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Sample records for precision-cut testicular tissue

  1. Assessment of immunotoxicity using precision-cut tissue slices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    1. When the immune system encounters incoming infectious agents, this generally leads to immunity. The evoked immune response is usually robust, but can be severely perturbed by potentially harmful environmental agents such as chemicals, pharmaceuticals and allergens. 2. Immunosuppression, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity may occur due to changed immune activity. Evaluation of the immunotoxic potency of agents as part of risk assessment is currently established in vivo with animal models and in vitro with cell lines or primary cells. 3. Although in vivo testing is usually the most relevant situation for many agents, more and more in vitro models are being developed for assessment of immunotoxicity. In this context, hypersensitivity and immunosuppression are considered to be a primary focus for developing in vitro methods. Three-dimensional organotypic tissue models are also part of current research in immunotoxicology. 4. In recent years, there has been a revival of interest in organotypic tissue models. In the context of immunotoxicity testing, precision-cut lung slices in particular have been intensively studied. Therefore, this review is very much focused on pulmonary immunotoxicology. Respiratory hypersensitivity and inflammation are further highlighted aspects of this review. Immunotoxicity assessment currently is of limited use in other tissue models, which are therefore described only briefly within this review. PMID:23199366

  2. Precision-cut tissue chips as an in vitro toxicology system

    PubMed Central

    Catania, J. M.; Pershing, A. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Precision-cut tissue slices mimic specific organ toxicity because normal cellular heterogeneity and organ architecture are retained. To optimize the use of the smaller tissues of the mouse and to establish easy assays for tissue viability, a tissue chip based system was used to generate large numbers of samples from a single organ. Iodoacetamide (IAM), was used as a model toxicant, and assays for intracellular potassium (normalized to DNA content) were used to establish viability and toxicant susceptibility. Thereafter, assays that were more rapid and specific were pursued. Lysates from tissues incubated in 6-carboxyfluorescein fluoresced proportionately to concentrations of IAM, indicating disruption of cellular membranes. Similarly, FURA-2, a probe applied to lysates to measure calcium levels, fluoresced proportionately to IAM dosage. Monobromobimane, a fluorescent sulfhydryl probe, displayed a decrease in fluorescent intensity at higher IAM challenge; a finding confirmed with an absorbance assay with Ellman’s reagent. Importantly, the number of samples per organ/mouse was increased at least 3-fold and a significant time reduction per analysis was realized. PMID:17376647

  3. Precision-cut tissue chips as an in vitro toxicology system.

    PubMed

    Catania, J M; Pershing, A M; Gandolfi, A J

    2007-08-01

    Precision-cut tissue slices mimic specific organ toxicity because normal cellular heterogeneity and organ architecture are retained. To optimize the use of the smaller tissues of the mouse and to establish easy assays for tissue viability, a tissue chip based system was used to generate large numbers of samples from a single organ. Iodoacetamide (IAM) was used as a model toxicant and assays for intracellular potassium (normalized to DNA content) were used to establish viability and toxicant susceptibility. Thereafter, assays that were more rapid and specific were pursued. Lysates from tissues incubated in 6-carboxyfluorescein fluoresced proportionately to concentrations of IAM, indicating disruption of cellular membranes. Similarly, FURA-2, a probe applied to lysates to measure calcium levels, fluoresced proportionately to IAM dosage. Monobromobimane, a fluorescent sulfhydryl probe, displayed a decrease in fluorescent intensity at higher IAM challenge-a finding confirmed with an absorbance assay with Ellman's reagent. Importantly, the number of samples per organ/mouse was increased at least threefold and a significant time reduction per analysis was realized.

  4. Laser-generated ultrasound for high-precision cutting of tissue-mimicking gels (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehwa; Luo, Wei; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. Jay

    2017-03-01

    Laser-generated focused ultrasound has shown great promise in precisely treating cells and tissues by producing controlled micro-cavitation within the acoustic focal volume (<100 um). However, the previous demonstration used cells and tissues cultured on glass substrates. The glass substrates were found to be critical to cavitation, because ultrasound amplitude doubles due to the reflection from the substrate, thus allowing for reaching pressure amplitude to cavitation threshold. In other words, without the sound reflecting substrate, pressure amplitude may not be strong enough to create cavitation, thus limiting its application to only cultured biomaterials on the rigid substrates. By using laser-generated focused ultrasound without relying on sound-reflecting substrates, we demonstrate free-field cavitation in water and its application to high-precision cutting of tissue-mimicking gels. In the absence of a rigid boundary, strong pressure for cavitation was enabled by recently optimized photoacoustic lens with increased focal gain (>30 MPa, negative pressure amplitude). By moving cavitation spots along pre-defined paths through a motorized stage, tissue-mimicking gels of different elastic moduli were cut into different shapes (rectangle, triangle, and circle), leaving behind the same shape of holes, whose sizes are less than 1 mm. The cut line width is estimated to be less than 50 um (corresponding to localized cavitation region), allowing for accurate cutting. This novel approach could open new possibility for in-vivo treatment of diseased tissues in a high-precision manner (i.e., high-precision invisible sonic scalpel).

  5. siRNA-Mediated RNA Interference in Precision-Cut Tissue Slices Prepared from Mouse Lung and Kidney.

    PubMed

    Ruigrok, Mitchel J R; Maggan, Nalinie; Willaert, Delphine; Frijlink, Henderik W; Melgert, Barbro N; Olinga, Peter; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2017-09-11

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated RNAi interference (RNAi) is a powerful post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism which can be used to study the function of genes in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal models). However, there is a translational gap between these models. Hence, there is a need for novel experimental models that combine the advantages of in vitro and in vivo models (e.g., simplicity, flexibility, throughput, and representability) to study the effects of siRNA. This need may be addressed by precision-cut tissue slices (PCTS), which represent an ex vivo model that mimics the structural and functional characteristics of a whole organ. The goal of this study was to investigate whether self-deliverable siRNA (Accell siRNA) can be used in precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKS) to achieve RNAi ex vivo. PCLuS and PCKS were prepared from mouse tissue, and they were subsequently incubated up to 48 h with no siRNA (untransfected), non-targeting Accell siRNA, or Gapdh-targeting Accell siRNA. Significant Gapdh mRNA silencing was achieved (PCLuS ~ 55%; PCKS ~ 40%) without compromising the viability and morphology of slices. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed that Accell siRNA diffused into PCLuS and PCKS. Spontaneous inflammation upon incubation was observed in PCLuS and PCKS as shown by a higher mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines Il1b, Il6, and Tnfa, although Accell siRNA appeared to diminish this response in PCLuS after 24 h. In conclusion, this ex vivo transfection model can be used to evaluate the effects of siRNA in relevant biological environments.

  6. Cryopreservation of precision-cut tissue slices for application in drug metabolism research.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, I A M; Koster, H J

    2003-02-01

    Cryopreservation of tissue slices greatly facilitates their use in drug metabolism research, leading to efficient use of human organ material and a decrease of laboratory animal use. In the present review, various mechanisms of cryopreservation such as equilibrium slow freezing, rapid freezing and vitrification, and their application to cryopreservation of tissue slices are discussed as well as the viability parameters often used to evaluate the success of cryopreservation. Equilibrium freezing prevents intracellular ice formation by inducing cellular dehydration, but (large) ice crystals are still formed in the interstitial space of the slices. Upon rapid freezing, (small) intra- and extracellular ice crystals are formed which slices from some tissues can resist. Vitrification prevents the formation of both intra- and extracellular ice crystals while an amorphous glass is formed of the slice liquid constituents. To vitrify, however, high molarity solutions of cryoprotectants are required that may be toxic to the slices. The use of mixtures of high molarity of cryoprotectants overcomes this problem. We conclude that vitrification is the approach that most likely will lead to the development of universal cryopreservation methods for tissue slices of various organs from various animal species. In the future this may lead to the formation of a tissue slice bank from which slices can be derived at any desirable time point for in vitro experimentation.

  7. Comparison of the metabolism of ethylene glycol and glycolic acid in vitro by precision-cut tissue slices from female rat, rabbit and human liver.

    PubMed

    Booth, E D; Dofferhoff, O; Boogaard, P J; Watson, W P

    2004-01-01

    1. The metabolism of [1,2-(14)C]-ethylene glycol and [1,2-(14)C]-glycolic acid was studied in vitro using precision-cut tissue slices prepared from the livers of female Sprague-Dawley rats, New Zealand white rabbits and humans. The time-course for production of metabolites formed from ethylene glycol at concentrations from 3 to 40 mM was determined to compare quantitatively the differences between species in the rates and amounts of formation of glycolic acid, the presumed developmental toxicant of ethylene glycol. The rates of metabolism of glycolic acid to glyoxylic acid at concentrations from 0.05 to 16 mM by liver tissue from the different species were also determined. The apparent V(max)/K(m) for the metabolic conversions of ethylene glycol to glycolic acid and for glycolic acid to glyoxylic acid in liver tissue from the different species were obtained. 2. There were qualitative differences in the metabolic profiles and quantitative differences in the formation of glycolic acid between the mammalian liver systems. There was an average of 10-fold less glycolic acid produced by liver slices from rabbits compared with rats. With the human liver, the formation of glycolic acid was not detectable using tissue from three of four human donors. A low level of glycolic acid was detected in one liver slice incubation from one of the four subjects, but only at one extended time point; glyoxylate was detected with liver slices from all four humans. 3. Liver slices prepared from female Sprague-Dawley rats, female New Zealand White rabbits and three female human subjects all metabolized glycolic acid to glyoxylic acid. Human liver tissue was the most effective at further metabolizing glycolic acid to glyoxylic acid. The ratios of V(max)/K(m), representing the relative clearance of glycolic acid from liver tissue, were approximately 14:9:1 for human, rat and rabbit liver, respectively. 4. Precision-cut liver slices maintained in dynamic organ culture are good predictors of

  8. Tissue Engineered Testicular Prostheses With Prolonged Testosterone Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    and Hospital Infantil de Mexico “Federico Gomez”, Mexico City, Mexico* ABSTRACT Young soldiers with testicular tissue injury may require...Rustin, 2001: Testicular implants and patient satisfaction: a questionnaire-based study of men after orchidectomy for testicular cancer .[see comment

  9. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  10. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  11. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  12. Parents' choices in banking boys' testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2010-12-01

    Researchers are working to derive sperm from banked testicular tissue taken from pre-pubertal boys who face therapies or injuries that destroy sperm production. Success in deriving sperm from this tissue will help to preserve the option for these boys to have genetically related children later in life. For the twin moral reasons of preserving access and equity in regard to having such children, clinicians and researchers are justified in offering the option to the parents of all affected boys. However, some parents may wish to decline the option to bank tissue from their boys because the technique may seem too unfamiliar or unusual, but over time people may become more comfortable with the technique as they have done with other novel assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs). Other parents may wish to decline the option because of moral or religious reasons. A prominent natural law theory holds, for example, that the ARTs that would be involved in using sperm derived from banked tissue to produce a child are morally objectionable. Some parents might not want to bank tissue in order to shield their son from using ARTs they see as objectionable. Clinicians and researchers should respect parents who wish to decline banking tissue, but parents should ordinarily embrace choices that protect the possible interests their sons may have as adult men, including the wish to have genetically related children.

  13. [Testicular tissue vitrification: evolution or revolution?].

    PubMed

    Wyns, C; Abu-Ghannam, G; Poels, J

    2013-09-01

    Preservation of reproductive health is a major concern for patient long-term quality of life. While sperm freezing has proven to be effective to preserve fertility after puberty, cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue (ITT) is emerging as a promising approach for fertility preservation in young boys. Slow-freezing (SF) is the conventional method used to preserve ITT and has resulted in the birth of mice offspring. In humans, methods to preserve ITT are still at the research stage. Controlled SF using dimethyl sulfoxide showed preservation of proliferative spermatogonia after thawing in a xenotransplantation model used to evaluate the efficiency of freezing and thawing procedures. However, spermatogonial recovery was low and normal differentiation could not be achieved. Both freezing/thawing and the environment of the xenotransplantation model may be implicated. Indeed, with SF, ice crystal formation could damage tissue and cells. For this reason, vitrification, leading to solidification of a liquid without crystallization, may be a promising alternative. ITT vitrification has been investigated in different species and shown spermatogonial survival and differentiation to the round or elongated spermatids stage. Offspring were also recently obtained after vitrification and allotransplantation in avians, confirming the potential of vitrification for fertility preservation. In humans, vitrification appears to be as efficient as SF in terms of spermatogonial survival and initiation of differentiation after xenotransplantation. However, before validation of such fertility preservation methods, completion of normal spermatogenesis and the fertilization capacity of sperm retrieved from cryopreserved and transplanted tissue should be fully investigated.

  14. Tissue engineered testicular prostheses with prolonged testosterone release.

    PubMed

    Raya-Rivera, Atlantida M; Baez, Carlos; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2008-08-01

    Bilateral anorchia, either congenital or acquired, often requires testicular prostheses placement and testosterone supplementation. Several types of testosterone compounds and various modes of hormone delivery are currently used clinically, however, their pharmacokinetic properties are not ideal. In this study, we explored the possibility of creating hormone releasing testicular prostheses that could continuously supply and maintain physiologic levels of testosterone in vivo over time. Chondrocytes, harvested from bovine articular cartilage, were seeded on testicular shaped polymer scaffolds at a concentration of 100 x 10(6) ml(-1). The scaffolds were maintained in a bioreactor for 4 weeks to form cartilage tissue. Subsequently, testosterone enanthate (100 microg) was injected into the central hollow space of each testicular prosthesis, and maintained for 40 weeks in culture. A sample of the medium was collected every 2 days for testosterone assays. Another group of ex vivo engineered testicular prostheses was implanted into the scrotal space of castrated athymic mice (n = 10). Intratesticular injection of testosterone enanthate was made into each prosthesis at a concentration of 100 microg. Control groups consisted of animals with castration only (n = 8) and sham operations (n = 5). Testosterone levels were measured prior and 2 weeks after castration, 1 day after testosterone administration, and weekly up to 14 weeks. The engineered testicular prostheses were retrieved at sacrifice for histomorphological and immunocytochemical analyses. Milky white cartilage testicular protheses were formed by 4 weeks. The ex vivo prostheses showed an initial burst effect of testosterone followed by a broad plateau for 16 weeks (>500 ng/dl) and a decreased level of testosterone until 40 weeks. The testosterone levels were physiologic throughout 40 weeks and the entire testosterone released was calculated as 60% of the injected volume. The circulating testosterone levels in the

  15. Alcohol-based solutions for bovine testicular tissue fixation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nelson C; Espinoza, Jorge R; Vargas-Jentzsch, Paul; Sandoval, Patricio; Ramos, Luis A; Aponte, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fixation, a central element in histotechnology, is currently performed with chemical compounds potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Therefore, alternative fixatives are being developed, including alcohol-based solutions. We evaluated several ethanol-based mixtures with additives to study fixative penetration rate, tissue volume changes, and morphologic effects in the bovine testis. Fixatives used were Bouin solution, 4% formaldehyde (F4), 70% ethanol (E70), E70 with 1.5% glycerol (E70G), E70 with 5% acetic acid (E70A), E70 with 1.5% glycerol and 5% acetic acid (E70AG), and E70 with 1.5% glycerol, 5% acetic acid, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; E70AGD). Five-millimeter bovine testicular tissue cubes could be completely penetrated by ethanol-based fixatives and Bouin solution in 2-3 h, whereas F4 required 21 h. Bouin solution produced general tissue shrinkage, whereas the other fixatives (alcohol-based and F4) caused tissue volume expansion. Although Bouin solution is an excellent fixative for testicular tissue, ethanol-based fixatives showed good penetration rates, low tissue shrinkage, and preserved sufficient morphology to allow identification of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, therefore representing a valid alternative for histotechnology laboratories. Common additives such as acetic acid, glycerol, and DMSO offered marginal benefits for the process of fixation; E70AG showed the best preservation of morphology with excellent nuclear detail, close to that of Bouin solution.

  16. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue or testicular cell suspensions: a pivotal step in fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Onofre, J.; Baert, Y.; Faes, K.; Goossens, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans. However, these techniques are still at a research stage and their efficiency depends on the amount of SSCs available for fertility restoration. Therefore, maintaining the number of SSCs is a critical step in human fertility preservation. Standardizing a successful cryopreservation method for TT and testicular cell suspensions (TCSs) is most important before any clinical application of fertility restoration could be successful. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE This review gives an overview of existing cryopreservation protocols used in different animal models and humans. Cell recovery, cell viability, tissue integrity and functional assays are taken into account. Additionally, biosafety and current perspectives in male fertility preservation are discussed. SEARCH METHODS An extensive PubMED and MEDline database search was conducted. Relevant studies linked to the topic were identified by the search terms: cryopreservation, male fertility preservation, (immature)testicular tissue, testicular cell suspension, spermatogonial stem cell, gonadotoxicity, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. OUTCOMES The feasibility of fertility restoration techniques using frozen-thawed TT and TCS has been proven in animal models. Efficient protocols for cryopreserving human TT exist and are currently applied in the clinic. For TCSs, the highest post-thaw viability reported after vitrification is 55.6 ± 23

  17. Evaluation of the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of xenobiotics utilizing precision-cut slices.

    PubMed

    Lake, Brian G; Price, Roger J

    2013-01-01

    1. Precision-cut liver slices are a valuable in vitro model system to study the metabolism and toxicity of xenobiotics. Liver slices retain tissue architecture so that all cell types are present and intercellular communication between the various cell types is retained. 2. Precision-cut liver slices from humans and other species have been used to study pathways of phase I (e.g. cytochrome P450-dependent biotransformations) and II (e.g. conjugation with D-glucuronic acid, sulphate and glutathione) metabolism of a wide range of xenobiotics. 3. Liver slices can also be employed to investigate the induction and inhibition of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and to obtain kinetic data on the rates of metabolism of xenobiotics. 4. Precision-cut liver slices from humans and other species have been used to study the toxicity of a wide variety of xenobiotics. Toxicity can be assessed by various techniques including gene expression, morphological examination and a wide range of biochemical endpoints. 5. Precision-cut liver slices can be utilized to examine species differences in hepatic xenobiotic metabolism and xenobiotic-induced toxicity, thus permitting comparisons between animal species and humans.

  18. Xenotransplantation of testicular tissue into nude mice can be used for detecting leukemic cell contamination.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mi; Andersson, Margareta; Eksborg, Staffan; Söder, Olle; Jahnukainen, Kirsi

    2007-07-01

    Xeno-grafting of testicular tissue may allow viable gamete maturation. This would be beneficial for prepubertal cancer patients in that it may allow restoration of fertility without the risk of a cancer relapse. However it is unknown whether cancer cells in the testicular graft can transmit the malignancy into the host animal and also if gametes can be retrieved from testicular grafts that are contaminated with malignant cells. Rat T-cell leukemia was employed as the source of leukemic lymphoblasts and testicular tissue. This was injected i.p. (lymphoblasts) or grafted s.c. (fresh or cryopreserved testicular tissue) into the back skin of intact nude mice. To simulate clinical autografting, testicular tissue was also transplanted into healthy piebald variegated (PVG) rats. 50-70% of the mice, receiving 200 or 6000 leukemic lymphoblasts, developed terminal leukemia. All mice, grafted with either fresh or cryopreserved testicular tissue from leukemic donor, developed generalized leukemia and/or local tumors. All syngenic PVG rats, treated in the same manner, died of generalized leukemia. In all of the retrieved leukemic grafts, rat spermatogenesis was destroyed and only leukemic infiltration was detected. Grafting testicular tissue contaminated with leukemic cells led to tumor growth at the injection site without potential to differentiate germline stem cells into gametes. Xenografting could provide a novel functional strategy for simultaneous detection of malignant cell contamination and spermatogonial potential in testicular xenografts collected for fertility preservation.

  19. Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation and Ethical Considerations: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Petropanagos, Angel

    2017-03-28

    Testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) aims to preserve the future option of genetic reproduction for prepubescent cancer patients who are at risk of infertility as a result of their cancer therapies. This technology is experimental and currently only offered in the research context. As TTCP moves towards becoming more widely available, it is imperative that healthcare providers recognize the complex ethical issues surrounding this technology. This scoping review study identifies and assesses the range and depth of ethical concerns related to this testicular tissue cryopreservation technology. At present, no such scoping review of ethical concerns exists in the TTCP literature. The forty-three full-text articles included in this study yielded twenty-two different ethical considerations discussed in relation to TTCP. It was observed that these ethical considerations fit within a mainstream Principlism approach to bioethics. Accordingly, there are ethical gaps in the TTCP literature that can be identified with alternative moral lenses. In particular, it was found that ethical concerns related to context and relational aspects of identity were absent in nearly all ethical examinations of TTCP. Furthermore, only 9 per cent of articles reviewed in this study focused primarily on the ethics of TTCP, thus demonstrating a need for further in depth ethical analyses of this technology. The results of this study are important for supporting the ethical provision of TTCP and can contribute to policy and guideline development. The findings of this study demonstrate the need for greater depth and diversity in analyses of ethical considerations related to this technology.

  20. The protective role of erdosteine on testicular tissue after testicular torsion and detorsion.

    PubMed

    Koc, Ahmet; Narci, Adnan; Duru, Mehmet; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Akaydin, Yesim; Sogut, Sadik

    2005-12-01

    .05). The biochemical parameters were not affected in controlateral testis in all groups. Torsion, torsion/detorsion and torsion/detorsion+erdosteine groups showed ipsilateral testicular damage in the histological examination, but the specimens from torsion/detorsion had a significantly greater histological injury than those from the other groups (p < 0.05). Control rats showed normal seminiferous tubule morphology. Rats in torsion group had slight-to-moderate disruption of the seminiferous epithelium. Rats in torsion/detorsion group displayed moderate-to-severe disruption of the seminiferous epithelium. In all animals from torsion/detorsion+erdosteine group, the testicular tissues were affected with slight-to-moderate degenerative changes of the seminiferous epithelium. Administration of erdosteine resulted in a significantly reduced histological damage associated with torsion of the spermatic cord compared with torsion/detorsion. In all groups, the contralateral testes were histologically normal. In conclusion, the results clearly displayed that erdosteine treatment may have a protective role on testicular torsion/detorsion injury.

  1. Testicular adrenal rest tissue in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: comparison of MR imaging and sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Avila, N A; Premkumar, A; Merke, D P

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the MR features of testicular adrenal rest tissue in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to compare the usefulness of MR imaging with that of sonography for the detection of testicular adrenal rest tissue. Nineteen patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia underwent MR imaging and gray-scale and color Doppler sonography of the testicles during the same visit to our institution. Findings were compared. MR features of testicular adrenal rest tissue included the following: isointensity (71% of the masses) and slight hyperintensity (29% of the masses) relative to normal testicular tissue on T1-weighted images; hypointensity relative to normal testicular tissue on T2-weighted images (100% of the masses); and diffuse enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (85% of the masses). MR imaging and sonography revealed the testicular lesions equally well. Eleven (58%) of 19 patients had normal findings on MR imaging and sonography. Eight (42%) of 19 patients had 14 intratesticular masses detected by both imaging techniques. MR imaging and sonography are equally useful in the detection of testicular adrenal rest tissue. Because sonography is more accessible to most institutions and is less expensive, it is the imaging technique of choice for the detection of testicular adrenal rest tissue.

  2. The role of VTIQ as a new tissue strain analytics measurement technique in testicular lesions.

    PubMed

    Trottmann, M; Marcon, J; D'Anastasi, M; Karl, A; Stief, C G; Reiser, M; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    Virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) is a newly developed technique for the sonographic quantification of tissue elasticity. It has been used in the assessment of breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of VTIQ in indeterminate testicular lesions. Twenty patients with known testicular pathology underwent conventional B-mode sonography with additional VTIQ of the testicular lesions using a Siemens Acuson S2000™ and S3000™ (Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA, USA) system. Tissue mechanical properties were analysed in the VTIQ examination. The pathologic diagnosis was established after surgery or in the follow-up examination for suspected benign lesions. Over 36 months, 22 focal testicular lesions (median lesion size, 18 mm; range, 4-36 mm in 20 patients (median age, 43 years; range, 22-81 years) were examined. Lesions were hyperechoic (n = 1), hypoechoic (n = 14), isoechoic (n = 1), of mixed echogenicity (n = 3) or anechoic (n = 3). Histological examination showed one benign lesion (6.25%) with a mean size of 7 mm and 15 malignant lesions (93.75%) with a mean size of 20 mm. Mean shear wave velocity for normal testicular tissue was 1.17 m/s. No shear wave velocity could be measured in cystic lesions. The rest of the benign lesions showed a mean shear wave velocity of 2.37 m/s. The value of the shear wave velocity in germ cell tumours showed a mean shear wave velocity of 1.94 m/s and for seminoma it showed a mean shear wave velocity of 2.42 m/s. VTIQ is a reliable new method for measuring qualitative and quantitative stiffness of testicular lesions and tissue. The qualitative shear-wave elastography features were highly reproducible and showed good diagnostic performance in unclear testicular lesions. The VTIQ technique is also useful in assessing small testicular nodules and pseudolesions.

  3. Xenografting of testicular tissue pieces: 12 years of an in vivo spermatogenesis system.

    PubMed

    Arregui, Lucía; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-11-01

    Spermatogenesis is a dynamic and complex process that involves endocrine and testicular factors. During xenotransplantation of testicular tissue fragments into immunodecifient mice, a functional communication between host brain and donor testis is established. This interaction allows for the progression of spermatogenesis and recovery of fertilisation-competent spermatozoa from a broad range of mammalian species. In the last few years, significant progress has been achieved in testis tissue xenografting that improves our knowledge about the factors determining the success of grafting. The goal of this review is to provide up to date information about the role of factors such as donor age, donor species, testis tissue preservation or type of recipient mouse on the efficiency of this technique. Applications are described and compared with other techniques with similar purposes. Recent work has demonstrated that testicular tissue xenografting is used as a model to study gonadotoxicity of drugs and to obtain sperm from valuable young males. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Thymoquinone ameliorates testicular tissue inflammation induced by chronic administration of oral sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, A; Al-Gayyar, M M H

    2016-06-01

    Although sodium nitrite has been widely used as food preservative, building bases of scientific evidence about nitrite continues to oppose the general safety in human health. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ) has therapeutic potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both sodium nitrite and TQ on testicular tissues of rats. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. They received either 80 mg kg(-1) sodium nitrite or 50 mg kg(-1) TQ daily for twelve weeks. Serum testosterone was measured. Testis were weighed and the testicular tissue homogenates were used for measurements of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL10, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Sodium nitrite resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone concentration and elevation in testis weight and Gonado-Somatic Index. We found significant reduction in testicular tissues levels of IL-4 and IL-10 associated with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, chronic oral sodium nitrite induced changes in the weight of rat testis accompanied by elevation in the testicular tissue level of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. TQ attenuated sodium nitrite-induced testicular tissue damage through blocking oxidative stress, restoration of normal inflammatory cytokines balance and blocking of apoptosis.

  5. Meiosis in autologous ectopic transplants of immature testicular tissue grafted to Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Wistuba, Joachim; Luetjens, C Marc; Wesselmann, Ramona; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Simoni, Manuela; Schlatt, Stefan

    2006-04-01

    Grafting of immature testicular tissue provides a tool to examine testicular development and may offer a perspective for preservation of fertility in prepubertal patients. Successful xenografting in mice, resulting in mature spermatids, has been performed in several species but has failed with testicular tissues from the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Previous data indicate that the hormonal milieu provided by the mouse host might cause this failure. We conducted autologous ectopic transplantation of testicular fragments under the back skin in newborn marmoset monkeys. Seventeen months after transplantation, we found viable transplants in 2 out of the 4 grafted animals. In the transplants, tubules developed up to a state intermediate between the pregraft situation and adult controls. Dividing spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were present. Boule-like positivity and CDC25A negativity indicated that spermatogenesis was arrested at early meiosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed normal maturation of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and peritubular cells. Serum testosterone values were not restored to the normal range and bioactive chorionic gonadotropin levels increased to castrate levels. Meiotic arrest could have occurred in the grafts because of lack of sufficient testosterone or because of hyperthermia caused by the ectopic position of the grafts. We conclude that autologous transplants of immature testicular tissues in the marmoset can mature up to meiosis but that normal serum testosterone levels are not restored. Further studies have to be performed to overcome the meiotic arrest to explore the model further and to develop therapeutic options.

  6. Formaldehyde exposure induces autophagy in testicular tissues of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shui-Ping; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Lin, Pu; Qin, Zhen; An, Lu; Zheng, Lie-Rui; Lei, Li

    2015-03-01

    Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of causing adverse male reproductive effects. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in male reproductive injuries induced by formaldehyde exposure, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis and develop new targets for prevention and treatment of male infertility. In this study, electron microscopy, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were used to detect autophagy in testicular tissues. Moreover, testicular weights, histopathology, and morphometry were used to evaluate the reproductive injuries of formaldehyde exposure. We found that formaldehyde exposure-induced autophagy in testicular tissues was dose dependent. Increasing autophagosomes in spermatogenetic cells was observed by electron microscopy in formaldehyde exposure group. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed the transcription levels of the LC3-II, as well as the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, an indicator of autophagy, significantly increased in testicular tissue of formaldehyde exposure group in a dose dependent manner when compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in testicular weight and morphologic findings. In summary, formaldehyde exposure triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for male reproductive impairment induced by formaldehyde. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Capturing complex tumour biology in vitro: histological and molecular characterisation of precision cut slices

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Emma J.; Dong, Meng; Gutekunst, Matthias; Närhi, Katja; van Zoggel, Hanneke J. A. A.; Blom, Sami; Nagaraj, Ashwini; Metsalu, Tauno; Oswald, Eva; Erkens-Schulze, Sigrun; Delgado San Martin, Juan A.; Turkki, Riku; Wedge, Stephen R.; af Hällström, Taija M.; Schueler, Julia; van Weerden, Wytske M.; Verschuren, Emmy W.; Barry, Simon T.; van der Kuip, Heiko; Hickman, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Precision-cut slices of in vivo tumours permit interrogation in vitro of heterogeneous cells from solid tumours together with their native microenvironment. They offer a low throughput but high content in vitro experimental platform. Using mouse models as surrogates for three common human solid tumours, we describe a standardised workflow for systematic comparison of tumour slice cultivation methods and a tissue microarray-based method to archive them. Cultivated slices were compared to their in vivo source tissue using immunohistochemical and transcriptional biomarkers, particularly of cellular stress. Mechanical slicing induced minimal stress. Cultivation of tumour slices required organotypic support materials and atmospheric oxygen for maintenance of integrity and was associated with significant temporal and loco-regional changes in protein expression, for example HIF-1α. We recommend adherence to the robust workflow described, with recognition of temporal-spatial changes in protein expression before interrogation of tumour slices by pharmacological or other means. PMID:26647838

  8. The testicular capsule and peritubular tissue of birds: morphometry, histology, ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Aire, T A; Ozegbe, P C

    2007-01-01

    The testicular capsule was studied histologically, morphometrically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically in the Japanese quail, domestic fowl, turkey and duck (all members of the Galloanserae). The testicular capsule was, relative to mammals, thin, being 81.5 ± 13.7 µm in the quail, 91.7 ± 6.2 µm in the domestic fowl, 104.5 ± 29.8 µm in the turkey and 91.8 ± 18.9 µm in the duck. The orchido-epididymal border (hilus) of the capsule was much thicker than elsewhere in all birds (from 233.7 ± 50.7 µm in the duck to 550.0 ± 147.3 µm thick in the turkey). The testicular capsule, other than the tunica serosa and tunica vasculosa, comprised, in the main, smooth muscle-like or myoid cells running mainly in one direction, and disposed in one main mass. Peritubular tissue was similarly composed of smooth muscle-like cells disposed in several layers. Actin and desmin intermediate filaments were immunolocalized in the inner cellular layers of the capsule in the quail, domestic fowl and duck, but uniformly in the turkey. Vimentin intermediate filament immunoreaction in the capsule was moderately and uniformly positive in the testicular capsule of only the quail. Actin and desmin, but not vimentin (except very faintly in the turkey) or cytokeratin, were immunolocalized in the peritubular tissue of all birds. The results therefore establish, or complement, some previous observations that these birds have contractile cells in their testicular capsule and peritubular tissue, whose function probably includes the transport of testicular fluid into the excurrent duct system. PMID:17451470

  9. The testicular capsule and peritubular tissue of birds: morphometry, histology, ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Aire, T A; Ozegbe, P C

    2007-06-01

    The testicular capsule was studied histologically, morphometrically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically in the Japanese quail, domestic fowl, turkey and duck (all members of the Galloanserae). The testicular capsule was, relative to mammals, thin, being 81.5 +/- 13.7 microm in the quail, 91.7 +/- 6.2 microm in the domestic fowl, 104.5 +/- 29.8 microm in the turkey and 91.8 +/- 18.9 microm in the duck. The orchido-epididymal border (hilus) of the capsule was much thicker than elsewhere in all birds (from 233.7 +/- 50.7 microm in the duck to 550.0 +/- 147.3 microm thick in the turkey). The testicular capsule, other than the tunica serosa and tunica vasculosa, comprised, in the main, smooth muscle-like or myoid cells running mainly in one direction, and disposed in one main mass. Peritubular tissue was similarly composed of smooth muscle-like cells disposed in several layers. Actin and desmin intermediate filaments were immunolocalized in the inner cellular layers of the capsule in the quail, domestic fowl and duck, but uniformly in the turkey. Vimentin intermediate filament immunoreaction in the capsule was moderately and uniformly positive in the testicular capsule of only the quail. Actin and desmin, but not vimentin (except very faintly in the turkey) or cytokeratin, were immunolocalized in the peritubular tissue of all birds. The results therefore establish, or complement, some previous observations that these birds have contractile cells in their testicular capsule and peritubular tissue, whose function probably includes the transport of testicular fluid into the excurrent duct system.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-09

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Thuwanut, Paweena; Morrell, Jane M

    2016-01-15

    In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats.

  12. Cryopreservation of cat testicular tissues: effects of storage temperature, freezing protocols and cryoprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Thuwanut, P; Chatdarong, K

    2012-10-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue has become a part of gamete preservation in wild animal post-mortem. Using domestic cats as a model for wild felids, this study aimed to (i) investigate the effect of temperature for testicular tissue storage on sperm quality; (ii) compare efficiency of freezing protocols; and (iii) evaluate properties of cryoprotective agents to protect testicular sperm quality. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) was cut into four pieces. Three randomly selected pieces were allocated to be (i) fresh controls; (ii) stored at 4 °C for 24 h; and (iii) stored at room temperature (28 °C) for 24 h. After storage, the testicular tissue from each group was cut into 10 small pieces. One piece was assigned to be a control while the others were assigned to three freezing protocols; -80 °C (n = 3), vitrification (n = 3) or two-step freezing (kept above liquid nitrogen vapour for 10 min and submerged in liquid nitrogen) (n = 3). Each of three pieces was frozen using dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol (EG) or DMSO combined with EG. Sperm membrane (SYBR-14/EthD-1) and DNA (acridine orange) integrity were evaluated before and after cryopreservation. The storage of testicular tissue at room temperature decreased the percentage of sperm with intact membrane in fresh tissue (59.5 ± 30.5 vs 87.9 ± 7.0%, p < 0.05). DNA integrity was decreased after 24-h storage either at 4 °C or room temperature (p < 0.05). The two-step freezing resulted in a higher percentage of sperm with intact plasma membrane than the other techniques. Dimethyl sulphoxide, EG and DMSO combined with EG provided similar protection for the sperm membrane and DNA from cryodamages. In conclusion, storage of testicular tissue at 4 °C is necessary to maintain sperm membrane integrity during transportation of tissue for cryopreservation in the freezing laboratory. The results provide information for male gamete rescue in felid particularly when they die unexpectedly in the field

  13. Meiotic activity in orthotopic xenografts derived from human postpubertal testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Van Saen, D; Goossens, E; Bourgain, C; Ferster, A; Tournaye, H

    2011-02-01

    Grafting of frozen-thawed testicular tissue has been suggested as a novel fertility preservation method for patients undergoing gonadotoxic treatments. However, this technique still needs further optimization before any clinical application. So far, grafting of human testicular tissue has only been performed to the back skin of nude mice and has shown spermatogonial stem-cell survival and occasionally differentiation up to primary spermatocytes. In this study, orthotopic grafting to mouse testes was evaluated as an alternative, and the effect of freezing and the donor's age was studied. Human testicular tissue was obtained from two prepubertal (aged 3 and 5) and two postpubertal (aged 12 and 13) boys. Both fresh and frozen-thawed testicular tissue was grafted to the testis of immuno-deficient nude mice. Four and nine months after transplantation, testes were analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Four and nine months after transplantation, spermatogonial stem cells were observed in all tissue grafts. Germ cell survival was found to be higher in xenografts from the older boys when compared with that from younger donors. Furthermore, no differentiation was observed in the xenografts from younger patients, but the grafts of two older donors showed differentiation up to the primary spermatocyte level, with the presence of secondary spermatocytes in the oldest donor 9 months after transplantation. This xenografting study shows that intratesticular grafting results in high germ cell survival. In grafts derived from the older boys, meiotic activity was maintained in the xenografts for at least 9 months. Although difficult to conduct due to the scarcity of the tissue, more comparative research is needed to elucidate an optimal grafting strategy.

  14. Comparison of enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation of human testicular tissues.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Florian; Redmann, Klaus; Wistuba, Joachim; Schlatt, Stefan; Kliesch, Sabine; Neuhaus, Nina

    2015-08-01

    To compare mechanical dissociation, employing the Medimachine system, and enzymatic digestion of human testicular tissues with respect to the proportion of spermatogonia and somatic cells, with the long-term objective of establishing human spermatogonial cultures. Experimental basic science study. Reproductive biology laboratory. Testicular tissues were obtained from patients with gender dysphoria on the day of sex reassignment surgery. On the basis of the histological evaluation, tissue samples with complete spermatogenesis (fresh, n = 6; cryopreserved, n = 7) and with meiotic arrest (cryopreserved, n = 4) were selected. None. The composition of testicular cell suspensions was assessed performing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses for germ cell-specific (FGFR3, SALL4, UTF1, MAGE-A4) and somatic marker genes (ACTA2 and VIM). Additionally, flow-cytometric analyses were used to evaluate the percentage of SALL4-and vimentin-positive cells. While Medimachine dissociation yielded higher cell numbers in all patient groups, viability of cells was highly variable and correlated with the histological status of the tissue. Interestingly, qPCR analysis revealed a significantly decreased expression of the somatic marker genes ACTA2 and VIM and an increased expression of the spermatogonial marker genes FGFR3 and SALL4 after Medimachine dissociation. These findings were corroborated by flow-cytometric analyses that demonstrated that the proportion of SALL4-positive cells was up to 4 times higher after mechanical dissociation. Medimachine dissociation of human testicular tissues is comparably fast and leads to an enrichment of SALL4-positive spermatogonia. The use of this method may therefore constitute an advantage for the establishment of human spermatogonial cell cultures. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sonographic classification of testicular tumors by tissue harmonic imaging: experience of 58 cases.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Atsuo; Hatano, Tadashi; Saito, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Rie; Nagao, Toshitaka; Sanada, Shigeru

    2017-03-20

    To evaluate the relationship between our proposed sonographic classification of testicular tumors by tissue harmonic imaging and histological type. We retrospectively analyzed 58 testicular tumors and tumor-like lesions [seminomatous germ cell tumor (SGCT): 28; non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT): 16; lymphoid and hematopoietic tumor (LHT): 7; Leydig cell tumor: 1; epidermal cyst: 2; and tumor of paratesticular structure (TPS): 4]. We divided a sonographic image into six types for morphological criteria and three types for color Doppler criteria. We examined the relationship between the sonographic classification and histological type. For morphological criteria, there were 21 cases of Type I (36%), 15 Type II (26%), 9 Type III (15%), five Type IV (9%), five Type V (9%), and three Type VI (5%). For color Doppler criteria, there were 47 cases classified as hypervascular (81%), eight as hypovascular (14%), and three as avascular (5%). Most of the SGCTs were divided into types I and II; the NSGCTs into types III, IV, and V; the LHTs into only type II; and the TPSs into type VI. We established a sonographic classification of testicular tumors with various histological types. This sonographic classification is potentially useful for estimating the histological type of testicular tumors.

  16. Effects of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and oxidative stress variables in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Yan-Hua; Han, Cong; Hu, Shan; Wang, Li-Qiang; Hu, Jian-Hong

    2015-06-01

    Trehalose is widely used for cryopreservation of various cells and tissues. Until now, the effect of trehalose supplementation on cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue remains unexplored. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of varying doses of trehalose in cryomedia on cell viability and key antioxidant enzymes activities in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue. Bovine calf testicular tissue samples were collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedias containing varying doses (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%; v/v) of trehalose, respectively. Cell viability, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) content and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured and analyzed. The results showed that cell viability, T-AOC activity, SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH content of frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was decreased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). MDA content in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue was significantly increased compared with that of fresh group (P<0.05). The cryomedia added 15% trehalose exhibited the greatest percentage of cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT) among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). Meanwhile, GSH content was the lowest among frozen-thawed groups (P<0.05). However, there were no significance differences in MDA content among the groups added 10, 15 and 20% trehalose (P>0.05). In conclusion, the cryomedia added 15% trehalose reduced the oxidative stress and improved the cryoprotective effect of bovine calf testicular tissue. Further studies are required to obtain more concrete results on the determination of antioxidant capacity of trehalose in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue.

  17. Protective effect of sodium ferulate on acetaldehyde-treated precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong; Wang, Hui

    2012-06-01

    Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β(1), and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation.

  18. Protective Effect of Sodium Ferulate on Acetaldehyde-Treated Precision-Cut Rat Liver Slices

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Chun; Liao, Zhang-Xiu; Wu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in hepatic fibrogenesis, and inhibition of HSC activation may prevent liver fibrosis. Acetaldehyde, the most deleterious metabolite of alcohol, triggers HSC activation in alcoholic liver injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of sodium ferulate (SF), a sodium salt of ferulic acid that is rich in fruits and vegetables, on acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation using precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs). Rat PCLSs were co-incubated with 350 μM acetaldehyde and different concentrations of SF. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by measuring enzyme leakage and malondialdehyde content in tissue. α-Smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-β1, and hydroxyproline were determined to assess the activation of HSCs. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1) were determined to evaluate collagen degradation. SF prominently prevented the enzyme leakage in acetaldehyde-treated slices and also inhibited HSC activation and collagen production stimulated by acetaldehyde. In addition, SF increased MMP-1 expression and decreased TIMP-1 expression. These results showed that SF protected PCLSs from acetaldehyde-stimulated HSC activation and liver injury, which may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative injury and acceleration of collagen degradation. PMID:22404575

  19. Determination of genotoxicity by the Comet assay applied to murine precision-cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Switalla, S; Knebel, J; Ritter, D; Dasenbrock, C; Krug, N; Braun, A; Sewald, K

    2013-03-01

    Precision-cut lung slices (PCLSs) are an organotypic lung model that is widely used in pharmacological, physiological, and toxicological studies. Genotoxicity testing, as a pivotal part of early risk assessment, is currently established in vivo in various organs including lung, brain, or liver, and in vitro in cell lines or primary cells. The aim of the present study was to provide the three-dimensional organ culture PCLS as a new ex vivo model for determination of genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Murine PCLS were exposed to increasing concentrations of ethyl methane sulfonate 'EMS' (0.03-0.4%) and formalin (0.5-5mM). Tissue was subsequently dissociated, and DNA single-strand breaks were quantified using the Comet assay. Number of viable dissociated lung cells was between 4×10(5) and 6.7×10(5)cells/slice. Even treatment with EMS did not induce toxicity compared to untreated tissue control. As expected, DNA single-strand breaks were increased dose-dependently and significantly after exposure to EMS. Here, tail length rose from 24μm to 75μm. In contrast, formalin resulted in a significant induction of DNA cross-links. The effects induced by EMS and formalin demonstrate the usefulness of PCLS as a new ex vivo lung model for genotoxicity testing in the early risk assessment of airborne substances in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxic effect of acyclovir on testicular tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, is known to be toxic to gonads. The current study evaluated cytotoxicity of ACV on histopathological changes in testis tissue and serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation concentrations of male rats. Animals were divided into five groups. One group served as control and one group served as control sham. In the drug treated groups ACV administered for 15 days. 18 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis of the testis was carried out. Serum levels of testosterone and Lipid Peroxidation and potential fertility of animals was evaluated. Male rats exposed to ACV had significant reduction in serum testosterone concentrations at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). ACV induced histopathological changes in the testis and also increase the mean number of mast cells in peritubular or interstitial tissue in the testis at at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). In addition ACV caused increase of serum level of Lipid Peroxidation at 48mg/kg dose-level (p<0.05). As well ACV decreased potential fertility in male rats. The present results highly support the idea that ACV has adverse effect on the reproductive system in male rat.

  1. Preparation and culture of precision-cut organ slices from human and animal.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Robyn L; Vickers, Alison E M

    2013-01-01

    1.Human and animal precision-cut organ slices are being widely used to obtain drug metabolism and toxicity profiles in vitro. These data are then used to predict what might be seen in human patients. The accuracy of this prediction and extrapolation of the findings based on human or animal in vitro systems to the findings that occur in vivo is dependent on both the quality of the tissue itself and the quality of the in vitro system. 2.The quality of human organs used in research is dependent on procurement methods, warm ischaemia time, preservation solutions, cold ischaemia time, and donor-specific factors. It is important to confirm that the organs being used are highly viable and fully functional before using them in scientific studies. 3.The optimal preparation and incubation of organ slices is also essential in maintaining slice viability and function. It is important to prepare the slices in a cold preservation solution, to prepare the slices at a correct thickness, and to incubate the slices in a system where the slice rotates in out of the oxygen atmosphere and medium. 4.Meeting the criteria outlined here will lead to successful organ slice cultures for investigating drug-induced mechanisms and organ-specific toxicity.

  2. Evaluation of the intestinal toxicity and transport of xenobiotics utilizing precision-cut slices.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A M; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2013-01-01

    1.The precision-cut intestinal slice (PCIS) technology is a relatively new addition to the battery of in vitro assays for evaluation of xenobiotic toxicity, metabolism, and transport. 2.The intestine is an important target for drug-induced toxicity due to its high exposure after oral administration. Therefore, the prediction of drug-induced intestinal side effects remains a significant safety issue in pharmaceutical development. Although animal experiments have been proven useful, species differences and the requirement for reduction of animal use warrant the development of in vitro methods which can apply human tissue. 3.The enterocytes lining the villi express high activities of enzymes and transporters involved in drug disposition. They vary highly in activities: along the length of the intestine and along the villi, gradients of expression levels of the enzymes and proteins exist, which necessitates an in vitro model that can reflect the different regions of the intestine. 4.In this chapter, the application of PCIS in studies on transport and toxicity of xenobiotics is reviewed. PCIS can be prepared from each region of the intestine and from various species in a similar manner, and the results published so far indicate that they represent a promising model to evaluate intestinal toxicity and transport.

  3. Effect of noise pollution on testicular tissue and hormonal assessment in rat.

    PubMed

    Farzadinia, P; Bigdeli, M; Akbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, M; Daneshi, A; Bargahi, A

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have focused on the effect of noise stress on the health. So far, few studies have been conducted on the effect of noise on reproductive system. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of noise pollution on morphometric parameters of testicular tissue and hormonal assessment (ACTH, cortisol and testosterone). In this study, 40 male rats were exposed to control, 95, 105 and 115 dB noise intensity for sixty days. At the end of study, blood sampling was performed and ACTH, cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. The results showed that noise stress decreased testosterone levels in the 115 dB-treated group, while it increased the ACTH and cortisol levels. Histological sections of testis showed that the mean diameter of the seminiferous tubules and thickness of the germinal epithelium reduced compared to the control group. Also the ratio of the interstitial tissue area to the total testicular tissue area was increased significantly. Our study shows that noise stress may have negative influences on male fertility. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Effect of different cryoprotectant agents on spermatogenesis efficiency in cryopreserved and grafted neonatal mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cengiz; Mullen, Brendan; Jarvi, Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Lo, Kirk C

    2013-08-01

    Restoration of male fertility associated with use of the cryopreserved testicular tissue would be a significant advance in human and animal assisted reproductive technology. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of four different cryoprotectant agents (CPA) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in cryopreserved and allotransplanted neonatal mouse testicular tissue. Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) with 5% fetal bovine serum including either 0.7 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 0.7 M propylene glycol (PrOH), 0.7 M ethylene glycol (EG), or glycerol was used as the cryoprotectant solution. Donor testes were collected and dissected from neonatal pups of CD-1 mice (one day old). Freezing and seeding of the testicular whole tissues was performed using an automated controlled-rate freezer. Four fresh (non-frozen) or frozen-thawed pieces of testes were subcutaneously grafted onto the hind flank of each castrated male NCr nude recipient mouse and harvested after 3 months. Fresh neonatal testes grafts recovered from transplant sites had the most advanced rate of spermatogenesis with elongated spermatid and spermatozoa in 46.6% of seminiferous tubules and had higher levels of serum testosterone compared to all other frozen-thawed-graft groups (p<0.05). Fresh grafts and frozen-thawed grafts in the DMSO group had the highest rate of tissue survival compared to PrOH, EG, and glycerol after harvesting (p>0.05). The most effective CPA for the freezing and thawing of neonatal mouse testes was DMSO in comparison with EG (p<0.05) in both pre-grafted and post-grafted tissues based on histopathological evaluation. Likewise, the highest level of serum testosterone was obtained from the DMSO CPA group compared to all other cryoprotectants evaluated (p<0.05). The typical damage observed in the frozen-thawed grafts included disruption of the interstitial stroma, intercellular connection ruptures, and detachment of spermatogonia from the basement membrane. These findings

  5. Effects of chronic tramadol administration on testicular tissue in rats: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Abdellatief, R B; Elgamal, D A; Mohamed, E E M

    2015-08-01

    In a prospective experimental study, the effects of chronic tramadol administration on gonadotrophic and sex hormones, histopathological and morphometrical alterations in rat testicular tissue were investigated in a laboratory setting. Tramadol was given alone to adult male albino rats. Gonadotrophic and serum sex hormone levels were measured and testicular pathological and morphometric changes were observed in treated vs. After 30 days of treatment, tramadol induced a decrease in LH, FSH and testosterone serum levels. Histologically, degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules were observed. They showed shrinkage, separation of tubular basement membrane, disorganisation and vacuolisation of spermatogenic layers. Morphometric analysis revealed significant decrease in the mean values of the tubular diameter and epithelial height. Ultrastructural abnormalities were detected in all cells of spermatogenic lineage in addition to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Sertoli cell vacuolation, huge lipid droplets and disrupted Sertoli cell junctions were observed. Leydig cells showed euchromatic nuclei and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In view of these findings, it is concluded that tramadol induces alterations in sex hormonal levels in conjunction with disruption of the normal histological structure of rat testis. This might lead to the risk of male infertility. Therefore, tramadol should be used with caution with appropriate dose monitoring. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. RNA isolation from precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from different species.

    PubMed

    Niehof, Monika; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Danov, Olga; Arndt, Kirsten; Koschmann, Jeannette; Dahlmann, Franziska; Hansen, Tanja; Sewald, Katherina

    2017-03-09

    Functional 3D organ models such as precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) have recently captured the attention of biomedical research. To enable wider implementation in research and development, these new biologically relevant organ models are being constantly refined. A very important issue is to improve the preparation of high-quality RNA (ribonucleic acid) from PCLS for drug discovery and development of new therapies. Gene expression analysis at different levels is used as an important experimental readout. Genome-wide analysis using microarrays is mostly applied for biomarker selection in disease models or in comprehensive toxicological studies. Specific biomarker testing by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) is often used in efficacy studies. Both applications require high-quality RNA as starting material for the generation of reliable data. Additionally, a small number of slices should be sufficient for satisfactory RNA isolation to allow as many experimental conditions as possible to be covered with a given tissue sample. Unfortunately, the vast amount of agarose in PCLS impedes RNA extraction according to the standard procedures. We established an optimized protocol for RNA isolation from PCLS from humans, rats, mice, marmosets, and rhesus macaques based on the separation of lysis and precipitation steps and a magnetic-bead cleanup procedure. The resulting RNA is of high purity and possesses a high degree of integrity. There are no contaminations affecting RTqPCR efficiency or any enzymatic step in sample preparation for microarray analysis. In summary, we isolated RNA from PCLS from different species that is well suited for RTqPCR and for microarray analysis as downstream applications.

  7. Natural innate cytokine response to immunomodulators and adjuvants in human precision-cut lung slices

    SciTech Connect

    Switalla, S.; Lauenstein, L.; Prenzler, F.; Knothe, S.; Foerster, C.; Fieguth, H.-G.; Pfennig, O.; Schaumann, F.; Martin, C.; Guzman, C.A.; Ebensen, T.; Mueller, M.; Hohlfeld, J.M.; Krug, N.; Braun, A.; Sewald, K.

    2010-08-01

    Prediction of lung innate immune responses is critical for developing new drugs. Well-established immune modulators like lipopolysaccharides (LPS) can elicit a wide range of immunological effects. They are involved in acute lung diseases such as infections or chronic airway diseases such as COPD. LPS has a strong adjuvant activity, but its pyrogenicity has precluded therapeutic use. The bacterial lipopeptide MALP-2 and its synthetic derivative BPPcysMPEG are better tolerated. We have compared the effects of LPS and BPPcysMPEG on the innate immune response in human precision-cut lung slices. Cytokine responses were quantified by ELISA, Luminex, and Meso Scale Discovery technology. The initial response to LPS and BPPcysMPEG was marked by coordinated and significant release of the mediators IL-1{beta}, MIP-1{beta}, and IL-10 in viable PCLS. Stimulation of lung tissue with BPPcysMPEG, however, induced a differential response. While LPS upregulated IFN-{gamma}, BPPcysMPEG did not. This traces back to their signaling pathways via TLR4 and TLR2/6. The calculated exposure doses selected for LPS covered ranges occurring in clinical studies with human beings. Correlation of obtained data with data from human BAL fluid after segmental provocation with endotoxin showed highly comparable effects, resulting in a coefficient of correlation > 0.9. Furthermore, we were interested in modulating the response to LPS. Using dexamethasone as an immunosuppressive drug for anti-inflammatory therapy, we found a significant reduction of GM-CSF, IL-1{beta}, and IFN-{gamma}. The PCLS-model offers the unique opportunity to test the efficacy and toxicity of biological agents intended for use by inhalation in a complex setting in humans.

