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Sample records for precision-cut testicular tissue

  1. [Cryopreservation of testicular tissue in children].

    PubMed

    Rives, Nathalie; Milazzo, Jean-Pierre; Travers, Albanne; Arkoun, Brahim; Bironneau, Amandine; Sibert, Louis; Liard-Zmuda, Agnès; Marie-Cardine, Aude; Schneider, Pascale; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Macé, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of cancer therapies can affect all organs and tissues. Some treatments damage spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), with a risk of infertility. Storage and reimplantation of frozen testicular tissue is a recent approach tofertilitypreservationfor young boys. However, thawed frozen prepubertal testicular tissue must undergo a maturation process to restore sperm production. This process, currently being studied in animal models, can be achieved by in vivo transplantation of SSCs into seminiferous tubules or by testicular grafting, possibly following in vitro maturation. PMID:25518156

  2. Cryopreserved Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices as a Bioassay for Live Tissue Banking. A Viability Study of Bronchodilation with Bitter-Taste Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Patel, Kruti R; Rosas, Ivan; Sanderson, Michael J; Ai, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Human precision-cut lung slices (hPCLSs) provide a unique ex vivo model for translational research. However, the limited and unpredictable availability of human lung tissue greatly impedes their use. Here, we demonstrate that cryopreservation of hPCLSs facilitates banking of live human lung tissue for routine use. Our results show that cryopreservation had little effect on overall cell viability and vital functions of immune cells, including phagocytes and T lymphocytes. In addition, airway contraction and relaxation in response to specific agonists and antagonists, respectively, were unchanged after cryopreservation. At the subcellular level, cryopreserved hPCLSs maintained Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory mechanisms for the control of airway smooth muscle cell contractility. To exemplify the use of cryopreserved hPCLSs in smooth muscle research, we provide evidence that bitter-taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists relax airways by blocking Ca(2+) oscillations in airway smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, the banking of cryopreserved hPCLSs provides a robust bioassay for translational research of lung physiology and disease. PMID:26550921

  3. Cryopreserved Human Precision-Cut Lung Slices as a Bioassay for Live Tissue Banking. A Viability Study of Bronchodilation with Bitter-Taste Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Krishnamoorthy, Nandini; Patel, Kruti R; Rosas, Ivan; Sanderson, Michael J; Ai, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Human precision-cut lung slices (hPCLSs) provide a unique ex vivo model for translational research. However, the limited and unpredictable availability of human lung tissue greatly impedes their use. Here, we demonstrate that cryopreservation of hPCLSs facilitates banking of live human lung tissue for routine use. Our results show that cryopreservation had little effect on overall cell viability and vital functions of immune cells, including phagocytes and T lymphocytes. In addition, airway contraction and relaxation in response to specific agonists and antagonists, respectively, were unchanged after cryopreservation. At the subcellular level, cryopreserved hPCLSs maintained Ca(2+)-dependent regulatory mechanisms for the control of airway smooth muscle cell contractility. To exemplify the use of cryopreserved hPCLSs in smooth muscle research, we provide evidence that bitter-taste receptor (TAS2R) agonists relax airways by blocking Ca(2+) oscillations in airway smooth muscle cells. In conclusion, the banking of cryopreserved hPCLSs provides a robust bioassay for translational research of lung physiology and disease.

  4. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  5. Parents' choices in banking boys' testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2010-12-01

    Researchers are working to derive sperm from banked testicular tissue taken from pre-pubertal boys who face therapies or injuries that destroy sperm production. Success in deriving sperm from this tissue will help to preserve the option for these boys to have genetically related children later in life. For the twin moral reasons of preserving access and equity in regard to having such children, clinicians and researchers are justified in offering the option to the parents of all affected boys. However, some parents may wish to decline the option to bank tissue from their boys because the technique may seem too unfamiliar or unusual, but over time people may become more comfortable with the technique as they have done with other novel assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs). Other parents may wish to decline the option because of moral or religious reasons. A prominent natural law theory holds, for example, that the ARTs that would be involved in using sperm derived from banked tissue to produce a child are morally objectionable. Some parents might not want to bank tissue in order to shield their son from using ARTs they see as objectionable. Clinicians and researchers should respect parents who wish to decline banking tissue, but parents should ordinarily embrace choices that protect the possible interests their sons may have as adult men, including the wish to have genetically related children.

  6. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  7. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  8. Developmental Potential of Vitrified Mouse Testicular Tissue after Ectopic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yamini, Nazila; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Amidi, Fardin; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ataei Nejad, Nahid; Mougahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue should be considered as an important factor for fertility preservation in young boys with cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate whether immature testicular tissue of mice can be successfully cryopreserved using a simple vitrification procedure to maintain testicular cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, immature mice testicular tissue fragments (0.5-1 mm²) were vitrified-warmed in order to assess the effect of vitrification on testicular tissue cell viability. Trypan blue staining was used to evaluate developmental capacity. Vitrified tissue (n=42) and fresh (control, n=42) were ectopically transplanted into the same strain of mature mice (n=14) with normal immunity. After 4 weeks, the graft recovery rate was determined. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to evaluate germ cell differentiation, immunohistochemistry staining by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) assay for proliferation and apoptosis frequency. Results Vitrification did not affect the percentage of cell viability. Vascular anastomoses was seen at the graft site. The recovery rate of the vitrified graft did not significantly differ with the fresh graft. In the vitrified graft, germ cell differentiation developed up to the secondary spermatocyte, which was similar to fresh tissue. Proliferation and apoptosis in the vitrified tissue was comparable to the fresh graft. Conclusion Vitrification resulted in a success rates similar to fresh tissue (control) in maintaining testicular cell viability and tissue function. These data provided further evidence that vitrification could be considered an alternative for cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue. PMID:27054121

  9. Expanding access to testicular tissue cryopreservation: an analysis by analogy.

    PubMed

    Ruutiainen, Tuua; Miller, Steve; Caplan, Arthur; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are developing a fertility preservation technique--testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP)--for prepubescent boys who may become infertile as a result of their cancer treatment. Although this technique is still in development, some researchers are calling for its widespread use. They argue that if boys do not bank their tissue now, they will be unable to benefit from any therapies that might be developed in the future. There are, however, risks involved with increasing access to an investigational procedure. This article examines four methods of expanding access to TTCP: (1) expansion of institutional review board (IRB)-approved research trials; (2) offering TTCP as an innovative procedure in hospitals; (3) offering TTCP as a standard practice in hospitals; and (4) commercialization of TTCP. The ethical and practical implications of each are evaluated through a comparison with umbilical cord blood banking (UCBB), a technology that has achieved widespread use based on similar claims of future benefit. PMID:23428034

  10. Screening for Chemical Toxicity Using Cryopreserved Precision Cut Lung Slices.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christa Y; Damiani, Flavia; Ram-Mohan, Sumati; Rodrigues, Sylvia; de Moura Queiroz, Priscila; Donaghey, Thomas C; Rosenblum Lichtenstein, Jamie H; Brain, Joseph D; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Molina, Ramon M

    2016-03-01

    To assess chemical toxicity, current high throughput screening (HTS) assays rely primarily on in vitro measurements using cultured cells. Responses frequently differ from in vivo results due to the lack of physical and humoral interactions provided by the extracellular matrix, cell-cell interactions, and other molecular components of the native organ. To more accurately reproduce organ complexity in HTS, we developed an organotypic assay using the cryopreserved precision cut lung slice (PCLS) from rats and mice. Compared to the never-frozen PCLS, their frozen-thawed counterpart slices showed viability or metabolic activity that is decreased to an extent comparable to that observed in other cryopreserved cells and tissues, but shows no differences in further changes in cell viability, mitochondrial integrity, and glutathione activity in response to the model toxin zinc chloride (ZnCl2). Notably, these measurements were successfully miniaturized so as to establish HTS capacity in a 96-well plate format. Finally, PCLS responses correlated with common markers of lung injury measured in lavage fluid from rats intratracheally instilled with ZnCl2. In summary, we establish that the cryopreserved PCLS is a feasible approach for HTS investigations in predictive toxicology. PMID:26719368

  11. Xenografting of testicular tissue pieces: twelve years of an in vivo spermatogenesis system

    PubMed Central

    Arregui, Lucía; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a dynamic and complex process that involves endocrine and testicular factors. During xenotransplantation of testicular tissue fragments into immunodecifient mice a functional communication between host brain and donor testis is established. This interaction allows for the progression of spermatogenesis and recovery of fertilization-competent spermatozoa from a broad range of mammalian species. In the last years, significant progress has been achieved in testis tissue xenografting that improves our knowledge about factors determining the success of grafting. The goal of this review is to provide up to date information about the role of factors such as donor age, donor species, testis tissue preservation or type of recipient mouse on the efficiency of this technique. Applications are described and compared with other techniques with similar purposes. Recent work demonstrates that testicular tissue xenografting is used as a model to study gonadotoxicity of drugs and to obtain sperm from valuable young males. PMID:25150043

  12. Thymoquinone ameliorates testicular tissue inflammation induced by chronic administration of oral sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, A; Al-Gayyar, M M H

    2016-06-01

    Although sodium nitrite has been widely used as food preservative, building bases of scientific evidence about nitrite continues to oppose the general safety in human health. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ) has therapeutic potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both sodium nitrite and TQ on testicular tissues of rats. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. They received either 80 mg kg(-1) sodium nitrite or 50 mg kg(-1) TQ daily for twelve weeks. Serum testosterone was measured. Testis were weighed and the testicular tissue homogenates were used for measurements of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL10, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Sodium nitrite resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone concentration and elevation in testis weight and Gonado-Somatic Index. We found significant reduction in testicular tissues levels of IL-4 and IL-10 associated with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, chronic oral sodium nitrite induced changes in the weight of rat testis accompanied by elevation in the testicular tissue level of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. TQ attenuated sodium nitrite-induced testicular tissue damage through blocking oxidative stress, restoration of normal inflammatory cytokines balance and blocking of apoptosis.

  13. Production of live offspring from testicular tissue cryopreserved by vitrification procedures in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-05-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue can be used for ex situ conservation of male germplasm of avian species. The possibility of using vitrification and transplantation of testicular tissue for fertility preservation and recovery was tested in Japanese quail. Testes were removed from 1-wk-old Japanese quail; transfixed on acupuncture needles; equilibrated with dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose; plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored in 2-ml straws. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed in sucrose solution at room temperature or at 40°C. Fresh and cryopreserved tissue were transplanted subcutaneously into castrated, 1-wk-old recipients. Twenty of 21 recipients survived the surgery, and 18 had viable transplants at maturity, with no difference in transplantation success between fresh and cryopreserved tissue. Fluid extrusion from 11 of the transplants was collected and inseminated surgically into the magnum of 22 quail hens, and 10 inseminations included foam from the proctodeal gland of the same recipients. Egg production in the 2 wk after insemination was reduced, and none of the hens inseminated with foam produced fertile eggs. Five hens inseminated without foam produced a total of eight live offspring; four of these hens had been inseminated with fluid extrusion from cryopreserved tissue. Histological examination showed spermatogenesis in the transplants, and the tubules, lumens, and epithelium of the seminiferous tubules were of comparable size to those of testicular tissue from intact males. These results demonstrate that testicular tissue of Japanese quail can be preserved using vitrification procedures and recovered through transplantation.

  14. Formaldehyde exposure induces autophagy in testicular tissues of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shui-Ping; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Lin, Pu; Qin, Zhen; An, Lu; Zheng, Lie-Rui; Lei, Li

    2015-03-01

    Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of causing adverse male reproductive effects. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in male reproductive injuries induced by formaldehyde exposure, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis and develop new targets for prevention and treatment of male infertility. In this study, electron microscopy, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were used to detect autophagy in testicular tissues. Moreover, testicular weights, histopathology, and morphometry were used to evaluate the reproductive injuries of formaldehyde exposure. We found that formaldehyde exposure-induced autophagy in testicular tissues was dose dependent. Increasing autophagosomes in spermatogenetic cells was observed by electron microscopy in formaldehyde exposure group. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed the transcription levels of the LC3-II, as well as the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, an indicator of autophagy, significantly increased in testicular tissue of formaldehyde exposure group in a dose dependent manner when compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in testicular weight and morphologic findings. In summary, formaldehyde exposure triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for male reproductive impairment induced by formaldehyde.

  15. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice.

  16. Experimental testicular tissue banking to generate spermatogenesis in the future: A multidisciplinary team approach.

    PubMed

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; McLean, Thomas W; Kogan, Stanley; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Crowell, Kathryn; Yousif, Mustafa Q; Hodges, Steve J; Petty, John; Pranikoff, Thomas; Sieren, Leah; Zeller, Kristen; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-15

    Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) loss due to cancer treatment, developmental disorder or genetic abnormality may cause permanent infertility. Cryopreservation of ejaculated sperm is an effective method of fertility preservation in adult males at risk of infertility. However this is not an option in pre-pubertal boys because spermatogenesis has not yet started, and it is difficult in adolescents who are not sexually mature. Therefore testicular tissue cryopreservation to preserve SSCs for future generation of spermatogenesis, either in vivo or in vitro, could be an option for these groups of patients. Although SSC transplantation has been successful in several species including non-human primates, it is still experimental in humans. There are several remaining concerns which need to be addressed before initiating trials of human SSC autotransplantation. Establishment of a testicular tissue banking system is a fundamental step towards using SSC technology as a fertility preservation method. It is important to understand the consultation, harvesting the testicular tissue, histological evaluation, cryopreservation, and long term storage aspects. We describe here a multidisciplinary approach to establish testicular tissue banking for males at risk of infertility.

  17. The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Thuwanut, Paweena; Morrell, Jane M

    2016-01-15

    In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats.

  18. Capturing complex tumour biology in vitro: histological and molecular characterisation of precision cut slices.

    PubMed

    Davies, Emma J; Dong, Meng; Gutekunst, Matthias; Närhi, Katja; van Zoggel, Hanneke J A A; Blom, Sami; Nagaraj, Ashwini; Metsalu, Tauno; Oswald, Eva; Erkens-Schulze, Sigrun; Delgado San Martin, Juan A; Turkki, Riku; Wedge, Stephen R; af Hällström, Taija M; Schueler, Julia; van Weerden, Wytske M; Verschuren, Emmy W; Barry, Simon T; van der Kuip, Heiko; Hickman, John A

    2015-01-01

    Precision-cut slices of in vivo tumours permit interrogation in vitro of heterogeneous cells from solid tumours together with their native microenvironment. They offer a low throughput but high content in vitro experimental platform. Using mouse models as surrogates for three common human solid tumours, we describe a standardised workflow for systematic comparison of tumour slice cultivation methods and a tissue microarray-based method to archive them. Cultivated slices were compared to their in vivo source tissue using immunohistochemical and transcriptional biomarkers, particularly of cellular stress. Mechanical slicing induced minimal stress. Cultivation of tumour slices required organotypic support materials and atmospheric oxygen for maintenance of integrity and was associated with significant temporal and loco-regional changes in protein expression, for example HIF-1α. We recommend adherence to the robust workflow described, with recognition of temporal-spatial changes in protein expression before interrogation of tumour slices by pharmacological or other means. PMID:26647838

  19. Capturing complex tumour biology in vitro: histological and molecular characterisation of precision cut slices

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Emma J.; Dong, Meng; Gutekunst, Matthias; Närhi, Katja; van Zoggel, Hanneke J. A. A.; Blom, Sami; Nagaraj, Ashwini; Metsalu, Tauno; Oswald, Eva; Erkens-Schulze, Sigrun; Delgado San Martin, Juan A.; Turkki, Riku; Wedge, Stephen R.; af Hällström, Taija M.; Schueler, Julia; van Weerden, Wytske M.; Verschuren, Emmy W.; Barry, Simon T.; van der Kuip, Heiko; Hickman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Precision-cut slices of in vivo tumours permit interrogation in vitro of heterogeneous cells from solid tumours together with their native microenvironment. They offer a low throughput but high content in vitro experimental platform. Using mouse models as surrogates for three common human solid tumours, we describe a standardised workflow for systematic comparison of tumour slice cultivation methods and a tissue microarray-based method to archive them. Cultivated slices were compared to their in vivo source tissue using immunohistochemical and transcriptional biomarkers, particularly of cellular stress. Mechanical slicing induced minimal stress. Cultivation of tumour slices required organotypic support materials and atmospheric oxygen for maintenance of integrity and was associated with significant temporal and loco-regional changes in protein expression, for example HIF-1α. We recommend adherence to the robust workflow described, with recognition of temporal-spatial changes in protein expression before interrogation of tumour slices by pharmacological or other means. PMID:26647838

  20. P450-aromatase activity and expression in human testicular tissues with severe spermatogenic failure.

    PubMed

    Lardone, M C; Castillo, P; Valdevenito, R; Ebensperger, M; Ronco, A M; Pommer, R; Piottante, A; Castro, A

    2010-08-01

    There is evidence that impaired spermatogenesis is associated with an imbalance in the oestradiol/testosterone ratio and with Leydig cell (LC) dysfunction. In testis, P450-aromatase, encoded by CYP19, is responsible for the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol. The aims of this study were to quantify CYP19 mRNA expression, aromatase activity and protein localization, and to measure the oestradiol to testosterone ratio in testicular tissues of men with spermatogenic impairment. Twenty-four men with complete Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS), 14 with focal SCOS, 14 with maturation arrest (MA), 8 with mixed atrophy and 30 controls with normal spermatogenesis were subjected to testicular biopsy. All subjects underwent a physical examination, cytogenetic and serum hormonal studies. Testicular CYP19 mRNA was quantified using real time RT-PCR. Testicular aromatase activity was measured using the (3)H(2)0 assay and protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. In cases, serum testosterone and oestradiol were normal, but the testosterone/LH ratio was lower compared with controls (p < 0.05). Aromatase was localized in the Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells of all tissues, although stronger intensity was observed in LC. Aromatase mRNA and activity were not altered in cases and correlated positively with LC number (r = 0.516 and r = 0.369; p < 0.008). The intratesticular oestradiol/testosterone ratio was elevated (p = 0.005) in complete SCOS patients compared with controls. In conclusion, testicular aromatase seems to be normal in most subjects with impaired spermatogenesis. However, an altered intratesticular oestradiol/testosterone ratio in some patients with complete SCOS suggests that aromatase is increased, which might contribute to Leydig cell dysfunction.

  1. Precision-cut hamster liver slices as an ex vivo model to study amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Balderas-Rentería, Isaías; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2010-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, the second cause of global morbidity and mortality due to parasitic diseases in humans. In approximately 1% of the cases, amoebas penetrate the intestinal mucosa and spread to other organs, producing extra-intestinal lesions, among which amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common. To study ALA, in vivo and in vitro models are used. However, animal models may pose ethical issues, and are time-consuming and costly; and cell cultures represent isolated cellular lineages. The present study reports the infection of precision-cut hamster liver slices with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. The infection time-course, including tissue damage, parallels findings previously reported in the animal model. At the same time amoebic virulence factors were detected in the infected slices. This new model to study ALA is simple and reproducible, and employs less than 1/3 of the hamsters required for in vivo analyses.

  2. Precision-cut hamster liver slices as an ex vivo model to study amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Balderas-Rentería, Isaías; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2010-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, the second cause of global morbidity and mortality due to parasitic diseases in humans. In approximately 1% of the cases, amoebas penetrate the intestinal mucosa and spread to other organs, producing extra-intestinal lesions, among which amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common. To study ALA, in vivo and in vitro models are used. However, animal models may pose ethical issues, and are time-consuming and costly; and cell cultures represent isolated cellular lineages. The present study reports the infection of precision-cut hamster liver slices with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. The infection time-course, including tissue damage, parallels findings previously reported in the animal model. At the same time amoebic virulence factors were detected in the infected slices. This new model to study ALA is simple and reproducible, and employs less than 1/3 of the hamsters required for in vivo analyses. PMID:20412797

  3. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). MDA content in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was significantly increased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). The cryomedia added 15% trehalose exhibited the greatest percentage of cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT) among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, GSH content was the lowest among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). However, there were no significance differences in MDA content among the groups added 10, 15 and 20% trehalose (P>0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. PMID:25818604

  4. [Morphological changes in testicular tissue in clean-up personnel after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident].

    PubMed

    Cheburakov, B Iu; Cheburakov, S Iu; Belozerov, N Iu

    2004-01-01

    Pathomorphological alterations of testicular tissue were absent in men exposed to total body ionizing radiation in the dose of 1 to 10 cGy. Some changes in seminiferous tubules appeared in the dose of 10 to 20 cGy. Lymphoid infiltration of the seminiferous tubules arose 5 years after the accident and of the interstitial tissue--10-15 years after the radiation in exposure in the dose 20-30 cGy. Autoimmune orchitis affects spermatogenesis early after irradiation. Lymphoid infiltration of the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissue is observed 5 years after radiation in the dose 30 to 50 cGy. Sclerosis of 50% seminiferous tubules, foci of regeneration of Leydig cells with lymphoid infiltration and interstitial fibrosis takes place 10-15 years after irradiation.

  5. Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Acetaldehyde-Treated Precision-Cut Rat Liver Slices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:22404575

  6. Effect of different cryoprotectant agents on spermatogenesis efficiency in cryopreserved and grafted neonatal mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Mullen, Brendan; Jarvi, Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Lo, Kirk C

    2013-08-01

    Restoration of male fertility associated with use of the cryopreserved testicular tissue would be a significant advance in human and animal assisted reproductive technology. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of four different cryoprotectant agents (CPA) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in cryopreserved and allotransplanted neonatal mouse testicular tissue. Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) with 5% fetal bovine serum including either 0.7 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 0.7 M propylene glycol (PrOH), 0.7 M ethylene glycol (EG), or glycerol was used as the cryoprotectant solution. Donor testes were collected and dissected from neonatal pups of CD-1 mice (one day old). Freezing and seeding of the testicular whole tissues was performed using an automated controlled-rate freezer. Four fresh (non-frozen) or frozen-thawed pieces of testes were subcutaneously grafted onto the hind flank of each castrated male NCr nude recipient mouse and harvested after 3 months. Fresh neonatal testes grafts recovered from transplant sites had the most advanced rate of spermatogenesis with elongated spermatid and spermatozoa in 46.6% of seminiferous tubules and had higher levels of serum testosterone compared to all other frozen-thawed-graft groups (p<0.05). Fresh grafts and frozen-thawed grafts in the DMSO group had the highest rate of tissue survival compared to PrOH, EG, and glycerol after harvesting (p>0.05). The most effective CPA for the freezing and thawing of neonatal mouse testes was DMSO in comparison with EG (p<0.05) in both pre-grafted and post-grafted tissues based on histopathological evaluation. Likewise, the highest level of serum testosterone was obtained from the DMSO CPA group compared to all other cryoprotectants evaluated (p<0.05). The typical damage observed in the frozen-thawed grafts included disruption of the interstitial stroma, intercellular connection ruptures, and detachment of spermatogonia from the basement membrane. These findings

  7. The effects of long-term leptin administration on morphometrical changes of mice testicular tissue

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili-Nejad, Mohammad-Reza; Babaei, Homayoon; Kheirandish, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin is a novel and interesting hormone for anyone trying to lose weight, but its effects on male gonad structure in longitudinal study is unknown. The present study was designed to explore morphometrical changes of mouse testicular tissue after long-term administration of leptin. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy mature male mice were randomly assigned to either control (n=15) or treatment (n=15) groups. Leptin was intraperitoneally injected to the treatment group (0.1 µg/100 µl of physiological saline) once a day for 30 consecutive days, and control animals received normal saline with the same volume and route. Five mice from each experimental group were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed, weighted and then fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosine for morphometrical assays. Results: Except for sertoli cell nucleus diameter, which was affected from 30th day, evaluation of other morphometrical parameters such as Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, spermatogenesis, epithelial height, seminiferous tubules diameter and spermatogonial nucleus diameter revealed significant decrease from 15th day after leptin administration compare to those of the control group (P<0.05). Thus, meiotic index and spermatogonial cell nucleus diameter were two parameters that were further disturbed on 30th day compare to the day 15 (3.09±0.03 vs. 3.23±0.03, P=0.006 and 5.50±0.09 vs. 6.08±0.14, P=0.007, respectively). Conclusion: Our results showed that long-term administration of leptin could disturb testicular tissue structure and delay spermatogenesis process. PMID:26877846

  8. Precision-cut human kidney slices as a model to elucidate the process of renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stribos, Elisabeth G D; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Leliveld, Anna M; de Jong, Igle J; van Son, Willem J; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Seelen, Marc A; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Mutsaers, Henricus A M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health concern, and experimental models bridging the gap between animal studies and clinical research are currently lacking. Here, we evaluated precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) as a potential model for renal disease. PCKSs were prepared from human cortical tissue obtained from tumor nephrectomies and cultured up to 96 hours. Morphology, cell viability, and metabolic functionality (ie, uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase and transporter activity) were determined to assess the integrity of PCKSs. Furthermore, inflammatory and fibrosis-related gene expressions were characterized. Finally, to validate the model, renal fibrogenesis was induced using transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Preparation of PCKSs induced an inflammatory tissue response, whereas long-term incubation (96 hours) induced fibrogenesis as shown by an increased expression of collagen type 1A1 (COL1A1) and fibronectin 1 (FN1). Importantly, PCKSs remained functional for more than 48 hours as evidenced by active glucuronidation and phenolsulfonphthalein uptake. In addition, cellular diversity appeared to be maintained, yet we observed a clear loss of nephrin messenger RNA levels suggesting that our model might not be suitable to study the role of podocytes in renal pathology. Moreover, TGF-β1 exposure augmented fibrosis, as illustrated by an increased expression of multiple fibrosis markers including COL1A1, FN1, and α-smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, PCKSs maintain their renal phenotype during culture and appear to be a promising model to investigate renal diseases, for example, renal fibrosis. Moreover, the human origin of PCKSs makes this model very suitable for translational research. PMID:26687735

  9. Precision-cut human kidney slices as a model to elucidate the process of renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stribos, Elisabeth G D; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Leliveld, Anna M; de Jong, Igle J; van Son, Willem J; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Seelen, Marc A; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Mutsaers, Henricus A M

    2016-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a major health concern, and experimental models bridging the gap between animal studies and clinical research are currently lacking. Here, we evaluated precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) as a potential model for renal disease. PCKSs were prepared from human cortical tissue obtained from tumor nephrectomies and cultured up to 96 hours. Morphology, cell viability, and metabolic functionality (ie, uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase and transporter activity) were determined to assess the integrity of PCKSs. Furthermore, inflammatory and fibrosis-related gene expressions were characterized. Finally, to validate the model, renal fibrogenesis was induced using transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Preparation of PCKSs induced an inflammatory tissue response, whereas long-term incubation (96 hours) induced fibrogenesis as shown by an increased expression of collagen type 1A1 (COL1A1) and fibronectin 1 (FN1). Importantly, PCKSs remained functional for more than 48 hours as evidenced by active glucuronidation and phenolsulfonphthalein uptake. In addition, cellular diversity appeared to be maintained, yet we observed a clear loss of nephrin messenger RNA levels suggesting that our model might not be suitable to study the role of podocytes in renal pathology. Moreover, TGF-β1 exposure augmented fibrosis, as illustrated by an increased expression of multiple fibrosis markers including COL1A1, FN1, and α-smooth muscle actin. In conclusion, PCKSs maintain their renal phenotype during culture and appear to be a promising model to investigate renal diseases, for example, renal fibrosis. Moreover, the human origin of PCKSs makes this model very suitable for translational research.

  10. DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals. Results We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas). We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT) coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284 bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR). Conclusions The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney) of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene. PMID:22704171

  11. Natural innate cytokine response to immunomodulators and adjuvants in human precision-cut lung slices

    SciTech Connect

    Switalla, S.; Lauenstein, L.; Prenzler, F.; Knothe, S.; Foerster, C.; Fieguth, H.-G.; Pfennig, O.; Schaumann, F.; Martin, C.; Guzman, C.A.; Ebensen, T.; Mueller, M.; Hohlfeld, J.M.; Krug, N.; Braun, A.; Sewald, K.

    2010-08-01

    Prediction of lung innate immune responses is critical for developing new drugs. Well-established immune modulators like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can elicit a wide range of immunological effects. They are involved in acute lung diseases such as infections or chronic airway diseases such as COPD. LPS has a strong adjuvant activity, but its pyrogenicity has precluded therapeutic use. The bacterial lipopeptide MALP-2 and its synthetic derivative BPPcysMPEG are better tolerated. We have compared the effects of LPS and BPPcysMPEG on the innate immune response in human precision-cut lung slices. Cytokine responses were quantified by ELISA, Luminex, and Meso Scale Discovery technology. The initial response to LPS and BPPcysMPEG was marked by coordinated and significant release of the mediators IL-1{beta}, MIP-1{beta}, and IL-10 in viable PCLS. Stimulation of lung tissue with BPPcysMPEG, however, induced a differential response. While LPS upregulated IFN-{gamma}, BPPcysMPEG did not. This traces back to their signaling pathways via TLR4 and TLR2/6. The calculated exposure doses selected for LPS covered ranges occurring in clinical studies with human beings. Correlation of obtained data with data from human BAL fluid after segmental provocation with endotoxin showed highly comparable effects, resulting in a coefficient of correlation > 0.9. Furthermore, we were interested in modulating the response to LPS. Using dexamethasone as an immunosuppressive drug for anti-inflammatory therapy, we found a significant reduction of GM-CSF, IL-1{beta}, and IFN-{gamma}. The PCLS-model offers the unique opportunity to test the efficacy and toxicity of biological agents intended for use by inhalation in a complex setting in humans.

  12. Effective attenuation of atrazine-induced histopathological changes in testicular tissue by antioxidant N-phenyl-4-aryl-polyhydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Chandak, Navneet; Bhardwaj, Jitender K; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Kitanov, Gerassim; Sharma, Rajnesh K; Sharma, Pawan K; Saso, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Some of the environmental toxicants acting as endocrine disruptors have been associated with health hazards in human and wildlife by modulating hormonal actions. Atrazine, a strong endocrine disruptor, induces detrimental effects on gonads in male and female, and causes impairment of fertility and developmental problems as well as sex alterations. Atrazine decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes and thus responsible for oxidative stress. Natural antioxidants have shown ability to reduce/slow down the apoptotic effect of atrazine on testicular tissue. In the present study, some N-phenyl-4-aryl-polyhydroquinolines bearing phenolic or/and alkoxy group(s) (6a-6g) were synthesized and evaluated for antioxidant activity in four different assays. Three best compounds (6e-6g) were studied for their ameliorative effect on testicular tissue supplemented with atrazine in vitro.

  13. Thymoquinone ameliorated elevated inflammatory cytokines in testicular tissue and sex hormones imbalance induced by oral chronic toxicity with sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, Abdullah; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2016-07-01

    Scientific evidence illustrated the health hazards of exposure to nitrites for prolonged time. Nitrites affected several body organs due to oxidative, inflammatory and apoptosis properties. Furthermore, thymoquinone (TQ) had curative effects against many diseases. We tried to discover the impact of both sodium nitrite and TQ on inflammatory cytokines contents in testicular tissues and hormonal balance both in vivo and in vitro. Fifty adult male SD rats received 80mg/kg sodium nitrite and treated with either 25 or 50mg/kg TQ daily by oral-gavage for twelve weeks. Testis were removed for sperms' count. Testicular tissue homogenates were used for assessment of protein and gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, Nrf2 and caspase-3. Serum samples were used for measurement of testosterone, LH, FSH and prolactin. Moreover, all the parameters were measured in human normal testis cell-lines, CRL-7002. Sodium nitrite produced significant decrease in serum testosterone associated with raised FSH, LH and prolactin. Moreover, sodium nitrite significantly elevated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3 and reduced Nrf2. TQ significantly reversed all these effects both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, TQ ameliorated testicular tissue inflammation and restored the normal balance of sex hormones induced by sodium nitrite both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:27038016

  14. Thymoquinone ameliorated elevated inflammatory cytokines in testicular tissue and sex hormones imbalance induced by oral chronic toxicity with sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, Abdullah; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2016-07-01

    Scientific evidence illustrated the health hazards of exposure to nitrites for prolonged time. Nitrites affected several body organs due to oxidative, inflammatory and apoptosis properties. Furthermore, thymoquinone (TQ) had curative effects against many diseases. We tried to discover the impact of both sodium nitrite and TQ on inflammatory cytokines contents in testicular tissues and hormonal balance both in vivo and in vitro. Fifty adult male SD rats received 80mg/kg sodium nitrite and treated with either 25 or 50mg/kg TQ daily by oral-gavage for twelve weeks. Testis were removed for sperms' count. Testicular tissue homogenates were used for assessment of protein and gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, Nrf2 and caspase-3. Serum samples were used for measurement of testosterone, LH, FSH and prolactin. Moreover, all the parameters were measured in human normal testis cell-lines, CRL-7002. Sodium nitrite produced significant decrease in serum testosterone associated with raised FSH, LH and prolactin. Moreover, sodium nitrite significantly elevated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3 and reduced Nrf2. TQ significantly reversed all these effects both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, TQ ameliorated testicular tissue inflammation and restored the normal balance of sex hormones induced by sodium nitrite both in vivo and in vitro.

  15. Antioxidant Attenuation of Atrazine Induced Histopathological Changes in Testicular Tissue of Goat In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, R. K.; Fulia, Anju; Chauhan, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    During the present investigation the effect of α-tocopherol (100 μmolL-1) in prevention of testicular toxicity induced by atrazine in goat Capra hircus have been analyzed. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) at dose level 100 μmolL-1 provides attenuation over the histopathological changes generated by pesticide atrazine (100 nmolml-1). Small pieces (approximately 1mm3) of testicular tissue were divided into three groups (one control group + two experimental groups). Experimental group (A) was supplemented with 100 nmolml-1 concentration of atrazine and experimental group (B) was supplemented with 100 nmolml-1 atrazine and 100 μmolL-1 concentrations of vitamin E (α-Tocopherol) and harvesting was carried out after 1, 4 and 8 hrs of exposure. Control was run along with all the experimental groups. In the experimental group (A) treated with atrazine at dose level 100 nmolml-1, revealed histomorphological alterations in the seminiferous tubule. After one hour of exposure duration small vacuoles in cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells and spermatogonia were observed. Chromolysis at pycnosis were also noticed in the spermatogonia and spermatids. In the experimental group (B) exposed with atrazine and simultaneously supplemented with Vitamin E also showed degeneration but it was milder as compared with experimental group treated with atrazine without antioxidant. Atrazine exposure induced a decline in diameter of spermatocytes from 10.51 ± 0.2052 μm in control to 7.915 ± 0.2972, 7.5 ± 0.211 and 7.14 ± 0.225 μm after exposure of 1, 4 and 8 hrs respectively but in case of atrazine supplemented with vitamin E [experimental group (B)], there was less decline in cell diameter that was 8.5 ± 0.1865, 8.1 ± 0.1201 and 7.8 ± 0.2066μm after exposure of 1, 4 and 8 hrs respectively. The result demonstrated that vitamin E delays the degenerative changes induced by atrazine. PMID:23293464

  16. Assessment of some critical factors in the freezing technique for the cryopreservation of precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Maas, W J; de Graaf, I A; Schoen, E D; Koster, H J; van de Sandt, J J; Groten, J P

    2000-05-01

    A number of studies on the cryopreservation of precision-cut liver slices using various techniques have been reported. However, the identification of important factors that determine cell viability following cryopreservation is difficult because of large differences between the various methods published. The aim of this study was to evaluate some important factors in the freezing process in an effort to find an optimized approach to the cryopreservation of precision-cut liver slices. A comparative study of a slow and a fast freezing technique was carried out to establish any differences in tissue viability for a number of endpoints. Both freezing techniques aim at the prevention of intracellular ice formation, which is thought to be the main cause of cell death after cryopreservation. Subsequently, critical variables in the freezing process were studied more closely in order to explain the differences in viability found in the two methods in the first study. For this purpose, a full factorial experimental design was used with 16 experimental groups, allowing a number of variables to be studied at different levels in one single experiment. It is demonstrated that ATP and K(+) content and histomorphology are sensitive parameters for evaluating slice viability after cryopreservation. Subsequently, it is shown that freezing rate and the cryopreservation medium largely determine the residual viability of liver slices after cryopreservation and subsequent culturing. It is concluded that a cryopreservation protocol with a fast freezing step and using William's Medium E as cryopreservation medium was the most promising approach to successful freezing of rat liver slices of those tested in this study.

  17. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure ...

  18. Testicular torsion

    MedlinePlus

    Torsion of the testis; Testicular ischemia; Testicular twisting ... Symptoms include: Sudden severe pain in one testicle. The pain may occur ... ). Nausea or vomiting. Lightheadedness . Additional symptoms ...

  19. Applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices in evaluating nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, Ursula G.; Vogel, Sandra; Aumann, Alexandra; Hess, Annemarie; Kolle, Susanne N.; Ma-Hock, Lan; Wohlleben, Wendel; Dammann, Martina; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Ravenzwaay, Bennard van; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) in detecting nanomaterial (NM) toxicity to the respiratory tract was investigated evaluating sixteen OECD reference NMs (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, CeO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, Ag, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)). Upon 24-hour test substance exposure, the PCLuS system was able to detect early events of NM toxicity: total protein, reduction in mitochondrial activity, caspase-3/-7 activation, glutathione depletion/increase, cytokine induction, and histopathological evaluation. Ion shedding NMS (ZnO and Ag) induced severe tissue destruction detected by the loss of total protein. Two anatase TiO{sub 2} NMs, CeO{sub 2} NMs, and two MWCNT caused significant (determined by trend analysis) cytotoxicity in the WST-1 assay. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, different TiO{sub 2} NMs and one MWCNT increased GSH levels, presumably a defense response to reactive oxygen species, and these substances further induced a variety of cytokines. One of the SiO{sub 2} NMs increased caspase-3/-7 activities at non-cytotoxic levels, and one rutile TiO{sub 2} only induced cytokines. Investigating these effects is, however, not sufficient to predict apical effects found in vivo. Reproducibility of test substance measurements was not fully satisfactory, especially in the GSH and cytokine assays. Effects were frequently observed in negative controls pointing to tissue slice vulnerability even though prepared and handled with utmost care. Comparisons of the effects observed in the PCLuS to in vivo effects reveal some concordances for the metal oxide NMs, but less so for the MWCNT. The highest effective dosages, however, exceeded those reported for rat short-term inhalation studies. To become applicable for NM testing, the PCLuS system requires test protocol optimization. - Highlights: • 16 OECD reference nanomaterials were tested in rat precision-cut lung slices. • Nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptose, oxidative stress, and inflammation were

  20. Cytogenetic, molecular and testicular tissue studies in an infertile 45,X male carrying an unbalanced (Y;22) translocation: case report.

    PubMed

    Brisset, S; Izard, V; Misrahi, M; Aboura, A; Madoux, S; Ferlicot, S; Schoevaert, D; Soufir, J C; Frydman, R; Tachdjian, G

    2005-08-01

    (Y;autosome) translocations have been reported in association with male infertility. Different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the male infertility, such as deletion of the azoospermic factor (AZF) on the long arm of the Y chromosome, or meiosis impairment. We describe a new case with a de novo unbalanced translocation t(Y;22) and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. A 36 year old male with azoospermia was found to have a mosaic 45,X/46,X, + mar karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the presence of a derivative Y chromosome containing the short arm, the centromere and a small proximal part of the long-arm euchromatin of the Y chromosome and the long arm of chromosome 22. The unstable small marker chromosome included the short arm and the centromere of chromosome 22. This unbalanced translocation t(Y;22)(q11.2;q11.1) generated the loss of the long arm of the Y chromosome involving a large part of AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. Testicular tissue analyses showed sperm in the wet preparation. Our case shows the importance of documenting (Y;autosome) translocations with molecular and testicular tissue analyses.

  1. Induction of virulence factors, apoptosis, and cytokines in precision-cut hamster liver slices infected with Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2012-12-01

    Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) are mainly used to evaluate hepatotoxicity and metabolism of chemicals, as well as to study mechanisms of liver damage and repair. However, recently they have been used as a system to study amoebic infections. The aim of this study was to validate this model as an alternative for experimental amoebic liver absess (ALA) in animals. To do this, the PCLS was analyzed for the expression of amoebapore and cysteine proteinases 1 and 5, three of the most studied virulence factors of Entamoeba histolytica, as well as the induction of apoptosis and cytokines production in response to the ex vivo infection. PCHLS were prepared with the Brendel-Vitron tissue slicer and then, infected with 200,000 trophozoites of E. histolytica. Samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h and compared to control non-infected slices. Morphological studies were performed in order to verify the infection; while apoptosis was studied by TUNEL and PAS techniques. The expression of cysteine proteinases (1 and 5), and amoebapore, was analyzed by real-time PCR. By using ELISA assays, the production of cytokines was also studied. PCHLS were found to be a reproducible infection system, and E. histolytica caused the expression of cysteine proteinases and amoebapore in infected slices. At the same time, trophozoites induce release of cytokines and apoptotic death of the hepatocytes close to them. PCHLS represent a new and suitable alternative model to study the pathogenesis of hepatic amoebiasis.

  2. Induction of virulence factors, apoptosis, and cytokines in precision-cut hamster liver slices infected with Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Viveros-Valdez, Ezequiel; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2012-12-01

    Precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) are mainly used to evaluate hepatotoxicity and metabolism of chemicals, as well as to study mechanisms of liver damage and repair. However, recently they have been used as a system to study amoebic infections. The aim of this study was to validate this model as an alternative for experimental amoebic liver absess (ALA) in animals. To do this, the PCLS was analyzed for the expression of amoebapore and cysteine proteinases 1 and 5, three of the most studied virulence factors of Entamoeba histolytica, as well as the induction of apoptosis and cytokines production in response to the ex vivo infection. PCHLS were prepared with the Brendel-Vitron tissue slicer and then, infected with 200,000 trophozoites of E. histolytica. Samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h and compared to control non-infected slices. Morphological studies were performed in order to verify the infection; while apoptosis was studied by TUNEL and PAS techniques. The expression of cysteine proteinases (1 and 5), and amoebapore, was analyzed by real-time PCR. By using ELISA assays, the production of cytokines was also studied. PCHLS were found to be a reproducible infection system, and E. histolytica caused the expression of cysteine proteinases and amoebapore in infected slices. At the same time, trophozoites induce release of cytokines and apoptotic death of the hepatocytes close to them. PCHLS represent a new and suitable alternative model to study the pathogenesis of hepatic amoebiasis. PMID:23043979

  3. Precision-Cut Kidney Slices as a Tool to Understand the Dynamics of Extracellular Matrix Remodeling in Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Federica; Kàrpàti, Zsolt S.; Nielsen, Signe H.; Karsdal, Morten A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to set up an ex vivo model for renal interstitial fibrosis in order to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover profile in the fibrotic kidney. We induced kidney fibrosis in fourteen 12-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery of the right ureter. The left kidney (contralateral) was used as internal control. Six rats were sham operated and used as the control group. Rats were terminated two weeks after the surgery; the kidneys were excised and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) were cultured for five days in serum-free medium. Markers of collagen type I formation (P1NP), collagen type I and III degradation (C1M and C3M), and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) were measured in the PCKS supernatants by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. P1NP, C1M, C3M, and α-SMA were increased up to 2- to 13-fold in supernatants of tissue slices from the UUO-ligated kidneys compared with the contralateral kidneys (P < 0.001) and with the kidneys of sham-operated animals (P < 0.0001). The markers could also reflect the level of fibrosis in different animals. The UUO PCKS ex vivo model provides a valuable translational tool for investigating the extracellular matrix remodeling associated with renal interstitial fibrosis. PMID:27257368

  4. Persistent DNA Damage in Spermatogonial Stem Cells After Fractionated Low-Dose Irradiation of Testicular Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Grewenig, Angelika; Schuler, Nadine; Rübe, Claudia E.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Testicular spermatogenesis is extremely sensitive to radiation-induced damage, and even low scattered doses to testis from radiation therapy may pose reproductive risks with potential treatment-related infertility. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the greatest threat to the genomic integrity of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are essential to maintain spermatogenesis and prevent reproduction failure. Methods and Materials: During daily low-dose radiation with 100 mGy or 10 mGy, radiation-induced DSBs were monitored in mouse testis by quantifying 53 binding protein 1 (53BP-1) foci in SSCs within their stem cell niche. The accumulation of DSBs was correlated with proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of testicular germ cell populations. Results: Even very low doses of ionizing radiation arrested spermatogenesis, primarily by inducing apoptosis in spermatogonia. Eventual recovery of spermatogenesis depended on the survival of SSCs and their functional ability to proliferate and differentiate to provide adequate numbers of differentiating spermatogonia. Importantly, apoptosis-resistant SSCs resulted in increased 53BP-1 foci levels during, and even several months after, fractionated low-dose radiation, suggesting that surviving SSCs have accumulated an increased load of DNA damage. Conclusions: SSCs revealed elevated levels of DSBs for weeks after radiation, and if these DSBs persist through differentiation to spermatozoa, this may have severe consequences for the genomic integrity of the fertilizing sperm.

  5. Feline spermatozoa from fresh and cryopreserved testicular tissues have comparable ability to fertilize matured oocytes and sustain the embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, S; Tharasanit, T; Comizzoli, P; Techakumphu, M

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a critical tool that still needs to be explored for preserving the fertility of endangered species. Using the domestic cat as a model for wild felids, the study aimed at determining the effect of different cryoprotectants and freezing techniques (two-step freezing vs. controlled slow freezing) on the sperm quality (membrane and DNA integrity). Then, spermatozoa were extracted from frozen-thawed testicular tissues and used for ICSI to assess early gamete activation or developmental competence in vitro. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane was not different (P > 0.05) among nonfrozen control, glycerol-, and ethylene glycol-frozen tissues (63.2 ± 2%, 58.2 ± 2.6%, 53.3 ± 2.3%, respectively). However, these percentages were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in groups of dimethyl sulfoxide (46.3 ± 3.3%) and 1,2 propanediol (44.3 ± 2.9%) when compared with control. Conventional freezing combined with 5% (vol/vol) glycerol best preserved sperm membrane integrity (55.0 ± 2.7%) when compared with other freezing techniques. The incidence of DNA fragmentation was found to be low (0.2%-1.1%) in all freezing protocols. After ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa, male and female gametes were asynchronously activated and the percentages of normal fertilization at 6, 12, and 18 hours were 11.2%, 20.6%, and 22.1%, respectively. Metaphase II-arrested oocytes containing or not a decondensed sperm head were predominantly found after ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa. Although two-pronucleus formation could be observed as soon as 6 hours post ICSI (10%), the rate increased dramatically after 12 and 18 hours post ICSI (17.2% and 19.5%, respectively). ICSI using frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa yielded cleavage (32.7%), morula (6.5%), and blastocyst (4.4%) percentages similar to nonfrozen control (P > 0.05). It is concluded that conventional freezing

  6. Absolute near-infrared oximetry for urology: a quantitative study of the tissue hemoglobin saturation before and after testicular torsion in a rabbit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-02-01

    We present an experimental study on four rabbits to demonstrate the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy in the noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion. We used a multi-distance frequency-domain method, based on a fixed detector position and a 9-mm linear scan of the illumination optical fibers, to measure absolute values of pre- and post-operative testicular oxygen saturation. Unilateral testicular torsions (by 0°, 540° or 720°) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgeries (no torsion) on control testes were performed and studied. Our results showed (a) a consistent baseline absolute tissue oxygen saturation value of 78% +/- 5%; (b) a comparable absolute saturation of 77% +/- 6% on the control side (testes after sham surgery); and (c) a significantly lower tissue oxygen saturation of 36% +/- 2% on the experimental side (testes after 540° or 720° torsion surgery). These results demonstrate the capability of frequency domain nearinfrared spectroscopy in the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, and show promise as a potential method to serve as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  7. Contrast-enhanced, real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging of tissue perfusion: preliminary results in a rabbit model of testicular torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltiel, H. J.; Padua, H. M.; Gargollo, P. C.; Cannon, G. M., Jr.; Alomari, A. I.; Yu, R.; Clement, G. T.

    2011-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the clinical investigation of a wide variety of perfusion disorders. Quantitative analysis of perfusion is not widely performed, and is limited by the fact that data are acquired from a single tissue plane, a situation that is unlikely to accurately reflect global perfusion. Real-time perfusion information from a tissue volume in an experimental rabbit model of testicular torsion was obtained with a two-dimensional matrix phased array US transducer. Contrast-enhanced imaging was performed in 20 rabbits during intravenous infusion of the microbubble contrast agent Definity® before and after unilateral testicular torsion and contralateral orchiopexy. The degree of torsion was 0° in 4 (sham surgery), 180° in 4, 360° in 4, 540° in 4, and 720° in 4. An automated technique was developed to analyze the time history of US image intensity in experimental and control testes. Comparison of mean US intensity rate of change and of ratios between mean US intensity rate of change in experimental and control testes demonstrated good correlation with testicular perfusion and mean perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabeled microspheres, an accepted 'gold standard'. This method is of potential utility in the clinical evaluation of testicular and other organ perfusion.

  8. Human precision-cut liver slices as a model to test antifibrotic drugs in the early onset of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Westra, Inge M; Mutsaers, Henricus A M; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Hadi, Mackenzie; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; de Jong, Koert P; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue ultimately resulting in loss of organ function. Currently, no effective antifibrotics are available due to a lack of reliable human models. Here we investigated the fibrotic process in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and studied the efficacy of multiple putative antifibrotic compounds. Our results demonstrated that human PCLS remained viable for 48h and the early onset of fibrosis was observed during culture, as demonstrated by an increased gene expression of Heat Shock Protein 47 (HSP47) and Pro-Collagen 1A1 (PCOL1A1) as well as increased collagen 1 protein levels. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) showed a marked decrease in HSP47 and PCOL1A1 gene expression, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad 3 and Rac-1 showed no or only minor effects. Regarding the studied antifibrotics, gene levels of HSP47 and PCOL1A1 could be down-regulated with sunitinib and valproic acid, while PCOL1A1 expression was reduced following treatment with rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone. These results are in contrast with prior data obtained in rat PCLS, indicating that antifibrotic drug efficacy is clearly species-specific. Thus, human PCLS is a promising model for liver fibrosis. Moreover, MAPK signaling plays an important role in the onset of fibrosis in this model and transforming growth factor beta pathway inhibitors appear to be more effective than platelet-derived growth factor pathway inhibitors in halting fibrogenesis in PCLS. PMID:27235791

  9. Airway and Parenchymal Strains during Bronchoconstriction in the Precision Cut Lung Slice

    PubMed Central

    Hiorns, Jonathan E.; Bidan, Cécile M.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Gosens, Reinoud; Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Butler, Jim P.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Brook, Bindi S.

    2016-01-01

    The precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) is a powerful tool for studying airway reactivity, but biomechanical measurements to date have largely focused on changes in airway caliber. Here we describe an image processing tool that reveals the associated spatio-temporal changes in airway and parenchymal strains. Displacements of sub-regions within the PCLS are tracked in phase-contrast movies acquired after addition of contractile and relaxing drugs. From displacement maps, strains are determined across the entire PCLS or along user-specified directions. In a representative mouse PCLS challenged with 10−4M methacholine, as lumen area decreased, compressive circumferential strains were highest in the 50 μm closest to the airway lumen while expansive radial strains were highest in the region 50–100 μm from the lumen. However, at any given distance from the airway the strain distribution varied substantially in the vicinity of neighboring small airways and blood vessels. Upon challenge with the relaxant agonist chloroquine, although most strains disappeared, residual positive strains remained a long time after addition of chloroquine, predominantly in the radial direction. Taken together, these findings establish strain mapping as a new tool to elucidate local dynamic mechanical events within the constricting airway and its supporting parenchyma. PMID:27559314

  10. Airway and Parenchymal Strains during Bronchoconstriction in the Precision Cut Lung Slice.

    PubMed

    Hiorns, Jonathan E; Bidan, Cécile M; Jensen, Oliver E; Gosens, Reinoud; Kistemaker, Loes E M; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Butler, Jim P; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Brook, Bindi S

    2016-01-01

    The precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) is a powerful tool for studying airway reactivity, but biomechanical measurements to date have largely focused on changes in airway caliber. Here we describe an image processing tool that reveals the associated spatio-temporal changes in airway and parenchymal strains. Displacements of sub-regions within the PCLS are tracked in phase-contrast movies acquired after addition of contractile and relaxing drugs. From displacement maps, strains are determined across the entire PCLS or along user-specified directions. In a representative mouse PCLS challenged with 10(-4)M methacholine, as lumen area decreased, compressive circumferential strains were highest in the 50 μm closest to the airway lumen while expansive radial strains were highest in the region 50-100 μm from the lumen. However, at any given distance from the airway the strain distribution varied substantially in the vicinity of neighboring small airways and blood vessels. Upon challenge with the relaxant agonist chloroquine, although most strains disappeared, residual positive strains remained a long time after addition of chloroquine, predominantly in the radial direction. Taken together, these findings establish strain mapping as a new tool to elucidate local dynamic mechanical events within the constricting airway and its supporting parenchyma. PMID:27559314

  11. Ring beam shaping optics fabricated with ultra-precision cutting for YAG laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwano, Ryoichi; Koga, Toshihiko; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Wakayama, Toshitaka; Otani, Yukitoshi; Fujii, Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a method for generating ring intensity distribution at a refraction-type lens with an aspheric element was proposed, and the beam shaping optical element was finished using only ultra-precision cutting. The shape of the optical element and its irradiance pattern were determined from numerical calculation based on its geometrical and physical optics. An ultra-precision lathe was employed to fabricate beam shaping optical elements, and acrylic resin was used as the material. The transmittance of an optical element (a rotationally symmetrical body) with an aspheric surface fabricated using a single-crystal diamond tool was over 98%, and its surface roughness was 9.6 nm Ra. The method enabled the formation of a circular melting zone on a piece of stainless steel with a thickness of 300 μm through pulse YAG laser ( λ 1:06 μm) processing such that the average radius was 610 μm and the width was 100-200 μm. Circular processing using a ring beam shaping optical element can be realized by single-pulse beam irradiation without beam scanning.

