperform other machine learning classifier for botnet apps’ detection, i.e 99.49% accuracy is achieved. Further, from manual inspection of botnet dataset we have extracted interesting trends in those applications. As an outcome of this research, a mobile botnet dataset is devised which will become the benchmark for future studies. PMID:26978523

  6. Applications of machine learning and high-dimensional visualization in cancer detection, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John F; Marx, Kenneth A; Hoffman, Patrick E; Gee, Alexander G; O'Neil, Philip; Ujwal, M L; Hotchkiss, John

    2004-05-01

    Recent technical advances in combinatorial chemistry, genomics, and proteomics have made available large databases of biological and chemical information that have the potential to dramatically improve our understanding of cancer biology at the molecular level. Such an understanding of cancer biology could have a substantial impact on how we detect, diagnose, and manage cancer cases in the clinical setting. One of the biggest challenges facing clinical oncologists is how to extract clinically useful knowledge from the overwhelming amount of raw molecular data that are currently available. In this paper, we discuss how the exploratory data analysis techniques of machine learning and high-dimensional visualization can be applied to extract clinically useful knowledge from a heterogeneous assortment of molecular data. After an introductory overview of machine learning and visualization techniques, we describe two proprietary algorithms (PURS and RadViz) that we have found to be useful in the exploratory analysis of large biological data sets. We next illustrate, by way of three examples, the applicability of these techniques to cancer detection, diagnosis, and management using three very different types of molecular data. We first discuss the use of our exploratory analysis techniques on proteomic mass spectroscopy data for the detection of ovarian cancer. Next, we discuss the diagnostic use of these techniques on gene expression data to differentiate between squamous and adenocarcinoma of the lung. Finally, we illustrate the use of such techniques in selecting from a database of chemical compounds those most effective in managing patients with melanoma versus leukemia.

  7. Investigation of the applicability of a tensile testing machine for measuring mucoadhesive strength.

    PubMed

    Dyvik, K; Graffner, C

    1992-01-01

    The applicability of a tensile testing machine (M30K, JJ Lloyd Instruments Ltd, GB) is investigated for measuring mucoadhesive strengths. A sample of an aqueous dispersion of a polymer with expected mucoadhesive properties is placed between two homemade discs of polyoxymethylene. The upper disc is mounted on a movable part of the machine while the lower disc is fixed on the stationary frame. A tensile force is submitted and the maximum detachment force at fracture and the adhesion work are estimated from the force displacement curve recorded. In some experiments, native mucous tissue of the large intestine of pigs was glued to the upper disc. Four polymers polycarbophil (Carbopol EX-55), carboxypolymethylene (Carbopol 934P), hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Methocel K4M), and sodium alginate, are used in five different concentrations. At least three measurements are made of each polymer and concentration. Viscosity and osmolality are determined. By standardizing the time of sample equilibration and the run rate before measurement, it is possible to get good reproducibility of the tensile values. Based on the maximum nominal breaking force and the work consumed, it is concluded that the tensile strength is dependent both on the concentration and the type of polymer. The conclusions are the same independent of whether mucous pig tissue is used, or not. The same rank order in adhesive properties of the polymers is achieved as from using modified surface tensiometers.

  8. The applications of machine learning algorithms in the modeling of estrogen-like chemicals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun; Gramatica, Paola

    2009-06-01

    Increasing concern is being shown by the scientific community, government regulators, and the public about endocrine-disrupting chemicals that, in the environment, are adversely affecting human and wildlife health through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. Because of the large number of such chemicals in the environment, there is a great need for an effective means of rapidly assessing endocrine-disrupting activity in the toxicology assessment process. When faced with the challenging task of screening large libraries of molecules for biological activity, the benefits of computational predictive models based on quantitative structure-activity relationships to identify possible estrogens become immediately obvious. Recently, in order to improve the accuracy of prediction, some machine learning techniques were introduced to build more effective predictive models. In this review we will focus our attention on some recent advances in the use of these methods in modeling estrogen-like chemicals. The advantages and disadvantages of the machine learning algorithms used in solving this problem, the importance of the validation and performance assessment of the built models as well as their applicability domains will be discussed.

  9. Application of machine learning methodology for pet-based definition of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kerhet, A.; Small, C.; Quon, H.; Riauka, T.; Schrader, L.; Greiner, R.; Yee, D.; McEwan, A.; Roa, W.

    2010-01-01

    We applied a learning methodology framework to assist in the threshold-based segmentation of non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) tumours in positron-emission tomography–computed tomography (pet–ct) imaging for use in radiotherapy planning. Gated and standard free-breathing studies of two patients were independently analysed (four studies in total). Each study had a pet–ct and a treatment-planning ct image. The reference gross tumour volume (gtv) was identified by two experienced radiation oncologists who also determined reference standardized uptake value (suv) thresholds that most closely approximated the gtv contour on each slice. A set of uptake distribution-related attributes was calculated for each pet slice. A machine learning algorithm was trained on a subset of the pet slices to cope with slice-to-slice variation in the optimal suv threshold: that is, to predict the most appropriate suv threshold from the calculated attributes for each slice. The algorithm’s performance was evaluated using the remainder of the pet slices. A high degree of geometric similarity was achieved between the areas outlined by the predicted and the reference suv thresholds (Jaccard index exceeding 0.82). No significant difference was found between the gated and the free-breathing results in the same patient. In this preliminary work, we demonstrated the potential applicability of a machine learning methodology as an auxiliary tool for radiation treatment planning in nsclc. PMID:20179802

  10. Application of machine learning methodology for PET-based definition of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kerhet, A; Small, C; Quon, H; Riauka, T; Schrader, L; Greiner, R; Yee, D; McEwan, A; Roa, W

    2010-02-01

    We applied a learning methodology framework to assist in the threshold-based segmentation of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumours in positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging for use in radiotherapy planning. Gated and standard free-breathing studies of two patients were independently analysed (four studies in total). Each study had a pet-ct and a treatment-planning ct image. The reference gross tumour volume (GTV) was identified by two experienced radiation oncologists who also determined reference standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds that most closely approximated the GTV contour on each slice. A set of uptake distribution-related attributes was calculated for each PET slice. A machine learning algorithm was trained on a subset of the PET slices to cope with slice-to-slice variation in the optimal suv threshold: that is, to predict the most appropriate suv threshold from the calculated attributes for each slice. The algorithm's performance was evaluated using the remainder of the pet slices. A high degree of geometric similarity was achieved between the areas outlined by the predicted and the reference SUV thresholds (Jaccard index exceeding 0.82). No significant difference was found between the gated and the free-breathing results in the same patient. In this preliminary work, we demonstrated the potential applicability of a machine learning methodology as an auxiliary tool for radiation treatment planning in NSCLC.

  11. Graphene-enhanced environmentally-benign cutting fluids for high-performance micro-machining applications.

    PubMed

    Chu, Bryan; Singh, Eklavya; Koratkar, Nikhil; Samuel, Johnson

    2013-08-01

    A canola-based cutting oil enhanced with graphene platelet (GPL) additives has been developed to fulfill the need for environmentally benign cutting oils for high performance micro-machining applications. Carboxyl-functionalized graphene platelets are used to enable stable GPL dispersion in the polar oil. Three oil formulations consisting of 0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15% GPL by weight are tested. The GPL-laden canola oil is first characterized based on its kinematic viscosity, thermal conductivity and coefficient of friction. Micro-turning tests are then performed to study the effect of GPL loading on the cutting temperature, cutting force, and the surface finish of the part. All tested loadings improve the cooling and lubricating properties of the canola oil. For cooling, this improvement is seen to increase with GPL loading. In the case of lubrication, there appears to be an optimal loading of around 0.10%. The presence of GPL also leads to a decrease in the surface roughness of the micro-machined surface but this improvement drops with increased GPL loading.

  12. Biological and biomimetic molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tony J; Juluri, Bala K

    2008-02-01

    The evolution of life facilitates the creation of biological molecular machines. In these so-called 'nanomachines,' nature elegantly shows that when precisely organized and assembled, simple molecular mechanical components can link motions efficiently from the nanometer scale to the macroscopic world, and achieve complex functions such as powering skeletal muscles, synthesizing ATP and producing DNA/RNA. Inspired by nature, researchers are creating artifical molecular machines with tailored structures and properties, with the aim of realizing man-made active nanosystems that operate with the same efficiency and complexity as biological nanomachines. It is anticipated that in the not-too-distant future, unique applications of biological and biomimetic molecular machines will emerge in areas such as biochemical instrumentation and nanomedicine.

  13. Precise Point Positioning with Ionosphere Estimation and application of Regional Ionospheric Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galera Monico, J. F.; Marques, H. A.; Rocha, G. D. D. C.