  8. DNA adduct formation in precision-cut rat liver and lung slices exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed

    Harrigan, Jeanine A; Vezina, Chad M; McGarrigle, Barbara P; Ersing, Noreen; Box, Harold C; Maccubbin, Alexander E; Olson, James R

    2004-02-01

    Chemical-DNA adducts provide an integrated measure of exposure, absorption, bioactivation, detoxification, and DNA repair following exposure to a genotoxic agent. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a prototypical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), can be bioactivated by cytochrome P-450s (CYPs) and epoxide hydrolase to genotoxic metabolites which form covalent adducts with DNA. In this study, we utilized precision-cut rat liver and lung slices exposed to BaP to investigate tissue-specific differences in chemical absorption and formation of DNA adducts. To investigate the contribution of bioactivating CYPs (such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) on the formation of BaP-DNA adducts, animals were also pretreated in vivo with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) prior to in vitro incubation of tissue slices with BaP. Furthermore, the tissue distribution of BaP and BaP-DNA adduct levels from in vivo studies were compared with those from the in vitro tissue slice experiments. The results indicate a time- and concentration-dependent increase in tissue-associated BaP following exposure of rat liver and lung tissue slices to BaP in vitro, with generally higher levels of BaP retained in lung tissue. Furthermore, rat liver and lung slices metabolized BaP to reactive intermediates that formed covalent adducts with DNA. Total BaP-DNA adducts increased with concentration and incubation time. Adduct levels (fmol adduct/microg DNA) in lung slices were greater than liver at all doses. Liver slices contained one major and two minor adducts, while lung slices contained two major and 3 minor adducts. The tissue-specific qualitative profile of these adducts in tissue slices was similar to that observed from in vivo studies, further validating the use of this model. Pretreatment of animals with TCDD prior to in vitro incubation with BaP potentiated the levels of DNA adduct formation. TCDD pretreatment altered the adduct distribution in lung but not in liver slices. Together, the results

  9. The effects of long-term leptin administration on morphometrical changes of mice testicular tissue

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili-Nejad, Mohammad-Reza; Babaei, Homayoon; Kheirandish, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin is a novel and interesting hormone for anyone trying to lose weight, but its effects on male gonad structure in longitudinal study is unknown. The present study was designed to explore morphometrical changes of mouse testicular tissue after long-term administration of leptin. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy mature male mice were randomly assigned to either control (n=15) or treatment (n=15) groups. Leptin was intraperitoneally injected to the treatment group (0.1 µg/100 µl of physiological saline) once a day for 30 consecutive days, and control animals received normal saline with the same volume and route. Five mice from each experimental group were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after the beginning of treatments. Left testes were removed, weighted and then fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosine for morphometrical assays. Results: Except for sertoli cell nucleus diameter, which was affected from 30th day, evaluation of other morphometrical parameters such as Johnsen’s score, meiotic index, spermatogenesis, epithelial height, seminiferous tubules diameter and spermatogonial nucleus diameter revealed significant decrease from 15th day after leptin administration compare to those of the control group (P<0.05). Thus, meiotic index and spermatogonial cell nucleus diameter were two parameters that were further disturbed on 30th day compare to the day 15 (3.09±0.03 vs. 3.23±0.03, P=0.006 and 5.50±0.09 vs. 6.08±0.14, P=0.007, respectively). Conclusion: Our results showed that long-term administration of leptin could disturb testicular tissue structure and delay spermatogenesis process. PMID:26877846

  10. Effects of human chorionic gonadotropin on testicular interstitial tissues in men with non-obstructive azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Oka, S; Shiraishi, K; Matsuyama, H

    2016-11-16

    Non-obstructive azoospermia is a severe condition because spermatogenesis per se is disrupted. Although microdissection testicular sperm extraction is the standard therapy for non-obstructive azoospermia, sperm retrieval is unsuccessful in approximately 50% of patients. For these patients, we conducted human chorionic gonadotropin-based salvage hormonal therapy, and sperm retrieval was possible in 10-20% of patients. The objectives of this study were to assess the changes in interstitial lesions in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia and to evaluate the effects of human chorionic gonadotropin on these tissues. Testicular biopsy specimens were obtained from 10 non-obstructive azoospermia patients who failed to obtain spermatozoa and from 10 obstructive azoospermia patients. All non-obstructive azoospermia patients received salvage hormonal therapy after microdissection testicular sperm extraction. Hematoxylin and eosin (H.E.) staining and immunohistochemical staining for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein antibody, the Leydig cell marker, and TE-7 antibody, the fibroblast marker, as well as picrosirius red staining to detect collagen fibers, were performed. We measured interstitial lesions, as Leydig cell area and the other area, with ImageJ software. Interstitial area, excluding Leydig cells, increased up to 12.5% in non-obstructive azoospermia compared with 1.2% in obstructive azoospermia (p < 0.01), which was mainly because of fibrosis with TE-7-positive fibroblasts. The increase in interstitial lesions was correlated with Johnsen scores. Interstitial area, excluding the Leydig cells, decreased by 29% after salvage hormonal therapy (p < 0.05), indicating improvement of interstitial fibrosis in non-obstructive azoospermia. There were no significant difference in total Leydig cell area and size of each Leydig cells between obstructive azoospermia and non-obstructive azoospermia. After the salvage hormonal therapy, a portion of the Leydig cells became

  11. DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2002 Takamatsu and co-workers described the human DSCR9 gene and observed that it was transcriptionally active in human testicular tissue, but no protein was identified as a product of this transcript. Similar results were obtained in chimpanzee tissue. This gene has not been detected in species other than primates, suggesting that DSCR9 is exclusively found in these mammals. Results We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas). We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT) coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284 bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR). Conclusions The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney) of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene. PMID:22704171

  12. Proinflammatory and cytotoxic response to nanoparticles in precision-cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    Haberl, Nadine; Loza, Kateryna; Epple, Matthias; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Rehberg, Markus; Krombach, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Summary Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) are an established ex vivo alternative to in vivo experiments in pharmacotoxicology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of PCLS as a tool in nanotoxicology studies. Silver (Ag-NPs) and zinc oxide (ZnO-NPs) nanoparticles as well as quartz particles were used because these materials have been previously shown in several in vitro and in vivo studies to induce a dose-dependent cytotoxic and inflammatory response. PCLS were exposed to three concentrations of 70 nm monodisperse polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-coated Ag-NPs under submerged culture conditions in vitro. ZnO-NPs (NM110) served as ‘soluble’ and quartz particles (Min-U-Sil) as ‘non-soluble’ control particles. After 4 and 24 h, the cell viability and the release of proinflammatory cytokines was measured. In addition, multiphoton microscopy was employed to assess the localization of Ag-NPs in PCLS after 24 h of incubation. Exposure of PCLS to ZnO-NPs for 4 and 24 h resulted in a strong decrease in cell viability, while quartz particles had no cytotoxic effect. Moreover, only a slight cytotoxic response was detected by LDH release after incubation of PCLS with 20 or 30 µg/mL of Ag-NPs. Interestingly, none of the particles tested induced a proinflammatory response in PCLS. Finally, multiphoton microscopy revealed that the Ag-NP were predominantly localized at the cut surface and only to a much lower extent in the deeper layers of the PCLS. In summary, only ‘soluble’ ZnO-NPs elicited a strong cytotoxic response. Therefore, we suggest that the cytotoxic response in PCLS was caused by released Zn2+ ions rather than by the ZnO-NPs themselves. Moreover, Ag-NPs were predominantly localized at the cut surface of PCLS but not in deeper regions, indicating that the majority of the particles did not have the chance to interact with all cells present in the tissue slice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that PCLS may have some limitations when used for

  13. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals ...

  14. Changes in Testicular Interstitial Connective Tissue of Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) During Ageing and After Exposure to Short Photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Frutos, E; Seco-Rovira, V; Ferrer, C; Martínez-Hernández, J; Madrid, J F; Sáez, F J; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2016-02-01

    The testicular interstitium of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was studied during ageing and in testicular regression after exposure to a short photoperiod, in relation to the interstitial cells and their connective tissue. This tissue was assessed histochemically using Masson's trichrome technique and the expression of Heat Shock Protein 47 (HSP-47) and collagen IV (α5) was assessed in Leydig cells. Finally, an ultrastructural analysis of some cells of the testicular interstitium was made. Leydig cells were positive for HSP-47 and collagen IV (α5). Ageing did not change the parameters studied while the short photoperiod altered the synthetic activity of Leydig cells. The positivity index of these cells for HSP-47 was significantly higher in the regressed testis, but was lower for collagen IV (α5). During ageing no change were observed. Ultrastructural Leydig cells showed a discontinuous basal lamina that did not change during ageing. The basal lamina was not identified in Leydig cells regressed by exposure to a short photoperiod. In conclusion; the intertubular connective tissue suffers little change with age. By contrast, in the testis regressed after exposure to a short photoperiod the studied parameters related to the intertubular connective tissue were altered. These changes are probably related with the low synthetic activity of regressed Leydig cell.

  15. Effective attenuation of atrazine-induced histopathological changes in testicular tissue by antioxidant N-phenyl-4-aryl-polyhydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Chandak, Navneet; Bhardwaj, Jitender K; Zheleva-Dimitrova, Dimitrina; Kitanov, Gerassim; Sharma, Rajnesh K; Sharma, Pawan K; Saso, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Some of the environmental toxicants acting as endocrine disruptors have been associated with health hazards in human and wildlife by modulating hormonal actions. Atrazine, a strong endocrine disruptor, induces detrimental effects on gonads in male and female, and causes impairment of fertility and developmental problems as well as sex alterations. Atrazine decreases the activities of antioxidant enzymes and thus responsible for oxidative stress. Natural antioxidants have shown ability to reduce/slow down the apoptotic effect of atrazine on testicular tissue. In the present study, some N-phenyl-4-aryl-polyhydroquinolines bearing phenolic or/and alkoxy group(s) (6a-6g) were synthesized and evaluated for antioxidant activity in four different assays. Three best compounds (6e-6g) were studied for their ameliorative effect on testicular tissue supplemented with atrazine in vitro.

  16. Thymoquinone ameliorated elevated inflammatory cytokines in testicular tissue and sex hormones imbalance induced by oral chronic toxicity with sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, Abdullah; Al-Gayyar, Mohammed M H

    2016-07-01

    Scientific evidence illustrated the health hazards of exposure to nitrites for prolonged time. Nitrites affected several body organs due to oxidative, inflammatory and apoptosis properties. Furthermore, thymoquinone (TQ) had curative effects against many diseases. We tried to discover the impact of both sodium nitrite and TQ on inflammatory cytokines contents in testicular tissues and hormonal balance both in vivo and in vitro. Fifty adult male SD rats received 80mg/kg sodium nitrite and treated with either 25 or 50mg/kg TQ daily by oral-gavage for twelve weeks. Testis were removed for sperms' count. Testicular tissue homogenates were used for assessment of protein and gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, Nrf2 and caspase-3. Serum samples were used for measurement of testosterone, LH, FSH and prolactin. Moreover, all the parameters were measured in human normal testis cell-lines, CRL-7002. Sodium nitrite produced significant decrease in serum testosterone associated with raised FSH, LH and prolactin. Moreover, sodium nitrite significantly elevated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3 and reduced Nrf2. TQ significantly reversed all these effects both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, TQ ameliorated testicular tissue inflammation and restored the normal balance of sex hormones induced by sodium nitrite both in vivo and in vitro.

  17. The effects of different doses of silibinin in combination with methotrexate on testicular tissue of mice.

    PubMed

    Oufi, Hayder Gaeed; Al-Shawi, Nada Naji

    2014-05-05

    Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used chemotherapeutic agent with different side effects including germ cells toxicities. Silibinin is one of the structural isomers of silymarin, with different phytotherapeutic applications, and its possible protective effects against MTX induced germ cells damage were investigated in this work. Twenty five male mice were divided into five groups (n=5) allocated as follows: Group 1 received buffer for five days given by single intraperitoneal (IP) injection per day; Group 2 in addition to buffer for five days, animals received at day five single dose of 20mg/kg of MTX IP. Groups (3, 4, and 5) received respectively, (50, 100, or 150mg/kg body weight) of silibinin IP single daily dose for five days then at day five 20mg/kg of MTX IP. Microscopic examinations of sperms, histological examinations of testis and serum testosterone had been measured. Silibinin showed a significant decrease in the percent of dead/live sperm with significant changes in interstitial space and in the diameter of spermatide. The results indicate that silibinin can mitigate some of the toxic effects of MTX in testicular tissue.

  18. Testicular tissue cryopreservation and spermatogonial stem cell transplantation to restore fertility: from bench to bedside

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Male infertility management has made significant progress during the past three decades, especially after the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in 1992. However, many boys and men still suffer from primary testicular failure due to acquired or genetic causes. New and novel treatments are needed to address these issues. Spermatogenesis originates from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that reside in the testis. Many of these men lack SSCs or have lost SSCs over time as a result of specific medical conditions or toxic exposures. Loss of SSCs is critical in prepubertal boys who suffer from cancer and are going through gonadotoxic cancer treatments, as there is no option of sperm cryopresrvation due to sexual immaturity. The development of SSC transplantation in a mouse model to repopulate spermatozoa in depleted testes has opened new avenues of research in other animal models, including non-human primates. Recent advances in cryopreservation and in vitro propagation of human SSCs offer promise for human SSC autotransplantation in the near future. Ongoing research is focusing on safety and technical issues of human SSC autotransplantation. This is the time to counsel parents and boys at risk of infertility on the possibility of cryopreserving and banking a small amount of testis tissue for potential future use in SSC transplantation. PMID:25157677

  19. Precision-cut kidney slices (PCKS) to study development of renal fibrosis and efficacy of drug targeting ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poosti, Fariba; Pham, Bao Tung; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Poelstra, Klaas; van Goor, Harry; Olinga, Peter; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Renal fibrosis is a serious clinical problem resulting in the greatest need for renal replacement therapy. No adequate preventive or curative therapy is available that could be clinically used to target renal fibrosis specifically. The search for new efficacious treatment strategies is therefore warranted. Although in vitro models using homogeneous cell populations have contributed to the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in renal fibrosis, these models poorly mimic the complex in vivo milieu. Therefore, we here evaluated a precision-cut kidney slice (PCKS) model as a new, multicellular ex vivo model to study the development of fibrosis and its prevention using anti-fibrotic compounds. Precision-cut slices (200-300 μm thickness) were prepared from healthy C57BL/6 mouse kidneys using a Krumdieck tissue slicer. To induce changes mimicking the fibrotic process, slices were incubated with TGFβ1 (5 ng/ml) for 48 h in the presence or absence of the anti-fibrotic cytokine IFNγ (1 µg/ml) or an IFNγ conjugate targeted to PDGFRβ (PPB-PEG-IFNγ). Following culture, tissue viability (ATP-content) and expression of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Slices remained viable up to 72 h of incubation, and no significant effects of TGFβ1 and IFNγ on viability were observed. TGFβ1 markedly increased α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen I mRNA and protein expression levels. IFNγ and PPB-PEG-IFNγ significantly reduced TGFβ1-induced fibronectin, collagen I and collagen III mRNA expression, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The PKCS model is a novel tool to test the pathophysiology of fibrosis and to screen the efficacy of anti-fibrotic drugs ex vivo in a multicellular and pro-fibrotic milieu. A major advantage of the slice model is that it can be used not only for animal but also for (fibrotic) human kidney tissue. PMID:26112172

  20. Applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices in evaluating nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, Ursula G.; Vogel, Sandra; Aumann, Alexandra; Hess, Annemarie; Kolle, Susanne N.; Ma-Hock, Lan; Wohlleben, Wendel; Dammann, Martina; Strauss, Volker; Treumann, Silke; Gröters, Sibylle; Wiench, Karin; Ravenzwaay, Bennard van; Landsiedel, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLuS) in detecting nanomaterial (NM) toxicity to the respiratory tract was investigated evaluating sixteen OECD reference NMs (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, CeO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, Ag, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)). Upon 24-hour test substance exposure, the PCLuS system was able to detect early events of NM toxicity: total protein, reduction in mitochondrial activity, caspase-3/-7 activation, glutathione depletion/increase, cytokine induction, and histopathological evaluation. Ion shedding NMS (ZnO and Ag) induced severe tissue destruction detected by the loss of total protein. Two anatase TiO{sub 2} NMs, CeO{sub 2} NMs, and two MWCNT caused significant (determined by trend analysis) cytotoxicity in the WST-1 assay. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, different TiO{sub 2} NMs and one MWCNT increased GSH levels, presumably a defense response to reactive oxygen species, and these substances further induced a variety of cytokines. One of the SiO{sub 2} NMs increased caspase-3/-7 activities at non-cytotoxic levels, and one rutile TiO{sub 2} only induced cytokines. Investigating these effects is, however, not sufficient to predict apical effects found in vivo. Reproducibility of test substance measurements was not fully satisfactory, especially in the GSH and cytokine assays. Effects were frequently observed in negative controls pointing to tissue slice vulnerability even though prepared and handled with utmost care. Comparisons of the effects observed in the PCLuS to in vivo effects reveal some concordances for the metal oxide NMs, but less so for the MWCNT. The highest effective dosages, however, exceeded those reported for rat short-term inhalation studies. To become applicable for NM testing, the PCLuS system requires test protocol optimization. - Highlights: • 16 OECD reference nanomaterials were tested in rat precision-cut lung slices. • Nanomaterial cytotoxicity, apoptose, oxidative stress, and inflammation were

  1. Antiretroviral drug transporters and metabolic enzymes in human testicular tissue: potential contribution to HIV-1 sanctuary site.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yiying; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Vyboh, Kishanda; Whyte, Sana-Kay; Sheehan, Nancy L; Brassard, Pierre; Bélanger, Maud; Chomont, Nicolas; Fletcher, Courtney V; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Bendayan, Reina

    2016-07-01

    The testes are a potential viral sanctuary site for HIV-1 infection. Our study aims to provide insight into the expression and localization of key drug transporters and metabolic enzymes relevant to ART in this tissue compartment. We characterized gene and protein expression of 12 representative drug transporters and two metabolic enzymes in testicular tissue samples obtained from uninfected (n = 8) and virally suppressed HIV-1-infected subjects on ART (n = 5) and quantified antiretroviral drug concentrations in plasma and testicular tissues using LC/MS/MS from HIV-1-infected subjects. Our data demonstrate that key ABC drug transporters (permeability glycoprotein, multidrug-resistance protein 1, 2 and 4, and breast cancer resistance protein), solute carrier transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 2B1, organic anion transporter 1, concentrative nucleoside transporter 1, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2) and cytochrome P450 metabolic enzymes (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6) previously shown to interact with many commonly used antiretroviral drugs are expressed at the mRNA and protein level in the testes of both subject groups and localize primarily at the blood-testis barrier, with no significant differences between the two groups. Furthermore, we observed that PIs known to be substrates for ATP-binding cassette membrane transporters, displayed variable testicular tissue penetration, with darunavir concentrations falling below therapeutic values. In contrast, the NRTIs emtricitabine, lamivudine and tenofovir displayed favourable tissue penetration, reaching concentrations comparable to plasma levels. We also demonstrated that nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ exhibited higher gene expression in the testicular tissue compared with pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, suggesting a potential regulatory pathway governing drug transporter and metabolic enzyme expression in this tissue

  2. Generation of Live Piglets for the First Time Using Sperm Retrieved from Immature Testicular Tissue Cryopreserved and Grafted into Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Michiko; Somfai, Tamas; Noguchi, Junko; Tanihara, Fuminori; Ito, Junya; Kashiwazaki, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissues is essential for increasing the possibilities of offspring generation by testicular xenografting for agricultural or medical purposes. However, successful production of offspring from the sperm involved has never been reported previously. In the present study, therefore, using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), we examined whether xenogeneic sperm obtained from immature pig testicular tissue after cryopreservation would have the capacity to produce live piglets. Testicular fragments from 9- to 11-day-old piglets were vitrified after 10- or 20-min immersion in vitrification solution containing ethylene glycol (EG), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and trehalose as cryoprotectants, and then stored in liquid nitrogen for more than 140 days. Thirty nude mice were assigned to each immersion-time group. Testicular fragments were transplanted under the back skin of castrated mice immediately after warming and removal of the cryoprotectants. Blood and testicular grafts were then recovered from the recipient mice on days 60, 120, 180 and 230−350 (day 0 =  grafting). Histological assessment of the testicular grafts and analyses of inhibin and testosterone production revealed no significant differences between the two immersion-time groups, indicating equal growth activity of the cryopreserved tissues. A single sperm obtained from a mouse in each group on day 230−350 was injected into an in vitro-matured porcine oocyte, and then the ICSI oocytes were transferred to the oviducts of estrus-synchronized recipient gilts. One out of 4 gilts that had received oocytes fertilized using sperm from the 10-min immersion group delivered 2 live piglets, and one of another 4 gilts from the 20-min group delivered 4 live piglets. Thus, we have successfully generated porcine offspring utilizing sperm from immature testicular tissues after cryopreservation and transplantation into nude mice. The present model using pigs will be

  3. Complete Human and Rat Ex Vivo Spermatogenesis from Fresh or Frozen Testicular Tissue.

    PubMed

    Perrard, Marie-Hélène; Sereni, Nicolas; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Blondet, Antonine; D Estaing, Sandrine Giscard; Plotton, Ingrid; Morel-Journel, Nicolas; Lejeune, Hervé; David, Laurent; Durand, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Until now, complete ex vivo spermatogenesis has been reported only in the mouse. In this species, the duration of spermatogenesis is 35 days, whereas it is 54 days in the rat and 74 days in humans. We performed long-term (until 60 days) cultures of fresh or frozen rat or human seminiferous tubule segments in a bioreactor made of a hollow cylinder of chitosan hydrogel. Testicular tissues were obtained from 8- or 20-day-old male rats or from adult human subjects who had undergone hormone treatments leading to a nearly complete regression of their spermatogenesis before bilateral orchiectomy for gender reassignment. The progression of spermatogenesis was assessed by cytological analyses of the cultures; it was related to a dramatic increase in the levels of the mRNAs specifically expressed by round spermatids, Transition protein 1, Transition protein 2, and Protamine 3 in rat cultures. From 2% to 3.8% of cells were found to be haploid cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of human cultures. In this bioreactor, long-term cultures of seminiferous tubule segments from prepubertal rats or from adult men allowed completion of the spermatogenic process leading to morphologically mature spermatozoa. Further studies will need to address the way of optimizing the yield of every step of spermatogenesis by adjusting the composition of the culture medium, the geometry, and the material properties of the chitosan hydrogel bioreactors. Another essential requirement is to assess the quality of the gametes produced ex vivo by showing their ability to produce normal offspring (rat) or their biochemical normality (human). © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  4. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Muhammet Ihsan; Gökçe, Ali Murat; Koca, Orhan; Karaman, Bilal; Öztürk, Metin Ishak; Yurdakul, Necati; Ercan, Feriha

    2014-12-30

    Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW) on rat testes. Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001). Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  5. Testosterone differentially regulates targets of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of the testicular feminised mouse.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel M; Akhtar, Samia; Sellers, Donna J; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Testicular feminised mice displayed significantly reduced GLUT4 in muscle and glycolytic enzymes in muscle, liver and abdominal subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase required for fatty acid uptake was only reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue; enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased in liver and subcutaneous tissue. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 that catalyses oleic acid synthesis and is associated with insulin resistance was increased in visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol efflux components (ABCA1, apoE) were decreased in subcutaneous and liver tissue. Master regulator nuclear receptors involved in metabolism-Liver X receptor expression was suppressed in all tissues except visceral adipose tissue, whereas PPARγ was lower in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and PPARα only in abdominal subcutaneous. Testosterone treatment improved the expression (androgen receptor independent) of some targets but not all. These exploratory data suggest that androgen deficiency may reduce the buffering capability for glucose uptake and utilisation in abdominal subcutaneous and muscle and fatty acids in abdominal subcutaneous. This would lead to an overspill and uptake of excess glucose and triglycerides into visceral adipose tissue, liver and arterial walls.

  6. Spermatotoxicity, biochemical changes and histological alteration induced by gossypol in testicular and hepatic tissues of male rats.

    PubMed

    El-Sharaky, A S; Newairy, A A; Elguindy, N M; Elwafa, A A

    2010-12-01

    Gossypol acetic acid (GAA) displays anti-fertility and antioxidant behavior. The efficacies of different doses of gossypol acetic acid were investigated in male albino rats. Rats were allocated into four groups: control group and three GAA-treated groups (2-4), that were injected with GAA (5, 10, 20mg/kg BW, respectively), through inrtaperitonial injection. Treatment of GAA was found to elicit a significant decrease in sperm counting, sperm motility, serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, whereas, the activities of testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17-ketosteroid reductase were increased. The activities of serum transaminases and alkaline phosphatase and hepatic glutathione peroxidase; glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase and the level of hepatic glutathione were elevated. While, the lipid peroxidation end product; malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and lipid profile and the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 were decreased in GAA-treated rats. The histological analysis of liver and testicular tissues showed sever hepatocyte damage in addition to abnormal localization of hepatocytic nuclei. Also, the testicular pathology of GAA-treated rats showed depressed spermatogensis, sertoli cell toxicity and degeneration of seminiferous tubules.

  7. Solexa Sequencing of Novel and Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Testicular and Ovarian Tissues in Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinming; Ju, Zhihua; Li, Qiuling; Hou, Qinlei; Wang, Changfa; Li, Jianbin; Li, Rongling; Wang, Lingling; Sun, Tao; Hang, Suqin; Gao, Yundong; Hou, Minghai; Zhong, Jifeng

    2011-01-01

    The posttranscriptional gene regulation mediated by microRNA plays an important role in the development and function of male and female reproductive organs and germ cells in mammals, including cattle. In the present study, we identified novel and differentially expressed miRNAs in the testis and ovary in Holstein cattle by combining the Solexa sequencing with bioinformatics. In total 100 and 104 novel pre-miRNAs were identified in testicular and ovarian tissues, encoding 122 and 136 mature miRNAs, respectively. Of these, 6 miRNAs appear to be bovine-specific. A total of 246 known miRNAs were co-expressed in the testicular and ovarian tissues. Of the known miRNAs, twenty-one testis-specific and nine ovary-specific (1-23 reads) were found. Approximately 30.5% of the known bovine miRNAs in this study were found to have >2-fold differential expression within the two respective reproductive organ systems. The putative miRNA target genes of miRNAs were involved in pathways associated with reproductive physiology. Both known and novel tissue-specific miRNAs are expressed by Real-time quantitative PCR analysis in dairy cattle. This study expands the number of miRNAs known to be expressed in cattle. The patterns of miRNAs expression differed significantly between the bovine testicular and ovarian tissues, which provide important information on sex differences in miRNA expression. Diverse miRNAs may play an important regulatory role in the development of the reproductive organs in Holstein cattle. PMID:21912509

  8. Testicular Exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens, surgery almost always repairs the hernia completely. Testicular Cancer Testicular cancer is unusual in teen guys, but it can happen. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in guys aged ...

  9. Requirement of Pretone by Thromboxane A2 for Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction in Precision-cut Lung Slices of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Jung; Yoo, Hae Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jin Kyoung; Zhang, Yin-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is physiologically important response for preventing mismatching between ventilation and perfusion in lungs. The HPV of isolated pulmonary arteries (HPV-PA) usually require a partial pretone by thromboxane agonist (U46619). Because the HPV of ventilated/perfused lungs (HPV-lung) can be triggered without pretone conditioning, we suspected that a putative tissue factor might be responsible for the pretone of HPV. Here we investigated whether HPV can be also observed in precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) from rats. The HPV in PCLS also required partial contraction by U46619. In addition, K+ channel blockers (4AP and TEA) required U46619-pretone to induce significant contraction of PA in PCLS. In contrast, the airways in PCLS showed reversible contraction in response to the K+ channel blockers without pretone conditioning. Also, the airways showed no hypoxic constriction but a relaxation under the partial pretone by U46619. The airways in PCLS showed reliable, concentration-dependent contraction by metacholine (EC50, ~210 nM). In summary, the HPV in PCLS is more similar to isolated PA than V/P lungs. The metacholine-induced constriction of bronchioles suggested that the PLCS might be also useful for studying airway physiology in situ. PMID:22416221

  10. Cytogenetic, molecular and testicular tissue studies in an infertile 45,X male carrying an unbalanced (Y;22) translocation: case report.

    PubMed

    Brisset, S; Izard, V; Misrahi, M; Aboura, A; Madoux, S; Ferlicot, S; Schoevaert, D; Soufir, J C; Frydman, R; Tachdjian, G

    2005-08-01

    (Y;autosome) translocations have been reported in association with male infertility. Different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the male infertility, such as deletion of the azoospermic factor (AZF) on the long arm of the Y chromosome, or meiosis impairment. We describe a new case with a de novo unbalanced translocation t(Y;22) and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. A 36 year old male with azoospermia was found to have a mosaic 45,X/46,X, + mar karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the presence of a derivative Y chromosome containing the short arm, the centromere and a small proximal part of the long-arm euchromatin of the Y chromosome and the long arm of chromosome 22. The unstable small marker chromosome included the short arm and the centromere of chromosome 22. This unbalanced translocation t(Y;22)(q11.2;q11.1) generated the loss of the long arm of the Y chromosome involving a large part of AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. Testicular tissue analyses showed sperm in the wet preparation. Our case shows the importance of documenting (Y;autosome) translocations with molecular and testicular tissue analyses.

  11. Detection of secreted and temporarily inducible heat shock responsive proteins in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, L; Heinlein, U A

    1991-01-01

    Temperature-induced effects on the synthesis of murine testicular proteins were investigated by one- and two-dimensional SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Newly synthesized proteins were monitored by incorporation of 35S-methionine and autoradiography. Three heat shock responsive proteins, which are differently affected by elevated temperatures, are described. These proteins represent special examples for how testicular cells respond to environmental stress. One of these proteins, HSl36, is synthesized and secreted at 38 degrees C, whereas at lower, scrotal temperatures it is not detectable. HSlD74 protein is synthesized at elevated temperatures, but only in prepuberal testis, not in adult. Synthesis of the third example, HSR28, is decreased within the seminiferous tubules, but only in those regions which bear cell associations of the elongation stage. These results indicate that the use of DNA probes of the 'heat shock'-gene family might not be sufficient to describe the molecular reasons for impaired spermatogenesis following hyperthermia.

  12. Effect of short-term scrotal hyperthermia on spermatological parameters, testicular blood flow and gonadal tissue in dogs.

    PubMed

    Henning, H; Masal, C; Herr, A; Wolf, K; Urhausen, C; Beineke, A; Beyerbach, M; Kramer, S; Günzel-Apel, A-R

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of a short-term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs on quantitative and qualitative ejaculate parameters, testicular blood flow and testicular and epididymal histology. After a control period, the scrotum of seven normospermic adult beagle dogs was insulated with a self-made suspensory for 48 h. Nine weeks later, two animals were castrated, while in five animals, scrotal hyperthermia was repeated. Dogs were castrated either 10 or 40 days thereafter. In each phase of scrotal insulation, average scrotal surface temperature increased by 3.0°C. Semen was collected twice weekly throughout the experiment. Total sperm count did not change after the first hyperthermia, but it slightly decreased after the second (p < 0.05). Profiles of sperm morphology and velocity parameters (CASA) rather indicated subtle physiological variations in sperm quality than effects of a local heat stress. Chromatin stability of ejaculated spermatozoa as indicated by SCSA remained constant throughout the experiment. Perfusion characteristics of the gonads, that is, systolic peak velocity, pulsatility and resistance index at the marginal location of the testicular artery, did not change due to hyperthermia (p > 0.05). Histological examination of excised testes and epididymides for apoptotic (TUNEL and activated caspase-3) and proliferating cells (Ki-67 antigen) indicated only marginal effects of scrotal insulation on tissue morphology. In conclusion, a mild short-term scrotal hyperthermia in dogs does not cause substantial changes in sperm quantity and quality. In contrast to other species, canine testes and epididymides may have a higher competence to compensate such thermal stress. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Effects of peppermint teas on plasma testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone levels and testicular tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Akdogan, Mehmet; Ozguner, Meltem; Kocak, Ahmet; Oncu, Meral; Cicek, Ekrem

    2004-08-01

    To justify the effects of Mentha piperita labiatae and Mentha spicata labiatae herbal teas on plasma total testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels and testicular histologic features. We performed this study because of major complaints in our area from men about the adverse effects of these herbs on male reproductive function. The experimental study included 48 male Wistar albino rats (body weight 200 to 250 g). The rats were randomized into four groups of 12 rats each. The control group was given commercial drinking water, and the experimental groups were given 20 g/L M. piperita tea, 20 g/L M. spicata tea, or 40 g/L M. spicata tea. The follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels had increased and total testosterone levels had decreased in the experimental groups compared with the control group; the differences were statistically significant. Also, the Johnsen testicular biopsy scores were significantly different statistically between the experimental groups and the control group. Although the mean seminiferous tubular diameter of the experimental groups was relatively greater than in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant. The only effects of M. piperita on testicular tissue was segmental maturation arrest in the seminiferous tubules; however, the effects of M. spicata extended from maturation arrest to diffuse germ cell aplasia in relation to the dose. Despite the beneficial effects of M. piperita and M. spicata in digestion, we should also be aware of the toxic effects when the herbs are not used in the recommended fashion or at the recommended dose.

  14. Human precision-cut liver slices as a model to test antifibrotic drugs in the early onset of liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Westra, Inge M; Mutsaers, Henricus A M; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Hadi, Mackenzie; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; de Jong, Koert P; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue ultimately resulting in loss of organ function. Currently, no effective antifibrotics are available due to a lack of reliable human models. Here we investigated the fibrotic process in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and studied the efficacy of multiple putative antifibrotic compounds. Our results demonstrated that human PCLS remained viable for 48h and the early onset of fibrosis was observed during culture, as demonstrated by an increased gene expression of Heat Shock Protein 47 (HSP47) and Pro-Collagen 1A1 (PCOL1A1) as well as increased collagen 1 protein levels. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) showed a marked decrease in HSP47 and PCOL1A1 gene expression, whereas specific inhibitors of Smad 3 and Rac-1 showed no or only minor effects. Regarding the studied antifibrotics, gene levels of HSP47 and PCOL1A1 could be down-regulated with sunitinib and valproic acid, while PCOL1A1 expression was reduced following treatment with rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone. These results are in contrast with prior data obtained in rat PCLS, indicating that antifibrotic drug efficacy is clearly species-specific. Thus, human PCLS is a promising model for liver fibrosis. Moreover, MAPK signaling plays an important role in the onset of fibrosis in this model and transforming growth factor beta pathway inhibitors appear to be more effective than platelet-derived growth factor pathway inhibitors in halting fibrogenesis in PCLS.

  15. An ex vivo model to induce early fibrosis-like changes in human precision-cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Alsafadi, Hani N; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A; Lehmann, Mareike; Lindner, Michael; Peschel, Britta; Königshoff, Melanie; Wagner, Darcy E

    2017-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) characterized by lung tissue scarring and high morbidity. Lung epithelial injury, myofibroblast activation, and deranged repair are believed to be key processes involved in disease onset and progression, but the exact molecular mechanisms behind IPF remain unclear. Several drugs have been shown to slow disease progression, but treatments that halt or reverse IPF progression have not been identified. Ex vivo models of human lung have been proposed for drug discovery, one of which is precision-cut lung slices (PCLS). Although PCLS production from IPF explants is possible, IPF explants are rare and typically represent end-stage disease. Here we present a novel model of early fibrosis-like changes in human PCLS derived from patients without ILD/IPF using a combination of profibrotic growth factors and signaling molecules (transforming growth factor-β, tumor necrosis factor-α, platelet-derived growth factor-AB, and lysophosphatidic acid). Fibrotic-like changes of PCLS were qualitatively analyzed by histology and immunofluorescence and quantitatively by water-soluble tetrazolium-1, RT-qPCR, Western blot analysis, and ELISA. PCLS remained viable after 5 days of treatment, and fibrotic gene expression (FN1, SERPINE1, COL1A1, CTGF, MMP7, and ACTA2) increased as early as 24 h of treatment, with increases in protein levels at 48 h and increased deposition of extracellular matrix. Alveolar epithelium reprogramming was evident by decreases in surfactant protein C and loss of HOPX In summary, using human-derived PCLS, we established a novel ex vivo model that displays characteristics of early fibrosis and could be used to evaluate novel therapies and study early-stage IPF pathomechanisms. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Airway and Parenchymal Strains during Bronchoconstriction in the Precision Cut Lung Slice

    PubMed Central

    Hiorns, Jonathan E.; Bidan, Cécile M.; Jensen, Oliver E.; Gosens, Reinoud; Kistemaker, Loes E. M.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Butler, Jim P.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Brook, Bindi S.

    2016-01-01

    The precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) is a powerful tool for studying airway reactivity, but biomechanical measurements to date have largely focused on changes in airway caliber. Here we describe an image processing tool that reveals the associated spatio-temporal changes in airway and parenchymal strains. Displacements of sub-regions within the PCLS are tracked in phase-contrast movies acquired after addition of contractile and relaxing drugs. From displacement maps, strains are determined across the entire PCLS or along user-specified directions. In a representative mouse PCLS challenged with 10−4M methacholine, as lumen area decreased, compressive circumferential strains were highest in the 50 μm closest to the airway lumen while expansive radial strains were highest in the region 50–100 μm from the lumen. However, at any given distance from the airway the strain distribution varied substantially in the vicinity of neighboring small airways and blood vessels. Upon challenge with the relaxant agonist chloroquine, although most strains disappeared, residual positive strains remained a long time after addition of chloroquine, predominantly in the radial direction. Taken together, these findings establish strain mapping as a new tool to elucidate local dynamic mechanical events within the constricting airway and its supporting parenchyma. PMID:27559314

  17. Persistent DNA Damage in Spermatogonial Stem Cells After Fractionated Low-Dose Irradiation of Testicular Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Grewenig, Angelika; Schuler, Nadine; Rübe, Claudia E.

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Testicular spermatogenesis is extremely sensitive to radiation-induced damage, and even low scattered doses to testis from radiation therapy may pose reproductive risks with potential treatment-related infertility. Radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent the greatest threat to the genomic integrity of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), which are essential to maintain spermatogenesis and prevent reproduction failure. Methods and Materials: During daily low-dose radiation with 100 mGy or 10 mGy, radiation-induced DSBs were monitored in mouse testis by quantifying 53 binding protein 1 (53BP-1) foci in SSCs within their stem cell niche. The accumulation of DSBs was correlated with proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of testicular germ cell populations. Results: Even very low doses of ionizing radiation arrested spermatogenesis, primarily by inducing apoptosis in spermatogonia. Eventual recovery of spermatogenesis depended on the survival of SSCs and their functional ability to proliferate and differentiate to provide adequate numbers of differentiating spermatogonia. Importantly, apoptosis-resistant SSCs resulted in increased 53BP-1 foci levels during, and even several months after, fractionated low-dose radiation, suggesting that surviving SSCs have accumulated an increased load of DNA damage. Conclusions: SSCs revealed elevated levels of DSBs for weeks after radiation, and if these DSBs persist through differentiation to spermatozoa, this may have severe consequences for the genomic integrity of the fertilizing sperm.

  18. Nanomicelle curcumin-induced DNA fragmentation in testicular tissue; Correlation between mitochondria dependent apoptosis and failed PCNA-related hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Moshari, Sana; Nejati, Vahid; Najafi, Gholamreza; Razi, Mazdak

    2017-04-03

    Current study was done to assess possible anti-proliferative effect of nanomicelle curcumin (NMCM) against germ cells in testicular tissue. For this purpose, 24 mature male Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups. The animals in test groups received 7.5mg/kg, 15mg/kg and 30mg/kg of NMC (NO=6 rats in each group). Following 48days, the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, P53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were evaluated by using reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Histological changes, tubular differentiation index (TDI), tissue cellularity and serum level of testosterone were analyzed. Finally, the DNA laddering test was used to assess the DNA fragmentation as hallmark for apoptosis. The NMCM significantly (P<0.05) diminished the Bcl-2, p53 and PCNA and enhanced the Bax and caspase-3 mRNA levels. The NMCM significantly (P<0.05) elevated the percentage of Bax and caspase-3-positive tubules and remarkably reduced the percentage of tubules with positive reaction for Bcl-2, p53 and PCNA. The NCMN-received animals exhibited remarkable (P<0.05) reduction in cell population, TDI ratio and serum level of testosterone. Severe DNA fragmentation was observed in 30mg/kg NMCM-received group. In conclusion, the NMCM by reducing the testicular endocrine status, down-regulating Bcl-2 expression and by enhancing the Bax and caspase-3 expression initiates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. On the other hand, inhibited expression of p53 and PCNA (at dose level of 30mg/kg) suppresses the p53 and PCNA-related hemostasis/preservative reactions. All these alterations adversely affect the spermatogenesis.

  19. Biotransformation of benzydamine by microsomes and precision-cut slices prepared from cattle liver.

    PubMed

    Santi, A; Anfossi, P; Coldham, N G; Capolongo, F; Sauer, M J; Montesissa, C

    2002-01-01

    1. Benzydamine (BZ), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in human and veterinary medicine, is not licensed for use in food-producing species. Biotransformation of BZ in cattle has not been reported previously and is investigated here using liver microsomes and precision-cut liver slices. 2. BZ was metabolized by cattle liver microsomes to benzydamine N-oxide (BZ-NO) and monodesmethyl-BZ (Nor-BZ). Both reactions followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km = 76.4 +/- 16.0 and 58.9 +/- 0.4 microM Vmax = 6.5 +/- 0.8 and 7.4 +/- 0.5 nmolmg(-1) min(-1) respectively); sensitivity to heat and pH suggested that the N-oxidation is catalysed by the flavin-containing monooxygenases. 3. BZ-NO and Nor-BZ were the most abundant products derived from liver slice incubations, and nine other BZ metabolites were found and tentatively identified by LC-MS. Desbenzylated and hydroxylated BZ-NO analogues and a hydroxylated product of BZ were detected, which have been reported in other species. Product ion mass spectra of other metabolites, which are described here for the first time, indicated the formation of a BZ N- -glucuronide and five hydroxylated and N+-glucuronidated derivatives of BZ, BZ-NO and Nor-BZ. 4. The results indicate that BZ is extensively metabolized in cattle. Clearly, differences in metabolism compared with, for example, rat and human, will need to be considered in the event of submission for marketing authorization for use in food animals.

  20. Bacteriophage SPP1 pac Cleavage: A Precise Cut without Sequence Specificity Requirement.

    PubMed

    Djacem, Karima; Tavares, Paulo; Oliveira, Leonor

    2017-01-09

    In many tailed bacteriophages, DNA packaging is initiated by recognition and cleavage of a specific sequence pac by the small (TerS) and large (TerL) terminase subunits. It was previously shown that the SPP1 pac region has two sequences where TerS binds (pacR and pacL), flanking the segment where TerL cleaves the SPP1 DNA (pacC). However, the pac-specific sequences required to achieve this endonucleolytic cut were not established. Their characterization is essential to understand the underlying mechanism. We show that the pacR sequence localized within 35bp downstream of the pac cut can be extensively degenerated, including its c1 and c2 repeats, and that only a disruption of a 5-bp polyadenine tract impairs the pac cleavage. This result together with deletion analysis of pacL shows that the specific DNA sequences required for targeting the terminase for pac cleavage are considerably shorter than the large region bound by TerS. Furthermore, extensive degeneration of the 6-bp target sequence within pacC where pac cleavage occurs reveals that TerL maintains, remarkably, its precise position of cleavage. Studies with SPP1-related phages show the conservation of the cut position, irrespective of the sequence variation in pacC and in pacR or the changes in pacL-pacC distance. Mechanistically, our data are compatible with a model in which TerS interactions with part of the pacL sequence and a poly-A tract in pacR are sufficient to orient very accurately the TerL nuclease to a defined pacC position. They also demonstrate that the resulting precise cut at pacC is independent of the targeted DNA sequence.

  1. Ex vivo testing of immune responses in precision-cut lung slices

    SciTech Connect

    Henjakovic, M.; Sewald, K.; Switalla, S.; Kaiser, D.; Mueller, M.; Veres, T.Z.; Martin, C.; Uhlig, S.; Krug, N.; Braun, A.

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was the establishment of precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) as a suitable ex vivo alternative approach to animal experiments for investigation of immunomodulatory effects. For this purpose we characterized the changes of cytokine production and the expression of cell surface markers after incubation of PCLS with immunoactive substances lipopolysaccharide (LPS), macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), and dexamethasone. Viability of PCLS from wild-type and CD11c-enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (CD11-EYFP)-transgenic mice was controlled by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity and live/dead fluorescence staining using confocal microscopy. Cytokines and chemokines were detected with Luminex technology and ELISA. Antigen presenting cell (APC) markers were investigated in living mouse PCLS in situ using confocal microscopy. LPS triggered profound pro-inflammatory effects in PCLS. Dexamethasone prevented LPS-induced production of cytokines/chemokines such as interleukin (IL)-5, IL-1{alpha}, TNF{alpha}, IL-12(p40), and RANTES in PCLS. Surface expression of MHC class II, CD40, and CD11c, but not CD86 was present in APCs of naive PCLS. Incubation with LPS enhanced specifically the expression of MHC class II on diverse cells. MALP-2 only failed to alter cytokine or chemokine levels, but was highly effective in combination with IFN{gamma} resulting in increased levels of TNF{alpha}, IL-12(p40), RANTES, and IL-1{alpha}. PCLS showed characteristic responses to typical pro-inflammatory stimuli and may thus provide a suitable ex vivo technique to predict the immunomodulatory potency of inhaled substances.

  2. Classification of Cholestatic and Necrotic Hepatotoxicants Using Transcriptomics on Human Precision-Cut Liver Slices.

    PubMed

    Vatakuti, Suresh; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Gore, Emilia; Olinga, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2016-03-21

    Human toxicity screening is an important stage in the development of safe drug candidates. Hepatotoxicity is one of the major reasons for the withdrawal of drugs from the market because the liver is the major organ involved in drug metabolism, and it can generate toxic metabolites. There is a need to screen molecules for drug-induced hepatotoxicity in humans at an earlier stage. Transcriptomics is a technique widely used to screen molecules for toxicity and to unravel toxicity mechanisms. To date, the majority of such studies were performed using animals or animal cells, with concomitant difficulty in interpretation due to species differences, or in human hepatoma cell lines or cultured hepatocytes, suffering from the lack of physiological expression of enzymes and transporters and lack of nonparenchymal cells. The aim of this study was to classify known hepatotoxicants on their phenotype of toxicity in humans using gene expression profiles ex vivo in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). Hepatotoxicants known to induce either necrosis (n = 5) or cholestasis (n = 5) were used at concentrations inducing low (<30%) and medium (30-50%) cytotoxicity, based on ATP content. Random forest and support vector machine algorithms were used to classify hepatotoxicants using a leave-one-compound-out cross-validation method. Optimized biomarker sets were compared to derive a consensus list of markers. Classification correctly predicted the toxicity phenotype with an accuracy of 70-80%. The classification is slightly better for the low than for the medium cytotoxicity. The consensus list of markers includes endoplasmic reticulum stress genes, such as C2ORF30, DNAJB9, DNAJC12, SRP72, TMED7, and UBA5, and a sodium/bile acid cotransporter (SLC10A7). This study shows that human PCLS are a useful model to predict the phenotype of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Additional compounds should be included to confirm the consensus list of markers, which could then be used to develop a

  3. Validation of precision-cut liver slices to study drug-induced cholestasis: a transcriptomics approach.

    PubMed

    Vatakuti, Suresh; Olinga, Peter; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2017-03-01

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the major reasons for withdrawal of drugs from the market. Therefore, there is a need to screen new drugs for hepatotoxicity in humans at an earlier stage. The aim of this study was to validate human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an ex vivo model to predict drug-induced cholestasis and identify the possible mechanisms of cholestasis-induced toxicity using gene expression profiles. Five hepatotoxicants, which are known to induce cholestasis (alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate, chlorpromazine, cyclosporine, ethinyl estradiol and methyl testosterone) were used at concentrations inducing low (<30 %) and medium (30-50 %) toxicity, based on ATP content. Human PCLS were incubated with the drugs in the presence of a non-toxic concentration (60 µM) of a bile acid mixture (portal vein concentration and composition) as model for bile acid-induced cholestasis. Regulated genes include bile acid transporters and cholesterol transporters. Pathway analysis revealed that hepatic cholestasis was among the top ten regulated pathways, and signaling pathways such as farnesoid X receptor- and liver X receptor-mediated responses, which are known to play a role in cholestasis, were significantly affected by all cholestatic compounds. Other significantly affected pathways include unfolded protein response and protein ubiquitination implicating the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study shows that human PCLS incubated in the presence of a physiological bile acid mixture correctly reflect the pathways affected in drug-induced cholestasis in the human liver. In the future, this human PCLS model can be used to identify cholestatic adverse drug reactions of new chemical entities.

  4. Feline spermatozoa from fresh and cryopreserved testicular tissues have comparable ability to fertilize matured oocytes and sustain the embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Buarpung, S; Tharasanit, T; Comizzoli, P; Techakumphu, M

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a critical tool that still needs to be explored for preserving the fertility of endangered species. Using the domestic cat as a model for wild felids, the study aimed at determining the effect of different cryoprotectants and freezing techniques (two-step freezing vs. controlled slow freezing) on the sperm quality (membrane and DNA integrity). Then, spermatozoa were extracted from frozen-thawed testicular tissues and used for ICSI to assess early gamete activation or developmental competence in vitro. The percentage of spermatozoa with intact plasma membrane was not different (P > 0.05) among nonfrozen control, glycerol-, and ethylene glycol-frozen tissues (63.2 ± 2%, 58.2 ± 2.6%, 53.3 ± 2.3%, respectively). However, these percentages were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in groups of dimethyl sulfoxide (46.3 ± 3.3%) and 1,2 propanediol (44.3 ± 2.9%) when compared with control. Conventional freezing combined with 5% (vol/vol) glycerol best preserved sperm membrane integrity (55.0 ± 2.7%) when compared with other freezing techniques. The incidence of DNA fragmentation was found to be low (0.2%-1.1%) in all freezing protocols. After ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa, male and female gametes were asynchronously activated and the percentages of normal fertilization at 6, 12, and 18 hours were 11.2%, 20.6%, and 22.1%, respectively. Metaphase II-arrested oocytes containing or not a decondensed sperm head were predominantly found after ICSI with frozen testicular spermatozoa. Although two-pronucleus formation could be observed as soon as 6 hours post ICSI (10%), the rate increased dramatically after 12 and 18 hours post ICSI (17.2% and 19.5%, respectively). ICSI using frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa yielded cleavage (32.7%), morula (6.5%), and blastocyst (4.4%) percentages similar to nonfrozen control (P > 0.05). It is concluded that conventional freezing

  5. Absolute near-infrared oximetry for urology: a quantitative study of the tissue hemoglobin saturation before and after testicular torsion in a rabbit model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-02-01

    We present an experimental study on four rabbits to demonstrate the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy in the noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion. We used a multi-distance frequency-domain method, based on a fixed detector position and a 9-mm linear scan of the illumination optical fibers, to measure absolute values of pre- and post-operative testicular oxygen saturation. Unilateral testicular torsions (by 0°, 540° or 720°) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgeries (no torsion) on control testes were performed and studied. Our results showed (a) a consistent baseline absolute tissue oxygen saturation value of 78% +/- 5%; (b) a comparable absolute saturation of 77% +/- 6% on the control side (testes after sham surgery); and (c) a significantly lower tissue oxygen saturation of 36% +/- 2% on the experimental side (testes after 540° or 720° torsion surgery). These results demonstrate the capability of frequency domain nearinfrared spectroscopy in the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, and show promise as a potential method to serve as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  6. Contrast-enhanced, real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging of tissue perfusion: preliminary results in a rabbit model of testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Paltiel, H J; Padua, H M; Gargollo, P C; Cannon, G M; Alomari, A I; Yu, R; Clement, G T

    2011-04-07

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the clinical investigation of a wide variety of perfusion disorders. Quantitative analysis of perfusion is not widely performed, and is limited by the fact that data are acquired from a single tissue plane, a situation that is unlikely to accurately reflect global perfusion. Real-time perfusion information from a tissue volume in an experimental rabbit model of testicular torsion was obtained with a two-dimensional matrix phased array US transducer. Contrast-enhanced imaging was performed in 20 rabbits during intravenous infusion of the microbubble contrast agent Definity® before and after unilateral testicular torsion and contralateral orchiopexy. The degree of torsion was 0° in 4 (sham surgery), 180° in 4, 360° in 4, 540° in 4, and 720° in 4. An automated technique was developed to analyze the time history of US image intensity in experimental and control testes. Comparison of mean US intensity rate of change and of ratios between mean US intensity rate of change in experimental and control testes demonstrated good correlation with testicular perfusion and mean perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabeled microspheres, an accepted 'gold standard'. This method is of potential utility in the clinical evaluation of testicular and other organ perfusion.

  7. Contrast-enhanced, real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging of tissue perfusion: preliminary results in a rabbit model of testicular torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltiel, H. J.; Padua, H. M.; Gargollo, P. C.; Cannon, G. M., Jr.; Alomari, A. I.; Yu, R.; Clement, G. T.

    2011-04-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US) imaging is potentially applicable to the clinical investigation of a wide variety of perfusion disorders. Quantitative analysis of perfusion is not widely performed, and is limited by the fact that data are acquired from a single tissue plane, a situation that is unlikely to accurately reflect global perfusion. Real-time perfusion information from a tissue volume in an experimental rabbit model of testicular torsion was obtained with a two-dimensional matrix phased array US transducer. Contrast-enhanced imaging was performed in 20 rabbits during intravenous infusion of the microbubble contrast agent Definity® before and after unilateral testicular torsion and contralateral orchiopexy. The degree of torsion was 0° in 4 (sham surgery), 180° in 4, 360° in 4, 540° in 4, and 720° in 4. An automated technique was developed to analyze the time history of US image intensity in experimental and control testes. Comparison of mean US intensity rate of change and of ratios between mean US intensity rate of change in experimental and control testes demonstrated good correlation with testicular perfusion and mean perfusion ratios obtained with radiolabeled microspheres, an accepted 'gold standard'. This method is of potential utility in the clinical evaluation of testicular and other organ perfusion.

  8. [Effects of zhibal dihuang decoction on the pathological changes and the ultrastructure of the testicular tissue in the ureaplasma urealyticum-infected rats].

    PubMed

    Lu, Fang-Guo; He, Qing-Hu; Liu, Chao-Sheng

    2012-03-01

    To study the effects of Zhibai Dihuang Decocion (ZDD) on the pathological changes and the ultrastructure of the testicular tissue in the ureaplasma urealyticum (UU)-infected rats. The UU infected animal models were established by the bladder inoculation. The 45 UU infected SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e., the ZDD treatment group (at the daily dose of 2 g/100 g), the Minocycline group (at the daily dose of 10 mg/100 g), the model group, 15 in each group. Besides, another 15 rats were recruited as the sham-operation group. The medication was started 10 days after vaccination. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the model group and the sham-operation group by gastrogavage for 22 successive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 2nd day of medication discontinuation. The testicle mass index was detected. The ultra-structure and the pathological changes of the testicular tissue were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. There was no significant difference in the rat testicular mass index (P>0.05). UU infection can lead to the pathological changes such as atrophy of seminiferous tubules, germ cell loss, and reduction of sperm cells in lumen, and to the ultrastructural changes such as spermatogenic cell nuclear membrane shrinkage, nuclear breakdown, and obvious edema of mitochondria. The pathological changes and the ultrastructures were improved in the medication groups. Rm and Rs the were not overlapping, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Rm, Rzh, and Rx were not overlapping, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Rzh and Rx were overlapping in 95% Cl with no statistical difference (P>0.05). UU infection can cause the pathological changes and the ultrastructural changes of the testicular tissue at the organic level and the cellular level. ZDD played therapeutic effects through ameliorating its pathological changes and the ultrastructural changes of spermatogenic

  9. Testicular Sonogram

    PubMed Central

    Devkota, Jagadishwar; White, Sherry

    1980-01-01

    Precise localization, detection, and recognition of minor changes in testicular lesions are important because teratocarcinoma is notorious for manifesting as secondaries at the time the primary site is obvious to the clinician. In the past, questionable enlargement of the testis due to significant pathology required numerous radiographic invasive special procedures to provide a correct diagnosis. Due to the advent of the sophisticated digital ultrasound imager with high frequency quarter wave transducer, it is possible to detect minor changes in the tissue character of the testis, thus enabling the physician to tackle primary neoplasms prior to distant spread. In our case we were able to detect the abnormality in the testis, but unfortunately a large secondary abnormal mass was present. Even at that stage we were able to map out the extent of the lesion which was beneficial to the surgeon and the patient. Ultrasound studies were utilized in serial follow-up studies. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7401191

  10. Birth of kittens after the transfer of frozen-thawed embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with spermatozoa collected from cryopreserved testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Tharasanit, T; Buarpung, S; Manee-In, S; Thongkittidilok, C; Tiptanavattana, N; Comizzoli, P; Techakumphu, M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study is to produce live kittens from oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with frozen/thawed testicular spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were collected from thawed testicular tissue and subsequently injected into in vitro matured cat oocytes. At 24 h post-ICSI, presumptive zygotes/cleaved embryos were treated with 10 μm forskolin for 24 h to reduce intracellular lipid content of embryos (delipidation). At 48 h after oocyte injection, cleaved embryos (2- to 8-cell stage) were frozen in 10% (v/v) ethylene glycol-based medium by a slow controlled rate method and stored in liquid nitrogen. To evaluate in vitro and in vivo developmental competence, frozen embryos were thawed and then cultured for 6 days (n = 155) or cultured for 2 h before transferred (n = 209) to hormonal (equine chorionic gonadotropin/hCG)-treated cat recipients. Cleavage frequency at day 2 after ICSI with frozen/thawed testicular spermatozoa was ~30%. The percentages of frozen/thawed embryos that developed to morula and blastocyst stage (on day 3 and day 6 of in vitro culture, respectively) were significantly lower than that of fresh ICSI embryos (22.6 vs 45.2% and 21.3 vs 38.7%, respectively; p < 0.05). However, no difference was found in the number of blastomeres between frozen/thawed (242.5 ± 43.1) and fresh (320.2 ± 28.1) blastocysts. Three of seven cat recipients were pregnant and one pregnant cat delivered two healthy kittens. This is the first report of the birth of kittens after the transfer of frozen-thawed embryos produced by ICSI with frozen/thawed testicular sperm.

  11. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood tests may show a low level of testosterone and high levels of prolactin, FSH , and LH . ... testes will be ordered. Testicular failure and low testosterone level may be hard to diagnose in older ...

  12. Testicular Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, the location of the testicles makes them prime targets to be accidentally struck on the playing ... you might also feel nauseated for a short time. If it's a minor testicular injury, the pain ...

  13. Testicular Torsion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal of Urology. 2011;185:2469. Hittelman AB. Neonatal testicular torsion. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ... 16, 2015. Snyder HM, et al. In utero/neonatal torsion: Observation versus prompt exploration. Journal of Urology. ...

  14. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Screening - testicular cancer - self-exam; Testicular cancer - screening - self-exam ... A testicular self-exam is done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can make ...

  15. Ultrastructural analysis of testicular tissue and sperm by transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chemes, Hector E

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have provided the basis for an in-depth understanding of the cell biology and normal functioning of the testis and male gametes and have opened the way to characterize the functional role played by specific organelles in spermatogenesis and sperm function. The development of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) extended these boundaries to the recognition of cell and organ surface features and the architectural array of cells and tissues. The merging of immunocytochemical and histochemical approaches with electron microscopy has completed a series of technical improvements that integrate structural and functional features to provide a broad understanding of cell biology in health and disease. With these advances the detailed study of the intricate structural and molecular organization as well as the chemical composition of cellular organelles is now possible. Immunocytochemistry is used to identify proteins or other components and localize them in specific cells or organelles with high specificity and sensitivity, and histochemistry can be used to understand their function (i.e., enzyme activity). When these techniques are used in conjunction with electron microscopy their resolving power is further increased to subcellular levels. In the present chapter we will describe in detail various ultrastructural techniques that are now available for basic or translational research in reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. These include TEM, ultrastructural immunocytochemistry, ultrastructural histochemistry, and SEM.