  12. Characterization and in vitro culture of putative spermatogonial stem cells derived from feline testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Tiptanavattana, Narong; Thongkittidilok, Chommanart; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Tharasanit, Theerawat

    2013-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) function to regulate the balance of self-renewal and differentiation of male gametes. SSCs have been successfully isolated and cultured in vitro in several species, but not in feline. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to culture and characterize feline SSCs. In experiment 1, testes (n=5) from different pubertal domestic cats were cryosectioned and fluorescently immunolabeled to examine the expression of SSC (GFRα-1), differentiated spermatogonium (c-kit) and germ cell (DDX-4) markers. In experiments 2 and 3, testicular cells were digested and subsequently cultured in vitro. The resultant presumptive SSC colonies were then collected for SSC identification (experiment 2), or further cultured in vitro on feeder cells (experiment 3). Morphology, gene expression and immunofluorescence were used to identify the SSCs. Experiment 1 demonstrated that varying types of spermatogenic cells existed and expressed different germ cell/SSC markers. A rare population of putative SSCs located at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubules was specifically identified by co-expression of GFRα-1 and DDX-4. Following enzymatic digestion, grape-like colonies formed by 13-15 days of culture. These colonies expressed GFRA1 and ZBTB16, but did not express KIT. Although we successfully isolated and cultured feline SSCs in vitro, the SSCs could only be maintained for 57 days. In conclusion, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that putative SSCs from testes of pubertal domestic cats can be isolated and cultured in vitro. These cells exhibited SSC morphology and expressed SSC-specific genes. However, long-term culture of these putative SSCs was compromised.

  13. Assessment of immunotoxicity induced by chemicals in human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS).

    PubMed

    Lauenstein, L; Switalla, S; Prenzler, F; Seehase, S; Pfennig, O; Förster, C; Fieguth, H; Braun, A; Sewald, K

    2014-06-01

    Occupational asthma can be induced by a number of chemicals at the workplace. Risk assessment of potential sensitizers is mostly performed in animal experiments. With increasing public demand for alternative methods, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have been developed as an ex vivo model. Human PCLS were exposed to increasing concentrations of 20 industrial chemicals including 4 respiratory allergens, 11 contact allergens, and 5 non-sensitizing irritants. Local respiratory irritation was characterized and expressed as 75% (EC25) and 50% (EC50) cell viability with respect to controls. Dose-response curves of all chemicals except for phenol were generated. Local respiratory inflammation was quantified by measuring the production of cytokines and chemokines. TNF-α and IL-1α were increased significantly in human PCLS after exposure to the respiratory sensitizers trimellitic anhydride (TMA) and ammonium hexachloroplatinate (HClPt) at subtoxic concentrations, while contact sensitizers and non-sensitizing irritants failed to induce the release of these cytokines to the same extent. Interestingly, significant increases in T(H)1/T(H)2 cytokines could be detected only after exposure to HClPt at a subtoxic concentration. In conclusion, allergen-induced cytokines were observed but not considered as biomarkers for the differentiation between respiratory and contact sensitizers. Our preliminary results show an ex vivo model which might be used for prediction of chemical-induced toxicity, but is due to its complex three-dimensional structure not applicable for a simple screening of functional and behavior changes of certain cell populations such as dendritic cells and T-cells in response to allergens.

  14. The effect of antifibrotic drugs in rat precision-cut fibrotic liver slices.

    PubMed

    Westra, Inge M; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Two important signaling pathways in liver fibrosis are the PDGF- and TGFβ pathway and compounds inhibiting these pathways are currently developed as antifibrotic drugs. Testing antifibrotic drugs requires large numbers of animal experiments with high discomfort. Therefore, a method to study these drugs ex vivo was developed using precision-cut liver slices from fibrotic rat livers (fPCLS), representing an ex vivo model with a multicellular fibrotic environment. We characterized the fibrotic process in fPCLS from rat livers after 3 weeks of bile duct ligation (BDL) during incubation and tested compounds predominantly inhibiting the TGFβ pathway (perindopril, valproic acid, rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone) and PDGF pathway (imatinib, sorafenib and sunitinib). Gene expression of heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), α smooth muscle actin (αSma) and pro-collagen 1A1 (Pcol1A1) and protein expression of collagens were determined. During 48 hours of incubation, the fibrosis process continued in control fPCLS as judged by the increased gene expression of the three fibrosis markers, and the protein expression of collagen 1, mature fibrillar collagen and total collagen. Most PDGF-inhibitors and TGFβ-inhibitors significantly inhibited the increase in gene expression of Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1. Protein expression of collagen 1 was significantly reduced by all PDGF-inhibitors and TGFβ-inhibitors, while total collagen was decreased by rosmarinic acid and tetrandrine only. However, fibrillar collagen expression was not changed by any of the drugs. In conclusion, rat fPCLS can be used as a functional ex vivo model of established liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic compounds inhibiting the PDGF- and TGFβ signalling pathway. PMID:24755660

  15. Ex vivo testing of immune responses in precision-cut lung slices

    SciTech Connect

    Henjakovic, M.; Sewald, K.; Switalla, S.; Kaiser, D.; Mueller, M.; Veres, T.Z.; Martin, C.; Uhlig, S.; Krug, N.; Braun, A.

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was the establishment of precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) as a suitable ex vivo alternative approach to animal experiments for investigation of immunomodulatory effects. For this purpose we characterized the changes of cytokine production and the expression of cell surface markers after incubation of PCLS with immunoactive substances lipopolysaccharide (LPS), macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), and dexamethasone. Viability of PCLS from wild-type and CD11c-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (CD11-EYFP)-transgenic mice was controlled by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity and live/dead fluorescence staining using confocal microscopy. Cytokines and chemokines were detected with Luminex technology and ELISA. Antigen presenting cell (APC) markers were investigated in living mouse PCLS in situ using confocal microscopy. LPS triggered profound pro-inflammatory effects in PCLS. Dexamethasone prevented LPS-induced production of cytokines/chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-5, IL-1{alpha}, TNF{alpha}, IL-12(p40), and RANTES in PCLS. Surface expression of MHC class II, CD40, and CD11c, but not CD86 was present in APCs of naive PCLS. Incubation with LPS enhanced specifically the expression of MHC class II on diverse cells. MALP-2 only failed to alter cytokine or chemokine levels, but was highly effective in combination with IFN{gamma} resulting in increased levels of TNF{alpha}, IL-12(p40), RANTES, and IL-1{alpha}. PCLS showed characteristic responses to typical pro-inflammatory stimuli and may thus provide a suitable ex vivo technique to predict the immunomodulatory potency of inhaled substances.

  16. Interindividual variation in response to xenobiotic exposure established in precision-cut human liver slices.

    PubMed

    Jetten, Marlon J A; Claessen, Sandra M; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Lahoz, Agustin; Castell, José V; van Delft, Joost H M; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-09-01

    Large differences in toxicity responses occur within the human population. In this study we evaluate whether interindividual variation in baseline enzyme activity (EA)/gene expression (GE) levels in liver predispose for the variation in toxicity responses by assessing dose-response relationships for several prototypical hepatotoxicants. Baseline levels of cytochrome-P450 (CYP) GE/EA were measured in precision-cut human liver slices. Slices (n=4-5/compound) were exposed to a dose-range of acetaminophen, aflatoxin B1, benzo(α) pyrene or 2-nitrofluorene. Interindividual variation in induced genotoxicity (COMET-assay and CDKN1A/p21 GE) and cytotoxicity (lactate dehydrogenase-leakage), combined with NQO1- and GSTM1-induced GE-responses for oxidative stress and GE-responses of several CYPs was evaluated. The benchmark dose-approach was applied as a tool to model exposure responses on an individual level. Variation in baseline CYP levels, both GE and EA, can explain variation in compound exposure-responses on an individual level. Network analyses enable the definition of key parameters influencing interindividual variation after compound exposure. For 2-nitrofluorene, this analysis suggests involvement of CYP1B1 in the metabolism of this compound, which represents a novel finding. In this study, GSTM1 which is known to be highly polymorphic within the human population, but so far could not be linked to toxicity in acetaminophen-poisoned patients, is suggested to cause interindividual variability in acetaminophen-metabolism, dependent on the individual's gene expression-responses of CYP-enzymes. This study demonstrates that using interindividual variation within network modelling provides a source for the definition of essential and even new parameters involved in compound-related metabolism. This information might enable ways to make more quantitative estimates of human risks. PMID:24949552

  17. Testicular biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... egg in the lab. This process is called in vitro fertilization. Testicular biopsy may also be done if you have found a lump during testicular self-examination . If tests ... the lump may be in the testicle, surgery may be needed to look ...

  18. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... LH . Your doctor may also order a semen analysis to examine the number of healthy sperm you are producing. Sometimes, an ultrasound of the testes will be ordered. Testicular failure and low testosterone level may be hard to ...

  19. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the diabetic rats compared with controls and these parameters in the treatment group were similar to diabetics animals. This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:22545354

  20. Ultrastructural analysis of testicular tissue and sperm by transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chemes, Hector E

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have provided the basis for an in-depth understanding of the cell biology and normal functioning of the testis and male gametes and have opened the way to characterize the functional role played by specific organelles in spermatogenesis and sperm function. The development of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) extended these boundaries to the recognition of cell and organ surface features and the architectural array of cells and tissues. The merging of immunocytochemical and histochemical approaches with electron microscopy has completed a series of technical improvements that integrate structural and functional features to provide a broad understanding of cell biology in health and disease. With these advances the detailed study of the intricate structural and molecular organization as well as the chemical composition of cellular organelles is now possible. Immunocytochemistry is used to identify proteins or other components and localize them in specific cells or organelles with high specificity and sensitivity, and histochemistry can be used to understand their function (i.e., enzyme activity). When these techniques are used in conjunction with electron microscopy their resolving power is further increased to subcellular levels. In the present chapter we will describe in detail various ultrastructural techniques that are now available for basic or translational research in reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. These include TEM, ultrastructural immunocytochemistry, ultrastructural histochemistry, and SEM.

  1. Long-Term Effect of Ciprofloxacin on Testicular Tissue: Evidence for Biochemical and Histochemical Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zobeiri, Fatemeh; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Salami, Siamak; Mardani, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Background: This research studied the effect of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) on spermatogenesis. We aimed to estimate the effect of CPFX on serum levels of testosterone, LH and FSH. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 24 mice were assigned to controlsham and test groups. We subdivided the test group into low (206 mg/kg) and high (412 mg/kg) dose CPFX groups. Control-sham animals received carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). All animals were treated orally for 45 days. Cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid accumulation, cytoplasmic lipase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ratios were examined. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH ) and testosterone were measured in the control and test groups Results: The spermatogenesis cell series exhibited low numbers of cells with periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-positive cytoplasm and higher numbers of cells with lipid-positive foci. The tissue to ALP ratio and germinal epithelium (GE) lipase synthesis increased in CPFX-treated animals. In contrast to the CPFX groups, control animals showed normal cytoplasmic carbohydrate, lipid, lipase and ALP ratios in all cellular layers. In the CPFX-treated groups there was a significantly lower serum testosterone level compared with the control group. The serum levels of FSH and LH in high dosetreated animals decreased. Conclusion: Our results suggest that following long time CPFX administration major alterations occur in GE intracytoplasmic biochemistry, which may lead to loss of physiological function and ultimately result in fertility problems. CPFX is able to imbalance serum levels of gonadotropins and testosterone levels by affecting Leydig cells. PMID:24520454

  2. Normal reproductive development of pigs produced using sperm retrieved from immature testicular tissue cryopreserved and grafted into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Nakai, Michiko; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2014-07-15

    Xenografting of immature testicular tissue combined with cryopreservation can preserve and use genetic information of prepubertal animals. For establishment of this new approach, it is essential to clarify whether offspring derived from sperm grown in host mice harboring cryopreserved xenografts show normal reproductive development. This study examined serum profiles of gonadal hormones during sexual maturation in pigs generated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection using sperm derived from cryopreserved xenografts (CryoXeno pigs; three males and three females). We also assessed the reproductive abilities of the male CryoXeno pigs by mating them with conventionally produced (conventional) pigs, and by examining the in vitro fertilizing ability of their sperm. For female CryoXeno pigs, reproductive ability was evaluated by artificial insemination with semen from a conventional boar. During the growth of male CryoXeno pigs, the serum concentrations of inhibin and testosterone showed similar changes (P > 0.17) to those in conventional pigs (n = 4). Histologic analyses of the testes revealed no differences (P > 0.2) in the growth and differentiation of seminiferous tubules between CryoXeno and conventional pigs. Three conventional sows delivered 13.0 ± 1.0 (mean ± standard error of the mean) live piglets after being mated with the three CryoXeno males. Sperm obtained from all CryoXeno pigs had the ability to penetrate oocytes, and these fertilized oocytes reached the blastocyst stage in vitro. During the growth of female CryoXeno pigs, the serum inhibin profile was similar (P > 0.17) to that observed in conventional pigs (n = 5). The first rise in serum progesterone concentration to more than 2 ng/mL was noted at 32.0 ± 2.3 weeks of age in the CryoXeno pigs and at 32.0 ± 3.3 weeks in the conventional pigs, suggesting that both pigs reached puberty at a similar age. After puberty, female CryoXeno pigs farrowed 8.3 ± 1.7 (mean ± standard error of the mean; n = 3

  3. In vivo studies of cadmium-induced apoptosis in testicular tissue of the rat and its modulation by a chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Xu, C; Johnson, J E; Singh, P K; Jones, M M; Yan, H; Carter, C E

    1996-01-22

    In vivo CdCl2-induced apoptotic DNA fragmentation in the testes of the male Wistar rat has been demonstrated on agarose gel. Characteristic DNA migration patterns (laddering) provide evidence of apoptosis (programmed cell death) in testicular tissue of rats administered CdCl2 at a level of 0.03 mmol/kg 48 h previously. Evidence that administration of an appropriate cadmium chelating agent within the first 24 h can suppress some or all of the apoptotic changes in testicular DNA has also been obtained for the first time. A greater reduction in apoptosis is observed as the interval between the administration of the cadmium and that of the chelating agent is shortened. Administration of monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (Mi-ADMS) to male Wistar rats given CdCl2 is effective in the modulation of the typically apoptotic DNA fragmentation and associated histopathologic injury when the antagonist is given within approximately 1 h after the CdCl2 exposure. When the antagonist is given at later times there is a progressively more pronounced degradation of the DNA into oligonucleotides as seen in the typical electrophoretic DNA ladder pattern found with apoptosis. There is also a progressive increase in histopathological tissue changes as the antagonist is administered at progressively greater intervals after the cadmium. PMID:8597027

  4. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. PMID:26688578

  5. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  6. Water crystallization within rat precision-cut liver slices in relation to their viability.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, I A; Koster, H J

    2001-11-01

    This study examined whether tissue vitrification, promoted by partitioning within the tissue, could be the mechanism explaining the high viability of rat liver slices, rapidly frozen after preincubation with 18% Me2SO or VS4 (a 7.5 M mixture of Me2SO, 1,2-propanediol, and formamide with weight ratio 21.5:15:2.4). To achieve this, we first determined the extent to which crystallization or vitrification occurred in cryoprotectant solutions (Me2SO and VS4) and within liver slices impregnated with these solutions. Second, we determined how these events were related to survival of slices after thawing. Water crystallization was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and viability was determined by histomorphological examination of the slices after culturing at 37 degrees C for 4 h. VS4-preincubated liver slices indeed behaved differently from bulk VS4 solution, because, when vitrified, they had a lower tendency to devitrify. Vitrified VS4-preincubated slices that were warmed sufficiently rapid to prevent devitrification had a high viability. When VS4 was diluted (to 75%) or if warming was not fast enough to prevent ice formation, slices had a low viability. With 45% Me2SO, low viability of cryopreserved slices was caused by cryoprotectant toxicity. Surprisingly, liver slices preincubated with 18% Me2SO or 50% VS4 had a high viability despite the formation of ice within the slice. In conclusion, tissue vitrification provides a mechanism that explains the high viability of VS4-preincubated slices after ultrarapid freezing and thawing (>800 degrees C/min). Slices that are preincubated with moderately concentrated cryoprotectant solutions (18% Me2SO, 50% VS4) and cooled rapidly (100 degrees C/min) survive cryopreservation despite the formation of ice crystals within the slice.

  7. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    SciTech Connect

    Elferink, M.G.L.; Olinga, P.; van Leeuwen, E.M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W.G.; Heisterkamp, S.H.; Groothuis, G.M.M.

    2011-05-15

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be directly extrapolated to humans due to species differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate precision-cut human liver slices as in vitro method for the prediction of human specific toxicity by toxicogenomics. The liver slices contain all cell types of the liver in their natural architecture. This is important since drug-induced toxicity often is a multi-cellular process. Previously we showed that toxicogenomic analysis of rat liver slices is highly predictive for rat in vivo toxicity. In this study we investigated the levels of gene expression during incubation up to 24 h with Affymetrix microarray technology. The analysis was focused on a broad spectrum of genes related to stress and toxicity, and on genes encoding for phase-I, -II and -III metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Observed changes in gene expression were associated with cytoskeleton remodeling, extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, but for the ADME-Tox related genes only minor changes were observed. PCA analysis showed that changes in gene expression were not associated with age, sex or source of the human livers. Slices treated with acetaminophen showed patterns of gene expression related to its toxicity. These results indicate that precision-cut human liver slices are relatively stable during 24 h of incubation and represent a valuable model for human in vitro hepatotoxicity testing despite the human inter-individual variability.

  8. Cytotoxic effect of nanosilver particles on testicular tissue: Evidence for biochemical stress and Hsp70-2 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh-Reyhani, Zari; Razi, Mazdak; Malekinejad, Hassan; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali

    2015-09-01

    Lastly, there are growing evidences that nanosilver (NS) particles highly induce cytotoxic impacts in vitro and in vivo. Here, we analyzed the dose dependent effect of NS on histological changes, biochemical alterations and endocrine statuses, sperm parameters as well as chaperone Hsp70-2 expression. NS particles (50-60nm) were administrated in 3 doses of 0.5, 1 and 5mg/kg, intraperitoneally, for 35 days. The 0.3mL normal saline was administrated in control-sham group. Histological alterations, sperm parameters, serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Germinal and Leydig cells RNA damage, Leydig cells steroidogenic foci, the testicular and sperm total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels, immunohistochemical (IHC) expression and mRNA level of Hsp70-2 were analyzed. The NS, dose dependently, resulted in enhanced germinal cells degeneration, necrosis, seminiferous tubules atrophy and decreased serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone. Elevated germinal and Leydig cells RNA damage associated with increased sperm abnormalities were observed in NS-treated groups. Expression of Hsp70-2 was up-regulated in 0.5mg/kg, while its expression was decreased in 1 and 5mg/kg NS-treated groups. Testicular and sperm TAC levels reduced. However, the MDA and NO levels significantly (P<0.05) increased in all NS-treated groups. No histological and biochemical changes were detected in control-sham group. In conclusion, the NS particles exert their pathological impact via affecting testicular antioxidant and endocrine statuses, which in turn lead to diminished expression of Hsp70-2. Ultimately, by this mechanism NS particles adversely impact the cellular RNA, DNA and protein contents.

  9. Cytotoxic effect of nanosilver particles on testicular tissue: Evidence for biochemical stress and Hsp70-2 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh-Reyhani, Zari; Razi, Mazdak; Malekinejad, Hassan; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali

    2015-09-01

    Lastly, there are growing evidences that nanosilver (NS) particles highly induce cytotoxic impacts in vitro and in vivo. Here, we analyzed the dose dependent effect of NS on histological changes, biochemical alterations and endocrine statuses, sperm parameters as well as chaperone Hsp70-2 expression. NS particles (50-60nm) were administrated in 3 doses of 0.5, 1 and 5mg/kg, intraperitoneally, for 35 days. The 0.3mL normal saline was administrated in control-sham group. Histological alterations, sperm parameters, serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Germinal and Leydig cells RNA damage, Leydig cells steroidogenic foci, the testicular and sperm total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels, immunohistochemical (IHC) expression and mRNA level of Hsp70-2 were analyzed. The NS, dose dependently, resulted in enhanced germinal cells degeneration, necrosis, seminiferous tubules atrophy and decreased serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone. Elevated germinal and Leydig cells RNA damage associated with increased sperm abnormalities were observed in NS-treated groups. Expression of Hsp70-2 was up-regulated in 0.5mg/kg, while its expression was decreased in 1 and 5mg/kg NS-treated groups. Testicular and sperm TAC levels reduced. However, the MDA and NO levels significantly (P<0.05) increased in all NS-treated groups. No histological and biochemical changes were detected in control-sham group. In conclusion, the NS particles exert their pathological impact via affecting testicular antioxidant and endocrine statuses, which in turn lead to diminished expression of Hsp70-2. Ultimately, by this mechanism NS particles adversely impact the cellular RNA, DNA and protein contents. PMID:26363132

  10. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microscope). Some cases are found incidentally (by accident) when a testicular biopsy is done for another ... Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer Talking With ...

  11. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of bovine testicular hyaluronidase and vinblastine in mice: an attempt to optimize the mode of adjuvant hyaluronidase administration in cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Muckenschnabel, I; Bernhardt, G; Spruss, T; Buschauer, A

    1998-09-11

    The influence of the route of administration (i.v., i.p. and s.c.) on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of bovine testicular hyaluronidase and vinblastine was studied in mice (plasma, skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and human melanoma). After i.v. injection, hyaluronidase was accumulated in liver and kidney, whereas i.p. and s.c. administration led to almost equal distribution in plasma, muscle, liver and kidney. In melanoma, the highest levels of hyaluronidase were found after s.c. injection of the enzyme close to the tumor. Hyaluronidase s.c. increased the intratumoral concentration of s.c. co-administered vinblastine most efficiently, making local simultaneous application as in interstitial chemotherapy most promising.

  12. Cardiopulmonary toxicity of peat wildfire particulate matter and the predictive utility of precision cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    collected during a peat fire causes greater lung inflammation in association with endotoxin and ROS, whereas the ultrafine PM preferentially affected cardiac responses. In addition, lung tissue slices were shown to be a predictive, alternative assay to assess pro-inflammatory effects of PM of differing size and composition. Importantly, these toxicological findings were consistent with the cardiopulmonary health effects noted in epidemiologic reports from exposed populations. PMID:24934158

  13. Metachronous bilateral segmental testicular infarction: multi-parametric ultrasound imaging with grey-scale ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and real-time tissue elastography (RTE).

    PubMed

    Patel, Ketul V; Huang, Dean Y; Sidhu, Paul S

    2014-09-01

    Segmental testicular infarction is a rare cause of acute scrotal pain. The appearances on grey-scale sonography are often indistinguishable from that of a testicular tumour, resulting in unnecessary orchiectomy. We report a case of acute bilateral testicular infarction, of unknown etiology, which was conservatively managed to resolution following a confident diagnosis achieved with the aid of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and real-time tissue elastography (RTE) along with conventional grey-scale and Doppler sonography. The evolving appearances on each of the sonographic modalities are described. We discuss the importance of complementing conventional sonography with CEUS and RTE in order to make a confident diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgical intervention.

  14. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  15. Precision-cut liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Westra, Inge M.; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M.M.; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Induction of fibrosis during prolonged culture of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) was reported. In this study, the use of rat PCLS was investigated to further characterize the mechanism of early onset of fibrosis in this model and the effects of antifibrotic compounds. Rat PCLS were incubated for 48 h, viability was assessed by ATP and gene expression of PDGF-B and TGF-β1 and the fibrosis markers Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 and collagen1 protein expressions were determined. The effects of the antifibrotic drugs imatinib, sorafenib and sunitinib, PDGF-pathway inhibitors, and perindopril, valproic acid, rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone, TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, were determined. After 48 h of incubation, viability of the PCLS was maintained and gene expression of PDGF-B was increased while TGF-β1 was not changed. Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 gene expressions were significantly elevated in PCLS after 48 h, which was further increased by PDGF-BB and TGF-β1. The increased gene expression of fibrosis markers was inhibited by all three PDGF-inhibitors, while TGFβ-inhibitors showed marginal effects. The protein expression of collagen 1 was inhibited by imatinib, perindopril, tetrandrine and pirfenidone. In conclusion, the increased gene expression of PDGF-B and the down-regulation of fibrosis markers by PDGF-pathway inhibitors, together with the absence of elevated TGF-β1 gene expression and the limited effect of the TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, indicated the predominance of the PDGF pathway in the early onset of fibrosis in PCLS. PCLS appear a useful model for research of the early onset of fibrosis and for testing of antifibrotic drugs acting on the PDGF pathway. - Highlights: • During culture, fibrosis markers increased in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). • Gene expression of PDGF-β was increased, while TGFβ was not changed in rat PCLS. • PDGF-pathway inhibitors down-regulated this increase of fibrosis markers. • TGFβ-pathway inhibitors had only

  16. Isoform-Level Gene Expression Profiles of Human Y Chromosome Azoospermia Factor Genes and Their X Chromosome Paralogs in the Testicular Tissue of Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Rastegar, Diba; Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Alikhani, Mehdi; Parsamatin, Pouria; Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Mohammad Ahadi, Ali; Mohseni Meybodi, Anahita; Piryaei, Abbas; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Gourabi, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    azoospermic men. We showed that HSFY1-1, HSFY1-3, BPY2-1, KDM5C2, RBMX2, and DAZL1 transcripts could be used as potential molecular markers to predict the presence of spermatozoa in MA patients. In this study, we have identified isoform level signature that can be used to discriminate effectively between MA, SCOS, and normal testicular tissues and suggests the possibility of diagnosing the presence of mature sperm cell in azoospermic men to prevent additional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) surgery.

  17. Single and mixture effects of aquatic micropollutants studied in precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Bizarro, Cristina; Eide, Marta; Hitchcock, Daniel J; Goksøyr, Anders; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren

    2016-08-01

    The low concentrations of most contaminants in the aquatic environment individually may not affect the normal function of the organisms on their own. However, when combined, complex mixtures may provoke unexpected effects even at low amounts. Selected aquatic micropollutants such as chlorpyrifos, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were tested singly and in mixtures at nM to μM concentrations using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Fish liver is a target organ for contaminants due to its crucial role in detoxification processes. In order to understand the effects on distinct key liver metabolic pathways, transcription levels of various genes were measured, including cyp1a1 and cyp3a, involved in the metabolism of organic compounds, including toxic ones, and the catabolism of bile acids and steroid hormones; cyp7a1, fabp and hmg-CoA, involved in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis; cyp24a1, involved in vitamin D metabolism; and vtg, a key gene in xenoestrogenic response. Only EE2 had significant effects on gene expression in cod liver slices when exposed singly at the concentrations tested. However, when exposed in combinations, effects not detected in single exposure conditions arose, suggesting complex interactions between studied pollutants that could not be predicted from the results of individual exposure scenarios. Thus, the present work highlights the importance of assessing mixtures when describing the toxic effects of micropollutants to fish liver metabolism. PMID:27388235

  18. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Stegeman, John; Mork, Jarle; Rees, Jean François

    2012-09-18

    While deep-sea fish accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the toxicity associated with this contamination remains unknown. Indeed, the recurrent collection of moribund individuals precludes experimental studies to investigate POP effects in this fauna. We show that precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), an in vitro tool commonly used in human and rodent toxicology, can overcome such limitation. This technology was applied to individuals of the deep-sea grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris directly upon retrieval from 530-m depth in Trondheimsfjord (Norway). PCLS remained viable and functional for 15 h when maintained in an appropriate culture media at 4 °C. This allowed experimental exposure of liver slices to the model POP 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 25 μM) at levels of hydrostatic pressure mimicking shallow (0.1 megapascal or MPa) and deep-sea (5-15 MPa; representative of 500-1500 m depth) environments. As in shallow water fish, 3-MC induced the transcription of the detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A; a biomarker of exposure to POPs). This induction was diminished at elevated pressure, suggesting a limited responsiveness of C. rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna. PMID:22900608

  19. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A M; van der Bij, Hendrik A; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2014-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity. Firstly, PCIS were incubated with 0-200 μM diclofenac (DCF), one of the most intensively studied NSAIDs, to investigate whether they could correctly reflect the toxic mechanisms. DCF induced intestinal toxicity in PCIS was shown by morphological damage and ATP depletion. DCF induced endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial injury and oxidative stress were reflected by up-regulated HSP-70 (heat shock protein 70) and BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein) gene expression, caspase 9 activation, GSH (glutathione) depletion and HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1) gene up-regulation respectively. Furthermore, DCF intestinal metabolites, which gave rise to protein adduct but not toxicity, were detected in PCIS. Secondly, PCIS were incubated with various concentrations of five NSAIDs. Typical NSAID-induced morphological changes were observed in PCIS. The ex vivo toxicity ranking (diflunisal> diclofenac = indomethacin > naproxen ≫ aspirin) showed good correlation with published in vitro and in vivo data, with diflunisal being the only exception. In conclusion, PCIS correctly reflect the various mechanisms of DCF-induced intestinal toxicity, and can serve as an ex vivo model for the prediction of NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity. PMID:25014874

  20. Single and mixture effects of aquatic micropollutants studied in precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Bizarro, Cristina; Eide, Marta; Hitchcock, Daniel J; Goksøyr, Anders; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren

    2016-08-01

    The low concentrations of most contaminants in the aquatic environment individually may not affect the normal function of the organisms on their own. However, when combined, complex mixtures may provoke unexpected effects even at low amounts. Selected aquatic micropollutants such as chlorpyrifos, bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were tested singly and in mixtures at nM to μM concentrations using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Fish liver is a target organ for contaminants due to its crucial role in detoxification processes. In order to understand the effects on distinct key liver metabolic pathways, transcription levels of various genes were measured, including cyp1a1 and cyp3a, involved in the metabolism of organic compounds, including toxic ones, and the catabolism of bile acids and steroid hormones; cyp7a1, fabp and hmg-CoA, involved in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis; cyp24a1, involved in vitamin D metabolism; and vtg, a key gene in xenoestrogenic response. Only EE2 had significant effects on gene expression in cod liver slices when exposed singly at the concentrations tested. However, when exposed in combinations, effects not detected in single exposure conditions arose, suggesting complex interactions between studied pollutants that could not be predicted from the results of individual exposure scenarios. Thus, the present work highlights the importance of assessing mixtures when describing the toxic effects of micropollutants to fish liver metabolism.

  1. Precision cut intestinal slices are an appropriate ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A M; van der Bij, Hendrik A; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2014-10-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used therapeutic agents, however, they are associated with a high prevalence of intestinal side effects. In this investigation, rat precision cut intestinal slices (PCIS) were evaluated as an ex vivo model to study NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity. Firstly, PCIS were incubated with 0-200 μM diclofenac (DCF), one of the most intensively studied NSAIDs, to investigate whether they could correctly reflect the toxic mechanisms. DCF induced intestinal toxicity in PCIS was shown by morphological damage and ATP depletion. DCF induced endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress, mitochondrial injury and oxidative stress were reflected by up-regulated HSP-70 (heat shock protein 70) and BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein) gene expression, caspase 9 activation, GSH (glutathione) depletion and HO-1 (heme oxygenase 1) gene up-regulation respectively. Furthermore, DCF intestinal metabolites, which gave rise to protein adduct but not toxicity, were detected in PCIS. Secondly, PCIS were incubated with various concentrations of five NSAIDs. Typical NSAID-induced morphological changes were observed in PCIS. The ex vivo toxicity ranking (diflunisal> diclofenac = indomethacin > naproxen ≫ aspirin) showed good correlation with published in vitro and in vivo data, with diflunisal being the only exception. In conclusion, PCIS correctly reflect the various mechanisms of DCF-induced intestinal toxicity, and can serve as an ex vivo model for the prediction of NSAID-induced intestinal toxicity.

  2. Micropenis associated with testicular agenesis.

    PubMed

    Grant, D B; Dillon, M J

    1975-03-01

    This paper describes 2 male infants who were born with sever micropenis and in whom testicular tissue could not be identified at surgery. HCG stimulation in one infant was not followed by a rise in plasma testosterone. It was decided that both cases would be best raised as females, despite their male chromosomal sex.

  3. Increased 21-hydroxylase and shutdown of C(17,20) lyase activities in testicular tissues of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone-induced sex inversion.

    PubMed

    Lee, S T; Lam, T J; Tan, C H

    2002-05-01

    The metabolism in vitro of [(3)H]17-hydroxyprogesterone by gonadal tissues of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced female-to-male sex inversion was examined. In the female phase, C(17,20) lyase, 5beta-reductase, 3alpha/beta-HSD, 20beta-HSD, and 17beta-HSD activities resulted in the biosynthesis of 5beta-pregnans and 5beta-androstanes (including 5beta-androstane-3alpha/beta, 17beta-diol, 3alpha/beta, 17alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-pregnen-20-one, and 5beta-androstane-3,17-dione). In the MT-induced male phase, however, the abrogation of C(17,20) lyase activity and the concomitant activation of 21alpha-hydroxylase/11beta-hydroxylase resulted in the preferential synthesis of polar 21alpha-hydroxlyated 5beta-pregnans (5beta-pregnan-3beta,17alpha,20beta,21alpha-tetrol and 3beta,20beta,21alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-pregnan-3-one) and corticosteroids (11-deoxycortisol and cortisol). Interestingly, synthesis of these 21alpha-hydroxylated 5beta-pregnans and corticosteroids was uniquely compartmentalized in only testicular tissues of the MT-induced males. This study shows that there is selective activation of specific steroidogenic enzymes in the different sexual phases leading to the synthesis of metabolites that may be involved in regulating sex inversion of the grouper.

  4. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress. PMID:27369091

  5. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress.

  6. The protective effect of dexpanthenol on testicular atrophy at 60th day following experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Serbest, Yeşim Aksu; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-03-01

    Despite the prompt diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion (TT), there are problems with fertility and atrophy after testicular salvage. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid (PA). Dxp is converted to PA in tissues. PA increases the content of reduced glutathione (GSH), Coenzyme A and ATP synthesis in cells. GSH and glutathione-dependent peroxidases (GPX) are the major defense systems against oxidative stress. GPX-4 is the major antioxidant in testicular tissue. However, the activity of GPX-4 appeared and increased only after puberty. We investigated the effect of Dxp on testicular atrophy after TT at the 60th day. Rats were separated randomly into four groups. Group C: control group, group Td: torsion + detorsion, group Sal: torsion + saline + detorsion, group Dxp: torsion + Dxp + detorsion. The left testis was rotated 720 degrees for 2 h. In group Sal, normal saline and in group Dxp, Dexpanthenol were injected intraperitonally, 30 min before detorsion. After 60 days, the testicular weights and volumes were measured. Histopathology of the left testis was evaluated with mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS). The left (torsed) testicular weight and volume of groups Td and Sal were significantly lower compared to group Dxp. The MSTD and MTBS of group Td and Sal were significantly lower than group Dxp. Contralateral testicular weight and volume of groups Td, Sal and Dxp had no significant difference compared to the control group. Dxp significantly prevented testicular atrophy after 60 days of TT. Dxp has FDA approval, is safe, cost effective and readily available. Its relevance for clinical trials may especially be for the problem of testicular atrophy catastrophe, seen very frequently following testicular salvage. PMID:17205291

  7. Functional Testing of an Inhalable Nanoparticle Based Influenza Vaccine Using a Human Precision Cut Lung Slice Technique

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, Vanessa; Schwarz, Katharina; Klee, Anna; Seehase, Sophie; Förster, Christine; Pfennig, Olaf; Jonigk, Danny; Fieguth, Hans-Gerd; Koch, Wolfgang; Warnecke, Gregor; Yusibov, Vidadi; Sewald, Katherina; Braun, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Annual outbreaks of influenza infections, caused by new influenza virus subtypes and high incidences of zoonosis, make seasonal influenza one of the most unpredictable and serious health threats worldwide. Currently available vaccines, though the main prevention strategy, can neither efficiently be adapted to new circulating virus subtypes nor provide high amounts to meet the global demand fast enough. New influenza vaccines quickly adapted to current virus strains are needed. In the present study we investigated the local toxicity and capacity of a new inhalable influenza vaccine to induce an antigen-specific recall response at the site of virus entry in human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). This new vaccine combines recombinant H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HAC1), produced in tobacco plants, and a silica nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery system. We found no local cellular toxicity of the vaccine within applicable concentrations. However higher concentrations of NP (≥103 µg/ml) dose-dependently decreased viability of human PCLS. Furthermore NP, not the protein, provoked a dose-dependent induction of TNF-α and IL-1β, indicating adjuvant properties of silica. In contrast, we found an antigen-specific induction of the T cell proliferation and differentiation cytokine, IL-2, compared to baseline level (152±49 pg/mg vs. 22±5 pg/mg), which could not be seen for the NP alone. Additionally, treatment with 10 µg/ml HAC1 caused a 6-times higher secretion of IFN-γ compared to baseline (602±307 pg/mg vs. 97±51 pg/mg). This antigen-induced IFN-γ secretion was further boosted by the adjuvant effect of silica NP for the formulated vaccine to a 12-fold increase (97±51 pg/mg vs. 1226±535 pg/mg). Thus we were able to show that the plant-produced vaccine induced an adequate innate immune response and re-activated an established antigen-specific T cell response within a non-toxic range in human PCLS at the site of virus entry. PMID:23967238

  8. Functional testing of an inhalable nanoparticle based influenza vaccine using a human precision cut lung slice technique.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Vanessa; Schwarz, Katharina; Klee, Anna; Seehase, Sophie; Förster, Christine; Pfennig, Olaf; Jonigk, Danny; Fieguth, Hans-Gerd; Koch, Wolfgang; Warnecke, Gregor; Yusibov, Vidadi; Sewald, Katherina; Braun, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Annual outbreaks of influenza infections, caused by new influenza virus subtypes and high incidences of zoonosis, make seasonal influenza one of the most unpredictable and serious health threats worldwide. Currently available vaccines, though the main prevention strategy, can neither efficiently be adapted to new circulating virus subtypes nor provide high amounts to meet the global demand fast enough. New influenza vaccines quickly adapted to current virus strains are needed. In the present study we investigated the local toxicity and capacity of a new inhalable influenza vaccine to induce an antigen-specific recall response at the site of virus entry in human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). This new vaccine combines recombinant H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HAC1), produced in tobacco plants, and a silica nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery system. We found no local cellular toxicity of the vaccine within applicable concentrations. However higher concentrations of NP (≥10(3) µg/ml) dose-dependently decreased viability of human PCLS. Furthermore NP, not the protein, provoked a dose-dependent induction of TNF-α and IL-1β, indicating adjuvant properties of silica. In contrast, we found an antigen-specific induction of the T cell proliferation and differentiation cytokine, IL-2, compared to baseline level (152±49 pg/mg vs. 22±5 pg/mg), which could not be seen for the NP alone. Additionally, treatment with 10 µg/ml HAC1 caused a 6-times higher secretion of IFN-γ compared to baseline (602±307 pg/mg vs. 97±51 pg/mg). This antigen-induced IFN-γ secretion was further boosted by the adjuvant effect of silica NP for the formulated vaccine to a 12-fold increase (97±51 pg/mg vs. 1226±535 pg/mg). Thus we were able to show that the plant-produced vaccine induced an adequate innate immune response and re-activated an established antigen-specific T cell response within a non-toxic range in human PCLS at the site of virus entry. PMID:23967238

  9. [Segmental testicular infarction in sickle cell anemia].

    PubMed

    Mueller, F E

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusions are the clinical indicators of sickle cell disease and in urology they can lead to papillary necrosis, renal infarction or priapism. Segmental testicular infarction in patients with sickle cell disease is a rare event and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 25-year-old man with right testicular pain increasing over 3 days and sickle cell disease. Ultrasound of the right scrotum presented an inhomogeneous, mainly hypoechegenic mass with a hyperechogenic margin and no sign of blood flow. A partial orchiectomy was performed with total enucleation of the lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as benign hemorrhagic necrotic testicular tissue.

  10. Testicular feminization syndrome in a mare.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, B G; Freeman, D A; Grant, B D; Kennedy, P; Whitlatch, L; MacRae, K

    1992-06-01

    Testicular feminization syndrome was diagnosed in a mare with aggressive, stallion like behavior and a history of infertility. She was found to have a high baseline testosterone concentration suggesting that testicular tissue was present, and ovarian-like structures examined by use of transrectal ultrasonography had the appearance typical of testicular tissue. Although her external female genitalia appeared normal, her vagina ended in a blind sac, and no cervix or uterus were identified. Surgery was performed, and structures removed from the abdominal cavity were determined to be hypoplastic testicles. Removal of the testicular tissue resulted in complete resolution of her aggressive behavior. Chromosomal evaluation revealed that the mare had 64X,Y (normal male) karyotype. Testicular feminization syndrome is a condition characterized by insensitivity of reproductive tissues to androgens during development because of an abnormality in androgen receptors. This androgen insensitivity results in development of normal external female genitalia, with high testosterone concentrations being released from developing testicles. Testicular feminization syndrome has not been commonly diagnosed in horses, but should be considered as a differential diagnosis for overly aggressive mares with a history of infertility. PMID:1624347

  11. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Hernias Ultrasound: Scrotum Undescended Testicles Male Reproductive System PQ: I have a lump on one of ... How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular Torsion Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  12. Mechanisms of endocrine dysfunction in patients with testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Morrish, D W; Venner, P M; Siy, O; Barron, G; Bhardwaj, D; Outhet, D

    1990-03-01

    To determine mechanisms of endocrine dysfunction in patients with testicular cancer, we performed static and dynamic testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and testicular exocrine function in 13 patients and 11 normal control subjects, as well as in vitro studies of tumor tissue and remaining adjacent "normal" testicular tissue in the 13 patients. In tumor tissue, we demonstrated (a) elevated concentrations of total serum estradiol and serum estradiol not bound to sex hormone-binding globulin, (b) impaired spermatogenesis and sperm motility, and (c) blocking of multiple enzymes necessary for steroidogenesis. The data were consistent with a paracrine-endocrine mechanism in which tumor-produced human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates production of estradiol by "normal" testicular tissue but not tumor tissue, and the high estradiol levels then result in impaired spermatogenesis.

  13. The biosynthesis of some androst-16-enes from C21 and C19 steroids in boar testicular and adrenal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, N.; Gower, D. B.

    1968-01-01

    1. The formation of androst-16-enes from [4-14C]progesterone has been investigated with long-term incubations and short-term kinetic studies. After 4hr., 1·7 and 10·3% respectively of 3α- and 3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-16-enes were formed in boar testis minces, but much smaller yields were obtained in boar adrenal. Both tissues formed small quantities of androsta-4,16-dien-3-one. 2. The amounts of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and testosterone isolated were small, suggesting that androst-16-ene formation may occur preferentially in the boar testis. 3. In the absence of tissue no radioactive androst-16-enes were formed. 4. Incubation of both [4-14C]pregnenolone and [7α-3H]progesterone resulted in 3α- and 3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-16-enes containing 3H/14C ratios of near unity and confirmed that both C21 steroids were precursors. A similar incubation with 17α-hydroxy[4-14C]-progesterone and [7α-3H]progesterone gave the same Δ16-alcohols, but they contained only 3H, indicating that side-chain cleavage of pregnenolone and progesterone occurred before 17α-hydroxylation. 5. Dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone, testosterone acetate and 16-dehydroprogesterone were not found to be precursors of Δ16-steroids. 6. A pathway is proposed for the biosynthesis of 3α- and 3β-hydroxy-5α-androst-16-enes from pregnenolone and progesterone; this may involve androsta-4,16-dien-3-one as an intermediate, but excludes 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone. ImagesPLATE 1 PMID:4233122

  14. [Qualitative and quantitative investigations on testicular tissue using the semithin slide technic in patients with oligozoospermia. II. Results].

    PubMed

    Eckmann, B; Schütte, B

    1982-01-01

    In 150 patients with oligozoospermia a testis biopsy of both testes was performed. In 76% the patients were 25-35 years old. Most of them had a sperm count less than or equal to 8.1 million/ml ejaculate (in the group of 0.3-1.1 million spermatozoa/ml ejaculate 32%, in the group of 1.2-8.1 million spermatozoa/ml ejaculate 43.3%, and in the group of 8.2-20.0 million spermatozoa/ml ejaculate 26.5%). The tissue of the testis was examined by the semithin slide technique. This method was preferred instead of the routinely used paraffin slide technique, because is semithin slides the different cells of the spermatogenesis as well as its pathological forms can be classified nearly to the limit of resolving power under a light microscope. Examples of histological pictures were given. In a statistical study especially the connection between tubules wall and cells of the spermatogenesis was examined. The tubule diameter which might influence the relation of the number of cells/tubule wall was connected. For all germ cells it could be observed, that the number of patients with the various germ cells decreased with thickening of the tubule wall. In this collective the high number of patients with a reduced number of spermatogonia was remarkable, as well as the number of patients with degenerating spermatocytes I degree and with pathological spermatids. These spermatids had especially abnormalities of the acrosom and of the nucleus. Furthermore the investigations revealed that the number of the germ cells in the tubules increase with higher spermatozoa density. But in the all cases the various numbers of this material showed only tendencies but no statistical significances.

  15. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer This page lists cancer ... in testicular cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Cisplatin ...

  16. [Two cases of testicular rupture].

    PubMed

    Tsujino, S; Hirata, T; Shimizu, H; Ito, T; Shiozawa, H; Koshiba, K

    1989-06-01

    Two cases of testicular rupture are presented and 119 cases in Japanese literature are reviewed. A 29-year-old man and a 32-year-old man were admitted to our hospital with the complaint of gradually increasing pains and swelling on the right testicle. Four days and three days before admission they experienced trauma during athletic activities. The diagnosis was established preoperatively by means of ultrasonography in the first one, but not in the other. The necrotic tissue of 1/3-1/2 of testis was removed and tunica albuginea was repaired in both cases. Of 119 cases of testicular rupture in Japanese literature a peak occurs in the 2nd decade and during contact sports. The ultrasonography is an effective diagnostic modality. The rate of orchiectomy has been decreasing. The function of the affected testis is hard to evaluate.

  17. Imaging of testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Owens, E J; Kabala, J; Goddard, P

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis, pathology and imaging of testicular tumours, predominantly germ cell tumours. It will discuss the imaging techniques used in their diagnosis, staging and surveillance.

  18. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. PMID:26216827

  19. Testicular Niche Required for Human Spermatogonial Stem Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James F.; Yango, Pamela; Altman, Eran; Choudhry, Shweta; Poelzl, Andrea; Zamah, Alberuni M.; Rosen, Mitchell; Klatsky, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal boys treated with high-dose chemotherapy do not have an established means of fertility preservation because no established in vitro technique exists to expand and mature purified spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to functional sperm in humans. In this study, we define and characterize the unique testicular cellular niche required for SSC expansion using testicular tissues from men with normal spermatogenesis. Highly purified SSCs and testicular somatic cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using SSEA-4 and THY1 as markers of SSCs and somatic cells. Cells were cultured on various established niches to assess their role in SSC expansion in a defined somatic cellular niche. Of all the niches examined, cells in the SSEA-4 population exclusively bound to adult testicular stromal cells, established colonies, and expanded. Further characterization of these testicular stromal cells revealed distinct mesenchymal markers and the ability to undergo differentiation along the mesenchymal lineage, supporting a testicular multipotent stromal cell origin. In vitro human SSC expansion requires a unique niche provided exclusively by testicular multipotent stromal cells with mesenchymal properties. These findings provide an important foundation for developing methods of inducing SSC growth and maturation in prepubertal testicular tissue, essential to enabling fertility preservation for these boys. PMID:25038247

  20. Modulating testicular mass in xenografting: a model to explore testis development and endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Schlatt, Stefan; Gassei, Kathrin; Westernströer, Birgit; Ehmcke, Jens

    2010-08-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is involved in both the regulation of growth of the developing testis and in controlling spermatogenic and steroidogenic activity in the adult testis. Here, we develop a novel testicular xenografting model to examine to which degree testicular growth and function are controlled by intra- and extratesticular factors. Two or eight halves of neonatal Djungarian hamster testes were implanted into intact, hemicastrated, or castrated nude mouse recipients, and the development of the grafts under reduced or increased competition of testicular tissue was monitored and analyzed. We hypothesized that the outgrowth of the testicular grafts is influenced by the total amount of testicular tissue present in a host and that less testicular tissue in a host would result in more extended outgrowth of the grafts. Our results reveal that the hypothesis is wrong, because implanted hamster testis tissue irrespectively of the grafting condition grows to a similar size revealing an intrinsic mechanism for testicular growth. In contrast, similar size of seminal vesicle as bio-indicator of androgen levels in all hosts revealed that the steroidogenic activity is independent from the mass of testicular tissue and that steroid levels are extrinsically regulated by the recipient's HPG axis. We propose that the model of testicular xenografting provides highly valuable options to explore testicular growth and endocrine regulation of the HPG axis.

  1. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Testicular self-exam is an examination of the testicles that you do on yourself. ... The testicles (also called the testes) are the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They ...

  2. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemo is an effective way to destroy any cancer cells that break off from the main tumor and travel to lymph nodes or distant organs. Chemo is often used to cure testicular cancer when it has spread outside the ...

  3. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes testicular cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ...

  4. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  5. Protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in precision-cut liver slices in vitro and in vivo in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiahao; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) were employed as an in vitro model system. LBPs (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLSs culture system before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the exposure of PCLSs to 12 mM CCl4. The supernatants and PCLSs were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH and AKP) and MDA induced by CCl4 in all LBPs treatments and it also enhanced the suppressed antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST) and GSH, in the pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment. In vivo, fish were fed diets containing LBPs at 0.1, 0.5 and 1% for 60 d before an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in olive oil at a volume of 0.05 ml/10 g body weight. At 72 h post-injection, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs at 0.5 and 1% significantly reduced the levels of GOT, GPT and LDH in the serum; the decreases of the antioxidant enzymes and the increase of MDA in the liver tissue were inhibited markedly. Moreover, LBPs even at lower concentration exerted a potent DPPH scavenging activity. Overall results prove the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of LBPs and support the use of LBPs as a hepatoprotective agent in fish.

  6. In vitro metabolism of [14C]methoxychlor in rat, mouse, Japanese quail and rainbow trout in precision-cut liver slices.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, K; Maki, S; Sato, K; Kato, Y

    2004-08-01

    1. The in vitro metabolism of [14C]methoxychlor (MXC) has been studied using precision-cut liver slices from the Sprague-Dawley male rat, CD-1 male mouse, WE strain male Japanese quail and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The results demonstrated integrated phase I and II metabolism of MXC and species differences in the metabolic profiles were observed. 2. In rat liver slice preparations, MXC was rapidly metabolized to bis-OH-MXC by sequential O-demethylation followed by subsequent O-glucuronidation forming bis-OH-MXC glucuronide. No mono-OH-MXC glucuronide was detected. The doubly conjugated metabolite, bis-OH-MXC 4-O-sulphate 4'-O-glucuronide, was also detected as a rat-specific metabolite. 3. Formation of mono-OH-MXC and its glucuronide was the main metabolic pathway in the mouse and Japanese quail. In contrast to the rat, only minor amounts of bis-OH-MXC glucuronide were detected. A reductively dehalogenated metabolite, dechlorinated mono-OH-MXC glucuronide, was observed only in mouse preparations. 4. In rainbow trout, comparative amounts of both mono- and bis-OH-MXC glucuronide were formed as the major metabolites. Unconjugated forms of these metabolites were detected only as minor products. 5. The different metabolic profiles of MXC observed in the four animal species are possibly due to substrate specificity of contributing CYP450 monooxgenase enzyme(s) in different animal species.

  7. Comparative in vitro metabolism of methoxychlor in male and female rats: metabolism of demethylated methoxychlor metabolites by precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, K; Maki, S; Sato, K; Kato, Y

    2005-07-01

    The in vitro metabolism of demethylated methoxychlor (MXC) metabolites, mono-OH-MXC (including (R)- and (S)-isomers) and bis-OH-MXC (mono- and bis-demethylated MXC, respectively), was conducted using precision-cut liver slices to understand the sex-dependent metabolism of MXC in rats. In the study with bis-OH-MXC, the substrate underwent extensive conjugation producing its glucuronide and glucuronide/sulphate diconjugate, and no significant sex differences were found. On the contrary, the metabolism of mono-OH-MXC appeared to exhibit the sex differences in the metabolic profiles. The bis-OH-MXC glucuronide and glucuronide/sulphate diconjugate were major metabolites in male rat, whereas the mono- and bis-OH-MXC glucuronides predominated in the female. The per cent distribution of the demethylated products (sum of bis-OH-MXC derivatives) was approximately 90% for the male (for both isomers) and 81 (R-) to 56% (S-) for the female. The metabolic profiles in (S)-mono-OH-MXC, which is the predominant enantiomer preferentially produced in MXC metabolism in rats, showed a similar pattern to that of MXC compared with the (R)-isomer. The results indicate that the sex differences in oxidative demethylation of the intermediate, (S)-mono-OH-MXC, could be one of the probable reasons for the sex-dependent metabolism of MXC in rats, and the stereo-structural preference of the contributing demethylase enzymes appear to be involved.

  8. Comparative in vitro metabolism of the suspected pro-oestrogenic compound, methoxychlor in precision-cut liver slices from male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, K; Maki, S; Sato, K; Kato, Y

    2005-04-01

    The in vitro metabolism of [14C]methoxychlor (MXC), a suspected pro-oestrogenic compound, by male and female Fischer rats (F344) was compared in precision-cut liver slices. The results demonstrated time-dependent metabolism of MXC with integrated phase I and II reactions, and the sex differences were detected in the metabolic profiles. In liver slices from male rats, MXC was metabolized to bis-demethylated MXC (bis-OH-MXC) by sequential O-demethylation followed by subsequent O-glucuronidation. The doubly conjugated metabolite, bis-OH-MXC 4-O-sulphate 4'-O-glucuronide was additionally produced. In the case of the female rat, the glucuronides of both mono- and bis-OH-MXC were formed as the main metabolites, and the mono-OH-MXC glucuronide appeared to be specific to the female rat. The ratios of bis-/mono-demethylated metabolite, which include the amounts of corresponding conjugates, were approximately 95/5 for the male rats and 40/60 for the female. These results imply that demethylation to the intermediate metabolite, (S)-mono-OH-MXC, is a key step for the sex-dependent metabolism of MXC in the rats. The phase I metabolites produced were extensively conjugated with D-glucuronic acid in both male and female rats.