    2015-12-01

    The ionosphere is one of most difficult source of errors to be modelled in the GPS positioning, mainly when applying data collected by single frequency receivers. Considering Precise Point Positioning (PPP) with single frequency data the options available include, for example, the use of Klobuchar model or applying Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM). The GIM contains Vertical Electron Content (VTEC) values that are commonly estimated considering a global network with poor covering in certain regions. For this reason Regional Ionosphere Maps (RIM) have been developed considering local GNSS network, for instance, the La Plata Ionospheric Model (LPIM) developed inside the context of SIRGAS (Geocentric Reference System for Americas). The South American RIM are produced with data from nearly 50 GPS ground receivers and considering these maps are generated for each hour with spatial resolution of one degree it is expected to provide better accuracy in GPS positioning for such region. Another possibility to correct for ionosphere effects in the PPP is to apply the ionosphere estimation technique based on Kalman filter. In this case, the ionosphere can be treated as a stochastic process and a good initial guess is necessary what can be obtained from an ionospheric map. In this paper we present the methodology involved with ionosphere estimation by using Kalman filter and also the application of global and regional ionospheric maps in the PPP as first guess. The ionosphere estimation strategy was implemented in the house software called RT_PPP that is capable of accomplishing PPP either for single or dual frequency data. GPS data from Brazilian station near equatorial region were processed and results with regional maps were compared with those by using global maps. Improvements of the order 15% were observed. In case of ionosphere estimation, the estimated coordinates were compared with ionosphere free solution and after PPP convergence the results reached centimeter accuracy.

  14. Application of troposphere model from NWP and GNSS data into real-time precise positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilgan, Karina; Hadas, Tomasz; Kazmierski, Kamil; Rohm, Witold; Bosy, Jaroslaw

    2016-04-01

    The tropospheric delay empirical models are usually functions of meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure and humidity). The application of standard atmosphere parameters or global models, such as GPT (global pressure/temperature) model or UNB3 (University of New Brunswick, version 3) model, may not be sufficient, especially for positioning in non-standard weather conditions. The possible solution is to use regional troposphere models based on real-time or near-real time measurements. We implement a regional troposphere model into the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) software GNSS-WARP (Wroclaw Algorithms for Real-time Positioning) developed at Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The software is capable of processing static and kinematic multi-GNSS data in real-time and post-processing mode and takes advantage of final IGS (International GNSS Service) products as well as IGS RTS (Real-Time Service) products. A shortcoming of PPP technique is the time required for the solution to converge. One of the reasons is the high correlation among the estimated parameters: troposphere delay, receiver clock offset and receiver height. To efficiently decorrelate these parameters, a significant change in satellite geometry is required. Alternative solution is to introduce the external high-quality regional troposphere delay model to constrain troposphere estimates. The proposed model consists of zenith total delays (ZTD) and mapping functions calculated from meteorological parameters from Numerical Weather Prediction model WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) and ZTDs from ground-based GNSS stations using the least-squares collocation software COMEDIE (Collocation of Meteorological Data for Interpretation and Estimation of Tropospheric Pathdelays) developed at ETH Zurich.

  15. Application of Vehicle Dynamic Modeling in Uavs for Precise Determination of Exterior Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    Advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and especially micro aerial vehicle (MAV) technology together with increasing quality and decreasing price of imaging devices have resulted in growing use of MAVs in photogrammetry. The practicality of MAV mapping is seriously enhanced with the ability to determine parameters of exterior orientation (EO) with sufficient accuracy, in both absolute and relative senses (change of attitude between successive images). While differential carrier phase GNSS satisfies cm-level positioning accuracy, precise attitude determination is essential for both direct sensor orientation (DiSO) and integrated sensor orientation (ISO) in corridor mapping or in block configuration imaging over surfaces with low texture. Limited cost, size, and weight of MAVs represent limitations on quality of onboard navigation sensors and puts emphasis on exploiting full capacity of available resources. Typically short flying times (10-30 minutes) also limit the possibility of estimating and/or correcting factors such as sensor misalignment and poor attitude initialization of inertial navigation system (INS). This research aims at increasing the accuracy of attitude determination in both absolute and relative senses with no extra sensors onboard. In comparison to classical INS/GNSS setup, novel approach is presented here to integrated state estimation, in which vehicle dynamic model (VDM) is used as the main process model. Such system benefits from available information from autopilot and physical properties of the platform in enhancing performance of determination of trajectory and parameters of exterior orientation consequently. The navigation system employs a differential carrier phase GNSS receiver and a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) grade inertial measurement unit (IMU), together with MAV control input from autopilot. Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed on trajectories for typical corridor mapping and block imaging. Results reveal

  16. Bioinformatics for precision medicine in oncology: principles and application to the SHIVA clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Servant, Nicolas; Roméjon, Julien; Gestraud, Pierre; La Rosa, Philippe; Lucotte, Georges; Lair, Séverine; Bernard, Virginie; Zeitouni, Bruno; Coffin, Fanny; Jules-Clément, Gérôme; Yvon, Florent; Lermine, Alban; Poullet, Patrick; Liva, Stéphane; Pook, Stuart; Popova, Tatiana; Barette, Camille; Prud’homme, François; Dick, Jean-Gabriel; Kamal, Maud; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Hupé, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Precision medicine (PM) requires the delivery of individually adapted medical care based on the genetic characteristics of each patient and his/her tumor. The last decade witnessed the development of high-throughput technologies such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing which paved the way to PM in the field of oncology. While the cost of these technologies decreases, we are facing an exponential increase in the amount of data produced. Our ability to use this information in daily practice relies strongly on the availability of an efficient bioinformatics system that assists in the translation of knowledge from the bench towards molecular targeting and diagnosis. Clinical trials and routine diagnoses constitute different approaches, both requiring a strong bioinformatics environment capable of (i) warranting the integration and the traceability of data, (ii) ensuring the correct processing and analyses of genomic data, and (iii) applying well-defined and reproducible procedures for workflow management and decision-making. To address the issues, a seamless information system was developed at Institut Curie which facilitates the data integration and tracks in real-time the processing of individual samples. Moreover, computational pipelines were developed to identify reliably genomic alterations and mutations from the molecular profiles of each patient. After a rigorous quality control, a meaningful report is delivered to the clinicians and biologists for the therapeutic decision. The complete bioinformatics environment and the key points of its implementation are presented in the context of the SHIVA clinical trial, a multicentric randomized phase II trial comparing targeted therapy based on tumor molecular profiling versus conventional therapy in patients with refractory cancer. The numerous challenges faced in practice during the setting up and the conduct of this trial are discussed as an illustration of PM application. PMID:24910641

  17. Improvements in RIMS Isotopic Precision: Application to in situ atom-limited analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.; Stephan, T.; Savina, M.; Pellin, M.

    2009-03-17

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry offers high sensitivity and elemental selectivity in microanalysis, but the isotopic precision attainable by this technique has been limited. Here we report instrumental modifications to improve the precision of RIMS isotope ratio measurements. Special attention must be paid to eliminating pulse-to-pulse variations in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer through which the photoions travel, and resonant excitation schemes must be chosen such that the resonance transitions can substantially power-broadened to cover the isotope shifts. We report resonance ionization measurements of chromium isotope ratios with statistics-limited precision better than 1%.

  18. Reverse time migration: A seismic processing application on the connection machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of a reverse time migration algorithm on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer is described. Essential architectural features of this machine as well as programming concepts are presented. The data structures and parallel operations for the implementation of the reverse time migration algorithm are described. The algorithm matches the Connection Machine architecture closely and executes almost at the peak performance of this machine.

  19. Precision Engineering - SRO 154.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    supplied with initial parameter guesses and perturbation ranges. Also supplied to the optimization routine is a callable subroutine which uses the...the failure mechanism is a breaking of stable crystal bonds -- a high stress phenomenon. These high stresses result in a continual cycle of wheel...machine tools. Topics Discussed History of Metrology Design of precision machines Methods of magnification Error analysis Surface profilometry Standards of

  20. Space applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  1. Space applications of automation, robotics and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4. Application of ARAMIS capabilities to space project functional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.H.; Minsky, M.L.; Smith, D.B.S.

    1982-08-01

    Applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities and their related ground support functions are studied, so that informed decisions can be made on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The specific tasks which will be required by future space project tasks are identified and the relative merits of these options are evaluated. The ARAMIS options defined and researched span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  2. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, S.; Kim, S. C.; Schieber, C.; Kannam, S.; Gunn, N.; Moore, S.; Scott, D.; Bathgate, R.; Skafidas, S.; Wagner, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Employing integrated nano- and microfluidic circuits for detecting and characterizing biological compounds through resistive pulse sensing technology is a vibrant area of research at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. Resistive pulse sensing platforms can be customized to study virtually any particle of choice which can be threaded through a fluidic channel and enable label-free single-particle interrogation with the primary read-out signal being an electric current fingerprint. The ability to perform label-free molecular screening with single-molecule and even single binding site resolution makes resistive pulse sensing technology a powerful tool for analyzing the smallest units of biological systems and how they interact with each other on a molecular level. This task is at the core of experimental systems biology and in particular ‘omics research which in combination with next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug discovery and design forms the foundation of a novel disruptive medical paradigm commonly referred to as personalized medicine or precision medicine. DNA-sequencing has approached the 1000-Dollar-Genome milestone allowing for decoding a complete human genome with unmatched speed and at low cost. Increased sequencing efficiency yields massive amounts of genomic data. Analyzing this data in combination with medical and biometric health data eventually enables understanding the pathways from individual genes to physiological functions. Access to this information triggers fundamental questions for doctors and patients alike: what are the chances of an outbreak for a specific disease? Can individual risks be managed and if so how? Which drugs are available and how should they be applied? Could a new drug be tailored to an individual’s genetic predisposition fast and in an affordable way? In order to provide answers and real-life value to patients, the rapid evolvement of novel computing approaches for analyzing big data in

  3. Label-free screening of single biomolecules through resistive pulse sensing technology for precision medicine applications.