  16. Histological and ultrastructural study of the intracellular behavior of indium in the testicular tissues.

    PubMed

    Samira, Maghraoui; Ahlem, Ayadi; Aouatef, Ben Ammar; Habib, Jaafoura Mohamed; Leila, Tekaya

    2011-06-01

    Indium, a IIIA group element of the periodic chart, has many medical uses for diagnostic and clinical investigations in humans. This element is also used in industry and in nuclear fields where released streams can contaminate environment. Consequently, indium can reach humans mainly by natural ways. In this work, we attempted to study the incidence of this element on the food intake and body and testicle weights of rat, as well as the histological and the ultrastructural consequences of its presence in testicles using conventional transmission electron microscopy. Our study showed that this element induced a significant decrease in the food intake and body and testicles weights and caused necrosis and vacuolization in germinal cells. The ultrastructural observations showed the presence of electron-dense deposits characteristic of indium in the lysosomes of Leydig and Sertoli cells as well as sufferance in mitochondria of indium-treated rats. Despite the role of lysosome in the protection of living cells, by sequestration and concentration of indium in testicle cells under insoluble form, it is probable that this element has noxious effects on food intake and body and testicles weight and induces necrosis on seminal tissues of treated rats. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the diabetic rats compared with controls and these parameters in the treatment group were similar to diabetics animals. This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  18. Vitamin A prevents round spermatid nuclear damage and promotes the production of motile sperm during in vitro maturation of vitrified pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Dumont, L; Oblette, A; Rondanino, C; Jumeau, F; Bironneau, A; Liot, D; Duchesne, V; Wils, J; Rives, N

    2016-12-01

    Does vitamin A (retinol, Rol) prevent round spermatid nuclear damage and increase the production of motile sperm during in vitro maturation of vitrified pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue? The supplementation of an in vitro culture of ~0.75 mm(3) testicular explants from pre-pubertal mice with Rol enhances spermatogenesis progression during the first spermatogenic wave. The production of functional spermatozoa in vitro has only been achieved in the mouse model and remains a rare event. Establishing an efficient culture medium for vitrified pre-pubertal testicular tissue is now a crucial step to improve the spermatic yield obtained in vitro. The role of Rol in promoting the differentiation of spermatogonia and their entry into meiosis is well established; however, it has been postulated that Rol is also required to support their full development into elongated spermatids. A total of 60 testes from 6.5 days post-partum (dpp) mice were vitrified/warmed, cut into fragments and cultured for 30 days: 20 testes were used for light microscopy and histological analyses, 20 testes for DNA fragmentation assessment in round spermatids and 20 testes for induced sperm motility assessment. Overall, 16 testes of 6.5 dpp were used as in vitro fresh tissue controls and 12 testes of 36.5 dpp mice as in vivo controls. Testes were vitrified with the optimal solid surface vitrification procedure and cultured with an in vitro organ culture system until Day 30 (D30). Histological analysis, cell death, degenerating round spermatids, DNA fragmentation in round spermatids and induced sperm motility were assessed. Testosterone levels were measured in media throughout the culture by radioimmunoassay. At D30, better tissue development together with higher differentiation of spermatogonial stem cells, and higher global cell division ability were observed for vitrified/warmed testicular fragments of ~0.75 mm(3) with a culture medium supplemented with Rol compared to controls. During in vitro

  19. Precision-Cut Liver Slices of Salmo salar as a tool to investigate the oxidative impact of CYP1A-mediated PCB 126 and 3-methylcholanthrene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Beck, Michaël; Jaspart, Mélanie; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Rees, Jean-François

    2011-02-01

    Fish isolated cell systems have long been used to predict in vivo toxicity of man-made chemicals. In present study, we tested the suitability of Precision-Cut Liver Slices (PCLS) as an alternative to these models that allows the evaluation of a global tissue response to toxicants, to investigate oxidative stress response to cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction in fish liver. PCLS of Salmo salar were exposed for 21 h to increasing doses of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and Polychlorobiphenyl 126 (PCB 126). 3-MC (25 μM) strongly induced CYP1A transcription. In dose-response analysis (25-100 μM), EROD activity was strongly increased at intermediate 3-MC concentrations. We found the counter-intuitive decline of EROD at the highest 3-MC doses to result from reversible competition with ethoxyresorufin. No increases of H(2)O(2) production, antioxidant enzymes activities or oxidative damage to lipids were found with 3-MC treatments. PCLS subjected to PCB 126 (2-200 nM) showed increased contamination levels and a parallel increased CYP1A mRNA synthesis and EROD activity. H(2)O(2) production tended to increase but no oxidative damage to lipids was found. As antioxidant enzymes activities declined at the highest PCB 126 dose, it is suggested that longer incubation periods could be required to generate oxidative stress in PCLS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Ringdahl, Erika; Teague, Lynn

    2006-11-15

    Each year, testicular torsion affects one in 4,000 males younger than 25 years. Early diagnosis and definitive management are the keys to avoid testicular loss. All prepubertal and young adult males with acute scrotal pain should be considered to have testicular torsion until proven otherwise. The finding of an ipsilateral absent cremasteric reflex is the most accurate sign of testicular torsion. Torsion of the appendix testis is more common in children than testicular torsion and may be diagnosed by the "blue dot sign" (i.e., tender nodule with blue discoloration on the upper pole of the testis). Epididymitis/orchitis is much less common in the prepubertal male, and the diagnosis should be made with caution in this age group. Doppler ultrasonography may be needed for definitive diagnosis; radionuclide scintigraphy is an alternative that may be more accurate but should be ordered only if it can be performed without delay. Diagnosis of testicular torsion is based on the finding of decreased or absent blood flow on the ipsilateral side. Treatment involves rapid restoration of blood flow to the affected testis. The optimal time frame is less than six hours after the onset of symptoms. Manual detorsion by external rotation of the testis can be successful, but restoration of blood flow must be confirmed following the maneuver. Surgical exploration provides definitive treatment for the affected testis by orchiopexy and allows for prophylactic orchiopexy of the contralateral testis. Surgical treatment of torsion of the appendix testis is not mandatory but hastens recovery.

  1. Water crystallization within rat precision-cut liver slices in relation to their viability.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, I A; Koster, H J

    2001-11-01

    This study examined whether tissue vitrification, promoted by partitioning within the tissue, could be the mechanism explaining the high viability of rat liver slices, rapidly frozen after preincubation with 18% Me2SO or VS4 (a 7.5 M mixture of Me2SO, 1,2-propanediol, and formamide with weight ratio 21.5:15:2.4). To achieve this, we first determined the extent to which crystallization or vitrification occurred in cryoprotectant solutions (Me2SO and VS4) and within liver slices impregnated with these solutions. Second, we determined how these events were related to survival of slices after thawing. Water crystallization was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and viability was determined by histomorphological examination of the slices after culturing at 37 degrees C for 4 h. VS4-preincubated liver slices indeed behaved differently from bulk VS4 solution, because, when vitrified, they had a lower tendency to devitrify. Vitrified VS4-preincubated slices that were warmed sufficiently rapid to prevent devitrification had a high viability. When VS4 was diluted (to 75%) or if warming was not fast enough to prevent ice formation, slices had a low viability. With 45% Me2SO, low viability of cryopreserved slices was caused by cryoprotectant toxicity. Surprisingly, liver slices preincubated with 18% Me2SO or 50% VS4 had a high viability despite the formation of ice within the slice. In conclusion, tissue vitrification provides a mechanism that explains the high viability of VS4-preincubated slices after ultrarapid freezing and thawing (>800 degrees C/min). Slices that are preincubated with moderately concentrated cryoprotectant solutions (18% Me2SO, 50% VS4) and cooled rapidly (100 degrees C/min) survive cryopreservation despite the formation of ice crystals within the slice. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).

  2. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    SciTech Connect

    Elferink, M.G.L.; Olinga, P.; van Leeuwen, E.M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J.; Schoonen, W.G.; Heisterkamp, S.H.; Groothuis, G.M.M.

    2011-05-15

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be directly extrapolated to humans due to species differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate precision-cut human liver slices as in vitro method for the prediction of human specific toxicity by toxicogenomics. The liver slices contain all cell types of the liver in their natural architecture. This is important since drug-induced toxicity often is a multi-cellular process. Previously we showed that toxicogenomic analysis of rat liver slices is highly predictive for rat in vivo toxicity. In this study we investigated the levels of gene expression during incubation up to 24 h with Affymetrix microarray technology. The analysis was focused on a broad spectrum of genes related to stress and toxicity, and on genes encoding for phase-I, -II and -III metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Observed changes in gene expression were associated with cytoskeleton remodeling, extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, but for the ADME-Tox related genes only minor changes were observed. PCA analysis showed that changes in gene expression were not associated with age, sex or source of the human livers. Slices treated with acetaminophen showed patterns of gene expression related to its toxicity. These results indicate that precision-cut human liver slices are relatively stable during 24 h of incubation and represent a valuable model for human in vitro hepatotoxicity testing despite the human inter-individual variability.

  3. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer High-Dose Chemotherapy and ... Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics ...

  4. Cardiopulmonary toxicity of peat wildfire particulate matter and the predictive utility of precision cut lung slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    collected during a peat fire causes greater lung inflammation in association with endotoxin and ROS, whereas the ultrafine PM preferentially affected cardiac responses. In addition, lung tissue slices were shown to be a predictive, alternative assay to assess pro-inflammatory effects of PM of differing size and composition. Importantly, these toxicological findings were consistent with the cardiopulmonary health effects noted in epidemiologic reports from exposed populations. PMID:24934158

  5. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Precision-cut liver slices as a model for the early onset of liver fibrosis to test antifibrotic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Westra, Inge M.; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; Groothuis, Geny M.M.; Olinga, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Induction of fibrosis during prolonged culture of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) was reported. In this study, the use of rat PCLS was investigated to further characterize the mechanism of early onset of fibrosis in this model and the effects of antifibrotic compounds. Rat PCLS were incubated for 48 h, viability was assessed by ATP and gene expression of PDGF-B and TGF-β1 and the fibrosis markers Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 and collagen1 protein expressions were determined. The effects of the antifibrotic drugs imatinib, sorafenib and sunitinib, PDGF-pathway inhibitors, and perindopril, valproic acid, rosmarinic acid, tetrandrine and pirfenidone, TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, were determined. After 48 h of incubation, viability of the PCLS was maintained and gene expression of PDGF-B was increased while TGF-β1 was not changed. Hsp47, αSma and Pcol1A1 gene expressions were significantly elevated in PCLS after 48 h, which was further increased by PDGF-BB and TGF-β1. The increased gene expression of fibrosis markers was inhibited by all three PDGF-inhibitors, while TGFβ-inhibitors showed marginal effects. The protein expression of collagen 1 was inhibited by imatinib, perindopril, tetrandrine and pirfenidone. In conclusion, the increased gene expression of PDGF-B and the down-regulation of fibrosis markers by PDGF-pathway inhibitors, together with the absence of elevated TGF-β1 gene expression and the limited effect of the TGFβ-pathway inhibitors, indicated the predominance of the PDGF pathway in the early onset of fibrosis in PCLS. PCLS appear a useful model for research of the early onset of fibrosis and for testing of antifibrotic drugs acting on the PDGF pathway. - Highlights: • During culture, fibrosis markers increased in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). • Gene expression of PDGF-β was increased, while TGFβ was not changed in rat PCLS. • PDGF-pathway inhibitors down-regulated this increase of fibrosis markers. • TGFβ-pathway inhibitors had only

  7. Testicular Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys should wear athletic supporters when they play sports. You should examine your testicles monthly and seek medical attention for lumps, redness, pain or other changes. Testicles can get inflamed or infected. They can also develop cancer. Testicular cancer is rare and highly treatable. It ...

  8. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  9. Effects of the calcium channel blocker verapamil and sulphydryl reducing agent dithiothreitol on atractyloside toxicity in precision-cut rat renal cortical and liver slices.

    PubMed

    Obatomi, D K; Blackburn, R O; Bach, P H

    2001-10-01

    The effects of dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl-containing agent and verapamil (VRP), a calcium channel blocker as possible cytoprotectants against the atractyloside-induced toxicity were characterized in rat kidney and liver slices in vitro using multiple markers of toxicity. Precision-cut slices (200 microM thick) were either incubated with atractyloside (2 mM) or initially preincubated with either DTT (5 mM) or VRP (100 microM) for 30 min followed by exposure to atractyloside (2 mM) for 3 h at 37 degrees C on a rocker platform rotated at approximately 3 rpm. All of the toxicity parameters were sensitive to exposure to atractyloside, but treatment with DTT or VRP alone did not provide any indication of damage to the tissues. Preincubation of slices containing either DTT or VRP for 30 min provided total protection against atractyloside-induced increase in LDH leakage in both kidney and liver slices. Increased induction of lipid peroxidation by atractyloside in liver slices was completely abolished by DTT and VRP. Both DTT and VRP provided partial protection against atractyloside-induced inhibition of gluconeogenesis in both kidney and liver slices. Atractyloside-induced ATP depletion in both kidney and liver slices was partially abolished by VRP but not DTT. The significant depletion of GSH in the kidney slices by atractyloside was completely reversed by DTT only, while VRP alone reversed the same process in liver slices. Decreased MTT reductive capacity and significant increase in ALT leakage caused by atractyloside in liver slices was partially reversed. Complete protection was achieved with both DTT and VRP against atractyloside-induced inhibition of PAH uptake in kidney slices. These findings suggest that both DTT and VRP exert cytoprotective effects in atractyloside-induced biochemical perturbation, effects that differ in liver and kidney. The effect of these agents on atractyloside has provided us with a further understanding of the molecular mechanism of

  10. Non-genomic action of beclomethasone dipropionate on bronchoconstriction caused by leukotriene C4 in precision cut lung slices in the horse.

    PubMed

    Fugazzola, Maria; Barton, Ann-Kristin; Niedorf, Frank; Kietzmann, Manfred; Ohnesorge, Bernhard

    2012-09-10

    Glucocorticoids have been proven to be effective in the therapy of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses via systemic as well as local (inhalative) administration. Elective analysis of the effects of this drug on bronchoconstriction in viable lung tissue offers an insight into the mechanism of action of the inflammatory cascade occurring during RAO which is still unclear. The mechanism of action of steroids in treatment of RAO is thought to be induced through classical genomic pathways. We aimed at electively studying the effects of the glucocorticoid beclomethasone dipropionate on equine precision-cut lung slices (PCLS).PCLS were used to analyze ex-vivo effects of beclomethasone on inhibiting bronchoconstriction in the horse. The inhibiting effect was measured through instillation of a known mediator of inflammation and bronchoconstriction, leukotriene C4. For this, the accessory lobes of 13 horses subjected to euthanasia for reasons unrelated to the respiratory apparatus were used to obtain viable lung slices. After 30 minutes of PCLS incubation, beclomethasone showed to significantly inhibit the contraction of the bronchioles after instillation with leukotriene C4. The EC50 values of the two contraction curves (LTC4 with and without BDP) differed significantly from each other (p = 0.002). The possibility of a non-genomic rapid mechanism of action seems likely since transcriptional activities require a longer lag period. In human neuroendocrinology, high levels of glucocorticoids have been proven to function via a non-genomic mechanism of membrane receptors. The concentration of beclomethasone used on the lung slices in our study can be considered as high. This allows speculation about similar rapid non-genomic mechanisms of high-dosage inhaled glucocorticoids in the lower airways of horses. However, further assessment on a molecular basis is needed to confirm this.

  11. Fabrication of a wide-field NIR integral field unit for SWIMS using ultra-precision cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, Yutaro; Yamagata, Yutaka; Morita, Shin-ya; Motohara, Kentaro; Ozaki, Shinobu; Takahashi, Hidenori; Konishi, Masahiro; Kato, Natsuko M.; Kobayakawa, Yutaka; Terao, Yasunori; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    We describe overview of fabrication methods and measurement results of test fabrications of optical surfaces for an integral field unit (IFU) for Simultaneous color Wide-field Infrared Multi-object Spectrograph, SWIMS, which is a first-generation instrument for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 6.5-m telescope. SWIMS-IFU provides entire near-infrared spectrum from 0.9 to 2.5 μm simultaneously covering wider field of view of 17" × 13" compared with current near-infrared IFUs. We investigate an ultra-precision cutting technique to monolithically fabricate optical surfaces of IFU optics such as an image slicer. Using 4- or 5-axis ultra precision machine we compare the milling process and shaper cutting process to find the best way of fabrication of image slicers. The measurement results show that the surface roughness almost satisfies our requirement in both of two methods. Moreover, we also obtain ideal surface form in the shaper cutting process. This method will be adopted to other mirror arrays (i.e. pupil mirror and slit mirror, and such monolithic fabrications will also help us to considerably reduce alignment procedure of each optical elements.

  12. Precision-cut liver slices to investigate responsiveness of deep-sea fish to contaminants at high pressure.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean Pierre; Stegeman, John; Mork, Jarle; Rees, Jean François

    2012-09-18

    While deep-sea fish accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the toxicity associated with this contamination remains unknown. Indeed, the recurrent collection of moribund individuals precludes experimental studies to investigate POP effects in this fauna. We show that precision-cut liver slices (PCLS), an in vitro tool commonly used in human and rodent toxicology, can overcome such limitation. This technology was applied to individuals of the deep-sea grenadier Coryphaenoides rupestris directly upon retrieval from 530-m depth in Trondheimsfjord (Norway). PCLS remained viable and functional for 15 h when maintained in an appropriate culture media at 4 °C. This allowed experimental exposure of liver slices to the model POP 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 25 μM) at levels of hydrostatic pressure mimicking shallow (0.1 megapascal or MPa) and deep-sea (5-15 MPa; representative of 500-1500 m depth) environments. As in shallow water fish, 3-MC induced the transcription of the detoxification enzyme cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A; a biomarker of exposure to POPs). This induction was diminished at elevated pressure, suggesting a limited responsiveness of C. rupestris toward POPs in its native environment. This very first in vitro toxicological investigation on a deep-sea fish opens the route for understanding pollutants effects in this highly exposed fauna.

  13. Maintenance of high quality rat precision cut liver slices during culture to study hepatotoxic responses: Acetaminophen as a model compound.

    PubMed

    Granitzny, Anne; Knebel, Jan; Schaudien, Dirk; Braun, Armin; Steinberg, Pablo; Dasenbrock, Clemens; Hansen, Tanja

    2017-08-01

    Precision cut liver slices (PCLiS) represent a promising tool in reflecting hepatotoxic responses. However, the culture of PCLiS varies considerably between laboratories, which can affect the performance of the liver slices and thus the experimental outcome. In this study, we describe an easily accessible culture method, which ensures optimal slice viability and functionality, in order to set the basis for reproducible and comparable PCLiS studies. The quality of the incubated rat PCLiS was assessed during a 24h culture period using ten readouts, which covered viability (lactate dehydrogenase-, aspartate transaminase- and glutamate dehydrogenase-leakage, ATP content) and functionality parameters (urea, albumin production) as well as histomorphology and other descriptive characteristics (protein content, wet weight, slice thickness). The present culture method resulted in high quality liver slices for 24h. Finally, PCLiS were exposed to increasing concentrations of acetaminophen to assess the suitability of the model for the detection of hepatotoxic responses. Six out of ten readouts revealed a toxic effect and showed an excellent mutual correlation. ATP, albumin and histomorphology measurements were identified as the most sensitive readouts. In conclusion, our results indicate that rat PCLiS are a valuable liver model for hepatotoxicity studies, particularly if they are cultured under optimal standardized conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytotoxic effect of nanosilver particles on testicular tissue: Evidence for biochemical stress and Hsp70-2 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh-Reyhani, Zari; Razi, Mazdak; Malekinejad, Hassan; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali

    2015-09-01

    Lastly, there are growing evidences that nanosilver (NS) particles highly induce cytotoxic impacts in vitro and in vivo. Here, we analyzed the dose dependent effect of NS on histological changes, biochemical alterations and endocrine statuses, sperm parameters as well as chaperone Hsp70-2 expression. NS particles (50-60nm) were administrated in 3 doses of 0.5, 1 and 5mg/kg, intraperitoneally, for 35 days. The 0.3mL normal saline was administrated in control-sham group. Histological alterations, sperm parameters, serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone were evaluated. Germinal and Leydig cells RNA damage, Leydig cells steroidogenic foci, the testicular and sperm total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels, immunohistochemical (IHC) expression and mRNA level of Hsp70-2 were analyzed. The NS, dose dependently, resulted in enhanced germinal cells degeneration, necrosis, seminiferous tubules atrophy and decreased serum levels of LH, FSH and testosterone. Elevated germinal and Leydig cells RNA damage associated with increased sperm abnormalities were observed in NS-treated groups. Expression of Hsp70-2 was up-regulated in 0.5mg/kg, while its expression was decreased in 1 and 5mg/kg NS-treated groups. Testicular and sperm TAC levels reduced. However, the MDA and NO levels significantly (P<0.05) increased in all NS-treated groups. No histological and biochemical changes were detected in control-sham group. In conclusion, the NS particles exert their pathological impact via affecting testicular antioxidant and endocrine statuses, which in turn lead to diminished expression of Hsp70-2. Ultimately, by this mechanism NS particles adversely impact the cellular RNA, DNA and protein contents.

  15. Simultaneous Administration of Dexamethasone and Vitamin E Reversed Experimental Varicocele-induced Impact in testicular tissue in Rats; Correlation with Hsp70-2 Chaperone Expression

    PubMed Central

    Khosravanian, Hajar; Razi, Mazdak; Farokhi, Farah; Khosravanian, Narges

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of isolated and co-administration of vitamin E (VitE) and dexamethasone (DEX) on varicocele (VCL)-induced damages in testicular tissue. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=6), including; control-sham, non-treated VCL-induced, VitE-treated VCL-induced (VitE, 150 mg/kg, orally), DEX-administrated VCL-induced (DEX, 0.125 mg/kg, i.p.), VitE+DEX-received VCL-induced animals. The antioxidant status analyses, histopathological examinations, hormonal assay and tissue levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were analyzed. The germinal epithelium RNA damage and Leydig cells steroidogenesis were analyzed. Moreover, the Hsp70-2 protein expression was examined based on immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The sperm parameters, DNA integrity and chromatin condensation were investigated. Results: VitE and DEX in simultaneous form of administration significantly (P<0.05) down-regulated the tissue ALP level and attenuated the VCL-decreased GSH-px, SOD and TAC levels and remarkably (P<0.05) down-regulated the testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) contents. The VCL-induced histopathological alterations significantly (P<0.05) improved in VitE and DEX-administrated animals. The VitE and DEX co-administration reduced the VCL-increased RNA damage and elevated the Leydig cells steroidogenic activity. The Hsp70-2 protein level completely (P<0.05) increased in VitE and DEX alone–and-simultaneous-administrated animals. Finally, the VitE and DEX could significantly (P<0.05) improve the VCL-decreased semen quality and improved the sperm DNA integrity and chromatin condensation. Conclusion: Our data suggest that Vit E by up-regulating the antioxidant status and DEX by reducing inflammation-dependent oxidative and nitrosative stresses could improve the VCL-reduced Hsp70-2 chaperone expression and ultimately protected the testicular endocrine activities and promoted

  16. Murine precision-cut lung slices exhibit acute responses following exposure to gasoline direct injection engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Maikawa, Caitlin L; Zimmerman, Naomi; Rais, Khaled; Shah, Mittal; Hawley, Brie; Pant, Pallavi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Delgado-Saborit, Juana Maria; Volckens, John; Evans, Greg; Wallace, James S; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J

    2016-10-15

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are increasingly prevalent in the global vehicle fleet. Particulate matter emissions from GDI engines are elevated compared to conventional gasoline engines. The pulmonary effects of these higher particulate emissions are unclear. This study investigated the pulmonary responses induced by GDI engine exhaust using an ex vivo model. The physiochemical properties of GDI engine exhaust were assessed. Precision cut lung slices were prepared using Balb/c mice to evaluate the pulmonary response induced by one-hour exposure to engine-out exhaust from a laboratory GDI engine operated at conditions equivalent to vehicle highway cruise conditions. Lung slices were exposed at an air-liquid interface using an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system. Particulate and gaseous exhaust was fractionated to contrast mRNA production related to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolism and oxidative stress. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust upregulated genes involved in PAH metabolism, including Cyp1a1 (2.71, SE=0.22), and Cyp1b1 (3.24, SE=0.12) compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05). GDI engine exhaust further increased Cyp1b1 expression compared to filtered GDI engine exhaust (i.e., gas fraction only), suggesting this response was associated with the particulate fraction. Exhaust particulate was dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. Hmox1, an oxidative stress marker, exhibited increased expression after exposure to GDI (1.63, SE=0.03) and filtered GDI (1.55, SE=0.04) engine exhaust compared to HEPA filtered air (p<0.05), likely attributable to a combination of the gas and particulate fractions. Exposure to GDI engine exhaust contributes to upregulation of genes related to the metabolism of PAHs and oxidative stress.

  17. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  18. Elastase-Induced Parenchymal Disruption and Airway Hyper Responsiveness in Mouse Precision Cut Lung Slices: Toward an Ex vivo COPD Model

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Eline M.; Culha, Sule; Menzen, Mark H.; Bidan, Cécile M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    2017-01-01

    Background: COPD is a progressive lung disease characterized by emphysema and enhanced bronchoconstriction. Current treatments focused on bronchodilation can delay disease progression to some extent, but recovery or normalization of loss of lung function is impossible. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are needed. The importance of the parenchyma in airway narrowing is increasingly recognized. In COPD, the parenchyma and extracellular matrix are altered, possibly affecting airway mechanics and enhancing bronchoconstriction. Our aim was to set up a comprehensive ex vivo Precision Cut Lung Slice (PCLS) model with a pathophysiology resembling that of COPD and integrate multiple readouts in order to study the relationship between parenchyma, airway functionality, and lung repair processes. Methods: Lungs of C57Bl/6J mice were sliced and treated ex vivo with elastase (2.5 μg/ml) or H2O2 (200 μM) for 16 h. Following treatment, parenchymal structure, airway narrowing, and gene expression levels of alveolar Type I and II cell repair were assessed. Results: Following elastase, but not H2O2 treatment, slices showed a significant increase in mean linear intercept (Lmi), reflective of emphysema. Only elastase-treated slices showed disorganization of elastin and collagen fibers. In addition, elastase treatment lowered both alveolar Type I and II marker expression, whereas H2O2 stimulation lowered alveolar Type I marker expression only. Furthermore, elastase-treated slices showed enhanced methacholine-induced airway narrowing as reflected by increased pEC50 (5.87 at basal vs. 6.50 after elastase treatment) and Emax values (47.96 vs. 67.30%), and impaired chloroquine-induced airway opening. The increase in pEC50 correlated with an increase in mean Lmi. Conclusion: Using this model, we show that structural disruption of elastin fibers leads to impaired alveolar repair, disruption of the parenchymal compartment, and altered airway biomechanics, enhancing airway contraction

  19. Isoform-Level Gene Expression Profiles of Human Y Chromosome Azoospermia Factor Genes and Their X Chromosome Paralogs in the Testicular Tissue of Non-Obstructive Azoospermia Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi Rastegar, Diba; Sharifi Tabar, Mehdi; Alikhani, Mehdi; Parsamatin, Pouria; Sahraneshin Samani, Fazel; Sabbaghian, Marjan; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Mohammad Ahadi, Ali; Mohseni Meybodi, Anahita; Piryaei, Abbas; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Gourabi, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2015-09-04

    azoospermic men. We showed that HSFY1-1, HSFY1-3, BPY2-1, KDM5C2, RBMX2, and DAZL1 transcripts could be used as potential molecular markers to predict the presence of spermatozoa in MA patients. In this study, we have identified isoform level signature that can be used to discriminate effectively between MA, SCOS, and normal testicular tissues and suggests the possibility of diagnosing the presence of mature sperm cell in azoospermic men to prevent additional testicular sperm extraction (TESE) surgery.

  20. Testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Peckham, M

    1988-01-01

    Testicular cancer, which predominantly occurs in young men, has become increasingly common; it is presently the most common malignancy in men aged 20-34. Despite a lack of knowledge of aetiology, empirical advances, particularly in the management of patients with advanced disease, have been dramatic. Prior to the development of effective chemotherapy in the 1970s, less than 10% of men with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours were cured; nowadays approximately 90% of patients are potentially curable. The introduction of effective chemotherapy has led to a reappraisal of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of early stage disease and the introduction of a policy of surveillance in patients without evidence of metastases at the time of removal of the primary tumour. Following chemotherapy, surgery is required in approximately 25% of patients with advanced disease to excise residual masses, which in one-fifth of cases will show evidence of residual malignancy. In a proportion of patients, testicular cancer develops on a background of long-standing infertility, whereas in many men there is temporary oligospermia, despite a previous history of fertility. The majority of patients with prior evidence of spermatogenesis recover this function following chemotherapy and there is no evidence that children fathered by such patients have an increased risk of malformation. Despite physician optimism and excellent prospects for cure, significant psycho-social morbidity is associated with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. Factors contributing to this are being identified and will lead, hopefully, to the minimisation of such problems by appropriate intervention.

  1. [Segmental testicular infarction].

    PubMed

    Ripa Saldías, L; Guarch Troyas, R; Hualde Alfaro, A; de Pablo Cárdenas, A; Ruiz Ramo, M; Pinós Paul, M

    2006-02-01

    We report the case of a 47 years old man previously diagnosed of left hidrocele. After having a recent mild left testicular pain, an ultrasonografic study revealed a solid hipoecoic testicular lesion rounded by a big hidrocele, suggesting a testicular neoplasm. Radical inguinal orchiectomy was made and pathologic study showed segmental testicular infarction. No malignancy was found. We review the literature of the topic.

  2. Preserved seminiferous tubule integrity with spermatogonial survival and induction of Sertoli and Leydig cell maturation after long-term organotypic culture of prepubertal human testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    de Michele, F; Poels, J; Weerens, L; Petit, C; Evrard, Z; Ambroise, J; Gruson, D; Wyns, C

    2017-01-01

    Is an organotypic culture system able to provide the appropriate testicular microenvironment for in-vitro maturation of human immature testicular tissue (ITT)? Our organotypic culture system provided a microenvironment capable of preserving seminiferous tubule (ST) integrity and Leydig cell (LC) functionality and inducing Sertoli cell (SC) maturation. Cryopreservation of human ITT is a well-established strategy to preserve fertility in prepubertal boys affected by cancer, with a view for obtaining sperm. While spermatogenesis in mice has been replicated in organotypic culture, yielding reproductively efficient spermatozoa, this process has not yet been achieved in humans. The aim of this study was to in vitro mature frozen-thawed ITT. To this end, 1 mm(3) tissue fragments from three prepubertal patients aged 2 (P1), 11 (P2) and 12 (P3) years were placed in organotypic culture for 139 days. Culture media, supplemented with either testosterone or hCG, were compared. ST integrity and tissue viability were assessed by histological score and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in supernatants. Spermatogonia (SG), proliferating cells and proliferating SG were identified by the use of MAGE-A4 and Ki67 immunohistochemical markers. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was used as a marker of SC functionality, while SC maturation was evaluated by androgen receptor (AR), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) immunohistochemistry (IHC) and AMH immunoenzymatic assay. LC functionality was determined by testosterone levels in supernatants and by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) IHC. Apoptosis was studied by IHC with active caspases 3 and 8 and by TUNEL (terminal deoxynubocleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) analysis. Tissue viability was preserved, as demonstrated by the decrease in and stabilization of LDH release, and evolution of ST scoring, with the percentage of well-preserved STs showing no statistical differences during culture in either

  3. [Isolated testicular tuberculosis: report of a case].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Rabii, R; Guessous, H; Benjelloun, M; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2000-06-01

    In this study, a case has been reported involving a 66-year old male who was admitted for scrotal pain on the right side with possible testicular involvement, but with no associated urinary disorder. At physical examination, the right testicle was found to have increased in volume: this was further confirmed by ultrasonography, but the findings were insufficient to exclude the hypothesis of testicular cancer. An exploratory orchidectomy by upper inguinal route was therefore carried out, and histopathological examination showed the destruction of testicular tissue by several granulomas, and caseous necrosis with giant cells. Antibacterial chemotherapy was administered after an i.v. urography found no evidence of abnormality or urinary disorder, thereby eliminating an active site of genitourinary tuberculosis. This case shows the importance of considering testicular tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of testicular enlargement in a region where this disease is endemic, despite the absence of systemic pulmonary and urinary signs of tuberculosis.

  4. Fertilization after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Romero, J; Remohí, J; Mínguez, Y; Rubio, C; Pellicer, A; Gil-Salom, M

    1996-04-01

    To assess the possibility of cryopreserving testicular tissue extracted sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A report of two cases. Our study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Two azoospermic patients with severe spermatogenic failure but with focal spermatogenesis on testicular biopsies. In both cases, a first ICSI attempt with fresh testicular biopsy extracted sperm was unsuccessful. Cryopreservation of testicular spermatozoa in 100-micro L "pills." Intracytoplasmic sperm injection with thawed testicular spermatozoa. Fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo quality, clinical pregnancy. Fertilization rates were 36 percent and 100 percent after ICSI with fresh testicular spermatozoa, and 63 percent and 57 percent after ICSI with cryopreserved testicular sperm. In both cases, cleavage rates and embryo quality were similar when using fresh and cryopreserved testicular spermatozoa. No clinical pregnancies were achieved. High fertilization rates can be obtained after ICSI with frozen-thawed testicular tissue extracted spermatozoa. Cryopreservation of testicular sperm may avoid repetition of testicular biopsies in azoospermic patients in whom the only source of spermatozoa is the testicle.

  5. Apoptosis in testicular tissue of rats after vasectomy: evaluation of eNOS, iNOS immunoreactivities and the effects of ozone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Alpcan, Serhan; Başar, Halil; Aydos, Tolga Reşat; Kul, Oğuz; Kısa, Üçler; Başar, Murad Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and apoptotic index in rat testicular tissue, as well as serum and seminal plasma sex hormone levels after vasectomy, and the effect of ozone therapy (OT). Material and methods: Adult male Wistar rats were used (n=6 per group). Control (G1), sham for 4 weeks (G2) or 6 weeks (G3), orchiectomy at the 4th (G4) or 6th (G5) week after left vasectomy, orchiectomy at the 4th (G6) or 6th (G7) week after bilateral vasectomy, orchiectomy after 6 weeks OT following left (G8) or bilateral (G9) vasectomy, orchiectomy after 6 weeks OT (G10). Results: In the left testes, while there were increases in eNOS and iNOS immunoreactivity and apoptotic indexes in G4 and G5, no changes were observed in contralateral testis. These values increased in G6 and G7, while OT inhibited these parameters in the left testis of G8 and both testes of G9. Sex hormone levels did not show any changes after vasectomy and ozone therapy. Conclusion: While OT was found to be protective against some parameters mentioned above under stress conditions, it seemed to cause some harmful effects when used in healthy conditions. PMID:26328178

  6. The protective effect of dexpanthenol on testicular atrophy at 60th day following experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Serbest, Yeşim Aksu; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-03-01

    Despite the prompt diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion (TT), there are problems with fertility and atrophy after testicular salvage. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid (PA). Dxp is converted to PA in tissues. PA increases the content of reduced glutathione (GSH), Coenzyme A and ATP synthesis in cells. GSH and glutathione-dependent peroxidases (GPX) are the major defense systems against oxidative stress. GPX-4 is the major antioxidant in testicular tissue. However, the activity of GPX-4 appeared and increased only after puberty. We investigated the effect of Dxp on testicular atrophy after TT at the 60th day. Rats were separated randomly into four groups. Group C: control group, group Td: torsion + detorsion, group Sal: torsion + saline + detorsion, group Dxp: torsion + Dxp + detorsion. The left testis was rotated 720 degrees for 2 h. In group Sal, normal saline and in group Dxp, Dexpanthenol were injected intraperitonally, 30 min before detorsion. After 60 days, the testicular weights and volumes were measured. Histopathology of the left testis was evaluated with mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS). The left (torsed) testicular weight and volume of groups Td and Sal were significantly lower compared to group Dxp. The MSTD and MTBS of group Td and Sal were significantly lower than group Dxp. Contralateral testicular weight and volume of groups Td, Sal and Dxp had no significant difference compared to the control group. Dxp significantly prevented testicular atrophy after 60 days of TT. Dxp has FDA approval, is safe, cost effective and readily available. Its relevance for clinical trials may especially be for the problem of testicular atrophy catastrophe, seen very frequently following testicular salvage.

  7. [Segmental testicular infarction in sickle cell anemia].

    PubMed

    Mueller, F E

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusions are the clinical indicators of sickle cell disease and in urology they can lead to papillary necrosis, renal infarction or priapism. Segmental testicular infarction in patients with sickle cell disease is a rare event and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 25-year-old man with right testicular pain increasing over 3 days and sickle cell disease. Ultrasound of the right scrotum presented an inhomogeneous, mainly hypoechegenic mass with a hyperechogenic margin and no sign of blood flow. A partial orchiectomy was performed with total enucleation of the lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as benign hemorrhagic necrotic testicular tissue.

  8. Use of cultured precision-cut rat lung slices to study the in vitro induction of pulmonary cytochrome P450 forms.

    PubMed

    Lake, B G; Meredith, C; Scott, M P; Renwick, A B; Price, R J

    2003-07-01

    1. The aim was to investigate the effects of some cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme inducers on CYP1A and CYP2B subfamily forms in cultured precision-cut rat lung slices. 2. Precision-cut lung slices were prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats and cultured for 24 and/or 48 h in medium containing 0-20 micro g ml(-1) Aroclor 1254 (ARO), 0-50 micro M beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) and 0-50 micro M benzo(a)pyrene (BP). 3. Treatment with ARO, BNF and BP produced significant increases in lung slice whole homogenate 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity. 4. Levels of CYP1A1 apoprotein were markedly increased in lung slice microsomes after treatment for 48 h with either 10 micro g ml(-1) ARO or 5 micro M BNF. In contrast, neither ARO nor BNF had any marked effect on levels of CYP2B1/2 apoprotein in 48-h cultured rat lung slice microsomes. 5. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methodology (TaqMan) was used to quantify lung slice CYP1A1 and CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels. Rat lung slice CYP1A1 mRNA levels were increased up to 8.3-fold after treatment for 24 h with 2 and 10 micro g ml(-1) ARO, 0.5 and 5 micro M BNF, and 20 micro M BP. In contrast, treatment with 10 micro g ml(-1) ARO produced only a small 1.6-fold increase in CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels. 6. Precision-cut lung slices are a useful model in vitro system for the assessment of the effects of chemicals on pulmonary CYP forms.

  9. Increased 21-hydroxylase and shutdown of C(17,20) lyase activities in testicular tissues of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone-induced sex inversion.

    PubMed

    Lee, S T; Lam, T J; Tan, C H

    2002-05-01

    The metabolism in vitro of [(3)H]17-hydroxyprogesterone by gonadal tissues of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced female-to-male sex inversion was examined. In the female phase, C(17,20) lyase, 5beta-reductase, 3alpha/beta-HSD, 20beta-HSD, and 17beta-HSD activities resulted in the biosynthesis of 5beta-pregnans and 5beta-androstanes (including 5beta-androstane-3alpha/beta, 17beta-diol, 3alpha/beta, 17alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-pregnen-20-one, and 5beta-androstane-3,17-dione). In the MT-induced male phase, however, the abrogation of C(17,20) lyase activity and the concomitant activation of 21alpha-hydroxylase/11beta-hydroxylase resulted in the preferential synthesis of polar 21alpha-hydroxlyated 5beta-pregnans (5beta-pregnan-3beta,17alpha,20beta,21alpha-tetrol and 3beta,20beta,21alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-pregnan-3-one) and corticosteroids (11-deoxycortisol and cortisol). Interestingly, synthesis of these 21alpha-hydroxylated 5beta-pregnans and corticosteroids was uniquely compartmentalized in only testicular tissues of the MT-induced males. This study shows that there is selective activation of specific steroidogenic enzymes in the different sexual phases leading to the synthesis of metabolites that may be involved in regulating sex inversion of the grouper. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  10. Pediatric Testicular Torsion.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, Paul R; Gatti, John M; Murphy, J Patrick

    2017-02-01

    The pediatric patient presenting with acute scrotal pain requires prompt evaluation and management given the likelihood of testicular torsion as the underlying cause. Although other diagnoses can present with acute testicular pain, it is important to recognize the possibility of testicular torsion because the best chance of testicular preservation occurs with expeditious management. When testicular torsion is suspected, prompt surgical exploration is warranted. A delay in surgical management should not occur in an effort to obtain confirmatory imaging. When torsion is discovered, the contralateral testicle should undergo fixation to reduce the risk of asynchronous torsion.

  11. A species comparison of 14C-labeled 7-ethoxycoumarin metabolism in precision-cut liver slices from guinea pig and dog using a phosphor imaging system.

    PubMed

    Terada, T; Kaneko, H; Terashita, S; Tozuka, Z; Tokuma, Y; Hata, T

    1996-01-01

    The metabolism of 14C-labeled 7-ethoxycoumarin (7EC) has been investigated in precision-cut liver slices from guinea pigs and dogs. 7EC was incubated with slices in 12-well plates (4 slices/well; n = 3) for up to 8 hr. In addition, a new simple method was established for analyzing 7EC and its metabolites simultaneously by using thin-layer chromatography-radioluminography (TLC-RLG). In both species, 7EC was taken up rapidly into the slices and metabolized extensively under the conditions used (no serum fraction supplemented), showing both phase I and phase II metabolism. In guinea pig medium samples, 4-ethoxy-2-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (EHPA) and 7-hydroxycoumarin (7HC) glucuronide were major metabolites. In dogs, conjugated 7HCs (with D-glucuronic acid and sulfate) were major products but EHPA was formed only to a small extent. These results suggest that deethylation in dogs occurs to a much greater extent than in guinea pigs. These results demonstrate the advantages of precision-cut liver slices as a powerful tool to investigate the species specific metabolism of xenobiotics, since the conditions employed enabled both phase I and phase II reactions in vitro.

  12. Methylene blue increases contralateral testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury after unilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Inan, Mustafa; Basaran, Umit N; Dokmeci, Dikmen; Yalcin, Omer; Aydogdu, Nurettin; Turan, Nesrin

    2008-01-01

    1. Testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury is commonly seen in childhood. Infertility occurs in 25% of patients after unilateral testicular ischaemia. It is has been reported that methylene blue has a positive effect in the reparation of ischaemia-reperfusion injury in different tissues. Therefore, we hypothesized that methylene blue may prevent the hazardous effects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury in testicular tissue after unilateral testicular torsion. 2. Thirty-two prepubertal Wistar-albino rats were divided into four groups. Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720 degrees in a clockwise direction for 5 h in all groups except for Group C, which was the sham control group. In Group T, bilateral orchiectomy was performed following the torsion period. In Group TD, both testes were removed 5 days after the torsion period. In Group MB, methylene blue (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 40 min before detorsion and once daily over 5 days; then, both testes were harvested. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS) and mean seminifer tubule diameter (MSTD) were determined. 3. There was a significant difference in MTBS between Groups T and TD (P < 0.05) in both ipsilateral and contralateral testes. In the contralateral testis, treatment with methylene blue decreased MTBS and MSTD (P < 0.05) and increased MDA levels (P < 0.05). In Group T, mean serum CK concentrations were higher than in any of the other groups (P < 0.05). 4. After 5 h of unilateral testicular torsion and a 5 day reperfusion period, serious tissue damage occurred on both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. Serum CK concentrations may be an indicator for ischaemia, but not for ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Contrary to our hypothesis, methylene blue increased contralateral testicular damage after unilateral testicular torsion and exacerbated oxidative events.

  13. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of Myxobolus ridibundae n. sp. (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) infecting the testicular tissue of the marsh frog Rana ridibunda (Amphibia: Ranidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Maher, Sherein; El Deeb, Nashwa; Kamel, Reem; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2017-01-01

    Myxozoans are one of the most economically important groups of protozoan parasites causing many serious diseases of their hosts. In the present study, a total of 60 live adult male specimens of the marsh frog Rana ridibunda have been randomly captured during the period of January-December 2015 in different areas at Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt and were examined for infection by myxosporidian parasites. A total of 48 (80.0 %) out of 60 frog specimens were found to be infected with Myxobolus species. Parasitic infection was restricted to the testicular tissue of the examined frogs. Macroscopic cysts (plasmodia) which heavily infested different parts of the testes were recovered. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of these myxosporidian species were carried out using light and transmission electron microscopy. Plasmodia measured 0.16-0.53 (0.34 ± 0.01) mm in diameter. Mature spores appeared oval in frontal view, measuring 8.9-11.5 (9.6 ± 0.1) μm in length and 7.5-9.1 (8.4 ± 0.1) μm in width containing 5-6 turns of polar filaments. Morphometric characterization revealed that the very small size of the present Myxobolus species was the most distinctive feature that separates them from all previously described Myxobolus species. Ultrastructural analysis showed that the plasmodia are surrounded by a plasma membrane with numerous pinocytotic protrusions extending toward the host cell. The generative cells and the different developmental stages are arranged at the periphery of the plasmodia, while immature and mature spores are centrally located. Sporogenesis, capsulogenesis, valvogenesis, and spore maturation of the present parasite are also described. The present species is described as Myxobolus ridibundae and represents a new species.

  14. Testicular Adrenal Rests Tumors and Testicular Microlithiasis in a Brazilian Case Series with Classic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Ohana Marques Coelho de Carvalho, Laura; Miguel Garcia Lora, Raymundo; Renata Rezende Penna, Claudia; Calland Ricarte Beserra, Izabel

    2016-01-01

    Background Testicular adrenal rest tumors are a benign condition characterized by the presence of remnants of adrenal tissue within the testes that can lead to infertility. Testicular microlithiasis are calculus deposits within the seminiferous tubules. Both are described in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Objectives Describe the frequency of testicular adrenal rest tumors and testicular microlithiasis in a Brazilian case series of patients with classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia and to also relate these changes to disease control and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis disorders. Methods Case series study. An ultrasound examination of the scrotum was performed on 12 patients between the ages of 5.33 to 22 (14.72 ± 5.26) years. Testicular adrenal rest tumors were classified according to the degree of testicular infiltration in stages by adapting the Grinten’s classification, ranging from the absence of testicular adrenal rests visible by ultrasound (stage ≤ 1) to chronic obstruction of the testicular parenchyma with irreversible damage of the testicle (stage 5). Results Six patients (5 salt wasting and 1 simple virilizing) with an average age of 17.27 ± 3.09 years and have gone through puberty showed testicular adrenal rest tumors (Grinten stage ≥ 3). In 2 of the patients there was a coincidence with testicular microlithiasis. The frequency of testicular adrenal rest tumors did not relate with the levels of serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione. In 3 patients with testicular adrenal rest tumors, gonadotropin levels were suggestive of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and one of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Conclusions Testicular adrenal rest tumors were found in greater frequency during puberty and was not related to hormonal control in this group. Some of them happened with testicular microlithiasis. PMID:28835760

  15. Testicular ischemia following mesh hernia repair and acute prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pietro, Pepe; Francesco, Aragona

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of a man admitted to our Hospital for right acute scrotum that six months before had undergone a right hernioplasty with mesh implantation. Clinical history and testicular color Doppler sonography (CDS) patterns suggested an orchiepididymitis following acute prostatitis. After 48h the clinical picture worsened and testicular CDS showed a decreased telediastolic velocity that suggested testicular ischemia. The patient underwent surgical exploration: spermatic cord appeared stretched by an inflammatory tissue in absence of torsion and releasing of spermatic cord was performed. In patients with genitourinary infection who previously underwent inguinal mesh implantation, testicular CDS follow-up is mandatory. PMID:19718342

  16. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  17. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  18. Downregulation of clusterin expression in human testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bianjiang; Han, Min Tang Zhijian; Zhang, Jiexiu; Lu, Pei; Li, Jie; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Yin, Changjun; Zhang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Clusterin, a heterodimeric glycoprotein of approximately 80 kDa, exists extensively in human body fluids. The abnormal expression of clusterin is closely related to the occurrence, progression, and prognosis of tumors. Up to now, few studies have focused on clusterin in human testicular cancer. This study describes an extensive exploration of the presence and expression of clusterin in testicular seminoma. Tumor tissues and normal testis tissues were collected from 13 patients with testicular seminoma and 16 patients undergoing surgical castration for prostate cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect the expression difference of clusterin mRNA between testicular seminoma and normal testis. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to detect the presence and expression difference of clusterin protein between two groups. Real-time PCR showed the expression of clusterin mRNA in testicular seminoma to be significantly lower than in normal testis (only 13% relative quantification). Western blot analysis indicated marked reductions in the expression of clusterin protein in testicular seminoma. Similar results were observed upon immunohistochemical analysis. In testicular seminoma and normal testis, clusterin exists in its heterodimeric secretory isoform. Clusterin expression is significantly lower in testicular seminoma than in normal testis. This is the first comprehensive study of the presence and expression of clusterin in human testicular cancer. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Short-term exposure to cigarette smoke induces endothelial dysfunction in small intrapulmonary arteries: analysis using guinea pig precision cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Wright, J L; Churg, A

    2008-05-01

    The pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary hypertension is not understood. We have previously shown that smoke rapidly and persistently, but discoordinately, upregulates gene expression of mediators that control vasoconstriction, vasoproliferation, and vasorelaxation in small intrapulmonary arteries. To investigate the possibility that smoke also induces endothelial dysfunction, a finding common to other forms of pulmonary hypertension, we exposed guinea pigs to smoke or air (control) daily for 2 wk and then prepared precision-cut lung slices. After exposure to endothelin-1, a vasoconstrictor, intra-acinar arteries in lung slices derived from smoke-exposed animals constricted more rapidly (greater constriction at a given concentration of endothelin) than did vessels from air-exposed animals. To examine relaxation responses, arteries were constricted with the vasoconstrictor U-46619 and then relaxed with progressively increasing doses of acetylcholine. Vessels from smokers had a delayed response to acetylcholine compared with vessels from controls. The NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester reduced relaxation in both control and smoke-exposed arteries, whereas the NO donor sodium nitroprusside increased relaxation of the smoke-exposed arteries, confirming that endothelial dysfunction with decreased effective NO production is present. These findings show that precision cut lung slices can be used to examine the physiological effects of cigarette smoke on intra-acinar pulmonary arteries and indicate that even relatively short-term exposure to smoke produces endothelial dysfunction with a resulting tendency to earlier constriction and later relaxation in cigarette smokers. These changes may be important in the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  20. Effect of kisspeptin challenge on testosterone and inhibin secretion from in vitro testicular tissue of adult male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Tariq, A R; Shabab, M

    2017-02-01

    Kisspeptin expression has been found in gonads but a direct role of kisspeptin in reproduction is not known. The objective of this study was to find a dose and time related effect of kisspeptin on testicular hormones secretion of adult male rhesus monkey (n = 5). Kisspeptin (1, 10, 100, 1000 pm) was incubated to a culture of testes (100 mg fragments) of male rhesus monkey and medium for hormone (testosterone and inhibin) measurement was collected after 30, 60 and 120 min. 10 IU hCG (180 min) and 50 ng FSH (60 and 120 min) were incubated to the culture for checking testicular cells ability to secrete hormones in vitro. Kisspeptin did not significantly (P < 0.05) increase the testosterone and inhibin levels at any dose. However, one way anova at pooled doses showed an increase in testosterone levels and paired t-test at pooled doses showed inhibin decrease after 120 min of incubation suggesting an independent effect of time. hCG and FSH significantly (P < 0.05) increased hormone concentration compared to the basal groups. We concluded that kisspeptin has no role in testicular regulation related to testosterone and inhibin release but kisspeptin may have other roles in testicular regulation.

  1. Polyorchidism with presumed contralateral intrauterine testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    Leodoro, B.M.; Beasley, S.W.; Stringer, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Polyorchidism was first described by Blasius in 16701 during a routine autopsy. We report a child with unilateral polyorchidism and a contralateral absent testis, a combination not reported previously. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 2-year-old boy was referred to the outpatient clinic with an impalpable left testis. At laparoscopy, the left vas deferens and testicular vessels ended blindly proximal to a closed internal ring. No gonadal tissue was identified. On the right side, a single vas deferens and testicular vessels were seen entering the internal ring as normal. The right side of the scrotum was explored and two testes were identified within a single tunica vaginalis. DISCUSSION Polyorchidism is rare with a literature search identifying approximately 230 reported cases. Whilst prenatal testicular torsion is increasing being recognized and treated as a surgical emergency,9 prenatal testicular torsion in association with polyorchidism has not been previously reported. CONCLUSION We describe a unique case of a 2-year-old boy with right-sided polyorchidism and an absent left testis associated with a blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels, presumed secondary to intrauterine testicular torsion. PMID:25462053

  2. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed.

  3. Protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in precision-cut liver slices in vitro and in vivo in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjuan; Cao, Liping; Du, Jinliang; Jia, Rui; Wang, Jiahao; Xu, Pao; Yin, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    The protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in common carp were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Precision-cut liver slices (PCLSs) were employed as an in vitro model system. LBPs (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml) was added to PCLSs culture system before (pre-treatment), after (post-treatment) and both before and after (pre- and post-treatment) the exposure of PCLSs to 12 mM CCl4. The supernatants and PCLSs were collected for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs inhibited the elevations of the marker enzymes (GOT, GPT, LDH and AKP) and MDA induced by CCl4 in all LBPs treatments and it also enhanced the suppressed antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST) and GSH, in the pre-treatment and pre- and post-treatment. In vivo, fish were fed diets containing LBPs at 0.1, 0.5 and 1% for 60 d before an intraperitoneal injection of 30% CCl4 in olive oil at a volume of 0.05 ml/10 g body weight. At 72 h post-injection, blood and liver samples were taken for biochemical analyses. Results showed that LBPs at 0.5 and 1% significantly reduced the levels of GOT, GPT and LDH in the serum; the decreases of the antioxidant enzymes and the increase of MDA in the liver tissue were inhibited markedly. Moreover, LBPs even at lower concentration exerted a potent DPPH scavenging activity. Overall results prove the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of LBPs and support the use of LBPs as a hepatoprotective agent in fish.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on CCl4-induced damage in precision-cut liver slices from Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) through inhibition of the nf-kƁ pathway.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Ding, Weidong; Jia, Rui; Du, Jingliang; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Chunyun; Gu, Zhengyan; Yin, Guojun

    2017-03-10

    In order to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced damage in precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) from Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio. Jian), an acute liver damage model was established in this study. The viability of PCLS, levels of anti-oxidases in liver homogenates, expression of inflammation-related genes including nuclear factor-κB (nf-κB)/c-rel, inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos), interleukin-1β (il-1β), interleukin-6 (il-6) and interleukin-8 (il-8), and protein levels of (nf-κB)/c-rel in liver tissues were measured. The results showed that pretreatment of PCLS with GA at 5 and 10 μg/mL for 6 h significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of CCl4. GA attenuated CCl4-induced oxidative stress in PCLS through promoting the recovery of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels, and inhibiting malondialdehyde (MDA) synthesis. In inflammatory response, GA at both 5 and 10 μg/mL significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines including nf-kƁ/c-rel, inos, il-1β, il-6 and il-8, and the protein level of Nf-kƁ/C-rel induced by CCl4. Furthermore, treatment with pyrrolyl dithiocarbamate (PDTC, 4 μg/mL), an inhibitor of nuclear transcription factor nf-kB, significantly inhibited nf-kB levels, and transcription of downstream cytokines inos, il-1β, il-6 and il-8, also the viability of PCLS was significantly increased. These results indicated that GA suppressed inflammation and reduced cytotoxicity by inhibiting the nf-kƁ signaling pathway, and plays a role in liver protection.

  5. Precision-cut intestinal slices as a culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Punyadarsaniya, Darsaniya; Winter, Christine; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y; Rautenschlein, Silke; Herrler, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Many viruses infect and replicate in their host via the intestinal tract, e.g. many picornaviruses, several coronaviruses and avian influenza viruses of waterfowl. To analyze infection of enterocytes is a challenging task as culture systems for differentiated intestinal epithelial cells are not readily available and often have a life span that is too short for infection studies. Precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) from chicken embryos were prepared and shown that the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the intestine are viable for up to 4 days. Using lectin staining, it was demonstrated that α2,3-linked sialic acids, the preferred receptor determinants of avian influenza viruses, are present on the apical side of the epithelial cells. Furthermore, the epithelial cells (at the tips) of the villi were shown to be susceptible to infection by an avian influenza virus of the H9N2 subtype. This culture system will be useful to analyze virus infection of intestinal epithelial cells and it should be applicable also to the intestine of other species.

  6. Acute toxicity of CCl4 but not of paracetamol induces a transcriptomic signature of fibrosis in precision-cut liver slices.

    PubMed

    Vatakuti, Suresh; Schoonen, Willem G E J; Elferink, Marieke L G; Groothuis, Geny M M; Olinga, Peter

    2015-08-01

    In rat in vivo, both paracetamol (APAP) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induce liver necrosis, but long-term treatment with CCl4, in contrast to paracetamol, causes liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to perform transcriptomic analysis to compare the early changes in mRNA expression profiles induced by APAP and CCl4 in the rat precision-cut liver slice model (PCLS) and to identify early markers that could predict fibrosis-inducing potential. Microarray data of rat PCLS exposed to APAP andCCl4was generated using a toxic dose based on decrease in ATP levels. Toxicity pathway analysis using a custom made fibrosis-related gene list showed fibrosis as one of the predominant toxic endpoints in CCl4-treated, but not in APAP-treated PCLS. Moreover, genes which have a role in fibrosis such as alpha-B crystallin, jun proto-oncogene, mitogen-activated protein kinase 6, serpin peptidase inhibitor and also the transcription factor Kruppel-like-factor-6 were up-regulated by CCl4, but not by APAP. Predicted activation or inhibition of several upstream regulators due to CCl4 is in accordance with their role in fibrosis. In conclusion, transcriptomic analysis of PCLS successfully identified the fibrotic potential of CCl4 as opposed to APAP. The application of PCLS as an ex vivo model to identify early biomarkers to predict the fibrogenic potential of toxic compounds should be further explored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Testicular Cancer Resource Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... my what?! Cancer AGAIN?! --- Our comments on the report linking testicular cancer treatments to secondary cancers... Faith and Spirituality --- Not carrying the load alone... Alternative Treatments? --- When all else fails? Spread the Word --- We have even created a, ...