  9. Precision-cut intestinal slices as a culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Punyadarsaniya, Darsaniya; Winter, Christine; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y; Rautenschlein, Silke; Herrler, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Many viruses infect and replicate in their host via the intestinal tract, e.g. many picornaviruses, several coronaviruses and avian influenza viruses of waterfowl. To analyze infection of enterocytes is a challenging task as culture systems for differentiated intestinal epithelial cells are not readily available and often have a life span that is too short for infection studies. Precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) from chicken embryos were prepared and shown that the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the intestine are viable for up to 4 days. Using lectin staining, it was demonstrated that α2,3-linked sialic acids, the preferred receptor determinants of avian influenza viruses, are present on the apical side of the epithelial cells. Furthermore, the epithelial cells (at the tips) of the villi were shown to be susceptible to infection by an avian influenza virus of the H9N2 subtype. This culture system will be useful to analyze virus infection of intestinal epithelial cells and it should be applicable also to the intestine of other species.

  10. Caffeine inhibits TGFβ activation in epithelial cells, interrupts fibroblast responses to TGFβ, and reduces established fibrosis in ex vivo precision-cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Tatler, Amanda L; Barnes, Josephine; Habgood, Anthony; Goodwin, Amanda; McAnulty, Robin J; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used food additive found naturally in many products. In addition to potently stimulating the central nervous system caffeine is able to affect various systems within the body including the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Importantly, caffeine is used clinically to treat apnoea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies. Recently, caffeine has been shown to exhibit antifibrotic effects in the liver in part through reducing collagen expression and deposition, and reducing expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGFβ. The potential antifibrotic effects of caffeine in the lung have not previously been investigated. Using a combined in vitro and ex vivo approach we have demonstrated that caffeine can act as an antifibrotic agent in the lung by acting on two distinct cell types, namely epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Caffeine inhibited TGFβ activation by lung epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on TGFβ activation in fibroblasts. Importantly, however, caffeine abrogated profibrotic responses to TGFβ in lung fibroblasts. It inhibited basal expression of the α-smooth muscle actin gene and reduced TGFβ-induced increases in profibrotic genes. Finally, caffeine reduced established bleomycin-induced fibrosis after 5 days treatment in an ex vivo precision-cut lung slice model. Together, these findings suggest that there is merit in further investigating the potential use of caffeine, or its analogues, as antifibrotic agents in the lung. PMID:26911575

  11. Proteomic profiling in incubation medium of mouse, rat and human precision-cut liver slices for biomarker detection regarding acute drug-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    van Swelm, Rachel P L; Hadi, Mackenzie; Laarakkers, Coby M M; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Groothuis, Geny M M; Russel, Frans G M

    2014-09-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is one of the leading causes of drug withdrawal from the market. In this study, we investigated the applicability of protein profiling of the incubation medium of human, mouse and rat precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) exposed to liver injury-inducing drugs for biomarker identification, using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PCLS were incubated with acetaminophen (APAP), 3-acetamidophenol, diclofenac and lipopolysaccharide for 24-48 h. PCLS medium from all species treated with APAP demonstrated similar changes in protein profiles, as previously found in mouse urine after APAP-induced liver injury, including the same key proteins: superoxide dismutase 1, carbonic anhydrase 3 and calmodulin. Further analysis showed that the concentration of hepcidin, a hepatic iron-regulating hormone peptide, was reduced in PCLS medium after APAP treatment, resembling the decreased mouse plasma concentrations of hepcidin observed after APAP treatment. Interestingly, comparable results were obtained after 3-acetamidophenol incubation in rat and human, but not mouse PCLS. Incubation with diclofenac, but not with lipopolysaccharide, resulted in the same toxicity parameters as observed for APAP, albeit to a lesser extent. In conclusion, proteomics can be applied to identify potential translational biomarkers using the PCLS system.

  12. Antidepressants and testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Schwalbe, Joan; Achacoso, Ninah; Meng, Maxwell V.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; Habel, Laurel A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Re-examine association of fluoxetine and paroxetine with risk of testicular cancer noted in drug screening, with four years more follow-up and expanded study of these and other antidepressant drugs. Methods In the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in northern California, 906 men with testicular cancer diagnosed August 1996–December 2010 were compared with 38,253 matched controls with race/ethnicity recorded regarding receipt of antidepressant drugs at least two years before diagnosis or control index date. Analyses emphasized duration of use and histological subgroups. Results With control for race/ethnicity and use of other antidepressant drugs, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations with testicular cancer were: fluoxetine 1.22 (0.88–1.71), paroxetine 1.19 (0.78–1.83), and 1.21 (0.92–1.58) for all SSRI’s. There was no statistically significant association with risk of all testicular cancers or their histologic subtypes for any individual drug or for tricyclics or all antidepressants combined except for citalopram with all testicular cancers 2.55 (1.43–4.52) and those of mixed histology 4.36 (1.50–12.68) and nefazodone with embryonal cancers 9.79 (1.85–51.81). These could readily be chance findings in the context of the many analyses that were performed. Duration of use was not associated with risk for the drugs and drug groups with sufficient numbers of exposed cases for analysis. Conclusions We found little evidence to support a testicular carcinogenic effect of fluoxetine, paroxetine, or other antidepressant drugs but a weakly positive association is not ruled out. The signals in prior screening may have been due to chance and/or uncontrolled confounding. PMID:24276357

  13. Comparison of Protamine 1 to Protamine 2 mRNA Ratio and YBX2 gene mRNA Content in Testicular Tissue of Fertile and Azoospermic Men

    PubMed Central

    Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Najafipour, Reza; Hashjin, Amir Samimi

    2015-01-01

    Background Although aberrant protamine (PRM) ratios have been observed in infertile men, the mechanisms that implicit the uncoupling of PRM1 and PRM2 expression remain unclear. To uncover these mechanisms, in this observational study we have compared the PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio and mRNA contents of two regulatory factors of these genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sampling was performed by a multi-step method from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal men. After RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT- QPCR) was used to analyze the PRM1, PRM2, Y box binding protein 2 (YBX2) and JmjC-containing histone demethylase 2a (JHDM2A) genes in testicular biopsies of the studied samples. Results The PRM1/PRM2 mRNA ratio differed significantly among studied groups, namely 0.21 ± 0.13 in azoospermic samples and -0.8 ± 0.22 in fertile samples. The amount of PRM2 mRNA, significantly reduced in azoospermic patients. Azoospermic men exhibited significant under expression of YBX2 gene compared to controls (P<0.001). mRNA content of this gene showed a positive correlation with PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.6, P=0.007). JHDM2A gene expression ratio did not show any significant difference between the studied groups (P=0.3). We also observed no correlation between JHDM2A mRNA content and the PRM mRNA ratio (R=0.2, P=0.3). Conclusion We found significant correlation between the aberrant PRM ratio (PRM2 under expression) and lower YBX2 mRNA content in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men compared to controls, which suggested that downregulation of the YBX2 gene might be involved in PRM2 under expression. These molecules could be useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:26644857

  14. Precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): an in vitro system for studying the effects of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Eide, M; Karlsen, O A; Kryvi, H; Olsvik, P A; Goksøyr, A

    2014-08-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is an economically important species commonly consumed by humans. The widespread distribution of cod in the North Atlantic Ocean makes it vulnerable to effluents from human activities, such as coastal industries and offshore petroleum exploration. It has been demonstrated that many effluents have adverse effects on cod reproduction and health, e.g. by disrupting endocrine signaling pathways. The liver, expressing important components of the biotransformation and the endocrine system, is one of the main target organs. Thus, reliable and reproducible in vitro systems of the liver are important for studying effects of environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an alternative in vitro system for toxicological studies of the Atlantic cod liver. Slices of 8 mm in diameter and 250 μm thickness were prepared and cultivated from immature cod. Several analyses to measure the liver slice viability were performed: enzyme assays, histology, and morphometric analysis, all confirming cell viability for up to 72 h in culture. The liver slices were also exposed to two well-known model environmental contaminants, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), representing established agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER), respectively. The results showed increased transcription of the target genes cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (VTG), both well-established biomarkers for exposure of fish to the selected compounds. In conclusion, PCLS is a promising in vitro system for toxicological studies of cod liver cells. The liver slices are viable in culture for several days and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose- and time-specific manner.

  15. Gene expression and enzyme function of two cytochrome P450 3A isoenzymes in rat and cattle precision cut liver slices.

    PubMed

    Maté, María Laura; Ballent, Mariana; Larsen, Karen; Lifschitz, Adrian; Lanusse, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    1. Precision-cut liver slices are one of the in vitro models used in studies concerning xenobiotic metabolism. Sparse information on this field is actually available for cattle and other veterinary species. 2. The aim of the current work was to study the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) on the gene expression and function of CYP3A23 (in rat), CYP3A28 (in cattle) and the transcriptional factors involved in their regulation. 3. DEX (at 100 µM) up-regulated CYP3A23 mRNA (3.2-fold, p = 0.028) in rat liver slices after 12 h culture, whereas the gene expression profiles of transcriptional factors involved in CYP3A regulation were unaffected. A CYP3A-dependent enzyme activity (triacetyl-oleandomycin N-demethylase) increased 3.4-fold (p < 0.05) in rat liver slices cultured in the presence of DEX. 4. The protocol used for rat liver slices was used as reference to study the expression of a CYP3A isoenzyme in cattle liver slices. Oppositely, DEX did neither affect the gene expression profile of CYP3A28 nor the CYP3A activity tested in cattle liver slices. 5. The data reported here are a further contribution to demonstrate the usefulness of liver slices as an in vitro tool for studies on the expression and function of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in cattle and in other ruminant species. PMID:25630049

  16. Precision-cut liver slices from diet-induced obese rats exposed to ethanol are susceptible to oxidative stress and increased fatty acid synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Monte S.; Schaffert, Courtney S.; Reidelberger, Roger D.; Dusad, Anand; Anderson, Daniel R.; Klassen, Lynell W.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress from fat accumulation in the liver has many deleterious effects. Many believe that there is a second hit that causes relatively benign fat accumulation to transform into liver failure. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on ex vivo precision-cut liver slice cultures (PCLS) from rats fed a high-fat diet resulting in fatty liver. Age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either high-fat (obese) (45% calories from fat, 4.73 kcal/g) or control diet for 13 mo. PCLS were prepared, incubated with 25 mM ethanol for 24, 48, and 72 h, harvested, and evaluated for ethanol metabolism, triglyceride production, oxidative stress, and cytokine expression. Ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde production decreased in PCLS from obese rats compared with age-matched controls (AMC). Increased triglyceride and smooth muscle actin production was observed in PCLS from obese rats compared with AMC, which further increased following ethanol incubation. Lipid peroxidation, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, increased in response to ethanol, whereas GSH and heme oxygenase I levels were decreased. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were increased in the PCLS from obese rats and increased further with ethanol incubation. Diet-induced fatty liver increases the susceptibility of the liver to toxins such as ethanol, possibly by the increased oxidative stress and cytokine production. These findings support the concept that the development of fatty liver sensitizes the liver to the effects of ethanol and leads to the start of liver failure, necrosis, and eventually cirrhosis. PMID:24284960

  17. Precision-cut liver slices from diet-induced obese rats exposed to ethanol are susceptible to oxidative stress and increased fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duryee, Michael J; Willis, Monte S; Schaffert, Courtney S; Reidelberger, Roger D; Dusad, Anand; Anderson, Daniel R; Klassen, Lynell W; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2014-02-01

    Oxidative stress from fat accumulation in the liver has many deleterious effects. Many believe that there is a second hit that causes relatively benign fat accumulation to transform into liver failure. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on ex vivo precision-cut liver slice cultures (PCLS) from rats fed a high-fat diet resulting in fatty liver. Age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either high-fat (obese) (45% calories from fat, 4.73 kcal/g) or control diet for 13 mo. PCLS were prepared, incubated with 25 mM ethanol for 24, 48, and 72 h, harvested, and evaluated for ethanol metabolism, triglyceride production, oxidative stress, and cytokine expression. Ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde production decreased in PCLS from obese rats compared with age-matched controls (AMC). Increased triglyceride and smooth muscle actin production was observed in PCLS from obese rats compared with AMC, which further increased following ethanol incubation. Lipid peroxidation, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, increased in response to ethanol, whereas GSH and heme oxygenase I levels were decreased. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were increased in the PCLS from obese rats and increased further with ethanol incubation. Diet-induced fatty liver increases the susceptibility of the liver to toxins such as ethanol, possibly by the increased oxidative stress and cytokine production. These findings support the concept that the development of fatty liver sensitizes the liver to the effects of ethanol and leads to the start of liver failure, necrosis, and eventually cirrhosis.

  18. A Study of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induced Liver Injury in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) Using Precision-Cut Liver Slices.

    PubMed

    Du, Jin-Liang; Cao, Li-Ping; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jia, Rui; Yin, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a model for the study of liver injury induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Jian carp using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). PCLS were treated with TCDD at concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 μg/L for 6 h, followed by collection of the culture supernatant and PCLS for analysis. Several biochemical indices were analyzed, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Expression of mRNA was also estimated for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor2 (AhR2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator2 (ARNT2). Results showed that some significant effects (p < 0.05) in MDA, GSH-Px and PCLS viability were observed at a TCDD concentration as low as 0.05 µg/L, and the observed effects increased with exposure concentration. Following exposure to TCDD for 6 h at a concentration of 0.3 μg/L, significant increases (p < 0.01) in the content of GPT, GOT, MDA, and LDH were observed, while SOD activity, GSH-Px activity, and PCLS viability were decreased (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Exposure to 0.3 μg/L TCDD also resulted in increased expression of mRNA for CYP1A, AhR2, and ARNT2. Overall, these results provide evidence of TCDD-induced liver injury and oxidative stress in Jian carp. These results also support the use of PCLS as an in vitro model for the evaluation of hepatotoxicity in Jian carp.

  19. Endocrinology of testicular neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J C

    1981-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis finely regulates levels of circulating sex steroids--especially testosterone and estradiol--and spermatogenesis. Testosterone, directly as an androgen and as a prehormone for estradiol, regulates LH secretion at both hypothalamic and pituitary levels. Leydig cells, principally under the control of LH, produce testosterone. Sertoli cells, under the control of FSH, and sensitive to intratesticular levels of testosterone, produce estradiol. This locally produced estrogen seems to be necessary for maturation of the germ cells. An abnormality in this sensitive control system, leading to elevations in gonadotrophins or steroid levels, may be etiologically important in both germ cell and nongerm cell neoplasia. Testicular cancers are associated frequently with endocrinologic manifestations, which may be more disabling to the patient than the malignant potential of the tumor, especially with childhood Leydig cell tumors. Estrogen dominance with an elevated estrogen/testosterone ratio can be seen in any testicular neoplasm and may result in gynecomastia. It may be due to a decrease in circulating testosterone or to an increase in estrogens. Virilization is seen frequently in Leydig cell tumors of adolescents. Further elucidation of hormonal interrelationships should lead to better understanding of the genesis of testicular neoplasia and to more effective therapy.

  20. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... staged? Testicular cancer survival rates Previous Topic Can testicular cancer be prevented? Next Topic Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular ... Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  1. Methylation similarities of two CpG sites within exon 5 of human H19 between normal tissues and testicular germ cell tumours of adolescents and adults, without correlation with allelic and total level of expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, A. J.; Verkerk, A. J.; Dekker, M. C.; van Gurp, R. J.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Looijenga, L. H.

    1997-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) of adolescents and adults morphologically mimic different stages of embryogenesis. Established cell lines of these cancers are used as informative models to study early development. We found that, in contrast to normal development, TGCTs show a consistent biallelic expression of imprinted genes, including H19, irrespective of histology. Methylation of particular cytosine residues of H19 correlates with inhibition of expression, which has not been studied in TGCTs thus far. We investigated the methylation status of two CpG sites within the 3' region of H19 (exon 5: positions 3321 and 3324) both in normal tissues as well as in TGCTs. To obtain quantitative data of these specific sites, the ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction technique, instead of Southern blot analysis, was applied. The results were compared with the allelic status and the total level of expression of this gene. Additionally, the undifferentiated cells and differentiated derivatives of the TGCT-derived cell line NT2-D1 were analysed. While peripheral blood showed no H19 expression and complete methylation, a heterogeneous but consistent pattern of methylation and level of expression was found in the other normal tissues, without a correlation between the two. The separate histological entities of TGCTs resembled the pattern of their nonmalignant tissues. While the CpG sites remained completely methylated in NT2-D1, H19 expression was induced upon differentiation. These data indicate that methylation of the CpG sites within exon 5 of H19 is tissue dependent, without regulating allelic status and/or total level of expression. Of special note is the finding that, also regarding methylation of these particular sites of H19, TGCTs mimic their non-malignant counterparts, in spite of their consistent biallelic expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9310237

  2. Transverse testicular ectopia.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Abdullah; Yiğiter, Murat; Oral, Akgün; Bakan, Vedat

    2014-02-01

    Described herein are six cases of transverse testicular ectopia. All patients who underwent orchidopexy at the one pediatric surgical unit between October 2001 and January 2008 were evaluated. The medical records of all patients diagnosed with transverse testicular ectopia were evaluated retrospectively. Five patients (84%) were admitted with a symptomatic right inguinal hernia and empty scrotum on the left side. Only one child (16%) had left-sided hernia and right non-palpable testis (age ranged from 1 month to 3 years). Four patients (66%) were diagnosed in the operating theatre and the last two (33%) on inguinal ultrasound preoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in the last patient. Herniorrhaphy with fixation of the ectopic gonad to the opposite hemiscrotum through a transseptal incision was performed in all patients. Postoperative complications were not observed. PMID:24548194

  3. Testicular neoplasm diagnosed by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Senay, B A; Stein, B S

    1986-06-01

    The diagnosis of testicular cancer is usually made by the findings of a testicular mass on physical examination. In rare cases a young man will present with retroperitoneal nodes and a normal testicular examination. In such cases a testicular ultrasound may localize the testis which harbors a subclinical neoplasm. In addition serum markers of B-HCG and AFP are essential. As a screening procedure a urine pregnancy test is helpful, since it can be obtained quickly while quantitative B-HCG and APF results are delayed. PMID:3523046

  4. Ectopic Hydrocele After Testicular Transposition.

    PubMed

    Berli, Jens U; Zelken, Jonathan; Schuyler, Kyle; Naslund, Michael; Rasko, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    A 55-year-old man was treated for Fournier gangrene in 2004 with radical debridement and bilateral testicular transposition to the medial thighs. Eight years later, bilateral hydroceles formed. After conservative measures failed for treatment of the hydroceles, the condition was treated during desired testicular relocation, and creation of a neoscrotum. In the case presented, bilateral thigh hydroceles may have developed from lymphatic injury during testicular transposition. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of bilateral hydrocele testis in the medial thigh pouches following ectopic testicular transposition.

  5. Regulation of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Southwell, Bridget R; Newgreen, Don; Cousinery, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Testicular descent occurs in two morphologically distinct phases, each under different hormonal control from the testis itself. The first phase occurs between 8 and 15 weeks when insulin-like hormone 3 (Insl3) from the Leydig cells stimulates the gubernaculum to swell, thereby anchoring the testis near the future inguinal canal as the foetus grows. Testosterone causes regression of the cranial suspensory ligament to augment the transabdominal phase. The second, or inguinoscrotal phase, occurs between 25 and 35 weeks, when the gubernaculum bulges out of the external ring and migrates to the scrotum, all under control of testosterone. However, androgen acts mostly indirectly via the genitofemoral nerve (GFN), which produces calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to control the direction of migration. In animal models the androgen receptors are in the inguinoscrotal fat pad, which probably produces a neurotrophin to masculinise the GFN sensory fibres that regulate gubernacular migration. There is little direct evidence that this same process occurs in humans, but CGRP can regulate closure of the processus vaginalis in inguinal hernia, confirming that the GFN probably mediates human testicular descent by a similar mechanism as seen in rodent models. Despite increased understanding about normal testicular descent, the common causes of cryptorchidism remain elusive.

  6. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Breikaa, Randa M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  7. Effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy on testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are commonly used alone or in combination in the curative management of many malignancies in adolescent and adult males. Over the last 15-20 years, the striking success in the treatment of some common cancers in reproductive males has led to increasing concern for damage to normal tissues, such as the testes, resulting from curative cancer treatment. Indeed, a major future goal for cancer treatment will be to improve on the complication-free cure rate. Inherent in achieving this goal is to understand the pathophysiology and clinical expression of testicular injury. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy result in germ cell depletion with the development of oligo- to azoospermia and testicular atrophy. The type of drug (particularly the alkylating agents), duration of treatment, intensity of treatment, and drug combination are major variables in determining the extent and duration of testicular injury. Testicular injury with chemotherapy also appears to vary with the age of the patient at the time of treatment. Newer drug combinations are now being used which appear to have curative potential in tumors such as Hodgkin's disease and germ cell testicular cancer with less potential for testicular injury. The most accurate and complete information on radiation injury to the testes is derived from two studies of normal volunteers who received graded single doses directly to the testes. A clear dose-response relationship of clinical and histological testicular damage was found with gradual recovery occurring following doses of up to 600 cGy. While these two studies provide an important clinical data base, radiation therapy used in treating cancers involves multiple daily treatments, usually 25-35 delivered over several weeks. Additionally, direct testicular irradiation is seldom used clinically. 37 references.

  8. Low temperature-induced circulating triiodothyronine accelerates seasonal testicular regression.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yorinaga, Eriko; Ono, Hiroko; Murayama, Itaru; Nakane, Yusuke; Ota, Wataru; Arai, Natsumi; Tega, Akinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Darras, Veerle M; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    In temperate zones, animals restrict breeding to specific seasons to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms of seasonal regulation, and their testicular mass can change 100-fold within a few weeks. Recent studies on Japanese quail revealed that seasonal gonadal development is regulated by central thyroid hormone activation within the hypothalamus, depending on the photoperiodic changes. By contrast, the mechanisms underlying seasonal testicular regression remain unclear. Here we show the effects of short day and low temperature on testicular regression in quail. Low temperature stimulus accelerated short day-induced testicular regression by shutting down the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and inducing meiotic arrest and germ cell apoptosis. Induction of T3 coincided with the climax of testicular regression. Temporal gene expression analysis over the course of apoptosis revealed the suppression of LH response genes and activation of T3 response genes involved in amphibian metamorphosis within the testis. Daily ip administration of T3 mimicked the effects of low temperature stimulus on germ cell apoptosis and testicular mass. Although type 2 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-activating enzyme, in the brown adipose tissue generates circulating T3 under low-temperature conditions in mammals, there is no distinct brown adipose tissue in birds. In birds, type 2 deiodinase is induced by low temperature exclusively in the liver, which appears to be caused by increased food consumption. We conclude that birds use low temperature-induced circulating T3 not only for adaptive thermoregulation but also to trigger apoptosis to accelerate seasonal testicular regression.

  9. mTOR expression in human testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Yaba, A; Bozkurt, E R; Demir, N

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (TOR) has been implicated in the control of different stressors, growth factors, nutrients and hormones, participating in the control of key cellular functions. Controlling this many pathways poses mTOR signalling as a potential new target in new treatment strategies for multiple cancer types. mTOR components could potentially mislocated in tumour cells, which could lead to activation of signalling pathway that should not be active. Therefore, we aimed to show localisation of mTOR signal proteins in testicular seminoma. Tumoural testicular tissues were obtained from 10 patients with unilateral classic seminoma undergoing to therapeutic orchidectomy and compared with control human testicular tissues. Upon immunohistochemical evaluation, we detected mTOR and p-mTOR (serine 2448), P70S6K, p-P70S6K, PKCalpha and p-PKCalpha, CD36 and MAPLC3 proteins in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. We also showed cytoplasmic perinuclear staining in seminoma cells. This study demonstrated the interaction of mTOR signalling pathway and testicular seminoma by showing intense cytoplasmic mTOR pathway proteins immunoreactivity in the seminoma, for the first time in humans. Therefore, we suggested that mTOR signalling components could create new clinical targets for treatment of testicular seminoma patients and male infertility in the future.

  10. Evaluation of involvement of testicular metallothionein gene expression in the protective effect of zinc against cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rat.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Imed; Banni, Mohamed; Saïd, Lamia; Saïd, Khaled; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effects of exposure to Cd and Zn on testicular MT-1 and MT-2 gene expression and evaluate their involvement in Zn protection against Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology, male rats received either tap water, Cd or Cd+Zn in their drinking water for 35 days. Cd induced histopathological changes in testicular tissues were accompanied by decreased plasma testosterone level, plasma and testicular Zn concentrations, oxidative stress, and by increased MT-1 and MT-2 gene expression. Co-treatment with Cd and Zn reversed the Cd-induced decrease testosterone level and SOD activity, decreased testicular Cd accumulation and partially restored Cd-induced histological changes, lipid peroxidation, and Zn depletion. The increase of testicular MT-1 and MT-2 gene expression under Cd influence was significantly reduced in Cd+Zn group. These data suggest that Zn enhances the protection against Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology through non-MT gene expression mechanisms but essentially by preventing Cd accumulation, Zn deprivation and by ameliorating the testicular antioxidant status. PMID:20096345

  11. Malignant testicular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Pierre Del; Tawil, Elie; Béland, Gilles

    1974-01-01

    A series of 71 patients with malignant testicular tumours treated primarily by orchiectomy and irradiation is reviewed with respect to pathological and clinical features and modes of treatment. The three-year crude survival rate in 36 patients with seminoma was 86% and in 24 patients with carcinoma it was 41.7%. There were no survivors among patients with choriocarcinoma. Our results are comparable with those of other series. A prospective study is proposed of the value of irradiation and subsequent limited lymph node dissection following orchiectomy in cases of carcinoma of the testis. PMID:4855670

  12. Evaluation of mRNA Contents of YBX2 and JHDM2A Genes on Testicular Tissues of Azoospermic Men with Different Classes of Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Najafipour, Reza; Moghbelinejad, Sahar; Samimi Hashjin, Amir; Rajaei, Farzad; Rashvand, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Animal model studies have shown that MSY2 and JHDM2A genes have an important role in spermatogenesis process and fertility of male mice. But the potential role of these genes in human spermatogenesis and fertility is not known yet. Therefore, we evaluated expression ratios of these genes in testis tissues of men with normal and impaired spermatogenesis. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, after RNA extraction and cDNA syn- thesis from 50 non-obstructive azoospermic and 12 normal testis tissues, the expression ratios of genes were evaluated by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Hematoxcylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used for histological classification of testis tissues. For statistical analysis, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was carried out. Results Our results showed a significant reduction in mRNA level of YBX2 in samples with impaired spermatogenesis (p<0.001) compared to samples with qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and normal spermatogenesis; however, in JHDM2A gene, despite sensible reduction in gene expression level in men with impaired spermatogenesis, no significant differences were shown (p>0.05). Furthermore in YBX2, a significant negative correlation was demonstrated between the efficiency score of spermatogenesis and the threshold cycle (CT) (r=-0.7, p<0.0001), whereas in JHDM2A, this negative correlation was not significant (r=-0.4, p=0.06). Conclusion Generally, these data indicated that YBX2 and JHDM2A genes may play an important role in male infertility, and suggested that these molecules can act as useful biomarkers for predicting male infertility. PMID:25870841

  13. Testicular cancer in Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Magoha, G A

    1995-09-01

    This is a report of prospective study of eight patients with testicular tumours seen at the Urology Unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a five-year period (1979-1983). The mean age was 32.7 years. Four patients (50%) had germ cell tumours including embryonal carcinoma 25%, seminoma 12.5% and malignant teratoma undifferentiated (MTU) 12.5%. The seminoma in this group originated from a testis which was previously undescended but brought into the scrotum at six years of age. The other four patients (50%), had non germ cell tumours. Two of these patients (25%) had paratesticular tumours including rhabdomyosarcoma of paratesticular adnexae and liposarcoma. One (12.5%) had adenomatoid tumour of the epididymis while the last patient (12.5%) had malignant fibrous mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis. This study reaffirms the fact that testicular tumours are rare in blacks and that Nigeria has the lowest incidence reported at 0.1 per 100,000 per annum.

  14. Testicular atrophy in Columbian black-tailed deer in California.

    PubMed

    DeMartini, J C; Connolly, G E

    1975-01-01

    During an 18-year period, 4.1% (34/831) of male deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) killed on a field station during the autumn hunting season had velvet-covered, often misshapen antlers, and at least two deer had testicular atrophy (gonads from most deer were not available for examination). Testes from six similarly affected deer and several normal deer were compared histologically. Lesions ranged from hypocellularity of the semeniferous tubules and relative hyperplasia or degeneration of interstitial cells to complete connective tissue replacement of the testicular parencyma. Chronic vascular changes were present in several testes. The etiology and pathogenesis of the lesions were not determined.

  15. Tributyltin-mediated hepatic, renal and testicular tissue damage in male Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a study on impact of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kanimozhi, V; Palanivel, K; Akbarsha, M A; Kadalmani, B

    2016-01-01

    Organotin compounds are a versatile group of organometallic chemicals that are used in a variety of industrial and agricultural applications. Tributyltin (TBT), a common organotin, brings about severe spermatotoxic and organotoxic effects. However, information about the adverse effects of TBT on liver, kidney and testis is scanty. Hence, the present study was undertaken to elucidate the TBT-mediated oxidative stress-induced impairments in these organs. Administration of TBT through oral route at increasing doses of 50, 100 and 150 ppm for 65 days to male Syrian hamsters resulted in drastically decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and decreased mean levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E) followed by a dramatic increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidney and testis as compared to the control animals. Significantly high levels of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid and bilirubin were observed in TBT-treated hamsters. Also, TBT treatment induced drastic histopathological changes in the liver, kidney and testis combined with remarkable changes in serum levels of tissue injury marker enzymes Aspartate transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and Alanine transaminase. These data affirm that exposure to TBT can lead to oxidative stress-induced damage to liver, kidney and testis. PMID:27652096

  16. Testicular atrophy in the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. R.; Yates, A. J.; Sharma, H. M.; Shim, C.; Tigner, R. L.; Thibert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Complete gross and microscopic postmortem examinations were performed on 100 BB Wistar diabetic rats, 27 BB Wistar nondiabetic siblings, and 41 Wistar rats, and the incidence of testicular lesions was tabulated. Testicular atrophy was the predominant finding in all three groups of rats, but atrophy occurred at a much younger age in the diabetic rats. There was a strong relationship between the duration of diabetes and the presence of atrophy, which was stronger than the relationship between age and atrophy. The testicular atrophy observed in the diabetic rats was morphologically similar to the senile testicular atrophy in the nondiabetic rats. Histologic findings that were associated with increasing severity of atrophy were multinucleated giant cells in the lumens of seminiferous tubules, increased interstitial connective tissue, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and thickening of the tunica albuginea. Testicular atrophy has also been reported in human diabetics. Therefore, the BB Wistar rat may be a useful model for investigating this aspect of diabetes mellitus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7091303

  17. Effects of diallyl sulfide and zinc on testicular steroidogenesis in cadmium-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental pollutants that affect various tissues and organs including testis. Harmful effect of cadmium on testis is known to be germ cell degeneration and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis. In the present study, the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a sulfur-containing volatile compound present in garlic, and zinc (Zn) was investigated on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Male adult Wistar rats treated with cadmium (2.5 mg/kg body wt, five times a week for 4 weeks) showed decreased body weight, paired testicular weight, relative testicular weight, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and protein levels. Testicular steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and marker enzymes, such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), showed a significant decrease in activities whereas that of gamma-glutamyl transferase was significantly increased after cadmium exposure. The results have revealed that concurrent treatment with DAS or zinc restored key steroidogenic enzymes, SDH, LDH, and G6PD and increased testicular weight significantly. DAS restored the TAC level and increased testosterone level and relative testicular weight significantly. Zinc restored testicular protein level and body weight. It can be concluded that cadmium causes testicular toxicity and inhibits androgen production in adult male rats probably by affecting pituitary gonadotrophins and that concurrent administration of DAS or zinc provides protection against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:18972399

  18. Testicular torsion repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The testicles are suspended in the scrotal sac. ... Testicular torsion occurs when the testicle, normally attached to the scrotum by a small ligament at its base, becomes loose. The testicle can then twist on itself, ...

  19. Testicular degeneration in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M; Murphy, Zoe; Selva, David M; Hamidizadeh, Reza; Pearson, Jacqueline; Petersén, Asa; Björkqvist, Maria; Muir, Cameron; Mackenzie, Ian R; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Vogl, A Wayne; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2007-06-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an adult onset, neurodegenerative disorder that results from CAG expansion in the HD gene. Recent work has demonstrated testicular degeneration in mouse models of HD and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in HD patients. Here, we show that HD patients have specific testicular pathology with reduced numbers of germ cells and abnormal seminiferous tubule morphology. In the YAC128 mouse model, testicular degeneration develops prior to 12 months of age, but at 12 months, there is no evidence for decreased testosterone levels or loss of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. This suggests that testicular pathology results from a direct toxic effect of mutant huntingtin in the testis and is supported by the fact that huntingtin is highly expressed in the affected cell populations in the testis. Understanding the pathogenesis of HD in the testis may reveal common critical pathways which lead to degeneration in both the brain and testis.

  20. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy for testicular cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy rays (such as gamma rays ... machine outside the body is known as external beam radiation . The treatment is much like getting an ...

  1. Testicular obstruction: clinicopathological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, W. F.; Levison, D. A.; Parkinson, M. C.; Parslow, J. M.; Royle, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Genital tract reconstruction has been attempted in subfertile men with obstructive azoospermia (370 patients) or unilateral testicular obstruction (80 patients), and in vasectomised men undergoing reversal for the first (130 patients) or subsequent (32 patients) time. Histopathological changes in the obstructed testes and epididymes, and immunological responses to the sequestered spermatozoa have been studied to gain insight into possible causes of failure of surgical treatment. The results of surgery have been assessed by follow-up sperm counts and occurrence of pregnancies in the female partners. The best results were obtained with vasectomy reversal (patency 90%, pregnancy 45%), even after failed previous attempts (patency 87%, pregnancy 37%). Epididymovasostomy gave good results with postinfective caudal blocks (patency 52%, pregnancy 38%), while postinfective vasal blocks were better corrected by total anatomical reconstruction (patency 73%, pregnancy 27%) than by transvasovasostomy (patency 9%, no pregnancies). Poor results were obtained with capital blocks (patency 12%, pregnancy 3%), in which substantial lipid accumulation was demonstrated in the ductuli efferentes; three-quarters of these patients had sinusitis, bronchitis or bronchiectasis (Young's syndrome). There is circumstantial evidence to suggest that this syndrome may be a late complication of mercury intoxication in childhood. After successful reconstruction, fertility was relatively reduced in those men who had antibodies to spermatozoa, particularly amongst the postinfective cases. Similarly, impaired fertility was found in men with unilateral testicular obstruction and antibodies to spermatozoa. Mononuclear cell infiltration of seminiferous tubules and rete testis was noted occasionally, supporting a diagnosis of autoimmune orchitis; although rare, this was an important observation as the sperm output became normal with adjuvant prednisolone therapy. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 10

  2. Disorders of Sex Development with Testicular Differentiation in SRY-Negative 46,XX Individuals: Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2016-01-01

    Virilisation of the XX foetus is the result of androgen excess, resulting most frequently from congenital adrenal hyperplasia in individuals with typical ovarian differentiation. In rare cases, 46,XX gonads may differentiate into testes, a condition known as 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), or give rise to the coexistence of ovarian and testicular tissue, a condition known as 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue. Recent experimental and clinical evidence giving insight into SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD is discussed.

  3. Disorders of Sex Development with Testicular Differentiation in SRY-Negative 46,XX Individuals: Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2016-01-01

    Virilisation of the XX foetus is the result of androgen excess, resulting most frequently from congenital adrenal hyperplasia in individuals with typical ovarian differentiation. In rare cases, 46,XX gonads may differentiate into testes, a condition known as 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), or give rise to the coexistence of ovarian and testicular tissue, a condition known as 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue. Recent experimental and clinical evidence giving insight into SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD is discussed. PMID:27055195

  4. Species differences in testicular necrosis and DNA damage, distribution and metabolism of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).

    PubMed

    Låg, M; Søderlund, E J; Brunborg, G; Dahl, J E; Holme, J A; Omichinski, J G; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1989-10-01

    The human testicular toxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was studied for the same end-point in 4 different species of laboratory animals. Marked necrosis and atrophy of the seminiferous epithelium were observed in rats and guinea pigs 10 days after a single i.p. administration of DBCP (170-340 mumol/kg), whereas significantly less damage was observed in hamsters and mice. The testicular concentrations of DBCP measured at various time-points after the i.p. injection of DBCP indicated that factors in addition to tissue concentration were of importance for the observed species differences in sensitivity towards DBCP-induced testicular damage. Also, there did not seem to be any direct correlation between DBCP-induced in vivo testicular toxicity and in vitro GSH-dependent dehalogenation, inasmuch as the rate of bromide release from DBCP with hamster testicular cytosol was as fast as that with rat cytosol. Testicular DNA damage, as determined by alkaline elution 60 min after in vivo administration of 170 mumol/kg DBCP, was observed only in rats and guinea pigs. Thus, induction of DNA damage correlates with the relative susceptibilities of the species towards DBCP-induced testicular necrosis. To further study species differences in testicular activation of DBCP to DNA-damaging intermediate(s), cells isolated from the testes of the 4 species were incubated with DBCP. Testicular cells from rats and guinea pigs were the only preparations developing substantial DNA damage after 60 min incubation with low concentrations of DBCP (5-50 microM). The findings indicate that rats are sensitive towards DBCP-induced testicular necrosis because rat testicular cells easily activate DBCP to a DNA-damaging intermediate(s). The relative high testicular DBCP concentration as well as the ability to activate DBCP may explain the sensitivity of guinea pigs towards DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:2799822

  5. Characterization of the model for experimental testicular teratoma in 129/SvJ-mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, J; Pelliniemi, L J; Kuopio, T; Veräjänkorva, E; Fröjdman, K; Harley, V; Salminen, E; Pöllänen, P

    1999-01-01

    An animal model of experimental testicular teratoma has been established to study how a teratoma affects the host testis and how the host testis reacts against the teratoma. 129/SvJ-mice were used as experimental animals. To induce the experimental testicular teratoma, male gonadal ridges from 12-day-old 129/SvJ-mouse fetuses were grafted into the testes of adult mice for 1–12 weeks. The developing tumour was analysed by light and electron microscopy and by immunocytochemical localization of transcription factors SOX9 and c-kit, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and type IV collagen. Testicular teratoma was observed in 36 out of 124 testes with implanted fetal gonadal ridges (frequency 29%). One spontaneous testicular teratoma was observed in this material from 70 male mice (1.5%). One week after implantation intracordal clusters of cells were seen in embryonic testicular cords of the graft as the first sign of testicular teratomas. Four weeks after implantation the embryonic testicular cords had totally disappeared from grafts with teratomas, and the tumour tissue had enlarged the testis and invaded the interstitium of the host testis. It consisted of solitary pieces of immature cartilage as well as of glial cells and of primitive neuroepithelium. Six to eight weeks after implantation the tumour tissue had expanded so that the enlarged testis could be detected by macroscopic enlargement of the scrotum. The testicular tissue of the host had practically disappeared, and only solitary disrupted seminiferous tubules of the host were seen surrounding the teratoma. Neuroepithelial structures of some teratomas cultured for 8 weeks had cells with a granular nucleus as a sign of obvious apoptosis. Eleven to 12 weeks after implantation the growth of the teratoma had stopped, and the histology corresponded to that of a mature cystic teratoma. GFAP, SOX9 and type IV collagen were strongly positive in some parts of the tumours cultured for 4 and 8 weeks, while only

  6. Lycopene protects against cyclosporine A-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Ateşşahin, Ahmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Ceribaşi, Ali Osman

    2007-03-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced direct failures in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and Sertoli cell phagocytic function have been considered for testicular toxicity so far. It has clearly been reported that oxidative stress leads to damage in sperm functions and structure of the testis. Therefore, this study was conducted to demonstrate whether CsA causes testicular and spermatozoal toxicity associated with the oxidative stress, and to investigate the possible protective effect of lycopene against CsA-induced damages in all reproductive organs and sperm characteristics in male rats. While the daily administration of CsA at the dose 15 mg/kg for 21 days significantly decreased the seminal vesicles weight, epididymal sperm concentration, motility, testicular tissue glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), diameter of seminiferous tubules and germinal cell thickness, it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and abnormal sperm rates along with degeneration, necrosis, desquamative germ cells in testicular tissue. However, the CsA along with simultaneous administration of lycopene at the dose of 10mg/kg markedly ameliorated the CsA-induced all the negative changes observed in the testicular tissue, sperm parameters and oxidant/antioxidant balance. In conclusion, CsA-induced oxidative stress leads to the structural and functional damages in the testicular tissue and sperm quality of rats and, lycopene has a potential protective effect on these damages.

  7. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  8. Cadmium exposure increases susceptibility to testicular autoimmunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yuki; Itoh, Masahiro; Hirai, Shuichi; Suna, Shigeru; Naito, Munekazu; Qu, Ning; Terayama, Hayato; Ikeda, Ayumi; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Mori, Chisato

    2013-07-01

    Cadmium, one of various environmental toxicants, is known to suppress systemic immunity and to injure the testicular capillary endothelia with resultant necrosis of testicular tissues in mice and rats treated with high doses. Recently, it also became evident that cadmium can affect the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), the endocrine function of Leydig cells, apoptosis of germ cells and systemic immunity, even on treatment with a low dose that does not induce spermatogenic disturbance. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), i.e., an organ-specific autoimmunity of the testis, can be induced by repeated immunization with testicular antigens, and its pathology is characterized by lymphocytic inflammation and spermatogenic disturbance. In the present study, we investigated the morphological and functional changes of testes in mice treated with a low dose of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) and also examined its toxicity as to susceptibility to EAO. The results showed that exposure to 3 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) body weight did not affect the spermatogenic state. However, the BTB at the tubuli recti and the rete testis, but not the seminiferous tubules, was slightly weakened, and intra-testicular mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β was significantly increased by the CdCl2 treatment. Furthermore, immunization with testicular antigens after the CdCl2 exposure significantly augmented the EAO severity. Therefore, exposure to a low dose of CdCl2 induces no significant disturbance of spermatogenesis, however, it does change the immunological microcircumstances in the testis, resulting in increased susceptibility to testicular autoimmunity. PMID:22271428

  9. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  10. Effects of microgravity or simulated launch on testicular function in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive toxicology and cellular and molecular biology approaches were used to evaluate testicular function in rats from Cosmos 2044. It is found that concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced in flight rates to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed.

  11. Fenugreek seed powder mitigates cadmium-induced testicular damage and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Manar Hamed; Mohammad, Nanies Sameeh; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium is a potential environmental and industrial pollutant affecting human tissues and organs including liver and testes. The protective role of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) was investigated in male rats subjected to cadmium-induced testicular injury and hepatic dysfunction. Testicular damage and hepatotoxicity were induced by oral administration of cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg body weight, once a day) for 7 weeks. FSP was given at 5% w/w in chow diet for 8 weeks, starting 1 week before cadmium administration. FSP intake significantly increased serum testosterone level and testis weight that were reduced by cadmium. FSP also compensated deficits in hepatic and testicular antioxidant defense system, interleukin-4 and nitric oxide levels, reduced serum liver function enzyme activities and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic and testicular tissues resulted from cadmium administration. Additionally, FSP attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in hepatic and testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-beta1 levels as well as cadmium deposition and hydroxyproline content. The protective effect afforded by FSP was mainly due its antioxidant, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, the results of the present work indicated that FSP may represent a promising medicinal herb to protect hepatic and testicular tissues from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:24813645

  12. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Qureshi, Habib A; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-03-29

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 micromol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:19150641

  13. Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.

  14. Pituitary-tumour-transforming-gene 1 expression in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Pierconti, F; Milardi, D; Martini, M; Grande, G; Cenci, T; Gulino, G; Larocca, L M; Rindi, G; Pontecorvi, A; De Marinis, L

    2015-05-01

    Genomic instability is a feature of germ cell tumours. The pituitary-tumour-transforming-gene 1 (PTTG1) is the major effector of chromosome segregation during mitosis, protecting the cell from aneuploidy. The protein expression of this gene has been evaluated in testicular tumours by immunohistochemistry. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of testicular tissues from 83 patients undergoing therapeutic orchidectomy for seminomas (n = 53), embryonal carcinoma (n = 10), yolk sac tumour (n = 10) and teratoma (n = 10) were examined. Seminoma was associated with in situ carcinoma (CIS) in 23 samples. PTTG1 immunostaining was performed using rabbit anti-PTTG1 as a primary antibody. In CIS, only isolated cells showed nuclear staining for PTTG1. In the peripheral area of seminoma, PTTG1 was mostly detected as localised in the nucleus; in the central area of seminoma, PTTG1 staining was more intense in cytoplasm. PTTG1-positive cells were also present in the areas of seminoma infiltration. On the other hand, in embryonal carcinoma, cells had a diffuse positive immunostaining, mainly cytoplasmatic, while we did not observe an expression of PTTG1 in yolk sac tumour and mature teratoma. We firstly identified the PTTG1 expression pattern in normal testis, CIS and testicular cancer. Further investigation is needed to clarify the functional activity of PTTG1 in testicular oncogenesis. PMID:24754453

  15. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys: a worthwhile minor surgical procedure?

    PubMed

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike; Thorup, Jorgen; Hutson, John; Heloury, Yves

    2016-03-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure. For example, the use of immunohistochemical markers such as OCT/3-4, TSPY, Kit ligand (SCF) and ALPP (PLAP) has considerably facilitated the detection of germ cell tumour precursors, such as carcinoma in situ and/or gonadoblastoma. These markers are very important for evaluating malignancy risk in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys is a minor procedure that can provide valuable information for predicting the risk of malignancy and fertility, and might be useful in fertility preservation in the near future. PMID:26787392

  16. The calcium-sensing receptor participates in testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wei-Yuan; Tong, Li-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Cao, Yong-Gang; Wang, Gong-Chen; Zhu, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhang, Lin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility caused by testicular damage is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in testicular tissues and plays a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis by activating cellular signaling pathways, but its role in testicular damage induced by diabetes remains unclear. A diabetic model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg kg−1) in Wistar rats. Animals then received GdCl3 (an agonist of CaSR, 8.67 mg kg−1), NPS-2390 (an antagonist of CaSR, 0.20 g kg−1), or a combination of both 2 months after STZ injection. Diabetic rats had significantly lower testes weights and serum levels of testosterone compared to healthy rats, indicating testicular damage and dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with healthy controls, the testicular tissues of diabetic rats overexpressed the CaSR protein and had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells. The testicular tissues from diabetic rats also expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 and higher levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in addition to higher phosphorylation rates of c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. The above parameters could be further increased or aggravated by the administration of GdCl3, but could be attenuated by injection of NPS-2390. In conclusion, the present results indicate that CaSR activation participates in diabetes-induced testicular damage, implying CaSR may be a potential target for protective strategies against diabetes-induced testicular damage and could help to prevent infertility in diabetic men. PMID:26387585

  17. Altered accumulation and subcellular disposition of testicular cadmium in inbred mice resistant to cadmium-induced testicular necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chellman, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Rodent testis is one of the most sensitive mammalian tissues to the toxic effects of acutely administered Cd. However, numerous inbred mouse strains are resistant to Cd-induced testicular damage, even at lethal Cd doses; the mechanism of this resistance has not been determined. Therefore, testes of mice susceptible (129/J) or resistant (A/J) to Cd-induced damage were examined for possible differences in the accumulation and subcellular disposition of Cd. Twenty-four hours after subcutaneous injection of mice with 30 ..mu..moles CdCl/sub 2//kg, 129/J testes showed extensive interstitial hemorrhage and seminiferous tubule necrosis, while A/J testes appeared histologically normal. Testicular Cd accumulation was 5-6 times less in A/J mice than in 129/J mice at all time points examined. Chromatography of testicular cytosol on Sephadex G-75 Superfine revealed four Cd-binding peaks. Both 15 min and 6 hr after dosing, A/J testes had 14% more of the total tissue Cd bound to the 14,500 MW protein (Cd-BP III), compared to 129/J testes, Cd-BP III behaved like metallothionein during gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Additional mice were injected i.v. with 10 (129/J) or 45 (A/J) ..mu..moles CdCl/sub 2//kg to achieve equal testicular Cd concentrations (approx. 4 nmoles Cd/g testis). Twenty-four hours later, 129/J testes were necrotic while A/J testes showed no microscopic evidence of damage. Therefore, resistance of A/J testes to Cd is not determined solely by decreased Cd accumulation, but is associated with increased binding of testicular Cd to Cd-BP III.

  18. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  19. Selenite suppression of cadmium-induced testicular apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, M M; Xu, C; Ladd, P A

    1997-01-15

    The characteristic apoptotic ladder-like patterns of rat testicular DNA on agarose gel electrophoresis which results from treatment with CdCl2 are suppressed by the administration of Na2SeO3. The examination of testicular tissue using an ELISA programmed cell death detection procedure confirmed this selenite suppression of cadmium-induced apoptosis. The administration of the Na2SeO3 at either 0.5, 1, 2 h prior to or 0.5, 1, 2 h after the administration of the CdCl2 appear to be almost equally effective at suppressing the apoptotic response. These results are in accord with previous studies on the Na2SeO3 suppression of cadmium induced necrotic changes in tissues and suggest that Na2SeO3 interferes with both necrosis and apoptosis. PMID:9020518

  20. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlund, E.J.; Brunborg, G.; Omichinski, J.G.; Holme, J.A.; Dahl, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Dybing, E.

    1988-07-01

    To study the role of metabolism in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced testicular damage in rats, selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of DBCP were given as a single ip dose of 340 mumol/kg and testicular toxicity was determined 10 days after treatment. None of the four deuterated analogs C1-D2-, C2-D1-, C3-D2-, or C1-C2-C3-D5-DBCP reduced the degree of testicular damage compared to DBCP, indicating that metabolic cleavage of a C-H bond was not rate-limiting in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. Of the five methylated analogs, C1-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, C2-methyl-, and C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, only C3-methyl-DBCP caused testicular toxicity. DBCP treatment resulted in increased testicular DNA damage at doses of 85-170 mumol/kg as measured by alkaline elution of DNA from testicular cells isolated 3 hr after in vivo treatment. The perdeutero-DBCP analog induced testicular DNA damage that was at least as extensive as that induced by DBCP. Of the methylated analogs tested, only C3-methyl-DBCP gave a marked dose-dependent increase in testicular DNA damage between 170 and 540 mumol/kg. There were no significant differences in the testicular tissue distribution between DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and the methylated DBCP analogs. Furthermore, in distribution studies with DBCP, C1-methyl- and C3-methyl-DBCP, and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, the highest tissue concentrations were found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and then the testes. The fact that testicular DNA damage of DBCP and its deuterated and methylated analogs paralleled their ability to cause testicular necrosis and atrophy makes measurement of DNA damage a very useful correlate in mechanistic studies of DBCP-induced testicular cell death.

  3. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat.

    PubMed

    Søderlund, E J; Brunborg, G; Omichinski, J G; Holme, J A; Dahl, J E; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1988-07-01

    To study the role of metabolism in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced testicular damage in rats, selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of DBCP were given as a single ip dose of 340 mumol/kg and testicular toxicity was determined 10 days after treatment. None of the four deuterated analogs C1-D2-, C2-D1-, C3-D2-, or C1-C2-C3-D5-DBCP reduced the degree of testicular damage compared to DBCP, indicating that metabolic cleavage of a C-H bond was not rate-limiting in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. Of the five methylated analogs, C1-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, C2-methyl-, and C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, only C3-methyl-DBCP caused testicular toxicity. DBCP treatment resulted in increased testicular DNA damage at doses of 85-170 mumol/kg as measured by alkaline elution of DNA from testicular cells isolated 3 hr after in vivo treatment. The perdeutero-DBCP analog induced testicular DNA damage that was at least as extensive as that induced by DBCP. Of the methylated analogs tested, only C3-methyl-DBCP gave a marked dose-dependent increase in testicular DNA damage between 170 and 540 mumol/kg. There were no significant differences in the testicular tissue distribution between DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and the methylated DBCP analogs. Furthermore, in distribution studies with DBCP, C1-methyl- and C3-methyl-DBCP, and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, the highest tissue concentrations were found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and then the testes. The fact that testicular DNA damage of DBCP and its deuterated and methylated analogs paralleled their ability to cause testicular necrosis and atrophy makes measurement of DNA damage a very useful correlate in mechanistic studies of DBCP-induced testicular cell death. PMID:3400095

  4. Ochratoxin A is not detectable in renal and testicular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Nader; Woo, Mark; Alameldin, Mona; MacDonald, Kyle; Goneau, Lee W.; Cadieux, Peter; Pautler, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, known for its nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, teratogenicity, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. OTA has been linked to several genitourinary pathologies, including Balkan nephropathy and genitourinary malignancies. We examine OTA levels in serum samples and tumour specimens collected from patients with renal and testicular tumours. Methods: Frozen samples were obtained from the Ontario Tumour Bank. Serum specimens, along with renal and testicular tumour biopsies, were included in this study. Normal tissue from the negative surgical margins of each tumour served as a control. OTA levels in serum was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while OTA detection in tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: We included specimens collected from 56 patients (36 men and 20 women). Histopathology of the 52 renal tumours included 31 (60%) conventional type renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 5 (10%) chromophobe RCC, 5 (10%) papillary RCC, 1 (2%) oncocytoma and 10 (19%) upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UC). The 4 testicular tumours included 1 seminomatous (25%) germ cell tumour and 3 (75%) non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. OTA was detected in the serum of renal tumour patients, with a range from 0.004 to 0.25 ng/mL (mean: 0.07 and median 0.06 ng/mL). There was no OTA signal detected by IHC staining in all tested renal and testicular tumours. Conclusions: The OTA levels detected in the serum of patients were highly variable and relatively low. No OTA was detected in the tissue samples. PMID:24578744

  5. Influence of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on testicular zinc content and testicular toxicity in lead exposed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a public health problem as lead alters physiological processes by inducing oxidative stress and mimicking divalent cations. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Vitamin C (VC) and Vitamin E (VE) on the reproductive function of lead exposed male rats. Experimental animals were exposed to oral doses of lead, VC and VE at 60 mg/kg body weight, 40 mg/kg body weight, and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively, while control animals received 0.9% saline solution. Oral administration spanned for six weeks after which changes in testicular redox status, lead deposition, testicular zinc content, serum androgen content, semen quality and testis histology were examined. Results There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in oxidative stress indices and testicular lead content. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of zinc in the testis of lead exposed animals was also observed. Fluctuations were observed in androgen levels of lead treated animals with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TT) content, while there was no significant change in luteinizing hormone (LH) content. Testicular tissue showed an alteration in its normal histology with degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium accompanied by a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of luminal spermatozoa. A downgrade in the semen appearance and semen quality –sperm motility, morphology, and count was also observed after lead exposure. VC and VE treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05) reversal of the physiological alteration induced by lead. Conclusions Lead exposure resulted in a decline in the reproductive function of male rats by inducing oxidative stress, inhibiting enzymes and depleting testicular zinc contents. However, results clearly showed that VC and VE attenuated the deleterious impact of lead on the reproductive system. PMID:23241495

  6. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for testicular cancer What’s new in testicular cancer research and treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  7. Testicular blood flow and a study of the testicular venous to arterial transfer of radioactive krypton and testosterone in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Einer-Jensen, N.; Waites, G. M. H.