    PubMed

    Harrer, S; Kim, S C; Schieber, C; Kannam, S; Gunn, N; Moore, S; Scott, D; Bathgate, R; Skafidas, S; Wagner, J M

    2015-05-08

    Employing integrated nano- and microfluidic circuits for detecting and characterizing biological compounds through resistive pulse sensing technology is a vibrant area of research at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. Resistive pulse sensing platforms can be customized to study virtually any particle of choice which can be threaded through a fluidic channel and enable label-free single-particle interrogation with the primary read-out signal being an electric current fingerprint. The ability to perform label-free molecular screening with single-molecule and even single binding site resolution makes resistive pulse sensing technology a powerful tool for analyzing the smallest units of biological systems and how they interact with each other on a molecular level. This task is at the core of experimental systems biology and in particular 'omics research which in combination with next-generation DNA-sequencing and next-generation drug discovery and design forms the foundation of a novel disruptive medical paradigm commonly referred to as personalized medicine or precision medicine. DNA-sequencing has approached the 1000-Dollar-Genome milestone allowing for decoding a complete human genome with unmatched speed and at low cost. Increased sequencing efficiency yields massive amounts of genomic data. Analyzing this data in combination with medical and biometric health data eventually enables understanding the pathways from individual genes to physiological functions. Access to this information triggers fundamental questions for doctors and patients alike: what are the chances of an outbreak for a specific disease? Can individual risks be managed and if so how? Which drugs are available and how should they be applied? Could a new drug be tailored to an individual's genetic predisposition fast and in an affordable way? In order to provide answers and real-life value to patients, the rapid evolvement of novel computing approaches for analyzing big data in

  4. A study pertaining to inertial energy storage machine designs for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zowarka, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    The preliminary design of a counterrotating fast discharge homopolar generator (HPG) and a counterrotating active rotary flux compressor (CARFC) for space application is reported. The HPG is a counterrotating spool-type homopolar with superconducting field coil excitation. It delivers a 20-ms, 145-kJ pulse to a magnetoplasmahydrodynamic thruster. The peak output current is 42.7 kA at 240 V. After 20 ms the current is 29.7 kA at 167 V. The CARFC delivers ten 50-kJ, 250 microsecond pulses at 50-ms interval to six Xenon flash lamps pumping an Nd glass laser. The flux compressor is counterrotating for torque compensation. Current is started in the machine with a 5-kV, 5-kJ pulse-charged capacitor. Both designs were based upon demonstrated technology. The sensitivity of the designs to technology that may be available in five to ten years was determined.

  5. An application of machine learning to the organization of institutional software repositories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailin, Sidney; Henderson, Scott; Truszkowski, Walt

    1993-01-01

    Software reuse has become a major goal in the development of space systems, as a recent NASA-wide workshop on the subject made clear. The Data Systems Technology Division of Goddard Space Flight Center has been working on tools and techniques for promoting reuse, in particular in the development of satellite ground support software. One of these tools is the Experiment in Libraries via Incremental Schemata and Cobweb (ElvisC). ElvisC applies machine learning to the problem of organizing a reusable software component library for efficient and reliable retrieval. In this paper we describe the background factors that have motivated this work, present the design of the system, and evaluate the results of its application.

  6. Applications of Brain–Machine Interface Systems in Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Gerard E.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability, significantly impacting the quality of life (QOL) in survivors, and rehabilitation remains the mainstay of treatment in these patients. Recent engineering and technological advances such as brain-machine interfaces (BMI) and robotic rehabilitative devices are promising to enhance stroke neu-rorehabilitation, to accelerate functional recovery and improve QOL. This review discusses the recent applications of BMI and robotic-assisted rehabilitation in stroke patients. We present the framework for integrated BMI and robotic-assisted therapies, and discuss their potential therapeutic, assistive and diagnostic functions in stroke rehabilitation. Finally, we conclude with an outlook on the potential challenges and future directions of these neurotechnologies, and their impact on clinical rehabilitation. PMID:25110624

  7. Potential application of machine vision technology to saffron (Crocus sativus L.) quality characterization.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Sajad; Minaei, Saeid

    2016-12-01

    Saffron quality characterization is an important issue in the food industry and of interest to the consumers. This paper proposes an expert system based on the application of machine vision technology for characterization of saffron and shows how it can be employed in practical usage. There is a correlation between saffron color and its geographic location of production and some chemical attributes which could be properly used for characterization of saffron quality and freshness. This may be accomplished by employing image processing techniques coupled with multivariate data analysis for quantification of saffron properties. Expert algorithms can be made available for prediction of saffron characteristics such as color as well as for product classification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Application of two machine learning algorithms to genetic association studies in the presence of covariates

    PubMed Central

    Nonyane, Bareng AS; Foulkes, Andrea S

    2008-01-01

    Background Population-based investigations aimed at uncovering genotype-trait associations often involve high-dimensional genetic polymorphism data as well as information on multiple environmental and clinical parameters. Machine learning (ML) algorithms offer a straightforward analytic approach for selecting subsets of these inputs that are most predictive of a pre-defined trait. The performance of these algorithms, however, in the presence of covariates is not well characterized. Methods and Results In this manuscript, we investigate two approaches: Random Forests (RFs) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). Through multiple simulation studies, the performance under several underlying models is evaluated. An application to a cohort of HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapies is also provided. Conclusion Consistent with more traditional regression modeling theory, our findings highlight the importance of considering the nature of underlying gene-covariate-trait relationships before applying ML algorithms, particularly when there is potential confounding or effect mediation. PMID:19014573

  9. A 2.2M CMOS image sensor for high-speed machine vision applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyang; Bogaerts, Jan; Vanhorebeek, Guido; Ruythoren, Koen; Ceulemans, Bart; Lepage, Gérald; Willems, Pieter; Meynants, Guy

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a 2.2 Megapixel CMOS image sensor made in 0.18 μm CMOS process for high-speed machine vision applications. The sensor runs at 340 fps with digital output using 16 LVDS channels at 480MHz. The pixel array counts 2048x1088 pixels with a 5.5um pitch. The unique pixel architecture supports a true correlated double sampling, thus yields a noise level as low as 13 e- and a pixel parasitic light sensitivity (PLS) of 1/60 000. The sensitivity of the sensor is measured to be 4.64 Vlux.s and the pixel full well charge is 18k e-.

  10. Classifying spatial patterns of brain activity with machine learning methods: application to lie detection.

    PubMed

    Davatzikos, C; Ruparel, K; Fan, Y; Shen, D G; Acharyya, M; Loughead, J W; Gur, R C; Langleben, D D

    2005-11-15

    Patterns of brain activity during deception have recently been characterized with fMRI on the multi-subject average group level. The clinical value of fMRI in lie detection will be determined by the ability to detect deception in individual subjects, rather than group averages. High-dimensional non-linear pattern classification methods applied to functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) images were used to discriminate between the spatial patterns of brain activity associated with lie and truth. In 22 participants performing a forced-choice deception task, 99% of the true and false responses were discriminated correctly. Predictive accuracy, assessed by cross-validation in participants not included in training, was 88%. The results demonstrate the potential of non-linear machine learning techniques in lie detection and other possible clinical applications of fMRI in individual subjects, and indicate that accurate clinical tests could be based on measurements of brain function with fMRI.

  11. Multiple support vector machines for land cover change detection: An application for mapping urban extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemmour, Hassiba; Chibani, Youcef

    The reliability of support vector machines for classifying hyper-spectral images of remote sensing has been proven in various studies. In this paper, we investigate their applicability for land cover change detection. First, SVM-based change detection is presented and performed for mapping urban growth in the Algerian capital. Different performance indicators, as well as a comparison with artificial neural networks, are used to support our experimental analysis. In a second step, a combination framework is proposed to improve change detection accuracy. Two combination rules, namely, Fuzzy Integral and Attractor Dynamics, are implemented and evaluated with respect to individual SVMs. Recognition rates achieved by individual SVMs, compared to neural networks, confirm their efficiency for land cover change detection. Furthermore, the relevance of SVM combination is highlighted.