  8. From testicular biopsy to human embryo.

    PubMed

    Jezek, D; Knezević, N; Kalanj-Bognar, S; Vukelić, Z; Krhen, I

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of a testicular biopsy in the diagnosis and therapy of infertile men with a non-obstructive azoospermia. Overall, 70 testicular biopsies from infertile men were analysed. Samples were obtained by the "open testicular biopsy" method. After dissection, several pieces of the tissue were immediately immersed into the Sperm Prep Medium (Medi-Cult) and fixative (5.5% buffered glutaraldehyde). Tissue samples transported in Sperm Prep Medium were plunged into Sperm Freezing Medium (Medi-Cult) and were stored in liquid nitrogen for potential in vitro fertilization procedures. The tissue was also processed for semithin sections and transmission electron microscopy. Semithin sections from 8 infertile patients demonstrated regular testis structure and fully preserved spermatogenesis (control biopsies). In the remaining 62 cases, spermatogenesis was impaired and a variety of pathological changes could be seen: disorganization and desquamation of spermatogenic cells, spermatid or spermatocyte "stop", spermatogonia only, "Sertoli cells only" or tubular fibrosis. However, in 65% of cases (despite the above mentioned changes of seminiferous epithelium) foci of preserved spermatogenesis could be detected. These cases were classified as "mixed atrophy" of seminiferous tubules. In 63% of infertile patients, a successful extraction of sperm from the biopsy could be performed. In azoospermic patients, histological analysis of testicular biopsy proved to be very useful in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy, i.e. for further in vitro fertilization procedures.

  9. Caffeine inhibits TGFβ activation in epithelial cells, interrupts fibroblast responses to TGFβ, and reduces established fibrosis in ex vivo precision-cut lung slices.

    PubMed

    Tatler, Amanda L; Barnes, Josephine; Habgood, Anthony; Goodwin, Amanda; McAnulty, Robin J; Jenkins, Gisli

    2016-06-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used food additive found naturally in many products. In addition to potently stimulating the central nervous system caffeine is able to affect various systems within the body including the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Importantly, caffeine is used clinically to treat apnoea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature babies. Recently, caffeine has been shown to exhibit antifibrotic effects in the liver in part through reducing collagen expression and deposition, and reducing expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGFβ. The potential antifibrotic effects of caffeine in the lung have not previously been investigated. Using a combined in vitro and ex vivo approach we have demonstrated that caffeine can act as an antifibrotic agent in the lung by acting on two distinct cell types, namely epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Caffeine inhibited TGFβ activation by lung epithelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner but had no effect on TGFβ activation in fibroblasts. Importantly, however, caffeine abrogated profibrotic responses to TGFβ in lung fibroblasts. It inhibited basal expression of the α-smooth muscle actin gene and reduced TGFβ-induced increases in profibrotic genes. Finally, caffeine reduced established bleomycin-induced fibrosis after 5 days treatment in an ex vivo precision-cut lung slice model. Together, these findings suggest that there is merit in further investigating the potential use of caffeine, or its analogues, as antifibrotic agents in the lung. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. A Study of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induced Liver Injury in Jian Carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) Using Precision-Cut Liver Slices.

    PubMed

    Du, Jin-Liang; Cao, Li-Ping; Liu, Ying-Juan; Jia, Rui; Yin, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a model for the study of liver injury induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Jian carp using precision-cut liver slices (PCLS). PCLS were treated with TCDD at concentrations of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 μg/L for 6 h, followed by collection of the culture supernatant and PCLS for analysis. Several biochemical indices were analyzed, including glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Expression of mRNA was also estimated for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A), aryl hydrocarbon receptor2 (AhR2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator2 (ARNT2). Results showed that some significant effects (p < 0.05) in MDA, GSH-Px and PCLS viability were observed at a TCDD concentration as low as 0.05 µg/L, and the observed effects increased with exposure concentration. Following exposure to TCDD for 6 h at a concentration of 0.3 μg/L, significant increases (p < 0.01) in the content of GPT, GOT, MDA, and LDH were observed, while SOD activity, GSH-Px activity, and PCLS viability were decreased (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Exposure to 0.3 μg/L TCDD also resulted in increased expression of mRNA for CYP1A, AhR2, and ARNT2. Overall, these results provide evidence of TCDD-induced liver injury and oxidative stress in Jian carp. These results also support the use of PCLS as an in vitro model for the evaluation of hepatotoxicity in Jian carp.

  11. Precision-cut liver slices from diet-induced obese rats exposed to ethanol are susceptible to oxidative stress and increased fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duryee, Michael J; Willis, Monte S; Schaffert, Courtney S; Reidelberger, Roger D; Dusad, Anand; Anderson, Daniel R; Klassen, Lynell W; Thiele, Geoffrey M

    2014-02-01

    Oxidative stress from fat accumulation in the liver has many deleterious effects. Many believe that there is a second hit that causes relatively benign fat accumulation to transform into liver failure. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of ethanol on ex vivo precision-cut liver slice cultures (PCLS) from rats fed a high-fat diet resulting in fatty liver. Age-matched male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either high-fat (obese) (45% calories from fat, 4.73 kcal/g) or control diet for 13 mo. PCLS were prepared, incubated with 25 mM ethanol for 24, 48, and 72 h, harvested, and evaluated for ethanol metabolism, triglyceride production, oxidative stress, and cytokine expression. Ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde production decreased in PCLS from obese rats compared with age-matched controls (AMC). Increased triglyceride and smooth muscle actin production was observed in PCLS from obese rats compared with AMC, which further increased following ethanol incubation. Lipid peroxidation, measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, increased in response to ethanol, whereas GSH and heme oxygenase I levels were decreased. TNF-α and IL-6 levels were increased in the PCLS from obese rats and increased further with ethanol incubation. Diet-induced fatty liver increases the susceptibility of the liver to toxins such as ethanol, possibly by the increased oxidative stress and cytokine production. These findings support the concept that the development of fatty liver sensitizes the liver to the effects of ethanol and leads to the start of liver failure, necrosis, and eventually cirrhosis.

  12. Precision-cut liver slices of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): an in vitro system for studying the effects of environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    Eide, M; Karlsen, O A; Kryvi, H; Olsvik, P A; Goksøyr, A

    2014-08-01

    The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is an economically important species commonly consumed by humans. The widespread distribution of cod in the North Atlantic Ocean makes it vulnerable to effluents from human activities, such as coastal industries and offshore petroleum exploration. It has been demonstrated that many effluents have adverse effects on cod reproduction and health, e.g. by disrupting endocrine signaling pathways. The liver, expressing important components of the biotransformation and the endocrine system, is one of the main target organs. Thus, reliable and reproducible in vitro systems of the liver are important for studying effects of environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to investigate precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an alternative in vitro system for toxicological studies of the Atlantic cod liver. Slices of 8 mm in diameter and 250 μm thickness were prepared and cultivated from immature cod. Several analyses to measure the liver slice viability were performed: enzyme assays, histology, and morphometric analysis, all confirming cell viability for up to 72 h in culture. The liver slices were also exposed to two well-known model environmental contaminants, β-naphthoflavone (BNF) and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), representing established agonists for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER), respectively. The results showed increased transcription of the target genes cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and vitellogenin (VTG), both well-established biomarkers for exposure of fish to the selected compounds. In conclusion, PCLS is a promising in vitro system for toxicological studies of cod liver cells. The liver slices are viable in culture for several days and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose- and time-specific manner.

  13. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... diagnosed during a testicular ultrasound — in which small clusters of calcium form in the testicles. A number ... 48:1079. Wang T, et al. A meta-analysis of the relationship between testicular microlithiasis and incidence ...

  14. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell tumors (FTGCT) — Overview of a multidisciplinary etiologic study. Andrology. 2015;3:47. Pedersen MR, et al. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer: Review of the literature. International Urology and Nephrology. 2016;48:1079. Wang T, ...

  15. Relationships of testicular iron and ferritin concentrations with testicular weight and sperm production in boars.

    PubMed

    Wise, T; Lunstra, D D; Rohrer, G A; Ford, J J

    2003-02-01

    The inverse relationship of testicular size and circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations has been documented, and accompanying this relationship is the change in color of the parenchymal tissue of the testes. Large testes (300 to 400 g) are pink to light red and small testes (100 g) are dark maroon with color gradations for weights in between. It was hypothesized that this color most likely represented an iron protein. Chromatographic analysis of testicular tissue indicated that the Fe was associated primarily with ferritin, and immunohistochemistry showed that Leydig cells were the primary location of ferritin storage within the testes. Concentrations of Fe and ferritin were higher in small testes and decreased as testes weight increased (P < 0.05). As testicular Fe concentrations increased, daily sperm production (DSP) and total DSP declined (P < 0.05). Genotyping six generations of Meishan x White composite boars (n = 288) for a quantitative trait locus that is indicative of elevated FSH and small testes in boars indicated that the Meishan genotype had elevated testicular iron concentrations and darker color in conjunction with reduced total DSP (P < 0.01). It is not thought the elevated iron concentrations affect testicular weights but are probably a result of elevated FSH and FSH inducement of Fe transport. The storage of Fe in Leydig cells may provide a reservoir of Fe for easy access by Sertoli and germ cells, but still provide a degree of protection to germ cells from ionic iron.

  16. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  17. Testicular calculus: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Sen, Volkan; Bozkurt, Ozan; Demır, Omer; Tuna, Burcin; Yorukoglu, Kutsal; Esen, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Testicular calculus is an extremely rare case with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. To our knowledge, here we report the third case of testicular calculus. A 31-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with painful solid mass in left testis. After diagnostic work-up for a possible testicular tumour, he underwent inguinal orchiectomy and histopathologic examination showed a testicular calculus. Case hypothesis: Solid testicular lesions in young adults generally correspond to testicular cancer. Differential diagnosis should be done carefully. Future implications: In young adults with painful and solid testicular mass with hyperechogenic appearance on scrotal ultrasonography, testicular calculus must be kept in mind in differential diagnosis. Further reports on this topic may let us do more clear recommendations about the etiology and treatment of this rare disease.

  18. Proteomic analysis of continuous 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in testicular tissue: a rat model of human cell phone exposure.

    PubMed

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Davis, Devra Lee

    2017-05-01

    Although cell phones have been used worldwide, some adverse and toxic effects were reported for this communication technology apparatus. To analyze in vivo effects of exposure to radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on protein expression in rat testicular proteome, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF for 0, 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 30 consecutive days. Protein content of rat testes was separated by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis using immobilized pH gradient (pI 4-7, 7 cm) and 12% acrylamide and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Two protein spots were found differentially overexpressed (P < 0.05) in intensity and volume with induction factors 1.7 times greater after RF-EMF exposure. After 4 h of daily exposure for 30 consecutive days, ATP synthase beta subunit (ASBS) and hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 precursor (HYOU1) were found to be significantly up-regulated. These proteins affect signaling pathways in rat testes and spermatogenesis and play a critical role in protein folding and secretion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that exposure to RF-EMF produces increases in testicular proteins in adults that are related to carcinogenic risk and reproductive damage. In light of the widespread practice of men carrying phones in their pockets near their gonads, where exposures can exceed as-tested guidelines, further study of these effects should be a high priority.

  19. Treatment Options for Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer High-Dose Chemotherapy ... Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics ...

  20. Inguinal hernia as a presentation of testicular feminization.

    PubMed

    Gibor, Udit; Ohana, Eric; Elena, Dubilet; Kirshtein, Boris

    2015-08-01

    We present a case of a 20-year-old female who was admitted to our department for an elective inguinal hernia repair. An oval-shaped mass was found in the hernia sac during the surgery that was suspected to be an ovary. Histological examination revealed testicular tissue. Further evaluation confirmed testicular feminization. She underwent laparoscopic orchiectomy and hernia repair from the contralateral side 3 months later.

  1. Spin on perinatal testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Samnakay, Naeem; Tudehope, David; Walker, Rosslyn

    2006-11-01

    We describe a recent case of perinatal testicular torsion at our institution. The presentation, management and outcome of perinatal testicular torsion are quite different to testicular torsion in the general paediatric population. The literature describes a variety of management options for perinatal testicular torsion and these are briefly reviewed. In cases of unilateral perinatal testicular torsin, there is controversy over whether surgery to fix the contralateral testis is required, and if so, the appropriate timing for the surgery. A good understanding of the issues unique to perinatal torsion will facilitate appropriate counseling of parents of affected neonates.

  2. Testicular Biopsy in Evaluation of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Meinhard, Elizabeth; McRae, C. U.; Chisholm, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Testicular biopsy findings in 100 infertile men were correlated with the clinical findings. Mild or moderately severe tubular lesions were seen in 57 cases and severe changes in 43. Clinical examination and semen analysis were no guide to the severity of the testicular lesion. Though patients with normal sized testes more commonly had mild tubular lesions, many were severe. Patients with small testes more often had severe lesions but some had only mild tubular changes. Biopsy findings in both aspermic and oligospermic patients ranged from normal to a complete loss of germinal tissue. Testicular biopsy is advocated in infertile men for the complete assessment of the case and for identifying those which are potentially treatable. Patients with a severe lesion can be spared further investigations. The choice and results of treatment are discussed, particularly the surgical treatment of varicocele or obstruction. Only patients with a mild or moderate testicular tubular lesion should participate in future trials with drugs for male infertility. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4726930

  3. Testicular cancer and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Darius A

    2006-11-01

    Testicular cancer and infertility affect a similar age group of patients and have common biologic, epidemiologic, and environmental backgrounds. In this review, we provide current literature on links between infertility and testicular cancer, and new developments in the management of testicular cancer aimed at improving quality of life in men with testicular cancer. In-utero environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors modulates the genetically determined fate of primitive gonad and results in testicular dysgenesis syndrome, which may result in infertility and testicular cancer. Excellent response of testicular cancer to radiation and chemotherapy results in over 90% of survival and quality of life--fertility and sexual function--is of significant concern to patients and clinicians. The testicular-sparing management of testicular masses emerges as a sound alternative to radical orchiectomy and allows for preservation of spermatogenesis and hormonal function, and at the same time achieving similar survival rates. Secondary malignancies, pulmonary, and cardiovascular complications are recognized as late complications of treatment for testicular cancer. Better understanding of common mechanisms involved in infertility and testicular cancer, and scientifically driven evidence-based treatment options should improve quality of life in young men faced with this potentially life-threatening disease.

  4. Testicular Cancer and Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lydia; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of testicular descent or cryptorchidism is the most common defect in newborn boys. The descent of the testes during development is controlled by insulin-like 3 peptide and steroid hormones produced in testicular Leydig cells, as well as by various genetic and developmental factors. While in some cases the association with genetic abnormalities and environmental causes has been shown, the etiology of cryptorchidism remains uncertain. Cryptorchidism is an established risk factor for infertility and testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Experimental animal models suggest a causative role for an abnormal testicular position on the disruption of spermatogenesis however the link between cryptorchidism and TGCT is less clear. The most common type of TGCT in cryptorchid testes is seminoma, believed to be derived from pluripotent prenatal germ cells. Recent studies have shown that seminoma cells and their precursor carcinoma in situ cells express a number of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers suggesting that TGCTs might originate from adult stem cells. We review here the data on changes in the SSC somatic cell niche observed in cryptorchid testes of mouse models and in human patients. We propose that the misregulation of growth factors’ expression may alter the balance between SSC self-renewal and differentiation and shift stem cells toward neoplastic transformation. PMID:23519268

  5. Primary testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S S; Idris, S F; Follows, G A; Williams, M V

    2012-06-01

    Primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTL) comprises around 9% of testicular cancers and 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Its incidence is increasing and it primarily affects older men, with a median age at presentation of around 67 years. By far the most common histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, accounting for 80-90% of PTLs. Most patients present with a unilateral testicular mass or swelling. Up to 90% of patients have stage I or II disease at diagnosis (60 and 30%, respectively) and bilateral testicular involvement is seen in around 35% of patients. PTL demonstrates a continuous pattern of relapse and propensity for extra-nodal sites such as the central nervous system and contralateral testis. Retrospective data have emphasised the importance of prophylactic radiotherapy in reducing recurrence rates within the contralateral testis. Recent outcome data from the prospective IELSG-10 trial have shown far better progression-free and overall survival than historical outcomes. This supports the use of orchidectomy followed by Rituximab- cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP), central nervous system prophylaxis and prophylactic radiotherapy to the contralateral testis with or without nodal radiotherapy in patients with limited disease. Central nervous system relapse remains a significant issue and future research should focus on identifying the best strategy to reduce its occurrence. Here we discuss the evidence supporting combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy in PTL.

  6. Dose-dependent protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A A; Qutub, H O; Jresat, I

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion induces oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and apoptosis of testicular tissues. Baicalin exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the possible protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion injury in rats. Surgical testicular torsion was induced for 2 h, followed by detorsion which was continued for 24 h. Baicalin was administered in three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) , by intraperitoneal injection). Each dose was given twice, the first 30 min before and the second 12 h after testicular detorsion. Baicalin, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased the torsion/detorsion-induced elevations of testicular malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-α, BCL2-associated X protein (Bax), cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Baicalin, dose dependently, attenuated the reductions of B-cell leucemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in testicular tissues resulted from torsion/detorsion. In addition, baicalin ameliorated the histopathological testicular tissue damage and reduced the expression of Fas ligand in rat testes exposed to torsion/detorsion in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that baicalin, dose dependently, ameliorated testicular injury induced by torsion/detorsion via its antioxidant, antinitrosative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

  7. Nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K M; Lovich, J E; Lam, C; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2014-07-01

    The lactocrine hypothesis suggests a mechanism whereby milk-borne bioactive factors delivered to nursing offspring affect development of neonatal tissues. The objective of this study was to assess whether nursing affects testicular development in neonatal boars as reflected by: (1) Sertoli cell number and proliferation measured by GATA-4 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining patterns; (2) Leydig cell development and steroidogenic activity as reflected by insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), and P450 side chain cleavage (scc) enzyme expression; and (3) expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, and relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) 1. At birth, boars were randomly assigned (n = 6-7/group) to nurse ad libitum or to be pan fed porcine milk replacer for 48 h. Testes were collected from boars at birth, before nursing and from nursed and replacer-fed boars at 50 h on postnatal day (PND) 2. Sertoli cell proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index increased (P < 0.01) from birth to PND 2 in nursed, but not in replacer-fed boars. Sertoli cell number and testicular GATA-4 protein levels increased (P < 0.01) from PND 0 to PND 2 only in nursed boars. Neither age nor nursing affected testicular INSL3, P450scc, ESR1, or VEGFA levels. However, testicular relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) levels increased (P < 0.01) with age and were greater in replacer-fed boars on PND 2. Results suggest that nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development and provide additional evidence for the importance of lactocrine signaling in pigs.

  8. Long-term effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone on testicular tissue and epididymal semen quality.

    PubMed

    Tas, Muzaffer; Dasdag, Suleyman; Akdag, Mehmet Zulkuf; Cirit, Umut; Yegin, Korkut; Seker, Ugur; Ozmen, Mehmet Ferit; Eren, Leyla Bilge

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to bridge this gap by investigating effects of long term 900 MHz mobile phone exposure on reproductive organs of male rats. The study was carried out on 14 adult Wistar Albino rats by dividing them randomly into two groups (n: 7) as sham group and exposure group. Rats were exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a GSM signal generator. Point, 1 g and 10 g specific absorption rate (SAR) levels of testis and prostate were found as 0.0623 W/kg, 0.0445 W/kg and 0.0373 W/kg, respectively. The rats in the exposure group were subject to RF radiation 3 h per day (7 d a week) for one year. For the sham group, the same procedure was applied, except the generator was turned off. At the end of the study, epididymal sperm concentration, progressive sperm motility, abnormal sperm rate, all-genital organs weights and testis histopathology were evaluated. Any differences were not observed in sperm motility and concentration (p > 0.05). However, the morphologically normal spermatozoa rates were found higher in the exposure group (p < 0.05). Although histological examination showed similarity in the seminiferous tubules diameters in both groups, tunica albuginea thickness and the Johnsen testicular biopsy score were found lower in the exposure group (p < 0.05, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, we claim that long-term exposure of 900 MHz RF radiation alter some reproductive parameters. However, more supporting evidence and research is definitely needed on this topic.

  9. Testicular cancer in cryptorchids.

    PubMed

    Batata, M A; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Whitmore, W F; Golbey, R B

    1982-03-01

    One-hundred thirty-seven patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor were treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1976. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 93 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 2 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (24 patients), by orchiopexy (58 patients), or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-four cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) had either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), or abdominal (14 patients), or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (six patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 56 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 41, teratocarcinoma in 37, and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The five-year survival rates were similar in the corrected (61%) and uncorrected (63%) cases, and they were higher in patients with pure seminoma (79%) than in patients with germinal carcinomas (50%). The majority (64 of 80) of five-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation in 41 patients with pure seminoma and/or systemic chemotherapy in 23 patients with other germinomas. Since the testicular tumors that developed despite correction of the cryptorchid state were predominantly (72%) germinal carcinomas, unilateral cryptorchidism, which usually is associated with testicular atrophy, should be treated by orchiectomy instead of orchiopexy to prevent ipsilateral carcinogenesis. Cryptorchid patients with testicles that descended late should be observed periodically, especially after the 20-year latent period, for early detection of cancer.

  10. Data required for testicular dose calculation during radiotherapy of seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Kokona, Georgiana; Varveris, Haralambos; Damilakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide the required data for the direct calculation of testicular dose resulting from radiotherapy in patients with seminoma. Paraortic (PA) treatment fields and dog-leg (DL) portals including paraortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodes were simulated on a male anthropomorphic phantom equipped with an artificial testicle. Anterior and posterior irradiations were performed for five different PA and DL field dimensions. Dose measurements were carried out using a calibrated ionization chamber. The dependence of testicular dose upon the distance separating the testicle from the treatment volume and upon the tissue thickness at the entrance point of the beam was investigated. A clamshell lead shield was used to reduce testicular dose. The scattered dose to testicle was measured in nine patients using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Phantom and patient exposures were generated with a 6 MV x-ray beam. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis was employed to obtain formulas describing the relation between the radiation dose to an unshielded and/or shielded testicle with the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. Correction factors showing the variation of testicular dose with the patient thickness along beam axis were found. Bland-Altman statistical analysis showed that testicular dose obtained by the proposed calculation method may differ from the measured dose value by less than 25%. The current study presents a method providing reasonable estimations of testicular dose for individual patients undergoing PA or DL radiotherapy.

  11. Effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy on testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are commonly used alone or in combination in the curative management of many malignancies in adolescent and adult males. Over the last 15-20 years, the striking success in the treatment of some common cancers in reproductive males has led to increasing concern for damage to normal tissues, such as the testes, resulting from curative cancer treatment. Indeed, a major future goal for cancer treatment will be to improve on the complication-free cure rate. Inherent in achieving this goal is to understand the pathophysiology and clinical expression of testicular injury. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy result in germ cell depletion with the development of oligo- to azoospermia and testicular atrophy. The type of drug (particularly the alkylating agents), duration of treatment, intensity of treatment, and drug combination are major variables in determining the extent and duration of testicular injury. Testicular injury with chemotherapy also appears to vary with the age of the patient at the time of treatment. Newer drug combinations are now being used which appear to have curative potential in tumors such as Hodgkin's disease and germ cell testicular cancer with less potential for testicular injury. The most accurate and complete information on radiation injury to the testes is derived from two studies of normal volunteers who received graded single doses directly to the testes. A clear dose-response relationship of clinical and histological testicular damage was found with gradual recovery occurring following doses of up to 600 cGy. While these two studies provide an important clinical data base, radiation therapy used in treating cancers involves multiple daily treatments, usually 25-35 delivered over several weeks. Additionally, direct testicular irradiation is seldom used clinically. 37 references.

  12. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Breikaa, Randa M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  13. Low Temperature-Induced Circulating Triiodothyronine Accelerates Seasonal Testicular Regression

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yorinaga, Eriko; Ono, Hiroko; Murayama, Itaru; Nakane, Yusuke; Ota, Wataru; Arai, Natsumi; Tega, Akinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Darras, Veerle M.; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Shosei

    2015-01-01

    In temperate zones, animals restrict breeding to specific seasons to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms of seasonal regulation, and their testicular mass can change 100-fold within a few weeks. Recent studies on Japanese quail revealed that seasonal gonadal development is regulated by central thyroid hormone activation within the hypothalamus, depending on the photoperiodic changes. By contrast, the mechanisms underlying seasonal testicular regression remain unclear. Here we show the effects of short day and low temperature on testicular regression in quail. Low temperature stimulus accelerated short day-induced testicular regression by shutting down the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and inducing meiotic arrest and germ cell apoptosis. Induction of T3 coincided with the climax of testicular regression. Temporal gene expression analysis over the course of apoptosis revealed the suppression of LH response genes and activation of T3 response genes involved in amphibian metamorphosis within the testis. Daily ip administration of T3 mimicked the effects of low temperature stimulus on germ cell apoptosis and testicular mass. Although type 2 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-activating enzyme, in the brown adipose tissue generates circulating T3 under low-temperature conditions in mammals, there is no distinct brown adipose tissue in birds. In birds, type 2 deiodinase is induced by low temperature exclusively in the liver, which appears to be caused by increased food consumption. We conclude that birds use low temperature-induced circulating T3 not only for adaptive thermoregulation but also to trigger apoptosis to accelerate seasonal testicular regression. PMID:25406020

  14. Effect of varicocele on testicular artery blood flow in men--color Doppler investigation.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, Serdar; Gümüs, Bilali; Gündüz, Ilker; Ayyildiz, Veil; Göktan, Cihan

    2003-01-01

    Varicocele can be defined as an abnormal tortuosity and dilatation of the veins of the pampiniform plexus. Contradictory results have been obtained from experimental animal models and a few clinical human studies on testicular arterial blood flow in varicocele. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes in testicular arterial blood flow parameters in patients with varicocele. A total of 62 patients with a clinical diagnosis of left varicocele and a scrotal vein with a diameter of > or = 3 mm on color Doppler ultrasonography were included in the study. A total of 44 fertile normal male volunteers served as controls. Median testicular arterial blood flow and median flow rate in milliliters per minute per 100 g of testicular tissue were found to be significantly decreased in the patient group compared to the control group: blood flow, 1.42 and 2.00 ml/min; flow rate, 9.63 and 12.35 ml/min/100 g, respectively (p < 0.05). Positive correlations were found between sperm concentration and left testicular artery blood flow (p < 0.05) and between left testicular volume and testicular artery blood flow (p < 0.05). Testicular arterial blood flow was found to be significantly decreased in men with varicocele. This may be a reflection of the impaired microcirculation. Following decreased testicular arterial blood flow, impaired spermatogenesis may result from defective energy metabolism in the microcirculatory bed.

  15. mTOR expression in human testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Yaba, A; Bozkurt, E R; Demir, N

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (TOR) has been implicated in the control of different stressors, growth factors, nutrients and hormones, participating in the control of key cellular functions. Controlling this many pathways poses mTOR signalling as a potential new target in new treatment strategies for multiple cancer types. mTOR components could potentially mislocated in tumour cells, which could lead to activation of signalling pathway that should not be active. Therefore, we aimed to show localisation of mTOR signal proteins in testicular seminoma. Tumoural testicular tissues were obtained from 10 patients with unilateral classic seminoma undergoing to therapeutic orchidectomy and compared with control human testicular tissues. Upon immunohistochemical evaluation, we detected mTOR and p-mTOR (serine 2448), P70S6K, p-P70S6K, PKCalpha and p-PKCalpha, CD36 and MAPLC3 proteins in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. We also showed cytoplasmic perinuclear staining in seminoma cells. This study demonstrated the interaction of mTOR signalling pathway and testicular seminoma by showing intense cytoplasmic mTOR pathway proteins immunoreactivity in the seminoma, for the first time in humans. Therefore, we suggested that mTOR signalling components could create new clinical targets for treatment of testicular seminoma patients and male infertility in the future. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Primary testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Filiz; Cagirgan, Seckin; Saydam, Guray; Hekimgil, Mine; Soyer, Nur Akad; Tombuloglu, Murat

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated clinical features, management and survival of 12 patients with primary testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented to our hematology unit between January 1992 and July 2006, retrospectively. The median age of patients was 47 years at presentation (range 29-78 years) and > 80% of them were < 50 years old. In the majority of cases, orchidectomy was performed as diagnostic and first-line therapeutic procedures. Dominant histological subtype was diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Seven patients out of 12 (58%) were Ann Arbor stages I and II, and the remaining five patients (42%) were stages III and IV. All the patients received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and achieved complete remission. The addition of rituximab and central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal combined chemotherapy containing methotrexate, cytarabine and dexametasone were applied to three patients who were recently admitted. The rate of relapse was 8% and progression-free survival (PFS) at 10 years was 88%. Median duration of response was 84 months (range 14-173 months), median 97.5 months of follow-up. All patients are alive and in case remission. Because of the spreading nature and relapse probability at different sites, including central nervous system and contralateral testis, systemic treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy with or without prophylaxis for contralateral testis and the central nervous system seems to improve the outcome of primary testicular lymphoma. PMID:18020104

  17. Immunohistochemical characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in canine normal testis and testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Sozmen, M; Kabak, Y B; Gulbahar, M Y; Gacar, A; Karayigit, M O; Guvenc, T; Yarim, M

    2013-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPARs regulate lipid metabolism and are expressed in various cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of PPAR-α, -β and -γ in normal canine testicular tissue and canine testicular tumours (CTTs). Expression of PPAR-α, -β and -γ was greater (P <0.05) than in normal testicular tissue. PPARs were therefore induced in CTTs and they may play a role in the biology of these tumours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethics of testicular stem cell medicine.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, G

    2004-12-01

    The ethical issues raised by advances in reproductive technology allowing the transplantation of testicular stem cells to enable infertile men and cancer patients, including the pre-pubertal, to have children, and to provide new contraceptive prospects for fertile men are discussed. Consideration of respect for the patient's autonomy, the need for informed consent and the health of any offspring resulting from such a procedure are included. Topics covered include: the problems raised by cases needing consent for the transplantation of testicular stem cells from pre-pubertal and adolescent patients; the legal status of stem cells; the arguements for treating such tissue as property which might serve as a means of guaranteeing respect for patients' rights in disputed cases; aspects of patents and the ethics of allowing commercial traffic of such material; questions relating to health and safety, as well as xenotransplantation technology in humans; and posthumous procurement use of germ cells from minors. Proposals are made to enhance informed and effective consent, while supporting patient determination, choice, autonomy and technological advances. The paper appeals to the emerging EU directives in relation to tissue procurement, storing and use of tissue and cells to adopt a pragmatic and meaningful position which will help enhance patient determination and autonomy in relation to the emerging technologies in reproductive medicine, whilst providing a pragmatic way forward for fertility clinics and laboratories to function.

  19. Tributyltin-mediated hepatic, renal and testicular tissue damage in male Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a study on impact of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kanimozhi, V; Palanivel, K; Akbarsha, M A; Kadalmani, B

    2016-01-01

    Organotin compounds are a versatile group of organometallic chemicals that are used in a variety of industrial and agricultural applications. Tributyltin (TBT), a common organotin, brings about severe spermatotoxic and organotoxic effects. However, information about the adverse effects of TBT on liver, kidney and testis is scanty. Hence, the present study was undertaken to elucidate the TBT-mediated oxidative stress-induced impairments in these organs. Administration of TBT through oral route at increasing doses of 50, 100 and 150 ppm for 65 days to male Syrian hamsters resulted in drastically decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and decreased mean levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E) followed by a dramatic increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidney and testis as compared to the control animals. Significantly high levels of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid and bilirubin were observed in TBT-treated hamsters. Also, TBT treatment induced drastic histopathological changes in the liver, kidney and testis combined with remarkable changes in serum levels of tissue injury marker enzymes Aspartate transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and Alanine transaminase. These data affirm that exposure to TBT can lead to oxidative stress-induced damage to liver, kidney and testis.

  20. Combination of alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP)- and avidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase complex (ABAP)-techniques for amplification of immunocytochemical staining of human testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, M S; Schulze, W; Holstein, A F

    1991-01-01

    An amplification procedure was developed for the visualization of antigens in human testis using monoclonal antibodies against desmin and vimentin. The technique combines the high sensitive and specific APAAP- and ABAP-methods. Depending on the quality of the antibodies used and the processing of the material prior to the immunocytochemical staining the amplification technique may be applied either as a single APAAP and ABAP- or as a double APAAP and ABAP-combination. Especially after the double amplification reaction a distinct increase of the staining intensity of the vimentin- (in Sertoli cells, myofibroblasts of the lamina propria, and fibroblasts of the interstitium) and desmin- (in myofibroblasts of the lamina propria and smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels) like immunoreactivity was observed. If different diazonium salts were used for the visualization of the alkaline phosphatase activity (e.g. Fast Red TR Salt, Fast Blue BB Salt) desmin- and vimentin-like immunoreactivity can be demonstrated in the same tissue section in a double sequential staining approach. For double staining, the alkaline phosphatase technique may be combined successfully with a technique or a combination that uses peroxidase as a marker.

  1. [Polypropylene mesh for testicular prothesis implantation: A report of 57 cases].

    PubMed

    An, Jie; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Zong-min; Yu, Chun-xiao; Xia, Yong-qiang; Wang, Peng-fei

    2015-09-01

    To search for an optimum method for testicular prothesis implantation in the treatment of testis loss. We retrospectively analyzed the surgical methods and outcomes of 53 cases of terminal prostate cancer and 4 cases of unilateral testicular torsion treated by implantation of testicular prothesis with the polypropylene mesh. The 57 male patients all received testicular prothesis with the polypropylene mesh. All the patients were satisfied with the appearance and size of the scrotum after surgery. No scrotal hematoma, prosthesis infection, or autoimmune disease occurred postoperatively. Testis loss is not a rare condition clinically, for the treatment of which surgical implantation of testicular prothesis with the polypropylene mesh can achieve both a fine tissue compatibility and a desirable scrotal appearance.

  2. Effects of diallyl sulfide and zinc on testicular steroidogenesis in cadmium-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental pollutants that affect various tissues and organs including testis. Harmful effect of cadmium on testis is known to be germ cell degeneration and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis. In the present study, the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a sulfur-containing volatile compound present in garlic, and zinc (Zn) was investigated on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Male adult Wistar rats treated with cadmium (2.5 mg/kg body wt, five times a week for 4 weeks) showed decreased body weight, paired testicular weight, relative testicular weight, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and protein levels. Testicular steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and marker enzymes, such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), showed a significant decrease in activities whereas that of gamma-glutamyl transferase was significantly increased after cadmium exposure. The results have revealed that concurrent treatment with DAS or zinc restored key steroidogenic enzymes, SDH, LDH, and G6PD and increased testicular weight significantly. DAS restored the TAC level and increased testosterone level and relative testicular weight significantly. Zinc restored testicular protein level and body weight. It can be concluded that cadmium causes testicular toxicity and inhibits androgen production in adult male rats probably by affecting pituitary gonadotrophins and that concurrent administration of DAS or zinc provides protection against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity.

  3. Testicular torsion, oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant therapy.

    PubMed

    Dokmeci, Dikmen

    2006-01-01

    Testicular torsion is a urological syndrome caused mainly by a twist in the spermatic cord. It constitutes a surgical emergency and affects newborns, children and adolescent boys. The torsion must be treated promptly to avoid loss of function of ipsilateral and contralateral testis. This syndrome often leads to infertility of the ipsilateral (torted) and contralateral (not torted) testis,but the mechanisms of cellular injury remain still incompletely understood. The primary pathophysiologic event in testicular torsion is ischemia followed by reperfusion; thus, testicular torsion/detorsion is an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the testis. Testicular torsion and detorsion causes morphological and biochemical changes by both ischemia and reperfusion of the tissues. These I/R injury is associated with overgeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and also with a common mechanism to other organs such as brain, heart and kidneys. Although the results are not conclusive and the molecular mechanism by which antioxidants control male fertility have not yet been clearly identified, several antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant drugs have been studied to prevent such I/R injury in testis. As a result, antioxidant therapy may represent a new non-hormonal option within a broader therapeutic strategy in men with ROS-mediated infertility such as testicular torsion.

  4. [Treatment of testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Boyle, Helen; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Fléchon, Aude; Massard, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men. Since the late 1970s, disseminated GCT have been a paradigm for curable metastatic cancer and metastatic GCTs are highly curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses. Patients' prognosis is currently assessed using the International Germ-Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) and used to adapt the burden of chemotherapy. Approximately 20% of patients still do not achieve cure after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and need salvage chemotherapy (high dose or standard dose chemotherapy). Clinical stage I testicular cancer is the most common presentation and different strategies are proposed: adjuvant therapies, surgery or surveillance. During the last three decades, clinical trials and strong international collaborations lead to the development of a consensus in the management of GCTs.

  5. Micropsia and testicular retractions.

    PubMed

    Myers, W A

    1977-01-01

    Five episodes of micropsia, which were precipitated by oedipal masturbatory fantasies, are described in the analysis of an adult male. Traumatic visual events and testicular retractions during the oedipal and latency years predisposed the ego functions concerned with visual perception to later involvement in conflict. The micropsia itself is seen as defending against castration anxiety by means of a series of unconscious fantasies of denial. These fantasies cause a regression to an earlier mode of visual perception (and to micropsia) characteristic of latency. The defensive modifications of the functions of the ego itself seen in micropsia are closely allied to those seen in the dèjá vu experience and in depersonalization.

  6. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 tumor markers are used in staging testicular cancer : Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Tumor marker levels are measured again, ...

  7. Testicular Cancer Treatments: After Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alphafetoprotein (AFP), beta-hCG (b-hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). AFP and b-hCG are proteins ... Our recommendations are divided by type of testicular cancer, stage, and treatment given. Clinical Stage I Nonseminoma - ...

  8. How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness How to Do a Testicular ... autoexamen testicular Testicular self-exams (TSE) can help you check for things like cancer. Although testicular cancer is rare in teenage guys, ...

  9. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  10. Neonatal Testicular Torsion; a Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Riaz-Ul-haq, Muhammad; Mahdi, Diaa Eldin Abdelhamid; Elhassan, Elbagir Uthman

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal testicular torsion, also known as perinatal testicular torsion is a subject of debate among surgeons. Neonatal testicular torsion either intrauterine or postnatal results into extravaginal torsion which is a different entity than intravaginal type but has the same devastating consequences if not diagnosed and managed well in time. Testicular torsion results into acute ischemia with its resultant sequelae such as abnormality of testicular function and fertility. Urgent surgical exploration and fixation of the other testis are the key points in the management. General anesthesia is not a contraindication for exploration as thought before. Diagnosis and controversies on management of testicular torsion are discussed in this review. PMID:23400637

  11. Testicular cancer and antecedent diseases.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, A J; Huttly, S R; Smith, P G

    1987-01-01

    A case-control study of the aetiology of testicular cancer was conducted using information obtained by interview and from case-notes of 259 cases with testicular cancer and two sets of control patients -238 men with diagnoses other than testicular cancer attending the same radiotherapy centres as those attended by the cases, and 251 hospital in-patients not attending radiotherapy departments. Logistic regression analyses were performed, after stratifying by age and region of residence, to estimate the relative risks (RRs) associated with various aspects of prior medical history. The risk of testicular cancer was found to be raised for men with a history of cryptorchidism (RR based on comparison with all controls = 6.3; P less than 0.001), inguinal hernia (RR = 1.6; P = 0.14), mumps orchitis (RR = 12.7; P = 0.006), atopy (RR = 1.8; P = 0.03), and meningitis (RR = 3.0; P = 0.21). Inguinal herniorrhaphy before the age of 15 years was particularly a risk factor for seminoma, whereas the relative risks were similar for seminoma and teratoma for the other factors. The results add to the growing evidence that congenital abnormalities involving the process of testicular descent and closure of the processus vaginalis are risk factors for testicular cancer, and that some types of testicular damage later in life may also be important. The findings of associations with previous atopy and certain infections suggest a possible second aetiological mechanism - that immunological abnormalities may be associated with an increased risk of testis cancer.

  12. Cancer testis antigen expression in testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bode, Peter K; Thielken, Andrea; Brandt, Simone; Barghorn, André; Lohe, Bernd; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

    2014-06-01

    Cancer testis antigens are encoded by germ line-associated genes that are present in normal germ cells of testis and ovary but not in differentiated tissues. Their expression in various human cancer types has been interpreted as 're-expression' or as intratumoral progenitor cell signature. Cancer testis antigen expression patterns have not yet been studied in germ cell tumorigenesis with specific emphasis on intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to study MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, GAGE1 and CTAG1B expression in 325 primary testicular germ cell tumors, including 94 mixed germ cell tumors. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous components were separately arranged and evaluated on tissue microarrays. Spermatogonia in the normal testis were positive, whereas intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified was negative for all five CT antigens. Cancer testis antigen expression was only found in 3% (CTAG1B), 10% (GAGE1, MAGEA4), 33% (MAGEA3) and 40% (MAGEC1) of classic seminoma but not in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. In contrast, all spermatocytic seminomas were positive for cancer testis antigens. These data are consistent with a different cell origin in spermatocytic seminoma compared with classic seminoma and support a progression model with loss of cancer testis antigens in early tumorigenesis of testicular germ cell tumors and later re-expression in a subset of seminomas.

  13. How to Do a Testicular Self Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... of good testicular self exam sites on the internet A good article on several testicular problems, including illustrations Information on a variety of health issues affecting Men Click on this to go back ...

  14. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer diagnosed? ). This is an easy and painless way of finding a tumor. If you choose ... editors, and translators with extensive experience in medical writing. See all references for Testicular Cancer Last Medical ...

  15. Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Testicular Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  17. Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Batata, M A; Whitmore, W F; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Loh, J; Grabstald, H; Golbey, R

    1980-09-01

    An analysis of 125 patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1975 is presented. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 83 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 4 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (21 patients), by orchiopexy (51 patients) or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-two cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) presented with either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), abdominal (14 patients) or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (4 patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 54 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 35, teratocarcinoma in 33 and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The 5-year survival rates were 60 per cent for the corrected cases and 63 per cent for the uncorrected cases according to cryptorchid state, and they were 78 per cent in patients with pure seminoma and 48 per cent in patients with other germinomas according to histologic type. The majority (58 of 73) of 5-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation, in 39 patients with pure seminoma, and/or systemic chemotherapy, in 19 patients with germinal carcinomas, with or without regional lymphadenectomy.

  18. [Epididymal and testicular chronic pain].

    PubMed

    Sibert, L; Safsaf, A; Rigaud, J; Delavierre, D; Labat, J-J

    2010-11-01

    To list clinical and ethiopathogenical elements relevant to the analysis of an epididymal and testicular pain. Review of published articles on the subject in the Medline(®) (PubMed(®)) database, selected according to their scientific relevance. Assessment of a chronic epididymal and testicular pain is mostly clinical and should: (1) eliminate local urological disorder; (2) suggest a neurological problem, based on signs and semiology; (3) suggest injury of nervous truncus according to medical history and scars; (4) detect referred pains, primarily back and thoracolumbar pains. The causal link between epididymal cysts, surgical aftereffect, local infection and chronic epididymal and testicular pain is not established with certainty. Spermatic cord nerve block, as a diagnostic test, should be done before undergoing any invasive procedure. The fundamental notion is being able to distinguish epididymal and testicular pain and scrotal pain, because the testis has an abdominal origin, and therefore a sympathetic instead of sacral innervation. An absence evident somatic or iatrogenous cause should suggest hypersensibility to pain. Assessment of an epididymal and testicular pain requires a global clinical examination, which should take into account every aspect of the pain, including its functional and emotional components. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Testicular torsion: A case report].

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Gustavo; Bravo-Hernández, Alberto; Bautista-Cruz, Raúl

    2016-07-13

    The acute scrotum is an emergency. Testicular torsion represents approximately 25% of the causes. The annual incidence of testicular torsion is approximately 1/4,000 persons under 25 years, with highest prevalence between 12 and 18 years old. It usually occurs without apparent cause, but it has been associated with anatomical, traumatic, and environmental factors, among others. A male 15 year-old male, with no history of importance, was seen in the Emergency Department, presenting with a sudden and continuous pain in the left testicle. It was accompanied by a pain that radiated to the abdomen and left inguinal area, with nausea and vomiting of more than 12h onset. Doppler ultrasound showed changes suggestive of testicular torsion. Surgery was performed that showed findings of a necrotic left testicle with rotation of the spermatic cord of 360°. A left orchiectomy was performed. Testicular torsion should always be considered one of the leading causes of acute scrotal pain. Delays in diagnosis should be avoided as this is directly related to the percentage of testicular salvage or loss. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  1. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  2. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  3. Effects of microgravity or simulated launch on testicular function in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive toxicology and cellular and molecular biology approaches were used to evaluate testicular function in rats from Cosmos 2044. It is found that concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced in flight rates to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed.

  4. Effects of microgravity or simulated launch on testicular function in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive toxicology and cellular and molecular biology approaches were used to evaluate testicular function in rats from Cosmos 2044. It is found that concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced in flight rates to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed.

  5. The roles of testicular c-kit positive cells in de novo morphogenesis of testis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zhou, Hai; Zheng, Chunxing; Xiao, Jun; Zuo, Erwei; Liu, Wujuan; Xie, Da; Shi, Yufang; Wu, Chunlian; Wang, Hongyan; Li, Dangsheng; Li, Jinsong

    2014-08-04

    C-kit positive (c-kit(+)) cells are usual tissue-specific stem cells. However, in postnatal testis, undifferentiated spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are c-kit negative (c-kit(-)) and activation of c-kit represents the start of SSC differentiation, leaving an intriguing question whether other c-kit(+) cells exist and participate in the postnatal development of testis. To this end, a feasible system for testicular reconstitution, in which a specific type of cells can be manipulated, is needed. Here, we first establish de novo morphogenesis of testis by subcutaneous injection of testicular cells from neonatal testes into the backs of nude mice. We observe testicular tissue formation and spermatogenesis from all injected sites. Importantly, functional spermatids can be isolated from these testicular tissues. Using this system, we systemically analyze the roles of c-kit(+) cells in testicular reconstitution and identify a small population of cells (c-kit(+):CD140a(+):F4/80(+)), which express typical markers of macrophages, are critical for de novo morphogenesis of testis. Interestingly, we demonstrate that these cells are gradually replaced by peripheral blood cells of recipient mice during the morphogenesis of testis. Thus, we develop a system, which may mimic the complete developmental process of postnatal testis, for investigating the testicular development and spermatogenesis.

  6. Fenugreek seed powder mitigates cadmium-induced testicular damage and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Manar Hamed; Mohammad, Nanies Sameeh; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium is a potential environmental and industrial pollutant affecting human tissues and organs including liver and testes. The protective role of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) was investigated in male rats subjected to cadmium-induced testicular injury and hepatic dysfunction. Testicular damage and hepatotoxicity were induced by oral administration of cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg body weight, once a day) for 7 weeks. FSP was given at 5% w/w in chow diet for 8 weeks, starting 1 week before cadmium administration. FSP intake significantly increased serum testosterone level and testis weight that were reduced by cadmium. FSP also compensated deficits in hepatic and testicular antioxidant defense system, interleukin-4 and nitric oxide levels, reduced serum liver function enzyme activities and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic and testicular tissues resulted from cadmium administration. Additionally, FSP attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in hepatic and testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-beta1 levels as well as cadmium deposition and hydroxyproline content. The protective effect afforded by FSP was mainly due its antioxidant, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, the results of the present work indicated that FSP may represent a promising medicinal herb to protect hepatic and testicular tissues from the detrimental effects of cadmium.

  7. Assessment of Testicular Corticosterone Biosynthesis in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Naoyuki; Tahata, Sachi; Yagi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Emi; Masu, Kanae; Sato, Michiko; Haeno, Satoko; Onaga, Takenori; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Corticosterone is synthesized in the adrenal glands and is circulated throughout the body to perform regulatory functions in various tissues. The testis is known to synthesize and secrete testosterone and other androgens. We developed an accurate method to measure steroid content using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. In the present study, significant levels of the precursor compounds of testosterone and corticosterone synthesis could be detected in rat testis using this method. After adrenalectomy, corticosterone remained in the blood and testicular tissue at approximately 1% of the amount present in the control testis. When the excised testicular tissue was washed and incubated with NADH, NADPH and progesterone, not only testosterone and its precursors but also 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone were produced; the levels of 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone increased with incubation time. The production rate of 11-deoxycorticosterone from progesterone was estimated to be approximately 1/20 that of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and the corticosterone level was approximately 1/10 that of testosterone. These ratios coincided with those in the testicular tissue of the adrenalectomized rats, indicating that corticosterone was synthesized in the testis and not in the blood. A primary finding of this study was that corticosterone and testosterone were synthesized in a 1/10-20 ratio in the testis. It is concluded that corticosterone, which has various functions, such as the regulation of glycolysis and mediating spermatogenesis, is produced locally in the testis and that this the local production is convenient and functional to respond to local needs. PMID:25706382

  8. Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.

  9. Reperfusion injury following testicular torsion and detorsion in prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Blank, M L; O'Neill, P J; Steigman, C K; Cobb, L M; Wilde, R A; Havenstein, P J; Chaudry, I H

    1993-01-01

    Acute testicular torsion is a surgical emergency which requires immediate intervention. Although damage to the gonad has been well documented, it remains unknown whether the majority of injury occurs during the period of torsion (ischemia) or following detorsion (reperfusion). The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether damage following testicular torsion-detorsion has a reperfusion component similar to that described in other tissues, and (2) whether iron-catalyzed oxygen radical formation or altered calcium homeostasis plays a role in this injury. To study this, anesthetized prepubertal rats underwent 720 degrees intravaginal testicular torsion and were divided into groups of torsion only (ischemia) and torsion with reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion). Reperfusion groups were treated prior to detorsion with either deferoxamine (iron chelator), diltiazem (calcium channel blocker), or saline vehicle. The results indicated that detorsion produces a qualitatively distinct reperfusion injury from that of non-reperfused testicles; however, such damage was not ameliorated by deferoxamine or diltiazem. Thus, testicular torsion-detorsion appears to have a significant reperfusion component that appears to not be mediated by iron-catalyzed oxygen radical formation or calcium injury.

  10. Ultrasound demonstration of testicular microlithiasis in pediatric patients: is there an association with testicular germ cell tumors?

    PubMed

    Volokhina, Yulia V; Oyoyo, Udochukwu E; Miller, John H

    2014-01-01

    There is suggestion that testicular microlithiasis predicts risk of testicular malignancy, especially testicular germ cell tumors. This association remains uncertain. We retrospectively reviewed testicular germ cell tumor occurrence in patients with testicular microlithiasis to assess this association and determined the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis in symptomatic boys. This study was IRB and HIPAA compliant. Two-thousand six-hundred twenty-five testicular US exams performed on 2,266 children (younger than 19 years of age) in our institution from 2000 through 2011 were reviewed for presence of testicular microlithiasis and masses. Testicular microlithiasis was defined as presence of five or more testicular microcalcifications on a single US image. Incidence of testicular germ cell tumors was calculated in a group of patients with testicular microlithiasis and in a control group without testicular microlithiasis. Relative risk, odds ratio, 90% and 95%CI were calculated. Eighty-seven patients out of 2,266 had testicular microlithiasis. One child was found to have both testicular germ cell tumor and testicular microlithiasis. In 2,179 children without testicular microlithiasis, 8 had testicular germ cell tumors. Incidence of testicular microlithiasis was 3.8%. Incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in testicular microlithiasis patients was 1.2%, and 0.38% in non-testicular microlithiasis patients. Relative risk of testicular germ cell tumors in testicular microlithiasis patients vs. non-testicular microlithiasis patients was 3.13 (90%CI: 0.55-17.76; 95%CI: 0.40-24.76), odds ratio 3.16 (90%CI: 0.55-18.32; 95%CI: 0.39-25.5). There is no association between testicular microlithiasis and testicular germ cell tumors. We had hoped to do a meta-analysis, but only two studies had a sufficient case control group of non-testicular microlithiasis patients.

  11. The calcium-sensing receptor participates in testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wei-Yuan; Tong, Li-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Cao, Yong-Gang; Wang, Gong-Chen; Zhu, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhang, Lin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility caused by testicular damage is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in testicular tissues and plays a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis by activating cellular signaling pathways, but its role in testicular damage induced by diabetes remains unclear. A diabetic model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg kg−1) in Wistar rats. Animals then received GdCl3 (an agonist of CaSR, 8.67 mg kg−1), NPS-2390 (an antagonist of CaSR, 0.20 g kg−1), or a combination of both 2 months after STZ injection. Diabetic rats had significantly lower testes weights and serum levels of testosterone compared to healthy rats, indicating testicular damage and dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with healthy controls, the testicular tissues of diabetic rats overexpressed the CaSR protein and had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells. The testicular tissues from diabetic rats also expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 and higher levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in addition to higher phosphorylation rates of c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. The above parameters could be further increased or aggravated by the administration of GdCl3, but could be attenuated by injection of NPS-2390. In conclusion, the present results indicate that CaSR activation participates in diabetes-induced testicular damage, implying CaSR may be a potential target for protective strategies against diabetes-induced testicular damage and could help to prevent infertility in diabetic men. PMID:26387585

  12. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S; Paltiel, Harriet J; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  13. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  14. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlund, E.J.; Brunborg, G.; Omichinski, J.G.; Holme, J.A.; Dahl, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Dybing, E.

    1988-07-01

    To study the role of metabolism in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced testicular damage in rats, selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of DBCP were given as a single ip dose of 340 mumol/kg and testicular toxicity was determined 10 days after treatment. None of the four deuterated analogs C1-D2-, C2-D1-, C3-D2-, or C1-C2-C3-D5-DBCP reduced the degree of testicular damage compared to DBCP, indicating that metabolic cleavage of a C-H bond was not rate-limiting in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. Of the five methylated analogs, C1-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, C2-methyl-, and C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, only C3-methyl-DBCP caused testicular toxicity. DBCP treatment resulted in increased testicular DNA damage at doses of 85-170 mumol/kg as measured by alkaline elution of DNA from testicular cells isolated 3 hr after in vivo treatment. The perdeutero-DBCP analog induced testicular DNA damage that was at least as extensive as that induced by DBCP. Of the methylated analogs tested, only C3-methyl-DBCP gave a marked dose-dependent increase in testicular DNA damage between 170 and 540 mumol/kg. There were no significant differences in the testicular tissue distribution between DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and the methylated DBCP analogs. Furthermore, in distribution studies with DBCP, C1-methyl- and C3-methyl-DBCP, and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, the highest tissue concentrations were found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and then the testes. The fact that testicular DNA damage of DBCP and its deuterated and methylated analogs paralleled their ability to cause testicular necrosis and atrophy makes measurement of DNA damage a very useful correlate in mechanistic studies of DBCP-induced testicular cell death.

  15. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  16. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Beneficial effects of curcumin nano-emulsion on spermatogenesis and reproductive performance in male rats under protein deficient diet model: enhancement of sperm motility, conservancy of testicular tissue integrity, cell energy and seminal plasma amino acids content.

    PubMed

    Ahmed-Farid, Omar A H; Nasr, Maha; Ahmed, Rania F; Bakeer, Rofanda M

    2017-09-02

    Malnutrition resulting from protein and calorie deficiency continues to be a major concern worldwide especially in developing countries. Specific deficiencies in the protein intake can adversely influence reproductive performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin and curcumin nano-emulsion on protein deficient diet (PDD)-induced testicular atrophy, troubled spermatogenesis and decreased reproductive performance in male rats. Juvenile rats were fed the protein deficient diet (PDD) for 75 days. Starting from day 60 the rats were divided into 4 groups and given the corresponding treatments for the last 15 days orally and daily as follows: 1st group; curcumin group (C) received 50 mg/kg curcumin p.o. 2(nd)group; curcumin nano-form low dose group (NCL) received 2.5 mg/kg nano-curcumin. 3rd group; curcumin nano-form high dose group (NCH) received 5 mg/kg nano-curcumin. 4th group served as malnutrition group (PDD group) receiving the protein deficient diet daily for 75 days and received distilled water ingestions (5 ml/kg p.o) daily for the last 15 days of the experiment. A normal control group was kept under the same conditions for the whole experiment and received normal diet according to nutrition requirement center daily for 75 days and received distilled water ingestions (5 ml/kg p.o) daily for the last 15 days of the experiment. PDD induced significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum testosterone level, sperm motility, testicular GSH, CAT, SOD, testicular cell energy (ATP, ADP and AMP), essential and non-essential amino acids in seminal plasma, an increase in testicular MDA, NOx, GSSG and 8-OHDG. Data was confirmed by histological examination and revealed pathological alteration in the PDD group. Ingestion of curcumin (50 mg/kg) and curcumin nano-emulsion (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) showed significant (P< 0.05) amelioration effects against PDD-induced disrupted reproductive performance as well as biochemical and pathological

  18. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Breikaa, Randa M; Mosli, Hisham A; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Up-regulation of CYP1A1 and phase II enzymes by 5-ring isomeric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in precision-cut rat hepatic slices: Importance of molecular shape.