    1977-01-01

    1. Testicular blood flow (ml. 100 g-1.min-1; mean ± S.E. of the mean) measured in monkeys by 133Xe clearance was 15·9 ± 1·2 (twenty-six estimations on three monkeys; six testes) within 15 min of anaesthesia and 7·5 ± 0·8 (twelve estimates; four monkeys, eight testes), after 1-2 hr of anaesthesia; and, when measured by 85Kr clearance in the second hour of anaesthesia was 9·1 ± 3·7 (seven estimates; four monkeys, four testes). Testicular temperature was 32·9 ± 0·2° C (mean ± S.E. of mean) when deep body temperature was 37·2 ± 0·2° C. 2. Blood flow in the caput epididymidis was 27·4 ± 2·1 ml. 100 g-1.min-1 (mean ± S.E. of mean; four estimates). 3. Radioactivity accumulated in the ipsilateral testis and epididymis but not in the contralateral tissues, during the infusion of 85Kr saline into the testicular veins. 4. During [3H]testosterone infusions into the testicular veins, radioactivity was consistently higher in ipsilateral testicular arterial plasma than in plasma withdrawn simultaneously from the aorta in four of five experiments with no difference in one. After two such infusions, the radioactivity was up to 5 times greater in the ipsilateral testis and epididymis than in the contralateral tissues. 5. During one infusion of [125I]bovine serum albumin into the testicular veins, there was no accumulation of radioactivity in the ipsilateral tissues. 6. Testosterone concentrations (ng.ml-1; mean ± S.E. of mean) in plasma from seven anaesthetized monkeys which were sexually experienced were: testicular vein 53·22 ± 8·03 (eight estimates); testicular artery, 4·58 ± 0·94 (14); saphenous vein, 3·81 ± 0·68 (14). The corresponding values from four sexually inexperienced monkeys were 25·27 ± 2·11 (12); 2·89 ± 1·99 (12); aorta 2·76 ± 0·57 (12). 7. The results are discussed as evidence for vascular exchange of molecules between the testicular veins and artery in the spermatic cord. PMID:874824

  8. [Cystic testicular lesions in infancy].

    PubMed

    Calleja Escudero, J; Pascual Samaniego, M; Garrido Redondo, M; Matas Gómez, V; Fernández Domínguez, L; Fernández del Busto, E

    2004-09-01

    The present article reports a case 11 month-old infant with a right intratesticular cyst. We analyze the etiology, differential diagnosis and management off all cystic lesions of the pediatric testis. Patient age at presentation, examination features, tumor markers and sonographic appearance may assist in making a presumptive and occasionally definitive diagnosis preoperatively. The differential diagnosis include intratesticular simple cyst, epidermoid cyst, tunica albuginea cyst, testicular teratoma, juvenil granulosa cell tumor-gonadal stromal tumor, cystic dysplasia of the rete testis, cystic lymphangioma, and testicular torsion. Usually enucleation is the best treatment. A thorough understanding of potentially cystic testis lesions in children leads to the best management choices and often to preservation of a substantial portion of the affected testis.

  9. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive.

  10. [Novel methods for studies of testicular development and spermatogenesis: From 2D to 3D culture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-dong; Li, He-cheng; Zhang, Tong-dian; Wang, Zi-ming

    2016-03-01

    The two-dimensional model of cell culture is an important method in the study of testicular development and spermatogenesis but can not effectively mimic and regulate the testicular microenvironment and the whole process of spermatogenesis due to the lack of relevant cell factors and the disruption of a three-dimensional spatial structure. In the past 20 years, the development and optimization of the in vitro model such as testis organotypic culture and in vivo model such as testis transplantation achieved a transformation from two- to three-dimension. The maintenance and optimization of the testicular niche structure could mimic the testicular microenvironment and cell types including Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells, which showed similar biological behaviors to those in vivo. Besides, the cell suspension or tissue fragment floats in the gas-liquid interface so that the development of somatic and germ cells is well maintained in vitro whilst the feedback linkage between grafted testis tissue and hypothalamus-pituitary of the host rebuilt in the in vitro model provides an endocrinological basis for spermatogenesis, which serves as an effective methodology to better understand the organogenesis and development of the testis as well as testicular function regulation, advancing the concept of treatment of male infertility. Al- though each of the methods may have its limitations, the progress in the processing, freezing, thawing, and transplantation of cells and tissues will surely promote their clinical application and present their value in translational medicine. PMID:27172668

  11. Testicular shielding in penile brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Arpita; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Ghadi, Yogesh; Murthy, Vedang; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile cancer, although rare, is one of the common genitourinary cancers in India affecting mostly aged uncircumcised males. For patients presenting with small superficial lesions < 3 cm restricted to glans, surgery, radical external radiation or brachytherapy may be offered, the latter being preferred as it allows organ and function preservation. In patients receiving brachytherapy, testicular morbidity is not commonly addressed. With an aim to minimize and document the doses to testis after adequate shielding during radical interstitial brachytherapy for penile cancers, we undertook this study in 2 patients undergoing brachytherapy and forms the basis of this report. Material and methods Two patients with early stage penile cancer limited to the glans were treated with radical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using interstitial implant. A total of 7-8 tubes were implanted in two planes, parallel to the penile shaft. A total dose of 44-48 Gy (55-60 Gy EQD2 doses with α/β = 10) was delivered in 11-12 fractions of 4 Gy each delivered twice daily. Lead sheets adding to 11 mm (4-5 half value layer) were interposed between the penile shaft and scrotum. The testicular dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each patient, dosimetry was done for 3 fractions and mean calculated. Results The cumulative testicular dose to left and right testis was 31.68 cGy and 42.79 cGy for patient A, and 21.96 cGy and 23.28 cGy for patient B. For the same patients, the mean cumulative dose measured at the posterior aspect of penile shaft was 722.15 cGy and 807.72 cGy, amounting to 16.4% and 16.8% of the prescribed dose. Hence, the application of lead shield 11 mm thick reduced testicular dose from 722-808 cGy to 21.96-42.57 cGy, an “absolute reduction” of 95.99 ± 1.5%. Conclusions With the use of a simple lead shield as described, we were able to effectively reduce testicular dose from “spermicidal” range to “oligospermic” range with possible

  12. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats. PMID:27008095

  13. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis.

  14. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  15. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  16. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  17. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  18. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  19. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  20. The role of thyroid hormone in testicular development and function.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Márcia Santos; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2008-12-01

    Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of growth, development, and metabolism in virtually all tissues, and altered thyroid status affects many organs and systems. Although for many years testis has been regarded as a thyroid hormone unresponsive organ, it is now evident that thyroid hormone plays an important role in testicular development and function. A considerable amount of data show that thyroid hormone influences steroidogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. The involvement of tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) in the control of Sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation is widely accepted, as well as its role in postnatal Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in testicular cells throughout development and in adulthood implies that T(3) may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects. Several recent studies have employed different methodologies and techniques in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone effects on testicular cells. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of the recent advances made regarding the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.

  1. Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Experimental Rat Testis after Testicular Torsion/Detorsion

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Stankovic, Jablan; Najman, Stevo; Pavlovic, Dusica; Stokanovic, Dragana; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Dakovic-Bjelakovic, Marija; Cukuranovic, Jovana; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress (OS) parameters after testicular torsion/detorsion in adult rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, male adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of seven animals: group I-one hour right testicular torsion with subsequent orchiectomy, group II-one hour right testicular torsion followed by detorsion, group III-unilateral right-sided orchiectomy without previous torsion and group IV-control. After 30 days, bilateral orchiectomies were performed in rats with both testes and unilateral orchiectomies in rats with single testicles. Parameters of OS were determined in testicular tissue and in plasma. Results Plasma concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively), whilst the plasma concentration of the total sulfhydryl (T-SH)-groups was lower (p<0.05) in group I compared to the control group. Group II had higher plasma concentrations of AOPP compared to group IV (p<0.05), as well as significantly increased TBARS and decreased T-SH-group levels compared to groups III (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and IV (p<0.01, for both parameters). There were significant differences in OS markers between the ipsilateral and contralateral testis, as well as significant correlations among levels of both plasma and tissue markers of OS. Conclusion The increase in TBARS levels seen throughout the experimental period indicated that OS development was caused by ischemia/reperfusion in the testicular tissue. The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue was altered during torsion as well as detorsion. PMID:25918600

  2. Testicular function after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Ralec, V L; Tiller, D J; Horvath, J S; Turtle, J R

    1981-05-01

    Gonadal function was assessed in seventeen adult male renal transplant recipients, with well established good homograft function, for a mean of 4.9 years. Patients were assessed clinically and by measurement of basal concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone and oestradiol, FSH and LH responses to bolus injections of LHRH and semen analysis. Retrospectively all had symptoms consistent with marked hypogonadism prior to transplantation but in nine out of sixteen this was reversed with transplantation. Residual hypogonadism was evident in seven of sixteen patients and correlated with duration of haemodialysis longer than 1 year (P less than 0.01). Even among patients with clinically normal gonadal function, defects in the hypothalamic--pituitary--testicular axis remained. Elevated basal serum FSH, excessive FSH responses to LHRH and lowered basal serum testosterone were found. In the group with residual hypogonadism more marked changes, including elevated basal LH and excessive LH responses to LHRH, were also found. Fertility was recorded in two men on three occasions since transplantation. Sperm counts were normal in five and abnormal in four patients. Testicular volume and sperm density were inversely correlated with basal and stimulated FSH and LH levels.

  3. [Verification of testicular cancer guidelines].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Norio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease that affects 1-2 in 100,000 people in Japan ; however, it is a very significant disease in that it has a high prevalence amongst young adults aged in their 20s and 30s and it brings about metastasis from a relatively early stage. The 2009 edition of the Testicular Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines sets out a detailed summary of 32 clinical questions (CQ) considered necessary in routine clinical practice across the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, etc, in the form of recommendations and commentary. These CQs are considered extremely important in understanding the foundation of future testicular cancer treatment guidelines. In this symposium, five doctors gave lectures consisting of the following contents in which they validated the guidelines and gave concrete clinical practice examples through cases they had experienced themselves with regards to the treatment strategies for (1) stage I patients, (2) patients with advanced cancer and (3) patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (1) Stage I patients : In seminoma cases, the doctors focused on the relapse prevention effect provided by single-agent carboplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. In non-seminoma cases, treatment options were considered according to risk based on the presence or absence of vascular invasion, a prognostic factor. (2) Patients with advanced cancer : 30% of testicular cancers are metastatic and progress to advanced cancer. In refractory cases resistant to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, etoposide ifosfamide, and cisplatin therapy and vinblastine, ifosfamide and cisplatin therapy have been used, but without satisfactory results and the development of new salvage chemotherapy is an important issue. The therapeutic strategies against advanced testicular cancer were narrowed down to (2) -1) therapeutic effects from ultra-high-dose chemotherapy, (2) -2) salvage chemotherapy in cases where residual tumors are observed in induction

  4. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  5. Overview of Pediatric Testicular Tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare compared with postpubertal testicular tumors. The incidence of prepubertal testicular tumors peaks at 2 years of age, tapers off after 4 years of age, and then begins to rise again at puberty. Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors show many differences, including the typical tumor histology, molecular biological differences, and the malignant potential of tumors at different ages. Pediatric testicular tumors are classified as benign or malignant on the basis of their clinical behavior and histologically are divided into germ cell and gonadal stromal (nongerm cell) tumors. Many histological and biological studies have further confirmed the distinct nature of prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors. These differences have led to various management strategies for prepubertal and postpubertal tumors. Because overall about 75% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign, a testis-sparing approach is becoming more common in children. Orchiectomy and observation with very selective use of chemotherapy has become the standard approach when a malignant tumor is identified. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radiation therapy play very limited roles. PMID:25512812

  6. Morphologic manifestations of testicular and epididymal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Justin D; Whitney, Katharine M

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the testis is the most sensitive means to detect effects on spermatogenesis; however, the complexity of testicular histology, interrelatedness of cell types within the testis, and long duration of spermatogenesis can make assessment of a testicular toxicant challenging. A thorough understanding of the histology and morphologic manifestations of response to injury is critical to successfully identify a testicular effect and to begin to understand the underlying mechanism of action. The basic patterns of response to xenobiotic-induced injury to the testis and epididymis are detailed and discussed. PMID:26413388

  7. Lead induced testicular hypersensitivity in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, D K; Lal, B; Srivastava, R S; Chandra, S V

    1990-01-01

    Rats were immobilized for 2 h and treated i.p. with lead Pb2+ (8 mg/kg/day) for 45 d to investigate the testicular effects of lead on rats kept under immobilization stress. Marked alteration in SDH. G6PDH activity, cholesterol and ascorbic acid contents and reduced sperm counts associated with marked pathological changes in the testis of rats were observed after combined treatment with lead and immobilization stress in comparison to either alone. An increase in the disturbances of testicular androgen synthesis seems to be responsible for enhanced testicular injury in lead induced stressed rats. PMID:2401350

  8. Lead induced testicular hypersensitivity in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, D K; Lal, B; Srivastava, R S; Chandra, S V

    1990-01-01

    Rats were immobilized for 2 h and treated i.p. with lead Pb2+ (8 mg/kg/day) for 45 d to investigate the testicular effects of lead on rats kept under immobilization stress. Marked alteration in SDH. G6PDH activity, cholesterol and ascorbic acid contents and reduced sperm counts associated with marked pathological changes in the testis of rats were observed after combined treatment with lead and immobilization stress in comparison to either alone. An increase in the disturbances of testicular androgen synthesis seems to be responsible for enhanced testicular injury in lead induced stressed rats.

  9. Ethanolamine oleate as a sclerosant for testicular hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Hellström, P; Tammela, T; Kontturi, M; Lukkarinen, O

    1988-11-01

    Forty patients with testicular hydroceles and 16 patients with epididymal cysts were treated by tapping and injection of ethanolamine oleate; 97.5% of the hydroceles and 31% of the epididymal cysts were completely cured, 50% of the latter partly cured and 19% failed. About half of the patients experienced pain after treatment. Two patients developed infection. Ultrasonography showed no change in the testicular tissue during the follow-up period. Sclerotherapy with ethanolamine oleate is a rapid and cost-effective modality which can be recommended as primary treatment for hydroceles and for unilocular epididymal cysts, especially in elderly males.

  10. Testicular structure and germ cells morphology in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. The lobes of the testis are joined by cords covered by a single peritoneal epithelium and subjacent connective tissue. The cords contain spermatogonia. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The spermatogenic cells in a cyst undergo their development through spermatogenesis synchronously. The distribution of cysts displays the cephalo-caudal gradient in respect to the stage of spermatogenesis. The formation of cysts at cephalic end of the testis causes their migration along the lobules to the caudal end. Consequently, the disposition in cephalo-caudal regions of spermatogenesis can be observed in longitudinal sections of the testis. The germ cells are spermatogonia, diploid cells with mitotic activity; primary and second spermatocytes characterized by meiotic divisions that develop haploid spermatids; during spermiogenesis the spermatids differentiate to spermatozoa. During spermiation the cysts open and spermatozoa leave the testicular lobules. After spermiation occurs the development of Leydig cells into glandular tissue. This glandular tissue regressed at the end of the reproductive cycle. PMID:26413406

  11. Protective Effects of the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Inhibitor Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate on Experimental Testicular Torsion and Detorsion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Topal, Fatma; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Ustuner, Derya; Ozbayer, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    Testicular torsion results with the damage of the testis and it is a surgical emergency. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant and potent inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PDTC to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups. A sham operation was performed in group I. In group II, torsion is performed 2 hours by 720 degree extravaginally testis. In group III, 4 h reperfusion of the testis was performed after 2 h of testicular torsion. In group IV, after performing the same surgical procedures as in group III, PDTC (100 mg/kg, intravenous's) was administered before 30 min of detorsion. The testes tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) level was evaluated. Histological evaluations were performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Testicular tissue MDA levels were the highest in the T/D groups compared with treatment group. Administration of PDTC prevented a further increase in MDA levels. Significant decrease occurred in CAT and SOD levels in treatment group compared with the control group. The rats in the treatment group had normal testicular architecture. The results suggest that PDTC can be a potential protective agent for preventing the biochemical and histological changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion. PMID:25177164

  12. [Radiotherapy after testicular-sparing surgery for bilateral or monorchide testicular tumours: an innovative approach].

    PubMed

    Sargos, P; Ferretti, L; Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Cornelis, F; Belhomme, S; Dallaudière, B; Richaud, P

    2013-01-01

    Testicular-sparing surgery may avoid definitive testosterone supplementation and preserve fertility in selected cases of men presenting with bilateral testicular tumours or in case of monorchidia. Testicular-sparing surgery may enable the conservation of both endocrine function and spermatogenesis in selected young men in order to preserve natural fatherhood, avoid definitive androgen replacement therapy and probably improve quality of life by reducing psychosexual consequences of anorchia. The tumorectomy must be followed by an external irradiation of the remaining testicle to eradicate testicular intratubular neoplasia revealed in 82% of cases after per-surgery biopsy. This approach concerns some rare indications. Dose level and technical consideration are still debated. PMID:23810303

  13. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    PubMed

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group. PMID:24117344

  14. Hesperetin, a citrus flavonone, protects potentially cadmium induced oxidative testicular dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Shagirtha, Kalist; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2011-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of hesperetin (Hp) on cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative testicular toxicity in rats. Subcutaneous administration of Cd (3mg/kg body weight) for 21 days significantly elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers, Cd concentration in testis and lowered the levels of enzymatic, non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound enzymes in the testicular tissue. Hp administrated orally along with Cd injection for 21 days, significantly revert back the status of oxidative stress markers, Cd concentration in testis, improved status of antioxidant markers and membrane bound enzymes in the testis to near normal level. The histopathological studies in the testis of rats also supported that Hp (40 mg/kg) markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histoarchitecture pattern of the testis. Thus, the results suggest that Hp acts as a potent antioxidative agent against Cd induced testicular toxicity in rats. PMID:21719105

  15. Protective Effect of Troxerutin on Nickel-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Perumal; Jalaludeen, Abdulkadhar Mohamed; Ramakrishnan, Ramalingam; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2016-01-01

    Nickel (Ni)-induced oxidative damage is a serious problem that leads to reproductive system failure through testicular damage. The present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of troxerutin (Txn) on testicular toxicity induced by Ni in experimental rat testes. The oral administration of Txn (100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), reduced glutathione, ascorbate, total sulphydryl groups, and testis-organ weight. Subsequently, the administration of Txn also significantly reduced the accumulation of Ni, lipid peroxidation products, and protein carbonyl levels in Txn-treated animals. Testicular protection in the experimental animals by Txn is further substantiated by a remarkable reduction of Ni, which was revealed through testicular tissue histopathology. These studies suggest that Txn could prevent oxidative damage and testicular toxicity induced by Ni in experimental animals. PMID:27481491

  16. Histological evaluation of the testicular nubbins in patients with nonpalpable testis: assessment of etiology and surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Emir, Haluk; Ayik, Bekir; Eliçevik, Mehmet; Büyükünal, Cenk; Danişmend, Nur; Dervişoğlu, Sergülen; Söylet, Yunus

    2007-01-01

    There is a controversy in the literature whether testicular nubbins carry malignancy risk and excision of the nubbin is necessary in patients with nonpalpable testis. It is also controversial whether vanishing testis has the same etiopathogenesis and risk with true undescended testis. The aim of this study is to investigate the histological findings of testicular nubbins in patients with nonpalpable testis and to question etiology and surgical indications for vanishing testis. We reviewed the histopathological results of 44 testicular nubbins in 40 patients (mean age: 4.1 years, range 1-13 years) with nonpalpable testis between 1992 and 2004, retrospectively. Exploration revealed 5 intraabdominal and 39 inguinal testicular nubbins. Of 44 specimens only 5 (11.3%) from inquinal testicular nubbins were found to have seminiferous tubules. Two of the five had seminiferous tubule structures with viable germ cells showing maturation correlating with age. The other two with scarce seminiferous tubules were seen on only a single area and one had Sertoli cells only. None of the excised tissue had malignant degeneration. The vas deferens was identified in 23 (52.2%), vessels in 26 (59%), calcification in 14 (31.8%) and hemosiderin in 12 (27.2%) of excised tissue. Presence of calcification in one-third of the nubbins supports vascular accident thesis in the etiopathogenesis of vanishing testis. The possibility for the presence of seminiferous tubules and viable germ cells in the testicular nubbin is low. These facts decrease theoritical risk of malingnancy. Therefore, an inguinal exploration for testicular nubbin in patients with vas deferens and vessels entering into the inquinal canal diagnosed at laparoscopy can be postponed untill testicular prosthesis implantation and the nubbin can be removed at this operation.

  17. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Ladeia, Antônio Alexandre Lisbôa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started. PMID:23580888

  18. How to Do a Testicular Self Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer to keep in mind are: Any enlargement of a testicle A significant loss of size ... discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts I hesitate to ...

  19. Cadmium-induced testicular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  20. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    PubMed

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  1. Cadmium-induced Testicular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, and the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor, oxidative stress inducer and how it may disrupt the Zn+2 and/or Ca+2 mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity is emerged, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  2. Captopril and telmisartan treatments attenuate cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-04-01

    The possible protective effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, vs. telmisartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, was investigated in rats with testicular injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Captopril (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were given for five consecutive days, starting 3 days before cadmium administration. Both agents significantly increased serum testosterone level, which was reduced by cadmium, suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted reduced glutathione, decreased the elevations of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cadmium ion levels, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both captopril and telmisartan significantly reduced the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand, and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. The differences between the results obtained with captopril and telmisartan were insignificant, suggesting that both drugs equally protected the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:21819444

  3. Cetuximab intensifies cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Popovtzer, Aron; Tzabari, Moran; Mizrachi, Aviram; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has proliferative properties in the testis. Cetuximab, an anti-EGFR, is administered together with chemotherapy to patients with various types of cancer. This studies aim was to investigate the effect of cetuximab on testicular function. Adult male mice were injected with cetuximab (10 mg/kg), cisplatin (8 mg/kg) or a combination of both, and killed one week or one month later. The doses were chosen by human equivalent dose calculation. Testicular function was evaluated by epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count and sperm motility, weights of testes and epididymides, and the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine germ cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labelling), reserve (DAZL-Deleted in azoospermia-like, Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger), blood vessels (CD34) and Sertoli cells (GATA-4). Administration of cetuximab alone increased testicular apoptosis and decreased epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count over time. When added to cisplatin, cetuximab exacerbated most of the recorded testicular parameters, compared with the effect of cisplatin alone, including testis and epididymis weights, epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count, AMH concentration, meiosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, cetuximab has only a mild effect on testicular reserve, but when added to cisplatin, it exacerbates cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:27184186

  4. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  5. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26329125

  6. Effects of opioid (tramadol) treatment on testicular functions in adult male rats: The role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa A; Kurkar, Adel

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, tramadol hydrochloride is frequently used as a pain reliever, and for the treatment of premature ejaculation. Decreased semen quality was noted in chronic tramadol users. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of tramadol on the testicular functions of adult male rats. A total of 40 albino adult male rats were divided into control and tramadol groups, with 20 rats for each group. Rats of the tramadol group were subcutaneously injected with 40 mg/kg three times per week for 8 weeks. The control group received normal saline 0.9%. Blood samples from each animal were obtained. Plasma levels of different biochemical substances were determined. Nitric oxide was measured in testicular tissue samples. Those samples together with epididymal tissue samples were processed for histopathological examination. Tramadol significantly reduced plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone and total cholesterol, but elevated prolactin and estradiol levels compared with the control group. In addition, tramadol increased the testicular levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreased the anti-oxidant enzymes activities significantly compared with the control group. The tramadol group showed decreased sperm count and motility, and numbers of primary spermatocytes, rounded spermatid and Leydig cells. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that tramadol increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in testicular tissues. The present study showed that tramadol treatment affects the testicular function of adult male rats, and these effects might be through the overproduction of nitric oxide and oxidative stress induced by this drug.

  7. Oncogenes in human testicular cancer: DNA and RNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Peltomäki, P.; Alfthan, O.; de la Chapelle, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oncogene dosage and expression were studied in 16 testicular neoplasms, 14 of germ cell and two of non-germ cell origin. In comparison with normal DNA, tumour DNA of a total of eight patients (seven with germ cell neoplasm and one with testicular lymphoma) showed increased dosages of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, MET and PDGFB. The most frequent (occurring in six tumours) and prominent (up to 3-4-fold) increases were detected in the dosages of KRAS2 (on chromosome 12p) and PDGFA (chromosome 7p), relative to a reference locus from chromosome 2. Importantly, there was a similar increase in 12p dosage in general in these tumours, suggesting the presence of the characteristic isochromosome 12p marker. On the contrary, possible 7p polysomy (assessed by molecular methods) did not explain the PDGFA (or EGFR) changes in all cases. NRAS, MYCN, CSFIR, MYB, MYC, ABL, HRASI, TP53, and ERBB2 did not reveal any consistent alterations in tumour DNA. In RNA dot blot assays the expression of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, or MYC was generally not increased in the tumour samples when compared to that in normal testicular tissue of the same patients although there was interindividual variation in mRNA levels. It thus appears that while oncogene dosage changes occur in a proportion of testis cancers, they are often part of changes in large chromosomal regions or whole arms and are seldom accompanied by altered expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1829952

  8. Genetics Home Reference: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sex development 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Close All Description 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development is a condition in which individuals with ...

  9. Modulatory effects of lipoic acid and selenium against cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Nassar, Noha N

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals including cadmium has become an increasingly recognized source of illness worldwide. Cadmium (Cd(2+) ) is one of the environmental pollutants affecting various tissues and organs including testis. The protective effect of lipoic acid and selenium on Cd(2+) -induced testicular damage was investigated. Accordingly, male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups (n = 8; each). Gp I: (control), whereas the other 3 groups received CdCl(2) (2 mg/kg, i.p. for 28 days) alone or in combination with either (i) lipoic acid (35 mg/kg, p.o) or (ii) selenium (0.35 mg/kg, p.o) throughout the experiment. Serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels significantly decreased in the Cd(2+) -exposed rats. The activities of testicular key androgenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17 β-HSD significantly decreased in Cd(2) exposed rats compared to the control counterparts. In addition, the activities of testicular marker enzymes were significantly altered in cadmium-treated animals. Significant reductions in body and testicular weight as well as antioxidant status were also observed in Cd(2+) -exposed rats. Moreover, some testicular metal levels were altered. Lipoic acid and selenium significantly increased serum testosterone level and restored testicular activity of 3β-HSD and 17 β-HSD and were effective in modulation of most of the measured biochemical parameters. The biochemical parameters were further confirmed with histopathological findings. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the beneficial influences of lipoic acid and selenium in reducing harmful effects of Cd(2+) in rats' testes. PMID:20957662

  10. Pubertal cadmium exposure impairs testicular development and spermatogenesis via disrupting testicular testosterone synthesis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Xu, De-Xiang

    2010-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known testicular toxicant. However, the effects of pubertal Cd exposure on testicular development and spermatogenesis remained to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of pubertal Cd exposure on testicular development and spermatogenesis. Male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl(2) (1mg/kg) daily from postnatal day 35 (PND35) to PND70. As expected, pubertal Cd exposure significantly decreased the number of spermatozoa in epididymides. In addition, pubertal Cd exposure markedly reduced the weights of testes, epididymides and prostate and seminal vesicle in adult mice. A significant decrease in serum and testicular testosterone (T) was observed in mice exposed to Cd during puberty. Moreover, pubertal Cd exposure markedly reduced mRNA and protein levels of testicular StAR, P450scc, P450(17alpha) and 17beta-HSD. Taken together, these results suggest that the decreased testicular T synthesis might partially contribute to pubertal Cd-induced impairment on testicular development and spermatogenesis in mice. PMID:19897027

  11. Testicular biopsy and cryopreservation for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome: a pro/con debate.

    PubMed

    Gies, Inge; Oates, Robert; De Schepper, Jean; Tournaye, Herman

    2016-02-01

    In about one-half of adult Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients, spermatozoa can be retrieved by means of testicular biopsy (TESE). Given the expected increase in the number of diagnosed KS patients owing to the use of noninvasive prenatal testing, the probable questions of young KS patients and their parents regarding future fertility, and the fact that widespread apoptosis of spermatogonia occurs at onset of puberty, an attempt to increase the retrieval rates at TESE above those found in adult KS men by undertaking preservation techniques peripubertally has been initiated. To date, however, only a limited number of KS adolescents have been examined, demonstrating no increases in the chances of finding sperm. Furthermore, spermatogonial stem cell and testicular tissue freezing techniques, as well as in vitro maturation strategies, require further validation. Given these controversies, banking testicular tissue from prepubertal KS boys should be performed only in a research framework.

  12. Testicular self-examination amongst genitourinary medicine clinic attendees.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Alexandra; Shaw, Jonathan W; Woolley, Paul D

    2014-10-01

    Advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer now give a five-year survival rate of 97.2%. Delayed presentation remains the primary cause of poor outcome and recommendations have stressed that men, particularly those with risk factors, should undertake regular testicular self-examination. This study aimed to determine testicular self-examination knowledge and practices amongst 740 unselected men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic via questionnaire survey. Of respondents, 75.8% of men had heard of testicular cancer, and 79.9% had heard of testicular self-examination. Of these, 41% of men had been taught testicular self-examination; 73.9% of them by a doctor or nurse. Importantly, 79.2% had previously performed testicular self-examination. The most common reason for not performing testicular self-examination was 'Don't really know what to look for' (59.5%). Men previously taught testicular self-examination were 11.5 times more likely to perform the practice than those untaught. Of respondents, 74.1% wanted more information regarding testicular self-examination whilst attending the clinic. This study shows an increased level of testicular self-examination amongst genitourinary medicine attendees than has been previously demonstrated in other patient groups. There remains room for improvement via further health promotion and research on the effectiveness of testicular self-examination. PMID:24516080

  13. Testicular volume and fertility potential in men operated due to varicocele and testicular hypotrophy in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kaletka, Zbigniew; Huk, Jacek; Fryczkowski, Mieczysław; Prokopowicz, Grzegorz; Życzkowski, Marcin; Muskała, Bartosz; Taborowski, Piotr; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Failure to perform surgical repair of varicocele before puberty is among the common causes of male infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the testicular volume and fertility potential in men after laparoscopic varicocelectomy conducted in adolescence due to varicocele and concomitant testicular hypotrophy. Material and methods From 1996 through 2011, eighty–two adolescents were operated on for unilateral primary varicocele with testicular hypotrophy. Sixty–eight patients were subject to the current analysis. The age of the patients was 13 to 17 years (mean 15.3 years). Clinical diagnosis was established on the basis of andrologic examination and ultrasonography with an assessment of testicular size and varicocele severity. Laparoscopic surgical repair was performed by a transperitoneal approach with division of testicular vein only. Results An increase in left testicular volume when compared with the contralateral testis was found in 25 (78.1%) young men with clinical grade 2 varicocele (p = 0.02) and in 32 (88.8%) subjects with grade 3 abnormality (p = 0.04). An increase in left testicular volume was found in 46 (85.1%) of 54 patients with unilateral varicocele and in 12 (85.7%) of 14 subjects operated on for bilateral disease. A left testicular volume increase was comparable independent of the use of uni– or bilateral repair. Fifty–eight (85.2%) of our 68 patients had normozoospermia. Conclusions Laparoscopic varicocele repair resulted in a significant increase of hypotrophic testicular volume in 83.8% of our subjects. PMID:24578992

  14. Abnormal branch of the testicular artery.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, P Vijaya; Bhasin, Vishu; Kumar, Sushil

    2006-09-01

    We present a case report of an abnormal course and branching of the right testicular artery, which was uncovered during routine dissection of the abdomen in our first year medical class. It arose from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and immediately divided into two branches; one branch coursed inferiorly behind the inferior vena cava as the testicular artery proper, while the other branch passed behind the inferior vena cava and emerged on the anterior surface of the right kidney. After crossing the anterior surface of the kidney, it bifurcated into an ascending branch that went to the right suprarenal gland and a descending branch that ended in the posterior abdominal wall. The left testicular artery was normal in its course and distribution. This is a very rare variation.

  15. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  16. Unusual thoracoabdominal sites of metastases in testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Husband, J E; Bellamy, E A

    1985-12-01

    Testicular tumors spread in a predictable manner to lymph nodes in the paraaortic chain and then to supradiaphragmatic nodes in the mediastinum and supraclavicular fossae. The most common sites of extranodal disease are the lungs and liver. In a series of 650 patients with testicular tumors who underwent CT examinations unusual sites of thoracoabdominal metastases were demonstrated in 20 patients (23 sites). The sites involved were kidney (six patients), adrenal glands (four patients), inferior vena cava (four patients), muscle (three patients), spleen (two patients), and stomach, pelvic cyst, seminal vesicles and prostate, and pericardium (one patient, each site). Renal metastases were either of soft-tissue density (four patients) or cystic (two patients). Cystic metastases were also identified in the spleen in two patients and in the adrenal gland in one patient. In three of the patients with inferior vena cava involvement, thrombus was seen to extend above the nodal mass over several centimeters. Metastases were demonstrated in the psoas, iliac, and middle gluteal muscles. These were separate from retroperitoneal nodal masses. The ability of CT to identify sites of metastases, which may remain undiagnosed by conventional staging procedures, is emphasized.

  17. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  18. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  19. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular

  20. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  1. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials.

  2. [PVB therapy for advanced testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakao, M; Nakagawa, S; Toyoda, K; Nukui, M; Takada, H; Ebisui, K; Sugimoto, K; Watanabe, H; Maegawa, M; Miyakoda, K

    1989-11-01

    Twelve cases of advanced testicular cancer, including 5 cases of seminoma, 3 cases of teratocarcinoma, 1 case of yolk sac tumor, 1 case of embryonal carcinoma and 2 cases of mixed cell type, were treated with cisplatin-vinblastine-bleomycin (PVB) therapy. Among them, 10 cases had measurable metastatic lesions and the objective response rate was 80%. Three cases showed complete response. Ten cases showed nonexistent disease after PVB therapy and salvage operation. Though PVB therapy was useful for the treatment of advanced testicular cancer, a few cases having poor prognostic factors showed no response to the therapy.

  3. Grayscale and color Doppler features of testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo E; Secil, Mustafa; Dogra, Vikram; Sidhu, Paul S; Clements, Richard; Freeman, Simon; Grenier, Nicolas; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ramchandani, Parvati; Cicero, Calogero; Abete, Luca; Bussani, Rossana; Rocher, Laurence; Spencer, John; Tsili, Athina; Valentino, Massimo; Pavlica, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Pooled data from 16 radiology centers were retrospectively analyzed to seek patients with pathologically proven testicular lymphoma and grayscale and color Doppler images available for review. Forty-three cases were found: 36 (84%) primary and 7 (16%) secondary testicular lymphoma. With unilateral primary lymphoma, involvement was unifocal (n = 10), multifocal (n = 11), or diffuse (n = 11). Synchronous bilateral involvement occurred in 6 patients. Color Doppler sonography showed normal testicular vessels within the tumor in 31 of 43 lymphomas (72%). Testicular lymphoma infiltrates through the tubules, preserving the normal vascular architecture of the testis. Depiction of normal testicular vessels crossing the lesion is a useful adjunctive diagnostic criterion. PMID:26014335

  4. Cell population indexes of spermatogenic yield and testicular sperm reserves in adult jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Maria Helena Ferreira; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto da; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Costa, Eduardo Paulino; Costa, Deiler Sampaio; Peixoto, Juliano Vogas

    2010-03-01

    The intrinsic yield of spermatogenesis and supporting capacity of Sertoli cells are the desirable indicators of sperm production in a species. The objective of the present study was to quantify intrinsic yield and the Sertoli cell index in the spermatogenic process and estimate testicular sperm reserves by histological assessment of fragments obtained by testicular biopsy of five adult jaguars in captivity. The testicular fragments were fixed in 4% glutaric aldehyde, dehydrated at increasing alcohol concentrations, included into hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and were cut into 4 microm thickness. In the seminiferous epithelium of the jaguar, 9.2 primary spermatocytes in pre-leptotene were produced by "A" spermatogonia. During the meiotic divisions only 3.2 spermatids were produced by a primary spermatocyte. The general spermatogenic yield of the jaguar was about 23.4 cells and each Sertoli cell was able to maintain about 19.2 germ cells, 11 of them were round spermatids. In each seminiferous epithelium cycle about 166 million spermatozoa were produced by each gram of testicular tissue. In adult jaguars, the general spermatogenic yield was similar to the yield observed in pumas, greater than that observed for the domestic cat, but less compared to most domestic animals.

  5. The clinical utility of testicular prosthesis placement in children with genital and testicular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Testicular prosthesis placement is a useful important adjunctive reconstructive therapy for managing children with testicular loss or absence. Though these prostheses are functionless, experience has shown that they are extremely helpful in creating a more normal male body image and in preventing/relieving psychological stress in males with a missing testicle. With attention to details of implant technique, excellent cosmetic results can be anticipated in simulating a normal appearing scrotum. PMID:26816795

  6. [Fertility preservation in boys: spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and testicular grafting].

    PubMed

    Goossens, E; Tournaye, H

    2013-09-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are the founder cells of spermatogenesis and are responsible for the lifelong production of spermatozoa. The cryopreservation and transplantation of these cells has been proposed as a fertility preservation strategy for young boys at risk for stem cell loss, i.e. patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer or as a conditioning treatment for bone marrow transplantation. To prevent lifelong sterility in boys, two fertility restoration strategies are being developed: the injection of SSC and the grafting of testicular tissue containing SSC. Depending on the disease of the patient one of these two approaches will be applicable. Grafting has the advantage that SSC can reside within their natural niche, preserving the interactions between germ cells and their supporting cells and may therefore be regarded as the first choice strategy. However, in cases where the risk for malignant contamination of the testicular tissue is real, e.g. leukemia, transplantation of SSC by injection is preferable over grafting. PMID:23972916

  7. NIR spectroscopy for the diagnosis of testicular pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Eckhard; Hampel, Uwe; Zepnick, H.; Freyer, Richard

    2000-11-01

    NIR spectroscopy is a method principally capable of measuring tissue perfusion and oxygen saturation in subsurface and deeper tissue layers. In urology such perfusion related parameters are of some importance for the differentiation and evaluation of certain types of testicular pathologies. Among them are in the first place the differentiation between inflammations and torsion of the testis, both with similar symptoms, and the assessment of tissue viability in cases of torsion and necrosis, which is sometimes not sufficiently covered by sonography. Although NIR spectroscopy is the method of choice to measure blood oxygen saturation in tissue non- invasively the strong light scattering complicates spectroscopy quantification methods. Spatially-resolved spectroscopy (SRS) is one method to quantify absolute oxygen saturation and relative blood volume. To evaluate this method for in-vivo measurements we have developed a laser scanning device and evaluated quantification algorithms by help of numerical and experimental investigations. As first results suggest the method can in principle quantify absorption differences in tissue, oxygen saturation measurements, however, not work on the testis under the simplified assumptions made for other parts of the body.

  8. Effects of age on testicular function.

    PubMed

    Tsitouras, P D

    1987-12-01

    Although frequency of sexual activity declines dramatically with age, most investigators have been able to define rather small physiologic function (hormonal and spermatogenic) changes with advancing age. Despite the development of subtle intrinsic age-related defects at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, reproductive capacity is maintained in healthy elderly men.

  9. [Sclerosing therapy of testicular hydrocele with tetracycline].

    PubMed

    Losada Guerra, J L; Hernández Navarro, E

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-six patients, aged 38 to 78 years, with testicular hydrocele were treated by aspiration, punction and tetracycline instillation. The cure rate was 79%. Inflammation of the scrotum was observed in all of the cases. Due to recurrence two patients underwent surgery, which revealed a hematocele.

  10. Recidivous offence in sadistic homosexual pedophile with karyotype 48, XXXY after testicular pulpectomy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Lachman, M; Brzek, A; Mellan, J; Hampl, R; Starka, L; Motlik, K

    1991-01-01

    The case of recidivous sexual offender with genetically caused mental retardation and primary hypogonadism (Klinefelter's syndrome with karyotype 48, XXXY) is described. He was examined after sadistic abuse of a boy aged 13 that he had committed 19 years after performed testicular pulpectomy. Plasmatic level of testosterone was found 4x higher than mean level in men after orchidectomy. Histological examination of residual scrotal tissues proved that the source of androgens were hyperplastic nodules of extratesticular Leydig cells.

  11. Experiment K-7-16: Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Clemens, J. W.; Deaver, D.; Folmer, J.; Zirkin, B.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Grills, G. S.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D.; Serova, L. V.; Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed or frozen testicular tissues from five rats per group were analyzed by: subjective and quantitative evaluations of spermatogenesis; Northern-blot analysis for expression of selected genes; quantification of testosterone and receptors for LH; and morphometric analysis of Leydig cells. Based on observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats in the flight and vivarium groups had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment, and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups; the simulated-launch group contained no abnormal rat. Lesions induced in testes of caudal-elevation rats precluded discernment of any pre-existing abnormality. Considering rats without pre-existing abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (E less than 0.05) in flight rats than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other, or to Sertoli cells, and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. There was no effect of flight on normal expression of testis-specific hsp gene products, or evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp70 or hsp90 genes. Concentration of receptors for rLH in testicular tissue, and surface densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in Leydig cells, were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus, spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Sequela of reduced androgen production on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered when interpreting data from mammals exposed to microgravity.

  12. Haematogenous tumour growth in the inferior vena cava in a patient with a nonseminomatous testicular tumour.

    PubMed

    Ham, S J; Schraffordt Koops, H; Sleijfer, D T; Freling, N M; Molenaar, W M

    1991-08-01

    The case history is reported of a patient with an invasion of the inferior vena cava by metastases of a non-seminomatous testicular tumour. He was treated with combination chemotherapy, followed by laparotomy and resection of residual tumour tissue. Fourteen months after this operation he is in good health. For every retroperitoneal lymph node dissection it is necessary to be on the look-out for invasion of the vena cava, because of the risk of a sudden pulmonary embolism.

  13. Dexpanthenol attenuates lipid peroxidation and testicular damage at experimental ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Karul, Aslihan; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-02-01

    Prevention of tissue damage after testicular torsion caused by I/R injury is still a clinical and experimental problem. There are many experimental studies made with several chemicals in the literature for decreasing the effect of reactive oxygen species after ischemia and reperfusion. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid increases the content of reduced glutathione, Coenzyme A and ATP in cell. We studied the effect of Dxp on lipid peroxidation and testicular damage. Forty adult rats were separated randomly into five groups: group Sh, Sham-operation; group TD, torsion-detorsion; group NS, torsion-normal saline-detorsion; group D, torsion-Dxp 250 mg/kg detorsion; group D2, torsion-Dxp 500 mg/kg detorsion group. Serum MDA levels were taken before detorsion, after torsion at the first and fifth minute and at the first hour. Tissue sample was taken at the first hour. The alterations of I/R injury on testis were histological graded. Serum MDA levels were significantly lower in group D2 compared to all groups. The histopathology score of group D2 was significantly lower than groups TD, NS and D. Histopathological score and serum MDA levels are strikingly compatible. Dxp attenuated lipid peroxidation and tissue damage at I/R injury. This effect depends on its antioxidant effect with increasingly reduced glutathione, Coenzyme A and ATP. The effect of Dxp on I/R injury has been shown for the first time in the experimental testicular torsion.

  14. Anchoring Ethinylestradiol Induced Gene Expression Changes with Testicular Morphology and Reproductive Function in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hilary D.; Clark, Bryan W.; Hinton, David E.; Whitehead, Andrew; Martin, Stan; Kwok, Kevin W.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2) on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4), 62.8% (±8.3) and 28.8% (±5.8), respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function. PMID:23300682

  15. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is reliable method for testicular spermatogenesis evaluation after torsion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Lv, Faqing; Tang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate effect of torsion on testicular stiffness alteration in affected and concomitant testis using improved ultrasound method of shear wave elastography (SWE). We compared the morphology of the testicular spermatogenesis assessed with Johansen’s scale on histology specimens with a mean stiffness measured by SWE. A total of 18 New Zealand white male rabbits were divided into two groups (group A and group B), animals from group A were subjected to operation of right testicle torsion while left testicle remained intact. In group B both testicles were normal and right testicle was subjected to sham operation. The protocol of measurement for mean stiffness value was calculated from three elastographic images obtained from each testicle. Significant difference in mean stiffness value and Johnsen’ scaling was observed in both groups (A and B), as well as for normal and torted testicle in group A. The mean stiffness positively correlated with histologic grade on both sided testicles in group B, and left sided testicles in group A (P=0.045, r=0.43; group B; P=0.001, r=0.98), while histologic grade negatively correlated with mean stiffness in the group A, torted testicle (torsion P=0.012, r=-0.76). In this study testicular torsion, with consequently higher mean stiffness value determined by SWE, has qualitatively and quantitatively decreased spermatogenesis. Gradual morphology change in testicle unaffected by torsion has not been previously reported. This study confirmed that quantitative change in testicular tissue stiffness as well as change in testicular spermatogenesis can be reliably evaluated with SWE. PMID:26221246

  16. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  17. Grape juice concentrate (G8000(®) ) intake mitigates testicular morphological and ultrastructural damage following cadmium intoxication.

    PubMed

    Lamas, Celina A; Gollücke, Andrea P B; Dolder, Heidi

    2015-10-01

    Cadmium is a well-known testicular toxicant, and parts of the world population are exposed chronically by inhalation or by food and water intake. Grape products have been highlighted as important sources of bioactive compounds, having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and metal chelating properties. Since maintenance of tissue morphology is essential for testicular sperm development and hence male fertility, we analysed the protective effect of grape juice concentrate (GJC) (G8000(®) ) consumption on testicular morphology in rats exposed to cadmium. Thus, four groups of male Wistar rats (n = 6 per group), 50 days old, ingested either water or G8000(®) (2 g/kg/day) until they had completed one spermatogenic cycle in adult life (136 days old). Cadmium (1.2 mg / kg) was injected intraperitoneally when the animals were 80 days old into one of the water and one of the G8000 groups; intraperitoneal saline was used as a control in the other two groups. Animals anaesthetised and exsanguinated at 136 days and then perfused with Karnovsky's fixative and then the testes were collected for morphological analysis. We describe evident disruption of testicular morphology by cadmium, with alteration in tissue component proportions, reduced Leydig cells volume and initial signs of an inflammatory process. Ultrastructural analysis showed greater damage, suggesting spermatogenesis disruption. G8000(®) ingestion allowed tissue architecture to be re-established, as was corroborated by our stereological and morphometric findings. Animals from the group where G8000(®) had been administered together with cadmium revealed a significant reduction in macrophages and blood vessel volume, suggesting diminished inflammation, when compared to animals that received only cadmium. Moreover, smaller number of ultrastructural alterations was noted, revealing fewer areas of degeneration and disorganized interstitium. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GJC consumption prevented the

  18. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  19. Testicular descent: a hypothesis and review of current controversies.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Douglas A

    2009-06-01

    Descent of the testis into the scrotum occurs by a complex multifactorial process involving the normal development of the testis, the hormonal actions of insulin like growth factor 3, testosterone, a intact hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis, the patent processus vaginalis, gubernacular outgrowth and regression and intraabdominal pressure. The paper reviews the key components of testicular descent, the current hypothesis on how testicular descent occurs and the controversies surrounding this hypothesis.

  20. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain

    PubMed Central

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  1. Possible Role of GnIH as a Mediator between Adiposity and Impaired Testicular Function

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Shabana; Krishna, Amitabh; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the roles of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) as an endocrine link between increasing adiposity and impaired testicular function in mice. To achieve this, the effect of GnIH on changes in nutrients uptake and hormonal synthesis/action in the adipose tissue and testis was investigated simultaneously by in vivo study and separately by in vitro study. Mice were treated in vivo with different doses of GnIH for 8 days. In the in vitro study, adipose tissue and testes of mice were cultured with different doses of GnIH with or without insulin or LH for 24 h at 37°C. The GnIH treatment in vivo showed increased food intake, upregulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), and increased uptake of triglycerides (TGs) in the adipose tissue. These changes may be responsible for increased accumulation of fat in white adipose tissue, resulting in increase in the body mass. Contrary to the adipose tissue, treatment with GnIH both in vivo and in vitro showed decreased uptake of glucose by downregulation of glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8) expressions in the testis, which in turn resulted in the decreased synthesis of testosterone. The GnIH treatment in vivo also showed the decreased expression of insulin receptor protein in the testis, which may also be responsible for the decreased testicular activity in the mice. These findings thus suggest that GnIH increases the uptake of glucose and TGs in the adipose tissue, resulting in increased accumulation of fat, whereas simultaneously in the testis, GnIH suppressed the GLUT8-mediated glucose uptake, which in turn may be responsible for decreased testosterone synthesis. This study thus demonstrates GnIH as mediator of increasing adiposity and impaired testicular function in mice. PMID:26869993

  2. Ultrasonography of Extravaginal Testicular Torsion in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bombiński, Przemysław; Warchoł, Stanisław; Brzewski, Michał; Majkowska, Zofia; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Żerańska, Maria; Panek, Małgorzata; Drop, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible. There is still wide discussion concerning management of ETT, which varies from immediate orchiectomy to conservative treatment resulting in testicle atrophy. Material/Methods In this article we present ultrasonographic spectrum of ETT in neonates, which were diagnosed and treated in our hospital during the last 8 years (2008–2015), in correlation with clinical and intraoperative findings. Results Thirteen neonates with ETT were enrolled in the study – 11 patients with a single testicle affected and 2 patients with bilateral testicular torsion. Most common signs on clinical examination were: hardened and enlarged testicle and discoloration of the scrotum. Most common ultrasonographic signs were: abnormal size or echostructure of the affected testicle and absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography. In 3 patients ultrasound elastography was performed, which appeared very useful in testicle structure assessment. Conclusions Testicular torsion may concern boys even in the perinatal period. Ultrasonographic picture of acute scrotum in young boys may be confused. Coexistence of the abnormal size or echostructure of the torsed testicle with absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography appear as very specific but late ultrasonographic sings. Ultrasound elastography may be a very useful tool for visualisation of a very common clinical sign – hardening of the necrotic testicle. PMID:27757176

  3. Cadmium effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, A; Márquez, N; Pérez-Lorenzo, M; Pazo, D; Esquifino, A I

    2001-06-01

    This study analyzes cadmium effects at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Male rats were given cadmium during puberty or adulthood. Cadmium exposure through puberty increased norepinephrine content in all hypothalamic areas studied, but not in the median eminence. Metal exposure increased serotonin turnover in median eminence and the anterior hypothalamus, while decreased it in mediobasal hypothalamus. Also, decreased plasma levels of testosterone were found. Cadmium exposure during adulthood increased norepinephrine content in posterior hypothalamus and decreased the neuro-transmitter content in anterior and mediobasal hypothalamus. Decreased circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and increased plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were also observed. Cadmium accumulated in all analyzed tissues. Various parameters showed age-dependent changes. These data suggest that cadmium globally effects hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function by acting at the three levels analyzed and that an interaction between cadmium exposure and age emerge.

  4. Exposure to Endosulfan can result in male infertility due to testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, R; Raghavan, SC

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and is speculated to be detrimental to human health. However, very little is known about mechanism of its genotoxicity. Using mouse model system, we show that exposure to ES affected physiology and cellular architecture of organs and tissues. Among all organs, damage to testes was extensive and it resulted in death of different testicular-cell populations. We find that the damage in testes resulted in qualitative and quantitative defects during spermatogenesis in a time-dependent manner, increasing epididymal reactive oxygen species levels, affecting sperm chromatin integrity. This further culminated in reduced number of epididymal sperms and actively motile sperms. Finally, we show that ES exposure affected fertility in male but not in female mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that ES exerts pathophysiological changes in mice, induces testicular atrophy, affects spermatogenesis, reduces quantity and vigour of epididymal sperm and leads to infertility in males. PMID:27551453

  5. Plasma absorption and ultrastructural changes of rat testicular cells induced by lindane.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Villena, F; Marcus, D; Ronco, A M

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes, for the first time, how topical application in rats of a commercial preparation of lindane widely used in public health, at similar doses and routes of administration as in humans, leads to rapid absorption and accumulation of lindane in the testes. An early peak of absorption was detected in plasma 6 h after topical treatment of male Wistar rats with a commercial preparation of 1% lindane (Plomurol). Higher plasma levels were observed after repetitive doses of 60 mg/kg b.w., the amount recommended for the treatment of scabies and pediculosis in humans in several countries. A residue level of 7.4 +/- 0.67 microg/g was found in testicular tissue 6 h after a single daily topical application for 4 consecutive days. The ultrastructural study of testicular interstitial cells exposed to dermal application of lindane (Plomurol) revealed widespread damage of a great number of Leydig cells, some of which were completely disintegrated. PMID:11204556

  6. [Testicular bilharzioma by Schistosomia haematobium: about two cases].