  12. Applications of Brain-Machine Interface Systems in Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, Anusha; Francisco, Gerard E; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2014-06-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability, significantly impacting the quality of life (QOL) in survivors, and rehabilitation remains the mainstay of treatment in these patients. Recent engineering and technological advances such as brain-machine interfaces (BMI) and robotic rehabilitative devices are promising to enhance stroke neu-rorehabilitation, to accelerate functional recovery and improve QOL. This review discusses the recent applications of BMI and robotic-assisted rehabilitation in stroke patients. We present the framework for integrated BMI and robotic-assisted therapies, and discuss their potential therapeutic, assistive and diagnostic functions in stroke rehabilitation. Finally, we conclude with an outlook on the potential challenges and future directions of these neurotechnologies, and their impact on clinical rehabilitation.

  13. Application of two machine learning algorithms to genetic association studies in the presence of covariates.

    PubMed

    Nonyane, Bareng A S; Foulkes, Andrea S

    2008-11-14

    Population-based investigations aimed at uncovering genotype-trait associations often involve high-dimensional genetic polymorphism data as well as information on multiple environmental and clinical parameters. Machine learning (ML) algorithms offer a straightforward analytic approach for selecting subsets of these inputs that are most predictive of a pre-defined trait. The performance of these algorithms, however, in the presence of covariates is not well characterized. In this manuscript, we investigate two approaches: Random Forests (RFs) and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS). Through multiple simulation studies, the performance under several underlying models is evaluated. An application to a cohort of HIV-1 infected individuals receiving anti-retroviral therapies is also provided. Consistent with more traditional regression modeling theory, our findings highlight the importance of considering the nature of underlying gene-covariate-trait relationships before applying ML algorithms, particularly when there is potential confounding or effect mediation.

  14. Synthesis of bioactive and machinable miserite glass-ceramics for dental implant applications.

    PubMed

    Saadaldin, Selma A; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Costa, Daniel O; Rizkalla, Amin S

    2013-06-01

    To synthesize and characterize machinable, bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) suitable for dental implant applications. A glass in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-CaF2-K2O-B2O3-La2O3 system was synthesized by wet chemical methods, followed by calcination, melting and quenching. Crystallization kinetics were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). GC discs were produced by cold pressing of the glass powder and sintered using schedules determined by DTA. The crystalline phases and microstructure of GC samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Dynamic Young's modulus (E), true hardness (Ho), fracture toughness (KIC) and brittleness index (BI) were evaluated. Bioactivity was studied by examining the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the GC surfaces after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Attachment and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells were assessed in vitro. Miserite [KCa5(Si2O7)(Si6O15)(OH)F] was the main crystalline phase of the GC with additional secondary phases. Microstructural studies revealed interlocking lath-like crystalline morphology. E, Ho, and KIC values for the GCs were 96±3 GPa, 5.27±0.26 GPa and 4.77±0.27 MPa m(0.5), respectively. The BI was found to be 1.11±0.05 μm(-0.5), indicating outstanding machinability. An HA surface layer was formed on the GC surfaces when soaked in SBF, indicating potential bioactivity. MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited attachment, spreading and proliferation on GC surfaces, demonstrating excellent biocompatibility. We present a novel approach for the synthesis of miserite GC with the physical and biological properties required for non-metallic dental implant applications. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent advances in ultrasonic-assisted machining for the fabrication of micro/nano-textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaolin; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto; Shimada, Keita; Mizutani, Masayoshi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the state of art of ultrasonic-assisted machining technologies used for fabrication of micro/nano-textured surfaces is reviewed. Diamond machining is the most widely used method in industry for manufacturing precision parts. For fabrication of fine structures on surfaces, conventional diamond machining methods are competitive by considering the precision of structures, but have limitations at machinable structures and machining efficiency, which have been proved to be partly solved by the integration of ultrasonic vibration motion. In this paper, existing ultrasonic-assisted machining methods for fabricating fine surface structures are reviewed and classified, and a rotary ultrasonic texturing (RUT) technology is mainly introduced by presenting the construction of vibration spindles, the texturing principles, and the applications of textured surfaces. Some new ideas and experimental results are presented. Finally, the challenges in using the RUT method to fabricate micro/ nano-textured surfaces are discussed with respect to texturing strategies, machinable structures, and tool wear.

  16. Recent advances in ultrasonic-assisted machining for the fabrication of micro/nano-textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shaolin; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto; Shimada, Keita; Mizutani, Masayoshi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the state of art of ultrasonicassisted machining technologies used for fabrication of micro/nano-textured surfaces is reviewed. Diamond machining is the most widely used method in industry for manufacturing precision parts. For fabrication of fine structures on surfaces, conventional diamond machining methods are competitive by considering the precision of structures, but have limitations at machinable structures and machining efficiency, which have been proved to be partly solved by the integration of ultrasonic vibration motion. In this paper, existing ultrasonic-assisted machining methods for fabricating fine surface structures are reviewed and classified, and a rotary ultrasonic texturing (RUT) technology is mainly introduced by presenting the construction of vibration spindles, the texturing principles, and the applications of textured surfaces. Some new ideas and experimental results are presented. Finally, the challenges in using the RUT method to fabricate micro/ nano-textured surfaces are discussed with respect to texturing strategies, machinable structures, and tool wear.

  17. Space Applications of Automation, Robotics and Machine Intelligence Systems (ARAMIS). Volume 4: Supplement, Appendix 4.3: Candidate ARAMIS Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. H.; Minsky, M. L.; Smith, D. B. S.

    1982-01-01

    Potential applications of automation, robotics, and machine intelligence systems (ARAMIS) to space activities, and to their related ground support functions, in the years 1985-2000, so that NASA may make informed decisions on which aspects of ARAMIS to develop. The study first identifies the specific tasks which will be required by future space projects. It then defines ARAMIS options which are candidates for those space project tasks, and evaluates the relative merits of these options. Finally, the study identifies promising applications of ARAMIS, and recommends specific areas for further research. The ARAMIS options defined and researched by the study group span the range from fully human to fully machine, including a number of intermediate options (e.g., humans assisted by computers, and various levels of teleoperation). By including this spectrum, the study searches for the optimum mix of humans and machines for space project tasks.

  18. Design Comparison of Inner and Outer Rotor of Permanent Magnet Flux Switching Machine for Electric Bicycle Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, L. I.; Sulaiman, E.; Bahrim, F. S.; Kumar, R.

    2017-08-01

    Recent advancements have led to the development of flux switching machines (FSMs) with flux sources within the stators. The advantage of being a single-piece machine with a robust rotor structure makes FSM an excellent choice for speed applications. There are three categories of FSM, namely, the permanent magnet (PM) FSM, the field excitation (FE) FSM, and the hybrid excitation (HE) FSM. The PMFSM and the FEFSM have their respective PM and field excitation coil (FEC) as their key flux sources. Meanwhile, as the name suggests, the HEFSM has a combination of PM and FECs as the flux sources. The PMFSM is a simple and cheap machine, and it has the ability to control variable flux, which would be suitable for an electric bicycle. Thus, this paper will present a design comparison between an inner rotor and an outer rotor for a single-phase permanent magnet flux switching machine with 8S-10P, designed specifically for an electric bicycle. The performance of this machine was validated using the 2D- FEA. As conclusion, the outer-rotor has much higher torque approximately at 54.2% of an innerrotor PMFSM. From the comprehensive analysis of both designs it can be conclude that output performance is lower than the SRM and IPMSM design machine. But, it shows that the possibility to increase the design performance by using “deterministic optimization method”.

  19. Static Electropulsing-Induced Microstructural Changes and Their Effect on the Ultra-Precision Machining of Cold-Rolled AZ91 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Duo; To, Suet; Zhu, Yao Hua; Wang, Hao; Tang, Guo Yi

    2012-04-01

    The effects of electropulsing on the phase transformations of a cold-rolled Mg-9Al-1Zn alloy were studied using X-ray diffraction, back-scattered electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical microscopy techniques. The results indicated that with increasing frequency of electropulsing, the decomposition and precipitation of β phase were tremendously accelerated sequentially. Electropulsing accelerated the decomposition of β phase by a factor of approximately 3600 times. The effects of the electropulsing-induced microstructural changes on machinability of the alloy, by single-point diamond turning, was discussed.

  20. Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection: A Special Issue on Machine Vision and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Forsyth, D. S.

    2010-06-05

    Imaging- and vision-based techniques play an important role in industrial inspection. The sophistication of the techniques assures high- quality performance of the manufacturing process through precise positioning, online monitoring, and real-time classification. Advanced systems incorporating multiple imaging and/or vision modalities provide robust solutions to complex situations and problems in industrial applications. A diverse range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, pharmaceutical, biomedical, semiconductor, and food/beverage, etc., have benefited from recent advances in multi-modal imaging, data fusion, and computer vision technologies. Many of the open problems in this context are in the general area of image analysis methodologies (preferably in an automated fashion). This editorial article introduces a special issue of this journal highlighting recent advances and demonstrating the successful applications of integrated imaging and vision technologies in industrial inspection.