    PubMed

    Pushparajah, Daphnee; Lewis, Dfv; Ioannides, Costas

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were two-fold: (a) to evaluate the role of molecular shape on the interaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with the Ah receptor and CYP1A1 upregulation, and (b) to evaluate the potential of PAHs to induce epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase, two major enzymes involved in their metabolism. In order to achieve these objectives, precision-cut rat liver slices were incubated with a range of concentrations of seven 5-ring isomeric PAHs, namely benzo[c]chrysene, benzo[b]chrysene, benzo[g]chrysene, dibenzo[a,j]anthracene, dibenzo[a,c]anthracene, picene and pentacene, for 24h. All compounds, with the exception of pentacene, elevated the O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin, an activity associated with CYP1A1; induction of this enzyme by the various PAHs correlated with their avidity for the Ah receptor. None of the PAHs studied increased epoxide hydrolase activity, monitored using benzo[a]pyrene 4,5-oxide. Of the seven PAHs, only benzo[g]chrysene elevated glutathione S-transferase activity, measured using 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene or 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole as substrates. No relationship could be established between length or length/width and interaction with the Ah receptor and CYP1A1 up-regulation indicating that other structural or electronic factors are likely to be more important. Finally, 5-ring PAHs are poor inducers of the epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferase enzyme systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions of binary mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the upregulation of CYP1 activity and mRNA levels in precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Pushparajah, Daphnee S; Plant, Kathryn E; Plant, Nick J; Ioannides, Costas

    2017-03-01

    The current studies investigate whether synergistic or antagonistic interactions in the upregulation of CYP1 activity occur in binary mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) involving benzo[a]pyrene and five other structurally diverse PAHs of varying carcinogenic activity. Precision-cut rat liver slices were incubated with benzo[a]pyrene alone or in combination with a range of concentrations of a second PAH, and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNA levels determined. Concurrent incubation of benzo[a]pyrene with either dibenzo[a,h]anthracene or fluoranthene in liver slices led to a synergistic interaction, at least at low concentrations, in that ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity was statistically higher than the added effects when the slices were incubated with the individual compounds. In contrast, benzo[b]fluoranthene and, at high doses only, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene gave rise to antagonism, whereas 1-methylphenanthrene had no effect at all concentrations studied. When CYP1A1 mRNA levels were monitored, benzo[b]fluoranthene gave rise to an antagonistic response when incubated with benzo[a]pyrene, whereas all other compounds displayed synergism, with 1-methylphenathrene being the least effective. A similar picture emerged when CYP1B1 mRNA levels were determined, though the effects were less pronounced. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that the benzo[a]pyrene-mediated upregulation of CYP1, at the mRNA and activity levels, is synergistically and antagonistically modulated by other PAHs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 764-775, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. What Are the Key Statistics about Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer About Testicular Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Testicular Cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates ... you would like to know more about survival statistics, see Testicular cancer survival rates . Visit the American ...

  2. Timely diagnosis of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Moul, Judd W

    2007-05-01

    Early detection of testicular tumors has been touted as beneficial for more than 100 years. In earlier eras, early detection was virtually the only way to improve outcomes. According to statistics that have been tracked in the literature, however, the delay from initial symptoms to definitive diagnosis by radical orchiectomy has averaged 4 to 5 months. In the modern era of effective chemotherapy, the effects of a delayed diagnosis on survival can be overcome but at the cost of a more morbid treatment regimen. Although screening on a population basis is not currently recommended by the National Cancer Institute, teaching testicular self examination to young men, particularly those who have risk factors, is reasonable.

  3. Testicular growth and development in puberty.

    PubMed

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Toppari, Jorma

    2017-06-01

    To describe pubertal testicular growth in humans, changes in testicular cell populations that result in testicular growth, and the role of testosterone and gonadotrophins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in testicular growth. When human data were not available, studies in nonhuman primates and/or rodents were used as surrogates. Testicular growth in puberty follows a sigmoidal growth curve, with a large variation in timing of testicular growth and adult testicular volume. Testicular growth early in puberty is due to increase in Sertoli cell number and length of seminiferous tubules, whereas the largest and fastest growth results from the increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules first due to spermatogonial proliferation and then due to the expansion of meiotic and haploid germ cells. FSH stimulates Sertoli cell and spermatogonial proliferation, whereas LH/testosterone is mandatory to complete spermatogenesis. However, FSH and LH/testosterone work in synergy and are both needed for normal spermatogenesis. Testicular growth during puberty is rapid, and mostly due to germ cell expansion and growth in seminiferous tubule diameter triggered by androgens. Pre-treatment with FSH before the induction of puberty may improve the treatment of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, but remains to be proven.

  4. Coenzyme Q10 counteracts testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T

    2011-03-25

    The protective effect of coenzyme Q10 against testicular toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally for two consecutive days) was investigated in rats. Coenzyme Q10 treatment (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for five consecutive days, starting three days before arsenite administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly increased serum testosterone level which was reduced by sodium arsenite. Coenzyme Q10 significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted antioxidant defenses, and attenuated the increases of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide resulted from arsenic administration. Also, the elevation of arsenic ion, and the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue were mitigated by coenzyme Q10. Histopathological examination showed that testicular injury mediated by arsenic was ameliorated by coenzyme Q10 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of arsenic intoxication.

  5. Optical monitoring of testicular torsion using a miniaturized near infrared spectroscopy sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Kajbafzadeh, Majid; Nigro, Mark; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.; Macnab, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Background: Testicular torsion is an acute urological emergency occurring in children and adolescents. Accurate and fast diagnosis is important as the resulting ischemia can destroy the testis. Currently, Doppler ultrasound is the preferred diagnostic method. Ultrasound is not readily available in all centers which may delay surgical treatment. In this study, a rat model was used to examine the feasibility and sensitivity of using spatially-resolved near infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) with a custom-made miniaturized optical sensor probe to detect and study changes in testicular hemodynamics and oxygenation during three degrees of induced testicular torsion, and after detorsion. Methods: Eight anesthetized rats (16 testes) were studied using SR-NIRS with the miniaturized optical probe applied directly onto the surface of the surgically exposed testis during 360, 720 and 1080 degrees of torsion followed by detorsion. Oxygenated, deoxygenated and total hemoglobin and TOI% were studied pre-and post-manipulations. Results: NIRS monitoring reflected acute testicular ischemia and hypoxia on induction of torsion, and tissue reperfusionreoxygenation after detorsion. Testicular torsion at 720 degrees induced the maximum observed degree of hypoxic changes. In all cases, rhythmic changes were observed in the NIRS signals before inducing torsion; these disappeared after applying 360 degrees of torsion and did not reappear after detorsion. Conclusion: This animal study indicates that SR-NIRS monitoring of the testes using a directly applied miniature sensor is a feasible and sensitive method to detect testicular ischemia and hypoxia immediately after torsion occurs, and testicular reperfusion upon detorsion. This study offers the potential for a SR-NIRS system with a miniaturized sensor to be explored further as a rapid, noninvasive, optical method for detecting testicular torsion in children.

  6. Testicular shielding in penile brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Arpita; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Ghadi, Yogesh; Murthy, Vedang; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile cancer, although rare, is one of the common genitourinary cancers in India affecting mostly aged uncircumcised males. For patients presenting with small superficial lesions < 3 cm restricted to glans, surgery, radical external radiation or brachytherapy may be offered, the latter being preferred as it allows organ and function preservation. In patients receiving brachytherapy, testicular morbidity is not commonly addressed. With an aim to minimize and document the doses to testis after adequate shielding during radical interstitial brachytherapy for penile cancers, we undertook this study in 2 patients undergoing brachytherapy and forms the basis of this report. Material and methods Two patients with early stage penile cancer limited to the glans were treated with radical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using interstitial implant. A total of 7-8 tubes were implanted in two planes, parallel to the penile shaft. A total dose of 44-48 Gy (55-60 Gy EQD2 doses with α/β = 10) was delivered in 11-12 fractions of 4 Gy each delivered twice daily. Lead sheets adding to 11 mm (4-5 half value layer) were interposed between the penile shaft and scrotum. The testicular dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each patient, dosimetry was done for 3 fractions and mean calculated. Results The cumulative testicular dose to left and right testis was 31.68 cGy and 42.79 cGy for patient A, and 21.96 cGy and 23.28 cGy for patient B. For the same patients, the mean cumulative dose measured at the posterior aspect of penile shaft was 722.15 cGy and 807.72 cGy, amounting to 16.4% and 16.8% of the prescribed dose. Hence, the application of lead shield 11 mm thick reduced testicular dose from 722-808 cGy to 21.96-42.57 cGy, an “absolute reduction” of 95.99 ± 1.5%. Conclusions With the use of a simple lead shield as described, we were able to effectively reduce testicular dose from “spermicidal” range to “oligospermic” range with possible

  7. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  8. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis.

  9. Testicular cancer health education: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Rosella, J D

    1994-10-01

    Cancer of the testis is the most common malignancy in men between the ages of 15 and 35, yet it is one of the most curable cancers. The optimistic prognosis that results from early detection and treatment of testicular cancer underscores the critical need for teaching testicular self-examination (TSE). However, an integrative review of the health education literature suggests that the men most susceptible are virtually unaware of the symptoms of testicular cancer and how to detect them. Although educational materials have been available, very little intervention research has been published on testicular cancer. The literature to date has focused on the pyschosocial factors associated with the practice of TSE and increasing knowledge of testicular cancer. Although an important beginning step, knowledge of testicular cancer alone as a preventive health behaviour is not sufficient if young men either do not know how to do the examination on their own testicles or do not believe it is important to them. Nurses should incorporate health education for testicular cancer and TSE in the delivery of routine primary health care. Furthermore, future research should aim to (a) increase knowledge through the educational curricula of high schools and colleges by use of video presentations, (b) examine the efficacy of using silicone models to ensure that men can be trained to detect the symptoms of testicular cancer, and (c) study compliance with recommendations to perform TSE.

  10. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  11. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a...

  12. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a...

  13. Studies on the induction of rat hepatic CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP4A subfamily form mRNAs in vivo and in vitro using precision-cut rat liver slices.

    PubMed

    Meredith, C; Scott, M P; Renwick, A B; Price, R J; Lake, B G

    2003-05-01

    1. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methodology (TaqMan(R)) was used to examine the induction of some selected rat hepatic cyto-chrome P450 (CYP) forms in vivo and in vitro using cultured precision-cut liver slices. 2. TaqMan primers and probe sets were developed for rat CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2, CYP3A1, CYP3A2 and CYP4A1 mRNAs. 3. To characterize the responsiveness of the rat CYP mRNA TaqMan primers and probe sets, rats were treated in vivo with a single intraperitoneal dose of 500 mg kg(-1) Aroclor 1254 (ARO) and with four daily oral doses of either 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) dexamethasone (DEX) or 75 mg kg(-1) day(-1) methylclofenapate (MCP). Treatment with ARO produced 22 600-, 5480-, 648-, 52-, 47- and 9-fold increases in levels of CYP1A1, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2, CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 mRNA, respectively. DEX treatment produced 97-, 24-, 8- and 4-fold increases, respectively, in CYP3A1, CYP2B1, CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A2 mRNA levels, and MCP produced 339-, 126- and 25-fold increases, respectively, in CYP4A1, CYP2B1 and CYP2B1/2 mRNA levels. All three CYP inducers also increased microsomal CYP content and produced corresponding increases in CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A and CYP4A form marker enzyme activities. 4. Rat liver slices were cultured for 6 and 24 h in medium containing 0.1 micro M insulin and 0.1 micro M DEX, and also for 24 h in medium containing only 0.1 micro M insulin (DEX-free medium). Liver slices were cultured in control medium or in medium containing either 10 micro M beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), 10 micro g ml(-1) ARO, 500 micro M sodium phenobarbitone (NaPB), 20 micro M pregnenolone-16alpha -carbonitrile (PCN), 50 micro M Wy-14,643 (WY) or 50 micro M MCP. 5. With the exception of the effect of BNF on CYP1A1 mRNA levels, the induction of all the CYP mRNAs studied was greater after 24- than after 6-h treatment. Generally, the magnitude of induction of CYP mRNA levels was greater after 24 h in liver slices cultured in DEX

  14. Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Experimental Rat Testis after Testicular Torsion/Detorsion

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Stankovic, Jablan; Najman, Stevo; Pavlovic, Dusica; Stokanovic, Dragana; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Dakovic-Bjelakovic, Marija; Cukuranovic, Jovana; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress (OS) parameters after testicular torsion/detorsion in adult rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, male adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of seven animals: group I-one hour right testicular torsion with subsequent orchiectomy, group II-one hour right testicular torsion followed by detorsion, group III-unilateral right-sided orchiectomy without previous torsion and group IV-control. After 30 days, bilateral orchiectomies were performed in rats with both testes and unilateral orchiectomies in rats with single testicles. Parameters of OS were determined in testicular tissue and in plasma. Results Plasma concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively), whilst the plasma concentration of the total sulfhydryl (T-SH)-groups was lower (p<0.05) in group I compared to the control group. Group II had higher plasma concentrations of AOPP compared to group IV (p<0.05), as well as significantly increased TBARS and decreased T-SH-group levels compared to groups III (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and IV (p<0.01, for both parameters). There were significant differences in OS markers between the ipsilateral and contralateral testis, as well as significant correlations among levels of both plasma and tissue markers of OS. Conclusion The increase in TBARS levels seen throughout the experimental period indicated that OS development was caused by ischemia/reperfusion in the testicular tissue. The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue was altered during torsion as well as detorsion. PMID:25918600

  15. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients.

  16. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  17. Testicular conditions in athletes: torsion, tumors, and epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Sandella, Bradley; Hartmann, Brett; Berkson, David; Hong, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Individuals involved in sports are at risk for sustaining various injuries. In addition to musculoskeletal complaints, male athletes are at risk of incurring testicular injuries. These issues can range from an acute emergency such as testicular torsion to indolent testicular tumors. In contrast, epididymitis can present in stages. Presentation and management of testicular complaints can vary depending on the condition. Physicians who provide medical care to athletes need to be competent in diagnosing and managing testicular injuries.

  18. [Verification of testicular cancer guidelines].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Norio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease that affects 1-2 in 100,000 people in Japan ; however, it is a very significant disease in that it has a high prevalence amongst young adults aged in their 20s and 30s and it brings about metastasis from a relatively early stage. The 2009 edition of the Testicular Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines sets out a detailed summary of 32 clinical questions (CQ) considered necessary in routine clinical practice across the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, etc, in the form of recommendations and commentary. These CQs are considered extremely important in understanding the foundation of future testicular cancer treatment guidelines. In this symposium, five doctors gave lectures consisting of the following contents in which they validated the guidelines and gave concrete clinical practice examples through cases they had experienced themselves with regards to the treatment strategies for (1) stage I patients, (2) patients with advanced cancer and (3) patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (1) Stage I patients : In seminoma cases, the doctors focused on the relapse prevention effect provided by single-agent carboplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. In non-seminoma cases, treatment options were considered according to risk based on the presence or absence of vascular invasion, a prognostic factor. (2) Patients with advanced cancer : 30% of testicular cancers are metastatic and progress to advanced cancer. In refractory cases resistant to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, etoposide ifosfamide, and cisplatin therapy and vinblastine, ifosfamide and cisplatin therapy have been used, but without satisfactory results and the development of new salvage chemotherapy is an important issue. The therapeutic strategies against advanced testicular cancer were narrowed down to (2) -1) therapeutic effects from ultra-high-dose chemotherapy, (2) -2) salvage chemotherapy in cases where residual tumors are observed in induction

  19. Identification of various testicular cell populations in pubertal and adult cockerels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Precise identification of the male germinal stem cell population is important for their practical use in programs dedicated to the integration of exogenous genetic material in testicular tissues. In the present study, our aim was to identify germinal cell populations in the testes of pubertal and ad...

  20. 'Studies on testicular regenertive potential of naga bhasma'.

    PubMed

    Maksoodan, S; Damodar, J; Arya, N C

    1989-10-01

    Naga Bhasma is used in various ailments and also as tonic in Ayurvedic practice. Mention has been made in Ayurvedic literature that this drug has regenerative action on testicular tissue. Therefore plan was made to study the regenerative capability on tests. It was observed that the test drug when given simultaneously with Cd cl(2) showed marked prevention of toxic effects of Cd cl(2) and when given alone after 36 hours of Cd cl(2) administration, showed a notable regenerative potential on partially degenerated testes. It has showed specific regenerative effect on germinal epithelium of testes.

  1. Scrotal/testicular thermoregulation and the effects of increased testicular temperature in the bull.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, J P; Cook, R B; Coulter, G H

    1997-07-01

    Scrotal/testicular thermoregulation is a complex process controlled by numerous local mechanisms that attempt to maintain the testes at conditions ideal for spermatogenesis. This article provides a background of the anatomy and physiology of the bovine scrotum and its contents with emphasis on thermoregulation. Experiments are cited that demonstrate scrotal/testicular thermoregulation mechanisms and the effect that changes in ambient temperature have on internal testicular temperature and subsequent seminal quality.

  2. Morphologic manifestations of testicular and epididymal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Justin D; Whitney, Katharine M

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the testis is the most sensitive means to detect effects on spermatogenesis; however, the complexity of testicular histology, interrelatedness of cell types within the testis, and long duration of spermatogenesis can make assessment of a testicular toxicant challenging. A thorough understanding of the histology and morphologic manifestations of response to injury is critical to successfully identify a testicular effect and to begin to understand the underlying mechanism of action. The basic patterns of response to xenobiotic-induced injury to the testis and epididymis are detailed and discussed. PMID:26413388

  3. Incidentally detection of non-palpable testicular nodules at scrotal ultrasound: what is new?

    PubMed

    Valentino, Massimo; Bertolotto, Michele; Martino, Pasquale; Barozzi, Libero; Pavlica, Pietro

    2014-12-30

    The increased use of ultrasound in patients with urological and andrological symptoms has given an higher detection of intra-testicular nodules. Most of these lesions are hypoechoic and their interpretation is often equivocal. Recently, new ultrasound techniques have been developed alongside of B-mode and color-Doppler ultrasound. Although not completely standardized, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and tissue elastography (TE), added to traditional ultrasonography, can provide useful information about the correct interpretation of incidentally detected non-palpable testicular nodules. The purpose of this review article is to illustrate these new techniques in the patient management.

  4. Testicular thermoregulation in Bos indicus, crossbred and Bos taurus bulls: relationship with scrotal, testicular vascular cone and testicular morphology, and effects on semen quality and sperm production.

    PubMed

    Brito, Leonardo F C; Silva, Antonio E D F; Barbosa, Rogerio T; Kastelic, John P

    2004-01-15

    Mechanisms of testicular thermoregulation, the relationship of scrotal, testicular vascular cone (TVC), and testicular morphology with thermoregulatory capability, and their effects on semen quality and sperm production were studied in 20 Bos indicus, 28 crossbred, and 26 Bos taurus bulls. The ratio of testicular artery length and volume to testicular volume were larger (P<0.05) in B. indicus and crossbred bulls than in B. taurus bulls (1.03 and 0.94 cm/cm3 versus 0.48 cm/cm3; 0.034 and 0.047 ml/cm3 versus 0.017 ml/cm3, respectively). Testicular artery wall thickness (average 192.5, 229.0, and 290.0 microm, respectively) and arterial-venous blood distance in the TVC (average 330.5, 373.7, and 609.4 microm, respectively) were smallest in B. indicus, intermediary in crossbred, and greatest in B. taurus bulls (P<0.05); the proximity between arterial and venous blood was consistent with the estimated decrease in arterial blood temperature after passage through the TVC (5.9, 5.0, and 2.9 degrees C, in B. indicus, crossbred, and B. taurus bulls, respectively). In crossbred and B. taurus bulls, there was a positive top-to-bottom scrotal temperature gradient and a negative testicular subtunic temperature gradient. However, in B. indicus bulls, both scrotal and testicular subtunic temperatures gradients were positive. Differences in the vascular arrangement, characteristics of the artery (e.g. wall thickness) or thickness of the tunica albuginea may have affected the testicular arterial blood and subtunic temperatures in B. indicus bulls. Better testicular thermoregulatory capability was associated with increased scrotal shape (pendulosity), testicular artery length and volume, and top-to-bottom gradient of the distance between the artery wall and the veins in the TVC. Increased semen quality was associated with increased testicular volume and scrotal subcutaneous (SQT) temperature gradient, and with decreased scrotal surface and testicular temperatures. Increased sperm

  5. Carvedilol alleviates testicular and spermatological damage induced by cisplatin in rats via modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eid, Ahmed H; Abdelkader, Noha F; Abd El-Raouf, Ola M; Fawzy, Hala M; El-Denshary, Ezz-El-Din S

    2016-12-01

    The clinical application of the anticancer drug cisplatin is limited by its deleterious side effects, including male reproductive toxicity. In this context, the potential protective effect of carvedilol on testicular and spermatological damage induced by cisplatin in male Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. Carvedilol was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 2 weeks, and cisplatin was given as a single intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg on the 12th day to induce toxicity. Cisplatin significantly reduced reproductive organ weight, sperm count and sperm motility, and increased sperm abnormalities and histopathological damage of testicular tissue. In addition, it resulted in a significant decline in serum testosterone as well as levels of testicular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxides, and reduced glutathione). Moreover, cisplatin remarkably augmented malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nuclear factor-kappa B contents in testicular tissue. Conversely, carvedilol administration markedly mitigated cisplatin-induced testicular and spermatological injury as demonstrated by suppression of oxidative/nitrosative and inflammatory burden, amendment of antioxidant defenses, enhancement of steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and mitigation of testicular histopathological damage. The current study reveals a promising protective action of carvedilol against cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity by virtue of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  6. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    PubMed

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group.

  7. Testicular structure and germ cells morphology in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. The lobes of the testis are joined by cords covered by a single peritoneal epithelium and subjacent connective tissue. The cords contain spermatogonia. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The spermatogenic cells in a cyst undergo their development through spermatogenesis synchronously. The distribution of cysts displays the cephalo-caudal gradient in respect to the stage of spermatogenesis. The formation of cysts at cephalic end of the testis causes their migration along the lobules to the caudal end. Consequently, the disposition in cephalo-caudal regions of spermatogenesis can be observed in longitudinal sections of the testis. The germ cells are spermatogonia, diploid cells with mitotic activity; primary and second spermatocytes characterized by meiotic divisions that develop haploid spermatids; during spermiogenesis the spermatids differentiate to spermatozoa. During spermiation the cysts open and spermatozoa leave the testicular lobules. After spermiation occurs the development of Leydig cells into glandular tissue. This glandular tissue regressed at the end of the reproductive cycle. PMID:26413406

  8. Lack of testicular seipin causes teratozoospermia syndrome in men

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Gao, Mingming; Wu, Chaoming; He, Hui; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Zuomin; Yang, Hongyuan; Xiao, Xinhua; Liu, George; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-01-01

    Obesity impairs male fertility, providing evidence for a link between adipose tissue and reproductive function; however, potential consequences of adipose tissue paucity on fertility remain unknown. Lack of s.c. fat is a hallmark of Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), which is caused by mutations in BSCL2-encoding seipin. Mice with a targeted deletion of murine seipin model BSCL2 with severe lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and fatty liver but also exhibit male sterility. Here, we report teratozoospermia syndrome in a lipodystrophic patient with compound BSCL2 mutations, with sperm defects resembling the defects of infertile seipin null mutant mice. Analysis of conditional mouse mutants revealed that adipocyte-specific loss of seipin causes progressive lipodystrophy without affecting fertility, whereas loss of seipin in germ cells results in complete male infertility and teratozoospermia. Spermatids of the human patient and mice devoid of seipin in germ cells are morphologically abnormal with large ectopic lipid droplets and aggregate in dysfunctional clusters. Elevated levels of phosphatidic acid accompanied with an altered ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in mutant mouse testes indicate impaired phospholipid homeostasis during spermiogenesis. We conclude that testicular but not adipose tissue-derived seipin is essential for male fertility by modulating testicular phospholipid homeostasis. PMID:24778225

  9. Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression.

    PubMed

    Atta, Mustafa S; Almadaly, Essam A; El-Far, Ali H; Saleh, Rasha M; Assar, Doaa H; Al Jaouni, Soad K; Mousa, Shaker A

    2017-04-27

    Antioxidants have valuable effects on the process of spermatogenesis, particularly with diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, the present study investigated the impact and the intracellular mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ) works against diabetes-induced testicular deteriorations in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 60) were randomly allocated into four groups; Control, Diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats where diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, 65 mg/kg), Diabetic + TQ (diabetic rats treated with TQ (50 mg/kg) orally once daily), and TQ (non-diabetic rats treated with TQ) for 12 weeks. Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testicular tissue. Also, it increased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and significantly upregulated the aromatase protein expression levels in testicles in comparison with the diabetic rats. In conclusion, TQ treatment exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its powerful antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects but also through its downregulation of testicular iNOS and NF-κB along with upregulation of aromatase expression levels in diabetic rats.

  10. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Ladeia, Antônio Alexandre Lisbôa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started. PMID:23580888

  11. Scrotal reconstruction and testicular prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jacob W; Lester, Kyle M; Chen, Andrew; Simhan, Jay

    2017-08-01

    Scrotal surgery encompasses a wide-variety of surgical techniques for an even wider variety of indications. In this manuscript, we review our indications, techniques, and pit-falls for various reconstructive scrotal surgeries as-well-as surgical tips for placement of testicular prostheses. Penoscrotal webbing (PSW) is an abnormal, often-problematic distal insertion of scrotal skin onto the ventral penile shaft. There are several effective and straightforward techniques used to revise this condition, which include simple scrotoplasty, single- or double-Z-plasty, or the VY-flap scrotoplasty. Reconstruction is also commonly indicated following scrotal skin loss caused by infection, trauma, lymphedema, hidradenitis, and cancer. Although initial management of these conditions often involves scrotal skin removal, repair of expansive scrotal skin loss can be technically difficult and can be accomplished by using one of several skin flaps or skin grafting. Split-thickness skin grafting of scrotal defects can be accomplished easily, and provides durable results.

  12. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  13. Cadmium-induced testicular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  14. Cadmium-induced Testicular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, and the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor, oxidative stress inducer and how it may disrupt the Zn+2 and/or Ca+2 mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity is emerged, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  15. The Danish Testicular Cancer database.

    PubMed

    Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel; Mortensen, Mette Saksø; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Toft, Birgitte Groenkaer; Engvad, Birte; Agerbæk, Mads; Holm, Niels Vilstrup; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function, lung function, etc. A questionnaire related to late effects has been conducted, which includes questions regarding social relationships, life situation, general health status, family background, diseases, symptoms, use of medication, marital status, psychosocial issues, fertility, and sexuality. TC survivors alive on October 2014 were invited to fill in this questionnaire including 160 validated questions. Collection of questionnaires is still ongoing. A biobank including blood/sputum samples for future genetic analyses has been established. Both samples related to DaTeCa and DMCG DaTeCa database are included. The prospective DMCG DaTeCa database includes variables regarding histology, stage, prognostic group, and treatment. The DMCG DaTeCa database has existed since 2013 and is a young clinical database. It is necessary to extend the data collection in the prospective database in order to answer quality-related questions. Data from the retrospective database will be added to the prospective data. This will result in a large and very comprehensive database for future studies on TC patients.

  16. Effects of clonidine in the isolated rat testicular capsule.

    PubMed

    Dantas da Silva Júnior, Edilson; Palmieri de Souza, Bruno; Rodrigues, Juliano Quintella Dantas; Caricati-Neto, Afonso; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Jurkiewicz, Neide H

    2014-03-05

    The testicular capsule contracts in response to noradrenaline and adrenaline, but the effects of adrenoceptor agonists, as for instance clonidine, had not yet been thoroughly evaluated. The testicular capsule from adult male Wistar rats was isolated and mounted in organ bath and cumulative concentration curves were performed for clonidine and other adrenergic agonists in the absence or presence of α-adrenoceptors antagonists. The order of potency for agonists (pD2) was clonidine=adrenaline>UK 14,304>noradrenaline>phenylephrine>methoxamine. The consecutive curves for clonidine showed desensitization with 3-fold rightward shift and Emax reduction of 40%. The noradrenaline curves were 4.5, 19 and 190-fold less potent after clonidine pretreatment at 10−5, 10−4 or 10−3 M for 10 min, respectively, added to Emax decrease by about 20%. Clonidine (10−5 M for 10 min) was unable to alter the noradrenaline curves if the treatment was made in the presence of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) whereas prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) was ineffective. The effect of idazoxan 3×10−7 M on noradrenaline curves was decreased by 50% after clonidine pretreatment, as reflected by the concentration ratio of 5.2±1.2 (treated tissue) and 10.1±1.0 (untreated tissue). However, the concentration ratio for prazosin 3×10−8 M was unchanged. After phenoxybenzamine (irreversible antagonist of α1-adrenoceptor) pretreatment, the residual noradrenaline contraction was antagonized by idazoxan or prazosin with pKB values of 7.8 and 5.1, respectively. The results indicate the presence of α2-adrenoceptors in testicular capsule. Furthermore, these receptors may be desensitized by clonidine, causing a decreased potency of noradrenaline.

  17. Captopril and telmisartan treatments attenuate cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-04-01

    The possible protective effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, vs. telmisartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, was investigated in rats with testicular injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Captopril (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were given for five consecutive days, starting 3 days before cadmium administration. Both agents significantly increased serum testosterone level, which was reduced by cadmium, suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted reduced glutathione, decreased the elevations of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cadmium ion levels, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both captopril and telmisartan significantly reduced the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand, and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. The differences between the results obtained with captopril and telmisartan were insignificant, suggesting that both drugs equally protected the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium.

  18. Selenium Nanoparticles Attenuate Oxidative Stress and Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Zrieq, Rafat; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-11-19

    We investigated the protective and antioxidative effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in streptozotocin STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ-diabetic rats were exposed daily to treatments with SeNPs and/or insulin and then the effect of these treatments on the parameters correlated to oxidative damage of the rat testes were assessed. Biochemical analysis revealed that SeNPs are able to ameliorate the reduction in the serum testosterone caused by STZ-induced diabetes. Furthermore, SeNPs could significantly decrease testicular tissue oxidative stress markers, namely lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. In contrast, treatment of the STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs increased the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities in testicular tissues. Moreover, microscopic analysis proved that SeNPs are able to prevent histological damage in the testes of STZ-diabetic rats. Molecular analysis revealed that the mRNA level of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) is significantly upregulated. On the contrary, the mRNA level of Bax (Bcl-2 Associated X Protein) was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs led to an elevation in the expression of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Gene). Interestingly, the insulin treatment also exhibited a significant improvement in the testicular function in STZ-diabetic rats. Collectively, our results demonstrated the possible effects of SeNPs in attenuating diabetes-induced oxidative damage, in particular in testicular tissue.

  19. Secondary malignant neoplasms in testicular cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Curreri, Stephanie A; Fung, Chunkit; Beard, Clair J

    2015-09-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among men aged 15 to 40 years, and the incidence of testicular cancer is steadily increasing. Despite successful treatment outcomes and the rate of survival at 5 to 10 years being 95%, survivors can experience late effects of both their cancer and the treatment they received, including secondary malignant neoplasms (SMNs). We discuss the development of non-germ cell SMNs that develop after diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer and their effect on mortality. Patients diagnosed with testicular cancer frequently choose postoperative surveillance if they are diagnosed with clinical stage I disease. These patients may experience an increased risk for developing SMNs following radiation exposure from diagnostic imaging. Similarly, radiotherapy for testicular cancer is associated with increased risks of developing both solid tumors and leukemia. Studies have reported that patients exposed to higher doses of radiation have an increased risk of developing SMNs when compared with patients who received lower doses of radiation. Patients treated with chemotherapy also experience an increased risk of developing SMNs following testicular cancer, though the risk following chemotherapy and radiation therapy combined is not well described. A large population-based study concluded that the rate ratios for both cancer-specific and all-cause mortality for SMNs among testicular cancer survivors were not significantly different from those of matched first cancers. Although it is known that patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or who undergo routine diagnostic or follow-up imaging for a primary testicular cancer are at an increased risk for developing SMNs, the extent of this risk is largely unknown. It is critically important that research be conducted to determine this risk and its contributing factors as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (<167 cm or less), the OR of testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (<174 cm) subjects was 3.47 (95% CI: 1.60-7.51). These results suggest that the association between height and testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence.

  1. Potential Novel Biomarkers for Diabetic Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Nerve Growth Factor Beta and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Sisman, Ali Rıza; Kiray, Muge; Camsari, Ulas Mehmet; Evren, Merve; Ates, Mehmet; Aksu, Ilkay; Guvendi, Guven

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is well known that diabetes mellitus may cause testicular damage. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor beta (NGF-β) are important neurotrophic factors for male reproductive system. Objective. We aimed to investigate the correlation between testicular damage and testicular VEGF and NGF-β levels in diabetic rats. Methods. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg/i.p.) in adult rats. Five weeks later testicular tissue was removed; testicular VEGF and NGF-β levels were measured by ELISA. Testicular damage was detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining, and apoptosis was identified by terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Seminiferous tubular sperm formation was evaluated using Johnsen's score. Results. In diabetic rats, seminiferous tubule diameter was found to be decreased; basement membrane was found to be thickened in seminiferous tubules and degenerated germ cells. Additionally, TUNEL-positive cells were increased in number of VEGF+ cells and levels of VEGF and NGF-β were decreased in diabetic testes. Correlation between VEGF and NGF-β levels was strong. Conclusion. These results suggest that the decrease of VEGF and NGF-β levels is associated with the increase of the apoptosis and testicular damage in diabetic rats. Testis VEGF and NGF-β levels could be potential novel biomarkers for diabetes induced testicular damage. PMID:24771956

  2. Cetuximab intensifies cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Popovtzer, Aron; Tzabari, Moran; Mizrachi, Aviram; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has proliferative properties in the testis. Cetuximab, an anti-EGFR, is administered together with chemotherapy to patients with various types of cancer. This studies aim was to investigate the effect of cetuximab on testicular function. Adult male mice were injected with cetuximab (10 mg/kg), cisplatin (8 mg/kg) or a combination of both, and killed one week or one month later. The doses were chosen by human equivalent dose calculation. Testicular function was evaluated by epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count and sperm motility, weights of testes and epididymides, and the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine germ cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labelling), reserve (DAZL-Deleted in azoospermia-like, Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger), blood vessels (CD34) and Sertoli cells (GATA-4). Administration of cetuximab alone increased testicular apoptosis and decreased epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count over time. When added to cisplatin, cetuximab exacerbated most of the recorded testicular parameters, compared with the effect of cisplatin alone, including testis and epididymis weights, epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count, AMH concentration, meiosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, cetuximab has only a mild effect on testicular reserve, but when added to cisplatin, it exacerbates cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

  3. Clusterin expression and human testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Li, Jie; Liu, Bianjiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Yin, Changjun

    2013-10-01

    Clusterin expression has a positive correlation with the occurrence and progression of various types of tumors from different genetic backgrounds. Clusterin overexpression may protect tumor cells from apoptosis and damage caused by autoimmunity or anti-tumor therapy. Using immunohistochemisty, one previous study showed that clusterin protein expression is downregulated in human testicular seminoma, which is highly sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We thus postulate that clusterin expression in human testicular seminoma differs from clusterin expression in other tumors. It may be the cause of the treatable characteristics of testicular seminoma. In the present preliminary study, we detected the abundance of clusterin mRNA in human testicular seminoma and normal testis. The results showed decreased clusterin expression in seminoma at the gene transcription level. Our primary data and summarized previous literature suggest that the downregulation of clusterin expression may be the cause of the high sensitivity of testicular seminoma to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. It may be that the scarcity of clusterin leaves tumor cells with insufficient protection from treatment. This is the first study to focus on the relationship between clusterin expression and human testicular cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Ugboma, Henry A A; Aburoma, H L S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18–50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were “ever taught about testicular self-examination.” CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes. PMID:21876962

  5. Dose-dependent protective effect of sildenafil citrate on testicular injury after torsion/detorsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, H; Durmus, A S; Şimşek, H; Yaman, M

    2012-05-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of sildenafil citrate on testicular injury after unilateral testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D). Thirty-seven adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: sham operated group (group 1), T/D+ saline (group 2), T/D+ 0.7 mg sildenafil citrate (group 3) and T/D+ 1.4 mg sildenafil citrate (group 4). Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720° in a clockwise direction for 2 h in other groups, except for group 1, which was served as sham group. The level of GSH (P < 0.05) in the testis in the group 2 were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and the levels of MDA and NO (P < 0.01 for both) in the testis were significantly higher when compared with those of the group 1. Administration of low dose sildenafil citrate prevented the increases in MDA and NO levels and decreases in GSH values induced by testicular torsion. However, administration of high dose sildenafil citrate did not have any effect on these testicular tissue parameters (P > 0.05). Also, mean values of seminiferous tubules diameters, germinal cell layer thicknesses and mean testicular biopsy score were significantly better in group 3 than groups 2 and 4. These results suggest that T/D injury occurred in testis after unilateral testicular T/D and that administration of low dose sildenafil citrate before detorsion prevents ischemia/reperfusion cellular damage in testicular torsion. Sildenafil citrate probably acts through reduction of reactive oxygen species and support antioxidant enzyme systems.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sex development 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Close All Description 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development is a condition in which individuals with ...

  7. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation.

  9. Maurice Chevassu (1877-1957): a pioneer of the study and therapy of testicular neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G

    2003-01-01

    Chevassu was born in Lons le Saunier in 1877. In 1910 he became assistant professor of surgery and he was entrusted with the lectures on diseases of the urinary tract. He owes the fact that he became an urologist to the serious illness of Albarran, who had since 1906 replaced Guyon in Necker in the Department of Urology. From 1919 to 1933 Chevassu was the director of the surgical clinic established in Cochin. He became professor of surgical pathology in 1933 and he took up the chair devoted to diseases of the urinary tract existing in Necker, succeeding the retiring Marion. He transferred the Necker Urological Clinic in Cochin. In 1945 he retired with the title of honorary professor. He died in 1957 in Paris, having been honored with numerous distinctions for his scientific work and his contribution to urology. Chevassu's quite extensive work was dominated by his interest in the study and therapy of testicular cancer. In 1906, based on the detailed histological study of 128 cases of testicular neoplasms, he gave for the first time a complete and simple categorisation of testicular cancers in his treatise of 239 pages, entitled "Testicular Tumors". According to this work, he recognized two prevailing types of testicular neoplasms : 1) seminomas (tumour or seminoma of Chevassu) originating from the spermatic line and 2) the mixed tumours growing from foreign tissue existing in the testis, due to an anomaly of fetal growth. In his treatise he doubted the effectiveness of simple orchiectomy and suggested the removal of the testis together with its vascular stem, followed by total removal of the lymph nodes (operation of Chevassu). The technique of Chevassu was adopted by many great surgeons such as Gregoire, Cuneo, Gosset, Descomps, who made it so popular, that it is the normal surgical therapy for testicular cancer even to the present day.

  10. AZF gene expression analysis in peripheral leukocytes and testicular cells from idiopathic infertility.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Hong; Yin, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, Zuo-Min; Ding, Guan-Xiong; Zhang, Jing; Hua, Li-Xin; Wu, Hong-Fei

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of AZF microdeletions in peripheral leukocytes and testicular cells in Chinese men with idiopathic infertility. Expression in testicular cells was also determined. In this study, we screened 62 idiopathic infertile patients, in whom karyotype, sperm count and hormonal parameters were evaluated. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral leukocytes. Molecular analysis was performed by two multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using a set of eight sequence tagged sites (STS) from 3 different regions of the Y chromosome. Total cellular RNA was extracted from the testicular tissue using a Trizol-method. Reverse Transcription (RT) reactions were performed to synthesize cDNA. Amplification of DFFRY, RBM and DAZ genes was performed to analyze their expression in testicular cells. In this cohort, we found 12 submicroscopic deletions (12/62, 19.4%). Nine patients (9/33, 27.2%) were detected in the azoospermic group and three (3/29, 10.3%) in the severe oligozoospermic group. RT-PCR analysis from testicular cells gave normal amplifications for SRY and DFFRY mRNA in 62 idiopathic patients; two patients were negative for RBM expression; no RBM and DAZ were detected for a case; 12 patients had no expression in the AZFc region involving the DAZ gene. Of 12 cases, three patients with normal PCR analysis of DAZ gene on genomic DNA showed no RT-PCR amplification for DAZ mRNA. The use of RT-PCR of specific spermatid expressed genes in conjunction with examining microdeletions using peripheral leukocytes is suggested to avoid the transmission of the Y chromosomal microdeletions from a father to a son via testicular sperm aspiration (TESE), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (JCSI).

  11. Hyperprolactinemia does not promote testicular recrudescence in photoregressed Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Whitten, R D; Youngstrom, T G; Bartness, T J

    1993-07-01

    Serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations, as well as body, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and testes weights, decrease in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) following short-photoperiod exposure. Previously, we have shown that lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCNx) block regression of the testes and decreases in body weight and EWAT caused by short day-like, timed daily subcutaneous melatonin infusions in pinealectomized Siberian hamsters and elevate dramatically serum PRL concentrations. We also have shown that SCNx, as well as lesions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNx) and an area immediately ventral to the PVN (subPVN), promote accelerated testicular recrudescence, increases in EWAT and body weights, and increases in serum PRL concentrations, in short-day (SD)-housed, photoregressed Siberian hamsters. The stimulation of the testes seen in these previous studies could have been due to the lesion-induced increases in serum PRL concentrations. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to test whether experimentally induced hyperprolactinemia could stimulate testicular recrudescence. This was accomplished by giving photoregressed, SD-housed Siberian hamsters chronic subcutaneous infusions of ovine PRL (oPRL) to mimic either long-day- or lesion-induced serum concentrations of hamster prolactin (hPRL). No increase in testes, body, or EWAT weights were observed following 5 weeks of oPRL infusions in either group compared with their vehicle-infused counterparts. These data suggest that hyperprolactinemia was not solely responsible for the stimulation of testicular recrudescence in SCNx or PVNx photoregressed, or SCNx pinealectomized hamsters receiving timed melatonin infusions seen previously.

  12. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J.; Hastings, Andrew K.; Homer, Robert J.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1−/− mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males. PMID:28261663

  13. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J; Hastings, Andrew K; Homer, Robert J; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1(-/-) mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males.

  14. Testicular Synovial Sarcoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nesrine, Mejri; Sellami, Rym; Doghri, Raoudha; Rifi, Hela; Raies, Henda; Mezlini, Amel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a case of testicular synovial sarcoma with molecular genetic analysis. A 24-year-old male presented with painless scrotal mass. Ultrasonography showed a heterogeneous mass of 66 mm × 34 mm in size involving the inguinal region. Histological examination of a surgical biopsy showed a grade III monophasic growth pattern of spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated positive staining for pancytokeratine and epithelial membrane antigen. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of CYT-SSX1 mutation, and CT scan showed non-specific pleural micro-nodules with a size of 7.5 mm. The patient had an extended left orchidectomy but was lost to follow-up for 1 year. A local recurrent scrotal mass of 32 mm × 25 mm, multiple inguinal lymph nodes, and increased pleural nodules, which were confirmed by histological examination, were treated with three cycles of adriamycine and ifosfamide chemotherapy, surgical resection, and radiotherapy with complete response. After 3 months, the patient developed local recurrence and pulmonary metastases that did not respond to second-line chemotherapy based on gemcitabine and paclitaxel. The patient had dyspnea at the time of this writing and chest pain, and is under third-line chemotherapy based on Deticene after 30 months of following up. This patient died on November 16, 2012 after a resperatory failure and malignant pelural effusion. Synovial sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumor and it should be aggressively treated to improve prognosis. Although our patient has shown numerous factors of bad prognosis, he has had a relatively long survival time. PMID:23691490

  15. Testicular synovial sarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nesrine, Mejri; Sellami, Rym; Doghri, Raoudha; Rifi, Hela; Raies, Henda; Mezlini, Amel

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports a case of testicular synovial sarcoma with molecular genetic analysis. A 24-year-old male presented with painless scrotal mass. Ultrasonography showed a heterogeneous mass of 66 mm × 34 mm in size involving the inguinal region. Histological examination of a surgical biopsy showed a grade III monophasic growth pattern of spindle cell proliferation. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated positive staining for pancytokeratine and epithelial membrane antigen. Cytogenetic analysis showed the presence of CYT-SSX1 mutation, and CT scan showed non-specific pleural micro-nodules with a size of 7.5 mm. The patient had an extended left orchidectomy but was lost to follow-up for 1 year. A local recurrent scrotal mass of 32 mm × 25 mm, multiple inguinal lymph nodes, and increased pleural nodules, which were confirmed by histological examination, were treated with three cycles of adriamycine and ifosfamide chemotherapy, surgical resection, and radiotherapy with complete response. After 3 months, the patient developed local recurrence and pulmonary metastases that did not respond to second-line chemotherapy based on gemcitabine and paclitaxel. The patient had dyspnea at the time of this writing and chest pain, and is under third-line chemotherapy based on Deticene after 30 months of following up. This patient died on November 16, 2012 after a resperatory failure and malignant pelural effusion. Synovial sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumor and it should be aggressively treated to improve prognosis. Although our patient has shown numerous factors of bad prognosis, he has had a relatively long survival time.

  16. Management of non-germinal testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Risk, Michael C; Porter, Christopher R

    2009-08-01

    Non-germinal tumors account for less than 10% of all testicular tumors and consist of a wide array of benign and malignant lesions. Due to their rarity, little is known about the appropriate management of malignant non-germinal testicular tumors. A literature review directed at the variety of non-germinal testicular tumors using the Medline/PubMed database was performed. Our review was focused on the natural history of these diseases, the treatment regimens utilized, and the outcomes of the various treatments. The majority of data on the treatment of non-germinal testicular tumors comes from case series and retrospective reviews; thus the management of many of these diseases is a matter of debate. Recommendations for the treatment of patients with these rare diseases are made based on available data. For many of these diseases, radical inguinal orchiectomy is the initial treatment of choice, and further treatment differs based on pathology and staging studies. Non-germinal testicular tumors are a diverse group of rare lesions, and as a result their management is often difficult. A multi-disciplinary approach to management is needed in these patients; however, efficacious chemotherapeutic regimens are often lacking. Due to poor alternatives, patients may benefit from early surgical intervention, including RPLND.

  17. Comparative experimental re-evaluation of the two implanting methods of silicone gel testicular prostheses in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Testicular prosthesis has been applied clinically for decades, and implantation of testis prosthesis under the tunica albuginea has been considered to be the standard method in the most of the reports. However, postoperative scrotal appearance, the mobilization and the palpitation of the prosthesis are not always satisfactory to all the patients. Modifications in surgical techniques might be necessary to bring improvements to the clinical outcomes in testicular prosthesis implantation. Findings In a group of 9 beagle dogs in this study, an orchiectomy succeeded with a testicular prosthesis implantation under the tunica vaginalis, and a complete mechanical denudation of the testicular parenchyma succeeded with an implantation under the tunica albuginea were performed, respectively. Histopathological evaluations of the scrotal tissues and the implants, which were made at the end of the follow-up, showed that all the tested animals lived uneventful lives during the follow-up period, and no rejections or infections were found. Prostheses implanted under the tunica vaginalis showed a more satisfying mobilization and palpation than those implanted under the tunica albuginea. Chronic inflammation in the para-prosthesis tissues with vascular proliferation and fibrinogenesis were more common in the "under tunica albuginea" group than that in the "under tunica vaginalis" group, although differences in fibrinogenesis between the two groups were found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusions In this comparative study, we have re-evaluated the two most popular implantation methods of testicular prosthesis, the "under the tunica albuginea" and the "under the tunica vaginalis" pathways, in animal models. We found that the testicular prosthesis were all well tolerated, but the prosthesis implanted under the tunica vaginalis showed a more satisfying result concerning appearance, palpability, and histopathological findings than that of the "under the tunica

  18. Comparative experimental re-evaluation of the two implanting methods of silicone gel testicular prostheses in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tong-Li; Chen, Peng

    2011-04-02

    Testicular prosthesis has been applied clinically for decades, and implantation of testis prosthesis under the tunica albuginea has been considered to be the standard method in the most of the reports. However, postoperative scrotal appearance, the mobilization and the palpitation of the prosthesis are not always satisfactory to all the patients. Modifications in surgical techniques might be necessary to bring improvements to the clinical outcomes in testicular prosthesis implantation. In a group of 9 beagle dogs in this study, an orchiectomy succeeded with a testicular prosthesis implantation under the tunica vaginalis, and a complete mechanical denudation of the testicular parenchyma succeeded with an implantation under the tunica albuginea were performed, respectively. Histopathological evaluations of the scrotal tissues and the implants, which were made at the end of the follow-up, showed that all the tested animals lived uneventful lives during the follow-up period, and no rejections or infections were found. Prostheses implanted under the tunica vaginalis showed a more satisfying mobilization and palpation than those implanted under the tunica albuginea. Chronic inflammation in the para-prosthesis tissues with vascular proliferation and fibrinogenesis were more common in the "under tunica albuginea" group than that in the "under tunica vaginalis" group, although differences in fibrinogenesis between the two groups were found to be statistically insignificant. In this comparative study, we have re-evaluated the two most popular implantation methods of testicular prosthesis, the "under the tunica albuginea" and the "under the tunica vaginalis" pathways, in animal models. We found that the testicular prosthesis were all well tolerated, but the prosthesis implanted under the tunica vaginalis showed a more satisfying result concerning appearance, palpability, and histopathological findings than that of the "under the tunica albuginea" group. The "under the tunica

  19. Comparison of quercetin and resveratrol in the prevention of injury due to testicular torsion/detorsion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kai-Kai; Zhang, Wen-Hui; Chen, Zhu; Cui, Yong; He, Wei; Wang, Suo-Gang; Zhang, Chan; Chen, Jie; Wang, Guang-Ce

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin (QE) and resveratrol (RSV) are powerful antioxidants with the potential to protect the testes against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. We compared their effects in testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) in adult rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham (group A), T/D (group B), T/D treated with QE (group C), and T/D treated with RSV (group D). QE (20 mg kg−1) and RSV (20 mg kg−1) were injected intra-peritoneally at 60 min of torsion. After 90 min of surgically induced torsion, the testicular cord was restored to its anatomical position. Twenty-four hour after torsion, blood and tissue samples were obtained for further examination. Testicular tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels and serum total oxidant status (TOS) were higher in group B than in group A (P < 0.05). Group A had higher serum total antioxidant status (TAS) than group B. (P < 0.05) QE and RSV significantly lowered MDA, NO, and TOS levels and TAS consumption (P < 0.05). QE reduced the MDA and TOS levels more than RSV (P < 0.05), but their effects on NO reduction and TAS consumption were similar (P > 0.05). Group A had normal testicular architecture (grade 1). Groups C (mean grade 2.60) and D (mean grade 3.00) had lower testicular injury grades than group B (mean grade 3.45) (P < 0.05). Group C had lower testicular injury grade than group D (P < 0.05). Treatment with QE and RSV protects against I/R injury after testicular T/D. QE may exhibit better function than RSV at the doses tested in this study. PMID:26620457

  20. [Multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis].

    PubMed

    Rosales Leal, José Luis; Tallada Buñuel, Miguel; Espejo Maldonado, Eduardo; Cózar Olmo, José Manuel; Vicente Prados, Francisco Javier; Martínez Morcillo, Antonio; Buitragosivianes, Soledad; Rodríguez Herrera, Francisco; Ortiz Gorráiz, Manuel; Zilbermman Morales, Sonia; Chamorro Santos, Clara

    2003-12-01

    To report an exceptional case of multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis. A 72-year-old male was referred for study of a scrotal mass. Physical examination, blood tests, and ultrasound were performed prior to surgical excision and pathologic study of the lesion. The ultrasound study showed a multilobar cystic lesion near the spermatic cord. Pathology reported multiple 3-4 mm cystic formations, with rudimentary papillae covered by a hyperchromatic epithelium and vimentin (+), CD 34 (+) immunophenotype. Multicystic mesothelioma is a rare form of mesothelioma, easy to recognize but infrequent. This tumor generally affects the peritoneal surface of the pelvis and abdomen; although other less frequent locations have been described testicular location is exceptional. We report the case of a patient presenting with a multicystic mesothelioma of the testicular tunica vaginalis and review the diagnosis, pathology and treatment options for this type of tumor.

  1. Testicular atrophy as a risk inguinal hernioplasty.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1982-04-01

    In my experience, the complication of testicular atrophy after primary hernioplasty occurred only in patients in whom a complete indirect inguinal hernia sac was dissected from the spermatic cord. Avoiding this dissection by leaving the distal part of the sac in place reduces the incidence of the complication. All patients with scrotal inguinal hernias and all patients with recurrent inguinal hernias should have the complications of ischemic orchitis and testicular atrophy explained to them in depth because of the litigious nature of some of the men in whom this condition occurs. Patients who had undergone two or more operations for inguinal hernia should give prior written permission for orchiectomy even though this procedure is rarely necessary. In these patients, the performance of preperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty will permit the surgeon to avoid dissecting previously mobilized spermatic cords and should reduce the incidence of testicular atrophy in men fearful of this complication.

  2. Pulse Doppler ultrasound as a tool for the diagnosis of chronic testicular dysfunction in stallions

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Jose M.; Anel-Lopez, Luis; Martín-Muñoz, Patricia; Álvarez, Mercedes; Gaitskell-Phillips, Gemma; Anel, Luis; Rodríguez-Medina, Pedro; Peña, Fernando J.

    2017-01-01

    values (high vascular perfusion). In contrast, subfertile stallions tend to present high values of PI and RI (high vascular resistance). The ROC curves revealed that the best Doppler parameters to predict sperm quality in stallions were: Doppler velocities (PSV, EDV and TAMV), the diameter of the capsular artery and TABF parameters (tissue perfusion parameters). Cut off values were established using a Youden´s Index to identify fertile stallions from stallions with testicular dysfunction. Spectral Doppler ultrasound is a good predictive tool for sperm quality since correlations were determined among Doppler parameters and markers of sperm quality. Doppler ultrasonography could be a valuable diagnostic tool for use by clinical practitioners for the diagnosis of stallions with testicular dysfunction and could be a viable alternative to invasive procedures traditionally used for diagnosis of sub-fertility disorders. PMID:28558006

  3. Differential expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pelloni, Marianna; Coltrinari, Giulia; Paoli, Donatella; Pallotti, Francesco; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Gandini, Loredana

    2016-10-28

    Various microRNAs from the miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d clusters have recently been proposed as markers for testicular germ cell tumours. Upregulation of these miRNAs has been found in both the tissue and serum of testicular cancer patients, but they have never been studied in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the differences in the expression of miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d between the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients, and to identify new potential testicular cancer markers in seminal plasma. We investigated the serum and seminal plasma of 28 pre-orchiectomy patients subsequently diagnosed with testicular cancer, the seminal plasma of another 20 patients 30 days post-orchiectomy and a control group consisting of 28 cancer-free subjects attending our centre for an andrological check-up. Serum microRNA expression was analysed using RT-qPCR. TaqMan Array Card 3.0 platform was used for microRNA profiling in the seminal plasma of cancer patients. Results for both miR-371-3 and the miR-302 cluster in the serum of testicular cancer patients were in line with literature reports, while miR-371and miR-372 expression in seminal plasma showed the opposite trend to serum. On array analysis, 37 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the seminal plasma of cancer patients, and the upregulated miR-142 and the downregulated miR-34b were validated using RT-qPCR. Our study investigated the expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma of patients with testicular cancer for the first time. Unlike in serum, miR-371-3 cannot be considered as markers in seminal plasma, whereas miR-142 levels in seminal plasma may be a potential marker for testicular cancer.

  4. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  5. Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Opot, E N; Magoha, G A

    2000-02-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed. The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. About 10.26% of patients had history of cryptochirdism. The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%). On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass. More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%. The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%). No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used. 18 patients were followed up, of whom 7 were alive after 5 years. Prognosis with current regimens was poor, with a 38.89% survival ratio in 5 years. Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.

  6. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  7. Colon cancer presenting as a testicular metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Majid; Sharif, Asma

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 43-year-old male who initially presented with intermittent testicular pain as the first sign of metastatic stage IV colon cancer. Physical examination revealed a normal penis, scrotum and testes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pelvis showed an irregular 3 cm mass of the spermatic cord and right radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was metastatic adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, even though metastases to the testes are rare, they should be considered in clinical practice especially in older men who present with a testicular mass or discomfort. PMID:28138654

  8. Etiologic factors in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Cook, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, testicular cancer incidence is highest among men of northern European ancestry and lowest among men of Asian and African descent. Incidence rates have been increasing around the world for at least 50 years, but mortality rates, at least in developed countries, have been declining. While reasons for the decreases in mortality are related to improvements in therapeutic regimes introduced in the late 1970s, reasons for the increase in incidence are less well understood. An accumulating body of evidence suggests, however, that testicular cancer arises in fetal life. Perinatal factors, including exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, have been suggested to be related to risk. PMID:19903067

  9. Intracardiac metastasis from germ cell testicular tumor.

    PubMed

    Jonjev, Z S; Rajić, J; Majin, M; Donat, D

    2012-09-01

    Intracardiac metastases of germ cell testicular tumors are not commonly seen in clinical practice. The clinical presentation of right-sided heart metastases ranges widely. Depending upon its size and intracardiac location, it could be highly symptomatic, leading to a congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism, and death, or completely asymptomatic. Improved imaging techniques and treatment strategies demonstrate that right-sided heart metastasis should be considered a potentially dangerous but treatable disease. Presented is the case of a 24-year-old man with a testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor, which after metastasizing in the right atrium differentiated into a teratoma and resulted in an inflow obstruction of the right ventricle.

  10. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials.