    PubMed

    Ze Ondo, C; Sarr, A; Sow, Y; Thiam, I; Fall, B; Sow, D; Thiam, A; Diao, B; Fall, P A; Gaye, G W; Ndoye, A K; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2014-01-01

    Bilharzioma are inflammatory pseudotumors, which often pose the problem of differential diagnosis with neoplastic processes. Using the keywords "testicular" and "schistosomiasis", there are only 14 cases of testicular bilharzioma identified on PubMed. The authors report two new cases in a 6-year-old child and an adult of 38 years, collected over a period of 5 years. In both cases, orchidectomy was performed and histological analysis of the surgical specimen was allowed to diagnose testicular bilharzioma by Schistosomia haematobium. The authors emphasize the need to evoke a bilharzioma before any testicular nodule in a patient living in an endemic area.

  7. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979

  8. Slow Freezing, but Not Vitrification Supports Complete Spermatogenesis in Cryopreserved, Neonatal Sheep Testicular Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J.; Costa, Guilherme M.; Escobar, Enrique N.; França, Luiz R.; Wildt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale. PMID:25923660

  9. Slow freezing, but not vitrification supports complete spermatogenesis in cryopreserved, neonatal sheep testicular xenografts.

    PubMed

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J; Costa, Guilherme M; Escobar, Enrique N; França, Luiz R; Wildt, David E

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale.

  10. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease. PMID:25103095

  11. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity. PMID:26403947

  12. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; EL-Maraghy, Shohda A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity. PMID:26403947

  13. Mechanism of the testicular toxicity of boric acid in rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, W W; Chapin, R E

    1994-01-01

    High-dose boric acid (BA) exposure produces testicular lesions in adult rats characterized by inhibited spermiation (IS) that may progress to atrophy. In vivo and in vitro studies addressed possible mechanisms. In vivo, boron tissue disposition was examined, since no detailed data existed, and relevant boron concentrations for in vitro studies needed to be set. Since BA induces riboflavinuria and also affects calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, and testis zinc appears essential for normal testis function, we examined BA effects on flavin status and testis levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Data showed that the testicular toxicity and central nervous system (CNS) hormonal effect were not due to selective boron accumulation in testis or brain/hypothalamus, with testis boron concentrations at approximately 1 to 2 mM; that riboflavin deficiency is not involved, due to both the absence of overt signs of deficiency and effects on tissue flavin content during BA exposure; and that changes in testis P, Ca and Zn levels did not precede atrophy, and are therefore unlikely to be mechanistically relevant. In vitro studies addressed the hallmarks of the BA testicular toxicity: the mild hormone effect, the initial IS, and atrophy. No effect of BA on the steroidogenic function of isolated Leydig cells was observed, supporting the contention of a CNS-mediated rather than a direct hormone effect. Since increased testicular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) produces IS, and a role for the serine proteases plasminogen activators (PAs) in spermiation has been proposed, we examined in vitro BA effects on both Sertoli cell cAMP accumulation and PA activity, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6. A Figure 6. B PMID:7889890

  14. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma testosterone level (ng/ml) while estrogen was not affected. Similarly, BPA caused a significant alteration in the lipid profile. Interestingly, quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26787223

  15. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  16. Prostatic tissue in testicular teratoma. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Roma, Andres A; Humphrey, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    The presence of prostatic differentiation as part of teratoma is very unusual and has been reported less than 20 times in the literature; however, all but 1 case were described in ovarian teratomas. We reviewed 45 specimens of germ cell tumors with teratoma component in postpuberal male patients. Original hematoxylin and eosin review failed to identify glands morphologically consistent with prostatic differentiation. Immunohistochemical stains performed on 10 specimens from 10 patients with small glandular and/or tubular structures revealed 1 case with glands positive for prostatic-specific antigen, prostatic-specific acid phosphatase, and prostein/P501S, whereas high-molecular-weight cytokeratin and p63 highlighted only basal cells. The glands were irregular in size and shape and contained mostly cuboidal to columnar luminal-type cells with occasional basal-type cells. Re-review of all the specimens revealed a second block from the same testis as well as 1 retroperitoneal lymph node with metastatic teratoma in the same patient, also immunohistochemically confirmed. These glands were seen in a smooth muscle stromal background, adjacent to classic gastrointestinal and tracheobronchial teratoma components. Our findings show immunohistochemically confirmed prostatic differentiation in 2 specimens from 1 patient with teratoma. This study raises the possibility that prostatic differentiation, difficult to recognize on morphology alone, might not be that unusual and that immunostains can help detect it over the several different epithelial components of teratoma.

  17. TDRG1 functions in testicular seminoma are dependent on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Gan, Yu; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-01-01

    Human testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1) is a recently identified gene that is expressed exclusively in the testes and promotes the development of testicular germ cell tumors. In this study, the role of TDRG1 in the development of testicular seminoma, which is the most common testicular germ cell tumor, was further investigated. Based on polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry tests, both gene and protein expression levels of TDRG1 were significantly upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues compared with normal testicular tissues. Additionally, the levels of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/p110 and Akt phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues. Accordingly, in our cell experiment, seminoma TCam-2 cells were subjected to different treatments: the TDRG1 knockout, TDRG1 overexpression, PI3K inhibition (LY294002 administration), or PI3K activation (insulin-like growth factor-1 administration). Cell proliferation, the proliferation index, apoptosis rate, cell adhesive capacity, and cell invasion capability were assessed. Cells with both TDRG1 knockout and PI3K inhibition exhibited decreased cell proliferation, proliferation indexes, cell adhesion capacity, and cell invasion capability and increased apoptosis rates. Most of these effects were reversed by TDRG1 overexpression or PI3K activation, indicating that both TDRG1- and PI3K-mediated signaling promote proliferation and invasion of testicular seminoma cells. The knockout of TDRG1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K/p85, PI3K/p110, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448). Except for PI3K/p110, TDRG1 overexpression had the opposite effects on phosphorylation levels. Phosphorylated mTOR at Ser2481 and Thr2446 was not affected by TDRG1 or PI3K in our tests. Thus, these results indicate that TDRG1 promotes the development and migration of seminoma cells via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

  18. [Bilateral testicular metastasis of cancer of the prostate].

    PubMed

    el Moussaoui, A; Sarf, I; Dakir, M; Zamiati, S; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer rarely occurs. Bilateral localization is exceptional. We report a new case of prostate adenocarcinoma with bilateral testicular metastasis. The diagnosis was made on clinical and ultrasonic arguments, and confirmed on the pathological specimen. Treatment consisted in a bilateral orchidectomy, associated with nonsteroid androgens.

  19. A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-12-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery. PMID:25469070

  20. A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-12-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery.

  1. Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.; Kane, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This study compared secondary health teachers' beliefs concerning teaching about testicular cancer (TC) and self-examination (TSE) to actual instruction. TC and TSE education levels were low. Perceived barriers to teaching about TSE was the main predictor of TSE instruction. Teachers with previous preparation in TC and TSE provided the most…

  2. Scrotal Exploration for Testicular Torsion and Testicular Appendage Torsion: Emergency and Reality

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You; Zhang, Feng; An, Qun; Wang, Long; Li, Chao; Xu, Zhilin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scrotal exploration is considered the procedure of choice for acute scrotum. Objectives: We evaluated the importance of early diagnosis and testicular salvage on the therapeutic outcomes of patients with pediatric testicular torsion (TT) and testicular appendage torsion (TAT) in our geographic area. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective database analysis of patients who underwent emergency surgery for TT or TAT between January 1996 and June 2009. Patient history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, color Doppler sonography (CDS) results, and surgical findings were reviewed. Results: A total of 65 cases were included in our analysis. Forty-two cases were followed up for at least 3 months. Testicular tenderness was identified as the major clinical manifestation of TT, while only a few patients with TAT presented with swelling. CDS was an important diagnostic modality. The orchiectomy rate was 71% in the TT group. Conclusions: Cases of acute scrotum require attention in our area. Early diagnosis and scrotal exploration could salvage the testis or preserve normal function without the need for surgery. PMID:26199690

  3. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Emmanuel O; Adeeyo, Olusola A; Falokun, Olutunde P; Yusuf, Uthman A; Oyerinde, Abiodun; Adeleke, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. AIM: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum: Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyse the results obtained. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life–death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. CONCLUSION: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19562072

  4. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men.

  5. Primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Mário Maciel; de Lima, Mário Maciel; Granja, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Testicular mucinous cystadenomas are rare in urological practice, and their histogenesis, course and management are debated. We report a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma in a 54-year old male who presented with left testicular swelling and pain. He denied having a history of cryptorchidism, testicular trauma, infections, urinary complaints, or febrile illnesses. He did not have diabetes, but was on treatment for hypertension. The patient underwent a left inguinal radical orchiectomy, and histological examination of the resected tumour confirmed a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and is being followed up. Conclusively, urologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion of these tumours and their differentiation from metastatic tumours to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes.

  6. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men. PMID:23813488

  7. [Traumatic Testicular Rupture Complicated with Hydrocele: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tsutahara, Koichi; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    A 17-year-old man presented with right hydrocele because of an athletic injury. His scrotum was hit with a ball 2 months ago while playing baseball. He was diagnosed with post-traumatic hydrocele and underwent needle puncture at another hospital 1 month after the trauma. However, the hydrocele did not improve. Therefore, he was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. For diagnosis of the traumatic hydrocele testis, a hydrocelectomy was scheduled. When we opened the tunica vaginalis, we realized that the tunica albuginea had been ruptured and the testicular parenchyma had gushed out. We tried to replace all the escaped testicular parenchyma into the tunica albuginea, but it was impossible. Therefore were moved some of the redundant testicular parenchyma, and replaced the remnants into the tunica albuginea. After the operation, right hydrocele and testicular atrophy did not occur. Traumatic testicular rupture complicated with hydrocele is rare.

  8. Effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints for environmental research.

    PubMed

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  9. Effect of Pre-Fixation Delay and Freezing on Mink Testicular Endpoints for Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  10. Testicular microlithiasis and preliminary experience of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Elastography of the testis can be used as a part of multiparametric examination of the scrotum. Purpose To determine the testicular stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) technique in men with testicular microlithiasis (TML). Material and Methods In 2013, 12 patients with diagnosed testicular microlithiasis in 2008 (mean age, 51 years; age range, 25–76 years) underwent a 5-year follow-up B-mode ultrasonography with three ARFI elastography measurements of each testis. We used a Siemens Acuson S3000 machine. Results No malignancy was found at the 5-year follow-up B-mode and elastography in 2013. However, we found an increase in TML; in the previous ultrasonography in 2008, eight men had bilateral TML, whereas in 2013, 10 men were diagnosed with bilateral TML. The mean elasticity of testicles with TML was 0.82 m/s (interquartile range [IQR], 0.72–0.88 m/s; range, 65–1.08 m/s). Conclusion Elastography velocity of testis with TML seems to be in the same velocity range as in men with normal testis tissue. PMID:27504193

  11. Protective effects of Fumaria parviflora L. on lead-induced testicular toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Dorostghoal, M; Seyyednejad, S M; Jabari, A

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the clinical importance of herbal drugs has received considerable attention in reducing free radical-induced tissue injury. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity that causes reproductive system failure in both human and animals. Fumaria parviflora L., a traditional herb, has been used to cure various ailments in Persian folk medicine. This study was carried out to investigate whether ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves could protect the male rats against lead-induced testicular oxidative stress. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 0.1% lead acetate in drinking water with or without 200 mg kg day(-1) F. parviflora extract via gavage for 70 days. Lead acetate treatment resulted in significant reduction in testis weight, seminiferous tubules diameter, epididymal sperm count, serum testosterone level, testicular content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Moreover, significant elevation was observed in content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in lead-treated rats. However, co-administration of F. parviflora extract showed a significant increase in selected reproductive parameters in lead-treated rats. The results indicated that ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves has a potential to restore the suppressed reproduction associated with lead exposure and prevented lead-induced testicular toxicity in male Wistar rats. PMID:23611729

  12. Evaluation of sperm retrieval rate with bilateral testicular sperm extraction in infertile patients with azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Moein, Mohammad Reza; Moein, Mahmoud Reza; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Pourmasoumi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: About 10% to 15% of infertile men have azoospermia, which could be obstructive or non-obstructive. Diagnostic biopsy from the testis and recently testicular sperm extraction (TESE) are the most precise investigations in these patients. Testicular biopsy can be done unilaterally or bilaterally. The worth of unilateral or bilateral testicular biopsy in men with azoospermia is controversial. Objective: To evaluate the necessity of bilateral diagnostic biopsy from the testis in new era of diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the results of testis biopsy in 419 azoospermic men, referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility from 2009-2013. Patients with known obstructive azoospermia were excluded from the study. Results: In totally, 254 infertile men (60.6%) were underwent unilateral TESE, which in 175 patients (88.4%) sperm were extracted from their testes successfully. Bilateral testis biopsy was done in 165 patients (39.4%) which in 37 patients (22.4%), sperm were found in their testes tissues. Conclusion: Due to the low probability of positive bilateral TESE results especially when we can’t found sperm in the first side, we recommend that physicians re-evaluate the risk and benefit of this procedure in era of newer and more precise technique of sperm retrieval like micro TESE. PMID:26730246

  13. Protective effects of Fumaria parviflora L. on lead-induced testicular toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Dorostghoal, M; Seyyednejad, S M; Jabari, A

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the clinical importance of herbal drugs has received considerable attention in reducing free radical-induced tissue injury. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity that causes reproductive system failure in both human and animals. Fumaria parviflora L., a traditional herb, has been used to cure various ailments in Persian folk medicine. This study was carried out to investigate whether ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves could protect the male rats against lead-induced testicular oxidative stress. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 0.1% lead acetate in drinking water with or without 200 mg kg day(-1) F. parviflora extract via gavage for 70 days. Lead acetate treatment resulted in significant reduction in testis weight, seminiferous tubules diameter, epididymal sperm count, serum testosterone level, testicular content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Moreover, significant elevation was observed in content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in lead-treated rats. However, co-administration of F. parviflora extract showed a significant increase in selected reproductive parameters in lead-treated rats. The results indicated that ethanolic extract of F. parviflora leaves has a potential to restore the suppressed reproduction associated with lead exposure and prevented lead-induced testicular toxicity in male Wistar rats.

  14. Testicular cancer: biology and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J; Stoop, Hans; Biermann, Katharina

    2014-03-01

    The term "human germ cell tumors" (GCTs) refers to a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, all with a defined histological appearance. They have specific epidemiological characteristics, clinical behavior, and pathogenesis. Histologically, GCTs contain various tissue elements, which are homologs of normal embryogenesis. We have proposed a subclassification of GCTs in five subtypes, three of which preferentially occur in the testis. These include teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants (type I), seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults (type II), and spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly (type III). Both spontaneous and induced animal models have been reported, of which the relevance for human GCTs is still to be clarified. Multidisciplinary studies have recently shed new light on the (earliest steps in the) pathogenesis of GCTs, mainly in regard of malignant type II GCTs (germ cell cancer (GCC)). This review discusses novel understanding of the pathogenesis of (mainly) GCC, focusing on identification of informative diagnostic markers suitable for application in a clinical setting. These include OCT3/4, SOX9/FOXL2, SOX17/SOX2, as well as embryonic microRNAs. These markers have been identified through studies on normal embryogenesis, specifically related to the gonads, including the germ cell lineage. Their strengths and limitations are discussed as well as the expected future approach to identify the group of individuals at highest risk for development of a GCC. The latter would allow screening of defined populations, early diagnosis, optimal follow-up, and potentially early treatment, preventing long-term side effects of systemic treatment. PMID:24487784

  15. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  17. Rare inactivating PDE11A variants associated with testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anand; Stewart, Douglas R; Faucz, Fabio R; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Bass, Sara; Vogt, Aurelie; Zhang, Xijun; Boland, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Loud, Jennifer T; Nathanson, Katherine L; McGlynn, Katherine A; Stratakis, Constantine A; Greene, Mark H; Mirabello, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Germline inactivating mutations of isoform 4 of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 11A (coded by the PDE11A gene) have been associated with familial adrenocortical tumors and familial testicular cancer. Testicular tissue is unique in expressing all four isoforms of PDE11A. In a prior candidate gene study of 94 familial testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) subjects, we identified a significant association between the presence of functionally abnormal variants in PDE11A and familial TGCT risk. To validate this novel observation, we sequenced the PDE11A coding region in 259 additional TGCT patients (both familial and sporadic) and 363 controls. We identified 55 PDE11A variants: 20 missense, four splice-site, two nonsense, seven synonymous, and 22 intronic. Ten missense variants were novel; nine occurred in transcript variant 4 and one in transcript variant 3. Five rare mutations (p.F258Y, p.G291R, p.V820M, p.R545X, and p.K568R) were present only in cases and were significantly more common in cases vs controls (P=0.0037). The latter two novel variants were functionally characterized and shown to be functionally inactivating, resulting in reduced PDE activity and increased cAMP levels. In further analysis of this cohort, we focused on white participants only to minimize confounding due to population stratification. This study builds upon our prior reports implicating PDE11A variants in familial TGCT, provides the first independent validation of those findings, extends that work to sporadic testicular cancer, demonstrates that these variants are uncommonly but reproducibly associated with TGCT, and refines our understanding regarding which specific inactivating PDE11A variants are most likely to be associated with TGCT risk. PMID:26459559

  18. Serum and testicular testosterone and androgen binding protein profiles following subchronic treatment with carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Rehnberg, G L; Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Gray, L E; Hein, J F; McElroy, W K

    1989-10-01

    While the general toxicity of the benzimidazole pesticides for mammals is low, one of these compounds, carbendazim (MBC), causes degeneration of testicular tissue and decreases spermatogenic activity at doses well below the LD50 value. A study conducted by S. D. Carter, R. A. Hess, and J. W. Laskey (1987, Biol. Reprod. 37, 709-717) showed that treatment with 400 mg/kg/day MBC resulted in severe seminiferous tubular atrophy and infertility. Since spermatogenesis is an androgen-dependent process, we characterized the effects of MBC (0-400 mg/kg/day) on the endocrine function of the rat testes. Following subchronic (85 day) exposure, serum hormones (TSH, LH, FSH, and Prl) were measured as were androgen binding protein (ABP) and testosterone in testicular fluids (interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid). In addition, the functional capacity of the Leydig cell to secrete testosterone was assessed in vitro following an hCG challenge. Subchronic treatment with MBC at doses of 50-100 mg/kg/day had no effect on pituitary or testicular hormone concentrations: 200 mg/kg/day elevated the testosterone concentration in the seminiferous tubule fluid and the ABP concentration in both the interstitial fluid and the seminiferous tubule fluid without affecting serum testosterone or ABP concentrations. The 400 mg/kg/day dose resulted in increased concentration of both testosterone and ABP in the interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid and elevated serum ABP, with no change in serum testosterone. This endocrine profile is consistent with the testicular atrophy and "Sertoli cell-only" syndrome seen in these animals as reported by Gray et al. (1987, Toxicologist 7, 717). We conclude that seminiferous tubule fluid testosterone may be a result of two factors: (1) increased interstitial fluid testosterone concentrations and (2) decreased testosterone outflow from the testis to the general circulation. Also, increased ABP in the interstitial fluid may reflect a change in

  19. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat. PMID:24728876

  20. Effects of nicotine on the testicular toxicity of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat: intervention of enalapril.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, S; Jena, G B

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether nicotine augmented the testicular toxicity and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, can ameliorate the effects in diabetic rat. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: control, nicotine, diabetic, Diab + Nico, and Diab + Nico + Enal. Animals were made diabetic by single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg/intraperitoneally). Nicotine dissolved in drinking water at a concentration of 100 µg/ml was given ad libitum and enalapril was given orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for four consecutive weeks. After 4 weeks of treatment, animals were killed and biochemical parameters glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, cotinine, and the testosterone levels were measured. Testicular toxicity was evaluated using sperm count, sperm comet assay, histology, and immunohistochemical staining of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) and the proinflammatory markers (nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and tissue necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α)) evaluated by western blotting. Results showed that nicotine did not alter the blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, significantly decreased the sperm count and increased the sperm DNA damage. These changes were accompanied by significant increases in the 8-oxo-dG, NF-κB, COX-2, and TNF-α expression. Furthermore, the intervention of enalapril in nicotine-treated diabetic rat attenuated the testicular damage and restored sperm count, sperm DNA damage, as well as reduced the expression of NF-κB, COX-2, and TNF-α. These findings clearly suggest that nicotine not only augmented the testicular toxicity in the diabetic rat but also increases the risk of germ cell toxicity effects that were attenuated by enalapril treatment. PMID:24044905

  1. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Amann, R P

    1986-01-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalcy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animal models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. A 50 or 90% reduction in the number of fertile sperm deposited during mating probably will not markedly reduce fertility. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. For each male, a piece of testicular tissue should be appropriately fixed and an aliquot of parenchyma should be homogenized to allow enumeration of homogenization-resistant spermatids. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis. PMID

  2. A rare Robertsonian translocation rob(14;22) carrier with azoospermia, meiotic defects, and testicular sperm aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Vladimir; Vozdova, Miluse; Heracek, Jiri; Rubes, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is a serious problem in an increasing number of couples. We report an infertile man with non-obstructive azoospermia and karyotype 45,XY,rob(14;22). The immunofluorescence analysis of his testicular tissue using antibodies to SYCP1, SYCP3, HORMAD2, MLH1, and centromeres showed delayed synapsis of the chromosomes involved in the translocation, a varying extent of trivalent asynapsis and its association with sex chromosomes. The mean frequency of meiotic recombination per cell was within the range of normal values. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 14 and 22 revealed 5.83% of chromosomally abnormal testicular spermatozoa. FISH with probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 21 showed frequencies of disomic and diploid testicular spermatozoa increased when compared to ejaculated sperm of healthy donors, but comparable with published results for azoospermic patients. PGD by FISH for the translocation and aneuploidy of chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18, and 21 showed a normal chromosomal complement in one out of three analyzed embryos. A healthy carrier girl was born after the embryo transfer. This study shows the benefits of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a case of a rare Robertsonian translocation carrier with azoospermia and a relatively low frequency of chromosomally unbalanced testicular spermatozoa.

  3. A rare Robertsonian translocation rob(14;22) carrier with azoospermia, meiotic defects, and testicular sperm aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Sobotka, Vladimir; Vozdova, Miluse; Heracek, Jiri; Rubes, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility is a serious problem in an increasing number of couples. We report an infertile man with non-obstructive azoospermia and karyotype 45,XY,rob(14;22). The immunofluorescence analysis of his testicular tissue using antibodies to SYCP1, SYCP3, HORMAD2, MLH1, and centromeres showed delayed synapsis of the chromosomes involved in the translocation, a varying extent of trivalent asynapsis and its association with sex chromosomes. The mean frequency of meiotic recombination per cell was within the range of normal values. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes for chromosomes 14 and 22 revealed 5.83% of chromosomally abnormal testicular spermatozoa. FISH with probes for chromosomes X, Y, and 21 showed frequencies of disomic and diploid testicular spermatozoa increased when compared to ejaculated sperm of healthy donors, but comparable with published results for azoospermic patients. PGD by FISH for the translocation and aneuploidy of chromosomes X, Y, 13, 18, and 21 showed a normal chromosomal complement in one out of three analyzed embryos. A healthy carrier girl was born after the embryo transfer. This study shows the benefits of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a case of a rare Robertsonian translocation carrier with azoospermia and a relatively low frequency of chromosomally unbalanced testicular spermatozoa. PMID:26043179

  4. The hormonal control of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Levy, J B; Husmann, D A

    1995-01-01

    Descent of the testes is a complex event mediated by hormonal and mechanical factors. At present we hypothesize that testicular descent occurs as the result of the secretion of descendin from a normal testicle. Descendin secretion results in selective growth of the gubernacular cells. Gubernacular outgrowth results in masculinization of the inguinal canal. At the beginning of testicular descent, the patent processus migrates into the inguinal canal, transmitting intraabdominal pressure to the gubernaculum. The gubernaculum in turn applies traction to the testicle to introduce the testicle into the inguinal canal. Descent of the testes into and through the inguinal canal is an interplay between intraabdominal pressure transmitted by a patent processus vaginalis and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. Specifically, we hypothesize that androgens under control of an intact fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum. Reductions in the turgidity of the gubernaculum allow intraabdominal pressure to push the testicle into the scrotum. Functional abnormalities in any of the above factors will result in cryptorchidism. PMID:8867594

  5. The hormonal control of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Levy, J B; Husmann, D A

    1995-01-01

    Descent of the testes is a complex event mediated by hormonal and mechanical factors. At present we hypothesize that testicular descent occurs as the result of the secretion of descendin from a normal testicle. Descendin secretion results in selective growth of the gubernacular cells. Gubernacular outgrowth results in masculinization of the inguinal canal. At the beginning of testicular descent, the patent processus migrates into the inguinal canal, transmitting intraabdominal pressure to the gubernaculum. The gubernaculum in turn applies traction to the testicle to introduce the testicle into the inguinal canal. Descent of the testes into and through the inguinal canal is an interplay between intraabdominal pressure transmitted by a patent processus vaginalis and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. Specifically, we hypothesize that androgens under control of an intact fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum. Reductions in the turgidity of the gubernaculum allow intraabdominal pressure to push the testicle into the scrotum. Functional abnormalities in any of the above factors will result in cryptorchidism.

  6. Do testicular opiates regulate Leydig cell function?

    PubMed

    Gerendai, I; Shaha, C; Thau, R; Bardin, C W

    1984-10-01

    beta-Endorphin is believed to be synthesized in testicular Leydig cells. To gain more information about the role of this and other endogenous opioid peptides in the testis, opiate antagonists (naloxone and nalmefene, 100 micrograms/testis) were administered intratesticularly to hemicastrated adult rats. Leydig cell function was evaluated by measurement of serum testosterone and testosterone production in vitro. Estimation of androgen binding protein (rABP) was used as an index of Sertoli cell function. Serum testosterone was reduced significantly by intratesticular administration of naloxone and nalmefene in treated animals. Systemic administration of these antagonists had no effect at the doses used. Testes from treated animals incubated in vitro with or without hCG produced significantly less testosterone than vehicle-treated control testes. Hemicastration reduced rABP synthesis and secretion; however, treatment with opiate antagonists did not alter the amount of this protein in the serum or epididymides of these rats. These observations suggest that endogenous testicular opiates modulate testosterone secretion by Leydig cells. PMID:6541122

  7. Spermatic cord contamination in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, T; Ro, J Y; Kee, K H; Ayala, A G

    1996-07-01

    It is not uncommon to find testicular germ-cell tumors in the spermatic cord. This may represent contamination or true involvement (vascular invasion or direct tumoral extension into the cord). A correct identification of the process has important clinical implications. In a review of 326 testicular germ-cell tumors, 79 (24.2%) revealed tumor in the spermatic cord. Of these 79, contamination was found in 57 (72.1%), true involvement in 15 (19%), and true involvement and contamination in 7 (8.9%). Spermatic cord contamination was seen most frequently with seminomas: 34 (24.1%) of 141 seminomas and 20 (15.4%) of 130 mixed germ-cell tumors. Eighteen of the 20 mixed germ-cell tumors contained an embryonal carcinoma component. True involvement was seen most frequently in embryonal carcinoma. Six (15.4%) of 39 pure embryonal carcinomas demonstrated true cord involvement. Six mixed germ-cell tumors with true cord involvement contained an embryonal carcinoma component. Distinguishing between true involvement of the spermatic cord and contamination can occasionally be problematic. Because true involvement, especially at the spermatic cord resection margin, identifies patients at a high risk for relapse, the problem of contamination caused by inadequate precautionary measures can be avoided by meticulous handling and processing of the specimens.

  8. Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Testes from flight rats on COSMOS 2044 and simulated-launch, vivarium, or caudal-elevation control rats (5/group) were analyzed by subjective and quantitative methods. On the basis of observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups. Considering rats without preexisting abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (P less than 0.05) in flight than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other or to Sertoli cells and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Expression of testis-specific gene products was not greatly altered by flight. Furthermore, there was no evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp7O or hsp9O genes. Concentration of receptors for rat luteinizing hormone in testicular tissue and surface density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cells were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20% of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Exposure to microgravity for more than 2 wk might result in additional changes. Sequelae of reduced androgen production associated with microgravity on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered.

  9. Histology of Testicular Biopsies Obtained for an Experimental Fertility Preservation Protocol in Boys with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietzak, Eugene J.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Carlson, Claire; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Kolon, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cryopreservation of testicular tissue with subsequent re-implantation after therapy has fertility perseveration potential for pre-pubertal boys with childhood cancer. We present the histology and the feasibility of testicular tissue procurement for this novel approach. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of boys at significant risk for treatment-associated gonadotoxicity who were eligible for an experimental research protocol between 2008 and 2011. Open testicular biopsy was performed while they were anesthetized for another treatment related procedure. Half of the specimen was reserved for cryopreservation, while the other half was used for research purposes. Semi-thin sections of the biopsy specimens were evaluated for histological features and compared to age-adjusted reference values. Results Of the 34 boys who underwent biopsy between March 2008 and October 2011, 29 had solid tumors and 5 underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for benign disease. Of these, 27 had adequate tissue for histologic analysis. The median age of the boys was 8.7 years (IQR=2.2 – 11.5 years). All children had either normal (81.5%) or increased (18.5%) numbers of normal germ cells per tubules for their age. However, 18.5% (5/27) of boys had no evidence of Adult dark (Ad) spermatogonia, and 56% (9/16) of boys had no evidence of primary spermatocytes on biopsy, that would be expected for their age norms. These findings are suggestive of abnormal germ cell maturation. Conclusion The preliminary histologic findings of abnormal spermatogenesis maturation in testes of pre-pubertal boys with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:26032139

  10. Embryonic testicular regression sequence: A part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Marcantonio, S.M.; Fechner, P.Y.; Migeon, C.J.; Perlman, E.J.; Berkovitz, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a group of 9 subjects who had a 46,XY karyotype, ambiguous genitalia, abnormalities of sexual duct formation, and lack of gonadal tissue on one or both sides. This is sometimes referred to as {open_quotes}embryonic testicular regression.{close_quotes} Previous investigators have suggested that this condition results from loss of testes at a critical stage in development. The authors examined the possibility that embryonic testicular regression is part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Four subjects totally lacked gonadal tissue, three of them having ambiguous genitalia, and one a micropenis. The development of incongruous sexual ducts (presence of Muellerian ducts in the subject with micropenis, and absence of Muellerian and Wolffian ducts in two subjects with ambiguous genitalia) suggests that the embryonic gonads were intrinsically functionally abnormal before their disappearance. Five subjects had unilateral gonadal tissue, ambiguous genitalia, and a mix of Wolffian and Muellerian structures. The development of incongruous sexual ducts in 3 of them, the presence of ambiguous external genitalia in 5, and the presence of abnormal gonadal histology in 2 patients all indicate an underlying abnormality of gonadal differentiation in these subjects. The occurrence of testicular regression in several subjects in the family of one patient suggests a genetic basis for the condition. The presence of multiple congenital anomalies in other subjects in the study suggests either a mutation in a single gene that functions in several developmental pathways, or a defect of multiple genes that might be the result of a chromosome deletion. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was sequenced in five subjects and was normal in all of them, suggesting that the underlying genetic abnormality in these subjects is located in one of several genes that function subsequent to SRY in the early stages of testis differentiation. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Heterophile Antibody Interference led to Unneeded Chemotherapy in a Testicular Cancer Patient.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniele G; Millot, Françoise; Lacroix, Isabelle; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Human heterophile antibodies may develop after infection or contact with animal tissues or animal serum products. These antibodies have the capacity to bind to the animal immunoglobulins used in immunoassays leading to erroneous results. We here report a case of a testicular germ cell tumor patient who developed heterophile antibodies during the surveillance period of his disease. Following false-positive results of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) he received unneeded chemotherapy. This article also stresses the problem of using serum tumor markers without no major imaging abnormalities to diagnose a patients' relapse. PMID:27617210

  12. Heterophile Antibody Interference led to Unneeded Chemotherapy in a Testicular Cancer Patient.

    PubMed

    Soares, Daniele G; Millot, Françoise; Lacroix, Isabelle; Lotz, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Human heterophile antibodies may develop after infection or contact with animal tissues or animal serum products. These antibodies have the capacity to bind to the animal immunoglobulins used in immunoassays leading to erroneous results. We here report a case of a testicular germ cell tumor patient who developed heterophile antibodies during the surveillance period of his disease. Following false-positive results of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) he received unneeded chemotherapy. This article also stresses the problem of using serum tumor markers without no major imaging abnormalities to diagnose a patients' relapse.

  13. Presumed Testicular Rupture During a College Baseball Game

    PubMed Central

    Freehill, Michael T.; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D.; Davis, Ronald L.; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to palpation after blunt trauma, testicular rupture should be suspected and prompt ultrasound and urologic assessment should be undertaken, as early operative intervention is necessary for testicular preservation. This report reviews testicular trauma during athletic competition. PMID:25984265

  14. Prenatal Testicular Torsion: Not Always in the Late Third Trimester.

    PubMed

    Sauvestre, Fanny; André, Gwenaëlle; Harran, Marie-Hélène; Hemard, Marie; Carles, Dominique; Pelluard, Fanny

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal testicular torsion is a very rare morbid entity, described in the literature to occur when the testicle is intrascrotal, around the 34th week of gestation. Here we report a case of early testicular necrosis. This male fetus was the product of a medical abortion at 27 weeks. During evisceration, a left testicular nubbin free in the peritoneal cavity was found. Histologically, it was extensively necrotic. Because of the location, the size, and the histological features of this necrotic testicle, we conclude that it was the result of torsion of the pedicle that occurred around the 20th week of pregnancy. PMID:26657689

  15. Influence of environmental cadmium on testicular proliferation in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Blottner, S; Frölich, K; Roelants, H; Streich, J; Tataruch, F

    1999-01-01

    The influence of cadmium on spermatogenesis in roe deer was studied, comparing animals from areas with high (n = 37) and low (n = 23) cadmium exposure. Testes were evaluated during pre-rut (May) and rut (July/August). During these periods the cadmium accumulation (mg/kg kidney) in polluted regions averaged 3.41 and 3.52 in comparison with 1.61 and 1.81 in controls. Cadmium accumulation was positively correlated with testis weight during both seasons. In May the proliferation (units of tissue polypeptid specific antigen/g parenchyma) was lower in animals with higher cadmium (24.02 compared with 78.20; P < 0.01). During the rut, testicular proliferation and spermatozoa/g testis as well as apoptosis showed no significant changes with increased cadmium contamination. The results suggest delayed proliferation during the pre-rutting period in animals with high cadmium exposure, but other indications of effects on the testis were not significant. PMID:10453910

  16. CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS OF A MOUSE TESTICULAR TERATOMA

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Linda R.; Edidin, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to a mouse testicular teratoma, absorbed with normal mouse tissues, react by immunofluorescence with plasma membrane antigens of a variety of transplantable mouse tumor cells and transformed fibroblast cell lines including Clone 1D, SV-40-3T3, and 3T12. Trypsin treatment of cells of "normal" lines, 3T3 and FR-SV-3T3, uncovers reactivity on these as well. Early passage mouse embryo fibroblast cell cultures do not react even after trypsinization. By cross-absorbtion studies, the anti-teratoma serum appears to react with an antigen common to most tumor cells investigated thus far. When this antigen on Clone 1D cells is "capped," H-2 antigens collect with the teratoma antigens in the cap indicating a physical association between the molecules. Molecules specified by both the H-2D and H-2K regions are bound to the teratoma antigens in the Clone 1D plasma membrane. This antigen is also found in soluble tumor cell fractions where it is believed to be free of H-2. A second cell surface antigen defined by anti-teratoma serum is expressed only by hepatoma and teratoma itself. This second antigen is apparently a secretory product of teratoma cells. A third surface antigen defined by anti-teratoma serum appears to be specific for the teratoma. PMID:4365513

  17. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced testicular toxicity and differential testicular expression of estrogen receptor in male mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Chun-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Chen, Gang; Qiu, Liang-Lin; Jiang, Jun-Kang; Ben, Shuai; Wang, Yu-Bang; Gu, Ai-Hua; Wang, Xin-Ru

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, CAS#1763-23-1) causes male reproductive toxicities, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, 0, 0.5 and 10mg/kg/day PFOS were given by oral gavage to adult mice for 5 weeks. In the 10mg/kg group, serum testosterone levels decreased significantly. Sperm counts declined which might be associated with the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells. In relation to increased apoptosis, bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 levels elevated significantly, indicating that PFOS induced germ cell apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the increase in levels of testicular estrogen receptor (ER) β was observed in both 0.5 and 10mg/kg group, whereas a decrease in ERα expression was only observed in 10mg/kg group. These results suggested that the alterations in testicular ERs expression, together with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells, might be involved in PFOS-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:27310206

  18. Testicular Volume and Testicular Atrophy Index as Predictors of Functionality of Unilaterally Cryptorchid Testis

    PubMed Central

    Zvizdic, Zlatan; Milisic, Emir; Halimic, Azra; Zvizdic, Denisa; Zubovic, Sandra Vegar

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: The goal of this study was to determine relationship between the sensitivity and specificity of testicular volume (TV) and testicular atrophy index (TAI) in the indirect assessment of functional ability of cryptorchid testicles. Material and Methods: The study included sixty children with unilateral cryptorchidism who were treated surgically at the Clinic of Pediatric Surgery, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo. We evaluated the correlation of the size of cryptorchid testicles with its locations in various age groups. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in TV and TAI in the all cryptorchid groups after the sixth month of age compared with the same parameters in control group (p<0.001). It is also determined a strong correlation between the TV and TAI of cryptorchid testicles with its locations in various age groups. Conclusion: Our results showed that the average volume of cryptorchid testicles decreased after the sixth month as well as that the reduction of testicular size correlated with increasing distance of cryptorchid testicles from the scrotum. PMID:24937926

  19. Effect of bromine and chlorine positioning in the induction of renal and testicular toxicity by halogenated propanes.

    PubMed

    Låg, M; Søderlund, E J; Omichinski, J G; Brunborg, G; Holme, J A; Dahl, J E; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1991-01-01

    A series of halogenated propanes were studied for renal and testicular necrogenic effects in the rat and correlated to their ability to induce in vivo renal and testicular DNA damage and in vitro testicular DNA damage. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-tribromopropane were most potent in causing organ damage in both kidney and testes. Extensive necrosis was evident at 85 mumol/kg in kidney and at 170 mumol/kg in testis. The dibromomonochlorinated analogue 1,3-dibromo-2-chloropropane was less organ toxic than DBCP and 1,2,3-tribromopropane, but induced more organ damage than the dichloromonobrominated analogues 1-bromo-2,3-dichloropropane and 1,3-dichloro-2-bromopropane. Dihalogenated propanes were even less necrogenic. These observed differences in toxic potency between the halogenated propanes could not be explained by relative differences in tissue concentrations. The ability of the halogenated propanes to induce DNA damage in vivo correlated well with their ability to induce organ damage. However, DNA damage occurred at lower doses and at a shorter period of exposure than organ necrosis. This indicates that DNA damage might be an initial event in the development of organ necrosis by halogenated propanes in general. Further, testicular DNA damage induced by the halogenated propanes in vivo correlated well with the DNA damage observed in isolated testicular cells in vitro, showing that toxicity was due to in situ activation. The numbers, positions, and the types of halogen substituents appear to be important determinants in causing DNA damage and necrogenic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1793801

  20. Role of an endothelin type A receptor antagonist in regulating torsion-induced testicular apoptosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Cayli, Sevil; Ocakli, Seda; Senel, Ufuk; Karaca, Zafer; Erdemir, Fikret; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2016-05-01

    Testicular torsion is a well-known medical emergency that can lead to pathological changes in the testicular tissues and male infertility. This investigation was undertaken to gain insight into the effects of an endothelin type A receptor antagonist (BQ123) on torsion-induced germ cell loss. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. In group I (control group), a sham operation to the left testis was performed. In group II (I/R injury), I/R injury was created by rotating the left testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 2 h and detorsing the testis after 2 h. In group III (I/R injury+BQ123), the rats were subjected to I/R injury and BQ123 injection (1 mg/kg, intravenous). In group IV (control+BQ123), the sham operated rats were subjected to BQ123. The testes of the rats were removed in all groups. Torsion-induced apoptosis and the effects of BQ123 were examined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labelling (TUNEL) technique, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. In group II, the number of TUNEL-positive cells increased after testicular torsion. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that apoptotic proteins (active caspase 3 and Bax) were upregulated, and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 was downregulated in I/R injury. The administration of BQ123 caused a significant decrease in the number of apoptotic cells and the expression of apoptotic proteins (p<0.05) when compared with the I/R injury group. No significant effect of BQ123 was observed in the testicular cells of group IV. This animal study provides evidence of the regulatory effects of BQ123 on torsion-induced testicular apoptosis.

  1. Cyclic AMP and c-KIT Signaling in Familial Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Monalisa F.; Horvath, Anelia; Bornstein, Ethan R.; Almeida, Madson Q.; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Faucz, Fabio R.; Gourgari, Evgenia; Nadella, Kiran; Remmers, Elaine F.; Quezado, Martha; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Kratz, Christian P.; Nesterova, Maria; Greene, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Familial testicular germ cell tumors (FTGCTs) are hypothesized to result from the combined interaction of multiple low-penetrance genes. We reported inactivating germline mutations of the cAMP-binding phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) as modifiers of FTGCT risk. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the KITLG gene, the ligand for the cKIT tyrosine kinase receptor, as strong modifiers of susceptibility to both familial and sporadic testicular germ cell tumors. Design: We studied 94 patients with FTGCTs and 50 at-risk male relatives from 63 unrelated kindreds, in whom the PDE11A gene had been sequenced by investigating the association between KITLG genome-wide association study single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs3782179 and rs4474514 and FTGCT risk in these patients and in 692 controls. We also examined cAMP and c-KIT signaling in testicular tissues and cell lines and extended the studies to 2 sporadic cases, one with a PDE11A defect and one without, as a comparison. Results: We found a higher frequency of the KITLG risk alleles in FTGCT patients who also had a PDE11A sequence variant, compared with those with a wild-type PDE11A sequence. In NTERA-2 and Tcam-2 cells transfected with the mutated forms of PDE11A (R52T, F258Y, Y727C, R804H, V820M, R867G, and M878V), cAMP levels were significantly higher, and the relative phosphodiesterase activity was lower than in the wild-type cells. KITLG expression was consistently increased in the presence of PDE11A-inactivating defects, both at the RNA and protein levels, in familial testicular germ cell tumors. The 2 sporadic cases that were studied, one with a PDE11A defect and another without, agreed with the data in FTGTCT and in the cell lines. Conclusions: Patients with FTGCT and PDE11A defects also carry KITLG risk alleles more frequently. There may be an interaction between cAMP and c-KIT signaling in predisposition to testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:23771924

  2. Psychological characterization of testicular feminization syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M A; Barroso, C C; Arce, B

    1983-01-01

    Ten cases with testicular feminization syndrome (TFS) diagnosed at the National Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, were studied. The patients were interviewed and subjected to the following psychological tests: Raven's Progressive Matrices, the MMPI, the 16PF, and the TAT. Laboratory determinations included: nuclear chromatin, karyotype, FHS, LH, estradiol, testosterone and nitrogen retention test. Intellectual achievement was found normal, and as far as psychological stability is concerned (MMPI) there was no common profile typical of the group. Psychosexual attitudes showed alterations related to acceptance of body image, fears to be unable to maintain the stability of the couple, and lack of a strong maternal drive. Personality profile manifested two outstanding traits in the group: Dominance (E+) and Shrewdness (N+), the former being remarkably high for a female population. A hypothesis is advanced in regard to the psychological alterations of the possible role of partial androgenization of the central nervous system in these patients.

  3. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Goede, Joery; Hack, W W M; Pierik, F H

    2012-04-01

    A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM). Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities.

  4. Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months Early diagnosis and treatment are tied to 99 ... something abnormal in a testicle wait a few months before seeing a doctor. But, when diagnosed while ...

  5. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy.

  6. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. PMID:23341396

  7. Developments in the control of testicular function.

    PubMed

    Swerdloff, R S; Wang, C; Bhasin, S

    1992-04-01

    Clinicians and clinical investigators have developed improved means for controlling testicular function in men. New and refined approaches for stimulation and inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are now available. This chapter reviewed the most successful ways to inhibit the reproductive axis in men and its current application to the treatment of precocious puberty, metastatic prostate cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia and as prospective male contraceptives. Safe, effective and reversible medical approaches to male contraception are now approaching reality. Azoospermia and severe oligozoo/azoospermia can now be accomplished in the majority of men with combined GnRH antagonists and replacement doses of testosterone. Androgens and androgen-progestogen concentrations will induce azoospermia in over 90% of Asian men and azoospermia or severe oligospermia in Caucasian ethnic groups. Field trials are ongoing to determine whether testosterone administration will be more effective than condoms as contraceptives. True precocious puberty can now be managed more effectively than in the past by suppression of gonadotropin secretion with GnRH analogues. Precocious puberty due to other causes can be treated more effectively with inhibitors of steroidogenesis and blockers of androgen action. Metastatic prostate cancer, previously treatable with either castration or oestrogens, is now amenable to suppression of androgen secretion. GnRH analogues are given either alone or combined with blockers of androgen action. While significant palliative effects are observed with endocrine ablative therapy in most men with Stage C or D prostate cancer, modest increases in duration of survival may be seen. Benign prostate hyperplasia was previously approachable only with surgical intervention. Recent data have suggested that medical treatment with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and/or selective alpha-adrenergic blockers may offer non-surgical alternatives in some patients

  8. The chemosensitivity of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-04-01

    Although rare cancers overall, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young males below 40 years of age. Both subtypes of TGCTs, i.e., seminomas and non-seminomas, are highly curable and the majority of even metastatic patients may expect to be cured. These high cure rates are not due to the indolent nature of these cancers, but rather to their sensitivity to chemotherapy (and for seminomas to radiotherapy). The delineation of the cause of chemosensitivity at the molecular level is of paramount importance, because it may provide insights into the minority of TGCTs that are chemo-resistant and, thereby, provide opportunities for specific therapeutic interventions aimed at reverting them to chemosensitivity. In addition, delineation of the molecular basis of TGCT chemo-sensitivity may be informative for the cause of chemo-resistance of other more common types of cancer and, thus, may create new therapeutic leads. p53, a frequently mutated tumor suppressor in cancers in general, is not mutated in TGCTs, a fact that has implications for their chemo-sensitivity. Oct4, an embryonic transcription factor, is uniformly expressed in the seminoma and embryonic carcinoma components of non-seminomas, and its interplay with p53 may be important in the chemotherapy response of these tumors. This interplay, together with other features of TGCTs such as the gain of genetic material from the short arm of chromosome 12 and the association with disorders of testicular development, will be discussed in this paper and integrated in a unifying hypothesis that may explain their chemo-sensitivity. PMID:24692098

  9. The Correlation between Age, Body Weight and Testicular Parameters in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Raised in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da LUZ, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, André Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antônio Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  10. The correlation between age, body weight and testicular parameters in Murrah buffalo bulls raised in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; Santos, Paulo Ramos da Silva; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Jorge, André Mendes; de Assis Neto, Antônio Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  11. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    PubMed Central

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes. PMID:22892924

  12. Advanced testicular cancer presenting with phlegmasia cerulea dolens

    PubMed Central

    Mulatero, C; Brogan, G; Oliver, R

    2000-01-01

    A case of fulminating deep venous thrombosis secondary to invasion of the inferior vena cava is described in a 45 year old man presenting with a germ cell tumour. Despite aggressive supportive care and emergency chemotherapy his late presentation caused his death. The case highlights the necessity for increased public education of the attendant risks in delayed presentation with a testicular lump.


Keywords: phlegmasia cerulea dolens; testicular carcinoma PMID:10727571

  13. Computed tomography in evolution of testicular cancer during intensive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Javadpour, N; Anderson, T; Doppman, J L

    1979-10-01

    The evolution of malignant testicular tumor to mature teratoma has been studied in 4 patients. Computed tomography has been helpful in early diagnosis of this biologic phenomenon in these patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for disseminated non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Although the potential significance of this conversion in terms of survival is not known its early recognition by computed tomography has been useful in selecting and monitoring the therapy of these patients.

  14. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Naresh; Venugopala, Kandgal

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in a normal male with 46, XY karyotype. Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is rare form of testicular ectopia in which two testes are located on one inguinal side. The opposite scrotum is empty. PMDS with TTE is rare. We report a case of PMDS with TTE discovered during surgery for a right inguinal hernia in a 25-year-old male. PMID:27512542

  15. Cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology: prophylactic role of taurine.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of taurine against cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology. Cadmium (in the form of Cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)) administration at a dose of 4 mg/kg body weight for 6 days significantly decreased testicular Delta(5)-3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD activities along with the reduction in the plasma testosterone level. In addition, reductions in testicular sperm count as well as loss in sperm motility were also observed in Cd-intoxication. Cd increased the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species and testicular Cd accumulation. Besides, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, glutathione disulfide and DNA fragmentation as well as decreased levels of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, total thiols and reduced glutathione were also found to be associated with this toxicity. Taurine pretreatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days, on the other hand, could prevent all the Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology and oxidative insult related studied parameters. Taurine treatment, in addition also increased the in vivo ferric reducing antioxidant power linearly up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Histological examination of testicular sections from experimental animals supported these results. The effect of a well established antioxidant, vitamin C has been included in the study as a positive control. Combining all, data suggest that being an antioxidant, taurine plays a beneficial role against Cd-induced adverse effects on the male reproductive system. PMID:18926901

  16. Propolis attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Sherine M; Zaki, Hala F; Mina, Mary A M

    2014-05-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), an effective anticancer agent, can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect of propolis extract on Dox-induced testicular injury. Rats were divided into four groups (n=10). Group I (normal control), group II received propolis extract (200 mg kg(-1); p.o.), for 3 weeks. Group III received 18 mg kg(-1) total cumulative dose of Dox i.p. Group IV received Dox and propolis extract. Serum and testicular samples were collected 48 h after the last treatment. In addition, the effects of propolis extract and Dox on the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice were investigated. Dox reduced sperm count, markers of testicular function, steroidogenesis and gene expression of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). In addition, it increased testicular oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with propolis extract prevented Dox-induced changes without reducing its antitumor activity. Besides, administration of propolis extract to normal rats increased serum testosterone level coupled by increased activities and gene expression of 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD. Propolis extract may protect the testis from Dox-induced toxicity without reducing its anticancer potential.

  17. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  18. Epigenetics: a way to understand the origin and biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keisei

    2012-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors are neoplasms carrying two unique features. First, testicular germ cell tumors have a pluripotential nature and show protean histology ranging from that of germ cells to embryonal and differentiated somatic cells. Therefore, testicular germ cell tumors are interesting resources positioned at a crossroad in developmental and neoplastic processes. The second unique feature of testicular germ cell tumors is their exquisite sensitivity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This review summarizes recent research progress in the epigenetics of testicular germ cell tumors in an attempt to explain the abovementioned biological and clinical characteristics of testicular germ cell tumors.

  19. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:21350610

  20. Different patterns of testicular in vitro metabolism of [14C]testosterone in several Betta (Anabantoidei, Belontiidae) species.

    PubMed

    Leitz, T

    1987-07-01

    Testicular tissues of Betta picta, Betta smaragdina, and the short-finned variety of Betta splendens were incubated with [14C]testosterone at 27 degrees for 120 min and the metabolites were isolated and characterized by paper and thin-layer chromatography and eventually by crystallization to constant specific activity. The metabolic profiles of the species were totally different. The short-finned B. splendens formed mainly 11-ketotestosterone (51.4%) as does the veiltail variety. B. smaragdina was the only species which formed considerable amounts of conjugates (24.3%), whereas in B. picta almost exclusively reduced (5 beta-) compounds (66.2%) were metabolites of testosterone. The results are discussed to be attributable to differences in testicular steroid metabolism. The significance of this observation remains unclear.

  1. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Nooh, Hanna Z

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  2. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Nooh, Hanna Z

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  3. Testicular and epididymal pathology in Yankasa rams experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Okubanjo, Oluyinka O; Sekoni, Victor O; Ajanusi, Ologunja J; Nok, Andrew J; Adeyeye, Adewale A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathological effect of experimental Trypanosoma congolense (T. congolense) infection on the testes and epididymis of Yankasa rams. Methods Nine intact un-castrated rams were obtained and divided into 2 groups of 6 infected with 1×106 T. congolense and 3 uninfected controls. Four infected and one uninfected control rams were sacrificed on Day 75 post infection and the remaining four rams (two each of infected and control groups) on Day 86 post infection. Results All infected rams became parasitaemic within 7-11 days post infection with clinical trypanosomosis characterized by peri-orbital oedema and a transient period of scrotal oedema, this was followed by progressive decrease in scrotal size. At postmortem, the organs from infected rams were pale and emaciated but no observable lesion was seen in the uninfected control group. At histology, the testes showed areas of necrosis on the interstitial tissue characterized by destruction of cellular structures within the tissues and seminiferous tubules. There was moderate to severe testicular degeneration manifested by loss of tissue architecture and infiltration with macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Fibrous connective tissues were also seen in the testes of the infected rams indicative of replacement of normal cells by fibrous connective tissue. The epididymis of the infected rams had collection of some spermatocytes and desquamated epithelial cells in the epithelial ducts although others were devoid of spermatocytes in their ducts leading to loss of epididymal sperm reserves. However, these were not seen in the uninfected control rams. Conclusions T. congolense causes testicular and epididymal damage which may render the rams infertile or sterile.