  1. The application of GPS precise point positioning technology in aerial triangulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiuxiao; Fu, Jianhong; Sun, Hongxing; Toth, Charles

    In traditional GPS-supported aerotriangulation, differential GPS (DGPS) positioning technology is used to determine the 3-dimensional coordinates of the perspective centers at exposure time with an accuracy of centimeter to decimeter level. This method can significantly reduce the number of ground control points (GCPs). However, the establishment of GPS reference stations for DGPS positioning is not only labor-intensive and costly, but also increases the implementation difficulty of aerial photography. This paper proposes aerial triangulation supported with GPS precise point positioning (PPP) as a way to avoid the use of the GPS reference stations and simplify the work of aerial photography. Firstly, we present the algorithm for GPS PPP in aerial triangulation applications. Secondly, the error law of the coordinate of perspective centers determined using GPS PPP is analyzed. Thirdly, based on GPS PPP and aerial triangulation software self-developed by the authors, four sets of actual aerial images taken from surveying and mapping projects, different in both terrain and photographic scale, are given as experimental models. The four sets of actual data were taken over a flat region at a scale of 1:2500, a mountainous region at a scale of 1:3000, a high mountainous region at a scale of 1:32000 and an upland region at a scale of 1:60000 respectively. In these experiments, the GPS PPP results were compared with results obtained through DGPS positioning and traditional bundle block adjustment. In this way, the empirical positioning accuracy of GPS PPP in aerial triangulation can be estimated. Finally, the results of bundle block adjustment with airborne GPS controls from GPS PPP are analyzed in detail. The empirical results show that GPS PPP applied in aerial triangulation has a systematic error of half-meter level and a stochastic error within a few decimeters. However, if a suitable adjustment solution is adopted, the systematic error can be eliminated in GPS

  2. Precision of image-based registration for intraoperative navigation in the presence of metal artifacts: Application to corrective osteotomy surgery.

    PubMed

    Dobbe, J G G; Curnier, F; Rondeau, X; Streekstra, G J

    2015-06-01

    Navigation for corrective osteotomy surgery requires patient-to-image registration. When registration is based on intraoperative 3-D cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging, metal landmarks may be used that deteriorate image quality. This study investigates whether metal artifacts influence the precision of image-to-patient registration, either with or without intermediate user intervention during the registration procedure, in an application for corrective osteotomy of the distal radius. A series of 3-D CBCT scans is made of a cadaver arm with and without metal landmarks. Metal artifact reduction (MAR) based on inpainting techniques is used to improve 3-D CBCT images hampered by metal artifacts. This provides three sets of images (with metal, with MAR, and without metal), which enable investigating the differences in precision of intraoperative registration. Gray-level based point-to-image registration showed a better correlation coefficient if intraoperative images with MAR are used, indicating a better image similarity. The precision of registration without intermediate user intervention during the registration procedure, expressed as the residual angulation and displacement error after repetitive registration was very low and showed no improvement when MAR was used. By adding intermediate user intervention to the registration procedure however, precision was very high but was not affected by the presence of metal artifacts in the specific application.

  3. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  4. Application of Machine Learning Algorithms to the Study of Noise Artifacts in Gravitational-Wave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rahul; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Cao, Junwei; Essick, Reed; Hodge, Kari Alison; Katsavounidis, Erotokritos; Kim, Kyungmin; Young-Min, Kim; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Lee, Chang-Hwan; hide

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of searches for astrophysical transients in data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitationalwave Observatory (LIGO) is generally limited by the presence of transient, non-Gaussian noise artifacts, which occur at a high-enough rate such that accidental coincidence across multiple detectors is non-negligible. Furthermore, non-Gaussian noise artifacts typically dominate over the background contributed from stationary noise. These "glitches" can easily be confused for transient gravitational-wave signals, and their robust identification and removal will help any search for astrophysical gravitational-waves. We apply Machine Learning Algorithms (MLAs) to the problem, using data from auxiliary channels within the LIGO detectors that monitor degrees of freedom unaffected by astrophysical signals. Terrestrial noise sources may manifest characteristic disturbances in these auxiliary channels, inducing non-trivial correlations with glitches in the gravitational-wave data. The number of auxiliary-channel parameters describing these disturbances may also be extremely large; high dimensionality is an area where MLAs are particularly well-suited. We demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of three very different MLAs: Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, and Random Forests. These classifiers identify and remove a substantial fraction of the glitches present in two very different data sets: four weeks of LIGO's fourth science run and one week of LIGO's sixth science run. We observe that all three algorithms agree on which events are glitches to within 10% for the sixth science run data, and support this by showing that the different optimization criteria used by each classifier generate the same decision surface, based on a likelihood-ratio statistic. Furthermore, we find that all classifiers obtain similar limiting performance, suggesting that most of the useful information currently contained in the auxiliary channel parameters we extract

  5. Quantification of histone modification ChIP-seq enrichment for data mining and machine learning applications.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Stephen A; Xu, Xiaojiang; Bekiranov, Stefan

    2011-08-11

    The advent of ChIP-seq technology has made the investigation of epigenetic regulatory networks a computationally tractable problem. Several groups have applied statistical computing methods to ChIP-seq datasets to gain insight into the epigenetic regulation of transcription. However, methods for estimating enrichment levels in ChIP-seq data for these computational studies are understudied and variable. Since the conclusions drawn from these data mining and machine learning applications strongly depend on the enrichment level inputs, a comparison of estimation methods with respect to the performance of statistical models should be made. Various methods were used to estimate the gene-wise ChIP-seq enrichment levels for 20 histone methylations and the histone variant H2A.Z. The Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) algorithm was applied for each estimation method using the estimation of enrichment levels as predictors and gene expression levels as responses. The methods used to estimate enrichment levels included tag counting and model-based methods that were applied to whole genes and specific gene regions. These methods were also applied to various sizes of estimation windows. The MARS model performance was assessed with the Generalized Cross-Validation Score (GCV). We determined that model-based methods of enrichment estimation that spatially weight enrichment based on average patterns provided an improvement over tag counting methods. Also, methods that included information across the entire gene body provided improvement over methods that focus on a specific sub-region of the gene (e.g., the 5' or 3' region). The performance of data mining and machine learning methods when applied to histone modification ChIP-seq data can be improved by using data across the entire gene body, and incorporating the spatial distribution of enrichment. Refinement of enrichment estimation ultimately improved accuracy of model predictions.

  6. A Digital Liquid State Machine With Biologically Inspired Learning and Its Application to Speech Recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Peng; Jin, Yingyezhe; Choe, Yoonsuck

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a bioinspired digital liquid-state machine (LSM) for low-power very-large-scale-integration (VLSI)-based machine learning applications. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first work that employs a bioinspired spike-based learning algorithm for the LSM. With the proposed online learning, the LSM extracts information from input patterns on the fly without needing intermediate data storage as required in offline learning methods such as ridge regression. The proposed learning rule is local such that each synaptic weight update is based only upon the firing activities of the corresponding presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons without incurring global communications across the neural network. Compared with the backpropagation-based learning, the locality of computation in the proposed approach lends itself to efficient parallel VLSI implementation. We use subsets of the TI46 speech corpus to benchmark the bioinspired digital LSM. To reduce the complexity of the spiking neural network model without performance degradation for speech recognition, we study the impacts of synaptic models on the fading memory of the reservoir and hence the network performance. Moreover, we examine the tradeoffs between synaptic weight resolution, reservoir size, and recognition performance and present techniques to further reduce the overhead of hardware implementation. Our simulation results show that in terms of isolated word recognition evaluated using the TI46 speech corpus, the proposed digital LSM rivals the state-of-the-art hidden Markov-model-based recognizer Sphinx-4 and outperforms all other reported recognizers including the ones that are based upon the LSM or neural networks.

  7. [Application strategies of the third-generation EGFR-TKI in the context of precision medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Zhang, S J; Zhou, C C

    2017-02-23

    With the advances in molecular detection technology and the emergence of various targeted agents, we have entered the era of precision medicine across the whole process of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation, the most common driver, have been developed from the first generation to the third generation, improving the survival and life quality of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. It is critically important how to rank these targeted agents and arrange combination therapies, and this review will focus on the strategies of the third-generation EGFR-TKI in the context of precision medicine.