  11. Testicular Functions and Clinical Characterization of Patients with Gender Dysphoria (GD) Undergoing Sex Reassignment Surgery (SRS).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Florian; Neuhaus, Nina; Wistuba, Joachim; Zitzmann, Michael; Heß, Jochen; Mahler, Dorothee; van Ahlen, Hermann; Schlatt, Stefan; Kliesch, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    Cross-sex hormone treatment of gender dysphoria (GD) patients changing from male to female a prerequisite for sex reassignment. For initial physical adaptation, a combined treatment of anti-androgens and estrogens is used. Provided that patients fulfill specific criteria, sex reassignment surgery (SRS) presents the final step toward physical adaptation. However, systematic studies analyzing effects of hormone treatment regimens are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different hormonal treatment strategies regarding endocrinological parameters and testicular histology. Testicular tissues were obtained in a multicenter study from 108 patients on the day of SRS from three clinics following different treatment strategies. Patients either discontinued treatment 6 weeks (clinic A) or 2 weeks (clinic B) prior to SRS or not at all (clinic C). Testicular tissues, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood and questionnaires were obtained on the day of SRS. Blood hormone and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) levels were measured. Testicular weight and histology were evaluated and the percentage of luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) positive cells was determined. According to the questionnaires, patients showed desired phenotypical changes including breast growth (75%) and smooth skin (32%). While patients from clinics A and B presented with rather virilized hormonal levels, patients from clinic C showed generally feminized blood serum levels. Histological evaluation revealed highly heterogeneous results with about 24% of patients presenting with qualitatively normal spermatogenesis. In accordance with serum endocrine profile, ITT levels were lowest in clinic C and correlated with testosterone and free testosterone, but not with the spermatogenic state. The percentage of LHCGR-positive cells and ITT levels did not correlate. Only patients that did not discontinue hormonal treatment showed feminized blood levels on the day of

  12. Relationship Between the Pathologic Subtype/Initial Stage and Microliths in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Sharmeen, Farhana; Rosenthal, Michael H; Wood, Monica J; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Sweeney, Christopher; Howard, Stephanie A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between microliths and germ cell tumor histologic subtypes and determine whether microliths correlate with tumor stage at diagnosis. A total of 1249 patients with testicular cancer seen between 1999 and 2013 were evaluated; 346 of 1249 patients (28%) with primary testicular tumors and sonographic imaging of unaffected testicular tissue formed the analytic cohort. Age, ethnicity, tumor histologic subtype, and stage at diagnosis were extracted from the medical record. Two examiners concurrently recorded the highest number of microliths per image of unaffected testicular tissue. A total of 175 of 346 patients (51%) had 1 or more microliths; 69 of 346 (20%) had more than 5 microliths per image. The histologic percentage of seminomas positively correlated with the microlith count (rs = 0.12; P = .036); the histologic percentage of embryonal components negatively correlated with the microlith count (rs = -0.15; P = .007). A higher microlith count was associated with a lower stage at diagnosis (P = .0243). Subgroup analysis of pure seminomas suggested a trend toward a higher microlith count in patients with lower-stage disease at diagnosis (P= .07). No association was found between the tumor stage at diagnosis and microlith count in patients with greater than 50% embryonal components of tumors (P= .55). No association was found between microliths and age, tumor size, and presence of lymphovascular/rete testis invasion (P = .120, .500, .629, and .155, respectively). Patients with testicular cancer who have microliths may be more likely to have a higher percentage of seminomas and a lower percentage of embryonal components in their primary tumors. Microliths also showed an association with earlier stages of disease at diagnosis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Evaluation of Testicular Toxicity Following Short-term Exposure to Cypermethrin in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, N.; Vijay, Kumar M.; Sunilchandra, U.; Pavithra, BH.; Pawar, A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the testicular toxicity following short-term exposure to cypermethrin (α-CP) in albino mice. Cypermethrin was dissolved in arachis oil and administered to two groups of mice (n = 12/group) orally at the dose rate of 250 mg/kg body weight, once a day for 28 days. Fifty percent of the animals in both the groups were sacrificed on day 14 and the remaining on day 28. Plasma samples were subjected to radioimmunoassay to determine testosterone levels. The testes were collected to determine the cholesterol levels and the activity of transaminases (AST and ALT) or epididymal alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Histological study of testicular tissue was also undertaken to examine the α-CP-induced ultrastructural changes using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). α-CP significantly (P<0.05) increased the activities of testicular AST (1.36±0.12 vs. 1.19±0.10), ALT(1.78±0.11 vs. 1.36±0.09), and significantly (P<0.05) decreased the testosterone levels (0.86±0.24 vs. 1.72±0.18). Testicular cholesterol levels were elevated in treated animals as compared to control (1.81±0.16 vs. 1.42±0.08). Epididymal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was also decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treated animals (1.10±0.20 vs. 1.64±0.1). Histological studies on day 28 revealed rupture of spermatogonic cell membrane, shrinkage in the nucleus, stages of apoptosis, condensation of chromatin, and decreased cytoplasmic organelles. The study suggested that short-term exposure to α-CP in albino mice induced toxicopathological lesions in testicular tissue leading to decreased plasma testosterone levels. PMID:21042468

  14. Grayscale and Color Doppler Features of Testicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo E.; Secil, Mustafa; Dogra, Vikram; Sidhu, Paul S.; Clements, Richard; Freeman, Simon; Grenier, Nicolas; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ramchandani, Parvati; Cicero, Calogero; Abete, Luca; Bussani, Rossana; Rocher, Laurence; Spencer, John; Tsili, Athina; Valentino, Massimo; Pavlica, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Pooled data from 16 radiology centers were retrospectively analyzed to seek patients with pathologically proven testicular lymphoma and grayscale and color Doppler images available for review. Forty-three cases were found: 36 (84%) primary and 7 (16%) secondary testicular lymphoma. With unilateral primary lymphoma, involvement was unifocal (n = 10), multifocal (n = 11), or diffuse (n = 11). Synchronous bilateral involvement occurred in 6 patients. Color Doppler sonography showed normal testicular vessels within the tumor in 31 of 43 lymphomas (72%). Testicular lymphoma infiltrates through the tubules, preserving the normal vascular architecture of the testis. Depiction of normal testicular vessels crossing the lesion is a useful adjunctive diagnostic criterion. PMID:26014335

  15. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer.

  16. Testicular Cancer and Genetics Knowledge Among Familial Testicular Cancer Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Beckjord, Ellen B.; Banda Ryan, Deliya R.; Carr, Ann G.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Korde, Larissa; Greene, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose It was our aim to determine baseline levels of testicular cancer and genetics knowledge among members of families with Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC). Methods This is a sub-study of an ongoing National Cancer Institute (NCI) multidisciplinary, etiologically-focused, cross-sectional study of FTC. We evaluated 258 male and female participants including testicular cancer (TC) survivors, blood relatives and spouses to assess factors associated with a Genetic Knowledge Scale (GKS) and Testicular Cancer Knowledge Scale (TCKS). Results Knowledge levels were generally low, with genetic knowledge lower than TC knowledge (p<0.01). Men with a personal TC history scored highest on TC knowledge, while gender, age and education differentially influenced knowledge levels, particularly among unaffected relatives. Conclusions Prior to identifying FTC susceptibility genes, we recommend tailoring FTC genetic education to the different informational needs of TC survivors, their spouses and relatives, in preparation for the day when clinical susceptibility testing may be available. PMID:18481162

  17. Effect of selenium on testicular damage induced by varicocele in adult male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Leila; Eidi, Akram; Mortazavi, Pejman; Rohani, Ali Haeri

    2017-12-01

    Varicocele is an abnormal tortuosity and distension of the veins of the pampiniform plexus in the spermatic cord. It is the most common surgically correctable cause of male infertility. Several studies have revealed the effects of increased oxidative stress on serum, semen, and testicular tissues in patients with varicocele or in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium selenite on testicular damage induced by experimental left varicocele in male Wistar rats. In the present study, the effects of oral administration of sodium selenite (at doses of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mg/kg bw) were assessed in normal and varicocelized rats. The varicocelized control rats showed decrease in sperm quality parameters, decreased activity of testes CAT, GPX and SOD, increased levels of MDA, and damage in testicular architecture. Administration of sodium selenite significantly reduced these changes to nearly normal levels, but did not change these parameters in normal rats. Histopathological studies further confirmed the protective effects of sodium selenite on varicocele-induced testicular damage in rats. Administrations of sodium selenite did not change these parameters in normal rats. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that sodium selenite treatment may have beneficial effect on the testes of varicocelized rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Protection of arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress by arjunolic acid.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic-induced tissue damage is a major concern to the human population. An impaired antioxidant defense mechanism followed by oxidative stress is the major cause of arsenic-induced toxicity, which can lead to reproductive failure. The present study was carried out to investigate the preventive role of arjunolic acid, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, against arsenic-induced testicular damage in mice. Administration of arsenic (in the form of sodium arsenite, NaAsO(2), at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight) for 2 days significantly decreased the intracellular antioxidant power, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as the levels of cellular metabolites. In addition, arsenic intoxication enhanced testicular arsenic content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and the level of glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Exposure to arsenic also caused significant degeneration of the seminiferous tubules with necrosis and defoliation of spermatocytes. Pretreatment with arjunolic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days could prevent the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress and injury to the histological structures of the testes. Arjunolic acid had free radical scavenging activity in a cell-free system and antioxidant power in vivo. In summary, the results suggest that the chemopreventive role of arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced testicular toxicity may be due to its intrinsic antioxidant property.

  19. Cimetidine-induced vascular cell apoptosis impairs testicular microvasculature in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Flávia L; Yamauti, Caroline T; Caneguim, Breno H; Cerri, Paulo S; Miraglia, Sandra M; Sasso-Cerri, Estela

    2012-10-01

    Cimetidine, an H₂ receptor antagonist used for treatment of gastric ulcers, exerts antiandrogenic and antiangiogenic effects. In the testes cimetidine impairs spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells and peritubular tissue, inducing apoptosis in the myoid cells. Regarding the importance of histamine and androgens for vascular maintenance, the effect of cimetidine on the structural integrity of the testicular vasculature was evaluated. Adult male rats received cimetidine (CMTG) and saline (CG) for 50 days. The testes were fixed in buffered 4% formaldehyde and embedded in historesin and paraffin. In the PAS-stained sections, the microvascular density (MVD) and the vascular luminal area (VLA) were obtained. TUNEL method was performed for detection of cell death. Testicular fragments embedded in Araldite were analyzed under transmission electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the MVD and VLA and a high number of collapsed blood vessel profiles were observed in CMTG. Endothelial cells and vascular muscle cells were TUNEL-positive and showed ultrastructural features of apoptosis. These results indicate that cimetidine induces apoptosis in vascular cells, leading to testicular vascular atrophy. A possible antagonist effect of cimetidine on the H₂ receptors and/or androgen receptors in the vascular cells may be responsible for the impairment of the testicular microvasculature.

  20. Hydrogen sulfide protects testicular germ cells against heat-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang; Xie, Zhi-Zhong; Chua, Jason M W; Wong, P C; Bian, Jinsong

    2015-04-30

    The present study was designed to investigate whether H2S can protect testicular germ cells against heat exposure induced injury and the underlying mechanisms. It was found that all three H2S generating enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lysase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3 MST), were expressed in mouse testicular tissue. Three episodes of heat exposure (42 °C, 30 min/day, 3 days) significantly decreased endogenous H2S production and down-regulated the expression of CBS and CSE in testes. In primary cultured testicular germ cells, exogenous application of NaHS (an H2S donor) attenuated heat stress (42 °C, 30 min) induced cell death and apoptosis. This was mediated by the inhibitory effects of H2S on cytochrome C release and the ratio of the Bax/Bcl-2. NaHS also improved mitochondrial function by decreasing oxygen consumption and increasing ATP production. NaHS treatment also stimulated SOD activity and reduced ROS production. Our results revealed both physiological and pharmacological roles of H2S in testicular germ cells. Exogenous application of H2S may protect germ cells by preservation of mitochondrial function and stimulation of anti-oxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The pituitary-testicular axis in microgravity: analogies with the aging male syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F; Boitani, C; Basciani, S; Pecorelli, L; Palumbo, D; Borgia, L; Masini, M A; Morè, M; Strollo, G; Spera, G; Uva, B M; Riondino, G

    2005-01-01

    Extraterrestrial exploration has gone on for decades before reversible testicular failure was shown to be a consequence of space flight in humans and animals at the end of the XXth century. This phenomenon was initially thought to depend on the psycho-physical stress expected to derive from a decidedly unusual environment, but the lack of consistent data concerning cortisol increase and/or gonadotrophin suppression pointed to the possibility of a primary defect. This was indirectly confirmed by the observation that a continuum of testicular androgen secretion potential exists from microgravity to centrifuge-derived hypergravity. Further experiments using tissue slices and suspended cells confirmed a direct inhibitory effect of microgravity upon testicular androgen production. A parallel deterioration of major physiological parameters, such as bone density, muscle mass/force, red blood cell mass, hydration and cardiopulmonary performance, has been repeatedly described during space missions, which, luckily enough, fully recover within days to weeks after landing, the time lag depending on single organ/system adaptation rates. According to the Authors of the present review, when taking together all reported changes occurring in space, a picture emerges closely resembling the so-called aging male syndrome, which is currently the object of daily screening and clinical care in their endocrine unit, so that microgravity may become a tool for better understanding subtle mechanisms of testicular senescence.

  2. Cell population indexes of spermatogenic yield and testicular sperm reserves in adult jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Maria Helena Ferreira; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto da; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Costa, Eduardo Paulino; Costa, Deiler Sampaio; Peixoto, Juliano Vogas

    2010-03-01

    The intrinsic yield of spermatogenesis and supporting capacity of Sertoli cells are the desirable indicators of sperm production in a species. The objective of the present study was to quantify intrinsic yield and the Sertoli cell index in the spermatogenic process and estimate testicular sperm reserves by histological assessment of fragments obtained by testicular biopsy of five adult jaguars in captivity. The testicular fragments were fixed in 4% glutaric aldehyde, dehydrated at increasing alcohol concentrations, included into hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and were cut into 4 microm thickness. In the seminiferous epithelium of the jaguar, 9.2 primary spermatocytes in pre-leptotene were produced by "A" spermatogonia. During the meiotic divisions only 3.2 spermatids were produced by a primary spermatocyte. The general spermatogenic yield of the jaguar was about 23.4 cells and each Sertoli cell was able to maintain about 19.2 germ cells, 11 of them were round spermatids. In each seminiferous epithelium cycle about 166 million spermatozoa were produced by each gram of testicular tissue. In adult jaguars, the general spermatogenic yield was similar to the yield observed in pumas, greater than that observed for the domestic cat, but less compared to most domestic animals.

  3. Blastomyces dermatitidis prostatic and testicular infection in eight dogs (1992-2005).

    PubMed

    Totten, Amy Kaye; Ridgway, Marcella D; Sauberli, Debra S

    2011-01-01

    This was a retrospective case study of eight dogs diagnosed with prostatic or testicular B. dermatitidis infection. Signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options were evaluated. Review of medical records of dogs diagnosed with blastomycosis at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1992 to 2005 yielded four dogs with prostatic blastomycosis (PB) and four dogs with testicular blastomycosis (TB). Three of the four dogs with PB and all four dogs with TB had evidence of urogenital disease. Three dogs with PB had an elevated body temperature and all had systemic disease. All dogs with TB had a normal body temperature, and three had systemic disease and one had clinical signs limited to testicular disease. Cytology or histopathology was used to diagnose PB or TB. Treatment included itraconazole or fluconazole with or without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PB and TB are infrequently recognized and may be under diagnosed due to failure to specifically evaluate these tissues. PB or TB should be considered in the evaluation and staging of male dogs with blastomycosis. Male dogs with urogenital signs should be evaluated via prostatic or testicular cytology or histopathology since proper identification and management of PB or TB may improve overall treatment success.

  4. High levels of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin are associated with inhibition of testicular function

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Marion; Urbanski, Henryk F.; Garyfallou, Vasilios T.; Welsch, Ulrich; Köhn, Frank M.; Schwarzer, J. Ullrich; Strauss, Leena; Poutanen, Matti; Mayerhofer, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Decorin (DCN), a component of the extracellular matrix of the peritubular wall and the interstitial areas of the human testis, can interact with growth factor (GF) signaling, thereby blocking downstream actions of GFs. In the present study the expression and regulation of DCN using both human testes and two experimental animal models, namely the rhesus monkey and mouse, were examined. DCN protein was present in peritubular and interstitial areas of adult human and monkey testes, while it was almost undetectable in adult wild-type mice. Interestingly, the levels and sites of testicular DCN expression in the monkeys were inversely correlated with testicular maturation markers. A strong DCN expression associated with the abundant connective tissue of the interstitial areas in the postnatal through prepubertal phases was observed. In adult and old monkeys the DCN pattern was similar to the one in normal human testes, presenting strong expression at the peritubular region. In the testes of both infertile men and in a mouse model of inflammation associated infertility (aromatase-overexpressing transgenic mice), the fibrotic changes and increased numbers of Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-producing immune cells were shown to be associated with increased production of DCN. Furthermore, studies with human testicular peritubular cells isolated from fibrotic testis indicated that TNF-α significantly increased DCN production. The data, thus, show that an increased DCN level is associated with impaired testicular function, supporting our hypothesis that DCN interferes with paracrine signaling of the testis in health and disease. PMID:22413766

  5. The clinical utility of testicular prosthesis placement in children with genital and testicular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Testicular prosthesis placement is a useful important adjunctive reconstructive therapy for managing children with testicular loss or absence. Though these prostheses are functionless, experience has shown that they are extremely helpful in creating a more normal male body image and in preventing/relieving psychological stress in males with a missing testicle. With attention to details of implant technique, excellent cosmetic results can be anticipated in simulating a normal appearing scrotum. PMID:26816795

  6. Changes in plasma gonadotropins, inhibin and testosterone concentrations and testicular gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression during testicular active, regressive and recrudescent phase in the captive Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Iibuchi, Ruriko; Kamine, Akari; Shimozuru, Michito; Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2010-02-01

    Male Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) have an explicit reproductive cycle. The objective of this study was to clarify the variation of plasma testosterone, FSH, inhibin, LH levels and testicular gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression of male bears associated with their testicular activity. Notably, this study investigated peripheral FSH concentration and localization of gonadotropin receptor mRNAs for the first time in male bears. Blood and testicular tissue samples were taken from captive, mature, male Japanese black bears during testicular active, regressive and recrudescent phases. Plasma hormone concentrations were measured by immunoassays, and gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression in the testis was investigated by in situ hybridization technique and also by real-time PCR. There were significant variations in plasma testosterone and inhibin concentrations. Changes in FSH concentration preceded these hormones with a similar tendency. Hormones started to increase during denning, and achieved the highest values at the end of the recrudescent phase for FSH and in the active phase for testosterone and inhibin. These changes in hormone concentrations were accompanied by testicular growth. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that FSH and LH receptor mRNA was possibly expressed in Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, respectively, as they are in other mammals. However, neither plasma LH concentration nor testicular gonadotropin receptor mRNA expression level varied significantly among the sampling months. These results suggest that FSH, inhibin and testosterone have roles in testicular activity in male bears. This study provides important endocrine information for comprehending seasonal reproductivity in male Japanese black bears.

  7. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease.

  8. Testicular Vasculitis: A Sonographic and Pathologic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hague, Cameron; Bicknell, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Very little has been published about single-organ vasculitis of the testicle in the radiological literature. Consequently, it is a diagnosis that is unfamiliar to most radiologists. This case report describes the sonographic, pathologic, and laboratory findings of testicular vasculitis and reviews the available literature with regard to this subject. PMID:28246567

  9. Experiment K-7-16: Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Clemens, J. W.; Deaver, D.; Folmer, J.; Zirkin, B.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Grills, G. S.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D.; Serova, L. V.; hide

    1994-01-01

    Fixed or frozen testicular tissues from five rats per group were analyzed by: subjective and quantitative evaluations of spermatogenesis; Northern-blot analysis for expression of selected genes; quantification of testosterone and receptors for LH; and morphometric analysis of Leydig cells. Based on observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats in the flight and vivarium groups had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment, and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups; the simulated-launch group contained no abnormal rat. Lesions induced in testes of caudal-elevation rats precluded discernment of any pre-existing abnormality. Considering rats without pre-existing abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (E less than 0.05) in flight rats than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other, or to Sertoli cells, and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. There was no effect of flight on normal expression of testis-specific hsp gene products, or evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp70 or hsp90 genes. Concentration of receptors for rLH in testicular tissue, and surface densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in Leydig cells, were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus, spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Sequela of reduced androgen production on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered when interpreting data from mammals exposed to microgravity.

  10. Experiment K-7-16: Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Clemens, J. W.; Deaver, D.; Folmer, J.; Zirkin, B.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Grills, G. S.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D.; Serova, L. V.; Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed or frozen testicular tissues from five rats per group were analyzed by: subjective and quantitative evaluations of spermatogenesis; Northern-blot analysis for expression of selected genes; quantification of testosterone and receptors for LH; and morphometric analysis of Leydig cells. Based on observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats in the flight and vivarium groups had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment, and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups; the simulated-launch group contained no abnormal rat. Lesions induced in testes of caudal-elevation rats precluded discernment of any pre-existing abnormality. Considering rats without pre-existing abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (E less than 0.05) in flight rats than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other, or to Sertoli cells, and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. There was no effect of flight on normal expression of testis-specific hsp gene products, or evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp70 or hsp90 genes. Concentration of receptors for rLH in testicular tissue, and surface densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in Leydig cells, were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus, spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Sequela of reduced androgen production on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered when interpreting data from mammals exposed to microgravity.

  11. Early diagnosis of testicular tumor using Tc-99m pertechnetate scrotal imaging.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, G D; Prezio, J A; Ricci, P E

    1983-12-01

    Two patients who originally presented with clinical symptoms of epididymo-orchitis, with compatible findings on the Tc-99m pertechnetate scrotal images, had temporary remission of their symptoms with antibiotic therapy. After two months, both patients had repeat scrotal images, because of persistent testicular enlargement. Both now demonstrated a "cold spot" in the otherwise increased activity on the affected side. Both patients underwent orchiectomy; patient 1 had a tissue diagnosis of malignant mixed germ cell tumor and patient 2 showed teratocarcinoma.

  12. Renal and testicular agenesis in a patient with Darier's disease.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, L Y; Wortsman, J; McConnachie, P

    1985-05-01

    Darier's disease is a familial disorder of the skin that has been associated with corneal, bone, pulmonary, and urogenital abnormalities. This report describes a novel urogenital anomaly, namely renal and testicular agenesis, in a patient with Darier's disease. Detailed study of the kindred demonstrated an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance for Darier's disease and also revealed the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis in several family members. Thyroid involvement ranged from isolated goiter to hypothyroidism. Tissue typing for HLA-A, B, C, and DR antigens did not reveal a specific haplotype common to all the carriers of the cutaneous or thyroid disorder. It is concluded that patients with Darier's disease should be carefully evaluated for the occurrence of systemic diseases, especially urogenital abnormalities and thyroid disorders.

  13. Dexpanthenol attenuates lipid peroxidation and testicular damage at experimental ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Karul, Aslihan; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-02-01

    Prevention of tissue damage after testicular torsion caused by I/R injury is still a clinical and experimental problem. There are many experimental studies made with several chemicals in the literature for decreasing the effect of reactive oxygen species after ischemia and reperfusion. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid increases the content of reduced glutathione, Coenzyme A and ATP in cell. We studied the effect of Dxp on lipid peroxidation and testicular damage. Forty adult rats were separated randomly into five groups: group Sh, Sham-operation; group TD, torsion-detorsion; group NS, torsion-normal saline-detorsion; group D, torsion-Dxp 250 mg/kg detorsion; group D2, torsion-Dxp 500 mg/kg detorsion group. Serum MDA levels were taken before detorsion, after torsion at the first and fifth minute and at the first hour. Tissue sample was taken at the first hour. The alterations of I/R injury on testis were histological graded. Serum MDA levels were significantly lower in group D2 compared to all groups. The histopathology score of group D2 was significantly lower than groups TD, NS and D. Histopathological score and serum MDA levels are strikingly compatible. Dxp attenuated lipid peroxidation and tissue damage at I/R injury. This effect depends on its antioxidant effect with increasingly reduced glutathione, Coenzyme A and ATP. The effect of Dxp on I/R injury has been shown for the first time in the experimental testicular torsion.

  14. Testicular microlithiasis: Correlation with doppler sonography of testicular arteries and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Mahafza, Waleed S; Alarini, Mahmoud Y; Awadghanem, Ahmed F; Odwan, Ghazi; Juweid, Malik E

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis and its correlation with Doppler parameters of testicular arteries and sperm function. Reports of 1,200 consecutive scrotal sonographic examinations performed at our hospital were reviewed. Patients diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis were recalled for detailed scrotal sonographic examination, including Doppler sonography and sperm function. The same examinations were performed in an age-matched control group and the findings compared. Testicular microlithiasis was found in 64 cases (5.3%). Doppler sonography showed mean resistance index, Vmax, and Vmin of 61.1 ± 9.3%, 18.2 ± 4.7 cm/s, and 7.7 ± 2.3 cm/s, respectively, in the testicular microlithiasis group versus 62.4 ± 10.4%, 18.4 ± 5.7 cm/s, and 7.3 ± 2.4 cm/s, respectively, in the control group (p = 0.49, 0.84 and 0.35, respectively). Sperm function tests demonstrated sperm count, motility, and normal morphology (normal oval head) of 29.6 ± 20.4 × 10(6) /mL, 35.3 ± 16.2%, and 44.4 ± 12%, respectively, in patients with testicular microlithiasis versus 54.3 ± 22.4 × 10(6) /mL, 50.2% ± 14.4%, and 66.4 ± 11.6% in control subjects (p < 0.02). Prevalence of testicular microlithiasis of 5.3% in Jordanian patients is similar to what has been reported in the literature. Testicular microlithiasis does not have a significant effect on Doppler parameters of testicular arteries. The apparent impairment of sperm function in patients with testicular microlithiasis warrants further studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:474-479, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bilateral testicular enlargement due to adrenal remnant in a patient with C11 hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, A A M; Hadayegh, F; Khakpour, G; Azizi, F; Melby, J C

    2003-01-01

    The case of a 15-yr-old boy with C11 hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia is reported who was diagnosed and treated as true precocious puberty at the age of 2 yr because of virilization and bilateral testicular enlargement. He later developed hyperpigmentation, hypertension and short stature and because of an increase in testes size he underwent testicular biopsy with the assumption of Leydig cell tumor. With the intake of glucocorticoids his testes size, hypertension and hyperpigmentation improved markedly. We could find only 6 such cases in the literature and have reviewed their clinical and laboratory data. All patients showed the picture of virilization with hypertension. Leydig cell tumor was proposed as the differential diagnosis in all cases except ours. Ultrasonography was able to show testicular adrenal-like tissue in all those in whom the procedure was undertaken. In the 5 patients of whom we could find enough data, 1 responded partially and 4 responded markedly to corticosteroid therapy with shrinkage of testicular tumors. We conclude that clinical findings and US are very important in the early diagnosis of these patients and with adequate treatment most cases show shrinkage in testicular tumors.

  16. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is reliable method for testicular spermatogenesis evaluation after torsion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Lv, Faqing; Tang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate effect of torsion on testicular stiffness alteration in affected and concomitant testis using improved ultrasound method of shear wave elastography (SWE). We compared the morphology of the testicular spermatogenesis assessed with Johansen’s scale on histology specimens with a mean stiffness measured by SWE. A total of 18 New Zealand white male rabbits were divided into two groups (group A and group B), animals from group A were subjected to operation of right testicle torsion while left testicle remained intact. In group B both testicles were normal and right testicle was subjected to sham operation. The protocol of measurement for mean stiffness value was calculated from three elastographic images obtained from each testicle. Significant difference in mean stiffness value and Johnsen’ scaling was observed in both groups (A and B), as well as for normal and torted testicle in group A. The mean stiffness positively correlated with histologic grade on both sided testicles in group B, and left sided testicles in group A (P=0.045, r=0.43; group B; P=0.001, r=0.98), while histologic grade negatively correlated with mean stiffness in the group A, torted testicle (torsion P=0.012, r=-0.76). In this study testicular torsion, with consequently higher mean stiffness value determined by SWE, has qualitatively and quantitatively decreased spermatogenesis. Gradual morphology change in testicle unaffected by torsion has not been previously reported. This study confirmed that quantitative change in testicular tissue stiffness as well as change in testicular spermatogenesis can be reliably evaluated with SWE. PMID:26221246

  17. Anchoring Ethinylestradiol Induced Gene Expression Changes with Testicular Morphology and Reproductive Function in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hilary D.; Clark, Bryan W.; Hinton, David E.; Whitehead, Andrew; Martin, Stan; Kwok, Kevin W.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2) on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4), 62.8% (±8.3) and 28.8% (±5.8), respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function. PMID:23300682

  18. Testicular prostheses in children: Is earlier better?

    PubMed

    Peycelon, M; Rossignol, G; Muller, C O; Carricaburu, E; Philippe-Chomette, P; Paye-Jaouen, A; El Ghoneimi, A

    2016-08-01

    The absence of a testis occurs for various reasons in children, but testicular prosthesis implantation in children is uncommon. The optimal time for prosthesis placement is still unclear, and its complication rate has been poorly studied in children. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of complications in cases of testicular prosthesis implantation in children. A monocentric, retrospective review was performed of children implanted with a testicular prosthesis between 2008 and 2014. All implantations were performed through an inguinal incision with a standardized procedure. Children were divided into two groups depending on the interval after orchiectomy: (A) early implantation (delay between surgeries <1 year); and (B) delayed surgeries (delay ≥1 year). Statistical analysis was performed with Student and Fisher tests. Twenty-six patients (A, 15; B, 11) had a total of 38 testicular prostheses placements. Mean follow-up was 36.2 months. First surgery was performed at the mean age of 11.8 years (range 0-17.9) (A, 14.1; B, 8.1; P = 0.01) and testicular prosthesis implantation at the mean age of 14.7 years (range 9-18) (A, 14.3; B, 14.6) with a mean delay of 36.1 months (A, 1.3; B, 80.3). Indications were mainly spermatic cord torsion (27%), bilateral anorchia (27%), and testicular atrophy after cryptorchidism surgery (19.2%). Complications (10.5%) included two cases of extrusion, one infection and one migration. Patient 1 had a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with testicle relapse 2 years after induction therapy. High-dose chemotherapy, total body irradiation and bilateral orchiectomies were performed, and bilateral prostheses were implanted 12 years after the end of chemotherapy. Complications happened 85 days after surgery. Patient 2 was followed-up for a proximal hypospadias. The tunica vaginalis flap, which was used during a redo urethroplasty, lead to testicular atrophy. Thirteen years after the last penile surgery, a testicular

  19. Mammary extracellular matrix directs differentiation of testicular and embryonic stem cells to form functional mammary glands in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Robert D.; Fleming, Jodie M.; George, Andrea L.; Boulanger, Corinne A.; Schedin, Pepper; Smith, Gilbert H.

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated the ability of the normal mammary microenvironment (niche) to direct non-mammary cells including testicular and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to adopt a mammary epithelial cell (MEC) fate. These studies relied upon the interaction of transplanted normal MECs with non-mammary cells within the mammary fat-pads of recipient mice that had their endogenous epithelium removed. Here, we tested whether acellular mammary extracellular matrix (mECM) preparations are sufficient to direct differentiation of testicular-derived cells and ESCs to form functional mammary epithelial trees in vivo. We found that mECMs isolated from adult mice and rats were sufficient to redirect testicular derived cells to produce normal mammary epithelial trees within epithelial divested mouse mammary fat-pads. Conversely, ECMs isolated from omental fat and lung did not redirect testicular cells to a MEC fate, indicating the necessity of tissue specific components of the mECM. mECM preparations also completely inhibited teratoma formation from ESC inoculations. Further, a phenotypically normal ductal outgrowth resulted from a single inoculation of ESCs and mECM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a tissue specific ECM driving differentiation of cells to form a functional tissue in vivo. PMID:28071703

  20. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations.

    PubMed

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Main, K M; Leffers, H; Andersson, A-M; Juul, A; Jensen, T K; Toppari, J

    2007-08-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias/disorders of sex differentiation and male fertility problems may be symptoms with varying penetration. In spite of their fetal origin, most of the TDS symptoms, including TGCC and poor semen quality, can only be diagnosed in adulthood. Data from a Danish-Finnish research collaboration strongly suggest that trends in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health problems may also be rising.

  1. Regulation network analysis of testicular seminoma at various stages of progression.

    PubMed

    Sha, J-J; Dong, Y-H; Liu, D-M; Bo, J-J; Huang, Y-R; Li, Z; Ping, P

    2013-03-11

    Testicular seminoma has become the most common solid malignancy in young men, especially in the 20s group. We obtained the gene expression profile of human testicular seminoma cells from NCBI, identified the differentially expressed genes of testicular seminoma cells of different stages, and constructed the regulation networks of different stages of testicular seminoma using bioinformatics methodology. Forty differentially expressed genes of testicular seminoma cells of different stages were identified. These genes and pathways are apparently involved in the progression of testicular seminoma.

  2. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain

    PubMed Central

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  3. Testicular Prostheses: Development and Modern Usage

    PubMed Central

    Bodiwala, D; Summerton, DJ; Terry, TR

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testicular prostheses produced from various materials have been in use since 1941. The absence of a testicle has been shown to be a psychologically traumatic experience for males of all ages. The indications for insertion of a prosthesis include absence or following orchidectomy from a number of causes such as malignancy, torsion and orchitis. The most common substance used around the world in the manufacture of these implants is silicone; however, in the US, this material is currently banned because of theoretical health risks. This has led to the development of saline-filled prostheses as an alternative. PATIENTS AND METHODS A Medline search was carried out on all articles on testicular prosthesis between 1966 and 2006. CONCLUSIONS This review highlights the controversies regarding prosthetic materials, the complications of insertion and the potential benefits of this commonly performed procedure. PMID:17535609

  4. Testicular chloroma in a nonleukemic infant.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Michael B; Nafiu, Olubukola O; Valdez, Riccardo; Park, John M; Williams, James A; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2005-07-01

    Extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCT) are localized collections of immature myeloid cells that occur outside of the bone marrow. Usually observed concurrently with bone marrow disease, EMCT also may occur in the absence of overt marrow leukemia. In this report, we describe an infant with a testicular mass that was identified as an EMCT after orchiectomy. Unlike the only previously reported case of infantile testicular chloroma, this patient did not exhibit bone marrow disease at diagnosis. Because systemic chemotherapy is considered to be superior to local control (surgery, radiation therapy), the patient was treated with intensively timed induction chemotherapy followed by 3 cycles of maintenance treatment (according to CCG protocol #2891) but no radiation therapy. The patient remains disease-free 18 months after diagnosis.

  5. Management of Low-Stage Testicular Seminoma.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Shane M; Liauw, Stanley L; Eggener, Scott E

    2015-08-01

    Management of testicular seminoma has benefited from numerous advances in imaging, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy over the last 50 years leading to nearly 100% disease-specific survival for low-stage seminoma. This article examines the evaluation and management of low-stage testicular seminoma, which includes clinical stage I and IIA disease. Excellent outcomes for stage I seminoma are achieved with active surveillance, adjuvant radiotherapy, and adjuvant single-agent carboplatin. Current areas of research focus on optimizing surveillance regimens and minimizing the morbidity and long-term complications of adjuvant treatment. Radiotherapy continues to be the primary treatment option for patients with clinical stage IIa disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Methamphetamine use can mimic testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Michael H; Gerscovich, Eugenio O; Corwin, Michael T; Wilkendorf, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    We report the case of a patient presenting with the classic clinical appearance of testicular torsion. Ultrasound showed testicular ischemia supporting the clinical diagnosis, but the lack of visualization of spermatic cord torsion was of concern. An attempt of clinical detorsion was considered unsuccessful and the patient was explored. No torsion was found. On postoperative review of the patient's medical history, we found methamphetamine use, with a positive urine test at the time of his emergent consultation for the scrotal pain episode. The use of amphetamines has been previously reported as the cause of ischemia of multiple organs, but we could not find previous reports of involvement of the testis mimicking torsion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Sexual development in marsupials: genetic characterization of bandicoot siblings with scrotal and testicular maldevelopment.

    PubMed

    Watson, C M; Hughes, R L; Cooper, D W; Gemmell, R T; Loebel, D A; Johnston, P G

    2000-10-01

    In marsupials testis determination requires the presence of a Y chromosome. The sex determining region on the Y gene (SRY) is necessary for testicular development in eutherians and it is assumed to play a similar role in marsupials. Relatively few studies have investigated the genetic basis of sexual development, and as yet there is no direct evidence that SRY is required for testis development in marsupials. Studies on intersexual marsupials have revealed a fundamental difference between marsupial and eutherian sex determination. The scrotum of marsupials is analogous, not homologous, to the eutherian scrotum and is under the control of X-linked genes not androgens. The current study describes two bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus) siblings. Both siblings had underdeveloped male reproductive tracts and testicular dysgenesis, one was ascrotal and the other had a diminutive scrotum. Their karyotypes were normal for this species which eliminates the Y chromosome from some somatic tissues. SRY was detected by Southern blotting. SRY, ubiquitin activating enzyme-1 on the Y (UBE1Y) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene expression were examined. UBE1Y was widely expressed in many tissues. SRY gene expression was much lower than normal in the abnormal siblings and may be responsible for their failure of testicular and epididymal development. The cause of their scrotal abnormalities is unknown. It is possible that the separate defects of scrotal and testis development in the two siblings, which had normal relatives, were due to a mutation in a gene common to both developmental pathways.

  8. PCPH expression is an early event in the development of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Regadera, Javier; Blánquez, María José; González-Peramato, Pilar; Nistal, Manuel; Miller, Jennifer C; Tirado, Oscar M; Notario, Vicente

    2006-03-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) include various malignancies with distinct pathologies that share a common precursor lesion (intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified, ITGCNU, or carcinoma in situ, CIS). TGCTs, as a whole, represent a highly curable tumor paradigm, with high sensitivity to radiotherapy and, especially, to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, a percentage of cases display therapeutic resistance, and the molecular mechanisms underlying such resistant phenotype remain to be elucidated. We put forward the notion that expression of oncogenic forms of the PCPH gene, which are known to confer resistance to radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs, including cisplatin, may be expressed in TGCTs, and thus contribute to the development of therapeutic resistance. To begin testing this concept, we studied PCPH expression in human TGCT cell lines and in 54 solid tumors by RT-PCR, western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that: i) PCPH is expressed in TGCT cell lines and tumors, including CIS; ii) its expression levels vary among different TGCT pathologies, being generally higher in well differentiated regions and lower in areas of predominant proliferation; iii) PCPH expression is substantially increased in tumors relative to matched normal testicular tissue; iv) tumor samples express PCPH polypeptides of low molecular mass, consistent with the known size of the PCPH oncoprotein, that are either absent from, or markedly reduced in, matched normal tissue. Collectively, these results positively identify PCPH as a good early molecular marker for testicular neoplasms, and strongly indicate that immunodetection of truncated PCPH polypeptides may be a useful diagnostic tool for TGCT.

  9. Ultrasonography of Extravaginal Testicular Torsion in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bombiński, Przemysław; Warchoł, Stanisław; Brzewski, Michał; Majkowska, Zofia; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Żerańska, Maria; Panek, Małgorzata; Drop, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible. There is still wide discussion concerning management of ETT, which varies from immediate orchiectomy to conservative treatment resulting in testicle atrophy. Material/Methods In this article we present ultrasonographic spectrum of ETT in neonates, which were diagnosed and treated in our hospital during the last 8 years (2008–2015), in correlation with clinical and intraoperative findings. Results Thirteen neonates with ETT were enrolled in the study – 11 patients with a single testicle affected and 2 patients with bilateral testicular torsion. Most common signs on clinical examination were: hardened and enlarged testicle and discoloration of the scrotum. Most common ultrasonographic signs were: abnormal size or echostructure of the affected testicle and absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography. In 3 patients ultrasound elastography was performed, which appeared very useful in testicle structure assessment. Conclusions Testicular torsion may concern boys even in the perinatal period. Ultrasonographic picture of acute scrotum in young boys may be confused. Coexistence of the abnormal size or echostructure of the torsed testicle with absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography appear as very specific but late ultrasonographic sings. Ultrasound elastography may be a very useful tool for visualisation of a very common clinical sign – hardening of the necrotic testicle. PMID:27757176

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Kaipia, A; Ryymin, P; Mäkelä, E; Aaltonen, M; Kähärä, V; Kangasniemi, M

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the feasibility of contrast enhanced (CE)-dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of testicular torsion induced hypoperfusion in an experimental rat model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral testicular torsion of 360 or 720 degrees. After 1 h, the tail veins of the anaesthetized rats were cannulated and T2 -, diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted CE-dynamic MRI were subsequently performed by a 1.5 T MRI scanner. On apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images, the region of interest values of the ischaemic and control testes was compared. From CE-dynamic MR images, the maximal slopes of contrast enhancement were calculated and compared. In testicular torsion of 360 degrees, the maximal slope of contrast enhancement was 0.072%/s vs. 0.47%/s in the contralateral control testis (p < 0.001). A torsion of 720 degrees diminished the slope of contrast enhancement to 0.046%/s vs. 0.37%/s in the contralateral testis (p < 0.001). Diminished blood flow during torsion also followed in decreased ADC values in both 360 degrees (12.4% decrease; p < 0.05) and 720 degrees (10.8% decrease; p < 0.001) of torsion. Torsion of the testis causes ipsilateral hypoperfusion and decreased gadolinium uptake in a rat model that can be easily detected and quantified by CE-dynamic MRI. In diffusion-weighted MRI images, acute hypoperfusion results in a slight decrease of ADC values. Our results suggest that CE-dynamic MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted MRI can be used to detect compromised blood flow due to acute testicular torsion.

  11. Long-term health effects among testicular cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Hashibe, Mia; Abdelaziz, Sarah; Al-Temimi, Mohammed; Fraser, Alison; Boucher, Kenneth M; Smith, Ken; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Rowe, Kerry; Rowley, Braden; Daurelle, Micky; Holton, Avery E; VanDerslice, James; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Bishoff, Jay; Lowrance, Will; Stroup, Antoinette

    2016-12-01

    Testicular cancer is diagnosed at a young age and survival rates are high; thus, the long-term effects of cancer treatment need to be assessed. Our objectives are to estimate the incidence rates and determinants of late effects in testicular cancer survivors. We conducted a population-based cohort study of testicular cancer survivors, diagnosed 1991-2007, followed up for a median of 10 years. We identified 785 testicular cancer patients who survived ≥5 years and 3323 men free of cancer for the comparison group. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to compare the hazard ratio between the cases and the comparison group and for internal analysis among case patients. Testicular cancer survivors experienced a 24 % increase in risk of long-term health effects >5 years after diagnosis. The overall incidence rate of late effects among testicular cancer survivors was 66.3 per 1000 person years. Higher risks were observed among testicular cancer survivors for hypercholesterolemia, infertility, and orchitis. Chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection appeared to increase the risk of late effects. Being obese prior to cancer diagnosis appeared to be the strongest factor associated with late effects. Testicular cancer survivors were more likely to develop chronic health conditions when compared to cancer-free men. While the late effects risk was increased among testicular cancer survivors, the incidence rates of late effects after cancer diagnosis was fairly low.

  12. Bilateral variant testicular arteries with double renal arteries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The testicular arteries normally arise from the abdominal aorta. There are reports about the variant origin of these arteries. Accessory renal arteries are also a common finding but their providing origin to testicular arteries is an important observation. The variations described here are unique and provide significant information to surgeons dissecting the abdominal cavity. Case presentation During routine dissection classes of abdominal region of a 60-year-old male cadaver, we observed bilateral variant testicular arteries and double renal arteries. Conclusion Awareness of variations of the testicular arteries such as those presented here becomes important during surgical procedures like varicocele and undescended testes. PMID:19187540

  13. Vascularity index distribution within the testis: a technique for guiding testicular sperm extraction.

    PubMed

    Eytan, O; Har-Toov, J; Fait, G; Yavetz, H; Hauser, R; Yogev, L; Botchan, A; Ben-Yosef, D; Elad, D; Jaffa, A J

    2001-09-01

    Azoospermia is defined as the absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, although some foci of spermatogenesis may exist in the testes of these men. Currently, there are no clinical, seminal or hormonal parameters for identifying spermatogenesis within the testis sufficient for achieving genetic offspring. As a result, multiple biopsies are performed at several arbitrary sites of both testes in search of spermatozoa. We developed a power Doppler (PD) ultrasound (US) image-based technique that predicts sites with the greatest potential for spermatogenesis. PDUS images of the testes of azoospermic men were acquired at seven cross-sections to reconstruct a 3-D matrix for constructing a spatial map of preferential regions where spermatozoa are most likely to exist. This technique may obviate the need for arbitrary multiple biopsies that inflict some degree of damage upon testicular tissue, and may increase the success rate of identifying viable spermatozoa in testicular biopsies.

  14. Exposure to Endosulfan can result in male infertility due to testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, R; Raghavan, SC

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and is speculated to be detrimental to human health. However, very little is known about mechanism of its genotoxicity. Using mouse model system, we show that exposure to ES affected physiology and cellular architecture of organs and tissues. Among all organs, damage to testes was extensive and it resulted in death of different testicular-cell populations. We find that the damage in testes resulted in qualitative and quantitative defects during spermatogenesis in a time-dependent manner, increasing epididymal reactive oxygen species levels, affecting sperm chromatin integrity. This further culminated in reduced number of epididymal sperms and actively motile sperms. Finally, we show that ES exposure affected fertility in male but not in female mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that ES exerts pathophysiological changes in mice, induces testicular atrophy, affects spermatogenesis, reduces quantity and vigour of epididymal sperm and leads to infertility in males. PMID:27551453

  15. Laparoscopy and transseptal orchiopexy in the management of transverse testicular ectopia.

    PubMed

    Alamsahebpour, Alireza; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Gupta, Angela; Castellan, Miguel; Campos S, Jose; Gosalbez, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare congenital anomaly in which both testes descend through the same inguinal canal. The most frequent clinical presentation is undescended testis (UDT) with ipsilateral inguinal hernia and contralateral non-palpable testis. This condition is often diagnosed during surgery and is frequently associated with other anomalies. There is controversy in the surgical management of TTE. Considerations for TTE repair include avoiding damage to the testes or vas deferens and detection of other congenital anomalies. Frequently, the vas deferens and testicular tissues are joined, and dissection of these structures can cause damage. In this article, we report four patients with TTE, describe the surgical approach made in each case, and provide a review of the literature.

  16. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion.

  17. Scrotal Involvement with Testicular Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J. A.; O'Brien, F.; Tuthill, A.; Power, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with a traumatic injury to the scrotal region necessitating emergency surgery. Evacuation of a haematoma and bilateral orchidectomy were performed. A left sided nonseminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT), predominantly yolk sac, was identified. Microscopic margins were positive for tumour. Initial tumour markers revealed an AFP of 22,854 ng/mL, HCG of <1 mIU/mL, and LDH of 463 IU/L. Eight weeks after surgery, AFP levels remained elevated at 11,646 ng/mL. Computed tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated left inguinal adenopathy, 1.5 cm in max dimension. On review, extensive evidence of scrotal involvement was evident. His tumour was staged as stage IIIC, poor risk NSGCT. He was treated with 4 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin over a 12-week period. His tumour markers normalised after 3 cycles. There was a marked improvement noted clinically. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated complete resolution of his tumour. He later underwent further surgery to remove a small amount of remaining spermatic cord. Histology revealed no malignant tissue. The patient suffered many complications including testosterone deficiency, osteopenia, infertility, and psychological distress. Discussion. A small proportion of testicular cancer may present in an atypical manner. The scrotum and testicle have markedly different embryonic origins and therefore a distinct anatomic separation. As a result the scrotum is not a typical site of spread of testicular cancer. Case reports have been described that were managed in a similar manner with good outcomes. Therefore, even with significant scrotal involvement, if timely and appropriate treatment is administered, complete resolution of the tumour may be achieved. PMID:27830100

  18. Protective effects of thymoquinone against methotrexate-induced testicular injury.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Ahmet; Oktar, Suleyman; Koc, Ahmet; Yonden, Zafer

    2011-08-01

    Thymoquinone is the major active component derived from Nigella sativa. Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist widely used in clinic. Aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of thymoquinone on testicular toxicity of methotrexate. Experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice (6 weeks old, 20 ± 2 g). The animals were divided into four groups with six mice in each group. Equivalent volumes of saline were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the control group. In the thymoquinone group, mice received thymoquinone i.p. with a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Mice in the methotrexate group received single dose of methotrexate i.p., with a dose of 20 mg/kg. Finally, in the methotrexate plus thymoquinone group, in the first and the following 3 days after methotrexate administration, thymoquinone was injected with a dose of 10 mg/kg/day, i.p. At the end of the experiment, the left testis was quickly removed and divided into two parts for histological examination and biochemical analysis. Methotrexate alone increased total antioxidant capacity and myeloperoxidase activity compared to the controls. Thymoquinone treatment decreased total antioxidant capacity and prevented the increase in the myeloperoxidase activity. Light microscopy showed in mice that receiving methotrexate resulted in interstitial space dilatation, edema, severe disruption of the seminiferous epithelium and reduced diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Administration of thymoquinone reversed histological changes of methotrexate significantly. We suggest that thymoquinone use may decrease the destructive effects of methotrexate on testicular tissue of patients using this agent.

  19. Slow Freezing, but Not Vitrification Supports Complete Spermatogenesis in Cryopreserved, Neonatal Sheep Testicular Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J.; Costa, Guilherme M.; Escobar, Enrique N.; França, Luiz R.; Wildt, David E.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale. PMID:25923660

  20. Slow freezing, but not vitrification supports complete spermatogenesis in cryopreserved, neonatal sheep testicular xenografts.

    PubMed

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander J; Costa, Guilherme M; Escobar, Enrique N; França, Luiz R; Wildt, David E

    2015-01-01

    The ability to spur growth of early stage gametic cells recovered from neonates could lead to significant advances in rescuing the genomes of rare genotypes or endangered species that die unexpectedly. The purpose of this study was to determine, for the first time, the ability of two substantially different cryopreservation approaches, slow freezing versus vitrification, to preserve testicular tissue of the neonatal sheep and subsequently allow initiation of spermatogenesis post-xenografting. Testis tissue from four lambs (3-5 wk old) was processed and then untreated or subjected to slow freezing or vitrification. Tissue pieces (fresh, n = 214; slow freezing, then thawing, n = 196; vitrification, then warming, n = 139) were placed subcutaneously under the dorsal skin of SCID mice and then grafts recovered and evaluated 17 wk later. Grafts from fresh and slow frozen tissue contained the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis, including normal tubule architecture with elongating spermatids in ~1% (fresh) and ~10% (slow frozen) of tubules. Fewer than 2% of seminiferous tubules advanced to the primary spermatocyte stage in xenografts derived from vitrified tissue. Results demonstrate that slow freezing of neonatal lamb testes was far superior to vitrification in preserving cellular integrity and function after xenografting, including allowing ~10% of tubules to retain the capacity to resume spermatogenesis and yield mature spermatozoa. Although a first for any ruminant species, findings also illustrate the importance of preemptive studies that examine cryo-sensitivity of testicular tissue before attempting this type of male fertility preservation on a large scale.

  1. Sorting the hype from the facts in testicular cancer: is testicular cancer related to trauma?

    PubMed

    Merzenich, H; Ahrens, W; Stang, A; Baumgardt-Elms, C; Jahn, I; Stegmaier, C; Jöckel, K H

    2000-12-01

    The rate of testicular cancer is increasing. Trauma severe enough to cause testicular atrophy is a putative risk factor for testicular cancer but the epidemiological evidence is not conclusive. A population based, multicenter case-control study was performed from 1995 to 1997 to investigate potential risk factors for gonadal and extragonadal germ cell cancer. The study was done in 5 German regions. Interviews were performed with 269 eligible male patients with a histologically verified diagnosis and 797 controls. Detailed information on medical and family history was collected at personal interviews. We identified a significantly elevated risk for testicular cancer in relation to testis and/or groin trauma (odds ratio 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51 to 4.20). After introducing a lag time by excluding reports of trauma within the last 12 months before diagnosis or interview the corresponding odds ratio was 2.1 (95% CI 1.24 to 3.61). Analysis of the circumstances and the reported types of injury allowed us to restrict the study to testis trauma specifically, which had an odds ratio of 3.49 (95% CI 1.78 to 6.81). To account for a potential reporting bias analysis was restricted to traumatic episodes for which medical attention was sought. This restriction resulted in an odds ratio of 0.70 (95% CI 0.19 to 2.63) after excluding from study trauma reports within the last 12 months. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that testicular trauma is an important risk factor for testicular cancer. The possibility of recall bias should be considered.

  2. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; EL-Maraghy, Shohda A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity. PMID:26403947

  3. Role of the KATP channel in the protective effect of nicorandil on cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-09-25

    This study is the first to investigate the role of the KATP channel in the possible protection mediated by nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity in rats. Animals received cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 consecutive days and then were untreated for the following 5 days. Nicorandil (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered starting from the day of cyclophosphamide injection with or without glibenclamide (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Nicorandil administration significantly reduced the cyclophosphamide-induced deterioration of testicular function, as demonstrated by increases in the level of serum testosterone and the activities of the testicular 3β- hydroxysteroid, 17β-hydroxysteroid and sorbitol dehydrogenases. Furthermore, nicorandil significantly alleviated oxidative stress (as determined by lipid peroxides and reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity), as well as inflammatory markers (tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and testicular tissue. Finally, the therapy decreased the levels of fibrogenic markers (transforming growth factor-β and hydroxyproline) and ameliorated the histological alterations (as assessed by lung fibrosis grading and testicular Johnsen scores). The co-administration of glibenclamide (a KATP channel blocker) blocked the protective effects of nicorandil. In conclusion, KATP channel activation plays an important role in the protective effect of nicorandil against cyclophosphamide-induced lung and testicular toxicity.

  4. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma testosterone level (ng/ml) while estrogen was not affected. Similarly, BPA caused a significant alteration in the lipid profile. Interestingly, quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity.

  5. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  6. FDG-PET probe-guided surgery for recurrent retroperitoneal testicular tumor recurrences.

    PubMed

    de Jong, J S; van Ginkel, R J; Slart, R H J A; Lemstra, C L; Paans, A M J; Mulder, N H; Hoekstra, H J

    2010-11-01

    Tumor marker based recurrences of previously treated testicular cancer are generally detected with CT scan. They sometimes cannot be visualized with conventional morphologic imaging. FDG-PET has the ability to detect these recurrences. PET probe-guided surgery, may facilitate the extent of surgery and optimize the surgical resection. Three patients with resectable 2nd or 3rd recurrent testicular cancer based on elevated tumor markers after previous various chemotherapy schedules and resections of residual retroperitoneal tumor masses were included in this study. A diagnostic FDG-PET was performed and a hotspot in previously operated area of the retroperitoneal space in all three patients was visualized. PET probe-guided surgery was performed using a high-energy gamma probe 3 h post-injection of 500 MBq FDG. All patients showed extended adhesions and scar tissue in the retroperitoneal area due to the previous surgeries. Pre-operative PET/CT scan showed a good correlation with intra-operative PET probe-guided detection of recurrent lesions. There was a high target to background ratio (TGB) of 5:1 during the procedure. In one patient, a 2 cm large lesion, which did not show on pre-operative FDG-PET scan, was detected with the PET probe. Histopathologic tissue evaluation demonstrated recurrent vital tumor in all PET probe positive lesions. PET probe-guided surgery seems to be a promising tool to localize FDG-PET positive lesion in recurrent testicular cancer in hardly accessible surgical locations. PET probe-guided surgery might be a useful technique in surgical oncology for recurrent testicular cancer and has the potential to be applied in surgery of other malignant diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Genistein alleviates testicular ischemia and reperfusion injury-induced spermatogenic damage and oxidative stress by suppressing abnormal testicular matrix metalloproteinase system via the Notch 2/Jagged 1/Hes-1 and caspase-8 pathways.

    PubMed

    Al-Maghrebi, M; Renno, W M

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMP) during testicular ischemia/reperfusion (t I/R). The involvement of the Notch pathway, and their modulation by the antioxidant genistein is also studied. Three groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: sham rats, t I/R rats, and genistein-treated rats (10 mg/kg). The t I/R rat model underwent testicular artery occlusion of the left testis and was subjected to 60 min ischemia followed by 4 h reperfusion. Protein expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were measured in testicular tissue. Histological examination was performed to assess spermatogenesis. Protein levels of Notch 2, Jagged 1, and hairy/enhancer of split 1 (hes-1) was quantified. The degree of testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and germ cell apoptosis were also evaluated. T I/R induced severe tubular damage, a significant increase in MMP- 2 and MMP-9 expression and decreased expression TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Genistein treatment normalized the MMP-TIMP imbalance. Rats subjected to t I/R had low total antioxidant capacity of the testis, decreased superoxide dismutase activity, and increased oxidative DNA damage. Enhanced activities of caspase 8, caspase 3 and PARP were also observed during t I/R. Genistein reversed the t I/R-induced suppression of the Notch 2/Jagged 1/hes-1 pathway. Genistein was also able to salvage the testicular structure and function through restoring the MMP-TIMP anti-proteolytic balance, suppressing spermatogenic damage, alleviating oxidative stress and apoptosis. The Notch pathway is partly involved in inhibiting the t I/R-induced testicular impairment.

  8. Potential Stemness of Frozen-Thawed Testicular Biopsies without Sperm in Infertile Men Included into the In Vitro Fertilization Programme

    PubMed Central

    Stimpfel, Martin; Skutella, Thomas; Kubista, Mikael; Malicev, Elvira; Conrad, Sabine; Virant-Klun, Irma

    2012-01-01

    We describe the potential stemness of a small amount of frozen-thawed testicular tissue without sperm obtained by biopsy from six patients undergoing assisted reproductive treatment. The patients were diagnosed with Sertoli Cell-Only Syndrome alone or combined with maturation arrest. Trying to provide the natural stem cell niche for cultured stem cells, all isolated cells from enzymatically degraded biopsies where cultured together in different culture media and the presence of putative mesenchymal and putative pluripotent ES-like stem cells was indicated using different methods. High throughput real-time quantitative PCR followed by multivariate analysis revealed the formation of distinct cell clusters reflecting high degree of similarity and some of these cell clusters expressed the genes characteristic for pluripotent stem cells. In the presence of the follicular fluid, prepared as serum, putative testicular stem cells showed a certain degree of plasticity, and spontaneously differentiated into adipose-like and neuronal-like cells. Additionally, using differentiation protocols putative testicular stem cells were differentiated into neuronal- and pancreatic-like cells. This study shows that in assisted reproduction programmes, testicular tissue with no sperm might be an important source of stem cells, although it is discarded in daily medical practice; this requires further research. PMID:22431916

  9. Nonpalpable testicular pure seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein presenting with retroperitoneal metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Shoichiro; Naiki, Taku; Kawai, Noriyasu; Etani, Toshiki; Iida, Keitaro; Ando, Ryosuke; Nagai, Takashi; Okada, Atsushi; Tozawa, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Yosuke; Yasui, Takahiro

    2016-05-05

    Patients with a primary pure seminoma in the testis who have elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein are rare and should be treated as patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors. However, nonpalpable testicular tumors in this condition have never been reported. We describe a case of nonpalpable pure testicular seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein presenting retroperitoneal metastasis. A 29-year-old Asian man was referred to our hospital with right flank pain. Computed tomography showed a mass located between his aorta and inferior vena cava, but a testicular tumor was not detected. His serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein, and DUPAN-2 were high. Although no tumor or nodule was palpable in his testis, ultrasonography revealed multiple low echoic lesions in his right testicular parenchyma. He was diagnosed with right testicular cancer with retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and underwent right high orchiectomy. A pathological examination revealed pure seminoma and no nonseminomatous components were found in the specimen. Three courses of induction systemic chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) normalized his serum alpha-fetoprotein and DUPAN-2 levels. Three additional courses of chemotherapy (etoposide and bleomycin) were performed, and treatment was completed with laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Pathology of the dissected specimen showed fibrous and necrotic tissue with no viable cells. He is alive without recurrence 54 months after orchiectomy. We report a case of pure testicular seminoma with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein and DUPAN-2 presenting retroperitoneal metastasis. We recommend an ultrasound examination of bilateral testes when large retroperitoneal tumors are detected in young men, even if a mass is not palpable in the scrotum.