  4. Prospectively-Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R.; Greene, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. Methods We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Results Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR=11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.1–23.4; excess absolute risk=7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR=13.4; 95%CI=1.6–48.6). Conclusions Our data are the first indicating that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Impact Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. PMID:26265202

  5. Opioid-induced suppression of rat testicular function.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Sewing, B; Forman, J B; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1993-07-01

    The effects of opioids on testicular function were assessed in the rat through measurements of serum testosterone levels, testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) formation and TIF testosterone levels after morphine and opioid antagonist (naloxone, naltrexone) treatment. Serum and TIF levels of testosterone were significantly decreased 1 to 6 h after morphine (10 mg/kg) injection, and TIF volumes were decreased 2-3 h after injection morphine. Each of these decreases was dose-related. In contrast to the effects of morphine, the opioid antagonist naloxone increased TIF testosterone but did not alter TIF volumes. Moreover, the opioid antagonist naltrexone totally blocked morphine's effects on both testosterone secretion and TIF volume, suggesting that morphine's testicular effects were mediated by naltrexone-sensitive opioid receptors in the testes. The possible role of morphine-induced reductions in gonadotropin secretion in morphine's testicular effects was also examined. Morphine suppressed testosterone secretion and TIF volumes after pretreatment with human chorionic gonadotropin, which reverses morphine's suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH). Our results, therefore, indicate that morphine exerts effects on testicular function that are independent of its effects on LH. They furthermore support the hypothesis that both endogenous and exogenous opioids disrupt two major aspects of testicular function: Testosterone secretion and TIF formation. Because of the role of TIF in maintaining testicular function, our results suggest that opioid-induced changes in testosterone secretion into TIF and TIF formation may, at least in part, explain the well-established effects of opioids on reproductive endocrinology and function in the male. PMID:8392556

  6. Testicular perfusion after standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty in stallions.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Calvo, L A; Duque, J; Balao da Silva, C; Ezquerra, J; Ortega-Ferrusola, C

    2015-09-15

    Acquired inguinal herniation is a very common condition in stallions, usually leading to unilateral or bilateral castration to prevent future recurrence. Recently, several surgical techniques such as the standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty (SLPFH) have been developed to avoid herniation recurrence and also preserve the breeding activity of high economic value stallions. However, studies on SLPFH lack more comprehensive and systematic data about reproductive-related adverse effects and outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLPFH of the internal inguinal rings produces changes in the testicular blood flow in a 1-year follow-up. For that purpose, six healthy stallions were used and testicular blood flow was assessed before, 3, 6, and 12 months (T0, T3, T6, and T12) after the procedure. Blood flow was evaluated ultrasonographically, using the pulsed-wave color Doppler mode. Peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, the time-averaged maximum velocity, and the derived indexes (resistive index) and pulsatility index) of the testicular artery were measured in two localizations: in the spermatic cord and on the caudal epididymal edge of the testicle. On the spermatic cord, the peak systolic velocity of the testicular artery increased significantly at T12. However, on the epididymal edge location of the artery, the pulsatility and resistive indexes were decreased at T12 (P < 0.05). This pattern of blood flow was related to a hyperemic process. Furthermore, SLPFH might have compressed the spermatic cord, causing a slight occlusion of the testicular artery and triggering a compensatory hyperemia to compensate the deficit of blood flow that supplies the testes. The SLPFH of the internal inguinal ring affected the testicular perfusion in stallions in a 1 year follow-up, although there was no effect on sperm production during this time. The spectral Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool to asses the testicular perfusion after reproductive

  7. Testicular perfusion after standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty in stallions.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Calvo, L A; Duque, J; Balao da Silva, C; Ezquerra, J; Ortega-Ferrusola, C

    2015-09-15

    Acquired inguinal herniation is a very common condition in stallions, usually leading to unilateral or bilateral castration to prevent future recurrence. Recently, several surgical techniques such as the standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty (SLPFH) have been developed to avoid herniation recurrence and also preserve the breeding activity of high economic value stallions. However, studies on SLPFH lack more comprehensive and systematic data about reproductive-related adverse effects and outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLPFH of the internal inguinal rings produces changes in the testicular blood flow in a 1-year follow-up. For that purpose, six healthy stallions were used and testicular blood flow was assessed before, 3, 6, and 12 months (T0, T3, T6, and T12) after the procedure. Blood flow was evaluated ultrasonographically, using the pulsed-wave color Doppler mode. Peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, the time-averaged maximum velocity, and the derived indexes (resistive index) and pulsatility index) of the testicular artery were measured in two localizations: in the spermatic cord and on the caudal epididymal edge of the testicle. On the spermatic cord, the peak systolic velocity of the testicular artery increased significantly at T12. However, on the epididymal edge location of the artery, the pulsatility and resistive indexes were decreased at T12 (P < 0.05). This pattern of blood flow was related to a hyperemic process. Furthermore, SLPFH might have compressed the spermatic cord, causing a slight occlusion of the testicular artery and triggering a compensatory hyperemia to compensate the deficit of blood flow that supplies the testes. The SLPFH of the internal inguinal ring affected the testicular perfusion in stallions in a 1 year follow-up, although there was no effect on sperm production during this time. The spectral Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool to asses the testicular perfusion after reproductive

  8. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Poonam; Kozak, Kevin; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Ramasubramanian, V.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.; Welsh, James S.; Rong, Yi

    2012-07-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each 'planning scan' to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields.

  9. In vitro toxicity of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane to isolated testicular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The biochemical basis for the antispermatogenic properties of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was studied using hepatic and testicular mitochondria, as well as Sertoli cells and primary spermatocytes isolated from immature rats. Pyruvate-supported mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by DBCP with an ED/sub 50/ of 0.19 ..mu..mol/mg protein. Lactate production by cultured Sertoli cells was stimulated by 0.5-2.0 mM DBCP from 17-62% above that obtained with 1 ..mu..g/ml follicle stimulating hormone. Exposure of Sertoli cells to 0.5-2.0 mM DBCP also increased the specific activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from 18-35% above control. Aerobic /sup 14/C-lactate metabolism by spermatocytes was inhibited by 1.0-2.0 mM DBCP as demonstrated by /sup 14/C-CO/sub 2/ production that was 65-89% less than control. These data support the hypothesis that DBCP, by virtue of its disruptive effect on mitochondria, is selectively cytotoxic to immature germ cells due to their dependence on aerobic energy metabolism. DBCP, at a dose of 0.5 ..mu..mol/10/sup 16/ cells, was 3 times more cytotoxic to spermatocytes than epichlorohydrin (ECH), and 9 times more cytotoxic than 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB). These data argue against the involvement of ECH and ACH in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity, and further indicate that mitochrondrial dysfunction may disrupt spermatogenesis. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) in hepatic, renal, and testicular cytosol catalyzed glutathione (GSH) conjugation to DBCP with tissue-specific K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ values. This reaction did not enhance the mutagenicity of DBCP in the Ames assay. Mutagenic activation was produced by S9 or microsomal enzymes in the presence of NADPH, and was partially inhibited by GSH.

  10. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin CS; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-01-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A–D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P < 0.05) and count (P < 0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P < 0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P < 0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P < 0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

  11. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  12. Demonstration of normal and dilated testicular veins by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2011-04-01

    Recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technology enabled better visualization of testicular (gonadal) vein using submillimeter slice thickness and three-dimensional images. Normally, the testicular vein measures 1-3 mm and drains into the inferior vena cava and left renal vein on the right and left sides, respectively. They can be seen in most patients during MDCT studies. Curved planar and volume-rendered images can be used to display testicular veins. We aim to demonstrate MDCT findings of normal testicular vein and its pathologies including varicocele, varices, the testicular vascular pedicle sign, and phlebolith. The testicular vein can be dilated owing to varicocele or portal hypertension and in patients with intraabdominal seminomas arising from undescended testis. The testicular vein can also cause ureteral compression at the crossing point. Understanding MDCT findings of the normal testicular vein and its various pathologies can allow a correct diagnosis, thereby avoiding further diagnostic tests. PMID:21519988

  13. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  14. Nanobacteria may be linked to testicular microlithiasis in infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lu, Gen-Sheng; Shen, Xue-Cheng; Zhou, Zhan-Song; Fang, Qiang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Long-Kun; Jin, Xi-Yu; Song, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) in infertility is an uncommon pathologic condition of unclear etiology that is characterized by calcium deposits within the seminiferous tubules. Nanobacteria (NB), as novel microorganisms mediating tissue calcification, have been discovered in some diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that NB may participate in the pathogenesis of TM, particularly in infertility. Seventeen infertility patients with TM detected by scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography and 17 infertility patients without TM as controls were enrolled in the study. The NB were isolated and cultured from semen samples and urine samples. After 3 to 6 weeks of culture, 10 of 17 (58.8%) semen samples and 2 urine samples from infertile patients with TM showed the growth of white granular microbes that firmly attached to the bottom of the culture flask and were visible to the naked eye. In the control group, only 1 of 17 (5.9%) semen samples from infertile patients without TM showed the growth of white granular microbes. The cultured microbes were identified by indirect immunofluorescent staining (IIFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 16s rRNA gene expression. IIFS and TEM revealed NB to be coccoid and 100 to 500 nm in diameter. The BLAST result revealed that the 16s rRNA gene sequence from the cultured microbes was 97% the same as that of the known NB. Our results showed that NB may be linked to the development of TM, which may provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility with TM. PMID:19779212

  15. McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral macroorchidism and bilateral testicular masses.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Geetika; Kantawala, Kartikeya; Shinawi, Marwan; Sarwate, Sandhya; Dehner, Louis P

    2010-12-01

    Bilateral synchronous intratesticular masses are rare but can be caused by metastatic disease to the testicle, primary testicular masses or benign etiologies such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and granulomatous orchitis. We present an unusual case of McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral testicular enlargement and bilateral testicular masses secondary to Sertoli cell hyperplasia. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of testicular masses secondary to McCune-Albright syndrome. PMID:20607225

  16. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  17. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  18. Serum and testicular testosterone and androgen binding protein profiles following subchronic treatment with carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Rehnberg, G L; Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Gray, L E; Hein, J F; McElroy, W K

    1989-10-01

    While the general toxicity of the benzimidazole pesticides for mammals is low, one of these compounds, carbendazim (MBC), causes degeneration of testicular tissue and decreases spermatogenic activity at doses well below the LD50 value. A study conducted by S. D. Carter, R. A. Hess, and J. W. Laskey (1987, Biol. Reprod. 37, 709-717) showed that treatment with 400 mg/kg/day MBC resulted in severe seminiferous tubular atrophy and infertility. Since spermatogenesis is an androgen-dependent process, we characterized the effects of MBC (0-400 mg/kg/day) on the endocrine function of the rat testes. Following subchronic (85 day) exposure, serum hormones (TSH, LH, FSH, and Prl) were measured as were androgen binding protein (ABP) and testosterone in testicular fluids (interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid). In addition, the functional capacity of the Leydig cell to secrete testosterone was assessed in vitro following an hCG challenge. Subchronic treatment with MBC at doses of 50-100 mg/kg/day had no effect on pituitary or testicular hormone concentrations: 200 mg/kg/day elevated the testosterone concentration in the seminiferous tubule fluid and the ABP concentration in both the interstitial fluid and the seminiferous tubule fluid without affecting serum testosterone or ABP concentrations. The 400 mg/kg/day dose resulted in increased concentration of both testosterone and ABP in the interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid and elevated serum ABP, with no change in serum testosterone. This endocrine profile is consistent with the testicular atrophy and "Sertoli cell-only" syndrome seen in these animals as reported by Gray et al. (1987, Toxicologist 7, 717). We conclude that seminiferous tubule fluid testosterone may be a result of two factors: (1) increased interstitial fluid testosterone concentrations and (2) decreased testosterone outflow from the testis to the general circulation. Also, increased ABP in the interstitial fluid may reflect a change in

  19. Trilostane and the normal hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

    PubMed

    Semple, C G; Weir, S W; Thomson, J A; Beastall, G H

    1982-07-01

    Trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme system, has adrenal blocking activity and has been used to treat Cushing's syndrome and other disease. To investigate is effect on the normal human hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, trilostane (initially 240 mg/day) was given to ten healthy adult males, the dose increasing at weekly intervals by 240 mg/day up to 960 mg/day. When chromatography was used to remove trilostane and metabolites from the assay system, serum testosterone was found to fall on trilostane therapy (P less than 0.01) and this was accompanied by a rise in LH (P less than 0.01). The responses of FSH and LH to LHRH were unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that trilostane inhibits human testicular 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and male patients on trilostane should be monitored for sexual dysfunction and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis.

  20. Interaction of cadmium with hepatic and testicular microsomal enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, L.T.

    1982-01-01

    Cadmium, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, inhibits or activates a number of microsomal enzymes. Among the enzymes affected by cadmium are cytochrome P-450 containing mixed-function oxidases (MFO) which are present in both the liver and testis. Cadmium affects MFO activity, and as a result, cadmium-induced alterations in BP metabolism might alter BP toxicity in the liver or testis. In addition, MFO essential for testosterone production are located in the testis and cadmium-MFO interactions in the testis might alter androgen production. Therefore studies were carried out to evaluate the interaction of cadmium with heptic and testicular MFO. The results indicated that cadmium affected the activities of hepatic and testicular MFO and in so doing may influence the toxicity of BP and other chemicals in liver and testes. In addition, exposure to metals may also compromise testicular androgen biosynthesis.

  1. Diagnosis of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors on Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Da; Huang, Yang; LI, Wei; Liu, Jin-Ya; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Ming-De; Lin, Man-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) on baseline ultrasound (BUS). The imaging features of 30 TART lesions pathologically or clinically confirmed in 15 patients who had undergone BUS were evaluated, and the sonographic characteristics of the lesions were analyzed. All 15 cases were bilateral and located near the testicular mediastinum. Approximately 56.7% (17/30) of the TART lesions exhibited homogeneous hypoechogenicity, 36.7% (11/30) of the lesions exhibited heterogeneous hypoechogenicity, and 6.6% (2/30) of the lesions exhibited heterogeneous isoechogenicity. In addition, 76.7% (23/30) of the lesions exhibited a rich blood supply, whereas 23.3% (7/30) of the lesions exhibited a scarce blood supply. The sonographic characteristics of the TARTs were bilateral growth, location adjacent to the testicular mediastinum, hypoechogenicity, and rich blood supply, which may play important roles in early clinical diagnosis. PMID:26356704

  2. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  3. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    SciTech Connect

    Traina, Maria Elsa . E-mail: Traina@iss.it; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-05-15

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage.

  4. Lunar synchronization of testicular development and steroidogenesis in rabbitfish.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M S; Takemura, A; Takano, K

    2001-06-01

    Lunar synchronization of testicular development in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, was assessed by measuring changes in sperm motility and conditions in the seminal plasma, and by in vitro production of steroid hormones in testicular fragments and sperm preparations. The duration and percentage of sperm motility was low 1 week before spawning (the new moon), but increased significantly on the day of spawning (the first lunar quarter). During the first lunar quarter, the osmolality decreased, but Ca(2+) concentration increased in the seminal plasma. These results suggest that spermiation occurs rapidly towards the specific lunar phase. Testicular fragments and sperm preparations were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and two precursor steroid hormones, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP) and testosterone (T), during the two lunar phases. The production of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) increased significantly when the testicular fragments were incubated with hCG at the first lunar quarter, while incubation of sperm preparations with 17alpha-OHP during the same moon phase resulted in a significant increase in 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) production in the medium. These results suggest that 11-KT is produced in the somatic cells of the testis under the influence of gonadotropin, and that sperm can convert 17alpha-OHP to DHP. Additionally, steroidogenic activity was considered to increase toward the specific lunar phase. The synchronous increase in testicular activity supports the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is a major factor for the testicular development of S. guttatus.

  5. Testicular hyperthermia induces Unfolded Protein Response signaling activation in spermatocyte.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hak; Park, Sun-Ji; Kim, Tae-Shin; Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Junghyung; Kim, Bo Kyung; Kim, Gyeong-Ryul; Kim, Jin-Man; Huang, Song Mei; Chae, Jung-Il; Park, Choon-Keun; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2013-05-17

    The testes of most mammals are sensitive to temperature. To survive and adapt under conditions that promote endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress such as heat shock, cells have a self-protective mechanism against ER stress that has been termed the "Unfolded Protein Response" (UPR). However, the cellular and molecular events underlying spermatogenesis with testicular hyperthermia involved in the UPR signaling pathway under ER stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, we verified that UPR signaling via phospho-eIF2α/ATF4/GADD34, p90ATF6, and phospho-IRE1α/XBP-1 is activated with testicular hyperthermia (43 °C, 15 min/day) and induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis associated with CHOP, phospho-JNK, and caspase-3 after repetitive periods of hyperthermia. Levels of phospho-eIF2α protein of mouse spermatocytes in the testis were rapidly increased by one cycle of testicular hyperthermia. ATF4/GADD34 and p90ATF6 expression gradually increased and decreased, respectively, with repetitive cycles of hyperthermia. Spliced XBP1 mRNA as a marker of IRE1 activity was increased after one, three cycles of hyperthermia and decreased by five cycles of hyperthermia. Although the levels of anti-apoptotic phospho-JNK (p54) were gradually decreased after three cycles of hyperthermia, CHOP expression was rapidly increased. After five cycles of testicular hyperthermia, the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive apoptotic spermatocytes cells were significantly increased. Our data demonstrated that testicular hyperthermia induces UPR signaling and repetitive cycles of hyperthermia lead to apoptosis of spermatocytes in mouse testis. These results suggest a link between the UPR signaling pathway and testicular hyperthermia.

  6. Pathology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, G L

    1991-12-01

    The pathology report on a testicular germ cell tumor should include the following information: Tumor type: The histologic type of tumor present. If the tumor is of mixed type, the components should be listed, in order of relative abundance. The pathologist may endeavor to give a numeric estimate of the percentages of each element. Staging information: The size of the tumor should be listed. Local spread--into rete testis, tunica albuginea, epididymis, and spermatic cord--should be listed. If the cord is involved, possible involvement of its surgical resection margin should be assessed. Vascular/lymphatic invasion should be assessed for its presence or absence. Status of the remainder of the testis: Evidence of cryptorchidism or other dysgenetic features should be mentioned. Such features may imply a greater risk for the development of a contralateral tumor. Also, the presence of normal spermatogenesis elsewhere in the uninvolved testis should be reported. This finding may suggest a relatively decreased risk for contralateral tumor development and is a likely indicator of fertility should the patient consider sperm banking prior to retroperitoneal surgery and chemotherapy. The finding of mature sperm in the epididymis is an easy way to confirm spermatogenesis in the testis. Incidental findings: Lipomas or hydroceles of the cord, adrenal rests, and adnexal cysts may be found. The pathologist plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of germ cell tumors. In addition to elucidating tumor type, the pathologist is relied upon for precise local staging and for the classification of metastases, all of which have important implications in determining optimal therapy. As the clinical management of germ cell tumors evolves, the pathologist will continue to play a role in defining those features that have a bearing on patient outcome.

  7. [Hypomagnesemia following chemotherapy of disseminated testicular tumors].

    PubMed

    Hida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Okada, Y; Okada, K; Yoshida, O

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen patients with metastatic testicular cancer were treated with combination chemotherapy including cisplatin (CDDP) at 3- to 4-week intervals for two to five courses. There was a sequential fall in serum magnesium with each course of therapy: 13 of the 16 patients (81%) became hypomagnesemic, and the median magnesium nadir was 1.67 mg/dl. Serum magnesium nadir levels gradually decreased according to the cumulative CDDP dose. Acute clinical effects of the hypomagnesemia were observed in 4 patients, 2 of them complained of neuromuscular disturbance in the extremities, one of cardiac arrhythmia, and the other of Raynaud's phenomenon. The median time to the onset of hypomagnesemia was 67 days and the duration of hypomagnesemia was 24 days. The creatinine clearance (Ccr) decreased gradually according to the cumulative CDDP dose, and the mean Ccr declined from 87.2 ml/min before therapy to 55.8 ml/min. In 3 out of 16 patients, an irreversible decrease to below 50 ml/min was seen after chemotherapy. In patients with normal renal function treated by VAB-6 regimen, creatinine clearance (Ccr) decreased transiently during each course of chemotherapy and returned to the pretreatment level during the interval. The mean creatinine clearance declined from 90.7 ml/min before therapy to 82.9 ml/min after three courses of induction chemotherapy. Urinary excretion of beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2MG) increased transiently before Ccr began to decrease during each course of chemotherapy. Serum potassium and calcium concentrations decreased transiently probably due to urinary losses but there was no significant relationship between hypopotassemia, hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Pulmonary Metastatic Choriocarcinoma from a Burned-out Testicular Tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakazaki, Hirofumi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Takemoto, Yu; Miura, Hiroshi; Yanai, Masaaki; Fukushima, Takehito; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed multiple nodular shadows with a peripheral ground-glass halo. His clinical condition continued to deteriorate with the development of progressive respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. A histological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy revealed choriocarcinoma. The patient died within nine days of admission. A histological examination of the right testis during an autopsy revealed a burned-out testicular tumor consisting of a teratoma and a fibrous scar. We herein report a rare case of pulmonary multiple metastatic choriocarcinoma originating from a burned-out testicular tumor. PMID:27250057

  9. High origin and unusual suprarenal branch of a testicular artery.

    PubMed

    Brohi, R A; Sargon, M F; Yener, N

    2001-06-01

    In a 42 year-old male cadaver, the left testicular artery was found to originate from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta at the level of origin of the left renal artery. It ran parallel and just inferior to the left renal artery and gave off a branch which supplied the left suprarenal gland. The course, relations and branching of this suprarenal branch differed from the very rare cases found in the literature. Awareness of the possible existence of such variations of the testicular arteries is of great importance during surgical procedures.

  10. Assessment of protective and anti-oxidant properties of Tribulus terrestris fruits against testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Mostafa Abbas; Hammouda, Ashraf Abd El-Khalik

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study was carried out to assess the protective and anti-oxidant activities of the methanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris fruits (METT) against sodium valproate (SVP)-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty mature male rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (n = 10). Group 1 was used normal (negative) control, and the other four groups were intoxicated with SVP (500 mg/kg–1, orally) during the last week of the experiment. Group 2 was kept intoxicated (positive) control, and Groups 3, 4 and 5 were orally pre-treated with METT in daily doses 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mg/kg–1 for 60 days, respectively. Weights of sexual organs, serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, semen picture, testicular anti-oxidant capacity and histopathology of testes were the parameters used in this study. Results: Oral pre-treatment with METT significantly increased weights of testes and seminal vesicles; serum testosterone, FSH and LH levels and sperm motility, count and viability in SVP-intoxicated rats. METT enhanced the activity of testicular anti-oxidant enzymes and partially alleviated degenerative changes induced by SVP in testes. Conclusion: The pre-treatment with METT has protective and anti-oxidant effects in SVP-intoxicated rats. Mechanisms of this protective effect against testicular toxicity may be due to the increased release of testosterone, FSH and LH and the enhanced tissue anti-oxidant capacity. These results affirm the traditional use of T. terrestris fruits as an aphrodisiac for treating male sexual impotency and erectile dysfunction in patients. The study recommends that T. terrestris fruits may be beneficial for male patients suffering from infertility. PMID:26401358

  11. [Management of testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN)--a review based on the principles of evidence-based medicine].

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, K P; Classen, J; Souchon, R; Loy, V

    2001-01-15

    Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN; also called carcinoma in situ of the testis) is the uniform precursor of testicular germ cell tumors. There is general agreement on the biological significance of TIN, however, the treatment is still a matter of dispute. The present review summarizes the treatment options currently available. In general, the management of TIN has to be adapted to the particular clinical situation of the patient. Eradication of TIN usually implies the loss of fertility. Therefore, fertility aspects should be considered before any kind of treatment is employed. Usually, patients with TIN have only small residual potential of fertility. Nonetheless, individual patients may qualify for sperm banking or cryopreservation of testicular tissue for future sperm extraction (TESE) and assisted fertilization. The most common clinical situation is the case of contralateral TIN in the presence of unilateral testicular cancer. Low dose radiotherapy to the testis with 18 Gy is the standard management option in these patients. The same procedure may be applied to solitary testicles after partial orchiectomy for germ cell tumors. During follow-up, testosterone levels should be evaluated every six months. If chemotherapy is required due to metastatic disease of the primary tumor management of TIN should be deferred. After chemotherapy 30% of TIN cases will persist and approximately 42% will recur in the later course. Repeat biopsy should be done six months after completion of chemotherapy or later. Only in cases with persistent TIN additional radiotherapy should be administered. If one testicle is afflicted with TIN while the other testis is in healthy condition (conceivable in infertility cases or patients with primary extragonadal germ cell tumors), then the TIN-bearing testis should be excised. Radiotherapy is not feasible in these cases because of shielding problems with the healthy testis.

  12. Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

  13. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: A focus on contralateral testicular cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961–1989 and 1996–2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970–2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups. PMID:24407180

  14. Mortality in patients with testicular cancer: report of the Anglia and Trent testicular tumour groups.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, M; Sikora, K

    1986-01-01

    The overall prognosis of patients with testicular cancer has improved dramatically over the past decade. Most patients are now treated in regional oncology centres in general hospitals. The cause of death was determined in 52 patients in the East Anglian and Trent regions who presented between 1980 and 1984. The overall mortality was 10.8%. Thirty four patients died with progressive disease, 12 of treatment related problems, two suddenly at home in between chemotherapy courses, and four of incidental causes. Reasons for treatment failure and for the deaths related to treatment were analysed and several recommendations made to reduce the death rate in this highly curable disease predominantly of young men. PMID:3947926

  15. Protective roles of onion and garlic extracts on cadmium-induced changes in sperm characteristics and testicular oxidative damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Ola-Mudathir, Kikelomo F; Suru, Stephen M; Fafunso, Michael A; Obioha, Udoka E; Faremi, Toyin Y

    2008-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to exert gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic effects. The present study was performed to assess the possible protective roles of onion (Allium cepa Linn) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn) extracts on Cd-induced testicular damage and spermiotoxicity. The control group received double distilled water; Cd group received Cd (1.5mg/100g BW/day) orally; extract-treated groups were pre-treated with varied doses of onion and/or garlic extract (0.5ml and 1.0ml/100g BW/day) orally for one week and then simultaneously challenged with Cd (1.5mg/100g BW/day) for additional three weeks. Testicular tissue oxidant/antioxidant status and sperm characteristics were determined. Cd caused a marked (p<0.001) rise in testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) levels whereas glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were decreased. Cd intoxication significantly (p<0.001) decreased epididymal sperm concentration and sperm progress motility, increased percent total sperm abnormalities and live/dead count. Both extracts successfully attenuated these adverse effects of Cd. Onion extract offers a dose-dependent protection. Our study demonstrated that aqueous extracts of onion and garlic could proffer a measure of protection against Cd-induced testicular oxidative damage and spermiotoxicity by possibly reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant defence mechanism in rats. PMID:18824205

  16. Testicular carcinoma: a study of knowledge, awareness, and practice of testicular self-examination in male soldiers and military physicians.

    PubMed

    Singer, A J; Tichler, T; Orvieto, R; Finestone, A; Moskovitz, M

    1993-10-01

    Multiple-choice questionnaires devised to evaluate knowledge and awareness of testicular carcinoma and the practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) were distributed to 717 male soldiers and 200 military physicians in the Israeli army. Twenty-one percent of the soldiers had received explanations about the importance of TSE; 16% actually received instruction on TSE; yet only 2% practiced TSE regularly. Seventy percent of physicians had been taught how to examine testicles, but only 10% of physicians examined testicles in their routine physical exams. TSE was practiced most frequently among soldiers who had received instruction in the technique. Physicians should encourage their young male patients to practice TSE.

  17. Leydig-cell function in children after direct testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, R.; Czernichow, P.; Cramer, P.; Schaison, G.; Rappaport, R.

    1983-07-07

    To assess the effect of testicular irradiation on testicular endocrine function, we studied 12 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had been treated with direct testicular irradiation 10 months to 8 1/2 years earlier. Insufficient Leydig-cell function, manifested by a low response of plasma testosterone to chorionic gonadotropin or an increased basal level of plasma luteinizing hormone (or both), was observed in 10 patients, 7 of whom were pubertal. Two of these patients had a compensated testicular endocrine insufficiency with only high plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Testosterone secretion was severely impaired in three pubertal boys studied more than four years after testicular irradiation. A diminished testicular volume indicating tubular atrophy was found in all pubertal patients, including three who had not received cyclophosphamide or cytarabine. These data indicate that testosterone insufficiency is a frequent complication of testicular irradiation, although some patients continue to have Leydig-cell activity for several years after therapy.

  18. Gravity Vector Changes Induce Alterations in Nervous and Testicular Cells in Cultures and in Testis Slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uva, B.; Strollo, F.; Ricci, F.; Masini, M. A.

    Cultured astrocytes, neurons and testicular cells (myoid, germ, Sertoli, Leydig cells) as well as rat testes and testes'slices, were subjected to modeled microgravity using a three dimensional Random Positioning Machine (10-6G) for 5min, 30min, 1h, 24h and 32h. Parallel cell cultures and tissues were submitted to hypergravity using an hyperfuge (2.5G) for the same period of time. At the end of the rotations the cultures and tissues were fixed, the tissue was sectioned (5 micron). All the specimens were processed for immunohistochemical identification of microtubules, mitochondria, 3 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, caspase 7, heat shock proteins and identification of DNA fragmentation. At 5min at modeled microgravity and hypergravity, the histology of the cells in culture and the tissues was altered, microtubules and mitochondria were disorganized. Numerous cells underwent apoptosis. Immunostaining for enzymes involved in ion transmembrane transport, as Na+/K+ATPase and cotransporter proteins, and in steroidogenesis diminished or was abolished. At 1h in modeled microgravity or hypergravity, HSPs were expressed and ion transport enzymes as well as steroidogenic enzymes were again immunostainable. These data show that microgravity and hypergravity cause only transient alterations, and tissues and cells in cultures are able to adapt to different gravity conditions.

  19. Bilateral metastatic spread of testicular teratoma to mandibular condyles.

    PubMed

    Porter, S R; Chaudhry, Z; Griffiths, M J; Scully, C; Kabala, J; Whipp, E

    1996-09-01

    The clinical and radiological features of a patient with metastatic spread of testicular teratoma to both mandibular condyles are presented. It is suggested that in patients with known systemic malignancy, a local metastatic deposit should be considered as a possible cause of unexplained pain in the temporomandibular joints.

  20. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE TESTICULAR TOXICITY OF HALOACETIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic analysis of the testicular toxicity of haloacetic acids

    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, R...

  1. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    PubMed

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers.

  2. Recent advances in the genetics of testicular failure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung-Hun; Chiba, Koji; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples, and male factor is responsible for 30%–50% of all infertility. The most severe form of male infertility is testicular failure, and the typical phenotype of testicular failure is severely impaired spermatogenesis resulting in azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Although the etiology of testicular failure remains poorly understood, genetic factor typically is an underlying cause. Modern assisted reproductive techniques have revolutionized the treatment of male factor infertility, allowing biological fatherhood to be achieved by many men who would otherwise have been unable to become father to their children through natural conception. Therefore, identifying genetic abnormalities in male is critical because of the potential risk of transmission of genetic abnormalities to the offspring. Recently, along with other intense researches ongoing, whole-genome approaches have been used increasingly in the genetic studies of male infertility. In this review, we focus on the genetics of testicular failure and provide an update on the advances in the study of genetics of male infertility. PMID:27048782

  3. Refining the laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero, Frederico R; Wagner, Andrew; Brito, Fabio A; Muntener, Michael; Lima, Guilherme C; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2006-01-01

    Since its initial description, the laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has evolved considerably, from a purely diagnostic tool performed to stage germ cell testicular cancer to a therapeutic operation that fully duplicates the open technique. Herein, we describe the current technique employed at our institution, along with illustrations of all surgical steps, and delineate the refinements of the technique over time.

  4. Testicular dysmorphism associated with abdominoscrotal hydroceles during infancy.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, S A; Kirsch, A J; Thall, E H; Emanuel, E R; Hensle, T W

    1995-12-01

    Abdominoscrotal hydrocele (ASH) in infancy is a rarely reported condition. We present an 11-week-old infant who was born with massive scrotal enlargement. At exploration, he was found to have large bilateral ASHs and bilateral fusiform testes. Gross morphologic testicular changes associated with hydrocele have previously only been reported in adults. Our patient is the youngest to be reported with ASHs.

  5. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    PubMed

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers. PMID:27108371

  6. Pineal and photoperiodic influences on fat deposition, pelage, and testicular activity in male meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Smale, L; Dark, J; Zucker, I

    1988-01-01

    Pinealectomy completely prevented gonadal regression as well as reduction in body weight and white adipose tissue content of the gonadal and retroperitoneal fat deposits in male meadow voles transferred from long to short day lengths. Pineal influences on pelage characteristics depended on which parameter was assessed. For instance, the increase in guard hair length observed in short-day control voles was blocked by pinealectomy; however, a similar increase in underhair length was unaffected by removal of the pineal gland. Photoperiod-dependent changes in fat deposition, testicular activity, and guard hair length presumably rely on altered pineal secretory activity to transduce the effects of day length on the neuroendocrine axis; however, mechanisms independent of pineal activity may be capable of mediating photoperiodic control of underhair growth. PMID:2979644

  7. Sesame effects on testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats

    PubMed Central

    Khaneshi, Fereshteh; Nasrolahi, Ozra; Azizi, Shahriar; Nejati, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes. Diabetes is associated with changes in testicular tissue. Sesame oil contains large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lignin with antioxidant activity, vitamin E, and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). The present study investigated the effects of sesame on testis histology and male reproductive parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., control (C), diabetic-control (DC), and sesame-treated diabetic rats (SD). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg; i.p). The animals were treated by a single intraperitoneal sesame extract injection (100 mg/kg b.w.) once daily for 6 weeks. Results: The biochemical analysis revealed that the diabetes resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction in spermiogenesis, testosterone, LH, and FSH levels. Light microscopic analysis showed remarkable (p<0.05) reduction in STD (seminiferous tubules diameter), SPI (spermatogenesis index) thickness of the epithelium, and significant increase in thickness of the interstitial tissue in the diabetic group compared with the control group. Simultaneous administration of the sesame could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH, and FSH of the animals in this group. However, some differences were manifested with improved histological features as thickness of the epithelium, seminiferous tubules diameter, and spermatogenesis index. Conclusion: These data demonstrated that sesame significantly improved diabetes complication in rat testis. This study suggested that sesame might have a protective effect against oxidative stress-induced impaired testicular functions in diabetic rats. PMID:25050292

  8. Testicular resistive index determined by Doppler ultrasonography in men with spinal cord injury - a case series.

    PubMed

    Krebs, J; Göcking, K; Pannek, J

    2015-09-01

    In this case series, the testicular resistive index was determined in men with spinal cord injury. In ten men participating in our fertility programme, the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity of centripetal testicular arteries was measured in triplicates by Doppler ultrasonography to calculate the testicular resistive index. Furthermore, the right and left testicular volume was determined by ultrasonography, blood samples were obtained for hormonal evaluation, and sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines. The median testicular resistive index measured 0.69 and was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the reported cut-off value of 0.6. The spermiograms were characterised by normal sperm count but decreased sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. The median right and left testicular volume was significantly (P < 0.01) smaller compared to the volumes measured in able-bodied adult males without scrotal pathology and measured 8.4 ml and 7.2 ml respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.005) correlation (rs  = 0.81) between testicular resistive index and sperm concentration. However, no correlations were observed between testicular resistive index and other variables. The testicular resistive index in men with spinal cord injury was significantly greater than 0.6. Measuring the testicular resistive index may represent a useful additional parameter in the assessment of infertility in spinal cord-injured men. PMID:25228165

  9. A comparison of ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa aneuploidy rates in patients with high sperm DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Alladin, Naazish; Lo, Kirk C; Jarvi, Keith; Mullen, J Brendan M; Librach, Clifford L

    2012-06-01

    Testicular spermatozoa are utilized to achieve pregnancy in couples with severe male factor infertility. Several studies suggest that aneuploidy rates in spermatozoa are elevated at the testicular level in infertile patients compared to ejaculates of normal controls. However, essential data regarding aneuploidy rates between ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa in the same individuals is lacking. The purpose of our study was to compare aneuploidy rates at the testicular and post-testicular level from the same patients with persistently high sperm DNA damage. Ejaculates and testicular biopsies were obtained from eight patients with persistently high DNA damage (>30%). Both ejaculated and testicular samples were analyzed for sperm DNA damage and sperm aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. In addition, semen samples from ten normozoospermic men presenting for fertility evaluation served as a control group. A strong correlation between the alteration of spermatogenesis and chromatin deterioration was observed in our study. In the same individuals, testicular samples showed a significantly lower DNA damage compared to ejaculated spermatozoa (14.9% ± 5.0 vs. 40.6% ± 14.8, P<0.05), but significantly higher aneuploidy rates for the five analyzed chromosomes (12.41% ± 3.7 vs. 5.77% ± 1.2, P<0.05). While testicular spermatozoa appear favourable for ICSI in terms of lower DNA damage, this potential advantage could be offset by the higher aneuploidy rates in testicular spermatozoa.

  10. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  11. Alteration of the lipid composition of rat testicular plasma membranes by dietary (n-3) fatty acids changes the responsiveness of Leydig cells and testosterone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sebokova, E; Garg, M L; Wierzbicki, A; Thomson, A B; Clandinin, M T

    1990-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess whether changing dietary fat composition altered phospholipid composition of rat testicular plasma membranes in a manner that altered receptor-mediated action of luteinizing hormone (LH)/human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Weanling rats were fed diets that provided high or low cholesterol intakes and that were enriched with linseed oil, fish oil or beef tallow for 4 wk. Feeding diets high in (n-3) fatty acids decreased plasma and testicular plasma membrane 20:4(n-6) content. A marked reduction of the 22:5(n-6) content and an increase in the 22:6(n-3) content of testicular plasma membrane was found only in animals fed fish oil. A decrease in binding capacity of the gonadotropin (LH/hCG) receptor in the plasma membrane, with no change in receptor affinity, was observed for animals fed either linseed oil or fish oil diets. Dietary treatments that raised plasma membrane cholesterol content and the cholesterol to phospholipid ratio in the membrane were associated with increased binding capacity of the gonadotropin receptor. Feeding diets high in 18:3(n-3) vs. those high in fish oil altered receptor-mediated adenylate cyclase activity in a manner that depended on the level of dietary cholesterol. Feeding diets high in cholesterol or fish oil increased basal and LH-stimulated testosterone synthesis relative to that in animals fed the low cholesterol diet containing linseed oil. It is concluded that changing the fat composition of the diet alters the phospholipid composition of rat testicular plasma membranes and that this change in composition influences membrane-mediated unmasking of gonadotropin receptor-mediated action in testicular tissue. PMID:2352035

  12. Testicular lesions and antler abnormalities in Colorado, USA mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus): a possible role for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Fox, Karen A; Diamond, Brandon; Sun, Feng; Clavijo, Alfonso; Sneed, Loyd; Kitchen, Donald N; Wolfe, Lisa L

    2015-01-01

    Antler abnormalities of deer and other cervids often result from testicular lesions and decreased levels of testosterone, inhibiting normal cycles of antler growth. Affected males have antlers with retained velvet, numerous short, misshapen points ("cactus bucks"), and failure to shed these abnormal antlers annually. In Colorado, US, we observed a high occurrence of "cactus bucks" in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations after management efforts to increase the number of mature male deer in the state. Affected males consistently had antibody to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 2 (EHDV-2), and examination of the testes of these animals demonstrated nonspecific end-stage lesions of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and mineralization. To examine more acute stages of testicular lesions, and to screen for EHDV specifically within the testes, we sampled 16 male mule deer from affected herds, but with essentially normal antlers (n = 14) or retained velvet only (n = 2). Testicular and epididymal lesions identified from these samples included necrotizing vasculitis (n = 2), hemorrhage (n = 6), edema (n = 2), seminiferous tubular necrosis (n = 5), orchitis (n = 5), epididymitis (n = 10), hypospermia (n = 6), and end-stage lesions of seminiferous tubular loss (n = 2), fibrosis (n = 2), and mineralization (n = 2). Each of the 16 cases was blindly scored on the basis of number of histologic lesions, with a median score of two. Five of seven (71%) testes that were PCR positive for EHDV had lesion scores above the median, whereas none of the nine (0%) EHDV PCR-negative testes had lesion scores above the median, suggesting an association between testicular lesions and detection of EHDV RNA in the testes (P = 0.003). Although the role of EHDV infection remains unconfirmed, the association between testicular and epididymal lesions and presence of EHDV RNA in the affected tissues suggests that cactus buck antlers

  13. Quantification of human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA in testicular germ cell tumors by quantitative fluorescence real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Mark; Burger, Angelika M; Müller, Markus; Krause, Hans; Straub, Bernd; Smith, Gilian L; Newlands, Eward S; Miller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme which is endogenously expressed in germ, stem and tumor cells, but absent in benign somatic cells. The two major telomerase components are human telomerase RNA (hTR) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). It has been shown that hTERT is rate-limiting for telomerase activity and that it plays a central role in human carcinogenesis. Here, we investigated the potential of hTERT and hTR gene expression as diagnostic markers in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). hTERT mRNA and hTR expression were quantified in 55 testicular germ cell tumors comprising 36 primary and 19 germ cell tumors from retroperitonal sides by fluorescence real-time RT-PCR using the LightCycler technology. Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) was used as housekeeping gene and to enable relative quantification. For comparison to TGCTs, 38 benign testicular biopsies from patients with fertility disorders were assayed. hTERT expression was detected in all examined undifferentiated TGCTs and in the benign testicular tissue specimens with germ cell content (N(hTERT) 38-127). In contrast, mature teratomas from primary and post-chemotherapy masses, which are characterized by well-differentiated tissue components showed a nearly complete downregulation of hTERT expression (N(hTERT) 2-4, p<0.001). hTR levels however, were high in all tumors and independently of the presence of germ cells also in the benign tissue control group. hTERT mRNA is expressed in all undifferentiated TGCTs but repressed in mature teratomas. This suggests an inverse correlation between the differentiation status of germ cell tumors and hTERT expression. Thus, detection of hTERT expression in tumors histopathologically classified as mature teratomas enables a molecular-diagnostic confirmation and might aid decision making for treatment of patients presenting with this tumor subtype.

  14. Identification of multiple dmrt1s in catfish: localization, dimorphic expression pattern, changes during testicular cycle and after methyltestosterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Raghuveer, K; Senthilkumaran, B

    2009-05-01

    The double sex and mab-3 related (DM) transcription factor 1 (dmrt1) plays an important role in testicular differentiation. Here, we report cloning of multiple dmrt1s, a full-length and two alternative spliced forms from adult catfish (Clarias gariepinus) testis, which encode predicted proteins of 287 (dmrt1a), 253 (dmrt1b) and 233 (dmrt1c) amino acid residues respectively. Interestingly, dmrt1c lacks the majority of the DM domain. Multiple dmrt1s (dmrt1a and dmrt1c) were obtained from Clarias batrachus as well. Tissue distribution (transcript and protein) of catfish dmrt1 revealed exclusive expression in testis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the presence of multiple dmrt1s with high levels of dmrt1a in adult testis but not in ovary. Real-time RT-PCR analysis during testicular cycle showed higher levels of dmrt1 transcripts in preparatory and pre-spawning when compared with spawning and post-spawning phases. Immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence localization revealed the presence of catfish Dmrt1 protein in spermatogonia and spermatocytes, which indicates plausible role in spermatogenesis. Histological analysis indicated initiation of gonadal sex differentiation in catfish around 40-50 days after hatching. The potential role for dmrt1 in testicular differentiation is evident from its stage-dependent elevated expression in developing testis. Furthermore, dimorphic expressions of dmrt1s were evident at different stages of gonadal development or recrudescence in catfish. Treatment of methyl testosterone (MT) during early stages of gonadal sex differentiation resulted in adult males. Interestingly, we also obtained MT-treated fishes having ova-testis gonads. Analysis of dmrt1, sox9a, foxl2 and cyp19a1 expression patterns in MT-treated gonads revealed tissue-specific pattern. These results together suggest that multiple dmrt1s are testis-specific markers in catfish.

  15. Comprehensive Immunophenotypic Characterization of Adult and Fetal Testes, the Excretory Duct System, and Testicular and Epididymal Appendages.

    PubMed

    Magers, Martin J; Udager, Aaron M; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; French, Diana; Myers, Jeffrey L; Jentzen, Jeffrey M; McHugh, Jonathan B; Heider, Amer; Mehra, Rohit

    2016-08-01

    The immunophenotype of a normal testis and the excretory duct system has not been studied comprehensively in fetal and adult patients without testicular disease or hormonal manipulation so far. In addition, testicular (TA) and epididymal (EA) appendages are frequent paratesticular structures without previously reported comprehensive immunophenotypic studies. Immunohistochemistry for multiple markers, including the androgen receptor (AR), the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), the prostate-specific antigen, the prostate-specific membrane antigen, PAX8, WT1, calretinin, CK7, CK20, OCT4, SALL4, and CD117, was performed on full sections of testicular/paratesticular tissue from a large cohort of adult and fetal autopsy patients. In contrast to adult germ cells (GC), fetal GC strongly express OCT4 and CD117, although the expression of these proteins is lost in the early postnatal period; SALL4, in contrast, is expressed in both fetal and adult GC, with only weak and focal expression in adult patients. Fetal Sertoli cells (SC) express WT1 and calretinin strongly and diffusely, in contrast to adult SC. Both fetal and adult excretory duct systems express CK7 and PAX8 with frequent AR coexpression, and all 3 main segments of the excretory duct system (ductuli efferentes, epididymis, and vas deferens) have unique immunophenotypes. The rete testis also has a unique immunohistochemical expression pattern, which includes strong expression of CK7, PAX8, WT1, calretinin, and AR. Finally, of the adult autopsy patients examined, 80% had a TA, and 60% had an EA; these paratesticular structures occurred at stereotypical locations, demonstrated reproducible morphologic features, and had a unique immunophenotype relative to other studied structures, with strong CK7, PAX8, WT1, AR, ER, and PR coexpression. The testis and the paratestis may be involved by diverse neoplastic and non-neoplastic processes, and knowledge of the immunophenotypic expression spectrum of

  16. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    ALKHEDAIDE, ADEL; ALSHEHRI, ZAFER SAAD; SABRY, AYMAN; ABDEL-GHAFFAR, TULIP; SOLIMAN, MOHAMED MOHAMED; ATTIA, HOSSAM

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2–4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co-treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B-cell lymphoma 2-associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, androgen receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory

  17. Effects of estradiol on secretion of LH, hypothalamic function and testicular development in bull calves.

    PubMed

    Deaver, D R; Glass, J D; Grieger, D M; Reeves, J J

    1988-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to determine the effects of estradiol (E2) on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in bull calves. In experiment 1, calves were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: 1) intact, 2) intact E2-treated, 3) castrated, or 4) castrated E2-treated. Treatments began when the calves were 7.5 wk of age and continued for 16.5 wk. Samples of blood were collected once a week from 3 to 14 wk of age and every 10 min for 6 hr at 8, 12 and 16 wk of age. Concentrations of E2 in plasma decreased between 3 and 4 wk of age and were further reduced by castration. Maximum concentrations of E2 (24.3 pg/ml) were observed 72 hr after insertion of E2 implants, however, plasma E2 stabilized at 5.9 pg/ml by 2 wk after insertion of E2 implants. Treatment with E2 eliminated the pulsatile secretion of LH in intact and castrated calves and retarded testicular growth. In experiment 2, calves were assigned to a control (n = 4) or E2-treated (n = 6) group. Implants of E2 were inserted at 7.5 wk of age. At 24 wk of age, calves were bled and then sacrificed to collect hypothalamic and pituitary tissues. Age-related changes in testicular weight and secretion of LH were blocked by E2. Neither the morphology nor the intensity of immunostaining of GnRH nerve cell bodies in the preoptic area (POA) were affected by E2. However, the density of GnRH fibers and beads in the stalk median eminence (SME), and concentrations of pituitary GnRH receptors were greater (P less than .01) in E2-treated compared to control calves. In addition, concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) in the SME were lower in E2-treated calves when compared to controls. Based on these observations, it is concluded that administration of E2 at 7.5 wk of age causes profound alterations in hypothalamic function including, changes in metabolism of NE and suppression of GnRH release.

  18. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Chunyang; Liu, Hongliang; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Gao, Hui; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Aiguo

    2013-09-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8 weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We used a rat model to simulate the situations of human fluoride (F) exposure. • Developmental F exposure induces testicular damage related with oxidative stress.

  19. Protective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium-induced testicular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Alkhedaide, Adel; Alshehri, Zafer Saad; Sabry, Ayman; Abdel-Ghaffar, Tulip; Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Attia, Hossam

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is the most prevalent toxic metal present in livestock feed; therefore, the present study aimed to examine the ameliorative effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2)‑induced testicular dysfunction of Wistar rats. Male adult Wistar rats (40 rats; n=10/group) were divided into four equal groups. Group one was used as a control, and was given ad libitum access to food and water. Groups 2‑4 were treated with CdCl2 [5 mg/kg body weight (BW)], GSE (400 mg/kg BW, orally), and GSE plus CdCl2, respectively. Blood and testicular tissues were collected and assayed for biochemical and histopathological changes, respectively. Testicular genes were expressed using semi‑quantitative RT‑PCR analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a decrease in serum testosterone levels following CdCl2 toxicity, which were normalized after GSE co-administration. Furthermore, CdCl2 significantly increased the serum levels of malondialdehyde, and decreased levels of antioxidants. At the histopathological level, the testes of the CdCl2 group exhibited congestion, edema in the interstitial blood vessels, irregular arrangement of the epithelial lining of the seminiferous tubules, and degeneration and sloughing of the spermatogenic cells, which accumulated in the center of the seminiferous tubules. Such pathological alterations were ameliorated following treatment with GSE in the CdCl2 plus GSE group. The immunohistochemical expression of B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein was high in the CdCl2 group, and low in the control and GSE groups. Co‑treatment with GSE and CdCl2 exhibited ameliorative effects on the immunoreactivity of B‑cell lymphoma 2‑associated X protein. CdCl2 toxicity induced a significant downregulation in the mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side‑chain cleavage enzyme, cytochrome P450 17A1, 3β‑hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β‑HSD), 17β‑HSD, androgen receptor

  20. Radiation therapy for stage IIA and IIB testicular seminoma: peripheral dose calculations and risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theocharris; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to calculate the peripheral dose to critical structures and assess the radiation risks from modern radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB testicular seminoma. A Monte Carlo code was used for treatment simulation on a computational phantom representing an average adult. The initial treatment phase involved anteroposterior and posteroanaterior modified dog-leg fields exposing para-aortic and ipsilateral iliac lymph nodes followed by a cone-down phase for nodal mass irradiation. Peripheral doses were calculated using different modified dog-leg field dimensions and an extended conventional dog-leg portal. The risk models of the BEIR-VII report and ICRP-103 were combined with dosimetric calculations to estimate the probability of developing stochastic effects. Radiotherapy for stage IIA seminoma with a target dose of 30 Gy resulted in a range of 23.0-603.7 mGy to non-targeted peripheral tissues and organs. The corresponding range for treatment of stage IIB disease to a cumulative dose of 36 Gy was 24.2-633.9 mGy. A dose variation of less than 13% was found by altering the field dimensions. Radiotherapy with the conventional instead of the modern modified dog-leg field increased the peripheral dose up to 8.2 times. The calculated heart doses of 589.0-632.9 mGy may increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases whereas the testicular dose of more than 231.9 mGy may lead to a temporary infertility. The probability of birth abnormalities in the offspring of cancer survivors was below 0.13% which is much lower than the spontaneous mutation rate. Abdominoplevic irradiation may increase the lifetime intrinsic risk for the induction of secondary malignancies by 0.6-3.9% depending upon the site of interest, patient’s age and tumor dose. Radiotherapy for stage IIA/IIB seminoma with restricted fields and low doses is associated with an increased morbidity. These data may allow the definition of a risk-adapted follow-up scheme for long

  1. Scintigraphy for the diagnosis of testicular torsion and differential diagnosis of acute intrascrotal processes.

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Wesseler, T; Bach, D

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients suffering from acute painful testicular processes were subjected to scintigraphy. Testicular torsion in the early and delayed phases were diagnosed with 100% accuracy, but one out of 7 cases of epididymitis was wrongly recognized as negative. Interoperative diagnosis in two cases of hydatid torsion proved the foregoing scintigraphic finding to have been wrong. Nevertheless, scintigraphy was found to be reliable in testicular torsion diagnosis.