  8. Size-confined growth of atom-precise nanoclusters in metal-organic frameworks and their catalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lingli; Song, Yongbo; Chong, Hanbao; Yang, Sha; Xiang, Ji; Jin, Shan; Kang, Xi; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Haizhu; Zhu, Manzhou

    2016-01-01

    Using MOFs as size-selection templates, we have for the first time synthesized atom-precise Au11:PPh3 nanoclusters (NCs) and Au13Ag12:PPh3 NCs with high purity by a one-step, in situ reduction method. Specifically, we found that the product released from the frameworks of ZIF-8 is exclusively the Au11:PPh3 NCs rather than polydispersed NCs, and inside MIL-101(Cr) the Au13Ag12:PPh3 NCs constitute the exclusive product. The metal NC@MOF composites are also demonstrated for catalytic application. The high catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol indicates that atom-precise noble metal NCs@MOFs may act as a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts. The atom-precise NCs obtained in the MOF templated synthesis imply the future possibility of using MOFs of various pore sizes for the size-selective synthesis of atomically precise NCs. Meanwhile, metal NCs@MOFs will contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of nanocatalyst surface reactions and hence opens up enormous opportunities in heterogeneous catalysis.Using MOFs as size-selection templates, we have for the first time synthesized atom-precise Au11:PPh3 nanoclusters (NCs) and Au13Ag12:PPh3 NCs with high purity by a one-step, in situ reduction method. Specifically, we found that the product released from the frameworks of ZIF-8 is exclusively the Au11:PPh3 NCs rather than polydispersed NCs, and inside MIL-101(Cr) the Au13Ag12:PPh3 NCs constitute the exclusive product. The metal NC@MOF composites are also demonstrated for catalytic application. The high catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol indicates that atom-precise noble metal NCs@MOFs may act as a promising class of heterogeneous catalysts. The atom-precise NCs obtained in the MOF templated synthesis imply the future possibility of using MOFs of various pore sizes for the size-selective synthesis of atomically precise NCs. Meanwhile, metal NCs@MOFs will contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of nanocatalyst

  9. Multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver and its advantages in high-precision positioning applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Danan; Chen, Wen; Cai, Miaomiao; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Minghua; Yu, Chao; Zheng, Zhengqi; Wang, Yuanfei

    2016-12-01

    The multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver is a high precision, low cost, and widely used emerging receiver. Using this type of receiver, the satellite and receiver clock errors can be eliminated simultaneously by forming between antenna single-differences, which is equivalent to the conventional double-difference model. However, current multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receiver products have not fully realized their potential to achieve better accuracy, efficiency, and broader applications. This paper introduces the conceptual design and derivable products of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers involving the aspects of attitude determination, multipath effect mitigation, phase center variation correction, and ground-based carrier phase windup calibration. Through case studies, the advantages of multi-antenna synchronized global navigation satellite system receivers in high-precision positioning applications are demonstrated.

  10. Fine-tunable plasma nano-machining for fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures: SERS application.

    PubMed

    Mehrvar, L; Hajihoseini, H; Mahmoodi, H; Tavassoli, S H; Fathipour, M; Mohseni, S M

    2017-08-04

    Novel processing sequences for the fabrication of artificial nanostructures are in high demand for various applications. In this paper, we report on a fine-tunable nano-machining technique for the fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures. This technique originates from redeposition effects occurring during Ar dry etching of nano-patterns. Different geometries of honeycomb, double ring, nanotube, cone and crescent arrays have been successfully fabricated from various metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Ti. The geometrical parameters of the 3D hollow nanostructures can be straightforwardly controlled by tuning the discharge plasma pressure and power. The structure and morphology of nanostructures are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Finally, a Ag nanotube array was assayed for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), resulting in an enhancement factor (EF) of 5.5 × 10(5), as an experimental validity proof consistent with the presented simulation framework. Furthermore, it was found that the theoretical EF value for the honeycomb array is in the order of 10(7), a hundred times greater than that found in nanotube array.

  11. Design Considerations of a Transverse Flux Machine for Direct-Drive Wind Turbine Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Tausif; Hasan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design considerations of a double-sided transverse flux machine (TFM) for direct-drive wind turbine applications. The TFM has a modular structure with quasi-U stator cores and ring windings. The rotor is constructed with ferrite magnets in a flux-concentrating arrangement to achieve high air gap flux density. The design considerations for this TFM with respect to initial sizing, pole number selection, key design ratios, and pole shaping are presented in this paper. Pole number selection is critical in the design process of a TFM because it affects both the torque density and power factor under fixed magnetic and changing electrical loading. Several key design ratios are introduced to facilitate the design procedure. The effect of pole shaping on back-emf and inductance is also analyzed. These investigations provide guidance toward the required design of a TFM for direct-drive applications. The analyses are carried out using analytical and three-dimensional finite element analysis. A prototype is under construction for experimental verification.

  12. Application of machine learning algorithms for clinical predictive modeling: a data-mining approach in SCT.

    PubMed

    Shouval, R; Bondi, O; Mishan, H; Shimoni, A; Unger, R; Nagler, A

    2014-03-01

    Data collected from hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) centers are becoming more abundant and complex owing to the formation of organized registries and incorporation of biological data. Typically, conventional statistical methods are used for the development of outcome prediction models and risk scores. However, these analyses carry inherent properties limiting their ability to cope with large data sets with multiple variables and samples. Machine learning (ML), a field stemming from artificial intelligence, is part of a wider approach for data analysis termed data mining (DM). It enables prediction in complex data scenarios, familiar to practitioners and researchers. Technological and commercial applications are all around us, gradually entering clinical research. In the following review, we would like to expose hematologists and stem cell transplanters to the concepts, clinical applications, strengths and limitations of such methods and discuss current research in HSCT. The aim of this review is to encourage utilization of the ML and DM techniques in the field of HSCT, including prediction of transplantation outcome and donor selection.

  13. Fine-tunable plasma nano-machining for fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures: SERS application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrvar, L.; Hajihoseini, H.; Mahmoodi, H.; Tavassoli, S. H.; Fathipour, M.; Mohseni, S. M.

    2017-08-01

    Novel processing sequences for the fabrication of artificial nanostructures are in high demand for various applications. In this paper, we report on a fine-tunable nano-machining technique for the fabrication of 3D hollow nanostructures. This technique originates from redeposition effects occurring during Ar dry etching of nano-patterns. Different geometries of honeycomb, double ring, nanotube, cone and crescent arrays have been successfully fabricated from various metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Ti. The geometrical parameters of the 3D hollow nanostructures can be straightforwardly controlled by tuning the discharge plasma pressure and power. The structure and morphology of nanostructures are probed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Finally, a Ag nanotube array was assayed for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), resulting in an enhancement factor (EF) of 5.5 × 105, as an experimental validity proof consistent with the presented simulation framework. Furthermore, it was found that the theoretical EF value for the honeycomb array is in the order of 107, a hundred times greater than that found in nanotube array.

  14. Covariate-Adjusted Precision Matrix Estimation with an Application in Genetical Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Cai, T. Tony; Li, Hongzhe; Liu, Weidong; Xie, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Summary Motivated by analysis of genetical genomics data, we introduce a sparse high dimensional multivariate regression model for studying conditional independence relationships among a set of genes adjusting for possible genetic effects. The precision matrix in the model specifies a covariate-adjusted Gaussian graph, which presents the conditional dependence structure of gene expression after the confounding genetic effects on gene expression are taken into account. We present a covariate-adjusted precision matrix estimation method using a constrained ℓ1 minimization, which can be easily implemented by linear programming. Asymptotic convergence rates in various matrix norms and sign consistency are established for the estimators of the regression coefficients and the precision matrix, allowing both the number of genes and the number of the genetic variants to diverge. Simulation shows that the proposed method results in significant improvements in both precision matrix estimation and graphical structure selection when compared to the standard Gaussian graphical model assuming constant means. The proposed method is also applied to analyze a yeast genetical genomics data for the identification of the gene network among a set of genes in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

  15. Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The effects of ionospheric and tropospheric propagation on time and frequency transfer, advances in the generation of precise time and frequency, time transfer techniques and filtering and modeling were among the topics emphasized. Rubidium and cesium frequency standard, crystal oscillators, masers, Kalman filters, and atomic clocks were discussed.

  16. LAI-2000 Accuracy, Precision, and Application to Visual Estimation of Leaf Area Index of Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Jason A. Gatch; Timothy B. Harrington; James P. Castleberry

    2002-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter of forest stand productivity that has been used to diagnose stand vigor and potential fertilizer response of southern pines. The LAI-2000 was tested for its ability to provide accurate and precise estimates of LAI of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). To test instrument accuracy, regression was used to...

  17. Airborne and satellite imagery for mapping crop yield variability and other precision agriculture applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With increased use of precision agriculture techniques, information concerning within-field yield variability is becoming important for effective crop management. Despite the commercial availability of yield monitors, most of the harvesters are not equipped with them. Moreover, yield monitor data ca...

  18. Universal, computer facilitated, steady state oscillator, closed loop analysis theory and some applications to precision oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parzen, Benjamin

    1992-01-01

    The theory of oscillator analysis in the immittance domain should be read in conjunction with the additional theory presented here. The combined theory enables the computer simulation of the steady state oscillator. The simulation makes the calculation of the oscillator total steady state performance practical, including noise at all oscillator locations. Some specific precision oscillators are analyzed.

  19. Development of laser-guided precision sprayers for tree crop applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tree crops in nurseries and orchards have great variations in shapes, sizes, canopy densities and gaps between in-row trees. The variability requires future sprayers to be flexible to spray the amount of chemicals that can match tree structures. A precision air-assisted sprayer was developed to appl...

  20. Application of the precision agricultural landscape modeling system in semiarid environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Precision Agricultural Landscape Modeling System (PALMS) is a terrain and weather driven, distributed parameter hydrological-biophysical model primarily used in the Midwestern United States. Recently, research was started to evaluate the effectiveness of PALMS on irrigated and on dryland croppin...