  10. TDRG1 functions in testicular seminoma are dependent on the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Gan, Yu; Tan, Zhengyu; Zhou, Jun; Kitazawa, Riko; Jiang, Xianzhen; Tang, Yuxin; Yang, Jianfu

    2016-01-01

    Human testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1) is a recently identified gene that is expressed exclusively in the testes and promotes the development of testicular germ cell tumors. In this study, the role of TDRG1 in the development of testicular seminoma, which is the most common testicular germ cell tumor, was further investigated. Based on polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry tests, both gene and protein expression levels of TDRG1 were significantly upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues compared with normal testicular tissues. Additionally, the levels of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/p110 and Akt phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated in testicular seminoma tissues. Accordingly, in our cell experiment, seminoma TCam-2 cells were subjected to different treatments: the TDRG1 knockout, TDRG1 overexpression, PI3K inhibition (LY294002 administration), or PI3K activation (insulin-like growth factor-1 administration). Cell proliferation, the proliferation index, apoptosis rate, cell adhesive capacity, and cell invasion capability were assessed. Cells with both TDRG1 knockout and PI3K inhibition exhibited decreased cell proliferation, proliferation indexes, cell adhesion capacity, and cell invasion capability and increased apoptosis rates. Most of these effects were reversed by TDRG1 overexpression or PI3K activation, indicating that both TDRG1- and PI3K-mediated signaling promote proliferation and invasion of testicular seminoma cells. The knockout of TDRG1 significantly decreased the phosphorylation levels of PI3K/p85, PI3K/p110, Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448). Except for PI3K/p110, TDRG1 overexpression had the opposite effects on phosphorylation levels. Phosphorylated mTOR at Ser2481 and Thr2446 was not affected by TDRG1 or PI3K in our tests. Thus, these results indicate that TDRG1 promotes the development and migration of seminoma cells via the regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

  11. Testicular Cancer in U.S. Navy Personnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    urogenital abnormalities, testicular atrophy and, possibly, with intrauterine exposure to di- ethylstilbestrol (2-7). Peak age of incidence of the...Association of diethylstilbes- trotl exposure in utero with cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia, and semen abnormaliti-s. J Urol 1979,122:36-9. 6. Bibbo

  12. Testicular cancer in androgen insensitivity syndrome in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Ponce, José; Chilaca Rosas, Fátima; Molina Calzada, Carlos; Granados García, Martín; Jiménez Ríos, Miguel Angel; De la Garza Salazar, Jaime

    2008-12-01

    Male pseudohermaphroditism and androgen insensitivity syndrome cases have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer due to many factors such as mutations, hormonal disturbances involving gonadotropins and cryptorchidism. We describe the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of two cases with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and testicular cancer development, which were handled at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico.

  13. Scrotal Exploration for Testicular Torsion and Testicular Appendage Torsion: Emergency and Reality

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You; Zhang, Feng; An, Qun; Wang, Long; Li, Chao; Xu, Zhilin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scrotal exploration is considered the procedure of choice for acute scrotum. Objectives: We evaluated the importance of early diagnosis and testicular salvage on the therapeutic outcomes of patients with pediatric testicular torsion (TT) and testicular appendage torsion (TAT) in our geographic area. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective database analysis of patients who underwent emergency surgery for TT or TAT between January 1996 and June 2009. Patient history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, color Doppler sonography (CDS) results, and surgical findings were reviewed. Results: A total of 65 cases were included in our analysis. Forty-two cases were followed up for at least 3 months. Testicular tenderness was identified as the major clinical manifestation of TT, while only a few patients with TAT presented with swelling. CDS was an important diagnostic modality. The orchiectomy rate was 71% in the TT group. Conclusions: Cases of acute scrotum require attention in our area. Early diagnosis and scrotal exploration could salvage the testis or preserve normal function without the need for surgery. PMID:26199690

  14. Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.; Kane, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This study compared secondary health teachers' beliefs concerning teaching about testicular cancer (TC) and self-examination (TSE) to actual instruction. TC and TSE education levels were low. Perceived barriers to teaching about TSE was the main predictor of TSE instruction. Teachers with previous preparation in TC and TSE provided the most…

  15. MicroRNA profiles in a monkey testicular injury model induced by testicular hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Mikamoto, Kei; Shirai, Makoto; Iguchi, Takuma; Ito, Kazumi; Takasaki, Wataru; Mori, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To characterize microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in testicular toxicity in cynomolgus monkeys, miRNA profiles were investigated using next‐generation sequencing (NGS), microarray and reverse transcription‐quantitative real‐time‐PCR (RT‐qPCR) methods. First, to identify organ‐specific miRNAs, we compared the expression levels of miRNAs in the testes to those in representative organs (liver, heart, kidney, lung, spleen and small intestine) obtained from naïve mature male and female monkeys (n = 2/sex) using NGS analysis. Consequently, miR‐34c‐5p, miR‐202‐5p, miR‐449a and miR‐508‐3p were identified to be testicular‐specific miRNAs in cynomolgus monkeys. Next, we investigated miRNA profiles after testicular–hyperthermia (TH) treatment to determine which miRNAs are involved in testicular injury. In this experiment, mature male monkeys were divided into groups with or without TH‐treatment (n = 3/group) by immersion of the testes in a water bath at 43 °C for 30 min for 5 consecutive days. As a result, TH treatment induced testicular injury in all animals, which was characterized by decreased numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids. In a microarray analysis of the testis, 11 up‐regulated (>2.0 fold) and 13 down‐regulated (<0.5 fold) miRNAs were detected compared with those in the control animals. Interestingly, down‐regulated miRNAs included two testicular‐specific miRNAs, miR‐34c‐5p and miR‐449a, indicating their potential use as biomarkers for testicular toxicity. Furthermore, RT‐qPCR analysis revealed decreased expression levels of testicular miR‐34b‐5p and miR‐34c‐5p, which are enriched in meiotic cells, reflecting the decrease in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids after TH treatment. These results provide valuable insights into the mechanism of testicular toxicity and potential translational biomarkers for testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology

  16. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Emmanuel O; Adeeyo, Olusola A; Falokun, Olutunde P; Yusuf, Uthman A; Oyerinde, Abiodun; Adeleke, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. AIM: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum: Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyse the results obtained. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life–death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. CONCLUSION: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19562072

  17. Testicular atrophy following paediatric primary orchidopexy: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Durell, J; Johal, N; Burge, D; Wheeler, R; Griffiths, M; Kitteringham, L; Stanton, M; Manoharan, S; Steinbrecher, H; Malone, P; Griffin, S J

    2016-08-01

    With the Nordic consensus statement advocating orchidopexy at an earlier age, the present study sought to investigate the outcomes of primary paediatric orchidopexy at a tertiary UK centre. To prospectively assess testicular atrophy following primary orchidopexy for undescended testes in a paediatric population. Secondary outcomes were complication rates and whether outcomes were dependent on grade of operating surgeon. Prospective data regarding age at operation, classification of the undescended testis, length of follow-up, and subjective comparison of intraoperative and postoperative testicular volumes compared with the contralateral testis were collected. Testicular atrophy was defined as >50% loss of testicular volume or a postoperative testicular volume <25% of the volume of the contralateral testis. Patients were excluded for incomplete data and follow-up <6 months. Data for 234 patients were analysed. Testicular atrophy occurred in 2.6% of cases. There was no reported testicular re-ascent. All secondary acquired cases underwent a previous ipsilateral hernia repair. There was no significant difference in outcomes comparing the grade of surgeon (consultant n = 8, trainee/staff-grade surgeon n = 7-8). There was a trend towards postoperative catch-up growth in approximately one fifth of cases. Previous studies have reported a testicular atrophy rate of 5%. The present study reported a similar rate of 2.6%. In agreement with a previous publication, it was also found that testicular atrophy was not dependent on the grade of operating surgeon. The mechanism for testicular catch-up growth is not well understood. Animal studies have supported the hypothesis that increased temperature has a detrimental effect on testicular volume. However, follow-up in the present cohort was short (median 6.9 months), making interpretation of this finding difficult. It is acknowledged that clinical palpation alone to determine testicular volume potentially introduces intra

  18. Testicular microlithiasis in a unilateral undescended testis: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Manchanda, V; Gupta, R

    2013-12-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a rare benign condition with presence of multiple small microcalcifications in the seminiferous tubules. Though the aetiology is unknown, TM has been described in association with a variety of urological conditions. We report the clinico-pathological features of a 12-year-old male child who underwent orchidectomy for undescended testis. Histopathological examination of the excised testis showed multiple small intratubular calcifications without any evidence of testicular neoplasia. TM is an unusual phenomenon that should be kept in mind while evaluating testicular biopsies. Though it behaves in a benign manner in most of the cases, patients with positive family history of testicular cancer should be followed-up for testicular tumour.

  19. Development and clinical application of a new testicular prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Ye; Cai, Zhikang; Chen, Huixing; Ping, Ping; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhong; Li, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    A new type of testicular prosthesis made of silastic with an elliptical shape to mimic a normal testis was developed by our team and submitted for patenting in China. The prosthesis was produced in different sizes to imitate the normal testis of the patient. To investigate the effects and safety of the testicular prosthesis, 20 patients receiving testicular prosthesis implantation were recruited for this study. Follow-up after 6 months revealed no complications in the patients. All the patients answered that they were satisfied with their body image and the position of the implants, 19 patients were satisfied with the size and 16 patients were satisfied with the weight. These results show that the testicular prosthesis used in this study can meet patient's expectations. Patients undergoing orchiectomy should be offered the option to receive a testicular prosthesis implantation. The dimensions and weight of the available prosthetic implants should be further addressed to improve patient satisfaction. PMID:21927041

  20. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men.

  1. Applications for precision cutting of sharpening CVD diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Fuminori; Yoshikawa, Masanori

    1995-12-31

    A thick CVD diamond has been expected to the applications for cutting tools. But it is difficult to sharpen thick CVD diamond films by means of a conventional sharpening method using diamond grinding wheel for forming a large chipping of scores of micrometers at the cutting edge. Accordingly, we have made a thermochemical polishing n apparatus capable of polishing a sharpening for cutting tool and thick CVD diamond films were processed by this apparatus. And then the cutting test by aluminum alloy was conducted and the cutting performance of thick CVD diamond films polished by thermochemical polishing method was evaluated.

  2. Testicular microlithiasis and preliminary experience of acoustic radiation force impulse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Elastography of the testis can be used as a part of multiparametric examination of the scrotum. Purpose To determine the testicular stiffness using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) technique in men with testicular microlithiasis (TML). Material and Methods In 2013, 12 patients with diagnosed testicular microlithiasis in 2008 (mean age, 51 years; age range, 25–76 years) underwent a 5-year follow-up B-mode ultrasonography with three ARFI elastography measurements of each testis. We used a Siemens Acuson S3000 machine. Results No malignancy was found at the 5-year follow-up B-mode and elastography in 2013. However, we found an increase in TML; in the previous ultrasonography in 2008, eight men had bilateral TML, whereas in 2013, 10 men were diagnosed with bilateral TML. The mean elasticity of testicles with TML was 0.82 m/s (interquartile range [IQR], 0.72–0.88 m/s; range, 65–1.08 m/s). Conclusion Elastography velocity of testis with TML seems to be in the same velocity range as in men with normal testis tissue. PMID:27504193

  3. A phytooxysterol, 28-homobrassinolide modulates rat testicular steroidogenesis in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Premalatha, R; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Rani, S Judith Amala; Srikumar, K; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2013-05-01

    Steroidogenesis in testicular cells depends upon the availability of cholesterol within testicular mitochondria besides the activities of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [17b-HSD]), and the tissue levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), androgen-binding protein (ABP), and testosterone (T). Cellular cholesterol biosynthesis is regulated by endogenous oxycholesterols acting through nuclear hormone receptors. Plant oxysterols, such as 28-homobrassinolide (28-HB), available to human through diet, was shown to exhibit antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic male rat. Its role in rat testicular steroidogenesis and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was therefore assessed using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. Administration of 28-HB (333 µg/kg body weight) by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days to experimental rats diminished LPO, increased antioxidant enzyme, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities, and elevated StAR and ABP expression and T level in rat testis. We report that 28-HB induced steroidogenesis in normal and diabetic rat testis.

  4. Protective effects of quercetin against arsenic-induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Baltaci, B B; Uygur, R; Caglar, V; Aktas, C; Aydin, M; Ozen, O A

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of quercetin on changes in testes due to arsenic exposure. Twenty-seven male rats were divided into three groups: control (10 ml kg(-1)  day(-1) saline), arsenic (10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) sodium arsenite) and arsenic + quercetin (arsenic + 50 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) quercetin). The rats were sacrificed at the end of 15-day experiment. There was no difference between control group and arsenic group in body weight gain, testicular weight and serum total testosterone level. Quercetin treatment did not cause a significant difference in these parameters. In the arsenic group rats, we determined deterioration in the structure of seminiferous tubules, a decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells, a decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities, and an increase in the MDA level in testicular tissue. In all these changes, arsenic+quercetin group showed an improved compared to arsenic group. The amount of arsenic increased in the arsenic group was compared to the control group, and there was no difference between arsenic group and arsenic + quercetin group in the amount of arsenic. In conclusion, quercetin prevented arsenic-induced testicular damage with its anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects.

  5. Effects of anabolic steroid (19-nortestosterone) on the secretion of testicular hormones in the stallion.

    PubMed

    Nagata, S; Kurosawa, M; Mima, K; Nambo, Y; Fujii, Y; Watanabe, G; Taya, K

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of anabolic steroids on the testicular endocrine function of mature stallions. Mature thoroughbred stallions were treated with 800 mg nandrolone decanoate every 3 weeks for 3 months. After the first treatment, plasma concentrations of LH, immunoreactive inhibin and testosterone decreased rapidly to the nadir. These hormones were maintained at significantly lower concentrations compared with concentrations in intact stallions. Histology of the testicular tissue indicated the arrest of advanced spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules and a severe depletion of the number of Leydig cells in the interstitial compartment as a result of treatment. Most of the immunopositive cells for the inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenesis enzymes in the interstitial compartment decreased below detectable amounts, whereas immunopositive reactions of inhibin alpha-subunit in the seminiferous tubules were clearly observed. In conclusion, the treatment of mature stallions with nandrolone decanoate caused a decrease in the secretion of ir-inhibin and testosterone from the testis, the depletion of the number of Leydig cells and a decrease below detectable amounts of inhibin alpha-subunit and steroidogenesis enzymes. The concentration of ir-inhibin in the peripheral blood may be a useful marker for the examination of testicular activity in stallions being treated with anabolic steroids.

  6. Epitope mapping of mAbs to denatured human testicular ACE (CD143).

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, I V; Metzger, R; Franke, F E; Conrad, N; Towbin, H; Schwartz, D E; Sturrock, E D; Danilov, S M

    2008-10-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE; CD143) has two homologous enzymatically active domains (N and C) and plays a crucial role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. A wide spectrum of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to different epitopes on the N and C domains of human ACE have been used to study different aspects of ACE biology. In this study, we characterized a set of nine mAbs, developed against the C domain of human ACE, which recognize the denatured forms of ACE and thus are suitable for the detection and quantification of somatic ACE (sACE) and testicular ACE (tACE) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded human tissues. The epitopes for these mAbs were defined using species cross-reactivity, phage display library screening, Western blotting and ACE mutagenesis. Most of the mAbs recognized common/overlapping region(s) on both somatic and testicular forms of human ACE, whereas mAb 4E10 was relatively specific for the testicular isoform and mAb 5B9 mainly recognized the glycan attached to Asn 731. This set of mAbs is useful for identifying even subtle changes in human ACE conformation because of denaturation. These mAbs are also sensitive tools for the detection of human sACE and tACE in biological fluids and tissues using proteomic approaches. Their high reactivity in paraffin-embedded tissues provides opportunities to study changes in the pattern of ACE expression and glycosylation (particularly with mAb 5B9) in different tissues and cells.

  7. Effect of Pre-Fixation Delay and Freezing on Mink Testicular Endpoints for Environmental Research

    PubMed Central

    Spörndly-Nees, Ellinor; Ekstedt, Elisabeth; Magnusson, Ulf; Fakhrzadeh, Azadeh; Luengo Hendriks, Cris L.; Holm, Lena

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in using wild animals to monitor the real-life cocktail effect of environmental chemicals on male reproduction. However, practical difficulties, such as long distances to the laboratory, generally prolong the time between euthanisation and specimen handling. For instance, tissue fixation is often performed on frozen material or on material where deterioration has started, which may affect tissue morphology. This study examined the effect of pre-fixation delay and freezing on mink testicular endpoints in order to determine robust endpoints in suboptimally handled specimens. Sexually mature farmed mink (n=30) selected at culling were divided into six groups and subjected to different time intervals between euthanisation and fixation or freezing: 0 hours (fixed immediately post mortem), 6 hours, 18 hours, 30 hours, 42 hours, or frozen 6 hours post mortem and thawed overnight. Unaffected endpoints when pre-fixation storage was extended to 30 hours included: area and diameter of the seminiferous tubules, length and weight of the testes, and acrosomes marked with Gata-4. Epithelial height, Sertoli cells marked with Gata-4 and cell morphology were affected endpoints after 6 hours of storage. Freezing the tissue prior to fixation severely altered cell morphology and reduced testicular weight, tubular diameter and area. Morphological changes seen after 6 hours included shredded germ cells and excess cytoplasm in seminiferous tubular lumen, chromatin rearrangements and increased germ cell death. Extended delay before fixation and freezing affected many endpoints in the mink testicular tissue. Some of these endpoints may mimic chemically induced effects, which is important to consider when evaluating specimens from wild animals for environmental toxicity. PMID:25933113

  8. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  9. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  10. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  11. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  12. [A case of neonatal testicular torsion].

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Satoshi; Nanpo, Yoshihito; Kuramoto, Tomomi; Iba, Akinori; Fujii, Reona; Matsumura, Nagahide; Shintani, Yasuyo; Inagaki, Takeshi; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Hara, Isao

    2008-12-01

    An infant normally delivered at the 38th week of gestation was referred to our department one day after birth for a firm and painless right hemiscrotal mass with bluish coloration. Since contralateral scrotum showed swelling, we performed emergency surgery on that day. The right spermatic cord was constricted due to extravaginal torsion, and degree and direction of torsion was unclear since the spermatic cord was already organized. Right testis showed irreversible necrotic change, requiring orchiectomy. We confirmed that left testis was intact and performed orchidopexy. Since high incidence of contralateral asymptomatic torsion has been reported in patients with prenatal testicular torsion, emergency surgery should be considered when contralateral scrotum shows abnormal findings.

  13. Protective effects of hesperidin in experimental testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Emrah; Sahin, Nurhan; Turtay, Muhammet Gökhan; Oguz, Fatih; Ciftci, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, in a model of testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Material and methods Forty-two pubertal male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into six groups: group 1 – control; group 2 – 50 mg/kg hesperidin (low dose hesperidin) used without torsion (LH group); group 3 – 100 mg/kg hesperidin without torsion (HH group); group 4 – torsion/detorsion group (T/D); group 5 – T/D + 50 mg/kg hesperidin treatment group (T/D + LH); and group 6 – T/D + 100 mg/kg hesperidin treatment group (T/D + HH). Hesperidin was given to the treatment groups 30 min before detorsion. After the fourth hour of reperfusion, orchiectomy was performed on the rats under anesthesia. The tissue samples were examined histologically and biochemically. Results In the T/D group testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased significantly (p < 0.001) whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased compared to the control and other groups. However, hesperidin caused the effect of T/D to become closer to normal biochemical values. In addition, the histological examinations showed that T/D caused damage in the testis but hesperidin reduced this effect. The effects of hesperidin were found to be dose dependent. Thus, applying high doses would generate greater therapeutic effects. Conclusions In a rat testicular T/D model we observed biochemical and histological damage due to ischemia. However, high and low dose applications of hesperidin were shown to have protective effects against this damage. Therefore, the aforementioned citrus flavonoid may provide positive results in cases of testicular torsion. PMID:27695481

  14. Effect of nickel sulfate on testicular steroidogenesis in rats during protein restriction.

    PubMed Central

    Das, Kusal K; Dasgupta, Shakuntala

    2002-01-01

    Nickel, a widely used heavy metal, exerts potent toxic effects on peripheral tissues as well as on the reproductive system. Low dietary protein coupled with exposure to this metal induces more severe changes, including biochemical defects, structural disorders, and altered physiologic functions. This study was designed to assess the effects of nickel sulfate on testicular steroidogenesis and to ascertain whether such alterations are reversible with normal protein and protein-restricted dietary regime. Nickel sulfate [2 mg/100 g body weight (bw)] dissolved in double-distilled water was administered on alternate days for 10 doses in a normal protein diet (18% casein) and a protein-restricted diet (5% casein) to Wistar male albino rats (bw 160 +/- 5 g). Two groups, one with a normal protein diet and the other with a protein-restricted diet, served as controls. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, all the animals except those in withdrawal groups were sacrificed by decapitation. We observed a significant reduction in the activities of the testicular steroidogenic enzymes and plasma testosterone concentration accompanied by a significant elevation in cholesterol and ascorbic acid level in both dietary groups. After 15 days of withdrawal from the nickel sulfate treatment, the testicular steroidogenic enzymes, along with plasma testosterone level, improved significantly in both normal protein-fed and protein-restricted dietary groups. The effects of nickel on testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid concentration were also reduced after withdrawal. Our results indicate that nickel sulfate affects the steroidogenic enzymes, causing alteration in the formation of testosterone in both dietary groups, which was manifested in the elevated cholesterol and ascorbic acid level with decreased activities of steroidogenic enzymes in adult rats testes. However, these alterations were reversible in both groups of animals fed normal protein diets and protein-restricted diets

  15. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Amann, R P

    1986-01-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalcy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animal models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. A 50 or 90% reduction in the number of fertile sperm deposited during mating probably will not markedly reduce fertility. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. For each male, a piece of testicular tissue should be appropriately fixed and an aliquot of parenchyma should be homogenized to allow enumeration of homogenization-resistant spermatids. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis. PMID

  16. Origin and evolution of somatic cell testicular tumours in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Silvina; Venara, Marcela; Rey, Rodolfo; di Clemente, Nathalie; Chemes, Héctor E

    2010-08-01

    Transgenic mice bearing a construct in which the expression of the SV40 oncogene is directed by the AMH promoter (AT mice) develop testicular tumours in adult life. We aimed to study early steps of tumour development and characterize tumours at different ages by histological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical techniques. One- to 3-month-old AT mice depicted multifocal Leydig cell hyperplasia. The testicular volume occupied by interstitial tissue was significantly higher in 3-month-old AT mice in comparison with littermate controls. Between 5 1/2 and 7 months, microscopic interstitial tumours developed that progressively evolved to form large confluent areas of high mitotic index in 7- to 14-month-old AT mice. Tumour cells had the characteristics and histoarchitecture of Leydig cells, or formed solid cord-like structures reminiscent of those seen in Sertoli cell tumours. Hyperplastic areas and tumours diffusely expressed 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) in Leydig cell areas. AMH expression was negative in Leydig cell conglomerates and tumours and variable in cord-like tumours. The SV40 T antigen and markers of cell proliferation (PCNA) were intensely positive in hyperplastic cells and tumours. Control mice of similar ages showed neither hyperplasia nor tumours, and SV40 T expression was always negative. In conclusion, transgenic mice develop large testicular tumours that are preceded by interstitial hyperplasia and microtumours. The histological and immunohistochemical phenotype of tumours (Leydig and Sertoli cell differentiation, positive 3beta-HSD, and variable AMH) suggests a mixed differentiation of somatic cells of the specialized gonadal stroma. The finding that an oncogene directed by a promoter specifically active in fetal Sertoli cells has given rise to testicular tumours of mixed differentiation is compatible with a common origin of Leydig and Sertoli cells from the specific stroma of the gonadal ridge, as supported by double labelling

  17. Effect of Physalis peruviana L. on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Othman, Mohamed S; Nada, Ahmed; Zaki, Hassan S; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species and causes tissue damage. We investigated here the protective effect of Physalis peruviana L. (family Solanaceae) against cadmium-induced testes toxicity in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were used. They were divided into four groups (n=7). Group 1 was used as control. Group 2 was intraperitoneally injected with 6.5 mg/kg body weight (bwt) of cadmium chloride for 5 days. Group 3 was orally treated with 200 mg/kg bwt of methanolic extract of physalis (MEPh). Group 4 was pretreated with MEPh before cadmium for 5 days. Changes in body and testes weights were determined. Oxidative stress markers, antioxidant enzymes, and testosterone level were measured. Histopathological changes of testes were examined, and the immunohistochemical staining for the proapoptotic (caspase-3) protein was performed. The injection of cadmium caused a significant decrease in body weight, while a significant increase in testes weight and testes weight index was observed. Pretreatment with MEPh was associated with significant reduction in the toxic effects of Cd as shown by reduced testicular levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and caspase-3 expression and increased glutathione content, and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and testosterone were also increased. Testicular histopathology showed that Cd produced an extensive germ cell apoptosis, and the pretreatment of MEPh in Cd-treated rats significantly reduced Cd-induced testicular damage. On the basis of the above results, it can be hypothesized that P. peruviana L. has a protective effect against cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat.

  18. Bilateral Testicular Tumors Resulting in Recurrent Cushing Disease After Bilateral Adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Puar, Troy; Engels, Manon; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Sweep, Fred C G J; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin; Chortis, Vasileios; Arlt, Wiebke; Stikkelbroeck, Nike; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedi L; Hermus, Ad R M M

    2017-02-01

    Recurrence of hypercortisolism in patients after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease is extremely rare. We present a 27-year-old man who previously underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease with complete clinical resolution. Cushingoid features recurred 12 years later, with bilateral testicular enlargement. Hormonal tests confirmed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing disease. Surgical resection of the testicular tumors led to clinical and biochemical remission. Gene expression analysis of the tumor tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed high expression of all key steroidogenic enzymes. Adrenocortical-specific genes were 5.1 × 105 (CYP11B1), 1.8 × 102 (CYP11B2), and 6.3 × 104 (MC2R) times higher than nonsteroidogenic fibroblast control. This correlated with urine steroid metabolome profiling showing 2 fivefold increases in the excretion of the metabolites of 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, and total glucocorticoids. Leydig-specific genes were 4.3 × 101 (LHCGR) and 9.3 × 100 (HSD17B3) times higher than control, and urinary steroid profiling showed twofold increased excretion of the major androgen metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone. These distinctly increased steroid metabolites were suppressed by dexamethasone but unresponsive to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation, supporting the role of ACTH, but not luteinizing hormone, in regulating tumor-specific steroid excess. We report bilateral testicular tumors occurring in a patient with recurrent Cushing disease 12 years after bilateral adrenalectomy. Using mRNA expression analysis and steroid metabolome profiling, the tumors demonstrated both adrenocortical and gonadal steroidogenic properties, similar to testicular adrenal rest tumors found in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, suggesting the presence of pluripotent cells even in patients without congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  19. Development of testicular lesions in F344 rats after treatment with boric acid.

    PubMed

    Treinen, K A; Chapin, R E

    1991-02-01

    Boric acid is an inorganic acid that impairs fertility in male rodents. A reproductive assessment by continuous breeding study found that male rats treated with boric acid had decreased fertility and sperm motility. In order to determine the cell type that is first affected by boric acid, we have examined the development of the boric acid-induced testicular lesion by light and electron microscopy. Adult F344 male rats were fed 9000 ppm boric acid in NIH-07 rat chow for up to 4 weeks. The first testicular lesion noted was an inhibition of spermiation, which appeared by Day 7. Widespread exfoliation of apparently viable germ cells, and pachytene cell death in stages VII and XIV, appeared as exposure continued. After 28 days of dosing, extreme epithelial disorganization and germ cell loss were evident. To determine if there was a hormonal component to the boric acid-induced testicular lesion, serum levels of basal, hCG-, and LHRH-stimulated testosterone levels were measured. After 4 days of dosing, basal testosterone levels were lower than controls and remained low during dosing. However, serum testosterone levels were similar in both boric acid-treated and control animals after either hCG or LHRH challenge. To determine if boron was preferentially accumulated by the testis, boron levels in testis, epididymis, liver, kidney, and blood were measured. Boron levels had effectively reached steady-state levels by Day 4 and were not differentially concentrated in the tissues examined. Thus, these studies characterize the testicular lesion produced by boric acid exposure and identify a decrease in basal serum testosterone levels in the absence of selective accumulation of boron in the testis.

  20. A caecal pseoudotumour with an incidental adenomatoid testicular tumour in a man with right undescended testis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Alex; Kotecha, Vihar; Ojee, Cynthia; Mang'oka, Desmond; Muthuri, John

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumour refers to a non-malignant tumour-like mass resulting from an inflammatory reaction that is composed of granulation tissue with leukocyte infiltration that commonly occurs in the paediatric or young adult population. These tumours occur more commonly in the lungs and the orbit but rarely does it affect the gastrointestinal tract. It poses a clinical diagnostic challenge since it is a benign condition than can mimic the malignant counterpart. Our case is a rare presentation of the caecal pseudotumour in the presence of a right undescended abdominal testis evaluated as a caecal tumour with a differential diagnosis of a testicular malignancy. We report a 53-year-old male who presented with clinical signs suggestive of right colon tumour and undescended right testis. Intra-operatively, a caecal mass was found with no clearly discernable appendix and extensive adhesion of the right colon to the retroperitoneum, to the liver and gall bladder. A testis was found adherent to the posterior aspect of the caecum and terminal ileum. A right hemicolectomy was performed. Histopathology findings revealed an inflammatory mass with abundant fibroblast proliferation and chronic inflammatory cells infiltrate, involving bowel wall and periceacal adipose tissue; no malignant cells were identified. The testis had within it an adenomatoid tumour nodule. He had uneventful recovery and was discharged home 7 days post-operatively. At the moment, he is symptoms free. The occurrence of right colonic inflammatory pseudotumour and co-existent adenomatoid testicular tumour arising from a cryptorchid testis is very unusual. This would make one incline towards a malignant testicular lesion in the presence of cryptorchidism. Testicular adenomatoid tumour is a rare benign neoplasm, mostly affecting fully descended testis and usually does not warrant orchidectomy for purposes of preserving testicular function. On the other hand, surgical resection remains the only safe and

  1. The Impact of Oxidative Stress on Testicular Function and the Role of Antioxidants in Improving it: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, Nematollah; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Kheradmand, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important factor for development of male infertility because of very high rate of cell division and mitochondrial oxygen consumption in testicular tissue as well as comparably higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids in this tissue than in other tissues. Moreover, the level of oxygen pressure is low due to the weakness of testicular artery; therefore, there is a severe cell competition for oxygen. Therefore, the testicular tissue and male reproductive system are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. On the other hand, exposure to X-ray, toxins and chemicals found in the environment as well as specific physical conditions such as varicocele can exacerbate the oxidative stress and induce apoptosis of germ cells and subsequently spermatogenesis. However, under normal conditions, the body’s capacity to produce antioxidants for inhibiting adverse effects of oxidative stress is affected by metabolic process and genetic structure. Besides that, environmental factors such as diet, pollutants, and chemicals can affect this capacity. Thus, the body’s antioxidant system alone is not able to neutralize all free radicals and prevent harmful complications of oxidative stress. Therefore, use of antioxidants and development of antioxidant therapy can break down the oxidative chain reaction and play a very significant role in increasing the body’s capacity to fight free radical-induced oxidative stress, and therefore improve the process of spermatogenesis. PMID:28658802

  2. Protective effects of ibuprofen on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Dokmeci, Dikmen; Kanter, Mehmet; Inan, Mustafa; Aydogdu, Nurettin; Basaran, Umit Nusret; Yalcin, Omer; Turan, Fatma Nesrin

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of ibuprofen on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. A total of 48 prepubertal male Wistar albino rats were divided into two models: early and late orchiectomy. Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720 degrees in a clockwise direction. The ischemia period was 5 h and orchiectomy was performed after 5 h of detorsion in the early orchiectomy model (EOM). In the late orchiectomy model (LOM), the ischemia period was 5 h and orchiectomy was performed after 7 days of detorsion. In the EOM, ibuprofen (70 mg/kg, po) was administrated only once, 40 min prior to detorsion. In the LOM, ibuprofen (70 mg/kg, po) was administered 40 min before detorsion, once daily for 7 days. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed in all groups to measure the tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and to microscopically investigate light and electrons. The presence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity was shown with immunohistochemical studies. Spermatogenesis and mean seminiferous tubule diameter (MSTD) were significantly decreased in ipsilateral and contralateral testis when both early and late I/R groups were compared to the sham groups. Furthermore, ibuprofen-treated animals showed an improved histological appearance in both models of testicular torsion. Ibuprofen treatment prevented lipid peroxidation resulting in decreased MDA accumulation in the testes of both models. After I/R, eNOS immunoreactivity was increased in the testicular tissues. Ibuprofen treatment decreased eNOS immunoreactivity in the germ cells of the tubules in the contralateral testes, but intense eNOS immunoreactivity was shown in the ipsilateral testes of the LOM. Electron microscopy of the testes of rats demonstrated that ibuprofen pretreatment was particularly effective in preventing the mitochondrial degeneration in both Sertoli and spermatid cells in the LOM. Because of its anti

  3. Experimental Escherichia coli epididymitis in rats: assessment of testicular involvement in a long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pilatz, A; Ceylan, I; Schuppe, H C; Ludwig, M; Fijak, M; Chakraborty, T; Weidner, W; Bergmann, M; Wagenlehner, F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate spermatogenesis and testicular inflammation in a rat model of unilateral Escherichia coli epididymitis in a long-term follow-up. Unilateral epididymitis was induced in 30 Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting E. coli into the right ductus deferens. Oral antimicrobial treatment with sparfloxacin (50 mg kg(-1) body weight/7 days) was administered in half of the animals 24 h after infection. Five treated and five untreated rats were killed at 2 weeks, 3 months and 6 months after infection. Spermatogenesis was investigated using a histological semi-quantitative score. The presence of inflammatory cells (B- and T lymphocytes, macrophages and granulocytes) in the testicular tissues was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The testes were sterile at all times. Over the course of 6 months, spermatogenesis underwent significant incremental impairment on the inoculated side as compared to the contralateral side (P < 0.001). However, overall spermatogenesis scores were not significantly different between treated and untreated animals (P > 0.3 at each time point). Finally, loss of testicular architecture on the inoculated side was not associated with any cellular inflammatory response. Thus, adjuvant therapies need to be studied, and research is necessary on how to prevent deterioration of testicular function in bacterial epididymitis.

  4. The histopathological evaluation of healing effects of vitamin C administered before methotrexate therapy on testicular injury induced by methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Sayılmaz, Aysun; Karabulut, Yasemin Yuyucu; Özgörgülü, Aydan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Methotrexate (MTX) leads to acute toxic side effects in tissues or organs containing rapidly dividing cells such as seminiferous tubules. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of vitamin C against MTX-induced injury in rat testis. Material and methods A total of 31 rats were divided into 4 groups, including the control group. The study was completed within 4 weeks and the rats received daily doses of 2 mL/kg SF, 100 mg/kg vitamin C and 10 mg/kg/day MTX i.p according to their groups. The mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score were determined by histologic examination of each group. Results The vitamin C + MTX group showed more similarity with the control group. Statistically significant results were achieved between groups as for mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score. When compared with the group which received vitamin C after MTX therapy, values for mean seminiferous tubular diameter, germinal epithelial cell thickness, and mean testicular biopsy score were significantly higher in the group which received vitamin C before initiation of MTX therapy. Conclusion Vitamin C decreased MTX-induced testicular histological injuries, especially when used before MTX therapy. PMID:27909615

  5. Testicular cancer in US Navy personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, F.C.; Gorham, E.D.; Garland, C.F.; Ducatman, A.M.

    1988-02-01

    Computerized career history and demographic information is obtained four times each year for all active-duty US Navy enlisted personnel by the Naval Health Research Center in San Diego, California. This system provided demographic, occupational (110 occupations), and service history information for enlisted men serving during 1974-1979 (2,275,829 person-years). This analysis is restricted to white males because of the relatively small number of events in nonwhites. Age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates of testicular cancer in US Navy personnel did not differ significantly from those of the US population, and age-adjusted incidence rates did not increase with length of service in the Navy. There was a group of three occupations, however, which involved duties similar to those of the civilian occupation of automobile mechanic, and which had a significantly elevated age-adjusted rate of testicular cancer compared with the US population and the total Navy population. These occupations were aviation support equipment technician, engineman, and construction mechanic. All involve maintenance of internal combustion engines and exposure to the attendant lubricants, solvents, paints, and exhausts.

  6. Baldness, acne and testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Sweeney, Anne M.; Amato, Robert J.; Strom, Sara S.; McGlynn, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen levels during critical periods of testicular development may be involved in the etiology of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). We evaluated the roles of adolescent and early adult life correlates of androgen exposure and TGCT in a hospital-based case control study. TGCT cases (n=187) and controls (n=148), matched on age, race and state of residence, participated in the study. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations between TGCT and male pattern baldness, severe acne, markers of puberty onset and body size. Cases were significantly less likely to report hair loss than controls (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). Amount of hair loss, increasing age at onset and increasing rate of loss were all inversely associated with TGCT (rate of hair loss: p-trend=0.03; age at onset: p-trend=0.03; amount of hair loss: p-trend=0.01). History of severe acne was inversely associated with TGCT (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3, 0.9) and height was positively associated with TGCT (p-trend=0.02). Increased endogenous androgen levels during puberty and early adulthood may be associated with decreased risk of TGCT. Additional studies of endogenous hormone levels during puberty and early adult life are warranted, especially studies evaluating the role of androgen synthesis, metabolism and uptake. PMID:21128977

  7. Organ-sparing approaches for testicular masses.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, Alvaro; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Jewett, Michael A S

    2010-08-01

    Organ-sparing approaches are currently practiced in urology for many malignancies. Partial orchiectomy of germ cell tumors (GCT) provides potential benefits over radical surgery by reducing the need for androgen substitution, lessening psychological stress, and preserving fertility, with a durable cure rate. Furthermore, many testicular lesions detected clinically or by ultrasonography will be benign, in which case radical orchiectomy represents overtreatment. Partial orchiectomy for benign lesions allows preservation of endocrine and exocrine function, and reduced risk of local recurrence. However, selection criteria are not clear and one must always be suspicious that a GCT might exist. Carcinoma in situ that remains in the salvaged testicle is a challenge to treat. Radiation therapy is an option, although there is a high chance that patients will subsequently require hormonal replacement. Partial orchiectomy should be undertaken only in selected patients--men with bilateral testicular cancer or GCT in a solitary testis--if the size and location of the mass are amenable to surgery. Informed patient consent discussing radical orchiectomy as the gold standard is mandatory, and discussion of the risks associated with CIS and its treatment, as well as the need for androgen supplementation are paramount. Alternative strategies of organ preservation, such as radiotherapy, HIFU and chemotherapy, might be appropriate treatment options in the future. However, the safety and efficacy of these procedures needs to be demonstrated in comparison with partial orchiectomy in larger and prospective studies with longer follow-up.

  8. New insights into perinatal testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion is a relatively rare event that remains unrecognized in many patients or is suspected and treated accordingly only after an avoidable loss of time. The authors report their own experience with several patients, some of them quite atypical but instructive. Missed bilateral torsion is an issue, as are partial torsion, possible antenatal signs, and late presentation. These data are discussed together with the existing literature and may help shed new light on the natural course of testicular torsion and its treatment. The most important conclusion is that a much higher index of suspicion based on clinical findings is needed for timely detection of perinatal torsion. It is the authors’ opinion that immediate surgery is mandatory not only in suspected bilateral torsions but also in cases of possible unilateral torsions. There is no place for a more fatalistic “wait-and-see” approach. Whenever possible, even necrotic testes should not be removed during surgery because some endocrine function may be retained. PMID:19856186

  9. Ultra-Fast and Optimized Method for the Preparation of Rodent Testicular Cells for Flow Cytometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Homogeneity of cell populations is a prerequisite for the analysis of biochemical and molecular events during male gamete differentiation. Given the complex organization of the mammalian testicular tissue, various methods have been used to obtain enriched or purified cell populations, including flow cell sorting. Current protocols are usually time-consuming and may imply loss of short-lived RNAs, which is undesirable for expression profiling. We describe an optimized method to speed up the preparation of suitable testicular cell suspensions for cytometric analysis of different spermatogenic stages from rodents. The procedure takes only 15 min including testis dissection, tissue cutting, and processing through the Medimachine System (Becton Dickinson). This method could be a substitute for the more tedious and time-consuming cell preparation techniques currently in use. PMID:19495915

  10. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    PubMed

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  11. Relationship between Testicular Volume and Conventional or Nonconventional Sperm Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita; Calogero, Aldo E.; La Vignera, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Background. Reduced testicular volume (TV) (<12 cm3) is associated with lower testicular function. Several studies explored the conventional sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphology) and the endocrine function (gonadotropins and testosterone serum concentrations) in the patients with reduction of TV. No other parameters have been examined. Aim. This study aims at evaluating some biofunctional sperm parameters by flow cytometry in the semen of men with reduced TV compared with that of subjects with normal TV. Methods. 78 patients without primary scrotal disease were submitted to ultrasound evaluation of the testis. They were divided into two groups according to testicular volume: A Group, including 40 patients with normal testicular volume (TV > 15 cm3) and B Group, including 38 patients with reduced testicular volume (TV ≤ 12 cm3). All patients underwent serum hormone concentration, conventional and biofunctional (flow cytometry) sperm parameters evaluation. Results. With regard to biofunctional sperm parameters, all values (mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation) were strongly negatively correlated with testicular volume (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. This study for the first time in the literature states that the biofunctional sperm parameters worsen and with near linear correlation, with decreasing testicular volume. PMID:24089610

  12. Testicular seminoma in a 75-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Devanney, James F; Devanney, James R

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer is an uncommon cancer and of the estimated 7,920 new cases diagnosed in 2013, 370 will result in death. It is most common in young or middle-aged males and rarely occurs in older males. Ninety-five percent of these cancers originate in sperm-producing germ cells. There are two different subclasses of testicular cancer, namely nonseminoma and seminoma. Nonseminoma testicular cancers, such as embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac carcinomas, choriocarcinomas, and teratomas usually affect younger-aged males, whereas seminoma testicular cancers often occur in older males. It is unclear why testicular cancer is rare in older men, but because it is so unusual in older men, the diagnosis is frequently overlooked when presenting with signs suggestive of testicular carcinoma. A 75-year-old male recently presented with signs and symptoms classically descriptive of testicular cancer. The patient was treated with an orchiectomy. The pathologic evaluation of the excised testicle confirmed the diagnosis of a seminoma. This report is an account of the case from initial visit to treatment and a discussion of its relevance.

  13. Is testis-sparing surgery safe in small testicular masses? Results of a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Keske, Murat; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Yalcin, Serdar; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Kibar, Yusuf; Tuygun, Can; Onder, Evrim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Yildirim, Asif; Ozkanli, Sidika Seyma; Kandemir, Olcay; Kargi, Taner; Sar, Mehmet; Tugcu, Volkan; Resorlu, Berkan; Aslan, Yilmaz; Sarikaya, Selcuk; Boylu, Ugur; Cicek, Ali Fuat; Basar, Halil; Tuncel, Altug; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2017-01-01

    Our goal was to evaluate benign and malignant lesions and testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in the neighbouring normal-appearing testis tissue in men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular mass with a pathologic tumour size of ≤3cm. In this retrospective, multicentre study, data of 252 patients from 11 different institutions were included. Patients were divided into three groups based on tumour size: Group 1 (0-1 cm; n=35), Group 2 (1.1-2cm; n=99), and Group 3 (2.1-3 cm; n=118). Benign lesions and TIN were sought in the neighbouring testicular tissue and compared between groups. Mean patient age was 32.3 years. Benign lesions were reported in 54.3%, 33.3%, and 14.4% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p<0.05 between groups). TIN was detected in 20%, 42.4%, and 41.5% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p<0.05 for Group 1 vs. Groups 2 and 3; p>0.05 for Groups 2 vs. 3). Multifocality was detected in 8.6%, 4%, and 0% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p<0.05 for both Group 1 vs. Group 3 and for Group 2 vs. Group 3; p>0.05 for Group 1 vs. Group 2). A tumour cutoff size of 1.5 cm was found to be significant for detecting benign tumour. TIN and multifocality rates were similar in patients with a tumour size of ≤1.5 vs. >1.5 cm (p>0.05). Benign lesions and TIN in the neighbouring testis were significantly decreased and multifocality was increased in patients with a tumour mass size of ≤1 cm. Testis-sparing surgery should be performed with caution and a safety rim of normal tissue should also be excised.

  14. Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.; hide

    1992-01-01

    Testes from flight rats on COSMOS 2044 and simulated-launch, vivarium, or caudal-elevation control rats (5/group) were analyzed by subjective and quantitative methods. On the basis of observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups. Considering rats without preexisting abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (P less than 0.05) in flight than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other or to Sertoli cells and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Expression of testis-specific gene products was not greatly altered by flight. Furthermore, there was no evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp7O or hsp9O genes. Concentration of receptors for rat luteinizing hormone in testicular tissue and surface density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cells were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20% of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Exposure to microgravity for more than 2 wk might result in additional changes. Sequelae of reduced androgen production associated with microgravity on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered.

  15. Is testis-sparing surgery safe in small testicular masses? Results of a multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Keske, Murat; Canda, Abdullah Erdem; Yalcin, Serdar; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Kibar, Yusuf; Tuygun, Can; Onder, Evrim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Yildirim, Asif; Ozkanli, Sidika Seyma; Kandemir, Olcay; Kargi, Taner; Sar, Mehmet; Tugcu, Volkan; Resorlu, Berkan; Aslan, Yilmaz; Sarikaya, Selcuk; Boylu, Ugur; Cicek, Ali Fuat; Basar, Halil; Tuncel, Altug; Balbay, Mevlana Derya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to evaluate benign and malignant lesions and testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) in the neighbouring normal-appearing testis tissue in men who underwent radical orchiectomy for testicular mass with a pathologic tumour size of ≤3cm. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre study, data of 252 patients from 11 different institutions were included. Patients were divided into three groups based on tumour size: Group 1 (0–1 cm; n=35), Group 2 (1.1–2cm; n=99), and Group 3 (2.1–3 cm; n=118). Benign lesions and TIN were sought in the neighbouring testicular tissue and compared between groups. Results Mean patient age was 32.3 years. Benign lesions were reported in 54.3%, 33.3%, and 14.4% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p<0.05 between groups). TIN was detected in 20%, 42.4%, and 41.5% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p<0.05 for Group 1 vs. Groups 2 and 3; p>0.05 for Groups 2 vs. 3). Multifocality was detected in 8.6%, 4%, and 0% of Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p<0.05 for both Group 1 vs. Group 3 and for Group 2 vs. Group 3; p>0.05 for Group 1 vs. Group 2). A tumour cutoff size of 1.5 cm was found to be significant for detecting benign tumour. TIN and multifocality rates were similar in patients with a tumour size of ≤1.5 vs. >1.5 cm (p>0.05). Conclusions Benign lesions and TIN in the neighbouring testis were significantly decreased and multifocality was increased in patients with a tumour mass size of ≤1 cm. Testis-sparing surgery should be performed with caution and a safety rim of normal tissue should also be excised. PMID:28360955

  16. Embryonic testicular regression sequence: A part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Marcantonio, S.M.; Fechner, P.Y.; Migeon, C.J.; Perlman, E.J.; Berkovitz, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on a group of 9 subjects who had a 46,XY karyotype, ambiguous genitalia, abnormalities of sexual duct formation, and lack of gonadal tissue on one or both sides. This is sometimes referred to as {open_quotes}embryonic testicular regression.{close_quotes} Previous investigators have suggested that this condition results from loss of testes at a critical stage in development. The authors examined the possibility that embryonic testicular regression is part of the clinical spectrum of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Four subjects totally lacked gonadal tissue, three of them having ambiguous genitalia, and one a micropenis. The development of incongruous sexual ducts (presence of Muellerian ducts in the subject with micropenis, and absence of Muellerian and Wolffian ducts in two subjects with ambiguous genitalia) suggests that the embryonic gonads were intrinsically functionally abnormal before their disappearance. Five subjects had unilateral gonadal tissue, ambiguous genitalia, and a mix of Wolffian and Muellerian structures. The development of incongruous sexual ducts in 3 of them, the presence of ambiguous external genitalia in 5, and the presence of abnormal gonadal histology in 2 patients all indicate an underlying abnormality of gonadal differentiation in these subjects. The occurrence of testicular regression in several subjects in the family of one patient suggests a genetic basis for the condition. The presence of multiple congenital anomalies in other subjects in the study suggests either a mutation in a single gene that functions in several developmental pathways, or a defect of multiple genes that might be the result of a chromosome deletion. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was sequenced in five subjects and was normal in all of them, suggesting that the underlying genetic abnormality in these subjects is located in one of several genes that function subsequent to SRY in the early stages of testis differentiation. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    PubMed

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (p<0.001). Notable also was the poor awareness of the potential curability of TC, this also being improved following the intervention (p<0.001). A poor level of awareness and practice of testicular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.037. Age, gender and marital status were without

  18. Metastatic Testicular Choriocarcinoma: A Rare Cause of Upper GI Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Jacqueline; Armstrong, Sharon; Walsh, Shaun; Groome, Max; Mowat, Craig

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old man who presented with melena. Endoscopy revealed an ulcerated mass in the stomach and pathology confirmed this to be a malignant, poorly differentiated choriocarcinoma. Further imaging showed a left testicular mass with evidence of pulmonary, gastric, and brain metastases, and blood tests revealed an hCG level of 32,219 U/L. He was diagnosed with advanced metastatic testicular choriocarcinoma and underwent intensive induction chemotherapy and an orchidectomy. Metastatic testicular choriocarcinoma is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26504875

  19. Presumed Testicular Rupture During a College Baseball Game

    PubMed Central

    Freehill, Michael T.; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D.; Davis, Ronald L.; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to palpation after blunt trauma, testicular rupture should be suspected and prompt ultrasound and urologic assessment should be undertaken, as early operative intervention is necessary for testicular preservation. This report reviews testicular trauma during athletic competition. PMID:25984265

  20. Testicular atrophy as a consequence of inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Reid, I; Devlin, H B

    1994-01-01

    Testicular atrophy is an uncommon but well recognized complication of inguinal hernia repair and one that frequently results in litigation. A series of ten cases of testicular atrophy occurring after hernia repair in nine patients is presented. Identifiable risk factors were present in eight instances. Surgeons should make careful enquiries as to previous groin or scrotal surgery and, when indicated, warn the patient before surgery of the increased risk of testicular atrophy. Overzealous dissection of a distal hernia sac, dislocation of the testis from the scrotum into the wound and concomitant scrotal surgery should all be avoided.

  1. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  2. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced testicular toxicity and differential testicular expression of estrogen receptor in male mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Chun-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Chen, Gang; Qiu, Liang-Lin; Jiang, Jun-Kang; Ben, Shuai; Wang, Yu-Bang; Gu, Ai-Hua; Wang, Xin-Ru

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, CAS#1763-23-1) causes male reproductive toxicities, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, 0, 0.5 and 10mg/kg/day PFOS were given by oral gavage to adult mice for 5 weeks. In the 10mg/kg group, serum testosterone levels decreased significantly. Sperm counts declined which might be associated with the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells. In relation to increased apoptosis, bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 levels elevated significantly, indicating that PFOS induced germ cell apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the increase in levels of testicular estrogen receptor (ER) β was observed in both 0.5 and 10mg/kg group, whereas a decrease in ERα expression was only observed in 10mg/kg group. These results suggested that the alterations in testicular ERs expression, together with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells, might be involved in PFOS-induced testicular toxicity.

  3. [Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Hui; Hu, Hui-Rong; Ma, Xue-Lian; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Guo-Hong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the influence of cellphone electromagnetic radiation (CER) on the testicular ultrastructure and the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells in male rats.atability, feasibility, applicability, and controllability in the construction of experimental animal models, we compared the major anatomic features of the penis of 20 adult beagle dogs with those of 10 adult men. Using microsurgical techniques, we performed cross-transplantation of the penis in the 20 (10 pairs) beagle dogs and observed the survival rate of the transplanted penises by FK506+MMF+MP immune induction. We compared the relevant indexes with those of the 10 cases of microsurgical replantation of the amputated penis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a 2 h CER, a 4 h CER, and a normal control group, the former two groups exposed to 30 days of 900 MHz CER for 2 and 4 hours a day, respectively, while the latter left untreated. Then the changes in the ultrastructure of the testis tissue were observed under the transmission electron microscope and the apoptosis of the spermatogenic cells was determined by TUNEL. Compared with the normal controls, the rats of the 2 h CER group showed swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, increased cell intervals, apparent vacuoles and medullization in some mitochondria, and increased apoptosis of spermatogenic cells, mainly the apoptosis of primary spermatocytes (P<0.05 ). In comparison with the 2 h CER group, the animals of the 4 h CER group exhibited swollen basement membrane of seminiferous tubules, more separated tight junction of Sertoli cells, wider cell intervals, incomplete membrane of spermatogonial cells, fragments of cytoplasm, nuclear pyknosis and notch, slight dilation of perinuclear space, abnormalities of intracellular mitochondria with vacuoles, fuzzy structure, and fusion or disappearance of some cristae, and increased damage of mitochondria and apoptosis of spermatogenic

  4. Chemical sterilisation of Bos indicus bull calves following intratesticular injection of zinc acetate: effects on semen quality and testicular changes.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, J; Wang, M; Johnson, L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects in Bos indicus bull calves of intratesticular administration of 1mL of either saline (n=9) or one of the two doses of zinc acetate (ZA1, 57.75mg, n=10 or ZA2, 71.75mg, n=10) on semen quality and testicular changes. Semen was collected by electroejaculation on Days 343, 524 and 783 and animals were slaughtered on Day 860. Treatment reduced median maximum number of progressively motile and morphologically normal sperm collected (P=0.001) and the percentage of animals in which sperm were recovered (saline: 100%, 9/9; ZA1: 44.9%, 4/9 and ZA2: 40.0%, 4/10; P=0.013). Compared to saline treated controls, treatment with ZA reduced the mean diameter of the testes after Day 34 of treatment (treatment×time, P=0.013) and total testicular weight at slaughter (treatment: mean±SEM; saline: 569.4±59.0g, ZA1: 249.3±72.9g, ZA2: 247.5±68.1g; P=0.004). Histological changes in testes of bulls treated with ZA were characterized by germ cell depletion, vacuolation of Sertoli cells, interstitial fibrosis, epididymal duct atrophy with variable remnants of testicular tissue and degeneration. We conclude that intratesticular administration of two doses of ZA in B. indicus calves is able to severely impair spermatogenesis and cause varying degrees of testicular degeneration and a reduction in testicular diameter and mass. Further investigation is required to determine ways of obtaining more consistent results from treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  6. Bilateral perinatal testicular torsion: successful salvage supports emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Granger, Jeremy; Brownlee, Ewan M; Cundy, Thomas P; Goh, Day Way

    2016-06-15

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) has poor rates of testicular salvage. Although rare, bilateral PTT carries the risk of anorchia. We present a case of a 2-day-old term infant with acute onset right-sided scrotal discolouration and tenderness. The infant was promptly taken to the operating theatre for emergency scrotal exploration. Bilateral extravaginal testicular torsion was identified, with the right testis appearing to have a more established ischaemic appearance compared to that on the left side. Intraoperative findings were representative of metachronous PTT with a short time period of only several hours separating the torsion events. Both testes were detorted and fixated in the scrotum. The infant made an uneventful recovery. Outpatient clinic review at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively confirmed no clinical evidence of testicular atrophy. Given the potential for contralateral torsion and the morbidity of anorchia, our experience supports the role for emergency scrotal exploration in suspected PTT.

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... fertility) that are not related to cancer. Family history Having a close blood relative (father or brother) ... with testicular cancer do not have a family history of the disease. HIV infection Some evidence has ...

  8. Insights into the nature of human testicular peritubular cells.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Human testicular peritubular cells are myofibroblast-like cells that surround the seminiferous tubules and are responsible for tubular contractility and sperm transport. In the last few years, several reports have augmented this simplified view, showing that peritubular cells are not only structural cells but also actively secrete paracrine mediators, thereby influencing the homeostasis of the testicular environment. This review is focussed on general aspects and functions of testicular peritubular cells, their potential role in male infertility and also on the recently described in vitro culture systems of human testicular peritubular cells, which will enable us to gain deeper insight into the regulation and functions of this peculiar cell type in health and disease.