  2. Genetic background but not metallothionein phenotype dictates sensitivity to cadmium-induced testicular injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Corton, C; Dix, D J; Liu, Y; Waalkes, M P; Klaassen, C D

    2001-10-01

    Sensitivity to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular injury varies greatly among mouse strains. For instance, 129/SvJ (129) mice are highly sensitive while C57BL/6J (C57) mice are refractory to Cd-induced testicular injury. Metallothionein (MT), a Cd-binding protein, is thought to be responsible for the strain susceptibility to Cd toxicity. In this study, MT-I/II knockout (MT-null) and wild-type 129 mice were used to determine the role of MT in Cd-induced testicular injury. Two additional strains of mice (C57 and the C57 x 129 F1cross) were also used to help define the role of genetic background in Cd toxicity. Mice were given 5-20 micromol/kg ip CdCl(2) and testicular injury was examined 24 h later by histopathology and testicular hemoglobin concentration. Cd produced dose-dependent testicular injury in all strains of mice, except for C57 mice, in which testicular injury could not be produced. MT-null mice were more sensitive than C57 x 129 mice but were equally sensitive as 129 mice to Cd-induced testicular injury. Fourteen days after 15 micromol/kg ip Cd administration, testicular atrophy was evident in MT-null, 129, and C57 x 129 mice but was absent in C57 mice. The resistance of C57 mice to Cd-induced testicular injury could not be attributed solely to a decreased uptake of (109)Cd nor to a greater amount of testicular MT. Microarray analysis revealed a higher expression of glutathione peroxidase in the testes of C57 mice, as well as genes encoding antioxidant components and DNA damage/repair, but their significance to Cd-induced injury is not immediately clear. Thus, this study demonstrates that it is genetic strain, not MT genotype, that is mechanistically important in determining susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:11578143

  3. Testicular amyloidosis in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. L.; Gallego, E.; Castaño, M.; Rueda, A.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with Leishmania donovani. Testes were examined grossly and histologically by light and electron microscopy. Progressive testicular atrophy developed. Spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules showed vacuolar degeneration and decreased in number leading to a total azoospermia in the final weeks of the pathological process. Lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates with macrophages containing leishmanias appeared in the intertubular space. Amyloid deposits in the intertubular space and tubular basement membrane were identified by optical and ultrastructural methods. It has been suggested that testicular amyloidosis may have a pathogenic mechanism related to a dysfunction of plasma cells and stimulation of the reticuloendothial system, due to the antigenic character of the parasite. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6639870

  4. Paratesticular liposarcoma-masquerading as a testicular tumour.

    PubMed

    Vinayagam, Kalaivani; Hosamath, Vijayakumar; Honnappa, Sridhar; Rau, Aarathi Ranga

    2014-02-01

    Paratesticular liposarcomas are rare tumours which account for 12% of all liposarcomas. Probably there are about 186 cases which have been reported till date. They must be differentiated from tumours of testicular origin which have extension to the spermatic cord. We are reporting a case of a 50-year-old male who had presented with a painless swelling in the right hemiscrotum, which was of 20 years' duration. Inititally, a clinical diagnosis of testicular tumour was made; however, CT of the scrotum revealed paratesticular tumour? liposarcoma and testis being normal and displaced postero-inferiorly. Metastatic work-up, which included CT of the abdomen and pelvis, thorax and whole body scan, did not reveal any distant metastasis. Patient underwent high orchidectomy, hemiscrotectomy. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma (atypical lipomatous tumour of sclerosing type). PMID:24701520

  5. Frequent complaints of testicular lumps by young prisoners.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash C

    2008-05-01

    The definition of the age of young offenders was changed by an Act of Parliament (The Crime and Disorder Act 1998), which was implemented by the Home Office on 1 April 2000. This Act brought down the upper-age limit of young offenders from 20 to 17. Our objective was to investigate the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among this redefined group of young offenders. Among various types of STIs, we observed that a significant number of young prisoners had complaints of testicular lumps (35%), which were not reported in the past. We tried to find out the reason for this common complaint and believe that this was due to extra vigilance, and testicular self-examination in conjunction with sex and relationship programmes which ran alongside other programmes developed as a joint venture by Prisoner Learning and Skills Unit, Prison Health Policy Unit and Sex Education Forum. PMID:18482964

  6. Testicular toxicity of profenofos in matured male rats.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Gihan Gamal; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Alkelch, Alkelch M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Fujita, Shoichi

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the phosphorothoate insecticide profenofos on male specific gene expression on rat testis, 16-week-old Wistar rats were orally administered at dose of 17.8 mg/kg twice weekly for 65 days. Gene expression in the testes was monitored by DNA microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR, which revealed that genes related to steroidogenesis including cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and CYP11A1 were significantly increased. Besides the testes were histopathologicaly examined, which revealed testicular destruction and degeneration represented by a layer of columnar epithelium, oedematous changes surrounding the seminiferous tubules besides vacuolated spermatogonial cells and more elongated Leydig cells. These data suggest that profenofos considered as one of the male reproductive toxicants. Furthermore, we propose that the above three steroidogenic-related genes and the gene of acrosomal reaction as potential biomarkers of testicular toxicity. PMID:17569032

  7. [Various considerations of endocrine changes in testicular tumors].

    PubMed

    Benlloch Navarro, R

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss the link between testicular tumours and endocrine disorders which may be observed in view of the fundamental testiculo-hypophysial relations and the importance of these as far as dysendocrinias of the tumours, leidigioma, gynaecomasty and prolanuria are concerned. In the section on breast disorder phenomena, the authors make a comparative analysis of those observed in leidigiomas and choriocarcinomas, whilst in the section on prolanuria, they consider the importance of the positive value and essentially limited to the presence of chorial tumours, whilst questioning the frequent negative results -- which never rule out the possibility of a testicular tumour since, in any case, the only thing that it determines is that the claimed neoplasia in not chorial. They also point out that the positive results of prolanuria, even in non-choriomatous tumours, must simply be interpreted as a gonadotrophinuria of solely hypophysial appearance caused by reduced testicle functioning.

  8. Dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions block Syrian hamster testicular regression in short day lengths without diminishing increased testosterone negative-feedback sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Jarjisian, Stephan G; Piekarski, David J; Place, Ned J; Driscoll, Joseph R; Paxton, Eve G; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving

    2013-08-01

    The dorsomedial nucleus (DMN) of the hypothalamus, the only site within the mediobasal hypothalamus of Syrian hamsters that both binds melatonin and has abundant concentrations of androgen receptors, has been proposed as a target tissue for induction of seasonal changes in brain sensitivity to steroid negative feedback. We tested whether DMN ablation, which does not interfere with pineal gland secretion of melatonin in short day lengths, prevents testicular regression by altering sensitivity to steroid negative feedback. Hamsters with DMN lesions, unlike control hamsters, failed to undergo testicular regression after transfer from a long (14 h light/day) to a short day length (8 h light/day); however, increased negative-feedback inhibition of follicle-stimulating hormone by testosterone was not compromised by ablation of the DMN, indicating that this tissue is not an essential mediator of seasonal changes in feedback sensitivity. We propose a redundant neural network comprised of multiple structures, each of which contributes to neuroendocrine mechanisms, that determines the effect of short days on gonadal function.

  9. Antioxidant effect of vitamin E treatment on some heavy metals-induced renal and testicular injuries in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2010-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals in water, air and soil are global problems that are a growing threat to humanity. Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. The antioxidant and protective influences of vitamin E on a mixture of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd and Cu)-induced oxidative stress and renal and testicular injuries were evaluated in male mice. Exposure of mice to these heavy metals in drinking water for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of plasma creatinine, urea and uric acid concentrations. The levels of glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutases (SOD) in kidney and testis tissues were significantly declined. Moreover, the histopathological evaluation of kidney and testis showed severe changes in mice treated with these heavy metals. Administration of vitamin E protected the kidney and testis of mice exposed to heavy metals as evidenced by appearance of normal histological structures, insignificant changes in the values of plasma creatinine, urea and uric acid, and the levels of kidney GSH and SOD, while the levels of testis GSH and SOD were notably decreased. These data suggest that the administration of vitamin E protects against heavy metals-induced renal and testicular oxidative stress and injuries. PMID:23961105

  10. Risk of testicular cancer in cohort of boys with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, A. J.; Higgins, C. D.; Pike, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of testicular cancer in relation to undescended testis and its treatment based on recorded details of the maldescent, treatment, and biopsy from case notes. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London. SUBJECTS: 1075 boys with cryptorchidism treated by orchidopexy or hormones at the hospital during 1951-64. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk of testicular cancer in the cohort compared with men in the general population. RESULTS: 12 testicular cancers occurred in 11 of the patients during follow up to mid-1990 (relative risk of cancer in males with cryptorchidism = 7.5 (95% confidence interval 3.9 to 12.8)). The relative risk fell significantly beyond 15 years after orchidopexy but did not decrease with younger age at orchidopexy. Risk was significantly raised in testes that had had biopsy samples removed during orchidopexy (relative risk = 66.7 (23.9 to 143.3) compared with a testis in a man in the general population) and was significantly greater in these testes than in undescended testes that had not had biopsy samples taken at orchidopexy (6.7 (2.7 to 13.5)). No reasons for biopsy or distinguishing clinical aspects of the testes that had had biopsy samples taken and later developed malignancies were evident in the case notes. No histological abnormalities were evident at initial biopsy except in one testis that had features of dysgenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy seems to be a stronger risk factor for testicular cancer than any factor previously identified. The trauma of open biopsy may contribute substantially to risk of malignancy or the testes may have been selected for biopsy on the basis of clinical factors predictive of malignancy but not mentioned in the case notes. PMID:9169396

  11. Effect of Picroliv on cadmium induced testicular damage in rat.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Neelam; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2008-02-01

    Ameliorative potential of Picroliv, a standardized extract of Picrorhiza kurroa on Cd induced early and advanced testicular damage was investigated in male rats. In the former experiment, the rats were administered Cd as CdCl(2) (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) 5days/week for 18 weeks and Picroliv at two doses (6 and 12 mg/kg, p.o.) was given for the last 4 weeks i.e. from week 15 to 18, to the Cd administered group. In the latter experiment, the Cd administration continued for 24 weeks and Picroliv was given from week 21 to 24. At 18 weeks, Cd caused alterations in oxidative stress indices like increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduced levels of non protein sulphydryls (NPSH). They were found close to the control values by Picroliv treatment, suggesting its antioxidant potential. The increased levels of Zn and Ca were reduced by Picroliv, the Cd levels remained unaltered. The Cd induced testicular damage was also mitigated by Picroliv. The higher dose (12 mg/kg) being more effective than the lower dose. However, at 24 weeks of Cd exposure, the oxidative stress indicators in testis were more pronounced along with the morphological alterations. These parameters remained unaffected by Picroliv treatment. On comparative evaluation of the two studies, 18 weeks Cd exposure caused moderate testicular damage, which could be reversed significantly by Picroliv administration and correlated well with oxidative stress markers. Our results clearly demonstrate the ameliorative potential of Picroliv in Cd induced early testicular damage. PMID:17928123

  12. Testicular tumors: what radiologists need to know--differential diagnosis, staging, and management.

    PubMed

    Coursey Moreno, Courtney; Small, William C; Camacho, Juan C; Master, Viraj; Kokabi, Nima; Lewis, Melinda; Hartman, Matthew; Mittal, Pardeep K

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism, family history, and infertility are risk factors for testicular cancer. Most testicular cancers occur in young men aged 18-35 years, and seminoma is the most common cell type. Testicular tumors are usually diagnosed at ultrasonography (US) and are staged at computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At US, testicular tumors usually appear as a solid intratesticular mass. Because the differential diagnosis includes infarct and infection, correlation with patient history and symptoms is important. At staging CT or MR imaging, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are considered regional lymph nodes, and the greatest nodal diameter is used to distinguish among N1-N3 disease. The right testicular vein drains into the inferior vena cava, and the left testicular vein drains into the left renal vein. Because of venous and lymphatic drainage pathways, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are the initial landing station for testicular cancers. Enlarged lymph nodes in the supraclavicular region, chest, and pelvis are considered distant metastases. Testicular cancer is initially treated with orchiectomy. The patient may then undergo active surveillance, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node resection, depending primarily on the clinical stage. Radiologists play an important role in initial diagnosis, staging, and imaging surveillance of testicular malignancies.

  13. Increased expression of dermatopontin and its implications for testicular dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    CAI, JUN; LIU, WEIJIA; HAO, JIE; CHEN, MAOXIN; LI, GANG

    2016-01-01

    An array of specific and non-specific molecules, which are expressed in the testis, have been demonstrated to be responsible for testicular function. Our previous study revealed that dermatopontin (DPT) is expressed in Sertoli cells of the testis, however, its roles in testicular function remains somewhat elusive. In the present study, CdCl2- and busulfan-induced testicular dysfunction models were used to investigate the implications of DPT expression for testicular function. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DPT were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. A negative correlation was observed between testicular damage and the expression of DPT, which suggested that an increase in DPT expression may be a marker for testicular dysfunction. This result was corroborated by the finding that transgenic mice exhibiting Sertoli cell-specific overexpression of DPT exhibited damage to their testicular morphology. Additionally, DPT overexpression in the testis affected the expression levels of claudin-11 and zonula occludens-1, which indicated that DPT may affect testicular function by affecting the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence to suggest that DPT may be indicative of mouse testicular dysfunction, since increased expression may be associated with damage to the BTB. PMID:26861869

  14. [Molecular bases of platinum-resistance in testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Germà-Lluch, Josep Ramon; Piulats, Josep Maria

    2013-06-01

    Cisplatin has been the cornerstone of germ cell testicular tumors therapy since its introduction more tan 30 years ago, and a basic part of the schemes given to multiple ovarian, lung, head and neck, and bladder tumors among others. Some tumors present primary resistance to this drug, others will develop it despite good initial response. In the case of testicular germ cell tumors most of them are very sensitive to this drug but up to 20% of patients with metastatic disease will present resistance, most of them secondary after a very good initial response. Cisplatin acts by binding to DNA to activate genetic damage recognition mechanisms and apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Resistance mechanisms to cisplatin have been classified in those that happen (1) before its binding to DNA and (2) once it binds to DNA. Most advances in their discovery have used other neoplasias as models, mainly ovarian and lung tumors. In this review we will describe the biological mechanisms behind resistance to cisplatin from the global perspective but trying to focus in testicular germ cell tumors.

  15. Thallium-induced testicular toxicity in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Formigli, L.; Scelsi, R.; Poggi, P.; Gregotti, C.; Di Nucci, A.; Sabbioni, E.; Gottardi, L.; Manzo, L.

    1986-08-01

    Reproductive tract functions were studied in adult male Wistar rats given 10 ppm thallium as thallium sulfate in the drinking water. After 60 days of treatment, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymides and vas deferens showed reduced motility and immature germ cells were found in the tubular lumen. Histological examination of testes in thallium-treated animals revealed disarrangement of the tubular epithelium and ultrastructural changes in the Sertoli cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation and distension of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The activity of testicular ..beta..-glucuronidase was significantly reduced whereas acid phosphatase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were unchanged. Plasma testosterone levels were within normal limits. No abnormalities in testicular morphology and biochemistry were seen in animals sacrificed at the end of the first month of thallium exposure. These findings indicate that the male reproductive system is a susceptible target site to toxic effects of thallium under chronic exposure. They also suggest a major involvement of Sertoli cells in the mechanism underlying thallium-induced testicular damage.

  16. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA.

  17. Vitamin D supplement improved testicular function in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenzhao; Wang, Qinzhu; Hao, Yue; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Lina; du, Mengmeng; Li, Wen; Wu, Yang; Guo, Feng; Ma, Siyuan; Huang, Fengjuan; Qin, Guijun

    2016-04-22

    This study was designed to investigate the role that 1,25(OH)2D3 plays against testicular lesion in diabetic rats and try to find its possible mechanism of the steroidogenesis and the spermatogenesis. In diabetic rats, prolonged hyperglycemia evaluated inflammatory cytokines, damaged sperm production function and redox balance, diminished serum testosterone. After treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 at two different doses respectively for 12 months, all the alternations were effectively normalized. 1,25(OH)2D3 showed inhibitory effect on excessive inflammatory biomarkers and adjusted the expression reproductive genes and testicular androgen synthesis. It also upregulated Bcl-2 expression, decreased Bax and COX-2 expression and inhibited active caspase cascade (caspase 8 and caspase 3), which may preserved the testicular cells under diabetic condition. It revealed that vitamin D supplement may protect the cells through suppressing inflammation factors and alleviating cell apoptotic death, as well as upregulating the expression of genes related to reproductive and testosterone synthesis. PMID:27003251

  18. Causes, effects and molecular mechanisms of testicular heat stress.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    The process of spermatogenesis is temperature-dependent and occurs optimally at temperatures slightly lower than that of the body. Adequate thermoregulation is imperative to maintain testicular temperatures at levels lower than that of the body core. Raised testicular temperature has a detrimental effect on mammalian spermatogenesis and the resultant spermatozoa. Therefore, thermoregulatory failure leading to heat stress can compromise sperm quality and increase the risk of infertility. In this paper, several different types of external and internal factors that may contribute towards testicular heat stress are reviewed. The effects of heat stress on the process of spermatogenesis, the resultant epididymal spermatozoa and on germ cells, and the consequent changes in the testis are elaborated upon. We also discuss the molecular response of germ cells to heat exposure and the possible mechanisms involved in heat-induced germ cell damage, including apoptosis, DNA damage and autophagy. Further, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that are involved in the intricate mechanism of germ cell apoptosis are explained. Ultimately, these complex mechanisms of apoptosis lead to germ cell death.

  19. Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidant Effects of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Cadmium-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Erboga, Mustafa; Kanter, Mehmet; Aktas, Cevat; Bozdemir Donmez, Yeliz; Fidanol Erboga, Zeynep; Aktas, Emel; Gurel, Ahmet

    2016-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a serious environmental and occupational contaminant and may represent a serious health hazard to humans and other animals. Cd is reported to induce the generation of reactive oxygen species, and induces testicular damage in many species of animals. The goal of our study was to examine the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on Cd-induced oxidative stress, apoptosis, and testicular injury in rats. A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control, CAPE alone, Cd-treated, and Cd-treated with CAPE; each group consisted of 10 animals. To induce toxicity, Cd (1 mg/kg body weight) was dissolved in normal saline and subcutaneously injected into rats for 30 days. The rats in CAPE-treated group were given a daily dose of 10 μmol/kg body weight of CAPE by using intraperitoneal injection. This application was continued daily for a total of 30 days. To date, no examinations of the anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant properties of CAPE on Cd-induced apoptosis, oxidative damage, and testicular injury in rat testes have been reported. CAPE-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance and serum testosterone levels in Cd-treated group. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the number of apoptotic cells in testis tissues of the Cd-treated group with CAPE treatment. Moreover, CAPE significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, compensated deficits in the anti-oxidant defenses in testes tissue resulted from Cd administration. These findings suggest that the protective potential of CAPE in Cd toxicity might be due to its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which could be useful for achieving optimum effects in Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:26424218

  20. Testicular development and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in the male tammar, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P; Fletcher, T P; Renfree, M B

    1990-03-01

    Testicular growth and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis were assessed in male tammars from 12 to 25 months of age to establish the time of sexual maturity. The testicular dimensions and body weights of 20 male tammars, approximately 12 months of age at the beginning of the study, were measured monthly for 1 year. Groups of 3 animals were castrated at 13, 19 and 25 months of age and their testes sectioned for histological examination. Testicular volume increased between 12 and 24 months of age and was highly correlated with body weight (r = 0.91). In the 13-month group the seminiferous tubules were closed with few mitotic figures. Spermatogenesis had begun in 2 of the 19-month animals. All stages of spermatogenesis were present in the other 19-month male, and in all of the 25-month males. Basal FSH concentrations increased with the age of the animal (21.0 +/- 32.48, 94.40 +/- 55.18 and 193.05 +/- 40.21 ng/ml (mean +/- s.d.) at 19, 20 and 25 months respectively) while basal LH concentrations were similar at 20 months and 25 months (0.43 +/- 0.18 and 0.58 +/- 0.25 ng/ml respectively). Basal testosterone concentrations were also similar 0.11 +/- 0.04, 0.35 +/- 0.16 and 0.22 +/- 0.10 ng/ml in 13-, 19- and 25-month-old animals. LHRH injection in tammars at 13, 19 and 25 months of age induced release of both LH and testosterone 10-30 min after injection. The hormone concentrations increased in both magnitude and duration with increasing age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. [Testicular cancer--self-awareness and testicular self-examination in soldiers and physicians in the Israeli army].

    PubMed

    Tichler, T; Weitzen, R; Feinstone, A; Orvieto, R; Moskovitz, M; Singer, A

    2000-08-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men. To evaluate knowledge and awareness of that cancer, and of the practice of testicular self-examination (TSE), we developed a questionnaire which was distributed to 717 male soldiers and 200 of their military physicians. 21% of the soldiers had received some explanation of the importance of TSE, but only 16% were actually instructed how to perform TSE, and only 2% practiced it regularly. 24% had never examined their testicles before, 185 only rarely, and 6% often. With increased age, TSE frequency increased, but previous education, type of military unit, and ethnic origin had no affect. 99% of military physicians had been taught how to examine breasts, but only 70% had been taught routine testicular examination. 22% performed it, but 27% never did. 84% had never taught their soldiers the importance of TSE, although 51% taught female soldiers breast self-examination. There was a significant lack of awareness of the importance of regular practice of TSE among both soldiers and their army physicians.

  2. A Case of Bilateral Testicular Tumors Subsequently Diagnosed as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sha, Yan-Kun; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Liu, Wei-Wu; Song, Yue-Qiang; Lin, Jin; He, Xue-Mei; Qiu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Ling; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) caused congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive genetic disorders resulting from mutations in genes involved with cortisol (CO) synthesis in the adrenal glands. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are rarely the presenting symptoms of CAH. Here, we describe a case of simple virilizing CAH with TARTs, in a 15-year-old boy. The patient showed physical signs of precocious puberty. The levels of blood adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), urinary 17-ketone steroids (17-KS), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and serum progesterone (PRGE) were elevated, whereas those of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and CO were reduced. Computed tomography (CT) of the adrenal glands and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the testes showed a soft tissue density (more pronounced on the right side) and an irregularly swollen mass (more pronounced on the left side), respectively. Pathological examination of a specimen of the mass indicated polygonal/circular eosinophilic cytoplasm, cord-like arrangement of interstitial cells, and lipid pigment in the cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry results precluded a diagnosis of Leydig cell tumors. DNA sequencing revealed a hackneyed homozygous mutation, I2g, on intron 2 of the CYP21A2 gene. The patient’s symptoms improved after a three-month of dexamethasone therapy. Recent radiographic data showed reduced hyperplastic adrenal nodules and testicular tumors. A diagnosis of TART should be considered and prioritized in CAH patients with testicular tumors. Replacement therapy using a sufficient amount of dexamethasone in this case helps combat TART. PMID:26985347

  3. From Tucking to Twisting; A Case of Self-induced Testicular Torsion in a Cross Dressing Male.

    PubMed

    Epps, Thomas; McCormick, Barrett; Ali, Antar; Duboy, Alberto; Gillen, James; Martinez, Daniel; Carrion, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A self-induced, non-traumatic testicular torsion is a rare entity that to our knowledge has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 28-year-old male who caused a self-induced testicular torsion during acts associated with cross dressing. Differential diagnosis of the acute scrotum in an adult should always include testicular torsion, as outcomes in this population are worse than in younger populations. Additional unusual causes of testicular torsion are reviewed.

  4. Initiation of active immunization against testosterone during early puberty alters negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Han, X F; Cheng, W; Chen, Z Y; Du, X G; Cao, X H; Zeng, X Y

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of antitestosterone immunization, initiated during early puberty, on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular feedback in rabbits, 16 early pubertal male rabbits were randomly allocated into 2 groups (n = 8), control or immunized against testosterone-3(O-carboxymethyl)oxime-BSA in Freund adjuvant at 4 mo of age (with a booster immunization 4 wk later). Blood samples (for antibody titers and hormone concentrations) were collected at 2- or 4-wk intervals after immunization. Compared with controls, antitestosterone immunization triggered: a substantial and sustained antibody response (P < 0.01); increases in serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and testis weight and volume (P < 0.05); hyperplasia of testicular interstitial tissue with clustered and hypertrophic Leydig cells; and greater (P < 0.05) enzyme protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels for testicular cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P-450, 17α-hydroxylase cytochrome P-450, and 3β-dydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of testosterone upregulated mRNA expressions for genes in sex steroid negative feedback loops, including androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α), kisspeptin encoded gene (kiss-1) and kisspeptin receptor (G-coupled receptor 54) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, GnRH receptor and LH-β in pituitary, and AR, inhibin-α and βA subunits in testes (P < 0.05). However, immunization did not affect mRNA expressions for follicle-stimulating hormone β, AR, and ER-α in pituitary, or ER-α in testes. We concluded that antitestosterone immunization in male rabbits, initiated during early puberty, increased GnRH mRNA expression, and in turn LH synthesis by reducing testicular feedback signaling. Reduction of direct steroidal effects on the testis may also have increased testosterone secretion. Consequently, there was an accelerated testicular

  5. Effects of Two Testicular Cancer Education Programs on Self-Examination Knowledge and Attitudes among College-Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This study compared instructional outcomes of two education programs about testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. Instruction facilitated by a former testicular cancer patient was compared to information provided by printed materials. There was no difference in information dissemination, but possible differences in attitude resulted.…

  6. Development of a Testicular Self-Examination Program for College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Sharon Kay; Rothenberger, James

    1985-01-01

    Personal responsibility for health is dependent upon accurate knowledge and skill in self-care. Testicular cancer incidence is the leading cancer in young adult males. This article describes the development and evaluation of a testicular cancer education program which is now available nationwide to college health services. (Author/MT)

  7. Spontaneous Idiopathic Arteritis of the Testicular Artery in Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The testes and the spermatic cord of raccoons (Procyon lotor, kits to adult breeders; n=48) were examined. Segmental arteritis confined to the extra-testicular portions of the testicular artery was present in raccoons of all ages. The arterial changes were seen in laboratory-confined experimental an...

  8. Genetic background of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hata, Iori; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that inbred Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity compared with inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The present study was to elucidate the genetic background of resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats. The genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity was conducted by using Cd-resistant WI and Cd-sensitive F344 strains as the parental rats and by using the testicular hemoglobin level as the indicator. In the frequency distribution of testicular hemoglobin levels in parental, first filial (F(1)) and second filial (F(2)) rats treated with Cd at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, F(1) rats had testicular hemoglobin levels intermediate to WI and F344 rats, and F(2) rats segregated into three groups of low, intermediate, and high phenotypes at the expected ratio. Furthermore, the backcross progeny between WI and F(1) or between F344 and F(1) segregated into two groups with the expected ratio. Based on a simple Mendelian genetic analysis, these segregation patterns lead us to conclude that two codominant alleles at a gene locus are responsible for the susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. This is the first report for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in inbred rat strains. PMID:21318357

  9. Genetic background of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hata, Iori; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that inbred Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity compared with inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The present study was to elucidate the genetic background of resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats. The genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity was conducted by using Cd-resistant WI and Cd-sensitive F344 strains as the parental rats and by using the testicular hemoglobin level as the indicator. In the frequency distribution of testicular hemoglobin levels in parental, first filial (F(1)) and second filial (F(2)) rats treated with Cd at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, F(1) rats had testicular hemoglobin levels intermediate to WI and F344 rats, and F(2) rats segregated into three groups of low, intermediate, and high phenotypes at the expected ratio. Furthermore, the backcross progeny between WI and F(1) or between F344 and F(1) segregated into two groups with the expected ratio. Based on a simple Mendelian genetic analysis, these segregation patterns lead us to conclude that two codominant alleles at a gene locus are responsible for the susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. This is the first report for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in inbred rat strains.

  10. Protective effects of carvacrol against methotrexate-induced testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Daggulli, Mansur; Dede, Onur; Utangac, Mehmet Mazhar; Bodakci, Mehmet Nuri; Hatipoglu, Namık Kemal; Penbegul, Necmettin; Sancaktutar, Ahmet Ali; Bozkurt, Yaşar; Türkçü, Gül; Yüksel, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of carvacrol (CAR) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced testis damage in rats. Twenty-four male rats were equally divided into three groups: group I control treatment; group II MTX-treated; group III MTX + CAR-treated. A single dose of CAR was administered intraperitoneally to group III on the first day of the experiment and a single dose of MTX was administered intraperitoneally to groups II and III on the second day of the experiment. The total duration of the experiment was 8 days. Blood samples and testis tissue were obtained from each animal for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), Total oxidant status (TOS), Total Antioxidant Status (TAS), and Oxidative stress index (OSI). Light microscopy was used to complete the histopathological examination of testis specimens from each animal. Analysis of serum and testis sampled revealed that MDA, TOS and OSI levels were significantly greater in the group receiving MTX alone relative to the control treated animals while the TAS level was significantly reduced in the MTX group when compared with the control group. The administration of CAR was associated with significantly decreased MDA, TOS, and OSI levels and increased TAS levels relative to the rats treated with MTX alone. All of these quantitative values demonstrate that CAR alleviates deleterious effects of MTX on testicular tissue. Use of antioxidants such as CAR may protect germ cells against oxidative stress and apoptosis when used in combination with MTX. PMID:25664063

  11. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility.

  12. Androgen suppresses testicular cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hideo; Ueda, Takashi; Ito, Saya; Shiraishi, Takumi; Taniguchi, Hidefumi; Kayukawa, Naruhiro; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Ushijima, So; Kanazawa, Motohiro; Nakamura, Terukazu; Naya, Yoshio; Hongo, Fumiya; Kamoi, Kazumi; Okihara, Koji; Ukimura, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Silencing of androgen receptor (AR)-meditated androgen signaling is thought to be associated with the development of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs). However, the role of the androgen/AR signal in TGCT development has not been investigated. In this study, we show that the androgen/AR signal suppressed the cell growth of seminomas (SEs), a type of TGCT, in vitro and in vivo. Growth of SE cells was suppressed by DHT treatment and reduction of androgen levels by surgical castration promoted cancer cell growth in an in vivo xenograft model. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), the rate limit enzyme in serotonin synthesis, was one of the genes which expression was reduced in DHT-treated SE cells. TPH1 was highly expressed in SE cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Activation of androgen/AR signaling in SE cells reduced the expression of TPH1 in SE cells, followed by the reduction of serotonin secretion in cell culture supernatant. These results suggested that silencing of androgen/AR signaling may cause initiation and progression of SE through increase in TPH1 gene expression level. PMID:27144435

  13. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a testicular isoform of hormone-sensitive lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Holst, L.S.; Laurell, H.; Holm, C.

    1996-08-01

    By catalyzing the rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. The role and importance of HSL in tissues other than adipose are poorly understood. We report here the cloning and expression of a testicular isoform, designated HSL{sub tes}. Due to an addition of amino acids at the NH{sub 2}-termini, rat and human HSL{sub tes} consist of 1068 and 1076 amino acids, respectively, compared to the 768 and 775 amino acids, respectively, of the adipocyte isoform (HSL{sub adi}). A novel exon of 1.2 kb, encoding the human testis-specific amino acids, was isolated and mapped to the HSL gene, 16 kb upstream of the exons encoding HSL{sub adi}. The transcribed mRNA of 3.9 kb was specifically expressed in testis. No significant similarity with other known proteins was found for the testis-specific sequence. The amino acid composition differs from the HSL{sub adi} sequence, with a notable hydrophilic character and a high content of prolines and glutamines. COS cells, transfected by the 3.9-kb human testis cDNA, expressed a protein of the expected molecular mass (M{sub r} {approximately}120,000) that exhibited catalytic activity similar to that of HSL{sub adi}. Immunocytochemistry localized HSL to elongating spermatids and spermatozoa; HSL was not detected in interstitial cells. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Testicular function and glycemic control in diabetic men. A controlled study.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Conway, A J; Boylan, L M; Yue, D K; Turtle, J R

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated testicular function in 28 insulin-dependent diabetic men under the age of 50 years and 119 age-matched controls. Diabetics had reduced testicular volume, semen volume, total and total motile sperm output while plasma LH and FSH levels were elevated. Reduction in semen volume and impotence were more common in long-standing complicated diabetes. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) levels were positively correlated with plasma LH levels (r = 0.46, p less than 0.02) but there was no direct correlation of glycemic control and spermatogenesis. The differences in testicular function were due to decreased spermatogenesis and could not be explained by other forms of testicular pathology or the presence of diabetic neurovascular complications. We conclude that the function of the hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis is impaired in diabetic men, that this impairment is at least partly related to the degree of preceding glycemic control and that multiple levels of the axis may be dysfunctional.

  15. Primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma: an unusual presentation and review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiling; Zhang, Shiying; Zhu, Li; Li, Xinlu; Wang, Ying; Duan, Yaqi; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primary testicular B-lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare entity. Primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma was not reported before. We reported a 27-year-old man with primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma, for which fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) for the Philadelphia chromosome was not performed at the initial hospitalization. The patient showed manifestation of Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia at relapse. In this report, we reviewed the current literature about primary testicular B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, Ph-positive lymphoma and Ph-positive clone evolution. This report has 3 meanings. First: This is first report on primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma. Second: This shows the importance of cytogenics for lymphoma treatment. Third: This implies Philadelphia-positive subclone evolution. PMID:26147907

  16. Unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism and its effect on the testicular morphology, histology, accessory sex organs, and sperm count in laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Soumita; Joshi, Keshab Raj; Sengupta, Pallav; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Experimental unilateral cryptorchidism (ULC) and bilateral cryptorchidism (BLC) are excellent methods to study undescended testis in relation to spermatogenesis against a temperature gradient. OBJECTIVES: In case of ULC, it is possible to compare the testicular functions between normal condition and cryptorchidism in the same animal, whereas BLC shows the necessity of testicular androgens for proper maintenance of reproductive structures and functions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, experimental ULC and BLC was done on same-aged adult mature male mice and kept for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, to observe the changes due to the induced cryptorchidism on the different reproductive organs, viz., the testis and accessory sex organs along with epididymal sperm count. Reproductive tissues were collected from individual animals and histopathological studies of testis were done to investigate different cytological changes. RESULTS: The size of the testes and accessory sex organs were found to be significantly reduced in BLC mice, whereas only testicular weight reduction was observed in ULC mice. Histopathological studies showed degenerative changes throughout the seminiferous tubules. CONCLUSION: Thus, the present investigation showed compensatory androgen production in ULC mice, whereas absence of androgen mediated reproductive functions in BLC animals. PMID:24082651

  17. Corrective role of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: an approach through genomic and proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Ali, K M; De, D; Chatterjee, K; Ghosh, D

    2014-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanolic (40 : 60) extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in diabetic rats. In this respect, biomarkers of oxidative stress, genomics and proteomics in testicular tissue were assessed. Side by side, glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum, epididymal sperm count including reproductive organosomatic indices were evaluated. Results indicate that a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the levels of these parameters in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. A significant recovery was noted (P < 0.05) in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 gene towards the control after the treatment of said fraction. Histological study also focused a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated diabetic group. The said fraction treatment to diabetic rat can recover the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase significantly towards the control (P < 0.05). Finally, it may be concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of seed of E. jambolana has a promiseable remedial effect on diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in male rat without inducing any metabolic toxicity.

  18. Report: effects of Camellia sinensis L. (green tea) extract on the body and testicular weight changes in adult Wistar rate.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Muhammad Mazhar; Khatoon, Nasira; Azmi, Muhammad Arshad; Rajput, Muhammad Tariq; Zaidi, Syed Ijaz Hussain; Azmi, Muhammad Ahmed; Perveen, Rehana; Naqvi, Syed Naimul Hassan; Rashid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This research was aimed to study the effects of oral administration of Camellia sinensis L. on the testicular and body weights of adult Wistar rats for short and long time periods. The adult Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups (A, B and C). Every group had ten rats. Green tea extract 0.692% (w/v) was given to groups A and B on daily basis. The extracts were prepared fresh and given for a period of ten and thirty days, respectively, while distilled water was given to the group C rats only. The adult Wistar rats were sacrificed on eleventh and thirty-first day of experiment for the particular groups. The testes were dissected out cautiously, free from the supporter tissues and weighed to the adjacent 1 mg. There is no significant difference in the body weight in all 3 groups. Moreover, it was observed that Wistar rat's testicular weight was considerably increased in group B but no major changes were seen in group A. Our results indicated that green tea when given for short period of time may be effective to the testes but has no consequence on Wistar rat's body weight. However, it is indistinct if these alterations are reversible.

  19. Characterization of the testicular cell types present in the rat by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    van der Grond, J.; Van Pelt, A.M.; van Echteld, C.J.; Dijkstra, G.; Grootegoed, J.A.; de Rooij, D.G.; Mali, W.P. )

    1991-07-01

    Testes of vitamin A-deficient Wistar rats before and after vitamin A replacement, of rats irradiated in utero, and of control rats were investigated by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. The testicular phosphomonoester/ATP (PM/ATP) ratio ranged from 0.79 {plus minus} 0.05 for testes that contained only interstitial tissue and Sertoli cells to 1.64 {plus minus} 0.04 for testes in which spermatocytes were the most advanced cell types present. When new generations of spermatids entered the seminiferous epithelium, this ratio decreased. The testicular phosphodiester/ATP (PD/ATP) ratio amounted to 0.16 {plus minus} 0.06 for testes in which Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, or spermatocytes were the most advanced cell type present. When new generations of spermatids entered the seminiferous epithelium, the PD/ATP ratio rapidly increased and finally reached a value of 0.71 {plus minus} 0.06 for fully developed testes. Taken together, specific patterns of the PM/ATP ratio, the PD/ATP ratio, and pH were obtained that were correlated to the presence of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, and elongated spermatids or to the absence of spermatogenic cells. Hence, a good impression of the status of the seminiferous epithelium in the rat can be obtained by in vivo 31P MR spectroscopy.

  20. Heshouwu decoction, a Chinese herb for tonifying kidney, ameliorates hypothalamic-pituitary- testicular axis secretion in aging rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Siyun; Kou, Suru; Zhou, Xiaochun; Ding, Liang

    2012-07-25

    An increasing amount of evidence demonstrates the anti-aging effect of Heshouwu in pill form. In this study, a subacute aging rat model was established by continuous intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose and treated with Heshouwu decoction (a Chinese herb for tonifying the kidney, comprising Heshouwu pill, Herba Epimedii, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae, and Poria). Heshouwu pill treated rats were the positive control group. Radioimmunoassay, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot assay showed hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone, hypothalamic substance P, and serum gonadotropin levels to be significantly increased in the model rats; the concentrations of hypothalamic β-endorphin, and serum levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and testosterone were significantly decreased. 17β- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in testicular tissue was also decreased. Intragastric administration of Heshouwu decoction at high (9.6 g/mL/100 g), medium (4.8 g/mL/100 g), and low (2.4 g/mL/100 g) doses, Heshouwu decoction pretreatment at a medium dose (4.8 g/mL/100 g), and Heshouwu pill (2.06 g/mL/100 g) significantly reversed these changes. Heshouwu decoction pretreatment and high-dose Heshouwu decoction had the greatest anti-aging effects. These experimental findings indicate that Heshouwu decoction can improve hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis secretion in a subacute aging rat model, and prevent and delay gonadal axis aging, with an effect superior to that of Heshouwu pill.

  1. Sulforaphane Prevents Testicular Damage in Kunming Mice Exposed to Cadmium via Activation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Hua; Long, Miao; Yu, Li-Hui; Li, Lin; Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Yang; Gao, Feng; Liu, Ming-Da; He, Jian-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a natural and highly effective antioxidant. Studies suggest that SFN protects cells and tissues against cadmium (Cd) toxicity. This study investigated the protective effect of SFN against oxidative damage in the testes of Kunming mice exposed to cadmium, and explored the possible molecular mechanisms involved. Cadmium greatly reduced the serum testosterone levels in mice, reduced sperm motility, total sperm count, and increased the sperm deformity rate. Cadmium also reduces superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels and increases malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. SFN intervention improved sperm quality, serum testosterone, and antioxidant levels. Both mRNA and protein expression of mouse testicular nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was reduced in cadmium-treated group. Furthermore, the downstream genes of Nrf2, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) were also decreased in cadmium-treated group. SFN intervention increases the expression of these genes. Sulforaphane prevents cadmium-induced testicular damage, probably via activation of Nrf2/ARE signaling. PMID:27727176

  2. Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Lymph Node Metastasis of a Testicular Teratoma: A Very Rare Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Ozturk Sari, Sule; Ozluk, Yasemin; Taskin, Orhun Cig; Polat, Beldan; Ozturk, Ilker; Ekenel, Meltem; Kilicaslan, Isin; Bilgic, Bilge

    2016-08-01

    We present a case of a teratoma with somatic type malignancy (TSM) in the form of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) within supraclavicular and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases of a testicular pure teratoma. Resection of both masses revealed a teratoma without any other germ cell tumor component. A papillary carcinoma component was also detected intermingled with the teratomatous elements. The carcinoma cells displayed eosinophilic cytoplasm and prominent nucleoli. Groups of foamy histiocytes in the fibrovascular cores was a striking finding that brought pRCC to mind. Immunoreactivity for CK7, PAX8, AMACR, CD10, napsin, and vimentin along with morphologic findings confirmed renal cell differentiation. No radiological evidence of a primary renal cell carcinoma was found in the kidney. Consequently, pRCC arising in a teratoma was diagnosed. TSM is described as teratoma with a malignant component that is typically encountered in other organs and tissues. TSM in the form of pRCC is an extremely rare entity. Our case is the second example of a testicular germ cell tumor metastasis with a somatic malignancy in the form of pRCC. In conclusion, carcinomas of renal cell differentiation should be kept in mind as a rare form of TSM, especially in metastatic germ cell tumors. PMID:26936856

  3. INSL3/RXFP2 signaling in testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Ferlin, Alberto; Truong, Anne; Bathgate, Ross; Wade, John D; Corbett, Sean; Han, Shuo; Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Lamb, Dolores J; Foresta, Carlo; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2009-04-01

    Mutations of the insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) hormone or its receptor, RXFP2, cause intraabdominal cryptorchidism in male mice. Specific RXFP2 expression in mouse gubernacula was detected at embryonic day 14.5 and markedly increased after birth in the developing cremaster muscle, as well as in the epididymis and testicular Leydig and germ cells. INSL3 treatment stimulated cell proliferation of embryonic gubernacular and Leydig cells, implicating active INSL3-mediated signaling. The transcription factor SOX9, a known male sex determination factor, upregulated the activity of the RXFP2 promoter. INSL3 is sufficient to direct the first transabdominal phase of testicular descent in the absence of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis signaling or Hoxa10, although these factors are important for inguinoscrotal testicular descent. Similarly, conditional ablation of the androgen receptor gene in gubernacular cells resulted in disruption of inguinoscrotal descent. We performed mutation screening of INSL3 and RXFP2 in human patients with cryptorchidism and control subjects from different populations in Europe and the USA. Several missense mutations were described in both the INSL3 and RXFP2 genes. A novel V39G INSL3 mutation in a patient with cryptorchidism was identified; however, the functional analysis of the mutant peptide did not reveal compromised function. In more than 2000 patients and controls analyzed to date, the T222P RXFP2 mutation is the only one strongly associated with the mutant phenotype. The T222P mutant receptor, when transfected into 293T cells, had severely decreased cell membrane expression, providing the basis for the functional deficiency of this mutation.

  4. R-Spondin 1/Dickkopf-1/Beta-Catenin Machinery Is Involved in Testicular Embryonic Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Maria; Ferranti, Francesca; Corano Scheri, Katia; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Ciccarone, Fabio; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Testicular vasculogenesis is one of the key processes regulating male gonad morphogenesis. The knowledge of the molecular cues underlining this phenomenon is one of today’s most challenging issues and could represent a major contribution toward a better understanding of the onset of testicular morphogenetic disorders. R-spondin 1 has been clearly established as a candidate for mammalian ovary determination. Conversely, very little information is available on the expression and role of R-spondin 1 during testicular morphogenesis. This study aims to clarify the distribution pattern of R-spondin 1 and other partners of its machinery during the entire period of testicular morphogenesis and to indicate the role of this system in testicular development. Our whole mount immunofluorescence results clearly demonstrate that R-spondin 1 is always detectable in the testicular coelomic partition, where testicular vasculature is organized, while Dickkopf-1 is never detectable in this area. Moreover, organ culture experiments of embryonic male UGRs demonstrated that Dickkopf-1 acted as an inhibitor of testis vasculature formation. Consistent with this observation, real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that DKK1 is able to slightly but significantly decrease the expression level of the endothelial marker Pecam1. The latter experiments allowed us to observe that DKK1 administration also perturbs the expression level of the Pdgf-b chain, which is consistent with some authors’ observations relating this factor with prenatal testicular patterning and angiogenesis. Interestingly, the DKK1 induced inhibition of testicular angiogenesis was rescued by the co-administration of R-spondin 1. In addition, R-spondin 1 alone was sufficient to enhance, in culture, testicular angiogenesis. PMID:25910078

  5. Testicular nocardiosis accompanied by cutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Sekimoto, Etsuko; Shirakami, Atsuhisa; Shibata, Hironobu; Ozaki, Shuji; Shigekiyo, Toshio; Noda, Toshinori; Shikiji, Takanori; Kanda, Kazuya; Hirose, Takanori; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Gonoi, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man admitted for an acute cutaneous infection and persistent fever. A physical examination revealed systemic small blisters and scrotal swelling. He was suspected of having complications from chickenpox or bullous impetigo as the initial diagnosis. Nocardia was detected on an aspiration biopsy of the small blisters and the surgically removed testis at a later date. Testicular nocardiosis is a rare condition; however, we should consider nocardiosis in the differential diagnosis because delay in providing treatment may worsen a patient's general condition. PMID:23291688

  6. Mini-puberty and true puberty: differences in testicular function.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rodolfo A

    2014-05-01

    The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is particularly characterised by incomplete functional maturation in utero and during early postnatal life, followed by functional regression and partial quiescence during childhood, and subsequently by final complete maturation during puberty. This review addresses the distinctive features of testis developmental physiology--especially in the seminiferous tubule compartment--which explain the differences observed in testicular function and its disorders between the early postnatal activation period--which many authors call "mini-puberty"--and canonical puberty.

  7. PET/Computed Tomography in Renal, Bladder, and Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L

    2015-07-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/computed tomography (CT) is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in urooncology. In both bladder and renal cancers, there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder, and testicular cancers.

  8. Lead induced testicular changes in protein malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, D K; Murthy, R C; Lal, B; Chandra, S V

    1989-01-01

    The effect of concurrent low protein (8% casein) diet and lead (Pb) exposure (1 mg/ml lead acetate in drinking water) on testes of weaned rats up to 90 days of age was investigated Histopathological examination of testes of lead treated rats maintained on low protein diet revealed marked pathological changes associated with greatly reduced succinic dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphatase activity as revealed histochemically compared to lead treated rats fed normal protein diet. It was concluded that higher accumulation of lead may be responsible for altering the enzyme levels and inducing the testicular degeneration to a greater extent in low protein fed rats compared to their counterpart controls.

  9. Vanadium inhalation induces actin changes in mice testicular cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lara, Vianey; Morales-Rivero, Alonso; Rivera-Cambas, Angelica Muñiz; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-02-01

    Infertility is becoming a health problem, which has increased mainly in megacities, and several studies have shown its association with environmental pollution. Air pollution has been linked to alterations in sperm parameters, both in humans and animal models. In male humans, it has been associated with reduced semen quality and DNA alterations. Vanadium is a transition element that has increased in recent decades as a component of air suspended matter and has been associated with reprotoxic effects in animal models. Few are the mechanisms described by which the vanadium produces these effects, and cytoskeleton interaction is a possibility. We reported immunohistochemical changes in actin testicular cytoskeleton in a vanadium inhalation experimental mice model. Our findings show that exposure to vanadium pentoxide (0.02 M) results in actin decrease in testicular cells from 3-12 weeks exposure time; this effect was statistically significant and exposure time dependent. Actin cytoskeleton damage is a mechanism that could explain vanadium reprotoxic effects and its association with impaired fertility. PMID:24097359

  10. Testicular function following irradiation of the human prepubertal testis.

    PubMed

    Shalet, S M; Beardwell, C G; Jacobs, H S; Pearson, D

    1978-12-01

    Testicular function was studied in ten men, aged between 17 and 36 years, who had received irradiation for a nephroblastoma during childhood. The dose of scattered irradiation to the testes ranged from 268 to 983 rad. Eight subjects had either oligo- or azoospermia (0 to 5.6 million/ml), seven of whom had an elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level. One subject showed evidence of Leydig cell dysfunction with a raised serum luteinizing hormone level (LH) and a low plasma testosterone concentration. A second group of eight prepubertal males, aged between 8 and 14 years, were studied. These had also been irradiated for abdominal malignancies during childhood and received a similar dose of irradiation to the testis as the first group studied. The plasma testosterone levels were within the normal range for prepubertal boys in all eight. The mean gonadotrophin levels were not significantly different from the mean levels of normal prepubertal males. Thus irradiation-induced damage to the germinal epithelium in prepubertal boys produces raised FSH levels after puberty but not before it. We conclude, therefore, that inhibition has a minor role in the control of the prepubertal hypothalamic-pituitary testicular axis and its contribution to gonadal control of gonadotrophin secretion changes with sexual maturation.

  11. Testicular epidermoid cysts: sonographic features with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Dogra, V S; Gottlieb, R H; Rubens, D J; Oka, M; Di Sant Agnese, A P

    2001-01-01

    Testicular epidermoid cysts are rare, accounting for 1% of all testicular tumors. We present the sonographic appearances of epidermoid cysts in 3 cases, together with the histopathologic correlation. In case 1, sonography showed an intratesticular hypoechoic mass with a well-defined echogenic rim; the mass measured 1.8 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm, and there was no evidence of calcification. In case 2, sonography showed a well-circumscribed mass measuring 1.3 x 1.3 x 1.0 cm, with alternating hypoechoic and hyperechoic rings (onion-ring appearance) and no calcifications. In case 3, sonography showed a 2.4- x 2.3- x 2.3-cm, well-circumscribed, oval mass with a heterogeneous echotexture and an outer hypoechoic halo. The mass contained plaque-like regions of increased echogenicity, with peripheral acoustic shadowing from refraction artifact. Hypoechoic clefts were visualized posterior to the plaque-like areas. The triad of findings-sonographic appearance of an onion ring, avascularity on Doppler sonography, and negative results of tumor marker studies-is highly suggestive of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:11329161

  12. Carbon disulfide induces rat testicular injury via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinsheng; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Yijun; Chen, Guoyuan

    2014-08-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2), one of the most important volatile organic chemicals, was shown to have serious impairment to male reproductive system. But the underline mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we aim to investigate the male germ cell apoptosis induced by CS2 exposure alone and by co-administration with cyclosporin A (CsA), which is the inhibitor of membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP). It was shown that CS2 exposure impaired ultrastructure of germ cells, increased the numbers of apoptotic germ cells, accumulated intracellular level of calcium, elevated ROS level, and increased activities of complexes of respiratory chain. Meanwhile, exposure to CS2 dramatically decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and levels of ATP and MPTP opening. Exposure to CS2 can also cause a significantly dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of Bax, Cytc, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3, but decreased the expression level of Bcl-2. Moreover, co-administration of CsA with CS2 can reverse or alleviate the above apoptotic damage effects of CS2 on testicular germ cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that CS2 can cause damage to testicular germ cells via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and MPTP play a crucial role in this process. PMID:24582363

  13. Testicular cells in hybrid water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Bongso, T A; Hilmi, M; Basrur, P K

    1983-11-01

    Meiotic chromosome behaviour and testicular histology were studied in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) including two river (Murrah), two swamp and three F1 (Murrah cross swamp) hybrids aged between two and two and a half years, from testicular biopsies obtained by an open surgical method. Meiotic preparations revealed spermatogonial metaphases, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis, first and second meiotic metaphases and spermatozoa in all three types of buffalo. Chromosome sets ranging from 22 to 26 (most frequent, 24 and 25) with many cells carrying univalent, bivalent and multivalent configurations were observed in hybrids, whereas the meiotic cells in the Murrah and swamp showed chromosome sets exclusively of 25 and 24 (bivalents) respectively. Histological examination of the hybrid testis revealed a large proportion of degenerating spermatocytes and abnormal spermatids in the process of spermiogenesis suggesting that the various synaptic associations leading to unbalanced gametes may be responsible for the degenerating germ cells in the hybrids. The unbalanced meiotic products will probably lead to selection against such spermatozoa or early embryos after fertilisation. Due to a large percentage of germinal epithelial cells in F1 hybrids being wasted, the fertility of backcross and F2 generations will be subnormal.

  14. A Rare Emergency: Testicular Torsion in the Inguinal Canal

    PubMed Central

    Şener, Nevzat Can; Bas, Okan; Yesil, Suleyman; Zengin, Kursad; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To report our experience and present the largest series of testicular torsion cases in the inguinal canal. Material and Methods. The clinical data of 13 patients with testicular torsion in the inguinal canal treated between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Recorded patient age, whether the testes were palpable or not, side of the affected testes, the presence of hernia, ischemia time, and operation outcomes were assessed. Results. Patient age ranged from 8 to 70 months (29.15 ± 20.22). Mean ischemia time was 16.5 ± 21.3 hours. Accompanying inguinal hernia was present in 92% of the cases (12/13). Four of the thirteen patients (30.8%) were treated by orchiectomy because the necrosis was present after prolonged ischemia time. Nine patients (69.2%) were treated by single session orchidopexy. Conclusion. Torsion of testes in the inguinal canal is a rare disease, but with rapid diagnosis, affected testes can be salvaged, but the key factor is to keep this condition in mind. PMID:25654093

  15. A rare emergency: testicular torsion in the inguinal canal.

    PubMed

    Şener, Nevzat Can; Bas, Okan; Karakoyunlu, Nihat; Ercil, Hakan; Yesil, Suleyman; Zengin, Kursad; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To report our experience and present the largest series of testicular torsion cases in the inguinal canal. Material and Methods. The clinical data of 13 patients with testicular torsion in the inguinal canal treated between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Recorded patient age, whether the testes were palpable or not, side of the affected testes, the presence of hernia, ischemia time, and operation outcomes were assessed. Results. Patient age ranged from 8 to 70 months (29.15 ± 20.22). Mean ischemia time was 16.5 ± 21.3 hours. Accompanying inguinal hernia was present in 92% of the cases (12/13). Four of the thirteen patients (30.8%) were treated by orchiectomy because the necrosis was present after prolonged ischemia time. Nine patients (69.2%) were treated by single session orchidopexy. Conclusion. Torsion of testes in the inguinal canal is a rare disease, but with rapid diagnosis, affected testes can be salvaged, but the key factor is to keep this condition in mind.