  1. A restriction enzyme-powered autonomous DNA walking machine: its application for a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence assay of DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Xiang, Yun; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2015-01-21

    The construction of a restriction enzyme (Nt.AlwI)-powered DNA walking machine and its application for highly sensitive detection of DNA are described. DNA nanostructure tracks containing four overhang sequences with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) labels and complementary to the walker (target DNA) are self-assembled on the sensing electrode. The walker hybridizes with the complementary sequences on the tracks and forms specific recognition sites for Nt.AlwI, which cleaves the overhang sequences, releases the ECL labels and enables directional movement of the walker along the tracks. The formation of the nanostructure tracks and the Nt.AlwI-assisted cleavage of the overhang sequences in the presence of the walker are verified by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and cyclic voltammetry. The successive movement of the walker on the nanostructure tracks leads to continuous removal of massive ECL labels from the sensing electrode, which results in a significantly amplified suppression of the ECL emission for highly sensitive detection of sequence-specific DNA down to 0.19 pM. Results show that this DNA walking machine can also offer single-base mismatch discrimination capability. The successful application of the DNA walking machine for sequence-specific DNA detection can thus offer new opportunities for molecular machines in biosensing applications.

  2. Machine Learning Applications to Resting-State Functional MR Imaging Analysis.

    PubMed

    Billings, John M; Eder, Maxwell; Flood, William C; Dhami, Devendra Singh; Natarajan, Sriraam; Whitlow, Christopher T

    2017-11-01

    Machine learning is one of the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields within computer science. Academic and commercial research entities are investing in machine learning methods, especially in personalized medicine via patient-level classification. There is great promise that machine learning methods combined with resting state functional MR imaging will aid in diagnosis of disease and guide potential treatment for conditions thought to be impossible to identify based on imaging alone, such as psychiatric disorders. We discuss machine learning methods and explore recent advances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Topologies for three-phase wound-field salient rotor switched-flux machines for HEV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Faisal; Sulaiman, Erwan; Ahmad, Md Zarafi; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat

    2015-05-01

    Wound-field switched-flux machines (WFSFM) have an intrinsic simplicity and high speed that make them well suited to many hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. However, overlap armature and field windings raised the copper losses in these machines. Furthermore, in previous design segmented-rotor is used which made the rotor less robust. To overcome these problems, this paper presents novel topologies for three-phase wound-field switched-flux machines. Both armature and field winding are located on the stator and rotor is composed of only stack of iron. Non-overlap armature and field windings and toothed-rotor are the clear advantages of these topologies as the copper losses gets reduce and rotor becomes more robust. Design feasibility and performance analysis of 12 slots and different rotor pole numbers are examined on the basis of coil arrangement test, peak armature flux linkage, back emf, cogging torque and average torque by using Finite Element Analysis(FEA).

  4. Investigation of surface roughness in micro-electro discharge machining of nonconductive ZrO2 for MEMS application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabur, A.; Moudood, A.; Y Ali, M.; Maleque, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Micro-electro discharge machining technique, a noncontact machining process, is applied for drilling blind hole on nonconductive ZrO2 ceramic for MEMS application. A conductive layer of adhesive copper is applied on the workpiece surface to initiate the sparks. Kerosene is used as dielectric for creation of continuous conductive pyrolytic carbon layer on the machined surface. Experiments are conducted by varying the voltage (V), capacitance (C) and rotational speed (N). Correlating these variables a mathematical model for surface roughness (SR) is developed using Taguchi method. The results showed that the V and C are the significant parameters of SR in micro-EDM for nonconductive ZrO2 ceramic. The model also showed that SR increases with the increase of V and C.

  5. Weldability, machinability and surfacing of commercial duplex stainless steel AISI2205 for marine applications - A recent review.

    PubMed

    Vinoth Jebaraj, A; Ajaykumar, L; Deepak, C R; Aditya, K V V

    2017-05-01

    In the present review, attempts have been made to analyze the metallurgical, mechanical, and corrosion properties of commercial marine alloy duplex stainless steel AISI 2205 with special reference to its weldability, machinability, and surfacing. In the first part, effects of various fusion and solid-state welding processes on joining DSS 2205 with similar and dissimilar metals are addressed. Microstructural changes during the weld cooling cycle such as austenite reformation, partitioning of alloying elements, HAZ transformations, and the intermetallic precipitations are analyzed and compared with the different welding techniques. In the second part, machinability of DSS 2205 is compared with the commercial ASS grades in order to justify the quality of machining. In the third part, the importance of surface quality in a marine exposure is emphasized and the enhancement of surface properties through peening techniques is highlighted. The research gaps and inferences highlighted in this review will be more useful for the fabrications involved in the marine applications.

  6. Application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and cuckoo optimization algorithm for analyzing electro chemical machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teimouri, Reza; Sohrabpoor, Hamed

    2013-12-01

    Electrochemical machining process (ECM) is increasing its importance due to some of the specific advantages which can be exploited during machining operation. The process offers several special privileges such as higher machining rate, better accuracy and control, and wider range of materials that can be machined. Contribution of too many predominate parameters in the process, makes its prediction and selection of optimal values really complex, especially while the process is programmized for machining of hard materials. In the present work in order to investigate effects of electrolyte concentration, electrolyte flow rate, applied voltage and feed rate on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (SR) the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) have been used for creation predictive models based on experimental observations. Then the ANFIS 3D surfaces have been plotted for analyzing effects of process parameters on MRR and SR. Finally, the cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA) was used for selection solutions in which the process reaches maximum material removal rate and minimum surface roughness simultaneously. Results indicated that the ANFIS technique has superiority in modeling of MRR and SR with high prediction accuracy. Also, results obtained while applying of COA have been compared with those derived from confirmatory experiments which validate the applicability and suitability of the proposed techniques in enhancing the performance of ECM process.

  7. How Precise Are Preinterventional Measurements Using Centerline Analysis Applications? Objective Ground Truth Evaluation Reveals Software-Specific Centerline Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hoegen, Philipp; Wörz, Stefan; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Liao, Wei; Rohr, Karl; Schmitt, Matthias; Rengier, Fabian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate different centerline analysis applications using objective ground truth from realistic aortic aneurysm phantoms with precisely defined geometry and centerlines to overcome the lack of unknown true dimensions in previously published in vivo validation studies. Three aortic phantoms were created using computer-aided design (CAD) software and a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. Computed tomography angiograms (CTAs) of phantoms and 3 patients were analyzed with 3 clinically approved and 1 research software application. The 3D centerline coordinates, intraluminal diameters, and lengths were validated against CAD ground truth using a dedicated evaluation software platform. The 3D centerline position mean error ranged from 0.7±0.8 to 2.9±2.5 mm between tested applications. All applications calculated centerlines significantly different from ground truth. Diameter mean errors varied from 0.5±1.2 to 1.1±1.0 mm among 3 applications, but exceeded 8.0±11.0 mm with one application due to an unsteady distortion of luminal dimensions along the centerline. All tested commercially available software tools systematically underestimated centerline total lengths by -4.6±0.9 mm to -10.4±4.3 mm (maximum error -14.6 mm). Applications with the highest 3D centerline accuracy yielded the most precise diameter and length measurements. One clinically approved application did not provide reproducible centerline-based analysis results, while another approved application showed length errors that might influence stent-graft choice and procedure success. The variety and specific characteristics of endovascular aneurysm repair planning software tools require scientific evaluation and user awareness.

  8. A review of the applications of data mining and machine learning for the prediction of biomedical properties of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jones, David E; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Facelli, Julio C

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of applications of data mining and machine learning for the prediction of biomedical properties of nanoparticles of medical interest. The papers reviewed here present the results of research using these techniques to predict the biological fate and properties of a variety of nanoparticles relevant to their biomedical applications. These include the influence of particle physicochemical properties on cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, molecular loading, and molecular release in addition to manufacturing properties like nanoparticle size, and polydispersity. Overall, the results are encouraging and suggest that as more systematic data from nanoparticles becomes available, machine learning and data mining would become a powerful aid in the design of nanoparticles for biomedical applications. There is however the challenge of great heterogeneity in nanoparticles, which will make these discoveries more challenging than for traditional small molecule drug design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application and testing of additive manufacturing for mirrors and precision structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael; Acreman, Martyn; Vettese, Tom; Myatt, Ray; Thompson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Additive Manufacturing (aka AM, and 3-D printing) is widely touted in the media as the foundation for the next industrial revolution. Beneath the hype, AM does indeed offer profound advantages in lead-time, dramatically reduced consumption of expensive raw materials, while enabling new and innovative design forms that cannot be produced by other means. General Dynamics and their industry partners have begun to embrace this technology for mirrors and precision structures used in the aerospace, defense, and precision optical instrumentation industries. Aggressively lightweighted, open and closed back test mirror designs, 75-150 mm in size, were first produced by AM from several different materials. Subsequent optical finishing and test experiments have exceeded expectations for density, surface finish, dimensional stability and isotropy of thermal expansion on the optical scale of measurement. Materials currently under examination include aluminum, titanium, beryllium, aluminum beryllium, Inconel 625, stainless steel/bronze, and PEKK polymer.