  9. [Diagnosis and treatment of primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Romics, Miklós; Demeter, Judit; Romics, Imre; Nyirády, Péter

    2014-01-12

    The primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which has been first described in 1866, is a very uncommon type of urological neoplasia occuring mostly in the elderly ages. It only gives 5% of the testicular tumors, 2% of extranodal lymphomas, and barely 1% of all non-Hodgkin diseases. Patients with testicular non-Hodgkin lymphomas need prompt multidisciplinary aid because without treatment the outcome can be unfavorable. The authors discuss the attributes, diagnostic modalities and treatment options of the primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma and present a case of a 68-year-old patient who underwent orchiectomy, chemo- and radiotherapy after having been diagnosed with the tumor. The follow-up PET-CT and cerebrospinal fluid analysis found no further sign of the disease, and complete remission has been achieved.

  10. Toxic effect of cyclophosphamide on sperm morphology, testicular histology and blood oxidant-antioxidant balance, and protective roles of lycopene and ellagic acid.

    PubMed

    Ceribaşi, Ali Osman; Türk, Gaffari; Sönmez, Mustafa; Sakin, Fatih; Ateşşahin, Ahmet

    2010-09-01

    In this study, the toxic effect of cyclophosphamide (CP) on sperm morphology, testicular histology and blood oxidant-antioxidant balance, and protective roles of lycopene (LC) and ellagic acid (EA) were investigated. For this purpose, 48 healthy, adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups; eight animals in each group. The control group was treated with placebo. LC, EA and CP groups were given alone LC (10 mg/kg/every other day), EA (2 mg/kg/every other day) and CP (15 mg/kg/week) respectively. One of the last two groups received CP + LC, and the other treated with CP + EA. All treatments were maintained for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, morphological abnormalities of sperm, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels, and GSH-peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in erythrocytes, and testicular histopathological changes were examined. CP administration caused statistically significant increases in tail and total abnormality of sperm, plasma MDA level and erythrocyte SOD activity, and decreases in erythrocyte CAT activity, diameters of seminiferous tubules, germinal cell layer thickness and Johnsen's Testicular Score along with degeneration, necrosis, immature germ cells, congestion and atrophy in testicular tissue. However, LC or EA treatments to CP-treated rats markedly improved the CP-induced lipid peroxidation, and normalized sperm morphology and testicular histopathology. In conclusion, CP-induced lipid peroxidation leads to the structural damages in spermatozoa and testicular tissue of rats, and also LC or EA have a protective effect on these types of damage.

  11. Sensitivity of fetal rat testicular steroidogenesis to maternal prochloraz exposure and the underlying mechanism of inhibition.

    PubMed

    Blystone, Chad R; Lambright, Christy S; Howdeshell, Kembra L; Furr, Johnathan; Sternberg, Robin M; Butterworth, Brian C; Durhan, Elizabeth J; Makynen, Elizabeth A; Ankley, Gerald T; Wilson, Vickie S; Leblanc, Gerald A; Gray, L Earl

    2007-06-01

    The fungicide prochloraz (PCZ) induces malformations in androgen-dependent tissues in male rats when administered during sex differentiation. The sensitivity of fetal testicular steroidogenesis to PCZ was investigated to test the hypothesis that the reported morphological effects from maternal exposure were associated with reduced testosterone synthesis. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed by gavage with 0, 7.8, 15.6, 31.3, 62.5, and 125 mg PCZ/kg/day (n = 8) from gestational day (GD) 14 to 18. On GD 18, the effects of PCZ on fetal steroidogenesis were assessed by measuring hormone production from ex vivo fetal testes after a 3-h incubation. Lastly, PCZ levels in amniotic fluid and maternal serum were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy and correlated to the inhibition of steroidogenesis. Fetal progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone production levels were increased significantly at every PCZ dose, whereas testosterone levels were significantly decreased only at the two high doses. These results suggest that PCZ inhibits the conversion of progesterone to testosterone through the inhibition of CYP17. To test this hypothesis, PCZ effects on CYP17 gene expression and in vitro CYP17 hydroxylase activity were evaluated. PCZ had no effect on testicular CYP17 mRNA levels as measured by quantitative real-time polymersase chain reaction. However, microsomal CYP17 hydroxylase activity was significantly inhibited by the fungicide (K(i) = 865nM). Amniotic fluid PCZ concentrations ranged from 78 to 1512 ppb (207-4014nM) and testosterone production was reduced when PCZ reached approximately 500 ppb, which compares favorably with the determined CYP17 hydroxylase K(i) (326 ppb). These results demonstrate that PCZ lowers testicular testosterone synthesis by inhibiting CYP17 activity which likely contributes to the induced malformations in androgen-dependent tissues of male offspring.

  12. Simple and Efficient Technique for the Preparation of Testicular Cell Suspensions

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Casuriaga, Rosana; Folle, Gustavo A.; Santiñaque, Federico; López-Carro, Beatriz; Geisinger, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian testes are very complex organs that contain over 30 different cell types, including somatic testicular cells and different stages of germline cells. This heterogeneity is an important drawback concerning the study of the bases of mammalian spermatogenesis, as pure or enriched cell populations in certain stages of sperm development are needed for most molecular analyses1. Various strategies such as Staput2,3, centrifugal elutriation1, and flow cytometry (FC)4,5 have been employed to obtain enriched or purified testicular cell populations in order to enable differential gene expression studies. It is required that cells are in suspension for most enrichment/ purification approaches. Ideally, the cell suspension will be representative of the original tissue, have a high proportion of viable cells and few multinucleates - which tend to form because of the syncytial nature of the seminiferous epithelium6,7 - and lack cell clumps1 . Previous reports had evidenced that testicular cell suspensions prepared by an exclusively mechanical method clumped more easily than trypsinized ones1 . On the other hand, enzymatic treatments with RNAses and/or disaggregating enzymes like trypsin and collagenase lead to specific macromolecules degradation, which is undesirable for certain downstream applications. The ideal process should be as short as possible and involve minimal manipulation, so as to achieve a good preservation of macromolecules of interest such as mRNAs. Current protocols for the preparation of cell suspensions from solid tissues are usually time-consuming, highly operator-dependent, and may selectively damage certain cell types1,8 . The protocol presented here combines the advantages of a highly reproducible and extremely brief mechanical disaggregation with the absence of enzymatic treatment, leading to good quality cell suspensions that can be used for flow cytometric analysis and sorting4, and ulterior gene expression studies9 . PMID:23963251

  13. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

    PubMed Central

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes. PMID:22892924

  14. Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.

    PubMed

    Al-Damegh, Mona Abdullah

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of electromagnetic radiation from conventional cellular phone use on the oxidant and antioxidant status in rat blood and testicular tissue and determine the possible protective role of vitamins C and E in preventing the detrimental effects of electromagnetic radiation on the testes. The treatment groups were exposed to an electromagnetic field, electromagnetic field plus vitamin C (40 mg/kg/day) or electromagnetic field plus vitamin E (2.7 mg/kg/day). All groups were exposed to the same electromagnetic frequency for 15, 30, and 60 min daily for two weeks. There was a significant increase in the diameter of the seminiferous tubules with a disorganized seminiferous tubule sperm cycle interruption in the electromagnetism-exposed group. The serum and testicular tissue conjugated diene, lipid hydroperoxide, and catalase activities increased 3-fold, whereas the total serum and testicular tissue glutathione and glutathione peroxidase levels decreased 3-5 fold in the electromagnetism-exposed animals. Our results indicate that the adverse effect of the generated electromagnetic frequency had a negative impact on testicular architecture and enzymatic activity. This finding also indicated the possible role of vitamins C and E in mitigating the oxidative stress imposed on the testes and restoring normality to the testes.

  15. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Naresh; Venugopala, Kandgal

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in a normal male with 46, XY karyotype. Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is rare form of testicular ectopia in which two testes are located on one inguinal side. The opposite scrotum is empty. PMDS with TTE is rare. We report a case of PMDS with TTE discovered during surgery for a right inguinal hernia in a 25-year-old male. PMID:27512542

  16. Protective role of erythropoietin during testicular torsion of the rats.

    PubMed

    Yazihan, Nuray; Ataoglu, Haluk; Koku, Naim; Erdemli, Esra; Sargin, Ayse Kose

    2007-10-01

    Testicular torsion is an important clinical urgency. Similar mechanisms occurred after detorsion of the affected testis as in the ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage. This study was designed to investigate the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment after unilateral testicular torsion. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 underwent a sham operation of the right testis under general anesthesia. Group 2 was same as sham, and EPO (3,000 IU/kg) infused i.p., group 3 underwent a similar operation but the right testis was rotated 720 degrees clockwise for 1 h, maintained by fixing the testis to the scrotum, and saline infused during the procedure. Group 4 underwent similar torsion but EPO was infused half an hour before the detorsion procedure, and in group 5, EPO was infused after detorsion procedure. Four hours after detorsion, ipsilateral and contralateral testes were taken out for evaluation. Treatment with EPO improved testicular structures in the ipsilateral testis but improvement was less in the contralateral testis histologically, but EPO treatment decreased germ cell apoptosis in both testes following testicular IR. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and nitrite levels decreased after EPO treatment especially in the ipsilateral testis. We conclude that testicular I/R causes an increase in germ cell apoptosis both in the ipsilateral and contralateral testes. Erythropoietin has antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects following testicular torsion.

  17. Testicular germ cell tumors: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Albers, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors represent the most common solid malignancy of young men aged 15-40 years. Histopathologically, testicular germ cell tumors are divided into two major groups: pure seminoma and nonseminoma. The pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumors remains unknown; however, cryptorchidism is the main risk factor, and molecular studies have shown strong evidence of an association between genetic alterations and testicular germ cell tumors. In cases of suspicion for testicular germ cell tumor, a surgical exploration with orchiectomy is obligatory. After completion of diagnostic procedures, levels of serum tumor markers and the clinical stage based on the International Union Against Cancer tumor-node-metastasis classification should be defined. Patients with early-stage testicular germ cell tumors are treated by individualized risk stratification within a multidisciplinary approach. The individual management (surveillance, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) has to be balanced according to clinical features and the risk of short-term and long-term toxic effects. Treatment for metastatic tumors is based on risk stratification according to International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification and is performed with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and residual tumor resection in cases of residual tumor lesion. High-dose chemotherapy represents a curative option for patients with second or subsequent relapses.

  18. Propolis attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Sherine M; Zaki, Hala F; Mina, Mary A M

    2014-05-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), an effective anticancer agent, can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect of propolis extract on Dox-induced testicular injury. Rats were divided into four groups (n=10). Group I (normal control), group II received propolis extract (200 mg kg(-1); p.o.), for 3 weeks. Group III received 18 mg kg(-1) total cumulative dose of Dox i.p. Group IV received Dox and propolis extract. Serum and testicular samples were collected 48 h after the last treatment. In addition, the effects of propolis extract and Dox on the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice were investigated. Dox reduced sperm count, markers of testicular function, steroidogenesis and gene expression of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). In addition, it increased testicular oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with propolis extract prevented Dox-induced changes without reducing its antitumor activity. Besides, administration of propolis extract to normal rats increased serum testosterone level coupled by increased activities and gene expression of 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD. Propolis extract may protect the testis from Dox-induced toxicity without reducing its anticancer potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic features and markers for testicular cancer management.

    PubMed

    Leman, Eddy S; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Testicular neoplasm accounts for about 1% of all cancers in men. Over the last 40 years, the incidence of testicular cancer has increased in northern European male populations for unknown reasons. When diagnosed at early stage, testicular cancer is usually curable with a high survival rate. In the past three decades, successful multidisciplinary approaches for the management of testicular cancer have significantly increased patient survival rates. Utilization of tumor markers and accurate prognostic classification has also contributed to successful therapy. In this article, we highlight the most commonly used tumor markers and several potential "novel" markers for testicular cancer as part of the ongoing effort in biomarker research and discovery. In addition, this article also identifies several key prognostic features that have been demonstrated to play a role in predicting relapse. These features include tumor size, rete testis invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and tumor histology. Together with tumor markers, these prognostic factors should be taken into account for risk-adapted management of testicular cancer.

  20. Analysis of the prognosis of patients with testicular seminoma

    PubMed Central

    DONG, WEI; GANG, WANG; LIU, MIAOMIAO; ZHANG, HONGZHEN

    2016-01-01

    Testicular seminoma is a common malignancy, accounting for 35–50% of testicular tumors. Comprehensive therapies lead to good curative efficacy. However, the factors that affect prognosis remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to analyze the 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rate of patients with testicular seminoma as well as the associated factors of prognosis. The clinical data from 58 patients diagnosed with testicular seminoma were collected betweeen January 1999 and January 2014. The survival rate for this group was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Associated factors of prognosis were analyzed using the log-rank test. The results showed that approximately 62.1% of the cases were in the 30- to 50-year age group. From this age group, 94.8% of patients survived for 3 years, 86.2% for 5 years and 70.7% for 10 years. A significant difference was identified for the different clinical stages, pathological types and postoperative treatment in the 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates (P<0.05). In conclusion, the clinical stages, pathological types and postoperative treatments significantly affect the prognosis of testicular seminoma. Selection of an appropriate method of treatment including the clinical stages and histological types, is the key element in testicular seminoma therapy. PMID:26893743

  1. Epigenetics: a way to understand the origin and biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keisei

    2012-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors are neoplasms carrying two unique features. First, testicular germ cell tumors have a pluripotential nature and show protean histology ranging from that of germ cells to embryonal and differentiated somatic cells. Therefore, testicular germ cell tumors are interesting resources positioned at a crossroad in developmental and neoplastic processes. The second unique feature of testicular germ cell tumors is their exquisite sensitivity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This review summarizes recent research progress in the epigenetics of testicular germ cell tumors in an attempt to explain the abovementioned biological and clinical characteristics of testicular germ cell tumors.

  2. Testicular biopsy and cryopreservation for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome: a pro/con debate.

    PubMed

    Gies, Inge; Oates, Robert; De Schepper, Jean; Tournaye, Herman

    2016-02-01

    In about one-half of adult Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients, spermatozoa can be retrieved by means of testicular biopsy (TESE). Given the expected increase in the number of diagnosed KS patients owing to the use of noninvasive prenatal testing, the probable questions of young KS patients and their parents regarding future fertility, and the fact that widespread apoptosis of spermatogonia occurs at onset of puberty, an attempt to increase the retrieval rates at TESE above those found in adult KS men by undertaking preservation techniques peripubertally has been initiated. To date, however, only a limited number of KS adolescents have been examined, demonstrating no increases in the chances of finding sperm. Furthermore, spermatogonial stem cell and testicular tissue freezing techniques, as well as in vitro maturation strategies, require further validation. Given these controversies, banking testicular tissue from prepubertal KS boys should be performed only in a research framework. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lack of effect on rat testicular organogenesis after in utero exposure to 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD).

    PubMed

    El Ramy, Rosy; Ould Elhkim, Mostafa; Poul, Martine; Forest, Maguelone G; Leduque, Patrick; Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Brigitte

    2006-10-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a food-born contaminant known to display toxic effects on male reproduction, producing infertility in rats and humans. Using the rat as a model, we investigated whether or not testicular organogenesis, which, in the rat species, occurs during the second half of gestation, was at particular risk regarding 3-MCPD toxicity. Pregnant rats were given daily doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg BW of 3-MCPD from days 11.5-18.5 postcoitum (dpc). On 19.5 dpc, testes were removed from fetuses for histological examination and testosterone analysis. Eight genes were selected among the differentiation markers of testicular cell lineages, and their expression was studied by RT-PCR. The levels of 3-MCPD and its main metabolite, beta-chlorolactic acid, were assayed in fetal tissues and dam plasma. Our results show a statistically significant decrease in the mean body weight gain of pregnant rats treated with 10 and 25 mg/kg BW of 3-MCPD. Fetal testes exposed to 3-MCPD exhibited normal histology and produced testosterone at levels that were similar to controls. In addition, 3-MCPD did not alter gene expression in the fetal testes. This lack of effect occurred under conditions where 3-MCPD and beta-chlorolactic acid were found to readily cross the placental barrier and diffuse throughout the fetal tissues. Our findings indicate that 3-MCPD has minimal effect on rat testicular organogenesis.

  4. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: birth of a healthy baby after fertility preservation in synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Sampaio, M; Salles, P G de Oliveira; Geber, S

    2015-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent 1%-1.5% of all male neoplasms, and they have the highest prevalence among men between 15 and 35 years old. Synchronous bilateral disease is a rare presentation, and the ratio of metachronous to synchronous bilateral disease is about 4 : 1. Several studies have suggested a correlation between male infertility and testicular cancer, with a 20-fold increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in infertile patients compared with the general population. At the time of diagnosis, 50%-75% of patients with unilateral TGCT present with subfertility; almost 13% of the patients are azoospermic before treatment, and up to two-thirds of patients become azoospermic following adjuvant cancer therapies. Therefore, fertility preservation should be considered in all oncological treatments. The only available option to preserve the reproductive potential in azoospermic patients with testicular cancer is to perform an onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) before cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe a rare case of a patient with synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia who was submitted to onco-TESE, sperm cryopreservation, and which was followed by the delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), emphasising the importance of fertility preservation in oncology patients.

  5. Radiation-Induced Testicular Injury and Its Amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (An Indian Medicinal Plant) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P. K.

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to determine the deleterious effects of sub lethal gamma radiation on testes and their possible inhibition by Tinospora cordifolia extract (TCE). For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the irradiated control, while the other group received TCE (75 mg/kg b. wt./day) orally for 5 consecutive days half an hr before irradiation to serve as experimental. Exposure of animals to 7.5 Gy gamma radiation resulted into significant decrease in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter up to 15 days of irradiation. Cent percent mortality was recorded by day 17th in irradiated control, whereas all animals survived in experimental group. TCE pretreatment rendered significant increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes- body weight ratio and tubular diameter at various intervals as compared to irradiated group. Radiation induced histological lesions in testicular architecture were observed more severe in irradiated control then the experimental. TCE administration before irradiation significantly ameliorated radiation induced elevation in lipid peroxidation and decline in glutathione concentration in testes. These observations indicate the radio- protective potential of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in testicular constituents against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:21350610

  6. Different patterns of testicular in vitro metabolism of (/sup 14/C)testosterone in several Betta (Anabantoidei, Belontiidae) species

    SciTech Connect

    Leitz, T.

    1987-07-01

    Testicular tissues of Betta picta, Betta smaragdina, and the short-finned variety of Betta splendens were incubated with (/sup 14/C)testosterone at 27 degrees for 120 min and the metabolites were isolated and characterized by paper and thin-layer chromatography and eventually by crystallization to constant specific activity. The metabolic profiles of the species were totally different. The short-finned B. splendens formed mainly 11-ketotestosterone (51.4%) as does the veiltail variety. B. smaragdina was the only species which formed considerable amounts of conjugates (24.3%), whereas in B. picta almost exclusively reduced (5 beta-) compounds (66.2%) were metabolites of testosterone. The results are discussed to be attributable to differences in testicular steroid metabolism. The significance of this observation remains unclear.

  7. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nooh, Hanna Z.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  8. Ultrasonically Assisted Cutting of Bio-tissues in Microtomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    Modern-day histology of bio-tissues for supporting stratified medicine diagnoses requires high-precision cutting to ensure high quality extremely thin specimens used in analysis. Additionally, the cutting quality is significantly affected by a wide variety of soft and hard tissues in the samples. This paper deals with development of a next generation of microtome employing introduction of controlled ultrasonic vibration to realise a hybrid cutting process of bio-tissues. The study is based on a combination of advanced experimental and numerical (finite-element) studies of multi-body dynamics of a cutting system. The quality of cut samples produced with the prototype is compared with the state-of-the-art.

  9. Attenuating effect of lycopene and ellagic acid on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced spermiotoxicity and testicular apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Mustafa; Türk, Gaffari; Çeribaşı, Ali Osman; Sakin, Fatih; Ateşşahin, Ahmet

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prophylactic effects of lycopene (LC) and ellagic acid (EA) on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced testicular and spermatozoal toxicity. These toxicological changes are associated with the oxidative stress and apoptosis in male rats. Forty-eight male rats were allocated to one of six groups of 8 rats each: control, LC, EA, TCDD, TCDD+LC, and TCDD+EA. The control group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution+0.5 mL/rat corn oil every other day. The LC group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution+0.5 mL/rat corn oil containing 10 mg/kg of LC every other day. The EA group received 0.5 mL/rat corn oil+0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution containing 2 mg/kg of EA every other day. The TCDD group received 0.5 mL/rat corn oil containing 100 ng/kg/day of TCDD+0.5 mL/rat slightly alkaline solution. The TCDD+LC group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat TCDD+0.5 mL/rat LC. The TCDD+EA group was treated with 0.5 mL/rat TCDD+0.5 mL/rat EA. All treatments were made by gavage, and the experimental period was maintained during 8 weeks. Sperm motility, concentration, and abnormal sperm rate in epididymal tissue, testicular tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant enzyme activity, histopathological changes, and apoptosis (i.e., Bax and Bcl-2 proteins) were determined. TCDD exposure resulted in significant decreases in sperm motility, concentration, testicular superoxide dismutase activity, germinal cell-layer thickness, Johnsen's testicular score, and significant increases in abnormal sperm rate, testicular malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, Bax-positive staining, and Bax-positive apoptotic cell score, along with some testicular histopathological lesions. TCDD treatment did not affect significantly catalase activity. However, combined treatment with LC or EA, in addition to TCDD, prevented the development of TCDD-induced damages in sperm quality, testicular histology

  10. Aquaporin-11 control of testicular fertility markers in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; Urbanski, Henryk F; Woo, Shih-Lung; Fong, Li An; Goddard, Scott D; Lucas, William F; Jones, Edward R; Wu, Chaodong; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-25

    The present study sought novel changes to the hamster testicular transcriptome during modulation of fertility by well-characterized photoperiodic stimuli. Transition from long days (LD, 14 h light/day) to short days (SD, 10h light/day) triggered testicular regression (61% reduction of testis weight, relative to LD) in SD-sensitive (SD-S) hamsters within 16 weeks. After 22 weeks of SD exposure, a third cohort of hamsters became SD-refractory (SD-R), and exhibited testicular recrudescence (137% testis weight gain, relative to SD-S). Partial interrogation of the testicular transcriptome by annealing-control-primer-modified differential display PCR provided several candidates for regulation of testicular functions. Multiple linear regression modeling indicated the best correlation for aquaporin 11 (Aqp11) with changes in testis weight. Correlations were also strongest for Aqp11 with expression levels of reference cDNAs that control spermatogenesis (Hspa2 and Tnp2), steroidogenesis (Cox2, 3βHsd, and Srebp2), sperm motility (Catsper1, Pgk2, and Tnp2), inflammation (Cox2), and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl2). Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of testicular Aqp11 mRNA and protein reduced Hspa2 and Tnp2 mRNA levels, and it increased 3βHsd mRNA levels. It also reduced mRNA levels for Sept12, which is a testis-specific inducer of spermatogenesis. These results suggest a central role for testicular Aqp11 signaling in the coordinate regulation of crucial components of fertility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  12. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  13. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  14. Fluazifop-p-butyl, an aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide, diminishes renal and hepatic functions and triggers testicular oxidative stress in orally exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Ore, Ayokanmi; Olayinka, Ebenezer Tunde

    2016-07-04

    Fluazifop-p-butyl (FPB) is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide. Its phytotoxicity mechanism involves inhibition of lipid biosynthesis, free-radical generation, and oxidative stress in vulnerable plants. This study evaluates the impact of orally administered FPB on selected tissues in non-target animal model. Twenty-four male wistar rats (160-180g) were randomized into groups (I-IV). Group-I served as control, while animals in groups II, III, and IV received FPB at 18.75, 37.5, and 75 mg/kg body weight/day p.o., respectively, for 21 days. FPB caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in plasma biomarkers of renal and hepatic function (urea, creatinine, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase) when compared to control. Significant reductions in testicular ascorbic acid, glutathione, and activities of glutathione-S transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were observed in FPB-treated animals when compared to control, in a dose-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increased testicular lipid peroxidation in the treated groups. Furthermore, a significant decrease in testicular acid phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase activities was also observed in the FPB-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner compared to control. However, testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased in the FPB-treated rats when compared to control. Additionally, histopathological studies revealed severe interstitial oedema and congestion of testicular blood vessels in the FPB-treated groups. Overall, data from this study suggest that FPB induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and oxidative stress-mediated alteration of testicular functions in rat.

  15. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin Cs; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-10-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A-D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P < 0.05) and count (P < 0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P < 0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P < 0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P < 0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof.

  16. Coconut Oil Extract Mitigates Testicular Injury Following Adjuvant Treatment with Antiretroviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ogedengbe, Oluwatosin O; Jegede, Ayoola I; Onanuga, Ismail O; Offor, Ugochukwu; Naidu, Edwin CS; Peter, Aniekan I; Azu, Onyemaechi O

    2016-01-01

    Increased access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has made the management of drug toxicities an increasingly crucial component of HIV. This study investigated the effects of adjuvant use of coconut oil and HAART on testicular morphology and seminal parameters in Sprague- Dawley rats. Twelve adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 153~169 g were distributed into four groups (A–D) and treated as follows: A served as control (distilled water); B (HAART cocktail- Zidovudine, Lamivudine and Nevirapine); C (HAART + Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg) and D (Virgin coconut oil 10 mL/kg). After 56 days of treatment, animals were killed and laparotomy to exercise the epididymis for seminal fluid analyses done whilst testicular tissues were processed for histomorphometric studies. Result showed a significant decline in sperm motility (P < 0.05) and count (P < 0.0001) in HAART-treated animals while there was insignificant changes in other parameters in groups C and D except count that was reduced (P < 0.0001) when compared with controls. Histomorphological studies showed HAART caused disorders in seminiferous tubular architecture with significant (P < 0.01) decline in epithelial height closely mirrored by extensive reticulin framework and positive PAS cells. Adjuvant Virgin coconut oil + HAART resulted in significant decrease in seminiferous tubular diameter (P < 0.05), but other morphometric and histological parameters were similar to control or Virgin coconut oil alone (which showed normal histoarchitecture levels). While derangements in testicular and seminal fluid parameters occurred following HAART, adjuvant treatment with Virgin coconut oil restored the distortions emanating thereof. PMID:27818734

  17. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Poonam; Kozak, Kevin; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Ramasubramanian, V.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.; Welsh, James S.; Rong, Yi

    2012-07-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each 'planning scan' to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields.

  18. In vitro toxicity of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane to isolated testicular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The biochemical basis for the antispermatogenic properties of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was studied using hepatic and testicular mitochondria, as well as Sertoli cells and primary spermatocytes isolated from immature rats. Pyruvate-supported mitochondrial respiration was inhibited by DBCP with an ED/sub 50/ of 0.19 ..mu..mol/mg protein. Lactate production by cultured Sertoli cells was stimulated by 0.5-2.0 mM DBCP from 17-62% above that obtained with 1 ..mu..g/ml follicle stimulating hormone. Exposure of Sertoli cells to 0.5-2.0 mM DBCP also increased the specific activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from 18-35% above control. Aerobic /sup 14/C-lactate metabolism by spermatocytes was inhibited by 1.0-2.0 mM DBCP as demonstrated by /sup 14/C-CO/sub 2/ production that was 65-89% less than control. These data support the hypothesis that DBCP, by virtue of its disruptive effect on mitochondria, is selectively cytotoxic to immature germ cells due to their dependence on aerobic energy metabolism. DBCP, at a dose of 0.5 ..mu..mol/10/sup 16/ cells, was 3 times more cytotoxic to spermatocytes than epichlorohydrin (ECH), and 9 times more cytotoxic than 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB). These data argue against the involvement of ECH and ACH in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity, and further indicate that mitochrondrial dysfunction may disrupt spermatogenesis. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) in hepatic, renal, and testicular cytosol catalyzed glutathione (GSH) conjugation to DBCP with tissue-specific K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ values. This reaction did not enhance the mutagenicity of DBCP in the Ames assay. Mutagenic activation was produced by S9 or microsomal enzymes in the presence of NADPH, and was partially inhibited by GSH.

  19. Nortriptyline protects testes against germ cell apoptosis and oxidative stress induced by testicular ischaemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, I; Ghazi-Khansari, M; Saeedi Saravi, S S; Nobakht, M; Majdani, R; Rezayat, S M; Mousavi, S E; Yari, A; Dehpour, A R

    2017-03-01

    We designed this experiment to evaluate the effects of nortriptyline on testicular injury after torsion/detorsion (T/D). Ninety-six adult Wistar rats were divided into six groups 16 each in control group (Group 1), sham operated (Group 2), T/D + saline (Group 3), and in groups 4-6; were administered 2, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) , i.p. of nortriptyline 30 and 90 min after torsion respectively. Testicular torsion was created by twisting the right testis 720° in clockwise direction for 1 h. In six rats of each group, tissue MDA level and caspase-3 activity increased and the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in compared with control group 4 h after detorsion (P < 0.001). In six rats of each group 24 h after detorsion, histopathological changes and germ cell apoptosis were significantly deteriorated by measuring mean of seminiferous tubules diameters (MSTD) and TUNEL test. Moreover, 30 days after T/D, sperm concentration and motility were examined in rest of rats. Pre- and post-reperfusion nortriptyline could reduce MDA and caspase-3 levels and normalise antioxidant enzymes activities, dose dependently. Germ cell apoptosis was significantly decreased, and the MSTD, as well as sperm functions, were significantly improved. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore is probably involved in protective effects of nortriptyline against testicular T/D cell damages. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Poonam; Kozak, Kevin; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Ramasubramanian, V; Paliwal, Bhudatt R; Welsh, James S; Rong, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each "planning scan" to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields.

  1. Ca(2+)-Calmodulin regulation of testicular androgen production in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    PubMed

    Martins, Rute S T; Fuentes, Juan; Almeida, Olinda; Power, Deborah M; Canario, Adelino V M

    2009-06-01

    The Ca(2+)-Calmodulin (CaM) signaling pathway has previously been shown to be involved in the regulation of teleost fish ovarian steroidogenesis. However, a putative role of CaM in testicular steroidogenesis and potential targets has not been examined. To examine whether basal steroidogenesis is modulated by Ca(2+) and CaM levels in the testis of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) we have incubated testicular fragments in vitro under different conditions and analyzed steroid output. Calcium-free medium with or without EGTA did not affect testicular basal 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and testosterone (T) secretion. However, addition of 80microM the CaM inhibitor W7 significantly reduced basal 11-KT, T and androstenedione secretion. Interestingly, the decreased androgen production by 80microM of W7 was accompanied by increased 11-desoxicortisol output and by the activation of cortisol synthesis in the testis, the latter undetected in untreated tissues. However, production of 17,20alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one was unaltered by W7. This suggests that C17,20 desmolase, 21-hydroxylase and possibly 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase are targets for CaM. In addition, androgen production was also found to be regulated by the level of cAMP since incubations with forskolin (FK) significantly increased 11-KT and T output. A cross-talk between the cAMP and Ca(2+)-CaM signaling pathways was detected since W7 administration also decreased FK stimulated androgen production. Altogether, these data show that both basal and cAMP stimulated androgen levels were modulated by intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent CaM and that possibly Ca(2+)-CaM determines the shift in steroidogenesis from C21 steroids to androgens.

  2. Genotoxic effects of two-generational selenium deficiency in mouse somatic and testicular cells.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Anne; Instanes, Christine; Andersen, Jill M; Brandt-Kjelsen, Anicke; Dertinger, Stephen D; Salbu, Brit; Brunborg, Gunnar; Olsen, Ann-Karin

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have investigated genotoxic effects of high Se diets but very few have addressed the genotoxicity of Se deprivation and its consequences in germ cells and none in somatic cells. To address these data gaps, C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to Se deprivation starting in the parental generation, i.e. before conception. Mice were given a diet of either low (0.01mg Se/kg diet) or normal (0.23mg Se/kg diet) Se content. Ogg1-deficient (Ogg1 (-/-) ) mice were used as a sensitive model towards oxidative stress due to their reduced capacity to repair oxidised purines. Ogg1 (-/-) mice also mimic the repair characteristics of human post-meiotic male germ cells which have a reduced ability to repair such lesions. The genotoxicity of Se deficiency was addressed by measuring DNA lesions with the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (+ Fpg to detect oxidised DNA lesions) in somatic cells (nucleated blood cells and lung cells) and male germ cells (testicular cells). Total Se concentration in liver and GPx activity in plasma and testicular cells were measured. Gene mutation was evaluated by an erythrocyte-based Pig-a assay. We found that Se deprivation of F1 from their conception and until early adulthood led to the induction of DNA lesions in testicular and lung cells expressed as significantly increased levels of DNA lesions, irrespective of the mouse genotype. In blood cells, Se levels did not appear to affect DNA lesions or mutant cell frequencies. The results suggest that the testis was the most sensitive tissue. Thus, genotoxicity induced by the low Se diet in the spermatozoal genome has potential implications for the offspring.

  3. Rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, prevents contralateral testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury in prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Inan, Mustafa; Basaran, Umit; Dokmeci, Dikmen; Kanter, Mehmet; Yalcin, Omer; Aydogdu, Nurettin; Turan, Nesrin

    2007-01-01

    1. Rosiglitazone plays a positive role in the reparation of ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in different tissues. Thus, we examined its biochemical and histological effects on the contralateral testes to determine whether exogenous rosiglitazone affords any protection against testicular damage. 2. Forty-eight prepubertal male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into six groups. Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720 degrees in a clockwise direction for 5 h in all groups except group I, which was the sham-control group. In group II, bilateral orchiectomy was performed following the torsion period. After detorsion both testes were removed in the fifth hour in group III and on the seventh day in group IV. In group V, one-shot rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg) was administered 40 min before detorsion and both testes were removed following the torsion period. In group VI, rosiglitazone was administered (4 mg/kg) 40 min before detorsion and for 7 days, and then both testes were harvested. The tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured and mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS) and mean seminiferous tubule diameter (MSTD) were examined. Immunoexpression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in testes tissues was investigated by immunohistochemical studies. 3. In the contralateral testis, the MTBS and MSTD values of group VI were significantly higher than those in group IV. Immunohistochemically, mild eNOS immunostaining was present in the germ cells of the contralateral testes in group IV after I/R. In group VI, intense eNOS immunoreactivity was seen in the contralateral testes. 4. Rosiglitazone reduces contralateral testicular damage formed after unilateral testicular torsion and alleviates the oxidative events.

  4. Neonatal testicular torsion: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Biplab; Murphy, Feilim Liam

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal testicular torsion (NTT) is rare and reported salvage rates vary widely both in their cited frequency and plausibility. The timing and necessity of surgery is controversial with different centers arguing for the conservative management of all cases while others argue for prompt exploration for all. Confusion also reigns over the need to fix the contralateral testis. In order to clarify the issue the authors reviewed the literature and found 18 case series of NTT, containing 268 operated cases suitable for analysis. This paper reviews the literature on NTT specifically regarding salvage rates and timing/necessity of surgery. Its primary aim is to produce an overall salvage rate in the operated group. Overall salvage rate was 8.96%, 24 testes. When operation is specified as an emergency, salvage may be as high as 21.7%. While salvage of a testis torted at birth is rare, it is reported. Early asynchronous torsion is also rare but reported. Worryingly, bilateral torsion can present with unilateral signs.Given these findings, we would suggest early surgery with fixation of the contralateral side.

  5. Management of testicular seminoma. Our experience.

    PubMed

    Sperlongano, P; Pisaniello, D; Di Mauro, U; Pone, D; Casoli, E

    2000-01-01

    The authors report their experience in the management of seminomas. They examine 12 cases of seminoma among a series of 19 patients with testicular germ cell tumours observed at the Second Surgical Department of the Second University of Naples. Their results showed a better prognosis for patients in early stage of the disease who underwent surgery and adjuvant prophylactic radiotherapy; good survival rates for patients in advanced stages of the disease were achieved by the combined use of surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The authors discuss risk factors, clinical and diagnostic features of seminomas, relating their prognosis with the combined use of both surgery and adjuvant therapies. They consider total orchiectomy, followed by prophylactic radiotherapy, the treatment of choice, especially in stages IA and IIA. They don't perform the routine retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, differently from American authors, who always achieve it to stage the disease. The authors stress the improvement in the prognosis of seminoma, which has actually reached the 98% of five-year survival rate, for stages I and II.

  6. Postnatal testicular development in the Chinchilla rabbit.

    PubMed

    Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Montelongo-Solís, Paola; Chávez-Saldaña, Margarita Dolores; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Oscar; Arteaga-Silva, Marcela; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César

    2013-09-01

    The Chinchilla rabbit is a breed with high commercial value and nowadays is increasingly used in various fields of biomedical research, however, its postnatal reproductive biology has been little studied. The aim of the present study was to investigate the postnatal development of the testis in this rabbit breed to determine both the proliferative periods and apoptosis. 30 rabbits aged 3-100 days old were used in the study. Determination of the period of differentiation of gonocytes to spermatogonia (50dpp), the periods of proliferation and apoptosis of their cells, as well as the beginning of spermatogenesis (60dpp) and the different stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle were made. We found that these testicular developments were closer to that of humans when compared with rats, a species commonly employed in reproductive research. On comparing these results with those obtained from other breeds, there are clear differences favoring the use of this species as a research model in the field of male reproductive biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The Ethics of a Postmortem Testicular Harvest.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Michael; Landry, Alden

    2016-01-01

    Faith and religion are topics that are not routinely discussed or of much significance in the emergency department (ED). However, there are certain cases when faith or religion can cause certain ethical dilemmas for the physician, patient, or hospital. Understanding patients' beliefs affects our own medical decision-making and the ability to treat certain illnesses. Hospital policy or religious views of the hospital can affect patient management. Spirituality or religion in the ED will not be an issue with every patient; however, there are times where religious beliefs will be at the very center of an ED visit, as shown by this case report. A 42-year-old man presented to the ED in cardiac arrest. Despite resuscitation and appropriate advanced cardiac life support, he was pronounced dead in the ED. The patient's wife stated they were trying to have a child and requested testicular harvest, planning for in vitro fertilization. Being at a Catholic institution, this raised important ethical questions. After the involvement of several disciplines, a resolution was reached that placated the patient's wife and the hospital. This report highlights the importance of understanding the ethical questions raised from faith-based issues in the ED to be able to provide the highest level of patient-centered care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring men's preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Saab, Mohamad M; Landers, Margaret; Hegarty, Josephine

    2017-02-01

    Men's awareness of testicular disorders is lacking and their intention to seek help for testicular symptoms is sub-optimal. Studies conducted to explore and raise men's awareness of testicular disorders did not address their preferred learning strategies and failed to include men who are at risk for health inequities. The aim of this study was to explore, in-depth, the preferred strategies for learning about testicular disorders inclusive of testicular cancer among men who self-identify as heterosexual, gay, or bisexual. Maximum variation and snowball sampling were used to recruit 29 men aged 18-47 years. Participation was sought from community and youth organizations and a university in the Republic of Ireland. Semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis of manifest content was used. Seventeen informants self-identified as heterosexual, 11 as gay, and one as bisexual. Four main categories emerged, namely: strategies to enhance awareness (television, internet, campaigns, print media), educational dos and don'ts (tailoring effective messages, drawbacks of national initiatives, ineffective learning strategies), implications of raising awareness (risks and benefits of increasing awareness), and learning among gay and bisexual men (learning needs and strategies). Future studies promoting awareness of testicular disorders should take into account men's preferred learning strategies. National campaigns should be delivered frequently and altered occasionally in order to achieve a top-up effect. Clinicians are encouraged to educate young men about the seriousness of testicular symptoms and the importance of seeking timely medical attention for any abnormalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The gubernaculum during testicular descent in the human fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Heyns, C F

    1987-01-01

    This study of 178 male human fetuses and infants demonstrates that descent of the testis through the inguinal canal is a rapid process, with 75% of testes descending between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The gubernaculum is a cylindrical, gelatinous structure attached cranially to the testis and epididymis. While the testis is in the abdomen, the caudal tip of the gubernaculum is firmly attached to the region of the inguinal canal. In a few fetuses prior to descent the globular tip of the gubernaculum can be seen bulging through the external inguinal ring, covered by superficial fascia, with no macroscopically discernible extensions to the scrotum or any other area. Once the testis has passed through the inguinal canal, the bulbous lower tip of the gubernaculum is no longer firmly attached to any structure, nor does it extend to the bottom of the scrotum. Histologically the gubernaculum consists of undifferentiated mesenchymatous tissue. Prior to descent of the testis, there is an increase in the length of the intra-abdominal gubernaculum. The wet mass of the gubernaculum relative to the fetal mass increases rapidly prior to descent, while the relative wet mass of the testis remains constant during this period. There is also an increase in the wet/dry mass ratio of the gubernaculum, denoting an increase in its water content prior to descent. This indicates that a combination of growth processes is responsible for testicular descent, with the increase in the size of the gubernaculum playing the most important role in passage of the testis through the inguinal canal. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2892824

  10. McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral macroorchidism and bilateral testicular masses.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Geetika; Kantawala, Kartikeya; Shinawi, Marwan; Sarwate, Sandhya; Dehner, Louis P

    2010-12-01

    Bilateral synchronous intratesticular masses are rare but can be caused by metastatic disease to the testicle, primary testicular masses or benign etiologies such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and granulomatous orchitis. We present an unusual case of McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral testicular enlargement and bilateral testicular masses secondary to Sertoli cell hyperplasia. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of testicular masses secondary to McCune-Albright syndrome.

  11. Pattern of Testicular Biopies as Seen in a Tertiary Institution in Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oranusi, Chidi-Kingsley; Onyiaorah, Igwebuike V; Ukah, Cornelius O

    2014-01-01

    Background: Testicular biopsy is an acknowledged method of examination of the testes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We describe the pattern of testicular histologies in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of testicular histology results from the Pathology Department of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, over a 5-year period, January 2008 to December 2012. Results: During the period, 285 testicular histologies were reported. Eighty-one (28.4%) specimens were pathological specimens, while 204 (71.6%) were nonpathological specimens. Thirty-seven (13.0%) of the histology reports were for diagnostic purpose while 248 (87.0%) were for therapeutic purpose. Based on the results, indications could also be categorized into three, benign testicular pathology, malignant testicular pathology, and testicular biopsy for male factor infertility. Thirty-seven cases (13.0%) were due to male factor infertility with complete spermatogenic arrest as the most common histological finding in 21 (56.8%) of the cases. Malignant testicular diseases accounted for 16 (5.6%) of the indications for testicular biopsies. Benign testicular diseases accounted for 28 (9.8%) of the indications for testicular biopsies. Hemorrhagic infarction from testicular torsion represented the commonest histology in 12 (42.9%) cases, followed by inflammations of the testes. Conclusion: Indications for testicular biopsy can be diagnostic and therapeutic. They can also be categorized into benign testicular diseases, malignant testicular diseases, and male infertility. Investigation for male factor infertility was the only diagnostic indication for testicular biopsy. The high incidence of locally and metastatic prostate cancer in males explains why therapeutic removal of the testis is common. PMID:25191093

  12. Contralateral genitofemoral sympathetic nerve discharge increases following ipsilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Otçu, Selçuk; Durakoğugil, Murat; Orer, Hakan S; Tanyel, Feridun C

    2002-10-01

    The decrease in blood flow due to the activation of sympathetic system has been suggested to play a role in contralateral testicular deterioration associated with unilateral testicular torsion. Sympathetic nerve discharges (SND) from the genitofemoral nerve were evaluated before and during unilateral testicular torsion. Under urethane anesthesia, arterial blood pressure and SND from splanchnic and right genitofemoral nerves were recorded in 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 of which were included in subsequent analyses. After control recordings of basal discharges for 2 min the left testis was twisted 720 degrees counterclockwise, and recording was resumed for an additional 30 min. Changes in nerve activity were calculated by measuring the area under the autospectrum curve, and alterations were compared. Following testicular torsion no significant changes were obtained for splanchnic SND, but the amplitude of SND from contralateral genitofemoral nerve showed an overall increase of 21.20+/-7.03% in six rats. This increase lasted about 10-15 min and activities returned to pretorsion levels. In two other rats no significant change was observed in either splanchnic or genitofemoral SND. Ipsilateral testicular torsion results in a transient increase in genitofemoral SND. A possible autonomic reflex mechanism may exist, and it may be activated by noxious stimuli from contralateral side. This reflex mechanism may initiate a series of events that lead to the injury of contralateral testis.

  13. Potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Aly, Hamdy A A; Mansour, Ahmed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Hala F; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2010-02-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater aquifers. Current study aimed at evaluating the potential testicular toxicity of sodium nitrate in rats. Sodium nitrate was given orally to rats at doses of 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for 60 consecutive days. Sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight were significantly decreased specially at high doses. Testicular activity of lactate dehydrogenase-X, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and acid phosphatase were inhibited in a dose-related manner. Lipid peroxides and hydrogen peroxide production were significantly increased in all treated animals. This was accompanied by inhibition of testicular activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Fifty mg/kg of sodium nitrate did not significantly alter catalase or glutathione reductase activity. Glutathione was significantly decreased by sodium nitrate in a dose-related manner. The decrease in sperm count and motility and daily sperm production was confirmed by histopathological studies which indicated chromatolysis, pyknosis and necrosis in spermatocytes. In conclusion, subchronic exposure of rats to sodium nitrate results in testicular toxicity as evidenced by decreased sperm count and motility, daily sperm production and testis weight, inhibited activity of enzyme markers of spermatogenesis and induction of histopathological changes. These effects are attributed, at least partly, to testicular oxidative stress. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  15. Electrophysiological evaluation of cremasteric reflex in experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Soyer, T; Tosun, A; Somuncu, S; Aydin, G; Akman, H; Inal, E; Kanmaz, T; Cakmak, M

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study was the electrophysiological evaluation of the cremasteric reflex after experimental testicular torsion. Ten male Wistar rats were enrolled into the study. Genitofemoral nerve (GFN) motor conduction and cremasteric reflex (CR) responses were evaluated electrophysiologically after being subjected to anesthesia with intramuscular ketamin hydrochloride. Testicular torsion was performed by rotating the right testicle 720 degrees in a clockwise direction from a midscrotal incision. Electrophysiological evaluations were repeated in the early (30 minutes) and late (90 minutes) periods of testicular torsion. Subsequently, detorsion of the testicles was performed and electrophysiological recordings were completed after 60 minutes of detorsion. The CR was also evaluated clinically before each electrophysiological evaluation. The latency and duration of GFN motor conduction and CR responses was compared for base, early torsion, late torsion and detorsion recordings. Friedman's test for repeated measurements was used for statistical analysis. The CR, which was detected clinically before torsion and after detorsion, was not detected during torsion. When base, early torsion, late torsion and detorsion recordings were compared, there was no statistical difference with respect to both latency and duration of GFN motor conduction and CR responses (p > 0.05). Although CR was not detected clinically during testicular torsion, the electrophysiological parameters of the reflex did not differ in the early and late periods of torsion in rats. The GFN motor conduction parameters also showed no differences. In conclusion, the absence of the CR after testicular torsion could not be confirmed by electrophysiological studies.

  16. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-04-17

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer.

  17. Anatomical variations in the human testicular blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Asala, S; Chaudhary, S C; Masumbuko-Kahamba, N; Bidmos, M

    2001-11-01

    The testis is an important organ upon which the survival of the human species depends. The testicular arteries and veins play major roles in the thermo-regulation that is essential for the efficient functioning of this organ. However, very little is found in the literature about the veins and their anatomical variations. Therefore the testicular veins and arteries in 150 dissection room cadavers at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg and University of Zimbabwe, Harare were examined for anatomical variations from the usual descriptions in textbooks of Anatomy. Variations were found more frequently in the testicular veins than in the accompanying arteries. The variations, which were more common on the left side, were seen in 32 (21.3%) of the cadavers. In 6 (18.8%) of these cases, the variations were present bilaterally. The veins were either completely or partially duplicated, with or without beading. The duplicated veins terminated in the corresponding renal veins either separately or after combining into one vein. In two cases, the right testicular vein terminated in the right renal vein, rather than in the inferior vena cava. Anatomical variations of the testicular artery were present in 4.7% of cases and were associated with their origin, which were either from unusually high levels of the abdominal aorta or from the renal artery.

  18. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length

  19. Coenzyme Q10 and fish oil synergistically alleviate aluminum chloride-induced suppression of testicular steroidogenesis and antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Nanies Sameeh; Arafa, Manar Hamed; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) is an environmental xenobiotic that stimulates free radical generation and hence reproductive toxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) effectively counteracts free radical-induced tissue damage. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids present in fish oil (FO) exert beneficial effects on reproduction in male animals. This study therefore investigated the effects of both agents on testicular dysfunction induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Fifty male rats were gavaged with either 1% gum acacia (control group) or AlCl3 (34 mg/kg/day) for ten weeks. Concurrently, AlCl3-treated rats received no treatment, CoQ10 (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.), and/or FO (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for ten weeks. AlCl3 caused a significant decrease in serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), as well as testicular weight, antioxidant enzyme gene expression and activities, reduced glutathione, zinc, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) contents, and number of Leydig cells, along with down-regulation of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-HSD, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) gene expression. However, testicular Al, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) levels were markedly increased. Treatment with CoQ10 and FO, alone or in combined form led to an improvement in the aforementioned biomarkers. Overall, individual or combined treatment with CoQ10 and FO could ameliorate the toxic effects of AlCl3 on testicular tissues by mechanisms related to their potent antioxidant potential and stimulatory effects on steroidogenic enzymes transcription. CoQ10 seems to be better than FO regarding oxidative and nitrosative stress, Zn deficiency, and Al overload. However, FO showed more pronounced effect than CoQ10 on hormones, steroidogenic markers, and cAMP. A cocktail of both demonstrated greater protective effects on testicular tissues than monotherapy.

  20. [Evaluation of testicular biopsy as an aspect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (introductory report)].

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Z; Swierczyński, W; Dziecielski, H; Semmler, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in biopsy testicular specimens. The indication to testicular biopsy was azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. The studied group comprised 12 patients in whose semen C. trachomatis was found. For the identification of the organism culture in chick embryo was used. In 2 preparations C. trachomatis was demonstrated in testicular biopsy.

  1. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia: rare entity.

    PubMed

    Deepika; Kumar, Abhay

    2014-03-01

    We are reporting on a 35-year-old male from low socio-economic strata, who presented with a left-sided inguinal hernia. Intraoperatively, a uterus and two fallopian tubes were found in the hernial sac which was adjacent to the two gonads, which received their blood supply partly, along with Mullerian duct remnants (Persitent Mullerian duct Syndrome with Transverse testicular ectopia). The gonads were testes by histological examination, with features of degeneration and fibrosis. Complete excision of the mass was done and mesh hernioplasty was done.The diagnosis of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with Transverse testicular ectopia was confirmed. Persistent Mullerian duct Syndrome is a rare entity and itís association with Transverse testicular ectopia is even more rare.

  2. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  3. Mutational profiling of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with testicular relapse.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling-Wen; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Mayakonda, Anand; Tan, Kar-Tong; Chien, Wenwen; Lin, De-Chen; Jiang, Yan-Yi; Xu, Liang; Garg, Manoj; Lao, Zhen-Tang; Lill, Michael; Yang, Henry; Yeoh, Allen Eng Juh; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2017-03-02

    Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the leading cause of deaths of childhood cancer. Although relapse usually happens in the bone marrow, extramedullary relapse occasionally occurs including either the central nervous system or testis (<1-2%). We selected two pediatric ALL patients who experienced testicular relapse and interrogated their leukemic cells with exome sequencing. The sequencing results and clonality analyses suggest that relapse of patient D483 directly evolved from the leukemic clone at diagnosis which survived chemotherapy. In contrast, relapse leukemia cells (both bone marrow and testis) of patient D727 were likely derived from a common ancestral clone, and testicular relapse likely arose independently from the bone marrow relapsed leukemia. Our findings decipher the mutational spectra and shed light on the clonal evolution of two cases of pediatric ALL with testicular relapse. Presence of CREBBP/NT5C2 mutations suggests that a personalized therapeutic approach should be applied to these two patients.

  4. Epidemiology of Testicular Cancer in Oklahoma and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon; Janitz, Amanda; Campbell, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Marked disparities in the development of this cancer exist, with testicular cancer being more common in Caucasian men and men of higher socioeconomic status. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing worldwide, and the reasons for this have not been well documented. It has been proposed that this increase may be due to highly prevalent environmental factors, or from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chloride, cigarette smoking, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). For our analysis, data were obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Age-adjusted incidence rates and five-year relative survival were calculated for Oklahoma and for the US. Overall, incidence was lower in Oklahoma than the US, but no differences were observed between the US and Oklahoma regarding survival by year of diagnosis, race, age, and stage. PMID:27885307

  5. Effect of liver growth factor on both testicular regeneration and recovery of spermatogenesis in busulfan-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Some adult stem cells persist in adult tissue; however, we do not know how to stimulate stem cells in adults to heal injuries. Liver growth factor (LGF) is a biliprotein with hepatic mitogen activity. Its concentration increases markedly in the presence of any type of liver injury, and it shows in vivo therapeutic biological activity at extrahepatic sites. Methods We have analyzed the effect of LGF on the replenishment of germinal cells in the testes of mice injected with busulfan, a common cancer drug that also specifically affects germ line stem cells and spermatogonia. We determined the testicular and epididymal weight, spermatozoal concentration in the epididymis and sperm motility, and performed a histological analysis. Results Intraperitoneal administration of LGF was able to partially restore spermatogenesis, as well as sperm production and motility, in mice sterilized with busulfan. LGF treatment in busulfan-treated animals that have suffered a disruption of spermatogenesis can accelerate the reactivation of this process in most of the tubules, as shown in the histological analysis. Conclusions Our results suggest a potential use of LGF in the mobilization of testicular stem cells and in the restoration of spermatogenesis after busulfan-induced damage to the testicular germinal epithelium. PMID:21294894

  6. Clinical Evaluation of Non-surgical Sterilization of Male Cats with Single Intra-testicular Injection of Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. Results At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Conclusion Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals. PMID:21774835

  7. Testicular development evaluation in rats exposed to 60 Hz and 1 mT electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    Tenorio, Bruno Mendes; Jimenez, George Chaves; Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Torres, Sandra Maria; Albuquerque Nogueira, Romildo; Silva Junior, Valdemiro Amaro

    2011-04-01

    Society has been increasingly exposed to low-frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF), mainly from electricity distribution networks and electro-electronic devices. Aiming to clarify the extension of possible interactions between EMF and testicular development, this study evaluated the effects of exposure to 60 Hz and 1 mT EMF in the maturation of testicular components. Wistar rats were exposed to EMF three times per day for 30 min, between the 13th day of gestation and the 21st postnatal day. Results showed a decrease in the following parameters: tubular diameter and seminiferous tubules area; seminiferous epithelium height; total volume of seminiferous tubule; tubular lumen; seminiferous epithelium; and Leydig cells. On the other hand, an increase was observed in connective tissue cells and blood vessels volume. Plasma testosterone, Sertoli cells population, tubular length and gonadosomatic index did not change when exposed to EMF. Histomorphometric analysis showed that exposure to EMF can promote a delay in testicular development.

  8. Testicular compartment syndrome: an overview of pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Jason; Dagur, Gautam; Sheynkin, Yefim R.; Smith, Noel L.

    2016-01-01

    Testicular compartment syndrome (TCS) refers to the impairment of microcirculation in the testicle due to either increased venous resistance or extraluminal compression, which leads to hypoxia. TCS releases oxidants through hypoxia and ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). The pathophysiology, etiology, evaluation, and management of TCS are reviewed. Based on the properties of TCS, specific causes, e.g., varicocele, hydrocele, orchitis, cryptorchidism, and scrotal hernia, are suggested and categorized. The oxidant-induced stress from TCS may explain the correlations between these causes and infertility. A chief shortcoming of current imaging modalities is that they detect TCS late after it has progressed to impair the macrocirculation of the testicle. We propose frequent sequential periodic power Doppler ultrasonography to monitoring for earlier detection. Intraoperatively, TCS can be diagnosed by the dull purple appearance of a hypoxic testicle and by tissue pressures above 30 mmHg. When compartment pressure is low, the underlying etiology must be promptly treated. During acute presentation, an incision of the resilient tunica albuginea may be necessary. A great challenge of treating TCS is restoring microcirculation while minimizing IRI; concomitant antioxidant therapy secondary to treatment may be effective and harmless at the least. Because testicular oxidant stress is common in infertility and since TCS can cause such a stress, TCS may be a larger factor in infertility than currently suspected. PMID:28078225

  9. Protective effects of Urtica dioica L. on experimental testicular ischaemia reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Aktas, C; Erboga, M; Fidanol Erboga, Z; Bozdemir Donmez, Y; Topcu, B; Gurel, A

    2017-05-01

    In this study, it was aimed to examine the effects of Urtica dioica L. (UD) that has antioxidant feature in the experimental testicular I/R model in rats in terms of anti-apoptotic and antioxidative effects. In our study, 24 male rats were divided into three groups: control group, I/R group and I/R + UD (2 mg kg(-1) ) group. Seminiferous tubule calibre measurement, Johnson score, haematoxylin-eosin staining, proliferative cell nucleus antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemical staining and TUNEL as histopathological have been conducted. The structural deterioration in the testicular on I/R group has reduced after the treatment of UD. Our data indicate a significant reduction in the activity of in situ identification of apoptosis using terminal dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL), and there was a rise in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in testis tissues of UD-treated rats in the I/R group. The I/R + UD group showed a decrease in malondialdehyde levels and an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in comparison with the I/R group. It could be concluded that protective effects of UD on the I/R testicles are via reduction of histological damage, apoptosis, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. <