  16. Chronic fluoride exposure-induced testicular toxicity is associated with inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ruifen; Luo, Guangying; Sun, Zilong; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fluoride (F) can affect testicular toxicity in humans and rodents. However, the mechanism underlying F-induced testicular toxicity is not well understood. This study was conducted to evaluate the sperm quality, testicular histomorphology and inflammatory response in mice followed F exposure. Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 0, 25, 50, 100 mg/L in the drinking water for 180 days. At the end of the exposure, significantly increased percentage of spermatozoa abnormality was found in mice exposed to 50 and 100 mg/L NaF. Disorganized spermatogenic cells, vacuoles in seminiferous tubules and loss and shedding of sperm cells were also observed in the NaF treated group. In addition, chronic F exposure increased testicular interleukin-17(IL-17), interleukin-17 receptor C (IL-17RC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in transcriptional levels, as well as IL-17 and TNF-α levels in translational levels. Interestingly, we observed that F treated group elevated testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA level and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Taken together, these results indicated that testicular inflammatory response could contribute to chronic F exposure induced testicular toxicity in mice.

  17. Effect of atenolol on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Biswas, N M; Sen Gupta, R; Chattopadhyay, A; Choudhury, G R; Sarkar, M

    2001-01-01

    Cadmium-induced stress adversely affects testicular activity and causes sympathetic stimulation. To investigate the effect of atenolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, on testicular androgen synthesis after cadmium treatment, adult Sprague-Dawley strain male rats were given a single sc dose of cadmium chloride 0.45 mg/kg BW. Animals were killed on day 3 after treatment. Adrenal weight, adrenal delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta 5-3 beta-HSD) activity, serum corticosterone, and brain noradrenaline were increased significantly while testicular delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activities, serum testosterone, and accessory sex organs weight were decreased. Oral coadministration of atenolol at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight for 3 days resulted in complete protection of adrenal delta 5-3 beta-HSD, testicular delta 5-3 beta-HSD, and 17 beta-HSD activities, adrenal weight, serum corticosterone, and serum testosterone when compared with cadmium-only group and there were no significant differences in these parameters from the vehicle control values. Simultaneous administration of cadmium and atenolol also protected brain noradrenaline content and reduced the rise of testicular cadmium concentration. All the parameters were similar to control levels in rats treated with atenolol alone. We conclude that atenolol may protect testicular androgen synthesis by inhibiting the action of noradrenaline on testicular Leydig cells and adrenocortical hyperactivity in cadmium-treated rats. PMID:11738523

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination training for patient care personnel: intervention study.

    PubMed

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebiş, Hatice

    2014-12-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled intervention study. The study included 96 patient care staff divided into two groups of 48 participants each: Group I, the interactive education group, and Group II, the pamphlet education group. The results demonstrated that TSE practice and TC knowledge significantly increased in both Group I and Group II. Significant differences were observed between the groups pre and post education. TSE and TC knowledge levels were higher for participants in Group I than those in Group II. There was a significant difference in the performance of TSEs between groups: the rates were 83.3% in Group I and 54.2% in Group II. Perceived confidence and perceived barriers increased significantly for both groups. Interactive education sessions should be used to train men at risk for TC to perform TSEs. PMID:25248831

  19. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion.

    PubMed

    Funada, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toru; Segawa, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS. PMID:27034882

  20. Testicular infarction and rupture: an uncommon complication of epididymo-orchitis

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Daniel; Penkoff, Peter; Stanowski, Matthew; Beattie, Kieran; Wang, Audrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Epididymo-orchitis is a common diagnosis in men presenting with unilateral testicular pain. It can be of an infectious or non-infectious aetiology. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations do not reliably differentiate testicular infarction secondary to epididymo-orchitis from uncomplicated epididymo-orchitis. Definitive diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound. Misdiagnosis and under-treatment can lead to poor outcome, such as infarction and loss of the affected testis. We present an uncommon case of epididymo-orchitis resulting in testicular infarction and rupture despite normal initial investigations. PMID:27165751

  1. Use of a vascularized tunica vaginalis flap for repair of testicular rupture in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Jian, Peter Y; Nelson, Eric D; Roth, David R

    2012-06-01

    The management of testicular rupture in children with a large tunical defect is challenging. We describe a technique suitable when primary closure cannot be achieved. A 16-year-old boy presented with right testicular rupture. Owing to the large tunical separation and excessive edema, primary closure could not be achieved. A tunica vaginalis flap was then fashioned with a broad-based pedicle to complete closure. The patient had an uneventful recovery. At 4 months postoperatively, the testis was of normal size and position, and the ultrasound findings were normal. The vascularized tunica vaginalis flap provides an excellent alternative method for closure of pediatric testicular rupture.

  2. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Ikeuchi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toru; Segawa, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS. PMID:27034882

  3. Responses of Spermatogenous Tissue and Mechanisms of Their Development Upon Cytostatic Exposure.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Chaikovskii, A V; Zhdanov, V V; Zyuz'kov, G N; Stavrova, L A; Udut, V V; Miroshnichenko, L A; Simanina, E V; Borovskaya, T G; Poluektova, M E

    2015-10-01

    A decrease in the total number of sperm cells and reduction of spermatogonium population were observed upon cytostatic damage of spermatogenous tissue caused by single paclitaxel administration. It was established that the paclitaxel-induced damage to the testicular tissue is underlain by reduction of its regenerative potential consisting in depletion of regional precursor pool. Changes in functional activity of progenitor cells were caused not only by direct action of paclitaxel, but also by suppression of the secretory function of the tissue microenvironment.

  4. Suppression of Spermatogenesis by Bisdichloroacetyldiamines Is Mediated by Inhibition of Testicular Retinoic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Amory, John K.; Muller, Charles H.; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Isoherranen, Nina; Paik, Jisun; Moreb, Jan S.; Amory, David W.; Evanoff, Ryan; Goldstein, Alex S.; Griswold, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The bisdichloroacetyldiamine WIN 18,446 reversibly inhibits spermatogenesis in many species, including humans; however, the mechanism by which WIN 18,446 functions is unknown. As retinoic acid is essential for spermatogenesis, we hypothesized that WIN 18,446 might inhibit retinoic acid biosynthesis from retinol (vitamin A) within the testes by inhibiting the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase 1a2 (ALDH1a2). We studied the effect of WIN 18,446 on ALDH1a2 enzyme activity in vitro, and on spermatogenesis and fertility in vivo, in mature male rabbits for 16 weeks. WIN 18,446 markedly inhibited ALDH1a2 enzyme activity in vitro with an IC50 of 0.3 μM. In vivo, the oral administration of 200 mg/kg WIN 18,446 to male rabbits for 16 weeks significantly reduced intratesticular concentrations of retinoic acid, severely impaired spermatogenesis, and caused infertility. Reduced concentrations of intratesticular retinoic acid were apparent after only 4 weeks of treatment and preceded the decrease in sperm counts and the loss of mature germ cells in tissue samples. Sperm counts and fertility recovered after treatment was discontinued. These findings demonstrate that bisdichloroacetyldiamines such as WIN 18,446 reversibly suppress spermatogenesis via inhibition of testicular retinoic acid biosynthesis by ALDH1a2. These findings suggest that ALDH1a2 is a promising target for the development of a reversible, nonhormonal male contraceptive. PMID:20705791

  5. Effects of thymoquinone on testicular structure and sperm production in male obese rats.

    PubMed

    Tüfek, Nur Hande; Altunkaynak, Muhammad Eyüp; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Kaplan, Süleyman

    2015-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa. It has antioxidant and anti-cancer effects. This study investigated the effects of TQ on obesity and testicular structure of high-fat-diet (HFD) fed rats. Obese control (OC) and obese thymoquinone (OT) groups were fed a special diet containing 40% of total calories from fat. Non-obese control (NC) and non-thymoquinone (NT) groups were fed a standard diet for nine weeks. Then, intraperitoneal TQ injections were carried out to the OT and NT groups for six weeks and testes were removed. Catalase and myeloperoxidase activity were determined in rat testis tissue. Stereological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical changes were evaluated in the testes of the rats. In stereological studies, mean volumes of testis and seminiferous tubules, the number of spermatogenic cells and also Leydig cells in the OC group were reduced, but these values significantly increased in the OT group. Apoptotic cells were observed in the OC group in comparison to the OT group. The number of healthy sperms were reduced in the OC group, whereas the majority showed anomalies in the head, neck, and tail. The number of healthy sperm was increased and the anomalies significantly reduced by using TQ in both the NT, and especially the OT group. TQ like antioxidants may improve fertility by means of increasing the healthy sperm number and preventing sperm anomalies. PMID:26043060

  6. Testicular toxicity induced by dietary cadmium in cocks and ameliorative effect by selenium.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Long; Gao, Rui; Li, Shu; Wang, Jin-Tao; Tang, Zhao-Xin; Xu, Shi-Wen

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant that has been associated with male reproductive toxicity in animal models. However, little is known about the reproductive toxicity of Cd in birds. To investigate the toxicity of Cd on male reproduction in birds and the protective effects of selenium (Se) against subchronic exposure to dietary Cd, 100-day-old cocks received either Se (as 10 mg Na(2)SeO(3) per kg of diet), Cd (as 150 mg CdCl(2) per kg of diet) or Cd + Se in their diets for 60 days. Histological and ultrastructural changes in the testis, the concentrations of Cd and Se, amount of lipid peroxidation (LPO), the activities of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and apoptosis and serum testosterone levels were determined. Exposure to Cd significantly lowered SOD and GPx activity, Se content in the testicular tissue, and serum testosterone levels. It increased the amount of LPO, the numbers of apoptotic cells and Cd concentration and caused obvious histopathological changes in the testes. Concurrent treatment with Se reduced the Cd-induced histopathological changes in the testis, oxidative stress, endocrine disorder and apoptosis, suggesting that the toxic effects of cadmium on the testes is ameliorated by Se. Se supplementation also modified the distribution of Cd in the testis. PMID:20372978

  7. The influence of hollyhock extract administration on testicular function in rats.

    PubMed

    Papiez, Monika A

    2004-11-01

    It has been reported, recently that an aqueous extract from hollyhock flowers (Althaea rosea Cav. varietas nigra) induces weak metabolic changes in rat testes. In the present study, the in vivoinfluence of a methanolic extract was investigated on the metabolism and morphology of the rat testis. To this end, histochemical, morphometric and radioimmunological methods were used. The rats drank the extract at a dose of 100 mg/day for 7 weeks. The histochemical activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and Delta(5)beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta(5)betaHSD) increased significantly statistically in the Leydig cells of the experimental rats in comparison with controls. There were no significant changes in either the diameter of seminiferous tubules or the height of seminiferous epithelium after hollyhock administration. Further, only a small amount of hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue was observed. The morphological and histoenzymatic changes in the Leydig cells indicate that the methanolic hollyhock extract has a direct but small influence on rat testes. The insignificant changes in testicular testosterone and estradiol content suggest that the extract does not disturb steroidogenesis.

  8. Analysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-day exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation.

    PubMed

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed

    2014-12-01

    The use of electromagnetic field (EMF) generating apparatuses such as cell phones is increasing, and has caused an interest in the investigations of its effects on human health. We analyzed proteome in preparations from the whole testis in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 30 consecutive days, simulating a range of possible human cell phone use. Subjects were sacrificed immediately after the end of the experiment and testes fractions were solubilized and separated via high-resolution 2D electrophoresis, and gel patterns were scanned, digitized, and processed. Thirteen proteins, which were found only in sham or in exposure groups, were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Among them, heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-1, and other proteins related to misfolding of proteins and/or stress were identified. These results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency modulated EMFs exposure on proteome, particularly in protein species in the rodent testis, and suggest that a 30-day exposure to EMF radiation induces nonthermal stress in testicular tissue. The functional implication of the identified proteins was discussed.

  9. Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Bas, Orhan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Mobile phones are extensively used throughout the world. There is a growing concern about the possible public health hazards posed by electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. Potential health risk applies particularly to the most intensive mobile phone users-typically, young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone exposure to the testes, by assessing the histopathological and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells of rats during pubertal development. A total of 12 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The study group (n = 6) was exposed to a mobile phone for 1 h a day for 45 days, while the control group (n = 6) remained unexposed. The testes were processed with routine paraffin histology and sectioned. They were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, caspase 3, and Ki-67 and then photographed. No changes were observed between the groups (p > 0.05). The interstitial connective tissue and cells of the exposed group were of normal morphology. No abnormalities in the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules, including the spermatogenic cycle stage, were observed. Our study demonstrated that mobile phones with a low specific absorption rate have no harmful effects on pubertal rat testicles.

  10. Effects of oxidative stress on apoptosis in manganese-induced testicular toxicity in cocks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-fei; Zhang, Li-ming; Guan, Hua-nan; Zhang, Zi-wei; Xu, Shi-wen

    2013-10-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a trace element known to be essential for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. However, little is known about the reproductive toxicity of Mn in birds. To investigate the toxicity of Mn on male reproduction in birds, 50-day-old cocks were fed either a commercial diet or a Mn-supplemented diet containing 600, 900, and 1800 mg/kg MnCl₂. After being treated with Mn for 30, 60, and 90 d, the following were determined: Mn content; histological and ultrastructural changes in the testes, apoptosis; the malondialdehyde (MDA) level; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD); the inhibition ability of hydroxyl radicals (OH); the levels of nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and protein carbonyl in the testes; the DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC); and the activity of the ATP enzyme. Exposure to Mn significantly lowered the activity of SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the inhibition ability of OH. Mn exposure also increased the levels of MDA, NO, NOS, DPC, and protein carbonyl; the number of apoptotic cells; and the Mn content and caused obvious histopathological changes in the testes. These findings suggested that Mn exposure resulted in the oxidative damage of cock testicular tissue by altering radical formation, ATP enzyme systems, apoptosis, and DNA damage, which are possible underlying reproductive toxicity mechanisms induced by Mn exposure.

  11. Social, behavioural and medical factors in the aetiology of testicular cancer: results from the UK study. UK Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Although many risk factors have been proposed for the aetiology of testicular cancer, only a history of cryptorchidism is well established. All risk factors previously suggested have been explored in this study. This population-based case-control study was carried out in nine health regions in England and Wales and included 794 men, aged 15-49 years, diagnosed with a testicular germ cell tumour between 1 January 1984 and 30 September 1986, each with an individually age-matched control. Cases and controls were interviewed and data were abstracted from their general practitioner notes. Participation rates for cases and controls were 92.0% and 83.1% respectively. Where possible the mother of each interviewed man was sent a postal questionnaire for self-completion. Testicular trauma at least 2 years prior to diagnosis was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.61]. Ever having had a sexually transmitted disease was also associated with an increased risk (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.46-3.39). There was little evidence of an association with cigarette smoking. Sporting activity had a protective effect. Detailed exploration of testicular temperature (wearing of tight underpants, jeans or trousers, hot baths and central heating) failed to reveal any relationship with risk of testicular cancer. There were no clear occupational associations. PMID:8080739

  12. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  13. Relationships between fertility and some parameters in male broiler breeders (body and testicular weight, histology and immunohistochemistry of testes, spermatogenesis and hormonal levels).

    PubMed

    Sarabia Fragoso, J; Pizarro Díaz, M; Abad Moreno, J C; Casanovas Infesta, P; Rodriguez-Bertos, A; Barger, K

    2013-04-01

    In a farm of grandparent broiler breeder chickens, we followed the development of 350 roosters from 6 to 55 weeks of age. Data collected and evaluated from these males included body weight, testicular weight, histologic and immunohistochemistry studies of the testes, hormone levels (testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone) and sperm production. The objective was to understand the factors that affect or influence hatch loss that is commonly observed after 45 weeks of age in breeder flocksare often correlated to broiler breeder male chickens. The results of this study showed that in conjunction with the weight of the rooster, the testicle weight increases quickly after the rooster receives light stimulation. At an older age, the study showed that there is a process of testicular shrinkage, and the same effect is seen in sperm production and testosterone levels in broiler breeder roosters. From the histology evaluation, we defined 5 histologic phases that illustrate the evolution of the testicular tissue: perinatal, infantile, puberty, adult and senile. We observed that the adult males with a body weight <3800 g were infertile or had subfertile levels and also had low levels of testosterone and high levels of corticosterone. In contrast, the heaviest males showed correct testicular vitality, high levels of testosterone and low levels of corticosterone. However, the roosters that had acquired this high body weight were also at risk of having less complete copulations because of their physical mass. The loss of uniformity of the males and the appearance of hierarchies within the flock accompany a decline in the percentages of hatches as a consequence of the poor confirmation of the males for copulation or the restriction to the access to the females. Results of this study show that the decrease in fertility from 45 weeks of age has been associated with a decline in testicular weight, sperm production and the testosterone levels in animals with a sub-par weight

  14. Traumatic testicular dislocation a review of 36 cases.

    PubMed

    Kochakarn, W; Choonhaklai, V; Hotrapawanond, P; Muangman, V

    2000-02-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 36 patients who were treated in our institutes with traumatic testicular dislocation from 1975 to 1997. The mean patient age was 25 years old (18-38). Average time to present at the emergency room was 1 hour (0.5-6). Bilateral dislocation was found in thirty cases and unilateral dislocation was found in six cases. The sites of dislocation included: 34 cases (64 testes) at superficial inguinal area, one case (one testis) at acetabular area, and one case (one testis) at the perineal area. Closed reduction under general anesthesia was successful in 14 cases, open reduction after failed closed reduction in 10 cases, open exploration and repaired testis with reposition in 11 cases and orchiectomy only in one case. The overall results after treatment showed the normal size and position of the testis. PMID:10710892

  15. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of testicular undescent.

    PubMed

    Husmann, D A; Levy, J B

    1995-08-01

    At present, we believe that descent of the testes within the human is a complex event mediated by both hormonal and mechanical factors. We hypothesize that descent of the testes occurs as a result of the secretion of an androgen-independent factor from a normal testis (descendin). This paracrine factor is responsible for the rapid proliferation (outgrowth) of the ipsilateral gubernaculum. The development of the gubernaculum results in creating a dilated inguinal canal, the width of which matches the testicular width. Descent of the testes through the inguinal canal is an interplay between abdominal pressure, a patent processus vaginalis, and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. We hypothesize that androgens (under control of an intact hypothalamic pituitary axis) alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum, reducing the turgidity of the gubernaculum and allowing intra-abdominal pressure to push the testis into the scrotum. Cryptorchidism can therefore result when any one or more of the involved factors malfunction. PMID:7625001

  16. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of testicular undescent.

    PubMed

    Husmann, D A; Levy, J B

    1995-08-01

    At present, we believe that descent of the testes within the human is a complex event mediated by both hormonal and mechanical factors. We hypothesize that descent of the testes occurs as a result of the secretion of an androgen-independent factor from a normal testis (descendin). This paracrine factor is responsible for the rapid proliferation (outgrowth) of the ipsilateral gubernaculum. The development of the gubernaculum results in creating a dilated inguinal canal, the width of which matches the testicular width. Descent of the testes through the inguinal canal is an interplay between abdominal pressure, a patent processus vaginalis, and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. We hypothesize that androgens (under control of an intact hypothalamic pituitary axis) alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum, reducing the turgidity of the gubernaculum and allowing intra-abdominal pressure to push the testis into the scrotum. Cryptorchidism can therefore result when any one or more of the involved factors malfunction.

  17. Cytotoxic effects of WR-2721 on mouse testicular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Meistrich, M.L.; Finch, M.V.; Hunter, N.; Milas, L.

    1984-09-01

    WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid) has been demonstrated to be cytotoxic to stem spermatogonia in the mouse. Five and 10 injections of 300 mg/kg killed sufficient numbers of stem cells to reduce sperm production 56 days after treatment by 16 and 43%, respectively. Single injections of 300 or 400 mg/kg of WR-2721 given 15 min after irradiation produced negligible toxicity to stem cells as measured by counts of repopulated tubules; 600 mg/kg reduced stem cell survival by 47%. Four daily injections of 300 mg/kg given 4, 3, 2, and 1 days prior to irradiation reduced stem cell survival by about 60%. The cytotoxic effects of WR-2721 on testicular stem cells at least partially explains the reduced protection factors observed in the testis with low doses of radiation and during fractionated treatments involving multiple injections of drug.

  18. Germ cell transplantation: a potential treatment of severe testicular failure.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D J; Lamb, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although the process of spermatogenesis is relatively efficient and resistant to damage, male infertility can result from exposure to toxic agents such as chemotherapeutic regimes, radiation, or occupational exposures to chemicals. Other types of infertility may result from migratory defects or poor survival of primordial germ cells during development, abnormal repopulation of the tubules by spermatogonia during development, or low cellularity of the testis (hypospermatogenesis). Presently, there are no effective therapies available to treat these patients. Recent studies in animal models have demonstrated that isolated testicular germ cells collected from testes may be transplanted into sterile recipient mice to regenerate spermatogenesis. This technology will have widespread applications in efforts to manipulate the genome and produce transgenic offspring, to improve agricultural species, to enhance sperm production in endangered species, to improve our understanding of the control mechanisms regulating spermatogenesis, and to treat male infertility.

  19. Testicular toxicity in rat to repeated oral administration of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Thiram).

    PubMed

    Mishra, V K; Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    1998-04-01

    Thiram was administered to male rats through gavage at doses 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg/day for 180 and 360 days. Thiram has caused marginal increase in the relative weight of testes and epididymis and decrease in the weight of seminal vesicle and prostate. Marked degenerative changes were observed in seminiferous tubules together with alterations in testicular enzyme profile. The activity of testicular enzymes such as ACP, SDH and ATPase (Na+ + K+ dependent) was decreased whereas activity of LDH, G-6-PDH and ALP increased. The levels of serum cholesterol and testicular free sialic acid were enhanced, while the level of testicular protein was lowered. It is evident from the present study that long term treatment of thiram at tested dose levels has resulted in dose and time dependent morphological and biochemical changes in testes of rat.

  20. Two males with SRY-positive 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan

    2013-02-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.

  1. Lead toxicity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

    PubMed

    Sokol, R Z; Madding, C E; Swerdloff, R S

    1985-10-01

    Environmental exposure to toxic levels of lead occurs in a number of industries with potential adverse effects on the reproductive capacity of exposed men. Clinical and animal studies indicate that abnormalities of spermatogenesis result from toxic lead exposure, but the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been identified. In order to ascertain what reproductive abnormalities occur in experimental animals when exposed to low levels of lead, 52-day-old animals were treated with water containing 0.0% (control), 0.1%, or 0.3% lead acetate for 30 days prior to killing. Whole blood serum lead levels were below detection (less than 7 micrograms/dl) in the control animals, 34 +/- 3 micrograms/dl in the 0.1% group, and 60 +/- 4 micrograms/dl in the 0.3% group (P less than 0.001). Significant negative correlations between whole blood lead levels and serum and intratesticular testosterone values were found (r = 0.64, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.6, P less than 0.001, respectively). As the level of lead exposure increased, intratesticular sperm counts significantly decreased (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). No significant changes in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) values were found, but sperm follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were significantly suppressed (P less than 0.05) after lead treatment. There was a significant decrease in ventral prostate weight (P less than 0.05), but no differences in testicular or seminal vesicle weights. Our data indicate that dietary exposure to lead resulting in whole blood serum lead values considered acceptable in the workplace (less than or equal to 40 micrograms/dl) causes inhibition of testicular function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Kidd, G S; Glass, A R; Vigersky, R A

    1979-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was evaluated in seven men with thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease. Loss of libido and decreased potency were present in 71% and 56%, respectively. All patients had normal testicular volume (25 ml in all) and gynecomastia was detected in two of seven patients. Total sperm counts were less than 40 million in four of the five men tested. There was an inverse correlation between basal serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2) levels and total sperm count (r = -0.87; P less than 0.05). Mean (+/- SE) total testosterone (T) and E2 levels (1008 +/- 104 ng/100 ml and 104 +/- 16 pg/ml) were significantly higher than in normal men (P less than 0.05). Free T (13.6 +/- 2.4 ng/100 ml) was indistinguishable from normal (15.3 +/- 1.5 ng/100 ml). The mean (+/- SE) response of serum T to hCG administration was blunted (80 +/- 40%) compared to controls (193 +/- 19%; P less than 0.02). Basal plasma LH levels (15.5 +/- 1.5 mIU/ml) were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than in normal men (9.1 +/- 0.6 mIU/ml) and hyperresponded to 100 microgram LRH iv in five of seven patients. Basal plasma FSH levels and the FSH response to LRH were normal. These results suggest that men with hyperthyroidism have 1) partial Leydig cell failure, 2) impairment of spermatogenesis, and 3) blunting of the feedback effects of E2.

  3. Development of interspecies testicular germ-cell transplantation in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarini, Tiziana; Sarasquete, Carmen; Cabrita, Elsa

    2014-06-01

    Interspecific testicular germ cell (TGC) transplantation was investigated in two commercial flatfish species. Testes from donor species (Senegalese sole) were evaluated using classical histological techniques (haematoxylin-eosin staining and haematoxylin-light green-orange G-acid fuchsine staining), in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical analysis. Both Ssvasa1-2 mRNAs and SsVasa protein allowed the characterisation of TGCs, confirming the usefulness of the vasa gene in the detection of Senegalese sole TGCs. Xenogenic transplants were carried out using TGCs from one-year-old Senegalese sole into turbot larvae. Propidium iodide-SYBR-14 and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining showed that 87.98% of the extracted testicular cells were viable for microinjection and that 15.63% of the total recovered cells were spermatogonia. The vasa gene was characterised in turbot recipients using cDNA cloning. Smvasa mRNA was confirmed as a germ cell-specific molecular marker in this species. Smvasa expression analysis during turbot ontogeny was carried out before Senegalese sole TGC transplants into turbot larvae. Turbot larvae at 18 days after hatching (DAH) proved to be susceptible to manipulation procedures. High survival rates (83.75±15.90-100%) were obtained for turbot larvae at 27, 34 and 42 DAH. These data highlight the huge potential of this species for transplantation studies. Quantitative PCR was employed to detect Senegalese sole vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2) in the recipient turbot larvae. The Ssvasa mRNAs showed a significant increase in relative expression in 42-DAH microinjected larvae three weeks after treatment, showing the proliferation of Senegalese sole spermatogonia in transplanted turbot larvae.

  4. Testicular microlithiasis in acquired undescended testis after orchidopexy at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, E; Meij-de Vries, A; Goede, J; van der Voort-Doedens, L; Zijp, G; Hack, W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in surgically corrected acquired undescended testis (UDT). The prevalence of TM was assessed by ultrasound. Boys and young men who had undergone orchidopexy (ORP) for acquired UDT in mid or late childhood were observed to study the long-term testicular volume. During this examination, the presence or absence of TM was also assessed. TM was defined as echogenic foci without shadowing within the testis parenchyma. We included 106 patients who had undergone ORP at the Medical Center Alkmaar (1986-1999) and 155 patients who had undergone ORP at the Juliana Children's Hospital (1996-2009). The majority of patients were white, Caucasian (82%). The median age at follow-up, 25.8 years (range 14.0-31.6 years) was higher in Medical Center Alkmaar than in Juliana Children's Hospital 13.4 years (range 5.1-26.6 years). From 2009 to 2011, these 261 patients (median age 18.9 years) underwent an ultrasound examination. Median follow-up after ORP was 11.3 years (range 1.4-23.5 years); age at ORP ranged from 2.1 to 16.2 years, with a median of 8.5 years. TM was found in 17 (6.5%) patients (median age at follow-up 20.4 years; range 11-28). No significant association was found with the incidence of TM and the operated testis, the age at ORP or the racial variance (p > 0.05). ORP at diagnosis for acquired UDT is associated with a 6.5% prevalence of TM in boys and young adults.

  5. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  6. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  7. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  8. Report of 4 cases of testicular rupture in adolescent boys secondary to sports-related trauma.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard J; Attia, Magdy; Cronan, Kate

    2008-12-01

    Testicular rupture is a rare entity in children and adolescents. This is due to the smaller size of the testicles in these patients, the well-protected location of the testicles, and the high degree of mobility of these organs. We present 4 cases of testicular rupture occurring in preadolescent and adolescent boys over an 11-month period in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department.

  9. Diagnosis of cardiac tamponade with transesophageal echocardiography following the induction of anesthesia for suspected testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Stephen M.; Wang, Xiao; Sullivan, Erin A.

    2015-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable tool for evaluating hemodynamic instability in patients under general anesthesia. We present the case of a 28-year-old man who presented with complaints of testicular pain concerning for testicular torsion. After induction of general anesthesia for scrotal exploration and possible orchiopexy, the patient developed severe and persistent hypotension. Using intraoperative TEE, the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade was made, and an emergent pericardial window was performed. PMID:26139762

  10. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shalini; Sachdev, Ritesh; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-07-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer's ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  11. [Effect of LHRH agonists on testicular microcirculation with Doppler laser flowmetry].

    PubMed

    Gonzalvo, V; Navalón, P; Lloris, J M

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the changes that take place in testicular microcirculation measured by DLF during systemic administration of LHRH agonists. The essay includes a comparison with the variations registered in the volume of testicular interstitial fluid, the anatomopathological changes and the associated leucocyte demyeloperoxidase levels. We also examine the relationship between testicular microcirculation changes and plasma testosterone levels. To do this, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, using 10 as control group and the remaining 40 distributed in 4 groups. Measurements were done at 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours after administration of Tryptorelin 0.4 mg i.v. We found that acute administration of an LHRH agonist causes a series of significant changes on testicular microcirculation. Testicular rhythmic microcirculatory flow, i.e., vasomotion, disappears. In turn, accumulation of PMN leucocytes associated to increased venular permeability takes places. Such pre- and postcapillary vascular changes lead to increased vascular permeability which results in increased volume of testicular interstitial fluid. This increased capillary permeability is responsible for the extensive interstitial oedema that would explain the serious histological changes seen on the seminiferous tubule with these drugs.

  12. Influence of combined treatment with zinc and selenium on cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology in rat.

    PubMed

    Saïd, Lamia; Banni, Mohamed; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid; Saïd, Khaled; Messaoudi, Imed

    2010-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential benefit of combined treatment with zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) in reversing cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular pathophysiology compared to Se or Zn treatment alone in rats. For this purpose, male rats received either tap water, Cd, Cd+Zn, Cd+Se or Cd+Zn+Se in their drinking water, for 35 days. Cd exposure caused a significant decrease in plasma and testicular concentrations of Se and Zn which was accompanied by decreased plasma testosterone level, sperm count and motility, enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as by increased lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde, MDA). With Se or Zn administration, during exposure to Cd, only partial corrective effects on depletion of testicular and plasma Se and Zn levels, sperm characteristics and oxidative stress have been observed. The combined treatment of Cd-exposed animals with Se and Zn assured a more significant decrease in plasma and testicular Cd concentrations and a more efficient protection against the observed testicular damage as evidenced by the total prevention of both Se and Zn deprivation and by the entire restoration of the sperm motility and the testicular antioxidant status. PMID:20621149

  13. Changes of testicular phosphorylated proteins in response to restraint stress in male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Uabundit, Nongnut; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate male reproductive parameters via changes of potential testicular protein markers in restraint-stress rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (non-immobilized control and restraint-immobilized/stress groups, n=8 each group). The stress animals were immobilized (12 h/d) by a restraint cage for 7 consecutive days. All reproductive parameters, morphology and histology were observed and compared between groups. In addition, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and phosphotyrosine proteins (previously localized in Sertoli and late spermatid cells) in testicular lysate was assayed by immuno-Western blotting. Results: Testosterone level, sperm concentration and sperm head normality of stress rats were significantly decreased while the corticosterone level was increased as compared with the control (P<0.05). Histologically, stress rats showed low sperm mass in epididymal lumen and some atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Although the expression of testicular StAR protein was not significantly different between groups, changed patterns of the 131, 95, and 75 kDa testicular phosphorylated proteins were observed in the stress group compared with the control group. The intensity of a testicular 95-kDa phosphorylated protein was significantly decreased in stress rats. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the alteration of testicular phosphorylated protein patterns, associated with adverse male reproductive parameters in stress rats. It could be an explanation of some infertility in stress males. PMID:26739523

  14. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL.

  15. The annual testicular cycle in an equatorial colony of lesser rock hyrax, Heterohyrax brucei.

    PubMed

    Neaves, W B

    1979-11-30

    Adult males from a colony of lesser rock hyrax found near the equator in Kenya exhibited an annual cycle of testicular activity characterized by intense spermatogenesis and elevated androgen status from May to July. Average masses of testes and seminal vesicles taken in these months were almost fourfold greater than those from September to January. During the months of peak testicular activity average diameters of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules were increased by approximately one half and total tubule length was doubled, compared with values for the quiescent months. Variable testicular development occurred during transitional intervals preceding and following peak testicular activity. From February to Aril thickening of the seminiferous epithelium and appearance of spermatozoa in the caput epididymidis signalled re-establishment of sperm production. In August shedding of germinal cells from the epithelium heralded impending failure of spermatogenesis. Evidence of an annual testicular cycle contradicted the prevalent belief that equatorial hyrax breed all year and suggested that the testicular cycle is a conservative element of hyracoid reproductive strategy.

  16. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  17. Protective effect of diallyl disulfide on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. DADS was gavaged to rats once daily for 3 days at 100 mg/kg/day. One hour after the final DADS treatment, the rats were given a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg CP. All rats were killed and necropsied on day 56 after CP treatment. Parameters of testicular toxicity included reproductive organ weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility and morphology, epididymal index, and histopathologic examinations. The CP treatment caused a decrease in body weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index. The histopathological examination revealed various morphological alterations, characterized by degeneration of spermatogonia/spermatocytes, vacuolization, and decreased number of spermatids/spermatocytes in the testis, and cell debris and mild oligospermia in the ductus epididymis. In contrast, DADS pretreatment effectively attenuated the testicular toxicity caused by CP, including decreased sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index and increased histopathological alterations in the testis and epididymis. These results indicate that DADS attenuates testicular toxicity induced by CP in rats. PMID:24396385

  18. Cholesterol granuloma of the paratesticular tissue: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Dursun; Kilic, Metin; Oner, Sedat; Erkinuresin, Taskın; Demirbas, Murat; Coban, Soner; Aydos, Mustafa Murat

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with an enlarging right scrotal mass that had been present for 7 years. Right radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed and a histopathological diagnosis confirmed a very rare case of cholesterol granuloma of the paratesticular tissue. It can be very difficult to preoperatively distinguish testicular tumours from cholesterol granulomas of the testis or epididymis. Cholesterol granuloma should be kept in mind in patients with large and non-tender scrotal masses. PMID:26225185

  19. Cholesterol granuloma of the paratesticular tissue: A case report.

    PubMed

    Unal, Dursun; Kilic, Metin; Oner, Sedat; Erkinuresin, Taskın; Demirbas, Murat; Coban, Soner; Aydos, Mustafa Murat

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with an enlarging right scrotal mass that had been present for 7 years. Right radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed and a histopathological diagnosis confirmed a very rare case of cholesterol granuloma of the paratesticular tissue. It can be very difficult to preoperatively distinguish testicular tumours from cholesterol granulomas of the testis or epididymis. Cholesterol granuloma should be kept in mind in patients with large and non-tender scrotal masses.

  20. Consequences of a low litter birth weight phenotype for postnatal lean growth performance and neonatal testicular morphology in the pig.

    PubMed

    Smit, M N; Spencer, J D; Almeida, F R C L; Patterson, J L; Chiarini-Garcia, H; Dyck, M K; Foxcroft, G R

    2013-10-01

    The consequences of a low litter average birth weight phenotype for postnatal growth performance and carcass quality of all progeny, and testicular development in male offspring, were investigated. Using data from 25 sows with one, and 223 sows with two consecutive farrowing events, individual birth weight (BW) was measured and each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as low (LBW), medium (MBW) or high (HBW) birth weight: low and high BW being defined as >1 standard deviation below or above, respectively, the population mean for each litter size. Litter average BW was repeatable within sows. At castration, testicular tissue was collected from 40 male pigs in LBW and HBW litters with individual BW close to their litter average BW and used for histomorphometric analysis. LBW piglets had a lower absolute number of germ cells, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells in their testes and a higher brain : testis weight ratio than HBW piglets. Overall, LBW litters had lower placental weight and higher brain : liver, brain : intestine and brain : Semitendinosus muscle weight ratios than MBW and HBW litters. In the nursery and grow-finish (GF) phase, pigs were kept in pens by BW classification (9 HBW, 17 MBW and 10 LBW pens) with 13 males and 13 females per pen. Average daily gain tended to be lower in LBW than HBW litters in lactation (P = 0.06) and throughout the nursery and GF phases (P < 0.01), resulting in an increasing difference in body weight between LBW, MBW and HBW litters (P < 0.05). Average daily feed intake was lower (P < 0.001) in LBW than HBW litters in the nursery and GF phases. Feed utilization efficiency (feed/gain) was similar for LBW and HBW litters in the nursery, but was lower (P < 0.001) in HBW than LBW litters in the GF phase. By design, slaughter weight was similar between BW classifications; however, LBW litters needed 9 more days to reach the same slaughter weight than HBW litters (P < 0.001). BW classification did not affect carcass

  1. Protective role of Diospyros lotus on cisplatin-induced changes in sperm characteristics, testicular damage and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Saral, S; Ozcelik, E; Cetin, A; Saral, O; Basak, N; Aydın, M; Ciftci, O

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Diospyros lotus (DL) on cisplatin (CP)-induced testicular damage in male rats. Twenty-eight male rats were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 - control, given isotonic saline solution; group 2 - CP 7 mg kg(-1) given intraperitoneally as single dose; group 3 - DL 1000 mg kg(-1) per day given orally for 10 days; group 4 - CP and DL given together at the same doses. CP caused a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in rats testis tissues compared to the control group. CP caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation in testis tissues compared to the control group, whereas DL led to a significant increase in SOD and GSH levels. However, there were no statistically significant changes in GPx and CAT levels. In addition, serum testosterone levels, sperm concentration and sperm motility were significantly decreased, but abnormal sperm rate and histological changes were increased with CP. However, these effects of CP on sperm parameters, histological changes and the tissue weights were eliminated by DL treatment. In conclusion, our study showed that the reproductive toxicity caused by CP may be prevented by DL treatment. PMID:26173854

  2. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rato, L.; Alves, M. G.; Dias, T. R.; Cavaco, J. E.; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  3. Effect of hydrogen injected subcutaneously on testicular tissues of rats exposed to cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most common reasons inducing reactive oxygen species in semen. High concentration of active oxygen will cause decrease of sperm density and viability and induce oxidative injury of sperm DNA which has become the hot spot in male infertility. Although hydrogen was found to be an effective remover of active oxygen in liver, heart, kidney and brain, the same effect has not been discussed in reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of hydrogen against cigarette smoke-induced damage in rat reproductive system. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups to conduct this experiment, results showed that rats in SK+HSI group (passive smoking and hydrogen subcutaneous injection group) exhibited larger amount of sperm count, smaller sperm deformation rate, higher levels of testosterone and SOD in serum and testis, lower levels of MDA in testis and less morphologic abnormalities compared to SK+NSI group (passive smoking and nitrogen subcutaneous injection group). As a consequence, we concluded that injected subcutaneously exerted protective effects on reproductive system injury of male rats exposed to cigarette smoke through inhibiting oxidative damage. PMID:26131139

  4. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS.

  5. In vivo manipulation (depletion versus activation) of testicular macrophages: central and local effects.

    PubMed

    Gaytan, F; Bellido, C; Morales, C; García, M; van Rooijen, N; Aguilar, E

    1996-07-01

    Testicular macrophages are a relevant cell type for the regulation of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The availability of liposome technology allows in vivo manipulation of macrophages in order to analyze their role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. In this study, adult (70 days of age) and prepubertal (22 days of age) rats were injected intratesticularly with liposomes containing either dichloromethylene diphosphonate (C12MDP) to deplete testicular macrophages or muramyl tripeptide (MTP-PE) to activate them. Control rats were injected with the corresponding volumes of 0.9% NaCl. Animals were killed 10 days after treatment. Adult rats injected bilaterally or unilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed increased serum LH and testosterone concentrations, as well as increased testosterone concentrations in the testicular interstitial fluid. In unilaterally injected rats, testosterone concentrations in the interstitial fluid were higher in the macrophage-containing testes than in the contralateral, macrophage-depleted testes. Adult rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of testicular macrophages, whereas the number of Leydig cells was unchanged. Serum LH concentrations were decreased, but no changes were found in testosterone concentrations. Prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed decreased numbers of Leydig cells. However, serum LH and testosterone concentrations were increased. Otherwise, prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of macrophages and Leydig cells, as well as increased serum testosterone concentrations. These data suggest that testicular macrophage-derived factors act at two different levels in the pituitary-testicular axis: first, at a central level by inhibiting LH secretion, and secondly, at a local level by stimulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

  6. HMGA2 expression distinguishes between different types of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Lars; Gottlieb, Andrea; Helmke, Burkhard; Wosniok, Werner; Löning, Thomas; Burchardt, Käte; Belge, Gazanfer; Günther, Kathrin; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2015-10-01

    The group of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours encompasses lesions with highly diverse differentiation - seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumours, teratomas and choriocarcinomas. Heterogeneous differentiation is often present within individual tumours and the correct identification of the components is of clinical relevance. HMGA2 re-expression has been reported in many tumours, including testicular germ cell tumours. This is the first study investigating HMGA2 expression in a representative group of testicular germ cell tumours with the highly sensitive method of quantitative real-time PCR as well as with immunohistochemistry. The expression of HMGA2 and HPRT was measured using quantitative real-time PCR in 59 postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours. Thirty specimens contained only one type of tumour and 29 were mixed neoplasms. With the exception of choriocarcinomas, at least two pure specimens from each subgroup of testicular germ cell tumour were included. In order to validate the quantitative real-time PCR data and gather information about the localisation of the protein, additional immunohistochemical analysis with an antibody specific for HMGA2 was performed in 23 cases. Expression of HMGA2 in testicular germ cell tumours depended on the histological differentiation. Seminomas and embryonal carcinomas showed no or very little expression, whereas yolk sac tumours strongly expressed HMGA2 at the transcriptome as well as the protein level. In teratomas, the expression varied and in choriocarcinomas the expression was moderate. In part, these results contradict data from previous studies but HMGA2 seems to represent a novel marker to assist pathological subtyping of testicular germ cell tumours. The results indicate a critical role in yolk sac tumours and some forms of teratoma. PMID:27499908

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashlan, Akram M; Nooh, Mohammed M; Hassan, Wafaa A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1); i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashlan, Akram M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Hassan, Wafaa A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg-1), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300μg kg-1; i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg-1; i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  9. Testicular and serum testosterone variations in squirrel monkeys during seasonal cyclicity.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, T; Colillas, O; Rivarola, M A

    1986-01-01

    The seasonal testicular maturation of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) was used as a model of maturational hormonal regulation of the testis. Testicular testosterone and serum testosterone concentrations were determined during the circannual variations of body weight and testicular volume. These data have been correlated with changes in the germinal epithelium. According to individual weight curves and time of the year, the monkeys were divided into five groups: group A1, maximal weight, April-May; A2, July; A3, November; A4, minimal weight, February-March; and A5, March-April. Variations in testicular volume followed very closely variations in body weight. Sexual activity started at A1 and persisted in A2. A marked drop in the mean width of the germinal epithelium and the diameters of the seminiferous tubules was observed in A3, followed by a recovery during A4 and A5. Testicular testosterone showed two annual elevations. The first peak, 3.91 +/- 0.31 micrograms/g (mean +/- SE), coincided with the serum testosterone peak when body weight and testicular volume were high and the trophic response of the germinal epithelium was complete. The second peak reached levels of 5.21 +/- 1.48 micrograms/g and was observed before the reinitiation of spermatogenesis. This was accompanied by a moderate increase in serum testosterone. The second peak of testicular testosterone, which has been reported to occur in the rat and in humans, might represent a local androgen need for initiation of spermatogenesis, while the first peak might represent the androgen need for full stimulation of spermatogenesis.

  10. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashlan, Akram M; Nooh, Mohammed M; Hassan, Wafaa A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1); i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  11. Comparative testicular structure and spermatogenesis in bony fishes

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In most bony fishes, testes are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. Histological examination of teleost testes, and also in all vertebrates, shows that the testes are formed of germ cells and somatic cells, comprising the germinal and interstitial compartments. Both compartments are separated by a basement membrane. The germ cells may be spermatogonia, meiotic spermatocytes and haploid spermatids that differentiate into spermatozoa. The process of spermatogenesis includes a sequence of morphological and physiological changes of germ cells that begin with the differentiation of spermatogonia that become meiotic spermatocytes. After the second meiotic division, through a process of spermiogenesis, these differentiate into spermatozoa. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The cyst is the unit of spermatogenic function, composed of a cohort of isogenic germ cells surrounded by encompassing Sertoli cells. The teleost testis is organized morphologically into 3 types of testis: 1) tubular testis type, present in lower bony fishes as salmonids, cyprinids and lepisosteids; 2) unrestricted spermatogonial testis type, found in neoteleosts except Atherinomorpha; and 3) restricted spermatogonial testis type, characteristic of all Atherinomorpha. The morphology of the testicular germinal epithelium changes during the annual reproductive cycle, reflecting reproductive seasonality. PMID:26413405

  12. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  13. Possible mechanisms underlying the testicular toxicity of oxfendazole in rats.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Miwa; Watanabe, Takao; Kashida, Yoko; Machida, Noboru; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the mechanisms underlying the testicular toxicity of oxfendazole (OX), adult Wistar rats were orally administered a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for 3, 7, or 14 days. Assays of sex-related hormones showed a significant decrease in only the estradiol serum level at days 3 and 7, as compared with the control group. Histopathologically, marked degeneration of meiotic spermatocytes was observed in stage XIV-I seminiferous tubules from day 3 onwards, and these spermatocytes gave positive results on terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL). Abnormalities of spermiogenesis such as megakaryospermatids and binucleated spermatids were also observed in the testes of OX-treated rats. Under the electron microscope, lipid accumulation and dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum were frequently found in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells on day 3. These results strongly suggest that OX induces both apoptosis of meiotic spermatocytes, most probably due to disruption of the microtubules, and degeneration of the Sertoli cells, characterized by distended endoplasmic reticulum and prominent cytosolic lipid accumulation.

  14. Endocrinological late effects after chemotherapy for testicular cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, C. C.; Bokemeyer, C.; Schuppert, F.; Schmoll, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    Type and extent of endocrinological alterations were studied in long-term disease-free survivors after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for testicular cancer. A total of 63 patients with a median age of 30 (19-53) years, and median follow-up of 42 (16-128) months were included. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were found in 63% of patients, 24% showed pathologically elevated luteinising hormone (LH) levels with normal and 10% with subnormal testosterone levels. The degree of gonadotropin elevation was highly significantly correlated with the cumulative platinum (P) dose. Patients treated with platinum-vinblastine-bleomycin regimens showed higher gonadotropin levels than those treated with platinum-etoposide-bleomycin. The adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pathologically elevated in 68% of patients, was significantly correlated with the cumulative doses of chemotherapy (ctx) used and to the gonadotropin levels. Treatment variables, such as type and dose of cytotoxic agents used, as well as degree of gonadotropin elevation were further correlated with changes in oestron, testosterone and 17 alpha-OH-progesterone levels. Cholesterol levels were elevated in 32% of patients and significant interactions between the steroid hormone levels and cardiovascular risk factors could be shown. PMID:8624272

  15. Testicular dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.

    PubMed

    Poretsky, L; Can, S; Zumoff, B

    1995-07-01

    This review pertains to gonadal function in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who often exhibit clinical and biochemical evidence of hypogonadism. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism appears to be the most commonly encountered abnormality, although complete anterior pituitary insufficiency and primary gonadal failure have been reported. Levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are either unchanged or increased. Plasma levels of estrogens, progesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and prolactin vary. Pathologically, except for involvement by opportunistic infections, no significant abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary area has been described, but evidence of orchitis is commonly present. The cause(s) of these abnormalities remains unclear. The possible factors leading to hypogonadism in HIV-infected men include HIV infection itself, opportunistic infections, chronic debilitating illness, and effects of cytokines on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Further studies are needed to clarify the cause(s) of testicular dysfunction in HIV-infected men and its clinical significance, treatment, relevance to the progression of HIV infection, and influence on the immune system.

  16. Testicular cell junction: a novel target for male contraception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki P Y; Wong, Elissa W P; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-01-01

    Even though various contraceptive methods are widely available, the number of unwanted pregnancies is still on the rise in developing countries, pressurizing the already resource limited nations. One of the major underlying reasons is the lack of effective, low cost, and safe contraceptives for couples. During the past decade, some studies were performed using animal models to decipher if the Sertoli-germ cell junction in the testis is a target for male fertility regulation. Some of these study models were based on the use of hormones and/or chemicals to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (e.g., androgen-based implants or pills) and others utilized a panel of chemical entities or synthetic peptides to perturb spermatogenesis either reversibly or non-reversibly. Among them, adjudin, a potential male contraceptive, is one of the compounds exerting its action on the unique adherens junctions, known as ectoplasmic specializations, in the testis. Since the testis is equipped with inter-connected cell junctions, an initial targeting of one junction type may affect the others and these accumulative effects could lead to spermatogenic arrest. This review attempts to cover an innovative theme on how male infertility can be achieved by inducing junction instability and defects in the testis, opening a new window of research for male contraceptive development. While it will still take much time and effort of intensive investigation before a product can reach the consumable market, these findings have provided hope for better family planning involving men.

  17. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Röjdmark, S; Berg, A; Kallner, G

    1988-01-01

    To test whether chronic thyroid hormone excess influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, 8 hyperthyroid men were given two identical intravenous GnRH tests. The first test was performed before any treatment had been instituted, the second 6-13 months later, when medical treatment had made the patients euthyroid. Although basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels were of similar magnitudes before and after the medical treatment, LH and FSH responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), as reflected by the hormone incremental areas (U/l X min), were significantly larger in the thyrotoxic state compared with the euthyroid state (LH incremental areas: 3,999 +/- 665 vs. 2,640 +/- 430, p less than 0.02; FSH incremental areas: 825 +/- 193 vs. 542 +/- 98, p less than 0.05). Furthermore, serum T increased significantly in response to GnRH when the patients were hyperthyroid (T incremental area: 162 +/- 51, p less than 0.02), but failed to do so when they were euthyroid (T incremental area: 92 +/- 53, NS). These results imply that chronic thyroid hormone excess makes the pituitary gonadotrophs 'hypersensitive' to exogenous GnRH. This may in turn explain why human Leydig cells respond more powerful to exogenous GnRH in thyrotoxic patients than in euthyroid subjects.

  18. Dietary Cholesterol-Induced Post-Testicular Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ouvrier, Aurélia; Alves, Georges; Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Marceau, Geoffroy; Cadet, Rémi; Janny, Laurent; Brugnon, Florence; Kocer, Ayhan; Pommier, Aurélien; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Drevet, Joël R.; Saez, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    This work shows that an overload of dietary cholesterol causes complete infertility in dyslipidemic male mice (the Liver X Receptor-deficient mouse model). Infertility resulted from post-testicular defects affecting the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa of cholesterol-fed lxr−/− animals were found to be dramatically less viable and motile, and highly susceptible to undergo a premature acrosome reaction. We also provide evidence, that this lipid-induced infertility is associated with the accelerated appearance of a highly regionalized epididymal phenotype in segments 1 and 2 of the caput epididymidis that was otherwise only observed in aged LXR-deficient males. The epididymal epithelial phenotype is characterized by peritubular accumulation of cholesteryl ester lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells lining the epididymal duct, leading to their transdifferentiation into foam cells that eventually migrate through the duct wall, a situation that resembles the inflammatory atherosclerotic process. These findings establish the high level of susceptibility of epididymal sperm maturation to dietary cholesterol overload and could partly explain reproductive failures encountered by young dyslipidemic men as well as ageing males wishing to reproduce. PMID:22073227

  19. Aspects of the testicular toxicity of phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.J.B.; Gangolli, S.D.

    1986-03-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) produced seminiferous tubular atrophy and reductions in seminal vesicle and prostate weight in 4-week-old, but not in 15 -week-old rats. Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) did produce atrophy in the older rats but this developed more slowly than in young animals. Coadministration of testosterone or gonadotrophins did not protect against phthalate-induced testicular toxicity but did partly reverse the depression of seminal vesicle and prostate weight. Secretion of seminiferous tubule fluid and androgen binding protein by the Sertoli cells was markedly suppressed within 1 hr of a dose of DPP or mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in immature rats. This occurred less rapidly in mature rats. (/sup 14/C)mono-n-pentyl phthalate and (/sup 14/C)MEHP penetrated the blood testis barrier only to a very limited extent. These findings and the early morphological changes in the Sertoli cells produced by DPP suggest that phthalate esters may act initially to cause Sertoli cell injury, the subsequent loss of germ cells occurring as a consequence of this.

  20. Ebselen attenuates cadmium-induced testicular damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Ardais, Ana P; Santos, Francielli W; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2008-04-01

    This study was designed to examine if ebselen, an organoselenium compound with antioxidant and glutathione peroxidase-mimetic properties, attenuates testicular injury caused by intraperitoneal administration of CdCl(2). A number of toxicological parameters were evaluated in the testes of mice, such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Ebselen attenuated lipid peroxidation levels altered by CdCl(2). delta-ALA-D activity inhibited by the highest dose of CdCl(2) was attenuated by ebselen. A significant negative correlation between lipid peroxidation levels and delta-ALA-D activity was observed. Ebselen restored ascorbic acid levels reduced by CdCl(2). A significant negative correlation between ascorbic acid levels and delta-ALA-D activity reinforces the idea that ebselen attenuated the damage induced by CdCl(2) via its antioxidant property. The significant correlation between ALT and delta-ALA-D activity supports the assumption that ebselen prevented damage caused by CdCl(2). The results show that ebselen attenuated oxidative stress, a process important for CdCl(2) toxicity. PMID:17624921