  10. [The new challenge in oncology: Next-generation sequencing and its application in precision medicine].

    PubMed

    Calabria, Inés; Pedrola, Laia; Berlanga, Pablo; Aparisi, María José; Sánchez-Izquierdo, Dolors; Cañete, Adela; Cervera, José; Millán, José María; Castel, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    Precision Medicine is an emerging approach for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of genetic diseases that enables clinicians to more accurately predict which treatment strategy will be optimal in a patient. The aim of Precision Medicine in Oncology is to integrate clinical, histological, and molecular data in order to obtain a deeper knowledge about the biology and genetics of an individual's tumour. Over the last few years, the implementation of new NGS (Next Generation Sequencing) technologies into clinical practice has been essential. There is a wide variety of NGS techniques that can be used in this context. The correct interpretation of molecular changes detected by these techniques is paramount for their appropriate use. In this review, a discussion is presented on the main NGS sequencing technologies that can be used to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of oncology patients.

  11. High precision (14 bit), high density (octal) analog to digital converter for spectroscopy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, E. T.; Jain, Mamta; Bhowmik, R. K.; Tripon, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear and particle physics experiments with large number of detectors require signal processing and data collection strategies that call for the ability to collect large amount of data while not sacrificing the precision and accuracy of the data being collected. This paper deals with the development of a high precision pulse peak detection, analog to digital converter (ADC) module with eight independent channels in plug-in daughter card motherboard model, best suited for spectroscopy experiments. This module provides multiple channels without cross-talk and of 14 bit resolution, while maintaining high density (each daughter card has an area of just 4.2″×0.51″) and exhibiting excellent integral nonlinearity (≤±2 mV or ±0.02% full scale reading) and differential nonlinearity (≤±1%). It was designed, developed and tested, in house, and gives added advantages of cost effectiveness and ease of maintenance.

  12. Roadmap to a Comprehensive Clinical Data Warehouse for Precision Medicine Applications in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Foran, David J; Chen, Wenjin; Chu, Huiqi; Sadimin, Evita; Loh, Doreen; Riedlinger, Gregory; Goodell, Lauri A; Ganesan, Shridar; Hirshfield, Kim; Rodriguez, Lorna; DiPaola, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Leading institutions throughout the country have established Precision Medicine programs to support personalized treatment of patients. A cornerstone for these programs is the establishment of enterprise-wide Clinical Data Warehouses. Working shoulder-to-shoulder, a team of physicians, systems biologists, engineers, and scientists at Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey have designed, developed, and implemented the Warehouse with information originating from data sources, including Electronic Medical Records, Clinical Trial Management Systems, Tumor Registries, Biospecimen Repositories, Radiology and Pathology archives, and Next Generation Sequencing services. Innovative solutions were implemented to detect and extract unstructured clinical information that was embedded in paper/text documents, including synoptic pathology reports. Supporting important precision medicine use cases, the growing Warehouse enables physicians to systematically mine and review the molecular, genomic, image-based, and correlated clinical information of patient tumors individually or as part of large cohorts to identify changes and patterns that may influence treatment decisions and potential outcomes. PMID:28469389

  13. Roadmap to a Comprehensive Clinical Data Warehouse for Precision Medicine Applications in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Foran, David J; Chen, Wenjin; Chu, Huiqi; Sadimin, Evita; Loh, Doreen; Riedlinger, Gregory; Goodell, Lauri A; Ganesan, Shridar; Hirshfield, Kim; Rodriguez, Lorna; DiPaola, Robert S

    2017-01-01

    Leading institutions throughout the country have established Precision Medicine programs to support personalized treatment of patients. A cornerstone for these programs is the establishment of enterprise-wide Clinical Data Warehouses. Working shoulder-to-shoulder, a team of physicians, systems biologists, engineers, and scientists at Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey have designed, developed, and implemented the Warehouse with information originating from data sources, including Electronic Medical Records, Clinical Trial Management Systems, Tumor Registries, Biospecimen Repositories, Radiology and Pathology archives, and Next Generation Sequencing services. Innovative solutions were implemented to detect and extract unstructured clinical information that was embedded in paper/text documents, including synoptic pathology reports. Supporting important precision medicine use cases, the growing Warehouse enables physicians to systematically mine and review the molecular, genomic, image-based, and correlated clinical information of patient tumors individually or as part of large cohorts to identify changes and patterns that may influence treatment decisions and potential outcomes.

  14. Precision molding of optics: a review of its development and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Liu, G.; Zhao, X.; Dambon, Olaf; Klocke, F.; Yi, A. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Compression molding of precision optics is gradually becoming a viable manufacturing process for low cost high performance optical elements. In this process, a glass preform in the form of gob or disk is heated rapidly above its glass transition temperature then pressed between two optical mold halves to finish dimensions. The molded lens is first cooled slowly then at a fast cooling rate to room temperature to complete the process. For more than a decade, the authors have conducted a collaborated research in glass molding using both experiments and numerical modeling. In this presentation, we will discuss the recent work in molding of both conventional glass optics and extreme high temperature glass optics - fused silica material. In addition, development of graphene like coatings for precision glass molding will also be described.

  15. High precision high voltage divider and its application to electron beam ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W. D.; Xiao, J.; Shen, Y.; Fu, Y. Q.; Meng, F. C.; Chen, C. Y.; Zou, Y.; Hutton, R.

    2008-12-15

    A high precision high voltage divider has been developed for the electron beam ion trap in Shanghai. The uncertainty caused by the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the voltage coefficient of resistance has been studied in detail and was minimized to the level of ppm (10{sup -6}) range. Once the TCR was matched between the resistors, the precision of the dividing ratio finally reached the ppm range also. We measured the delay of the divider caused by the capacitor introduced to minimize voltage ripple to be 2.35 ms. Finally we applied the divider to an experiment to measure resonant energies for some dielectronic recombination processes for highly charged xenon ions. The final energies include corrections for both space charge and fringe field effects are mostly under 0.03%.

  16. High precision (14 bit), high density (octal) analog to digital converter for spectroscopy applications.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, E T; Jain, Mamta; Bhowmik, R K; Tripon, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear and particle physics experiments with large number of detectors require signal processing and data collection strategies that call for the ability to collect large amount of data while not sacrificing the precision and accuracy of the data being collected. This paper deals with the development of a high precision pulse peak detection, analog to digital converter (ADC) module with eight independent channels in plug-in daughter card motherboard model, best suited for spectroscopy experiments. This module provides multiple channels without cross-talk and of 14 bit resolution, while maintaining high density (each daughter card has an area of just 4.2(")x0.51(")) and exhibiting excellent integral nonlinearity (< or = +/-2 mV or +/-0.02% full scale reading) and differential nonlinearity (< or = +/-1%). It was designed, developed and tested, in house, and gives added advantages of cost effectiveness and ease of maintenance.

  17. Novel application of heuristic optimisation enables the creation and thorough evaluation of robust support vector machine ensembles for machine learning applications.

    PubMed

    Chatzimichali, Eleni Anthippi; Bessant, Conrad

    Today's researchers have access to an unprecedented range of powerful machine learning tools with which to build models for classifying samples according to their metabolomic profile (e.g. separating diseased samples from healthy controls). However, such powerful tools need to be used with caution and the diagnostic performance of models produced by them should be rigorously evaluated if their output is to be believed. This involves considerable processing time, and has hitherto required expert knowledge in machine learning. By adopting a constrained nonlinear simplex optimisation for the tuning of support vector machines (SVMs) we have reduced SVM training times more than tenfold compared to a traditional grid search, allowing us to implement a high performance R package that makes it possible for a typical bench scientist to produce powerful SVM ensemble classifiers within a reasonable timescale, with automated bootstrapped training and rigorous permutation testing. This puts a state-of-the-art open source multivariate classification pipeline into the hands of every metabolomics researcher, allowing them to build robust classification models with realistic performance metrics.

  18. Precision laser range finder system design for Advanced Technology Laboratory applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, K. E.; Kohn, R. L.; Seib, D. H.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary system design of a pulsed precision ruby laser rangefinder system is presented which has a potential range resolution of 0.4 cm when atmospheric effects are negligible. The system being proposed for flight testing on the advanced technology laboratory (ATL) consists of a modelocked ruby laser transmitter, course and vernier rangefinder receivers, optical beacon retroreflector tracking system, and a network of ATL tracking retroreflectors. Performance calculations indicate that spacecraft to ground ranging accuracies of 1 to 2 cm are possible.

  19. Clinical Application of a Modular Genomics Technique in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Progress towards Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Bethany J.; Allaire, Norm; Ranger, Ann; Hardiman, Gary; Petri, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring disease activity in a complex, heterogeneous disease such as lupus is difficult. Both over- and undertreatment lead to damage. Current standard of care serologies are unreliable. Better measures of disease activity are necessary as we move into the era of precision medicine. We show here the use of a data-driven, modular approach to genomic biomarker development within lupus—specifically lupus nephritis. PMID:27656648

  20. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Dragon, Ernest P.; Warner, Bruce E.

    1998-01-01

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialogroaphic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone.