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Sample records for preconditioning induces neuroprotective

  1. Cell signaling in NMDA preconditioning and neuroprotection in convulsions induced by quinolinic acid.

    PubMed

    Severino, Patricia Cardoso; Muller, Gabriele do Amaral Silva; Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; Tasca, Carla Inês

    2011-10-10

    The search for novel, less invasive therapeutic strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases has stimulated scientists to investigate the mechanisms involved in preconditioning. Preconditioning has been report to occur in many organs and tissues. In the brain, the modulation of glutamatergic transmission is an important and promising target to the use of effective neuroprotective agents. The glutamatergic excitotoxicity is a factor common to neurodegenerative diseases and acute events such as cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. In this review we focus on the neuroprotection and preconditioning by chemical agents. Specially, chemical preconditioning models using N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) pre-treatment, which has demonstrated to lead to neuroprotection against seizures and damage to neuronal tissue induced by quinolinic acid (QA). Here we attempted to gather important results obtained in the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in NMDA preconditioning and neuroprotection.

  2. Glutamate transporter type 3 mediates isoflurane preconditioning-induced acute phase of neuroprotection in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Liaoliao; Deng, Jiao; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2013-09-01

    A pre-exposure to isoflurane reduces ischemic brain injury in rodents (isoflurane preconditioning). This neuroprotection has acute and delayed phases. Our previous in vitro studies suggest that the acute phase may involve excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). We determine whether this protection involves EAAT3, the major neuronal EAAT. Adult male EAAT3 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates were exposed or were not exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 30 min. Sixty minutes later, they were subjected to a 90- or 60-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO). Their neurological outcomes were evaluated 24h after the MCAO. In another experiment, cerebral cortex was harvested for Western blotting at 30 min after animals were exposed to 1.5% isoflurane for 30 min. Here, we showed that isoflurane reduced brain infarct volumes and improved neurological functions of wild-type mice after a 90-min MCAO. However, isoflurane pre-exposure did not change the neurological outcome of EAAT3 knockout mice no matter whether the MCAO was for 90 min or 60 min. Isoflurane increased phospho-Akt, a survival-promoting protein, in the wild-type mice but not in the EAAT3 knockout mice. The isoflurane-induced neuroprotection in the wild-type mice was abolished by LY294004, an Akt activation inhibitor. LY294004 alone did not affect the neurological outcome of the wild-type or EAAT3 knockout mice after focal brain ischemia. These results suggest that the isoflurane preconditioning-induced acute phase of neuroprotection involves EAAT3. The downstream event includes Akt activation.

  3. Hypoxic-preconditioning induces neuroprotection against hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglet brain.

    PubMed

    Ara, Jahan; Fekete, Saskia; Frank, Melissa; Golden, Jeffrey A; Pleasure, David; Valencia, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    Preconditioning-induced ischemic tolerance has been documented in the newborn brain, however, the signaling mechanisms of this preconditioning require further elucidation. The aims of this study were to develop a hypoxic-preconditioning (PC) model of ischemic tolerance in the newborn piglet, which emulates important clinical similarities to human situation of birth asphyxia, and to characterize some of the molecular mechanisms shown to be implicated in PC-induced neuroprotection in rodent models. One day old piglets were subjected to PC (8% O2/92% N2) for 3 h and 24 h later were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) produced by a combination of hypoxia (5% FiO2) for a period of 30 min and ischemia induced by a period of hypotension (10 min of reduced mean arterial blood pressure; ≤70% of baseline). Neuropathologic analysis and unbiased stereology, conducted at 24 h, 3 and 7 days of recovery following HI, indicated a substantial reduction in the severity of brain damage in PC piglets compared to non-PC piglets (P<0.05). PC significantly increased the mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its target gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at 0 h, 6h, 24 h, 3 and 7 days of recovery. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that PC resulted in HIF-1α protein stabilization and accumulation in nuclear extracts of cerebral cortex of newborn piglet brain compared to normoxic controls. Protein levels of VEGF increased in a time-dependent manner in both cortex and hippocampus following PC. Double-immunolabeling indicated that VEGF is mainly expressed in neurons, endothelial cells and astroglia. Our study demonstrates for the first time the protective efficacy of PC against hypoxic-ischemic injury in newborn piglet model, which recapitulates many pathophysiological features of asphyxiated human neonates. Furthermore, as has been shown in rodent models of preconditioning, our results suggest that PC-induced protection in neonatal piglets may involve

  4. Ischemic Preconditioning Mediates Neuroprotection against Ischemia in Mouse Hippocampal CA1 Neurons by Inducing Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chunlin; Cai, Ying; Zhang, Xuebin; Huang, Huiling; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yajing; Tong, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jinhuan; Wu, Jialing

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA1 region is sensitive to hypoxic and ischemic injury but can be protected by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). However, the mechanism through which IPC protects hippocampal CA1 neurons is still under investigation. Additionally, the role of autophagy in determining the fate of hippocampal neurons is unclear. Here, we examined whether IPC induced autophagy to alleviate hippocampal CA1 neuronal death in vitro and in vivo with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) models. Survival of hippocampal neurons increased from 51.5% ± 6.3% in the non-IPC group (55 min of OGD) to 77.3% ± 7.9% in the IPC group (15 min of OGD, followed by 55 min of OGD 24 h later). The number of hippocampal CA1 layer neurons increased from 182 ± 26 cells/mm2 in the non-IPC group (20 min of BCCAO) to 278 ± 55 cells/mm2 in the IPC group (1 min × 3 BCCAO, followed by 20 min of BCCAO 24 h later). Akt phosphorylation and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I expression were increased in the preconditioning group. Moreover, the protective effects of IPC were abolished only by inhibiting the activity of autophagy, but not by blocking the activation of Akt in vitro. Using in vivo experiments, we found that LC3 expression was upregulated, accompanied by an increase in neuronal survival in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the preconditioning group. The neuroprotective effects of IPC on hippocampal CA1 neurons were completely inhibited by treatment with 3-MA. In contrast, hippocampal CA3 neurons did not show changes in autophagic activity or beneficial effects of IPC. These data suggested that IPC may attenuate ischemic injury in hippocampal CA1 neurons through induction of Akt-independent autophagy.

  5. Ischemic Preconditioning Mediates Neuroprotection against Ischemia in Mouse Hippocampal CA1 Neurons by Inducing Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuebin; Huang, Huiling; Wang, Jin; Wang, Yajing; Tong, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jinhuan; Wu, Jialing

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA1 region is sensitive to hypoxic and ischemic injury but can be protected by ischemic preconditioning (IPC). However, the mechanism through which IPC protects hippocampal CA1 neurons is still under investigation. Additionally, the role of autophagy in determining the fate of hippocampal neurons is unclear. Here, we examined whether IPC induced autophagy to alleviate hippocampal CA1 neuronal death in vitro and in vivo with oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) models. Survival of hippocampal neurons increased from 51.5% ± 6.3% in the non-IPC group (55 min of OGD) to 77.3% ± 7.9% in the IPC group (15 min of OGD, followed by 55 min of OGD 24 h later). The number of hippocampal CA1 layer neurons increased from 182 ± 26 cells/mm2 in the non-IPC group (20 min of BCCAO) to 278 ± 55 cells/mm2 in the IPC group (1 min × 3 BCCAO, followed by 20 min of BCCAO 24 h later). Akt phosphorylation and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II/LC3-I expression were increased in the preconditioning group. Moreover, the protective effects of IPC were abolished only by inhibiting the activity of autophagy, but not by blocking the activation of Akt in vitro. Using in vivo experiments, we found that LC3 expression was upregulated, accompanied by an increase in neuronal survival in hippocampal CA1 neurons in the preconditioning group. The neuroprotective effects of IPC on hippocampal CA1 neurons were completely inhibited by treatment with 3-MA. In contrast, hippocampal CA3 neurons did not show changes in autophagic activity or beneficial effects of IPC. These data suggested that IPC may attenuate ischemic injury in hippocampal CA1 neurons through induction of Akt-independent autophagy. PMID:26325184

  6. Mitochondrial preconditioning: a potential neuroprotective strategy.

    PubMed

    Correia, Sónia C; Carvalho, Cristina; Cardoso, Susana; Santos, Renato X; Santos, Maria S; Oliveira, Catarina R; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A; Moreira, Paula I

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria have long been known as the powerhouse of the cell. However, these organelles are also pivotal players in neuronal cell death. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature of chronic brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), and cerebral ischemic stroke. Data derived from morphologic, biochemical, and molecular genetic studies indicate that mitochondria constitute a convergence point for neurodegeneration. Conversely, mitochondria have also been implicated in the neuroprotective signaling processes of preconditioning. Despite the precise molecular mechanisms underlying preconditioning-induced brain tolerance are still unclear, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels activation have been shown to be involved in the preconditioning phenomenon. This review intends to discuss how mitochondrial malfunction contributes to the onset and progression of cerebral ischemic stroke and AD and PD, two major neurodegenerative disorders. The role of mitochondrial mechanisms involved in the preconditioning-mediated neuroprotective events will be also discussed. Mitochondrial targeted preconditioning may represent a promising therapeutic weapon to fight neurodegeneration.

  7. Isoflurane Preconditioning Induces Neuroprotection by Up-Regulation of TREK1 in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Kong, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neuroprotection and mechanism of isoflurane on rats with spinal cord ischemic injury. Total 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the four groups (n=10). Group A was sham-operation group; group B was ischemia group; group C was isoflurane preconditioning group; group D was isoflurane preconditioning followed by ischemia treatment group. Then the expressions of TWIK-related K+ channel 1 (TREK1) in the four groups were detected by immunofluorescent assay, real time-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) and western blot. The primary neurons of rats were isolated and cultured under normal and hypoxic conditions. Besides, the neurons under two conditions were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-TREK1 and lentivirual to overexpress and silence TREK1. Additionally, the neurons were treated with isoflurane or not. Then caspase-3 activity and cell cycle of neurons under normal and hypoxic conditions were detected. Furthermore, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) was detected using NAD+/NADH quantification colorimetric kit. Results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of TREK1 increased significantly in group C and D. In neurons, when TREK1 silenced, isoflurane treatment improved the caspase-3 activity. In hypoxic condition, the caspase-3 activity and sub-G1 cell percentage significantly increased, however, when TREK1 overexpressed the caspase-3 activity and sub-G1 cell percentage decreased significantly. Furthermore, both isoflurane treatment and overexpression of TREK1 significantly decreased NADH. In conclusion, isoflurane-induced neuroprotection in spinal cord ischemic injury may be associated with the up-regulation of TREK1. PMID:27469140

  8. Time course of neuroprotection induced by in vivo normobaric hyperoxia preconditioning and angiogenesis factors

    PubMed Central

    Shahhoseini, Meisam; Bigdeli, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Every year, a large number of people lose their lives due to stroke. Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Surprisingly, recent studies have shown that preconditioning with hyperoxia (HO) increases tissue tolerance to ischemia, ultimately reducing damages caused by stroke. Addressed in this study are beneficial contributions from HO preconditioning into reduced harm to be incurred by the attack, as well as its effect on the expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin. Materials and Methods: A set of experiments was conducted where a number of rats were divided into three groups. The animals in the first group received 90% oxygen for 4 hr a day, for 6 days. The second group was housed in room air and the third group was a sham (surgical stress). After 60 min of ischemia, 24 hr blood flow, neurological deficit score (NDS) and infarct volume (IV) in the group MCAO (Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion) were investigated. Immediately following a 48 hr HO pre-treatment, sampling was performed to measure the expression levels of VEGF and endostatin. Results: Preconditioning with alternating HO led to reduced infarct volume and NDS. Moreover, pre-treatment with HO resulted in increased VEGF expression while decreasing endostatin. Conclusion: Although further studies are deemed necessary to clarify the mechanisms of ischemic tolerance, apparently, somewhat intermittent hyperoxia can be associated with positive impacts by increasing VEGF and decreasing expression of endostatin. PMID:28133527

  9. Inhibition of PKCgamma membrane translocation mediated morphine preconditioning-induced neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation in the hippocampus slices of mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Li, Junfa; Yang, Jing; Ji, Fang; Bu, Xiangning; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Bingxi

    2008-10-17

    We previously reported that novel protein kinase C (nPKC) epsilon and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors participated in morphine preconditioning (MP)-induced neuroprotection. In this study, we used Western blot analysis, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay to determine the involvement of conventional PKC isoforms (cPKC) in MP-induced neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Hippocampus slices (400-microm thickness) from healthy male BALB/c mice exposed to OGD for 5-45 min to mimic mild, moderate and severe ischemia in the presence of MP pretreatment. We found that OGD-induced damage in neuronal cell survival rate and LDH leakage could be improved by MP pretreatment (3 microM) within 20 min of OGD, which was abolished by concomitant incubation with non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (Nal, 50 microM). The results of Western blot analysis showed that only cPKCgamma membrane translocation, not alpha, betaI and betaII, increased under the condition of OGD 10 min and 2h reperfusion (OGD/2h), and this increment of cPKCgamma membrane translocation was inhibited by MP pretreatment. To further elucidate the role of cPKCgamma in MP-induced neuroprotection, we found that cPKCgamma membrane translocation inhibitor, Go6983 (6 nM) did not affect MP-induced neuroprotection while Go6983 alone exhibited a significant inhibition on OGD-induced increment in LDH leakage and decrease in cell survival rate. These phenomena were defined by the results that Go6983 could restore OGD-induced cPKCgamma membrane translocation, but had no further effect on MP-induced inhibition of cPKCgamma membrane translocation. These results demonstrated that MP can reduce OGD-induced neuronal injuries, and the down-regulation of cPKCgamma membrane translocation might be involved in the neuroprotection.

  10. Single low-dose lipopolysaccharide preconditioning: neuroprotective against axonal injury and modulates glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Ryan C.; Naser, Zachary J.; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Vangilder, Reyna L.; Matsumoto, Rae R.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Over 7 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported each year in the United States. However, treatments and neuroprotection following TBI are limited because secondary injury cascades are poorly understood. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration before controlled cortical impact can contribute to neuroprotection. However, the underlying mechanisms and whether LPS preconditioning confers neuroprotection against closed-head injuries remains unclear. Methods The authors hypothesized that preconditioning with a low dose of LPS (0.2 mg/kg) would regulate glial reactivity and protect against diffuse axonal injury induced by weight drop. LPS was administered 7 days prior to TBI. LPS administration reduced locomotion, which recovered completely by time of injury. Results LPS preconditioning significantly reduced the post-injury gliosis response near the corpus callosum, possibly by downregulating the oncostatin M receptor. These novel findings demonstrate a protective role of LPS preconditioning against diffuse axonal injury. LPS preconditioning successfully prevented neurodegeneration near the corpus callosum, as measured by fluorojade B. Conclusion Further work is required to elucidate whether LPS preconditioning confers long-term protection against behavioral deficits and to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for LPS-induced neuroprotective effects. PMID:28164149

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning: a reliable option for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qin; Manaenko, Anatol; Matei, Nathanael; Guo, Zhenni; Xu, Ting; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Brain injury is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide and clinically there is no effective therapy for neuroprotection. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) has been experimentally demonstrated to be neuroprotective in several models and has shown efficiency in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Compared with other preconditioning stimuli, HBO is benign and has clinically translational potential. In this review, we will summarize the results in experimental brain injury and clinical studies, elaborate the mechanisms of HBO-PC, and discuss regimes and opinions for future interventions in acute brain injury. PMID:27826420

  12. Clinical Application of Preconditioning and Postconditioning to Achieve Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Dezfulian, Cameron; Garrett, Matthew; Gonzalez, Nestor R.

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic conditioning is a form of endogenous protection induced by transient, subcritical ischemia in a tissue. Organs with high sensitivity to ischemia, such as the heart, the brain, and spinal cord represent the most critical and potentially promising targets for potential therapeutic applications of ischemic conditioning. Numerous preclinical investigations have systematically studied the molecular pathways and potential benefits of both pre- and post-conditioning with promising results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present knowledge on cerebral pre-and post-conditioning, with an emphasis in the clinical application of these forms of neuroprotection. Methods A systematic Medline search for the terms preconditioning and postconditioning was performed. Publications related to the nervous system and to human applications were selected and analyzed. Findings Pre-and post-conditioning appear to provide similar levels of neuroprotection. The preconditioning window of benefit can be subdivided into early and late effects, depending on whether the effect appears immediately after the sublethal stress or with a delay of days. In general early effects have been associated post-translational modification of critical proteins (membrane receptors, mitochondrial respiratory chain) while late effects are the result of gene up-or down-regulation. Transient ischemic attacks appear to represent a form of clinically relevant preconditioning by inducing ischemic tolerance in the brain and reducing the severity of subsequent strokes. Remote forms of ischemic pre- and post-conditioning have been more commonly used in clinical studies, as the remote application reduces the risk of injuring the target tissue for which protection is pursued. Limb transient ischemia is the preferred method of induction of remote conditioning with evidence supporting its safety. Clinical studies in a variety of populations at risk of central nervous damage including carotid disease

  13. Neuroprotection of Ischemic Preconditioning is Mediated by Anti-inflammatory, Not Pro-inflammatory, Cytokines in the Gerbil Hippocampus Induced by a Subsequent Lethal Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Won; Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kang, Il Jun; Hong, Seongkweon; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, In Hye

    2015-09-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) induced by sublethal transient cerebral ischemia could reduce neuronal damage/death following a subsequent lethal transient cerebral ischemia. We, in this study, compared expressions of interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α as pro-inflammatory cytokines, and IL-4 and IL-13 as anti-inflammatory cytokines in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region between animals with lethal ischemia and ones with IPC followed by lethal ischemia. In the animals with lethal ischemia, pyramidal neurons in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region were dead at 5 days post-ischemia; however, IPC protected the CA1 pyramidal neurons from lethal ischemic injury. Expressions of all cytokines were significantly decreased in the SP after lethal ischemia and hardly detected in the SP at 5 days post-ischemia because the CA1 pyramidal neurons were dead. IPC increased expressions of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 region following no lethal ischemia (sham-operation), and the increased expressions of IL-4 and IL-13 by IPC were continuously maintained is the SP of the CA1 region after lethal ischemia. However, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2 and TNF-α) in the SP of the CA1 region were similar those in the sham-operated animals with IPC, and the IL-4 and IL-13 expressions in the SP were maintained after lethal ischemia. In conclusion, this study shows that anti-inflammatory cytokines significantly increased and longer maintained by IPC and this might be closely associated with neuroprotection after lethal transient cerebral ischemia.

  14. Increased BDNF protein expression after ischemic or PKC epsilon preconditioning promotes electrophysiologic changes that lead to neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jake T; Thompson, John W; Raval, Ami P; Cohan, Charles H; Koronowski, Kevin B; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) via protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) activation induces neuroprotection against lethal ischemia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a pro-survival signaling molecule that modulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Interestingly, BDNF mRNA expression increases after IPC. In this study, we investigated whether IPC or pharmacological preconditioning (PKCɛ activation) promoted BDNF-induced neuroprotection, if neuroprotection by IPC or PKCɛ activation altered neuronal excitability, and whether these changes were BDNF-mediated. We used both in vitro (hippocampal organotypic cultures and cortical neuronal-glial cocultures) and in vivo (acute hippocampal slices 48 hours after preconditioning) models of IPC or PKCɛ activation. BDNF protein expression increased 24 to 48 hours after preconditioning, where inhibition of the BDNF Trk receptors abolished neuroprotection against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. In addition, there was a significant decrease in neuronal firing frequency and increase in threshold potential 48 hours after preconditioning in vivo, where this threshold modulation was dependent on BDNF activation of Trk receptors in excitatory cortical neurons. In addition, 48 hours after PKCɛ activation in vivo, the onset of anoxic depolarization during OGD was significantly delayed in hippocampal slices. Overall, these results suggest that after IPC or PKCɛ activation, there are BDNF-dependent electrophysiologic modifications that lead to neuroprotection.

  15. Preconditioning Provides Neuroprotection in Models of CNS Disease: Paradigms and Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Stetler, R. Anne; Leak, Rehana K.; Gan, Yu; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Jing, Zheng; Chen, Jun; Zigmond, Michael J.; Gao, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    Preconditioning is a phenomenon in which brief episodes of a sublethal insult induce robust protection against subsequent lethal injuries. Preconditioning has been observed in multiple organisms and can occur in the brain as well as other tissues. Extensive animal studies suggest that the brain can be preconditioned to resist acute injuries, such as ischemic stroke, neonatal hypoxia/ischemia, trauma, and agents that are used in models of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Effective preconditioning stimuli are numerous and diverse, ranging from transient ischemia, hypoxia, hyperbaric oxygen, hypothermia and hyperthermia, to exposure to neurotoxins and pharmacological agents. The phenomenon of “cross-tolerance,” in which a sublethal stress protects against a different type of injury, suggests that different preconditioning stimuli may confer protection against a wide range of injuries. Research conducted over the past few decades indicates that brain preconditioning is complex, involving multiple effectors such as metabolic inhibition, activation of extra- and intracellular defense mechanisms, a shift in the neuronal excitatory/inhibitory balance, and reduction in inflammatory sequelae. An improved understanding of brain preconditioning should help us identify innovative therapeutic strategies that prevent or at least reduce neuronal damage in susceptible patients. In this review, we focus on the experimental evidence of preconditioning in the brain and systematically survey the models used to develop paradigms for neuroprotection, and then discuss the clinical potential of brain preconditioning. In a subsequent components of this two-part series, we will discuss the cellular and molecular events that are likely to underlie these phenomena. PMID:24389580

  16. Strategies for study of neuroprotection from cold-preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Heidi M; White, David M; Kraig, Richard P

    2010-09-02

    Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident. Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro model that closely reflects their in vivo counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia/microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue-wide cytokine

  17. Strategies for Study of Neuroprotection from Cold-preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Heidi M.; White, David M.; Kraig, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Neurological injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality from general anesthesia and related surgical procedures that could be alleviated by development of effective, easy to administer and safe preconditioning treatments. We seek to define the neural immune signaling responsible for cold-preconditioning as means to identify novel targets for therapeutics development to protect brain before injury onset. Low-level pro-inflammatory mediator signaling changes over time are essential for cold-preconditioning neuroprotection. This signaling is consistent with the basic tenets of physiological conditioning hormesis, which require that irritative stimuli reach a threshold magnitude with sufficient time for adaptation to the stimuli for protection to become evident. Accordingly, delineation of the immune signaling involved in cold-preconditioning neuroprotection requires that biological systems and experimental manipulations plus technical capacities are highly reproducible and sensitive. Our approach is to use hippocampal slice cultures as an in vitro model that closely reflects their in vivo counterparts with multi-synaptic neural networks influenced by mature and quiescent macroglia / microglia. This glial state is particularly important for microglia since they are the principal source of cytokines, which are operative in the femtomolar range. Also, slice cultures can be maintained in vitro for several weeks, which is sufficient time to evoke activating stimuli and assess adaptive responses. Finally, environmental conditions can be accurately controlled using slice cultures so that cytokine signaling of cold-preconditioning can be measured, mimicked, and modulated to dissect the critical node aspects. Cytokine signaling system analyses require the use of sensitive and reproducible multiplexed techniques. We use quantitative PCR for TNF-α to screen for microglial activation followed by quantitative real-time qPCR array screening to assess tissue

  18. Minocycline-preconditioned neural stem cells enhance neuroprotection after ischemic stroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroyuki; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Kim, Gab Seok; Jung, Joo Eun; Katsu, Masataka; Narasimhan, Purnima; Maier, Carolina M; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Chan, Pak H

    2012-03-07

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) offers a novel therapeutic strategy for stroke; however, massive grafted cell death following transplantation, possibly due to a hostile host brain environment, lessens the effectiveness of this approach. Here, we have investigated whether reprogramming NSCs with minocycline, a broadly used antibiotic also known to possess cytoprotective properties, enhances survival of grafted cells and promotes neuroprotection in ischemic stroke. NSCs harvested from the subventricular zone of fetal rats were preconditioned with minocycline in vitro and transplanted into rat brains 6 h after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Histological and behavioral tests were examined from days 0-28 after stroke. For in vitro experiments, NSCs were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation. Cell viability and antioxidant gene expression were analyzed. Minocycline preconditioning protected the grafted NSCs from ischemic reperfusion injury via upregulation of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant genes. Additionally, preconditioning with minocycline induced the NSCs to release paracrine factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Moreover, transplantation of the minocycline-preconditioned NSCs significantly attenuated infarct size and improved neurological performance, compared with non-preconditioned NSCs. Minocycline-induced neuroprotection was abolished by transfecting the NSCs with Nrf2-small interfering RNA before transplantation. Thus, preconditioning with minocycline, which reprograms NSCs to tolerate oxidative stress after ischemic reperfusion injury and express higher levels of paracrine factors through Nrf2 up-regulation, is a simple and safe approach to enhance the effectiveness of transplantation therapy in ischemic stroke.

  19. NMDA preconditioning and neuroprotection in vivo: delayed onset of kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration and c-Fos attenuation in CA3a neurons.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shirin; Pavlik, Alfred; Krajci, Dimitrolos; Al-Sarraf, Hameed

    2009-02-23

    Intraventricular (i.c.v.) kainic acid (KA) causes an acute excitotoxic lesion to the CA3 region of rodent hippocampus. Recent evidence implicated c-fos gene in regulating neuron survival and death following an excitotoxic insult. In this study we attempted to prevent KA-induced damage in CA3 neurons with NMDA preconditioning, which produced a marked expression of c-fos in the hippocampus. NMDA (0.6-6 microg, i.c.v.) was injected to anesthetized rats alone or 1 h before KA (0.15 microg, i.c.v.). Following KA injection, vibratome sections were processed for immunohistochemistry/electron microscopy. c-Fos and Nissl staining were used to estimate the extent of neuronal excitation and damage, respectively. Quantitative evaluation of c-Fos-labeled cells showed significantly less c-Fos in CA3a than in neighboring CA3b and CA2 from 1 to 4 h after KA alone. Attenuation of expressed c-Fos in CA3a was accompanied by damage of neurons with more apoptotic than necrotic signs. NMDA preconditioning elevated CA3a c-Fos expression and at 1 and 2 h exceeded markedly that after KA alone. However, at 4 h after KA, NMDA-preconditioned c-Fos induction in CA3a diminished to the same level as that seen after KA alone. The onset of neuronal degeneration was delayed in similar way. While NMDA-induced c-Fos expression in CA3a could be blocked by MK-801 completely, MK-801 and CNQX were both without significant effect on KA-induced c-Fos expression and neuronal damage. In conclusion, inhibition of c-Fos expression and onset of neuronal damage in CA3a following icv KA injection might be transiently delayed by i.c.v. NMDA preconditioning.

  20. CpG preconditioning regulates miRNA expression that modulates genomic reprogramming associated with neuroprotection against ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Vartanian, Keri B; Mitchell, Hugh D; Stevens, Susan L; Conrad, Valerie K; McDermott, Jason E; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2015-01-01

    Cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) preconditioning reprograms the genomic response to stroke to protect the brain against ischemic injury. The mechanisms underlying genomic reprogramming are incompletely understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; however, their role in modulating gene responses produced by CpG preconditioning is unknown. We evaluated brain miRNA expression in response to CpG preconditioning before and after stroke using microarray. Importantly, we have data from previous gene microarrays under the same conditions, which allowed integration of miRNA and gene expression data to specifically identify regulated miRNA gene targets. CpG preconditioning did not significantly alter miRNA expression before stroke, indicating that miRNA regulation is not critical for the initiation of preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. However, after stroke, differentially regulated miRNAs between CpG- and saline-treated animals associated with the upregulation of several neuroprotective genes, implicating these miRNAs in genomic reprogramming that increases neuroprotection. Statistical analysis revealed that the miRNA targets were enriched in the gene population regulated in the setting of stroke, implying that miRNAs likely orchestrate this gene expression. These data suggest that miRNAs regulate endogenous responses to stroke and that manipulation of these miRNAs may have the potential to acutely activate novel neuroprotective processes that reduce damage. PMID:25388675

  1. Role of MicroRNAs in innate neuroprotection mechanisms due to preconditioning of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    Insults to the brain that are sub-threshold for damage activate endogenous protective pathways, which can temporarily protect the brain against a subsequent harmful episode. This mechanism has been named as tolerance and its protective effects have been shown in experimental models of ischemia and epilepsy. The preconditioning-stimulus can be a short period of ischemia or mild seizures induced by low doses of convulsant drugs. Gene-array profiling has shown that both ischemic and epileptic tolerance feature large-scale gene down-regulation but the mechanism are unknown. MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs of ~20–22 nucleotides length which regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level via mRNA degradation or inhibition of protein translation. MicroRNAs have been shown to be regulated after non-harmful and harmful stimuli in the brain and to contribute to neuroprotective mechanisms. This review focuses on the role of microRNAs in the development of tolerance following ischemic or epileptic preconditioning. PMID:25954143

  2. Proteomic analysis of the mice hippocampus after preconditioning induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA).

    PubMed

    do Amaral e Silva Müller, Gabrielle; Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; Tavares, Carolina Pereira; Menegatti, Angela C O; Terenzi, Hernán; Tasca, Carla Inês; Severino, Patricia Cardoso

    2013-05-01

    Preconditioning induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) has been used as a therapeutic tool against later neuronal insults. NMDA preconditioning affords neuroprotection against convulsions and cellular damage induced by the NMDA receptor agonist, quinolinic acid (QA) with time-window dependence. This study aimed to evaluate the molecular alterations promoted by NMDA and to compare these alterations in different periods of time that are related to the presence or lack of neuroprotection. Putative mechanisms related to NMDA preconditioning were evaluated via a proteomic analysis by using a time-window study. After a subconvulsant and protective dose of NMDA administration mice, hippocampi were removed (1, 24 or 72 h) and total protein analyzed by 2DE gels and identified by MALDI-TOF. Differential protein expression among the time induction of NMDA preconditioning was observed. In the hippocampus of protected mice (24 h), four proteins: HSP70(B), aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein and creatine kinase were found to be up-regulated. Two other proteins, HSP70(A) and V-type proton ATPase were found down-regulated. Proteomic analysis showed that the neuroprotection induced by NMDA preconditioning altered signaling pathways, cell energy maintenance and protein synthesis and processing. These events may occur in a sense to attenuate the excitotoxicity process during the activation of neuroprotection promoted by NMDA preconditioning.

  3. The neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and neurotrophic factors after focal brain ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shotaro; Sakakima, Harutoshi; Sumizono, Megumi; Takada, Seiya; Terashi, Takuto; Yoshida, Yoshihiro

    2016-04-15

    Preconditioning exercise can exert neuroprotective effects after stroke. However, the mechanism underlying these neuroprotective effects by preconditioning exercise remains unclear. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of preconditioning exercise on brain damage and the expression levels of the midkine (MK) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after brain ischemia. Animals were assigned to one of 4 groups: exercise and ischemia (Ex), no exercise and ischemia (No-Ex), exercise and no ischemia (Ex-only), and no exercise and intact (Control). Rats ran on a treadmill for 30 min once a day at a speed of 25 m/min for 5 days a week for 3 weeks. After the exercise program, stroke was induced by a 60 min left middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament. The infarct volume, motor function, neurological deficits, and the cellular expressions levels of MK, BDNF, GFAP, PECAM-1, caspase 3, and nitrotyrosine (NT) were evaluated 48 h after the induction of ischemia. The infarct volume, neurological deficits and motor function in the Ex group were significantly improved compared to that of the No-Ex group. The expression levels of MK, BDNF, GFAP, and PECAM-1 were enhanced in the Ex group compared to the expression levels in the No-Ex group after brain ischemia, while the expression levels of activated caspase 3 and NT were reduced in the area surrounding the necrotic lesion. Our findings suggest that preconditioning exercise reduced the infract volume and ameliorated motor function, enhanced expression levels of MK and BDNF, increased astrocyte proliferation, increased angiogenesis, and reduced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  4. Neuroprotective Effect of Antioxidants and Moderate Hypoxia as Combined Preconditioning in Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Levchenkova, O S; Novikov, V E; Parfenov, E A; Kulagin, K N

    2016-12-01

    We studied combined effect of moderate hypoxia and compounds pQ-4, pQ-915, pQ-1032, and pQ-1104 on neurological deficit and survival of rats after bilateral ligation of common carotid arteries. Preconditioning including moderate hypoxia and treatment with compound pQ-4 produced a neuroprotective effect and increased animal survival during the early (by 51%) and late (by 33.5%) periods of modeled ischemia and reduced neurological deficit (by 50% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, this combination of preconditioning factors prevented postischemic excessive activation of free radical oxidation in brain hemispheres and blood serum.

  5. Isoflurane preconditioning provides neuroprotection against stroke by regulating the expression of the TLR4 signalling pathway to alleviate microglial activation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meiyan; Deng, Bin; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Gao, Changjun; Yang, Lu; Zhao, Hui; Yu, Daihua; Zhang, Feng; Xu, Lixian; Chen, Lei; Sun, Xude

    2015-01-01

    Excessive microglial activation often contributes to inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity in the ischemic penumbra during the acute stage of ischemic stroke. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to induce microglial activation via the NF-κB pathway. Isoflurane preconditioning (IP) can provide neuroprotection and inhibit microglial activation. In this study, we investigated the roles of the TLR4 signalling pathway in IP to exert neuroprotection following ischemic stroke in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that 2% IP alleviated neurological deficits, reduced the infarct volume, attenuated apoptosis and weakened microglial activation in the ischemic penumbra. Furthermore, IP down-regulated the expression of HSP 60, TLR4 and MyD88 and up-regulated inhibitor of IκB-α expression compared with I/R group in vivo. In vitro, 2% IP and a specific inhibitor of TLR4, CLI-095, down-regulated the expression of TLR4, MyD88, IL-1β, TNF-α and Bax, and up-regulated IκB-α and Bcl-2 expression compared with OGD group. Moreover, IP and CLI-095 attenuated microglial activation-induced neuronal apoptosis, and overexpression of the TLR4 gene reversed the neuroprotective effects of IP. In conclusion, IP provided neuroprotection by regulating TLR4 expression directly, alleviating microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Thus, inhibiting the activation of microglial activation via TLR4 may be a new avenue for stroke treatment. PMID:26086415

  6. Pharmacologic preconditioning with berberine attenuating ischemia-induced apoptosis and promoting autophagy in neuron

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qichun; Bian, Huimin; Guo, Liwei; Zhu, Huaxu

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologic preconditioning is an intriguing and emerging approach adopted to prevent injury of ischemia/reperfusion. Neuroprotection is the cardinal effect of these pleiotropic actions of berberine. Here we investigated that whether berberine could acts as a preconditioning stimuli contributing to attenuate hypoxia-induced neurons death as well. Male Sprague-Dawley rats of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and rat primary cortical neurons undergoing oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) were preconditioned with berberine (40 mg/kg, for 24 h in vivo, and 10-6 mol/L, for 2 h in vitro, respectively). The neurological deficits and cerebral water contents of MCAO rats were evaluated. The autophagy and apoptosis were further determined in primary neurons in vitro. Berberine preconditioning (BP) was then shown to ameliorate the neurological deficits, decrease cerebral water content and promote neurogenesis of MCAO rats. Decreased LDH release from OGD-treated neurons was observed via BP, which was blocked by LY294002 (20 µmol/L), GSK690693 (10 µmol/L), or YC-1 (25 µmol/L). Furthermore, BP stimulated autophagy and inhibited apoptosis via modulated the autophagy-associated proteins LC 3, Beclin-1 and p62, and apoptosis-modulating proteins caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9, PARP and BCL-2/Bax. In conclusion, berberine acts as a stimulus of preconditioning that exhibits neuroprotection via promoting autophagy and decreasing anoxia-induced apoptosis. PMID:27158406

  7. Helium preconditioning attenuates hypoxia/ischemia-induced injury in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Xue, Feng; Liu, Guoke; Shi, Xin; Liu, Yun; Liu, Wenwu; Luo, Xu; Sun, Xuejun; Kang, Zhimin

    2011-02-28

    Recent studies show helium may be one kind of neuroprotective gas. This study aimed to examine the short and long-term neuroprotective effects of helium preconditioning in an established neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Seven-day-old rat pups were subjected to left common carotid artery ligation and then 90 min of hypoxia (8% oxygen at 37°C). The preconditioning group inhaled 70% helium-30% oxygen for 5 min three times with an interval of 5 min 24h before HI insult. Pups were decapitated 24h after HI and brain morphological injury was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Nissl and TUNEL staining. Caspase-3 activity in the brain was measured. Five weeks after HI, postural reflex testing and Morris water maze testing were conducted. Our results showed that helium preconditioning reduced the infarct ratio, increased the number of survival neurons, and inhibited apoptosis at the early stage of HI insult. Furthermore, the sensorimotor function and the cognitive function were improved significantly in rats with helium preconditioning. The results indicate that helium preconditioning attenuates HI induced brain injury.

  8. Co-application of ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning provides additive neuroprotection against spinal cord ischemia in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaojing; Shi, Enyi; Li, Liwen; Nakajima, Yoshiki; Sato, Shigehito

    2008-03-12

    Postconditioning can induce cardioprotection against ischemia. However, the data on postconditioning of the spinal cord is very limited. We investigated here whether co-application of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and postconditioning can provide additive neuroprotection against prolonged spinal cord ischemia. Spinal cord ischemia was produced in rabbits by infrarenal aortic occlusion with a balloon catheter for 30 min. The four treatment groups were control (n=10): no intervention; IPC (n=10): a 5-minute aortic occlusion was performed 20 min before the prolonged ischemia; Postcon (n=10): postconditioning comprised of four cycles of 1-minute occlusion/1-minute reperfusion was applied one minute after the start of reperfusion. IPC+postcon (n=11): both IPC and postconditioning were applied. Functional evaluation with Tarlov score was performed during a 14-day observation period. Neurologic impairment was noticeably attenuated in the IPC+postcon group (compared with the control group, P<0.01, at day 1, day 2, day 7 and day 14, respectively), but not in either the IPC or Postcon group. Plasma malondialdehyde levels after reperfusion were significantly decreased to a similar extent in the IPC, Postcon and IPC+Postcon groups (compared with the control group (P<0.01). In the IPC+Postcon group, many more large motor neurons were preserved than in the control group (P<0.05) and white matter injury was also markedly attenuated as evidenced by reduction of the vacuolation area of the white matter (P<0.01) and decreased amyloid precursor protein immunoreactivity (P<0.01). From this, we conclude that the combination of IPC and postconditioning induces additive neuroprotective effects for spinal cord against ischemia and reperfusion injuries.

  9. Glycine transporters type 1 inhibitor promotes brain preconditioning against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Lima, Isabel Vieira de Assis; da Costa, Flávia Lage Pessoa; Rosa, Daniela Valadão; Mendes-Goulart, Vânia Aparecida; Resende, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; de Oliveira, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Renato Santiago

    2015-02-01

    Brain preconditioning is a protective mechanism, which can be activated by sub-lethal stimulation of the NMDA receptors (NMDAR) and be used to achieve neuroprotection against stroke and neurodegenerative diseases models. Inhibitors of glycine transporters type 1 modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission through NMDAR, suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy of brain preconditioning. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of brain preconditioning induced by NFPS, a GlyT1 inhibitor, against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity in mice hippocampus, as well as to study its neurochemical mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice (male, 10-weeks-old) were preconditioned by intraperitoneal injection of NFPS at doses of 1.25, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg, 24 h before intrahippocampal injection of NMDA. Neuronal death was evaluated by fluoro jade C staining and neurochemical parameters were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, scintillation spectrometry and western blot. We observed that NFPS preconditioning reduced neuronal death in CA1 region of hippocampus submitted to NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. The amino acids (glycine and glutamate) uptake and content were increased in hippocampus of animals treated with NFPS 5.0 mg/kg, which were associated to an increased expression of type-2 glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glutamate transporters (EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3). The expression of GlyT1 was reduced in animals treated with NFPS. Interestingly, the preconditioning reduced expression of GluN2B subunits of NMDAR, whereas did not change the expression of GluN1 or GluN2A in all tested doses. Our study suggests that NFPS preconditioning induces resistance against excitotoxicity, which is associated with neurochemical changes and reduction of GluN2B-containing NMDAR expression.

  10. Tsc1 (hamartin) confers neuroprotection against ischemia by inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Papadakis, Michalis; Hadley, Gina; Xilouri, Maria; Hoyte, Lisa C.; Nagel, Simon; McMenamin, M Mary; Tsaknakis, Grigorios; Watt, Suzanne M.; Drakesmith, Cynthia Wright; Chen, Ruoli; Wood, Matthew J A; Zhao, Zonghang; Kessler, Benedikt; Vekrellis, Kostas; Buchan, Alastair M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts to identify neuroprotective targets by studying the ischemic cascade and devising ways to suppress it have failed to translate to efficacious therapies for acute ischemic stroke1. We hypothesized that studying the molecular determinants of endogenous neuroprotection in two well-established paradigms, the resistance of CA3 hippocampal neurons to global ischemia2 and the tolerance conferred by ischemic preconditioning (IPC)3, would reveal new neuroprotective targets. We found that the product of the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene (TSC1), hamartin, is selectively induced by ischemia in hippocampal CA3 neurons. In CA1 neurons, hamartin was unaffected by ischemia but was upregulated by IPC preceding ischemia, which protects the otherwise vulnerable CA1 cells. Suppression of hamartin expression with TSC1 shRNA viral vectors both in vitro and in vivo increased the vulnerability of neurons to cell death following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and ischemia. In vivo suppression of TSC1 expression increased locomotor activity and decreased habituation in a hippocampal-dependent task. Overexpression of hamartin increased resistance to OGD by inducing productive autophagy through an mTORC1-dependent mechanism. PMID:23435171

  11. Tsc1 (hamartin) confers neuroprotection against ischemia by inducing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Michalis; Hadley, Gina; Xilouri, Maria; Hoyte, Lisa C; Nagel, Simon; McMenamin, M Mary; Tsaknakis, Grigorios; Watt, Suzanne M; Drakesmith, Cynthia Wright; Chen, Ruoli; Wood, Matthew J A; Zhao, Zonghang; Kessler, Benedikt; Vekrellis, Kostas; Buchan, Alastair M

    2013-03-01

    Previous attempts to identify neuroprotective targets by studying the ischemic cascade and devising ways to suppress it have failed to translate to efficacious therapies for acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that studying the molecular determinants of endogenous neuroprotection in two well-established paradigms, the resistance of CA3 hippocampal neurons to global ischemia and the tolerance conferred by ischemic preconditioning (IPC), would reveal new neuroprotective targets. We found that the product of the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 gene (TSC1), hamartin, is selectively induced by ischemia in hippocampal CA3 neurons. In CA1 neurons, hamartin was unaffected by ischemia but was upregulated by IPC preceding ischemia, which protects the otherwise vulnerable CA1 cells. Suppression of hamartin expression with TSC1 shRNA viral vectors both in vitro and in vivo increased the vulnerability of neurons to cell death following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) and ischemia. In vivo, suppression of TSC1 expression increased locomotor activity and decreased habituation in a hippocampal-dependent task. Overexpression of hamartin increased resistance to OGD by inducing productive autophagy through an mTORC1-dependent mechanism.

  12. Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 by isoflurane preconditioning during tolerance against neuronal injury induced by oxygen glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qifang; Zhu, Yesen; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Hui; Liu, Heping

    2008-09-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of heme to produce bile pigments and carbon monoxide. The HO-1 isozyme is induced by a variety of factors such as heat, heme, ischemia, and hydrogen peroxide. In recent years, mounting findings have suggested that HO-1 has a neuroprotective activity against ischemic injury. The neuroprotective role of isoflurane, a commonly used anesthetic, has been well documented, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved. Recently, isoflurane has been shown to up-regulate HO-1 in the liver. In this study, we show that isoflurane preconditioning promotes the survival of cultured ischemic hippocampal neurons by increasing the number of surviving neurons and their viability. Further study by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis showed that isoflurane preconditioning significantly increases HO-1 expression in oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced neuronal injury. Furthermore, inhibition of HO activity by tin protoporphyrin partially abolishes isoflurane preconditioning's protective effect as measured by lactate dehydrogenase release in OGD neurons. These findings indicated that the neuroprotective role of isoflurane preconditioning against OGD-induced injury might be associated with its role in up-regulating HO-1 in ischemic neurons.

  13. Rosuvastatin induces delayed preconditioning against oxygen-glucose deprivation in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Domoki, Ferenc; Kis, Béla; Gáspár, Tamás; Snipes, James A; Parks, John S; Bari, Ferenc; Busija, David W

    2009-01-01

    We tested whether rosuvastatin (RST) protected against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced cell death in primary rat cortical neuronal cultures. OGD reduced neuronal viability (%naive controls, mean +/- SE, n = 24-96, P < 0.05) to 44 +/- 1%, but 3-day pretreatment with RST (5 microM) increased survival to 82 +/- 2% (P < 0.05). One-day RST treatment was not protective. RST-induced neuroprotection was abolished by mevalonate or geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), but not by cholesterol coapplication. Furthermore, RST-induced decreases in neuronal cholesterol levels were abolished by mevalonate but not by GGPP. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were reduced in RST-preconditioned neurons after OGD, and this effect was also reversed by both mevalonate and GGPP. These data suggested that GGPP, but not cholesterol depletion, were responsible for the induction of neuroprotection. Therefore, we tested whether 3-day treatments with perillic acid, a nonspecific inhibitor of both geranylgeranyl transferase (GGT) GGT 1 and Rab GGT, and the GGT 1-specific inhibitor GGTI-286 would reproduce the effects of RST. Perillic acid, but not GGTI-286, elicited robust neuronal preconditioning against OGD. RST, GGTI-286, and perillic acid all decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lactate dehydrogenase activity in the cultured neurons, but only RST and perillic acid reduced neuronal ATP and membrane Rab3a protein levels. In conclusion, RST preconditions cultured neurons against OGD via depletion of GGPP, leading to decreased geranylgeranylation of proteins that are probably not isoprenylated by GGT 1. Reduced neuronal ATP levels and ROS production after OGD may be directly involved in the mechanism of neuroprotection.

  14. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin posttreatment against kainate-induced excitotoxicity in mixed spinal cultures.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jong Yoon; Won, You Jin; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jong Uk; Sung, In Young; Hwang, Seung Jun; Kim, Mi Jung; Hong, Hea Nam

    2009-01-01

    Although the neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) preconditioning are well known, the potential of postapplied EPO to protect neurons against excitotoxic injury has not been clearly established. Here we show that kainate (KA)-induced excitotoxicity, which plays a key role in secondary spinal cord injury, decreased neuron survival, inhibited neurite extension, and significantly reduced the expression of erythropoietin receptors (EpoR) in cultured spinal neurons. Posttreatment with EPO for 48 hr protected neurons against KA-induced injury, opposing KA-induced apoptosis and promoting regrowth of motoneuron neurites. These neuroprotective effects were paralleled by a restoration of EpoR expression. The importance of the EpoR signaling pathway was demonstrated using an EpoR blocking antibody, which neutralized the neuroprotective action of EPO posttreatment and prevented EPO-induced increases in EpoR expression. We also found that up-regulated EpoR stimulated the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) pathway, which is known to facilitate neuronal growth and neurite regeneration. Although EPO posttreatment modestly attenuated KA-induced reactive gliosis in mixed neuron-glial cultures, blocking EpoR activity did not alter glial fibrillary acidic protein expression or astrocyte proliferation. In conclusion, 48 hr treatment with EPO following KA exposure induced EpoR-dependent protection against excitotoxic injury, demonstrating that preconditioning is not a prerequisite for neuroprotection by EPO. The neuroprotective effects of EPO posttreatment were mediated by an EpoR-dependent signaling pathway that possibly involves JAK2. The neuroprotective effect of EPO posttreatment against KA excitotoxicity appears to reflect direct effects on neurons and not indirect effects mediated by astrocytes.

  16. Exercise preconditioning exhibits neuroprotective effects on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsaei, Nabi; Khaksari, Mehdi; Erfani, Sohaila; Rajabi, Hamid; Aboutaleb, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested the neuroprotective effects of physical exercise on cerebral ischemic injury. However, the role of physical exercise in cerebral ischemia-induced hippocampal damage remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pre-ischemia treadmill training on hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. Male adult rats were randomly divided into control, ischemia and exercise + ischemia groups. In the exercise + ischemia group, rats were subjected to running on a treadmill in a designated time schedule (5 days per week for 4 weeks). Then rats underwent cerebral ischemia induction through occlusion of common carotids followed by reperfusion. At 4 days after cerebral ischemia, rat learning and memory abilities were evaluated using passive avoidance memory test and rat hippocampal neuronal damage was detected using Nissl and TUNEL staining. Pre-ischemic exercise significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and necrotic cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region as compared to the ischemia group. Moreover, pre-ischemic exercise significantly prevented ischemia-induced memory dysfunction. Pre-ischemic exercise mighct prevent memory deficits after cerebral ischemia through rescuing hippocampal CA1 neurons from ischemia-induced degeneration. PMID:26487851

  17. Cortical spreading depression-induced preconditioning in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ping-ping; Hou, Shuai; Ma, Di; Zhao, Ming-ming; Zhu, Ming-qin; Zhang, Jing-dian; Feng, Liang-shu; Cui, Li; Feng, Jia-chun

    2016-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression is a technique used to depolarize neurons. During focal or global ischemia, cortical spreading depression-induced preconditioning can enhance tolerance of further injury. However, the underlying mechanism for this phenomenon remains relatively unclear. To date, numerous issues exist regarding the experimental model used to precondition the brain with cortical spreading depression, such as the administration route, concentration of potassium chloride, induction time, duration of the protection provided by the treatment, the regional distribution of the protective effect, and the types of neurons responsible for the greater tolerance. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms underlying cortical spreading depression-induced tolerance in the brain, considering excitatory neurotransmission and metabolism, nitric oxide, genomic reprogramming, inflammation, neurotropic factors, and cellular stress response. Specifically, we clarify the procedures and detailed information regarding cortical spreading depression-induced preconditioning and build a foundation for more comprehensive investigations in the field of neural regeneration and clinical application in the future. PMID:28123433

  18. Exploring the Role of TRPV and CGRP in Adenosine Preconditioning and Remote Hind Limb Preconditioning-Induced Cardioprotection in Rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amritpal; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2017-02-14

    The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning (RIPC) are well known, but mechanisms by which protection occurs still remain to be explored. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of TRPV and CGRP in adenosine and remote preconditioning-induced cardioprotection, using sumatriptan, a CGRP release inhibitor and ruthenium red, a TRPV inhibitor, in rats. For remote preconditioning, a pressure cuff was tied around the hind limb of the rat and was inflated with air up to 150 mmHg to produce ischemia in the hind limb and during reperfusion pressure was released. Four cycles of ischemia and reperfusion, each consisting of 5 min of inflation and 5 min of deflation of pressure cuff were used to produce remote limb preconditioning. An ex vivo Langendorff's isolated rat heart model was used to induce ischemia reperfusion injury by 30 min of global ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. RIPC demonstrated a significant decrease in ischemia reperfusion-induced significant myocardial injury in terms of increase in LDH, CK, infarct size and decrease in LVDP, +dp/dtmax and -dp/dtmin. Moreover, pharmacological preconditioning with adenosine produced cardioprotective effects in a similar manner to RIPC. Pretreatment with sumatriptan, a CGRP release blocker, abolished RIPC and adenosine preconditioning-induced cardioprotective effects. Administration of ruthenium red, a TRPV inhibitor, also abolished adenosine preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. It may be proposed that the cardioprotective effects of adenosine and remote preconditioning are possibly mediated through activation of a TRPV channels and consequent, release of CGRP.

  19. Neuroprotection of Ischemic Preconditioning is Mediated by Thioredoxin 2 in the Hippocampal CA1 Region Following a Subsequent Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Geum-Sil; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Soo Young; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Dae Won; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kang, Il Jun; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2016-04-26

    Preconditioning by brief ischemic episode induces tolerance to a subsequent lethal ischemic insult, and it has been suggested that reactive oxygen species are involved in this phenomenon. Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2), a small protein with redox-regulating function, shows cytoprotective roles against oxidative stress. Here, we had focused on the role of Trx2 in ischemic preconditioning (IPC)-mediated neuroprotection against oxidative stress followed by a subsequent lethal transient cerebral ischemia. Animals used in this study were randomly assigned to six groups; sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated group, IPC + ischemia-operated group, IPC + auranofin (a TrxR2 inhibitor) + sham-operated group and IPC + auranofin + ischemia-operated group. IPC was subjected to a 2 minutes of sublethal transient ischemia 1 day prior to a 5 minutes of lethal transient ischemia. A significant loss of neurons was found in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) in the ischemia-operated-group 5 days after ischemia-reperfusion; in the IPC + ischemia-operated-group, pyramidal neurons in the SP were well protected. In the IPC + ischemia-operated-group, Trx2 and TrxR2 immunoreactivities in the SP and its protein level in the CA1 were not significantly changed compared with those in the sham-operated-group after ischemia-reperfusion. In addition, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression, superoxide anion radical ( O2-) production, denatured cytochrome c expression and TUNEL-positive cells in the IPC + ischemia-operated-group were similar to those in the sham-operated-group. Conversely, the treatment of auranofin to the IPC + ischemia-operated-group significantly increased cell damage/death and abolished the IPC-induced effect on Trx2 and TrxR2 expressions. Furthermore, the inhibition of Trx2R nearly cancelled the beneficial effects of IPC on SOD2 expression, O2- production, denatured cytochrome c

  20. Berberine Preconditioning Protects Neurons Against Ischemia via Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qichun; Bian, Huimin; Guo, Liwei; Zhu, Huaxu

    2016-01-01

    Berberine exerts neuroprotective and modulates hypoxia inducible factor-1-alpha (HIF-1[Formula: see text]. Based on the role of HIF-1[Formula: see text] in hypoxia preconditioning and association between HIF-1[Formula: see text] and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), we hypothesized that berberine preconditioning (BP) would ameliorate the cerebral injury induced by ischemia through activating the system of HIF-1[Formula: see text] and S1P. Adult male rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and rat primary cortical neurons treated with oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) with BP at 24[Formula: see text]h (40[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and 2[Formula: see text]h (10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L), respectively, were used to determine the neuroprotective effects. The HIF-1[Formula: see text] accumulation, and S1P metabolism were assayed in the berberine-preconditioned neurons, and the HIF-1[Formula: see text]-mediated transcriptional modulation of sphingosine kinases (Sphk) 1 and 2 was analyzed using chromatin immunoprecipitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. BP significantly prevented cerebral ischemic injury in the MCAO rats at 24[Formula: see text]h and 72[Formula: see text]h following ischemia/reperfusion. In OGD-treated neurons, BP enhanced HIF-1[Formula: see text] accumulation with activation of PI3K/Akt, and induced S1P production by activating Sphk2 via the promotion of HIF-1[Formula: see text]-mediated Sphk2 transcription. In conclusion, BP activated endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms associated with the S1P/HIF-1 pathway and helped protect neuronal cells against hypoxia/ischemia.

  1. Niaspan Treatment Induces Neuroprotection After Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shehadah, Amjad; Chen, Jieli; Zacharek, Alex; Cui, Yisheng; Ion, Madalina; Roberts, Cynthia; Kapke, Alissa; Chopp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Outcome Was Positively Correlated With P-PI3K (R=0.7, P<0.05). Conclusions Treatment Of Stroke With Niaspan At 2 Hours After Mcao Reduces Infarct Volume And Improves Neurological Outcome And Provides Neuroprotection. The Neuroprotective Effects Of Niaspan Were Associated With Reduction Of Apoptosis And Attenuation Of TNF-Alpha Expression. VEGF And The PI3K/Akt Pathway May Contribute To The Niaspan-Induced Neuroprotection After Stroke. PMID:20554037

  2. Monocarboxylate transporter 4 plays a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning in transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seongkweon; Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Won, Moo-Ho; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich-Na; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Park, Seung Min; Cho, Jun Hwi; Choi, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which carry monocarboxylates such as lactate across biological membranes, have been associated with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion process. In this study, we studied the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on MCT4 immunoreactivity after 5 minutes of transient cerebral ischemia in the gerbil. Animals were randomly designated to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia only group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia group). A serious loss of neuron was found in the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1), not CA2/3, of the ischemia-only group at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC + ischemia groups, neurons in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 were well protected. Weak MCT4 immunoreactivity was found in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the sham-operated group. MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale began to decrease at 2 days post-ischemia and was hardly detected at 5 days post-ischemia; at this time point, MCT4 immunoreactivity was newly expressed in astrocytes. In the IPC + sham-operated group, MCT4 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 was increased compared with the sham-operated group, and, in the IPC + ischemia group, MCT4 immunoreactivity was also increased in the stratum pyramidale compared with the ischemia only group. Briefly, present findings show that IPC apparently protected CA1 pyramidal neurons and increased or maintained MCT4 expression in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest that MCT4 appears to play a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC in the gerbil with transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26692857

  3. Roles of thioredoxin in nitric oxide-dependent preconditioning-induced tolerance against MPTP neurotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Chiueh, C.C. . E-mail: chiueh@tmu.edu.tw; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Chock, P. Boon

    2005-09-01

    Hormesis, a stress tolerance, can be induced by ischemic preconditioning stress. In addition to preconditioning, it may be induced by other means, such as gas anesthetics. Preconditioning mechanisms, which may be mediated by reprogramming survival genes and proteins, are obscure. A known neurotoxicant, 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), causes less neurotoxicity in the mice that are preconditioned. Pharmacological evidences suggest that the signaling pathway of {center_dot}NO-cGMP-PKG (protein kinase G) may mediate preconditioning phenomenon. We developed a human SH-SY5Y cell model for investigating {sup {center_dot}}NO-mediated signaling pathway, gene regulation, and protein expression following a sublethal preconditioning stress caused by a brief 2-h serum deprivation. Preconditioned human SH-SY5Y cells are more resistant against severe oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by lethal serum deprivation and 1-mehtyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP{sup +}). Both sublethal and lethal oxidative stress caused by serum withdrawal increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS/NOS1) expression and {sup {center_dot}}NO levels to a similar extent. In addition to free radical scavengers, inhibition of nNOS, guanylyl cyclase, and PKG blocks hormesis induced by preconditioning. S-nitrosothiols and 6-Br-cGMP produce a cytoprotection mimicking the action of preconditioning tolerance. There are two distinct cGMP-mediated survival pathways: (i) the up-regulation of a redox protein thioredoxin (Trx) for elevating mitochondrial levels of antioxidant protein Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, and (ii) the activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels [K(ATP)]. Preconditioning induction of Trx increased tolerance against MPP{sup +}, which was blocked by Trx mRNA antisense oligonucleotide and Trx reductase inhibitor. It is concluded that Trx plays a pivotal role in {sup {center_dot}}NO-dependent preconditioning hormesis against

  4. Argon Induces Protective Effects in Cardiomyocytes during the Second Window of Preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Britta; Soppert, Josefin; Kraemer, Sandra; Schemmel, Sabrina; Beckers, Christian; Bleilevens, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark; Goetzenich, Andreas; Stoppe, Christian

    2016-07-19

    Increasing evidence indicates that argon has organoprotective properties. So far, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of argon preconditioning in cardiomyocytes within the first and second window of preconditioning. Primary isolated cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were subjected to 50% argon for 1 h, and subsequently exposed to a sublethal dosage of hypoxia (<1% O₂) for 5 h either within the first (0-3 h) or second window (24-48 h) of preconditioning. Subsequently, the cell viability and proliferation was measured. The argon-induced effects were assessed by evaluation of mRNA and protein expression after preconditioning. Argon preconditioning did not show any cardioprotective effects in the early window of preconditioning, whereas it leads to a significant increase of cell viability 24 h after preconditioning compared to untreated cells (p = 0.015) independent of proliferation. Argon-preconditioning significantly increased the mRNA expression of heat shock protein (HSP) B1 (HSP27) (p = 0.048), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) (p = 0.001), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (p < 0.001) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p = 0.001). No difference was found with respect to activation of pro-survival kinases in the early and late window of preconditioning. The findings provide the first evidence of argon-induced effects on the survival of cardiomyocytes during the second window of preconditioning, which may be mediated through the induction of HSP27, SOD2, VEGF and iNOS.

  5. Electroacupuncture preconditioning and postconditioning inhibit apoptosis and neuroinflammation induced by spinal cord ischemia reperfusion injury through enhancing autophagy in rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bo; Qin, Meiman; Li, Yun; Li, Xiaoqian; Tan, Wenfei; Zhang, Ying; Ma, Hong

    2017-03-06

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has beneficial effects on spinal cord ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of autophagy in the protection of EA preconditioning and postconditioning against spinal cord I/R injury. For this, spinal cord I/R injury was induced by 14min occlusion of the aortic arch, and rats were treated with EA for 20min before or after the surgery. The expression of autophagy components, light chain 3 and Beclin 1, was assessed by Western blot. The hind-limb motor function was assessed using the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) criteria, and motor neurons in the ventral gray matter were counted by histological examination. The apoptosis of neurocyte was assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was also measured using Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Either EA preconditioning or postconditioning enhanced autophagy, and minimized the neuromotor dysfunction and histopathological deficits after spinal cord I/R injury. In addition, EA suppressed I/R-induced apoptosis and increased in the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9. In contrast, the autophagic inhibitor (3-methyladenine, 3-MA) inhibited the neuroprotective effects of EA. Moreover, 3-MA increased the apoptosis and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MMP-9. In summary, these findings suggested that EA preconditioning and postconditioning could alleviate spinal cord I/R injury, which was partly mediated by autophagy upregulation-induced inhibition of apoptosis and neuroinflammation.

  6. Nrf2 Activation in Astrocytes Contributes to Spinal Cord Ischemic Tolerance Induced by Hyperbaric Oxygen Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiajun; Huang, Guoyang; Zhang, Kun; Sun, Jinchuan; Xu, Tao; Li, Runping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we investigated whether nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation in astrocytes contributes to the neuroprotection induced by a single hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBO-PC) against spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (SCIR) injury. In vivo: At 24 h after a single HBO-PC at 2.5 atmospheres absolute for 90 min, the male ICR mice underwent SCIR injury by aortic cross-clamping surgery and observed for 48 h. HBO-PC significantly improved hindlimb motor function, reduced secondary spinal cord edema, ameliorated the reactivity of spinal motor-evoked potentials, and slowed down the process of apoptosis to exert neuroprotective effects against SCIR injury. At 12 h or 24 h after HBO-PC without aortic cross-clamping surgery, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, realtime-polymerase chain reaction and double-immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the Nrf2 activity of spinal cord tissue, such as mRNA level, protein content, DNA binding activity, and the expression of downstream gene, such as glutamate-cysteine ligase, γ-glutamyltransferase, multidrug resistance protein 1, which are key proteins for intracellular glutathione synthesis and transit. The Nrf2 activity and downstream genes expression were all enhanced in normal spinal cord with HBO-PC. Glutathione content of spinal cord tissue with HBO-PC significantly increased at all time points after SCIR injury. Moreover, Nrf2 overexpression mainly occurs in astrocytes. In vitro: At 24 h after HBO-PC, the primary spinal astrocyte-neuron co-cultures from ICR mouse pups were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 90 min to simulate the ischemia-reperfusion injury. HBO-PC significantly increased the survival rate of neurons and the glutathione content in culture medium, which was mainly released from asctrocytes. Moreover, the Nrf2 activity and downstream genes expression induced by HBO-PC were mainly enhanced in astrocytes, but not in

  7. Preconditioning-induced CXCL12 upregulation minimizes leukocyte infiltration after stroke in ischemia-tolerant mice.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Uma Maheswari; Ortega, Sterling B; Hu, Ruilong; Gilchrist, Robert; Kong, Xiangmei; Partin, Alexander; Plautz, Erik J; Klein, Robyn S; Gidday, Jeffrey M; Stowe, Ann M

    2017-03-01

    Repetitive hypoxic preconditioning creates long-lasting, endogenous protection in a mouse model of stroke, characterized by reductions in leukocyte-endothelial adherence, inflammation, and infarct volumes. The constitutively expressed chemokine CXCL12 can be upregulated by hypoxia and limits leukocyte entry into brain parenchyma during central nervous system inflammatory autoimmune disease. We therefore hypothesized that the sustained tolerance to stroke induced by repetitive hypoxic preconditioning is mediated, in part, by long-term CXCL12 upregulation at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In male Swiss Webster mice, repetitive hypoxic preconditioning elevated cortical CXCL12 protein levels, and the number of cortical CXCL12+ microvessels, for at least two weeks after the last hypoxic exposure. Repetitive hypoxic preconditioning-treated mice maintained more CXCL12-positive vessels than untreated controls following transient focal stroke, despite cortical decreases in CXCL12 mRNA and protein. Continuous administration of the CXCL12 receptor (CXCR4) antagonist AMD3100 for two weeks following repetitive hypoxic preconditioning countered the increase in CXCL12-positive microvessels, both prior to and following stroke. AMD3100 blocked the protective post-stroke reductions in leukocyte diapedesis, including macrophages and NK cells, and blocked the protective effect of repetitive hypoxic preconditioning on lesion volume, but had no effect on blood-brain barrier dysfunction. These data suggest that CXCL12 upregulation prior to stroke onset, and its actions following stroke, contribute to the endogenous, anti-inflammatory phenotype induced by repetitive hypoxic preconditioning.

  8. Exercise preconditioning attenuates pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tongyi; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Ben; Cai, Chengliang; Liu, Xiaohong; Han, Qingqi; Zou, Liangjian

    2015-01-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a common response of the heart to a variety of cardiovascular diseases, is typically associated with myocytes remodeling and fibrotic replacement, cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) increases the myocardial mechanical load and enhances tolerance of cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), however, is less reported in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. To determine the effect of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy, Male 10-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=30) were subjected to 4 weeks of EP followed by 4-8 weeks of pressure overload (transverse aortic constriction, TAC) to induce pathological remodeling. TAC in untrained controls (n=30) led to pathological cardiac hypertrophy, depressed systolic function. We observed that left ventricular wall thickness in end diastole, heart size, heart weight-to-body weight ratio, heart weight-to-tibia length ratio, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocytes and the reactivation of fetal genes (atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide) were markedly increased, meanwhile left ventricular internal dimension at end-diastole, systolic function were significantly decreased by TAC at 4 wks after operation (P < 0.01), all of which were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (P < 0.05), but the differences of these parameters were decreased at 8 wks after operation. Furthermore, EP treatment inhibited degradation of IκBα, and decreased NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and then reduced IL2 levels in the myocardium of rats subject to TAC. EP can effectively attenuate pathological cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC possibly through inhibition of degradation of IκB and blockade of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the early stage of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:25755743

  9. Low-Dose Ethanol Preconditioning Protects Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reoxygenation-Induced Neuronal Injury By Activating Large Conductance, Ca(2+)-Activated K(+) Channels In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Su, Fang; Guo, An-Chen; Li, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Yi-Long; Qu, Zheng-Yi; Wang, Yong-Jun; Wang, Qun; Zhu, Yu-Lan

    2017-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that low to moderate ethanol ingestion protects against the deleterious effects of subsequent ischemia/reperfusion; however, the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. In the present study, we showed that expression of the neuronal large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (BKCa) α-subunit was upregulated in cultured neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) compared with controls. Preconditioning with low-dose ethanol (10 mmol/L) increased cell survival rate in neurons subjected to OGD/R, attenuated the OGD/R-induced elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) levels, and reduced the number of apoptotic neurons. Western blots revealed that ethanol preconditioning upregulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and downregulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. The protective effect of ethanol preconditioning was antagonized by a BKCa channel inhibitor, paxilline. Inside-out patches in primary neurons also demonstrated the direct activation of the BKCa channel by 10 mmol/L ethanol. The above results indicated that low-dose ethanol preconditioning exerts its neuroprotective effects by attenuating the elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) and preventing neuronal apoptosis, and this is mediated by BKCa channel activation.

  10. Neurogenic pathways in remote ischemic preconditioning induced cardioprotection: Evidences and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Aulakh, Amritpal Singh; Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Singh, Nirmal

    2017-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is an intrinsic phenomenon whereby 3~4 consecutive ischemia-reperfusion cycles to a remote tissue (noncardiac) increases the tolerance of the myocardium to sustained ischemiareperfusion induced injury. Remote ischemic preconditioning induces the local release of chemical mediators which activate the sensory nerve endings to convey signals to the brain. The latter consequently stimulates the efferent nerve endings innervating the myocardium to induce cardioprotection. Indeed, RIPC-induced cardioprotective effects are reliant on the presence of intact neuronal pathways, which has been confirmed using nerve resection of nerves including femoral nerve, vagus nerve, and sciatic nerve. The involvement of neurogenic signaling has been further substantiated using various pharmacological modulators including hexamethonium and trimetaphan. The present review focuses on the potential involvement of neurogenic pathways in mediating remote ischemic preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. PMID:28280407

  11. Neuroprotective Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan, memantine and brimonidine in our rat model of laser- induced retinal-lesions Methods: Argon...dextromethorphan, memantine or brimonidine . The control groups (18 rats for each compound) received the solvent at the same volume and schedule as...size and the magnitude of photoreceptor nuclei loss within the lesions. Conclusions: Systemic treatments with dextromethorphan, memantine or brimonidine

  12. Oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning protects neurons against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion induced injury via bone morphogenetic protein-7 mediated ERK, p38 and Smad signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Guan, Junhong; Du, Shaonan; Lv, Tao; Qu, Shengtao; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 mediated neuroprotective effect of cerebral ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been studied in an ischemic animal model, but the underlying cellular mechanisms have not been clearly clarified. In this study, primary cortical neurons and the SH-SY5Y cell line were used to investigate the role of BMP-7 and its downstream signals in the neuroprotective effects of oxygen-glucose deprivation preconditioning (OGDPC). Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the expression of neurofilament in neurons. MTT and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays were used to measure the cytotoxicity. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of BMP-7 and downstream signals. BMP inhibitor, mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, Smad inhibitor and siRNA of Smad 1 were used to investigate the role of corresponding signalling pathways in the OGDPC. Results showed that OGDPC-induced overexpression of BMP-7 in primary cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. Both of endogenous and exogenous BMP-7 could replicate the neuroprotective effects seen in OGDPC pretreatment. In addition, extracellular regulated protein kinases, p38 and Smad signalling pathway were found to be involved in the neuroprotective effects mediated by OGDPC via BMP-7. This study primarily reveals the cellular mechanisms of the neuroprotection mediated by OGDPC, and provides evidence for better understanding of this intrinsic factor against ischemia.

  13. Superior neuroprotective effects of cerebrolysin in nanoparticle-induced exacerbation of hyperthermia-induced brain pathology.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aruna; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Mössler, Herbert; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2012-02-01

    In recent years, the incidence of heat stroke and associated brain pathology are increasing Worldwide. More than half of the world's population are living in areas associated with high environmental heat especially during the summer seasons. Thus, new research is needed using novel drug targets to achieve neuroprotection in heat-induced brain pathology. Previous research from our laboratory showed that the pathophysiology of brain injuries following heat stroke are exacerbated by chronic intoxication of engineered nanoparticles of small sizes (50-60 nm) following identical heat exposure in rats. Interestingly, in nanoparticle-intoxicated animals the known neuroprotective agents in standard doses failed to induce effective neuroprotection. This suggests that the dose-response of the drugs either requires modification or new therapeutic agents are needed to provide better neuroprotection in nanoparticle-intoxicated animals after heat stroke. This review is focused on the use of cerebrolysin, a mixture of several neurotrophic factors and active peptide fragments, in relation to other neuroprotective agents normally used to treat ischemic stroke in clinics in nanoparticle-induced exacerbation of brain damage in heat stroke. It appears that cerebrolysin exerts the most superior neuroprotective effects in heat stress as compared to other neuroprotective agents on brain pathology in normal rats. Interestingly, to induce effective neuroprotection in nanoparticle-induced exacerbation of brain pathology a double dose of cerebrolysin is needed. On the other hand, double doses of the other drugs were quite ineffective in reducing brain damage. These observations suggest that the drug type and doses are important factors in attenuating nanoparticle-induced exacerbation of brain pathology in heat stroke. The functional significance and possible mechanisms of drug-induced neuroprotection in nanoparticle-treated, heat-stressed rats are discussed.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of thalidomide on MPTP-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Guadalupe; Garcia, Esperanza; Osorio-Rico, Laura; Trejo-Solís, Cristina; Escamilla-Ramírez, Angel; Sotelo, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Thalidomide is a sedative with unique pharmacological properties; studies on epilepsy and brain ischemia have shown intense neuroprotective effects. We analyzed the effect of thalidomide treatment on the neurotoxicity caused by the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahidropyridine (MPTP) in mice. Thalidomide was administered at two times; before and after the exposure to MPTP. In both circumstances thalidomide improved the neurotoxicity induced by MPTP as seen by a significant raise of the striatal contents of dopamine and simultaneous decrease of monoamine-oxidase-B (MAO-B). These results indicate that in the experimental model of Parkinson's disease the administration of thalidomide improves the functional damage on the nigrostriatal cell substratum as seen by the production of dopamine. This neuroprotective effect seems to be mediated by inhibition of excitotoxicity. Our results suggest that thalidomide could be investigated as potential adjuvant therapy for Parkinson's disease.

  15. Prothymosin-alpha preconditioning activates TLR4-TRIF signaling to induce protection of ischemic retina.

    PubMed

    Halder, Sebok Kumar; Matsunaga, Hayato; Ishii, Ken J; Ueda, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Prothymosin-alpha protects the brain and retina from ischemic damage. Although prothymosin-alpha contributes to toll-like receptor (TLR4)-mediated immnunopotentiation against viral infection, the beneficial effects of prothymosin-alpha-TLR4 signaling in protecting against ischemia remain to be elucidated. In this study, intravitreal administration of prothymosin-alpha 48 h before induction of retinal ischemia prevented retinal cellular damage as evaluated by histology, and retinal functional deficits as evaluated by electroretinography. Prothymosin-alpha preconditioning completely prevented the ischemia-induced loss of ganglion cells with partial survival of bipolar and photoreceptor cells, but not amacrine cells, in immunohistochemistry experiments. Prothymosin-alpha treatment in the absence of ischemia caused mild activation, proliferation, and migration of retinal microglia, whereas the ischemia-induced microglial activation was inhibited by prothymosin-alpha preconditioning. All these preventive effects of prothymosin-alpha preconditioning were abolished in TLR4 knock-out mice and by pre-treatments with anti-TLR4 antibodies or minocycline, a microglial inhibitor. Prothymosin-alpha preconditioning inhibited the retinal ischemia-induced up-regulation of TLR4-related injury genes, and increased expression of TLR4-related protective genes. Furthermore, the prothymosin-alpha preconditioning-induced prevention of retinal ischemic damage was abolished in TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β knock-out mice, but not in myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 knock-out mice. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that prothymosin-alpha preconditioning selectively drives TLR4-TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β signaling and microglia in the prevention of retinal ischemic damage. We propose the following mechanism for prothymosin-alpha (ProTα) preconditioning-induced retinal prevention against ischemia: Pro

  16. Inhalational Anesthetics as Preconditioning Agents in Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Traystman, Richard J.; Murphy, Stephanie J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY While many pharmacological agents have been shown to protect the brain from cerebral ischemia in animal models, none have translated successfully to human patients. One potential clinical neuroprotective strategy in humans may involve increasing the brain’s tolerance to ischemia by pre-ischemic conditioning (preconditioning). There are many methods to induce tolerance via preconditioning such as: ischemia itself, pharmacological, hypoxia, endotoxin, and others. Inhalational anesthetic agents have also been shown to result in brain preconditioning. Mechanisms responsible for brain preconditioning are many, complex, and unclear and may involve Akt activation, ATP-sensitive potassium channels, and nitric oxide, amongst many others. Anesthetics, however, may play an important and unique role as preconditioning agents, particularly during the perioperative period. PMID:17962069

  17. Ethoxyquin provides neuroprotection against cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jing; Carozzi, Valentina Alda; Reed, Nicole; Mi, Ruifa; Marmiroli, Paola; Cavaletti, Guido; Hoke, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Ethoxyquin was recently identified as a neuroprotective compound against toxic neuropathies and efficacy was demonstrated against paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity in vivo. In this study we examined the efficacy of ethoxyquin in preventing neurotoxicity of cisplatin in rodent models of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and explored its mechanism of action. Ethoxyquin prevented neurotoxicity of cisplatin in vitro in a sensory neuronal cell line and primary rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. In vivo, chronic co-administration of ethoxyquin partially abrogated cisplatin-induced behavioral, electrophysiological and morphological abnormalities. Furthermore, ethoxyquin did not interfere with cisplatin’s ability to induce tumor cell death in ovarian cancer cell line in vitro and in vivo. Finally, ethoxyquin reduced the levels of two client proteins (SF3B2 and ataxin-2) of a chaperone protein, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) when co-administered with cisplatin in vitro. These results implied that the neuroprotective effect of ethoxyquin is mediated through these two client proteins of Hsp90. In fact, reducing levels of SF3B2 in tissue-cultured neurons was effective against neurotoxicity of cisplatin. These findings suggest that ethoxyquin or other compounds that inhibit chaperone activity of Hsp90 and reduce levels of its client protein, SF3B2 may be developed as an adjuvant therapy to prevent neurotoxicity in cisplatin-based chemotherapy protocols. PMID:27350330

  18. Hypoxic preconditioning protects photoreceptors against light damage independently of hypoxia inducible transcription factors in rods.

    PubMed

    Kast, Brigitte; Schori, Christian; Grimm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning protects photoreceptors against light-induced degeneration preserving retinal morphology and function. Although hypoxia inducible transcription factors 1 and 2 (HIF1, HIF2) are the main regulators of the hypoxic response, photoreceptor protection does not depend on HIF1 in rods. Here we used rod-specific Hif2a single and Hif1a;Hif2a double knockout mice to investigate the potential involvement of HIF2 in rods for protection after hypoxic preconditioning. To identify potential HIF2 target genes in rods we determined the retinal transcriptome of hypoxic control and rod-specific Hif2a knockouts by RNA sequencing. We show that rods do not need HIF2 for hypoxia-induced increased survival after light exposure. The transcriptomic analysis revealed a number of genes that are potentially regulated by HIF2 in rods; among those were Htra1, Timp3 and Hmox1, candidates that are interesting due to their connection to human degenerative diseases of the retina. We conclude that neither HIF1 nor HIF2 are required in photoreceptors for protection by hypoxic preconditioning. We hypothesize that HIF transcription factors may be needed in other cells to produce protective factors acting in a paracrine fashion on photoreceptor cells. Alternatively, hypoxic preconditioning induces a rod-intrinsic response that is independent of HIF transcription factors.

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is required for remote ischemic preconditioning of the heart.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheqing; Luo, Weibo; Zhan, Huiwang; Semenza, Gregg L

    2013-10-22

    Both preclinical and clinical studies suggest that brief cycles of ischemia and reperfusion in the arm or leg may protect the heart against injury following prolonged coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion, a phenomenon known as remote ischemic preconditioning. Recent studies in mice indicate that increased plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels play an important role in remote ischemic preconditioning induced by clamping the femoral artery for 5 min followed by 5 min of reperfusion for a total of three cycles. In this study, we demonstrate that remote ischemic preconditioning increases plasma IL-10 levels and decreases myocardial infarct size in wild-type mice but not in littermates that are heterozygous for a knockout allele at the locus encoding hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α. Injection of a recombinant adenovirus encoding a constitutively active form of HIF-1α into mouse hind limb muscle was sufficient to increase plasma IL-10 levels and decrease myocardial infarct size. Exposure of C2C12 mouse myocytes to cyclic hypoxia and reoxygenation rapidly increased levels of IL-10 mRNA, which was blocked by administration of the HIF-1 inhibitor acriflavine or by expression of short hairpin RNA targeting HIF-1α or HIF-1β. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that binding of HIF-1 to the Il10 gene was induced when myocytes were subjected to cyclic hypoxia and reoxygenation. Taken together, these data indicate that HIF-1 activates Il10 gene transcription and is required for remote ischemic preconditioning.

  20. Does intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorate the methotrexate induced nephrotoxicity in rats?

    PubMed

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Mayir, Burhan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Polat, Cemal; Baştürk, Ahmet; Soyer, Vural; Koç, Süleyman; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent used for many cancer treatments. It leads to toxicity with its oxidative injury. The purpose of our study is investigating the medical ozone preconditioning and treatment has any effect on the methotrexate-induced kidneys by activating antioxidant enzymes in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups; control, Mtx without and with medical ozone. Nephrotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx intraperitoneally at the fifteenth day of experiment on groups 2 and 3. Medical ozone preconditioning was performed at a dose of 25 mcg/ml (5 ml) intraperitoneally everyday in the group 3 and treated with medical ozone for five more days while group 2 was received only 5 ml of saline everyday for twenty days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of third week and the blood and kidney tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. Kidney injury score was evaluated histolopatologically. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorated the biochemical parameters and kidney injury induced by Mtx. There was significant increase in tissue MDA, MPO activity, TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05) and significant decrease in tissue GSH and histopathology (P<0.05) after Mtx administration. The preconditioning and treatment with medical ozone ameliorated the nephrotoxicity induced by Mtx in rats by activating antioxidant enzymes and prevented renal tissue.

  1. Does intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorate the methotrexate induced nephrotoxicity in rats?

    PubMed Central

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Mayir, Burhan; Akyüz, Cebrail; Polat, Cemal; Baştürk, Ahmet; Soyer, Vural; Koç, Süleyman; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    Methotrexate is a chemotherapeutic agent used for many cancer treatments. It leads to toxicity with its oxidative injury. The purpose of our study is investigating the medical ozone preconditioning and treatment has any effect on the methotrexate-induced kidneys by activating antioxidant enzymes in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into three equal groups; control, Mtx without and with medical ozone. Nephrotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx intraperitoneally at the fifteenth day of experiment on groups 2 and 3. Medical ozone preconditioning was performed at a dose of 25 mcg/ml (5 ml) intraperitoneally everyday in the group 3 and treated with medical ozone for five more days while group 2 was received only 5 ml of saline everyday for twenty days. All rats were sacrificed at the end of third week and the blood and kidney tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. Kidney injury score was evaluated histolopatologically. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment ameliorated the biochemical parameters and kidney injury induced by Mtx. There was significant increase in tissue MDA, MPO activity, TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05) and significant decrease in tissue GSH and histopathology (P<0.05) after Mtx administration. The preconditioning and treatment with medical ozone ameliorated the nephrotoxicity induced by Mtx in rats by activating antioxidant enzymes and prevented renal tissue. PMID:26550330

  2. Warm preconditioning protects against acute heat-induced respiratory dysfunction and delays bleaching in a symbiotic sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Warner, Mark E

    2017-03-15

    Preconditioning to non-stressful warming can protect some symbiotic cnidarians against the high temperature-induced collapse of their mutualistic endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.), a process known as bleaching. Here, we sought to determine whether such preconditioning is underpinned by differential regulation of aerobic respiration. We quantified in vivo metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity in the naturally symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida preconditioned to 30°C for >7 weeks as well as anemones kept at 26°C. Preconditioning resulted in increased Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity and holobiont (host+symbiont) respiration rates. Biomass-normalised activities of host respiratory enzymes [citrate synthase and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mETC) complexes I and IV] were higher in preconditioned animals, suggesting that increased holobiont respiration may have been due to host mitochondrial biogenesis and/or enlargement. Subsequent acute heating of preconditioned and 'thermally naive' animals to 33°C induced dramatic increases in host mETC complex I and Symbiodinium mETC complex II activities only in thermally naive E. pallida These changes were not reflected in the activities of other respiratory enzymes. Furthermore, bleaching in preconditioned E. pallida (defined as the significant loss of symbionts) was delayed by several days relative to the thermally naive group. These findings suggest that changes to mitochondrial biogenesis and/or function in symbiotic cnidarians during warm preconditioning might play a protective role during periods of exposure to stressful heating.

  3. The protective effect of intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Akyüz, Cebrail; Baştürk, Ahmet; Polat, Cemal; Gündüz, Umut; Mayir, Burhan; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on the methotrexate acute induced hepatotoxicity in rats that has not reports elsewhere. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups; control, Mtx and Mtx with ozone. Hepatotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx to group 2 and group 3 at the fifteenth day. The medical ozone preconditioning was administered intraperitonealy in group 3 for fifteen days and more five days after inducing Mtx. The other rats of the group 1 and 2 received saline injection. At the twentyfirst day the blood and the liver tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of liver enzymes ALT and AST, proinflamatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. And the histolopatological examination was evaluated for injury score. In our study Mtx administration caused a significant increase on the liver enzymes ALT and AST, the tissue MDA and MPO activity and significant decrease in the tissue GSH. Moreover the both pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in the Mtx group. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment reversed all these biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the hepatotoxicity induced by Mtx. We conclude that medical ozone ameliorates Mtx induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  4. The protective effect of intraperitoneal medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on hepatotoxicity induced by methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Aslaner, Arif; Çakır, Tuğrul; Çelik, Betül; Doğan, Uğur; Akyüz, Cebrail; Baştürk, Ahmet; Polat, Cemal; Gündüz, Umut; Mayir, Burhan; Şehirli, Ahmet Özer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of medical ozone preconditioning and treatment on the methotrexate acute induced hepatotoxicity in rats that has not reports elsewhere. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned into three equal groups; control, Mtx and Mtx with ozone. Hepatotoxicity was performed with a single dose of 20 mg/kg Mtx to group 2 and group 3 at the fifteenth day. The medical ozone preconditioning was administered intraperitonealy in group 3 for fifteen days and more five days after inducing Mtx. The other rats of the group 1 and 2 received saline injection. At the twentyfirst day the blood and the liver tissue samples were obtained to measure the levels of liver enzymes ALT and AST, proinflamatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, malondialdehyde, glutathione and myeloperoxidase. And the histolopatological examination was evaluated for injury score. In our study Mtx administration caused a significant increase on the liver enzymes ALT and AST, the tissue MDA and MPO activity and significant decrease in the tissue GSH. Moreover the both pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly increased in the Mtx group. Medical ozone preconditioning and treatment reversed all these biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the hepatotoxicity induced by Mtx. We conclude that medical ozone ameliorates Mtx induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:26550257

  5. Roles of HIF-1α, VEGF, and NF-κB in Ischemic Preconditioning-Mediated Neuroprotection of Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Against a Subsequent Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Soo Young; Bai, Hui Chen; Shin, Bich-Na; Cho, Geum-Sil; Kim, Dae Won; Kang, Il Jun; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Bae, Eun Joo

    2016-10-26

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides neuroprotection against subsequent severe ischemic insults by specific mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that IPC attenuates post-ischemic neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) throughout hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its associated factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Lethal ischemia (LI) without IPC increased expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, and p-IκB-α (/and translocation of NF-κB p65 into nucleus) in CA1 pyramidal neurons at 12 h and/or 1-day post-LI; thereafter, their expressions were decreased in the CA1 pyramidal neurons with time and newly expressed in non-pyramidal cells (pericytes), and the CA1 pyramidal neurons were dead at 5-day post-LI, and, at this point in time, their immunoreactivities were newly expressed in pericytes. In animals with IPC subjected to LI (IPC/LI)-group), CA1 pyramidal neurons were well protected, and expressions of HIF-1α, VEGF, and p-IκB-α (/and translocation of NF-κB p65 into nucleus) were significantly increased compared to the sham-group and maintained after LI. Whereas, treatment with 2ME2 (a HIF-1α inhibitor) into the IPC/LI-group did not preserve the IPC-mediated increases of HIF-1α, VEGF, and p-IκB-α (/and translocation of NF-κB p65 into nucleus) expressions and did not show IPC-mediated neuroprotection. In brief, IPC protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from LI by upregulation of HIF-1α, VEGF, and p-IκB-α expressions. This study suggests that IPC increases HIF-1α expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons, which enhances VEGF expression and NF-κB activation and that IPC may be a strategy for a therapeutic intervention of cerebral ischemic injury.

  6. Neuroprotection by Caffeine in Hyperoxia-Induced Neonatal Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Endesfelder, Stefanie; Weichelt, Ulrike; Strauß, Evelyn; Schlör, Anja; Sifringer, Marco; Scheuer, Till; Bührer, Christoph; Schmitz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Sequelae of prematurity triggered by oxidative stress and free radical-mediated tissue damage have coined the term “oxygen radical disease of prematurity”. Caffeine, a potent free radical scavenger and adenosine receptor antagonist, reduces rates of brain damage in preterm infants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of caffeine on oxidative stress markers, anti-oxidative response, inflammation, redox-sensitive transcription factors, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats. The brain of a rat pups at postnatal Day 6 (P6) corresponds to that of a human fetal brain at 28–32 weeks gestation and the neonatal rat is an ideal model in which to investigate effects of oxidative stress and neuroprotection of caffeine on the developing brain. Six-day-old Wistar rats were pre-treated with caffeine and exposed to 80% oxygen for 24 and 48 h. Caffeine reduced oxidative stress marker (heme oxygenase-1, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC)), promoted anti-oxidative response (superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin 1, and sulfiredoxin 1), down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, modulated redox-sensitive transcription factor expression (Nrf2/Keap1, and NFκB), reduced pro-apoptotic effectors (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), and caspase-3), and diminished extracellular matrix degeneration (matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2, and inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) 1/2). Our study affirms that caffeine is a pleiotropic neuroprotective drug in the developing brain due to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. PMID:28106777

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning attenuates postoperative cognitive impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Xie, Keliang; Zhang, Changsheng; Song, Rui; Zhang, Hong

    2014-06-18

    Cognitive decline after surgery in the elderly population is a major clinical problem with high morbidity. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning can induce significant neuroprotection against acute neurological injury. We hypothesized that HBO preconditioning would prevent the development of postoperative cognitive impairment. Elderly male rats (20 months old) underwent stabilized tibial fracture operation under general anesthesia after HBO preconditioning (once a day for 5 days). Separate cohorts of animals were tested for cognitive function with fear conditioning and Y-maze tests, or euthanized at different times to assess the blood-brain barrier integrity, systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines, and caspase-3 activity. Animals exhibited significant cognitive impairment evidenced by a decreased percentage of freezing time and an increased number of learning trials on days 1, 3, and 7 after surgery, which were significantly prevented by HBO preconditioning. Furthermore, HBO preconditioning significantly ameliorated the increase in serum and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-6, and high-mobility group protein 1 in surgery-challenged animals. Moreover, HBO preconditioning markedly improved blood-brain barrier integrity and caspase-3 activity in the hippocampus of surgery-challenged animals. These findings suggest that HBO preconditioning could significantly mitigate surgery-induced cognitive impairment, which is strongly associated with the reduction of systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity.

  8. Methamphetamine Preconditioning Alters Midbrain Transcriptional Responses to Methamphetamine-Induced Injury in the Rat Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Cadet, Jean Lud; McCoy, Michael T.; Cai, Ning Sheng; Krasnova, Irina N.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Beauvais, Genevieve; Wilson, Natascha; Wood, William; Becker, Kevin G.; Hodges, Amber B.

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an illicit drug which is neurotoxic to the mammalian brain. Numerous studies have revealed significant decreases in dopamine and serotonin levels in the brains of animals exposed to moderate-to-large METH doses given within short intervals of time. In contrast, repeated injections of small nontoxic doses of the drug followed by a challenge with toxic METH doses afford significant protection against monoamine depletion. The present study was undertaken to test the possibility that repeated injections of the drug might be accompanied by transcriptional changes involved in rendering the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system refractory to METH toxicity. Our results confirm that METH preconditioning can provide significant protection against METH-induced striatal dopamine depletion. In addition, the presence and absence of METH preconditioning were associated with substantial differences in the identity of the genes whose expression was affected by a toxic METH challenge. Quantitative PCR confirmed METH-induced changes in genes of interest and identified additional genes that were differentially impacted by the toxic METH challenge in the presence of METH preconditioning. These genes include small heat shock 27 kD 27 protein 2 (HspB2), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), c-fos, and some encoding antioxidant proteins including CuZn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1, and heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1). These observations are consistent, in part, with the transcriptional alterations reported in models of lethal ischemic injuries which are preceded by ischemic or pharmacological preconditioning. Our findings suggest that multiple molecular pathways might work in tandem to protect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway against the deleterious effects of the toxic psychostimulant. Further analysis of the molecular and cellular pathways regulated by these genes should help to provide some

  9. Role of histidine/histamine in carnosine-induced neuroprotection during ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ok-Nam; Majid, Arshad

    2013-08-21

    Urgent need exists for new therapeutic options in ischemic stroke. We recently demonstrated that carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide consisting of alanine and histidine, is robustly neuroprotective in ischemic brain injury and has a wide clinically relevant therapeutic time window. The precise mechanistic pathways that mediate this neuroprotective effect are not known. Following in vivo administration, carnosine is hydrolyzed into histidine, a precursor of histamine. It has been hypothesized that carnosine may exert its neuroprotective activities through the histidine/histamine pathway. Herein, we investigated whether the neuroprotective effect of carnosine is mediated by the histidine/histamine pathway using in vitro primary astrocytes and cortical neurons, and an in vivo rat model of ischemic stroke. In primary astrocytes, carnosine significantly reduced ischemic cell death after oxygen-glucose deprivation, and this effect was abolished by histamine receptor type I antagonist. However, histidine or histamine did not exhibit a protective effect on ischemic astrocytic cell death. In primary neuronal cultures, carnosine was found to be neuroprotective but histamine receptor antagonists had no effect on the extent of neuroprotection. The in vivo effect of histidine and carnosine was compared using a rat model of ischemic stroke; only carnosine exhibited neuroprotection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that although the protective effects of carnosine may be partially mediated by activity at the histamine type 1 receptor on astrocytes, the histidine/histamine pathway does not appear to play a critical role in carnosine induced neuroprotection.

  10. Unraveling the role of adenosine in remote ischemic preconditioning-induced cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-06-15

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) induced by alternate cycles of preconditioning ischemia and reperfusion protects the heart against sustained ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury. This technique has been translated to clinical levels in patients undergoing various surgical interventions including coronary artery bypass graft surgery, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, percutaneous coronary intervention and heart valve surgery. Adenosine is a master regulator of energy metabolism and reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury. Furthermore, adenosine is a critical trigger as well as a mediator in RIPC-induced cardioprotection and scientists have demonstrated the role of adenosine by showing an increase in its levels in the systemic circulation during RIPC delivery. Furthermore, the blockade of cardioprotective effects of RIPC in the presence of specific adenosine receptor blockers and transgenic animals with targeted ablation of A1 receptors has also demonstrated its critical role in RIPC. The studies have shown that adenosine may elicit cardioprotection via activation of neurogenic pathway. The present review describes the possible role and mechanism of adenosine in mediating RIPC-induced cardioprotection.

  11. Evidence against a role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the endothelial protective effects of delayed preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Laude, Karine; Richard, Vincent; Henry, Jean-Paul; Lallemand, Françoise; Thuillez, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Preconditioning the heart with brief periods of ischaemia induces delayed endothelial protection against reperfusion injury, but the precise mechanisms involved in this endogenous protein are still unclear. Induction of the type II-nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) acts as a mediator of the preconditioning against myocardial infarction and stunning. The present study was designed to assess whether iNOS also contributes to the delayed endothelial protective effects of preconditioning. Rats were subjected to 20 min ischaemia followed by 60 min reperfusion 24 h after sham surgery or preconditioning (one cycle or 2 min ischaemia/5 min reperfusion and two cycles of 5 min ischaemia/5 min reperfusion). At the end of the reperfusion, coronary segments were removed distal to the site of occlusion and mounted in wire myographs. Ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) decreased the endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine (maximal relaxations: sham, 66±5%; I/R, 40±1%; P<0.05) and this impairment was prevented by preconditioning (maximal relaxation: 61±6%). Administration of N-(3-aminomethyl)benzyl)acetaminide (1400W), a highly selective inhibitor for iNOS, 10 min before prolonged ischaemia did not modify the beneficial effect of preconditioning (maximal relaxation: 66±5%). These data show that preconditioning induces delayed protection against reperfusion-injury. However, in contrast to the myocytes, these endothelial protective effects of delayed preconditioning do not involve iNOS. PMID:10928956

  12. LPS-Induced Delayed Preconditioning Is Mediated by Hsp90 and Involves the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kaucsár, Tamás; Bodor, Csaba; Godó, Mária; Szalay, Csaba; Révész, Csaba; Németh, Zalán; Mózes, Miklós; Szénási, Gábor; Rosivall, László; Sőti, Csaba; Hamar, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We and others demonstrated previously that preconditioning with endotoxin (LPS) protected from a subsequent lethal LPS challenge or from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). LPS is effective in evoking the heat shock response, an ancient and essential cellular defense mechanism, which plays a role in resistance to, and recovery from diseases. Here, by using the pharmacological Hsp90 inhibitor novobiocin (NB), we investigated the role of Hsp90 and the heat shock response in LPS-induced delayed renal preconditioning. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with preconditioning (P: 2 mg/kg, ip.) and subsequent lethal (L: 10 mg/kg, ip.) doses of LPS alone or in combination with NB (100 mg/kg, ip.). Controls received saline (C) or NB. Results Preconditioning LPS conferred protection from a subsequent lethal LPS treatment. Importantly, the protective effect of LPS preconditioning was completely abolished by a concomitant treatment with NB. LPS induced a marked heat shock protein increase as demonstrated by Western blots of Hsp70 and Hsp90. NB alone also stimulated Hsp70 and Hsp90 mRNA but not protein expression. However, Hsp70 and Hsp90 protein induction in LPS-treated mice was abolished by a concomitant NB treatment, demonstrating a NB-induced impairment of the heat shock response to LPS preconditioning. Conclusion LPS-induced heat shock protein induction and tolerance to a subsequent lethal LPS treatment was prevented by the Hsp90 inhibitor, novobiocin. Our findings demonstrate a critical role of Hsp90 in LPS signaling, and a potential involvement of the heat shock response in LPS-induced preconditioning. PMID:24646925

  13. Preconditioning and tolerance against cerebral ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Dirnagl, Ulrich; Becker, Kyra; Meisel, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Neuroprotection and brain repair in patients after acute brain damage are still major unfulfilled medical needs. Pharmacological treatments are either ineffective or confounded by adverse effects. Consequently, endogenous mechanisms by which the brain protects itself against noxious stimuli and recovers from damage are being studied. Research on preconditioning, also known as induced tolerance, over the past decade has resulted in various promising strategies for the treatment of patients with acute brain injury. Several of these strategies are being tested in randomised clinical trials. Additionally, research into preconditioning has led to the idea of prophylactically inducing protection in patients such as those undergoing brain surgery and those with transient ischaemic attack or subarachnoid haemorrhage who are at high risk of brain injury in the near future. In this Review, we focus on the clinical issues relating to preconditioning and tolerance in the brain; specifically, we discuss the clinical situations that might benefit from such procedures. We also discuss whether preconditioning and tolerance occur naturally in the brain and assess the most promising candidate strategies that are being investigated. PMID:19296922

  14. The neuroprotective effect of tropisetron on vincristine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Barzegar-Fallah, Anita; Alimoradi, Houman; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Barzegar-Fallah, Niloofar; Zendedel, Adib; Abbasi, Ata; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-03-01

    be a neuroprotective agent for prevention of VCR-induced neuropathy via a receptor-independent pathway.

  15. Limb ischemic preconditioning protects against contrast-induced nephropathy via renalase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Yin, Jianyong; Lu, Zeyuan; Zhang, Guangyuan; Li, Junhui; Xing, Tao; Zhuang, Shougang; Wang, Niansong

    2016-07-01

    Clinical trials shows that remote ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can protect against contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) in risky patients, however, the exact mechanism is unclear. In this study, we explored whether renalase, an amine oxidase that has been previously shown to mediate reno-protection by local IPC, would also mediate the same effect elicited by remote IPC in animal model. Limb IPC was performed for 24h followed by induction of CIN. Our results indicated that limb IPC prevented renal function decline, attenuated tubular damage and reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in the kidney. All those beneficial effects were abolished by silencing of renalase with siRNA. This suggests that similar to local IPC, renalase is also critically involved in limb IPC-elicited reno-protection. Mechanistic studies showed that limb IPC increased TNFα levels in the muscle and blood, and up-regulated renalase and phosphorylated IκBα expression in the kidney. Pretreatment with TNFα antagonist or NF-κB inhibitor, largely blocked renalase expression. Besides, TNFα preconditioning increased expression of renal renalase in vivo and in vitro, and attenuated H2O2 induced apoptosis in renal tubular cells. Collectively, our results suggest that limb IPC-induced reno-protection in CIN is dependent on increased renalase expression via activation of the TNFα/NF-κB pathway.

  16. Hypoxic preconditioning attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress in rat kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Ma, Ming-Chieh; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Wu, Ming-Shiou; Sun, Wan-Kuan; Chen, Chau-Fong

    2007-01-01

    Chronic hypoxic (CH) preconditioning reduces superoxide-induced renal dysfunction via the upregulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and contents. Endotoxaemia reduces renal antioxidant status. We hypothesize that CH preconditioning might protect the kidney from subsequent endotoxaemia-induced oxidative injury. Endotoxaemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4 mg kg−1) in rats kept at sea level (SL) and rats with CH in an altitude chamber (5500 m for 15 h day−1) for 4 weeks. LPS enhanced xanthine oxidase (XO) and gp91phox (catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase) expression associated with burst amount of superoxide production from the SL kidney surface and renal venous blood detected by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. LPS induced a morphologic-independent renal dysfunction in baseline and acute saline loading stages and increased renal IL-1β protein and urinary protein concentration in the SL rats. After 4 weeks of induction, CH significantly increased Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD and catalase expression (16 ± 17, 128 ± 35 and 48 ± 21, respectively) in renal cortex, and depressed renal cortex XO (44 ± 16%) and renal cortex (20 ± 9%) and medulla (28 ± 11%) gp91phox when compared with SL rats. The combined effect of enhanced antioxidant proteins and depressed oxidative proteins significantly reduced LPS-enhanced superoxide production, renal XO and gp91phox expression, renal IL-1β production, and urinary protein level. CH also ameliorated LPS-induced renal dysfunction in the baseline and acute saline loading periods. We conclude that CH treatment enhances the intrarenal antioxidant/oxidative protein ratio to overcome endotoxaemia-induced reactive oxygen species formation and inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:17317755

  17. Investigating the involvement of TRPV1 ion channels in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection in rats.

    PubMed

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2017-02-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) treatment strategy is a breakthrough in the field of cardiovascular pharmacology as it has the potential to attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying intracellular pathways have not been widely explored. The present study intends to explore the possible role of TRPV1 channels in mediating remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus (4 cycles in succession) was delivered by tying the blood pressure cuff at the inguinal level of the rat. The Langendorff system was used to perfuse the isolated heart and afterward was subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Sustained ischemia and, thereafter, reperfusion led to cardiac injury that was assessed in terms of infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, creatine kinase (CK) release, left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, heart rate, rate pressure product, and coronary flow rate. The pharmacological modulators employed included capsaicin as TRPV1 agonist and capsazepine as TRPV1 antagonist. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus and capsaicin preconditioning (5 and 10 mg/kg) led to significant reduction in infarct size, LVEDP, LDH release, CK release, and significant improvement in LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, heart rate, rate pressure product, and coronary flow rate. However, remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotective effects were considerably abolished in the presence of capsazepine (2.5 and 5 mg/kg). This indicates that remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus possibly activates TRPV1 channels to produce cardioprotective effects.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid from rats given hypoxic preconditioning protects neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Bo; Guo, Zheng-Dong; Li, Mei-Yi; Li, Si-Jie; Niu, Jing-Zhong; Yang, Ming-Feng; Ji, Xun-Ming; Lv, Guo-Wei

    2015-09-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning activates endogenous mechanisms that protect against cerebral ischemic and hypoxic injury. To better understand these protective mechanisms, adult rats were housed in a hypoxic environment (8% O2/92% N2) for 3 hours, and then in a normal oxygen environment for 12 hours. Their cerebrospinal fluid was obtained to culture cortical neurons from newborn rats for 1 day, and then the neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1.5 hours. The cerebrospinal fluid from rats subjected to hypoxic preconditioning reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury, increased survival rate, upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in the cultured cortical neurons, compared with control. These results indicate that cerebrospinal fluid from rats given hypoxic preconditioning protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury by affecting apoptosis-related protein expression in neurons from newborn rats.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid from rats given hypoxic preconditioning protects neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-bo; Guo, Zheng-dong; Li, Mei-yi; Li, Si-jie; Niu, Jing-zhong; Yang, Ming-feng; Ji, Xun-ming; Lv, Guo-wei

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning activates endogenous mechanisms that protect against cerebral ischemic and hypoxic injury. To better understand these protective mechanisms, adult rats were housed in a hypoxic environment (8% O2/92% N2) for 3 hours, and then in a normal oxygen environment for 12 hours. Their cerebrospinal fluid was obtained to culture cortical neurons from newborn rats for 1 day, and then the neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation for 1.5 hours. The cerebrospinal fluid from rats subjected to hypoxic preconditioning reduced oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury, increased survival rate, upregulated Bcl-2 expression and downregulated Bax expression in the cultured cortical neurons, compared with control. These results indicate that cerebrospinal fluid from rats given hypoxic preconditioning protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injury by affecting apoptosis-related protein expression in neurons from newborn rats. PMID:26604909

  20. Hypoxic preconditioning with cobalt attenuates hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative damage in rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dhananjay; Saxena, Saurabh; Jayamurthy, Purushotman; Sairam, Mustoori; Singh, Mrinalini; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Bansal, Anju; Ilavazaghan, Govindaswamy

    2009-01-01

    Shukla, Dhananjay, Saurabh Saxena, Purushotman Jayamurthy, Mustoori Sairam, Mrinalini, Singh, Swatantra Kumar Jain, Anju Bansal, and Govindaswamy Ilavazaghan. High Alt. Med. Biol. 10:57-69, 2009.-Hypoxic preco759nditioning (HPC) provides robust protection against injury from subsequent prolonged hypobaric hypoxia, which is a characteristic of high altitude and is known to induce oxidative injury in lung by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing the effectiveness of the antioxidant defense system. We hypothesize that HPC with cobalt might protect the lung from subsequent hypobaric hypoxia-induced lung injury. HPC with cobalt can be achieved by oral feeding of CoCl(2) (12.5 mg kg(-1)) in rats for 7 days. Nonpreconditioned rats responded to hypobaric hypoxia (7619 m) by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio. They also showed a marked increase in lipid peroxidation, heat-shock proteins (HSP32, HSP70), metallothionins (MT), levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1), and SOD, GPx, and GST enzyme activity. In contrast, rats preconditioned with cobalt were far less impaired by severe hypobaric hypoxia, as observed by decreased ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokine release and an inceased GSH/GSSG ratio. Increased expression of antioxidative proeins Nrf-1, HSP-32, and MT was also observed in cobalt- preconditioned animals. A marked increase in the protein expression and DNA binding activity of hypoxia-inducible transcriptional factor (HIF-1alpha) and its regulated genes, such as erythropoietin (EPO) and glucose transporter-1 (glut-1), was observed after HPC with cobalt. We conclude that HPC with cobalt enhances antioxidant status in the lung and protects from subsequent hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  1. 670 nm red light preconditioning supports Müller cell function: evidence from the white light-induced damage model in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Albarracin, Rizalyn; Valter, Krisztina

    2012-01-01

    Glial cells play an important role in the maintenance of normal structure and function of the neural components of the central nervous system. The Müller cells are one of the macroglial elements in the retina and their wide-ranging roles are responsible for the protection and proper functioning of the photoreceptors. In the present study, we aimed to test the effects of pretreatment with 670 nm red light on Müller cells in the light-induced model of retinal degeneration. Adult Sprague-Dawley albino rats were treated with 670 nm red light, from an LED source prior to exposure to bright (1000 lux) continuous light for 24 h. Müller cell-specific markers were used to assess structural and functional changes in this cell type 1 week after contact with damaging light. Changes in gene (Edn2, LIF, TNF-α) and protein (S100β, Vimentin, LIF, iNOS, GS, Cyclin-D1) levels and localization were evaluated using RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that 670 nm light pretreatment ameliorates the light-induced alterations in the expression of Müller-cell specific markers for structure, stress, metabolism and inflammation. This suggests that 670 nm light preconditioning may promote neuroprotective effects in the retina from light-induced damage, possibly through pathways regulating the roles of Müller cells in maintaining retinal homeostasis.

  2. TARGETED DELETION OF INDUCIBLE HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 ABROGATES THE LATE INFARCT-SPARING EFFECT OF MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract submitted for 82nd annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, May 4-8, 2002 in Washington D.C.

    Targeted Deletion of Inducible Heat Shock Protein 70 Abrogates the Late Infarct-Sparing Effect of Myocardial Ischemic Preconditioning

    Craig...

  3. The hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning-induced brain protection is mediated by a reduction of early apoptosis after transient global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Robert P; Graupner, Gerhart; Titova, Elena; Zhang, Jennifer; Chiu, Jeffrey; Dach, Neal; Corleone, Dalia; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that the brain-protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning in a transient global cerebral ischemia rat model is mediated by the inhibition of early apoptosis. One hundred ten male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (300-350 g body weight) were allocated to the sham group and three other groups with 10 min of four-vessel occlusion, untreated or preconditioned with either 3 or 5 hyperbaric oxygenations. HBO preconditioning improved neurobehavioral scores and reduced mortality, decreased ischemic cell change, reduced the number of early apoptotic cells and hampered a conversion of early to late apoptotic alterations. HBO preconditioning reduced the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated p38 in vulnerable neurons and increased the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in early stage post-ischemia. However, preconditioning with 3 HBO treatments proved less beneficial than with 5 HBO treatments. We conclude that HBO preconditioning may be neuroprotective by reducing early apoptosis and inhibition of the conversion of early to late apoptosis, possibly through an increase in brain BDNF level and the suppression of p38 activation.

  4. Ischemic preconditioning decreases intracellular zinc accumulation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Takahiro; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Kato, Kengo; Shimazaki, Kuniko

    2004-05-27

    In normal gerbils, intracellular zinc ions ([Zn2+]i) and calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) accumulate in hippocampal CA1 neurons after global ischemia. We examined whether ischemic preconditioning modifies these changes in gerbil hippocampal slices. In normal slices, large increases in [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i were observed in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 area after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In preconditioned slices, there were significantly decreased peak levels of [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i in CA1. However, there were no differences in the peak levels of these ions in CA3 and dentate gyrus. These results suggest that modified [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i accumulation after an ischemic insult might be important for the mechanisms of ischemic tolerance induced by preconditioning.

  5. Protective effects of fentanyl preconditioning on cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Q.; Li, Q.-G.; Fan, G.-R.; Liu, Q.-H.; Mi, F.-L.; Liu, B.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to study the effect of fentanyl (Fen) preconditioning on cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats. A total of 120 Sprague Dawley male rats (age: 3 months) were randomly divided into: sham operation group (S group), I/R group, normal saline I/R group (NS group), and fentanyl low, middle, and high dose groups (Fen1: 2 μg/kg; Fen2: 4 μg/kg; Fen3: 6 μg/kg). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), ±dp/dtmax, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) were measured. Myocardial ischemic (MI) area, total apoptotic myocardial cells, and protein and mRNA expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bax were detected. HR and MAP were higher, while LVDP and ±dp/dtmax were close to the base value in the Fen groups compared to those in the I/R group. Decreased MDA concentration and CK-MB value and increased SOD activity were found in the Fen groups compared to the I/R group, while cTnI concentration was significantly lower in the Fen1 and Fen2 groups (all P<0.05). Myocardial damage was less in the Fen groups compared to the I/R group and the MI areas and apoptotic indexes were significantly lower in the Fen1 and Fen2 groups (all P<0.05). Furthermore, significantly increased protein and mRNA expressions of Bcl-2, and decreased protein and mRNA expressions of Bax were found in the Fen groups compared to the I/R group (all P<0.05). Fentanyl preconditioning may suppress cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by I/R in rats by regulating Bcl-2 and Bax. PMID:28225864

  6. Morphine-Induced Preconditioning: Involvement of Protein Kinase A and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, Marianne; Behmenburg, Friederike; Raible, Miriam; Blase, Dominic; Grievink, Hilbert; Hollmann, Markus W.; Heinen, André; Huhn, Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Morphine induces myocardial preconditioning (M-PC) via activation of mitochondrial large conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mKCa) channels. An upstream regulator of mKCa channels is protein kinase A (PKA). Furthermore, mKCa channel activation regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics and thereby prevents opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Here, we investigated in the rat heart in vivo whether 1) M-PC is mediated by activation of PKA, and 2) pharmacological opening of the mPTP abolishes the cardioprotective effect of M-PC and 3) M-PC is critically dependent on STAT3 activation, which is located upstream of mPTP within the signalling pathway. Methods Male Wistar rats were randomised to six groups (each n = 6). All animals underwent 25 minutes of regional myocardial ischemia and 120 minutes of reperfusion. Control animals (Con) were not further treated. Morphine preconditioning was initiated by intravenous administration of 0.3 mg/kg morphine (M-PC). The PKA blocker H-89 (10 μg/kg) was investigated with and without morphine (H-89+M-PC, H-89). We determined the effect of mPTP opening with atractyloside (5 mg/kg) with and without morphine (Atr+M-PC, Atr). Furthermore, the effect of morphine on PKA activity was tested in isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes. In further experiments in isolated hearts we tested the protective properties of morphine in the presence of STAT3 inhibition, and whether pharmacological prevention of the mPTP-opening by cyclosporine A (CsA) is cardioprotective in the presence of STAT3 inhibition. Results Morphine reduced infarct size from 64±5% to 39±9% (P<0.05 vs. Con). H-89 completely blocked preconditioning by morphine (64±9%; P<0.05 vs. M-PC), but H-89 itself had not effect on infarct size (61±10%; P>0.05 vs. Con). Also, atractyloside abolished infarct size reduction of morphine completely (65±9%; P<0.05 vs. M-PC) but had no influence on infarct size itself (64±5%; P>0.05 vs. Con). In isolated

  7. Neuroprotective effects of ginkgetin against neuroinjury in Parkinson's disease model induced by MPTP via chelating iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-Q; Wang, M-Y; Fu, X-R; Peng-Yu; Gao, G-F; Fan, Y-M; Duan, X-L; Zhao, B-L; Chang, Y-Z; Shi, Z-H

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of neuronal iron homeostasis and oxidative stress are closely related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ginkgetin, a natural biflavonoid isolated from leaves of Ginkgo biloba L, has many known effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-influenza virus, and anti-fungal activities, but its underlying mechanism of the neuroprotective effects in PD remains unclear. The present study utilized PD models induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to explore the neuroprotective ability of ginkgetin in vivo and in vitro. Our results showed that ginkgetin could provide significant protection from MPP(+)-induced cell damage in vitro by decreasing the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and maintaining mitochondrial membrane potential. Meanwhile, ginkgetin dramatically inhibited cell apoptosis induced by MPP+ through the caspase-3 and Bcl2/Bax pathway. Moreover, ginkgetin significantly improved sensorimotor coordination in a mouse PD model induced by MPTP by dramatically inhibiting the decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the substantia nigra and superoxide dismutase activity in the striatum. Interestingly, ginkgetin could strongly chelate ferrous ion and thereby inhibit the increase of the intracellular labile iron pool through downregulating L-ferritin and upregulating transferrin receptor 1. These results indicate that the neuroprotective mechanism of ginkgetin against neurological injury induced by MPTP occurs via regulating iron homeostasis. Therefore, ginkgetin may provide neuroprotective therapy for PD and iron metabolism disorder related diseases.

  8. Progesterone-induced neuroprotection: factors that may predict therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Meharvan; Su, Chang

    2013-06-13

    Both progesterone and estradiol have well-described neuroprotective effects against numerous insults in a variety of cell culture models, animal models and in humans. However, the efficacy of these hormones may depend on a variety of factors, including the type of hormone used (ex. progesterone versus medroxyprogesterone acetate), the duration of the postmenopausal period prior to initiating the hormone intervention, and potentially, the age of the subject. The latter two factors relate to the proposed existence of a "window of therapeutic opportunity" for steroid hormones in the brain. While such a window of opportunity has been described for estrogen, there is a paucity of information to address whether such a window of opportunity exists for progesterone and its related progestins. Here, we review known cellular mechanisms likely to underlie the protective effects of progesterone and furthermore, describe key differences in the neurobiology of progesterone and the synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Based on the latter, we offer a model that defines some of the key cellular and molecular players that predict the neuroprotective efficacy of progesterone. Accordingly, we suggest how changes in the expression or function of these cellular and molecular targets of progesterone with age or prolonged duration of hormone withdrawal (such as following surgical or natural menopause) may impact the efficacy of progesterone. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Hormone Therapy.

  9. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Target Genes Contribute to Retinal Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin; Yu, Honghua; Yan, Naihong; Lai, Kunbei; Xiang, Mengqing

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that facilitates cellular adaptation to hypoxia and ischemia. Long-standing evidence suggests that one isotype of HIF, HIF-1α, is involved in the pathogenesis of various solid tumors and cardiac diseases. However, the role of HIF-1α in retina remains poorly understood. HIF-1α has been recognized as neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia in the past two decades. Additionally, an increasing number of studies has shown that HIF-1α and its target genes contribute to retinal neuroprotection. This review will focus on recent advances in the studies of HIF-1α and its target genes that contribute to retinal neuroprotection. A thorough understanding of the function of HIF-1α and its target genes may lead to identification of novel therapeutic targets for treating degenerative retinal diseases including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vein occlusions. PMID:28289375

  10. Neuroprotective effects of constituents of Eragrostis ferruginea against Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Chae Sun; Hong, Seong Su; Choi, Yun-Hyeok; Lee, Yong Ho; Hong, Sun Hee; Lim, Ji-Youn; Kang, Byeong Hoa; Park, So-Young; Lee, Dongho

    2010-07-01

    A new flavonoid, 7-demethylageconyflavone A (1), and five known compounds, tricin (2), ageconyflavone A (3), corylin (4), nectandrin B (5), and 4-ketopinoresinol (6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Eragrostis ferruginea. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D- and 2D-NMR. All compounds were tested for the neuroprotective effects against amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) using PC12 cells, a major cause of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Tricin (2) was found to have a neuroprotective effect with an ED(50) value of 20.3 microM against Abeta-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Ageconyflavone A (3), nectandrin B (5) and 4-ketopinoresinol (6) demonstrated moderate neuroprotective effects with ED(50) values of 58.7, 44.1, and 54.8 microM, respectively.

  11. Hypercholesterolemia abrogates sevoflurane-induced delayed preconditioning against myocardial infarct in rats by alteration of nitric oxide synthase signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Ma, Lei-Lei; Wang, Wen-Na; Qian, Ling-Bo; Yang, Mei-Juan; Yu, Jing; Chen, Gang; Yu, Li-Na; Yan, Min

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine whether hypercholesterolemia affects the delayed sevoflurane preconditioning against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and, if so, the underlying mechanism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed 2% cholesterol-enriched chow for 8 weeks were subjected to sevoflurane preconditioning (2.4% vol/vol, 1 h) 24 h before myocardial ischemia was induced by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. The hemodynamic parameters left ventricular developed pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and maximal rise/fall rate of left ventricular pressure were continuously monitored, and myocardial infarct size was determined at the end of reperfusion. The protein expression of myocardial nitric oxide synthase (NOS), Bcl-2, and Bad was assessed before ischemia. We found that the left ventricular hemodynamic parameters during the whole IR procedure and the myocardial infarct size did not significantly differ between the normocholesterolemic and hypercholesterolemic control groups. The hemodynamic parameters were all markedly improved during the reperfusion period, and the myocardial infarct size was significantly reduced by delayed sevoflurane preconditioning in normocholesterolemic rats, but all of these improvements were reversed by N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl) acetamidine (1400W, 1 mg/kg; i.v., 10 min before ischemia), a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, and 5-hydroxy decanoate sodium (5 mg/kg, i.v., 10 min before ischemia), a mitochondrial ATP-dependent K⁺ channel blocker. Such cardiac improvement induced by delayed sevoflurane preconditioning did not occur in hypercholesterolemic rats and was not exacerbated by 1400W or 5-hydroxy decanoate sodium. The expression of myocardial iNOS was markedly enhanced by delayed sevoflurane preconditioning in normocholesterolemic, but not in hypercholesterolemic rats. The expression of endothelial NOS and Bad did not differ

  12. The neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on laser-induced retinal damage in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskia-Dai, Victoria; Belokopytov, Mark; Dubinsky, Galina; Nachum, Gal; Avni, Isaac; Belkin, Michael; Rosner, Mordechai

    2005-04-01

    Retinal damage induced by mechanical trauma, ischemia or laser photocoagulation increases considerably by secondary degeneration processes. The spread of damage may be ameliorated by neuroprotection that is aimed at reducing the extent of the secondary degeneration and promote healing processes. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment consists of inspiration of oxygen at higher than one absolute atmospheric pressure. Improved neural function was observed in patients with acute brain trauma or ischemia treated with HBO. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on laser induced retinal damage in a rat model. Standard argon laser lesions were created in 25 pigmented rats divided into three groups: Ten rats were treated immediately after the irradiation with HBO three times during the first 24 hr followed by 12 consecutive daily treatments. Five rats received a shorter treatment regimen of 10 consecutive HBO treatments. The control group (10 rats) underwent the laser damage with no additional treatment. The retinal lesions were evaluated 20 days after the injury. All outcome measures were improved by the longer HBO treatment (P<0.01). The shorter HBO treatment was less effective, showing an increase only in nuclei density at the central area of lesion (P< 0.01). Hyperbaric oxygen seems to exert a neuroprotective effect on laser-induced retinal damage in a rat model. In the range of HBO exposures studied, longer exposure provides more neuroprotection. These results encourage further evaluation of the potential therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen in diseases and injuries of the retina.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of lycopene against MPTP induced experimental Parkinson's disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Prema, Asokan; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy Justin

    2015-07-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects the movement of the aged populations. Lycopene is a carotenoid with unique pharmacological properties and its efficacy on experimental Hunginton's disease and brain ischemia has shown intense neuroprotective effects. The present study was aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of lycopene against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced PD mice. Administration of lycopene (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg/day orally) protected MPTP induced depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) and its metabolites in a dose dependent manner. It also attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative stress and motor abnormalities seen in PD mice. Our western blot studies showed that treatment with lycopene reversed MPTP induced apoptosis may be due to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. As to conclude, lycopene reverses neurochemical deficts, oxidative stress, apoptosis and physiological abnormalities in PD mice and offer promise strategy in the treatment of this neurodegenerative disease.

  14. Low G preconditioning reduces liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Feng, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Yi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of repeated lower +Gz exposure on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wister rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, a low G preconditioning group (LG) (exposed to +4 Gz/5 min per day for 3 d before +10 Gz/5 min exposure), and a +10 Gz/5 min group (10G) (n = 20 in each group). Blood specimens and liver tissue were harvested at 0 h and 6 h after +10 Gz/5 min exposure. Liver function was analyzed by measuring serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and liver injury was further assessed by histopathological observation. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Na+-K+-ATPase were determined in hepatic tissue. RESULTS: The group LG had lower ALT, AST, and MDA values at 0 h after exposure than those in group 10G. SOD values and Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the LG group were higher than in group 10G 0 h post-exposure. Hepatocyte injury was significantly less in group LG than in group 10G on histopathological evaluation. CONCLUSION: It is suggested that repeated low +Gz exposure shows a protective effect on liver injury induced by high +Gz exposure in rats. PMID:26074692

  15. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  16. BCG vaccine-induced neuroprotection in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yong, Jing; Lacan, Goran; Dang, Hoa; Hsieh, Terry; Middleton, Blake; Wasserfall, Clive; Tian, Jide; Melega, William P; Kaufman, Daniel L

    2011-01-31

    There is a growing interest in using vaccination with CNS antigens to induce autoreactive T cell responses that home to damaged areas in the CNS and ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. Neuroprotective vaccine studies have focused on administering oligodendrocyte antigens or Copaxone® in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Theoretical considerations, however, suggest that vaccination with a neuronal antigen may induce more robust neuroprotective immune responses. We assessed the neuroprotective potential of vaccines containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a neuronal protein involved in dopamine synthesis) or Copaxone® in CFA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, we observed that the main beneficial factor in these vaccines was the CFA. Since the major immunogenic component in CFA is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which closely related to the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) that is used in human vaccines, we tested BCG vaccination in the MPTP mouse model. We observed that BCG vaccination partially preserved markers of striatal dopamine system integrity and prevented an increase in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice. These results support a new neuroprotective vaccine paradigm in which general (nonself-reactive) immune stimulation in the periphery can limit potentially deleterious microglial responses to a neuronal insult and exert a neurorestorative effect in the CNS. Accordingly, BCG vaccination may provide a new strategy to augment current treatments for a wide range of neuropathological conditions.

  17. BCG Vaccine-Induced Neuroprotection in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Jing; Lacan, Goran; Dang, Hoa; Hsieh, Terry; Middleton, Blake; Wasserfall, Clive; Tian, Jide; Melega, William P.; Kaufman, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest in using vaccination with CNS antigens to induce autoreactive T cell responses that home to damaged areas in the CNS and ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. Neuroprotective vaccine studies have focused on administering oligodendrocyte antigens or Copaxone® in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Theoretical considerations, however, suggest that vaccination with a neuronal antigen may induce more robust neuroprotective immune responses. We assessed the neuroprotective potential of vaccines containing tyrosine hydroxylase (a neuronal protein involved in dopamine synthesis) or Copaxone® in CFA in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Surprisingly, we observed that the main beneficial factor in these vaccines was the CFA. Since the major immunogenic component in CFA is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which closely related to the bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) that is used in human vaccines, we tested BCG vaccination in the MPTP mouse model. We observed that BCG vaccination partially preserved markers of striatal dopamine system integrity and prevented an increase in activated microglia in the substantia nigra of MPTP-treated mice. These results support a new neuroprotective vaccine paradigm in which general (nonself-reactive) immune stimulation in the periphery can limit potentially deleterious microglial responses to a neuronal insult and exert a neurorestorative effect in the CNS. Accordingly, BCG vaccination may provide a new strategy to augment current treatments for a wide range of neuropathological conditions. PMID:21304945

  18. Adenosine A1 receptor activation modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning phenotype in the brain.

    PubMed

    Constantino, Leandra C; Pamplona, Fabrício A; Matheus, Filipe C; Ludka, Fabiana K; Gomez-Soler, Maricel; Ciruela, Francisco; Boeck, Carina R; Prediger, Rui D; Tasca, Carla I

    2015-04-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) preconditioning is induced by subtoxic doses of NMDA and it promotes a transient state of resistance against subsequent lethal insults. Interestingly, this mechanism of neuroprotection depends on adenosine A1 receptors (A1R), since blockade of A1R precludes this phenomenon. In this study we evaluated the consequences of NMDA preconditioning on the hippocampal A1R biology (i.e. expression, binding properties and functionality). Accordingly, we measured A1R expression in NMDA preconditioned mice (75mg/kg, i.p.; 24h) and showed that neither the total amount of receptor, nor the A1R levels in the synaptic fraction was altered. In addition, the A1R binding affinity to the antagonist [(3)H] DPCPX was slightly increased in total membrane extracts of hippocampus from preconditioned mice. Next, we evaluated the impact of NMDA preconditioning on A1R functioning by measuring the A1R-mediated regulation of glutamate uptake into hippocampal slices and on behavioral responses in the open field and hot plate tests. NMDA preconditioning increased glutamate uptake into hippocampal slices without altering the expression of glutamate transporter GLT-1. Interestingly, NMDA preconditioning also induced antinociception in the hot plate test and both effects were reversed by post-activation of A1R with the agonist CCPA (0.2mg/kg, i.p.). NMDA preconditioning or A1R modulation did not alter locomotor activity in the open field. Overall, the results described herein provide new evidence that post-activation of A1R modulates NMDA preconditioning-mediated responses, pointing to the importance of the cross-talk between glutamatergic and adenosinergic systems to neuroprotection.

  19. Effects of ozone oxidative preconditioning on radiation-induced organ damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gultekin, Fatma Ayca; Bakkal, Bekir Hakan; Guven, Berrak; Tasdoven, Ilhan; Bektas, Sibel; Can, Murat; Comert, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with direct free radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. It has been demonstrated that controlled ozone administration may promote an adaptation to oxidative stress, preventing the damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Thus, we hypothesized that ozone would ameliorate oxidative damage caused by total body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6 Gy in rat liver and ileum tissues. Rats were randomly divided into groups as follows: control group; saline-treated and irradiated (IR) groups; and ozone oxidative preconditioning (OOP) and IR groups. Animals were exposed to TBI after a 5-day intraperitoneal pretreatment with either saline or ozone (1 mg/kg/day). They were decapitated at either 6 h or 72 h after TBI. Plasma, liver and ileum samples were obtained. Serum AST, ALT and TNF-α levels were elevated in the IR groups compared with the control group and were decreased after treatment with OOP. TBI resulted in a significant increase in the levels of MDA in the liver and ileal tissues and a decrease of SOD activities. The results demonstrated that the levels of MDA liver and ileal tissues in irradiated rats that were pretreated with ozone were significantly decreased, while SOD activities were significantly increased. OOP reversed all histopathological alterations induced by irradiation. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that ozone could increase the endogenous antioxidant defense mechanism in rats and there by protect the animals from radiation-induced organ toxicity. PMID:22915786

  20. Neuroprotection in diet-induced ketotic rat brain after focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Puchowicz, Michelle A; Zechel, Jennifer L; Valerio, Jose; Emancipator, Douglas S; Xu, Kui; Pundik, Svetlana; LaManna, Joseph C; Lust, W David

    2008-12-01

    Neuroprotective properties of ketosis may be related to the upregulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, a primary constituent associated with hypoxic angiogenesis and a regulator of neuroprotective responses. The rationale that the utilization of ketones by the brain results in elevation of intracellular succinate, a known inhibitor of prolyl hydroxylase (the enzyme responsible for the degradation of HIF-1alpha) was deemed as a potential mechanism of ketosis on the upregulation of HIF-1alpha. The neuroprotective effect of diet-induced ketosis (3 weeks of feeding a ketogenic diet), as pretreatment, on infarct volume, after reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and the upregulation of HIF-1alpha were investigated. The effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), as a pretreatment, via intraventricular infusion (4 days of infusion before stroke) was also investigated following MCAO. Levels of HIF-1alpha and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein) proteins and succinate content were measured. A 55% or 70% reduction in infarct volume was observed with BHB infusion or diet-induced ketosis, respectively. The levels of HIF-1alpha and Bcl-2 proteins increased threefold with diet-induced ketosis; BHB infusions also resulted in increases in these proteins. As hypothesized, succinate content increased by 55% with diet-induced ketosis and fourfold with BHB infusion. In conclusion, the biochemical link between ketosis and the stabilization of HIF-1alpha is through the elevation of succinate, and both HIF-1alpha stabilization and Bcl-2 upregulation play a role in ketone-induced neuroprotection in the brain.

  1. Retinal ganglion cell neuroprotection induced by activation of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mata, David; Linn, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The α7nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, has previously been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in an in vivo glaucoma model when the agent was injected into the vitreous chamber of adult Long Evans rat eyes. Here, we characterized the neuroprotective effect of PNU-282987 at the nerve fiber and retinal ganglion cell layer, determined that neuroprotection occurred when the agonist was applied as eye drops and verified detection of the agonist in the retina, using LC/MS/MS. To induce glaucoma-like conditions in adult Long Evans rats, hypertonic saline was injected into the episcleral veins to induce scar tissue and increase intraocular pressure. Within one month, this procedure produced significant loss of RGCs compared to untreated conditions. RGCs were quantified after immunostaining with an antibody against Thy 1.1 and imaged using a confocal microscope. In dose-response studies, concentrations of PNU-282987 were applied to the animal’s right eye two times each day, while the left eye acted as an internal control. Eye drops of PNU-282987 resulted in neuroprotection against RGC loss in a dose-dependent manner using concentrations between 100 µM and 2 mM PNU-282987. LC/MS/MS results demonstrated that PNU-282987 was detected in the retina when applied as eye drops, relatively small amounts of PNU-282987 were measured in blood plasma and no PNU-282987 was detected in cardiac tissue. These results support the hypothesis that eye drop application of PNU-282987 can prevent loss of RGCs associated with glaucoma, which can lead to neuroprotective treatments for diseases that involve α7nAChRs. PMID:26239818

  2. Mechanisms underpinning protection against eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage by ischemic preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Franz, Alexander; Behringer, Michael; Nosaka, Kazunori; Buhren, Bettina Alexandra; Schrumpf, Holger; Mayer, Constantin; Zilkens, Christoph; Schumann, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Eccentric exercise training is effective for increasing muscle mass and strength, and improving insulin sensitivity and blood lipid profiles. However, potential muscle damage symptoms such as prolonged loss of muscle function and delayed onset of muscle soreness may restrict the use of eccentric exercise, especially in clinical populations. Therefore, strategies to reduce eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) are necessary, and an extensive number of scientific studies have tried to identify potential intervention modalities to perform eccentric exercises without adverse effects. The present paper is based on a narrative review of current literature, and provides a novel hypothesis by which an ischemic preconditioning (IPC) of the extremities may reduce EIMD. IPC consists of an intermittent application of short-time non-lethal ischemia to an extremity (e.g. using a tourniquet) followed by reperfusion and was discovered in clinical settings in an attempt to minimize inflammatory responses induced by ischemia and ischemia-reperfusion-injury (I/R-Injury) during surgery. The present hypothesis is based on morphological and biochemical similarities in the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle damage during clinical surgery and EIMD. Even though the primary origin of stress differs between I/R-Injury and EIMD, subsequent cellular alterations characterized by an intracellular accumulation of Ca(2+), an increased production of reactive oxygen species or increased apoptotic signaling are essential elements for both. Moreover, the incipient immune response appears to be similar in I/R-Injury and EIMD, which is indicated by an infiltration of leukocytes into the damaged soft-tissue. Thus far, IPC is considered as a potential intervention strategy in the area of cardiovascular or orthopedic surgery and provides significant impact on soft-tissue protection and downregulation of undesired excessive inflammation induced by I/R-Injury. Based on the known major impact of IPC

  3. Increased hypoxic tolerance by chemical inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation: "chemical preconditioning".

    PubMed

    Riepe, M W; Esclaire, F; Kasischke, K; Schreiber, S; Nakase, H; Kempski, O; Ludolph, A C; Dirnagl, U; Hugon, J

    1997-03-01

    A short ischemic episode preceding sustained ischemia is known to increase tolerance against ischemic cell death. We report early-onset long-lasting neuroprotection against in vitro hypoxia by preceding selective chemical inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation: "chemical preconditioning." The amplitude of CA1 population spikes (psap) in hippocampal slices prepared from control animals (control slices) was 31 +/- 27% (mean +/- SD) upon 45-min recovery from 15-min in vitro hypoxia. In slices prepared from animals treated in vivo with 20 mg/kg 3-nitropropionate (3-np) 1-24 h prior to slice preparation (preconditioned slices), psap improved to 90 +/- 15% (p < 0.01). Posthypoxic oxygen free radicals were reduced to 65 +/- 10% (mean +/- SD) of control in preconditioned slices (p < 0.05). Posthypoxic neuronal density improved from 52 +/- 15% (mean +/- SD) in control slices to 97 +/- 23% in preconditioned slices (p < 0.001). Glibenclamide, an antagonist at KATP-channels, partly reversed increased hypoxic tolerance. We conclude that chemical preconditioning induces early-onset long-lasting tolerance against in vitro hypoxia. Ultimately, this strategy may be applicable as a neuroprotective strategy in humans.

  4. Neuroprotective effects mediated by dopamine receptor agonists against malonate-induced lesion in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Fancellu, R; Armentero, M-T; Nappi, G; Blandini, F

    2003-10-01

    In rats, intrastriatal injection of malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, induces a lesion similar to that observed following focal ischemia or in Huntington's disease. In this study we used the malonate model to explore the neuroprotective potential of dopamine agonists. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with increasing concentrations of D1, D2, or mixed D1/D2 dopamine agonists prior to intrastriatal injection of malonate. Administration of increasing doses of the D2-specific agonist quinpirole resulted in increased protection against malonate toxicity. Conversely, the D1-specific agonist SKF-38393, as well as the mixed D1/D2 agonist apomorphine, conferred higher neuroprotection at lower than at higher drug concentrations. Our data suggest that malonate- induced striatal toxicity can be attenuated by systemic administration of dopamine agonists, with D1 and D2 agonists showing different profiles of efficacy.

  5. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin-loaded lactoferrin nano particles against rotenone induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bollimpelli, V Satish; Kumar, Prashant; Kumari, Sonali; Kondapi, Anand K

    2016-05-01

    Curcumin is known to have neuroprotective role and possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities. Rotenone, a flavonoid induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic cells is being widely studied in Parkinson's Disease (PD) research. In the present study, curcumin loaded lactoferrin nano particles prepared by sol-oil chemistry were used to protect dopaminergic cell line SK-N-SH against rotenone induced neurotoxicity. These curcumin loaded nano particles were of 43-60 nm diameter size and around 100 nm hydrodynamic size as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis respectively. The encapsulation efficiency was 61.3% ± 2.4%. Cellular uptake of curcumin through these nano particles was confirmed by confocal imaging and spectrofluorimetric analysis. The curcumin loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles showed greater intracellular drug uptake, sustained retention and greater neuroprotection than soluble counterpart. Neuroprotective activity was characterized through viability assays and by estimating ROS levels. Furthermore rotenone induced PD like features were characterized by decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and increase in α-synuclein expression. Taken together curcumin loaded lactoferrin nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery strategy against neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons.

  6. Adenosine receptors: regulatory players in the preservation of mitochondrial function induced by ischemic preconditioning of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filipe V; Amorim, João A; Varela, Ana T; Teodoro, João S; Gomes, Ana P; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Palmeira, Carlos M; Rolo, Anabela P

    2016-11-15

    Although adenosine A1 receptors (A1R) have been associated to ischemic preconditioning (IPC), direct evidence for their ability to preserve mitochondrial function upon hepatic preconditioning is still missing and could represent a novel strategy to boost the quality of liver transplants. We tested if the A1R antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) prevented IPC in the liver and if the A1R agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) might afford a pharmacological preconditioning. Livers underwent a 120 min of 70% warm ischemia and 16 h of reperfusion (I/R), and the IPC group underwent a 5-min ischemic episode followed by a 10-min period of reperfusion before I/R. DPCPX or CCPA was administered intraperitoneally 2 h before IPC or I/R. The control of mitochondrial function emerged as the central element affected by IPC and controlled by endogenous A1R activation. Thus, livers from IPC- or CCPA-treated rats displayed an improved oxidative phosphorylation with higher state 3 respiratory rate, higher respiratory control ratio, increased ATP content, and decreased lag phase. IPC and CCPA also prevented the I/R-induced susceptibility to calcium-induced mitochondrial permeability transition, the rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and the decreased mitochondrial content of phospho-Ser(9) GSK-3β. DPCPX abrogated these effects of IPC. These implicate the control of GSK-3β activity by Akt-mediated Ser(9)-GSK-3β phosphorylation preserving the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation and ROS-mediated cell death in the ability of A1R activation to mimic IPC in the liver. In conclusion, the parallel between IPC and A1R-mediated preconditioning also paves the way to consider a putative therapeutic use of the later in liver transplants.

  7. [Neuroprotective effects of semax in MPTP-induced disturbances of brain dopamine system].

    PubMed

    Levitskaia, N G; Sebentsova, E A; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Iu; Kamenskiĭ, A A; Miasoedov, N F

    2002-11-01

    Effects of an ACTH (4-10) analogue Semax (MEHFPGP) on behaviour of white rats with MPTP-induced disturbances of brain DA-system have been studied. It was shown that MPTP administration (25 mg/kg) reduced motor activity and auhmented the anxiety level in rats. Semax administration (daily intranasal 0.2 mg/kg) attenuated behaviour disturbances induced by neurotoxin. The observed protective action of Semax in rats with MFTP-induced DA system disturbances may be due to both its modulating influence on the brain DA system and peptide neuroprotective effects.

  8. HIF1α is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection while HIF2α is needed for dopaminergic neuron survival in the substantia nigra pars compacta.

    PubMed

    Smeyne, M; Sladen, P; Jiao, Y; Dragatsis, I; Smeyne, R J

    2015-06-04

    Exercise reduces the risk of developing a number of neurological disorders and increases the efficiency of cellular energy production. However, overly strenuous exercise produces oxidative stress. Proper oxygenation is crucial for the health of all tissues, and tight regulation of cellular oxygen is critical to balance O2 levels and redox homeostasis in the brain. Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)1α and HIF2α are transcription factors regulated by cellular oxygen concentration that initiate gene regulation of vascular development, redox homeostasis, and cell cycle control. HIF1α and HIF2α contribute to important adaptive mechanisms that occur when oxygen and ROS homeostasis become unbalanced. It has been shown that preconditioning by exposure to a stressor prior to a hypoxic event reduces damage that would otherwise occur. Previously we reported that 3 months of exercise protects SNpc dopaminergic (DA) neurons from toxicity caused by Complex I inhibition. Here, we identify the cells in the SNpc that express HIF1α and HIF2α and show that running exercise produces hypoxia in SNpc DA neurons, and alters the expression of HIF1α and HIF2α. In mice carrying a conditional knockout of Hif1α in postnatal neurons we observe that exercise alone produces SNpc TH+ DA neuron loss. Loss of HIF1α also abolishes exercise-induced neuroprotection. In mice lacking Hif2α in postnatal neurons, the number of TH+ DA neurons in the adult SNpc is diminished, but 3months of exercise rescues this loss. We conclude that HIF1α is necessary for exercise-induced neuroprotection and both HIF1α and HIF2α are necessary for the survival and function of adult SNpc DA neurons.

  9. Remote ischaemic preconditioning protects against cardiopulmonary bypass‐induced tissue injury: a preclinical study

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, R K; Li, J; Konstantinov, I E; Cheung, M M H; White, P A; Frndova, H; Stokoe, J; Cox, P; Vogel, M; Van Arsdell, G; MacAllister, R; Redington, A N

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that remote ischaemic preconditioning (rIPC) reduces injury after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Design Randomised study with an experimental model of CPB (3 h CPB with 2 h of cardioplegic arrest). Twelve 15 kg pigs were randomly assigned to control or rIPC before CPB and followed up for 6 h. Intervention rIPC was induced by four 5 min cycles of lower limb ischaemia before CPB. Main outcome measures Troponin I, glial protein S‐100B, lactate concentrations, load‐independent indices (conductance catheter) of systolic and diastolic function, and pulmonary resistance and compliance were measured before and for 6 h after CPB. Results Troponin I increased after CPB in both groups but during reperfusion the rIPC group had lower concentrations than controls (mean area under the curve −57.3 (SEM 7.3) v 89.0 (11.6) ng·h/ml, p  =  0.02). Lactate increased after CPB in both groups but during reperfusion the control group had significantly more prolonged hyperlactataemia (p  =  0.04). S‐100B did not differ between groups. Indices of ventricular function did not differ. There was a tendency to improved lung compliance (p  =  0.07), and pulmonary resistance changed less in the rIPC than in the control group during reperfusion (p  =  0.02). Subsequently, peak inspiratory pressure was lower (p  =  0.001). Conclusion rIPC significantly attenuated clinically relevant markers of myocardial and pulmonary injury after CPB. Transient limb ischaemia as an rIPC stimulus has potentially important clinical applications. PMID:16818489

  10. Comparative neuroprotective profile of statins in quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kalonia, Harikesh; Kumar, Puneet; Kumar, Anil

    2011-01-01

    A possible neuroprotective role has been recently suggested for 3H3MGCoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Here, we sought to determine neuroprotective effect of statins in quinolinic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats. Rats were surgically administered quinolinic acid and treated with Atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (15, 30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (5, 10 mg/kg) once daily up to 3 weeks. Atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (10 mg/kg) treatment significantly attenuated the quinolinic acid induced behavioral (locomotor activity, rotarod performance and beam walk test), biochemical (lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, SOD and catalase), mitochondrial enzyme complex alterations in rats suggesting their free radical scavenging potential. Additionally, atorvastatin (10, 20 mg/kg), simvastatin (30 mg/kg) and fluvastatin (10 mg/kg) significantly decrease the TNF-α level and striatal lesion volume in quinolinic acid treated animals indicating their anti-inflammatory effects. In comparing the protective effect of different statins, atorvastatin is effective at both the doses while simvastatin and fluvastatins at respective lower doses were not able to produce the protective effect in quinolinic acid treated animals. These modulations can account, at least partly, for the beneficial effect of statins in our rodent model of striatal degeneration. Our findings show that statins could be explored as possible neuroprotective agents for neurodegenerative disorders such as HD.

  11. Dopamine receptor agonists mediate neuroprotection in malonate-induced striatal lesion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Armentero, Marie-Thérèse; Fancellu, Roberto; Nappi, Giuseppe; Blandini, Fabio

    2002-12-01

    Mitochondrial bioenergetic defects are involved in neurological disorders associated with neuronal damage in the striatum, such as Huntington's disease and cerebral ischemia. The striatal release of neurotransmitters, in particular dopamine, may contribute to the development of the neuronal damage. Recent studies have shown that dopamine agonists may exert neuroprotective effects via multiple mechanisms, including modulation of dopamine release from nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals. In rats, intrastriatal injection of malonate, a reversible inhibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, induces a lesion similar to that observed following focal ischemia or in Huntington's disease. In this study, we used the malonate model to explore the neuroprotective potential of dopamine agonists. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected systemically with increasing concentrations of D(1), D(2), or mixed D(1)/D(2) dopamine agonists prior to malonate intrastriatal insult. Administration of increasing doses of the D(2)-specific agonist quinpirole resulted in increased protection against malonate toxicity. Conversely, the D(1)-specific agonist SKF-38393, as well as the mixed D(1)/D(2) agonist apomorphine, conferred higher neuroprotection at lower than at higher concentrations. Our data suggest that malonate-induced striatal toxicity can be attenuated by systemic administration of dopamine agonists, with D(1) and D(2) agonists showing different profiles of efficacy.

  12. "Manganese-induced neurotoxicity: a review of its behavioral consequences and neuroprotective strategies".

    PubMed

    Peres, Tanara V; Schettinger, Maria Rosa C; Chen, Pan; Carvalho, Fabiano; Avila, Daiana S; Bowman, Aaron B; Aschner, Michael

    2016-11-04

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential heavy metal. However, Mn's nutritional aspects are paralleled by its role as a neurotoxicant upon excessive exposure. In this review, we covered recent advances in identifying mechanisms of Mn uptake and its molecular actions in the brain as well as promising neuroprotective strategies. The authors focused on reporting findings regarding Mn transport mechanisms, Mn effects on cholinergic system, behavioral alterations induced by Mn exposure and studies of neuroprotective strategies against Mn intoxication. We report that exposure to Mn may arise from environmental sources, occupational settings, food, total parenteral nutrition (TPN), methcathinone drug abuse or even genetic factors, such as mutation in the transporter SLC30A10. Accumulation of Mn occurs mainly in the basal ganglia and leads to a syndrome called manganism, whose symptoms of cognitive dysfunction and motor impairment resemble Parkinson's disease (PD). Various neurotransmitter systems may be impaired due to Mn, especially dopaminergic, but also cholinergic and GABAergic. Several proteins have been identified to transport Mn, including divalent metal tranporter-1 (DMT-1), SLC30A10, transferrin and ferroportin and allow its accumulation in the central nervous system. Parallel to identification of Mn neurotoxic properties, neuroprotective strategies have been reported, and these include endogenous antioxidants (for instance, vitamin E), plant extracts (complex mixtures containing polyphenols and non-characterized components), iron chelating agents, precursors of glutathione (GSH), and synthetic compounds that can experimentally afford protection against Mn-induced neurotoxicity.

  13. Meclizine-induced enhanced glycolysis is neuroprotective in Parkinson disease cell models

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chien Tai; Chau, Kai-Yin; Schapira, Anthony H. V.

    2016-01-01

    Meclizine is a well-tolerated drug routinely used as an anti-histamine agent in the management of disequilibrium. Recently, meclizine has been assessed for its neuroprotective properties in ischemic stroke and Huntington disease models. We found that meclizine protected against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis and cell death in both SH-SY5Y cells and rat primary cortical cultures. Meclizine increases the level of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), which activates phosphofructokinase, a rate-determining enzyme of glycolysis. This protection is therefore mediated by meclizine’s ability to enhance glycolysis and increase mitochondrial hyperpolarization. Meclizine represents an interesting candidate for further investigation to re-purpose for its potential to be neuroprotective in Parkinson disease. PMID:27145922

  14. Neuroprotective effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana on damage induced by cerebral ischaemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; González-Trujano, Ma Eva; Gómez, Claudia; Chánez-Cárdenas, Ma Elena; Ventura-Martinez, Rosa

    2016-09-01

    Tilia americana var. mexicana (T. americana) is a plant widely used in Mexico for its medicinal properties on the central nervous system. In the present study, we designed a protocol to investigate the neuroprotective effects of non-polar and polar extracts of T. americana on damage induced by cerebral ischaemia in mice. Vehicle or extracts were administered immediately after ischaemia. Functional neurological deficit, survival percentage and infarct area were determined in each experimental group. Results showed that groups treated with non-polar or polar extracts of T. americana had increased survival rate, improved neurological deficits and diminished the infarct area in relation to the ischaemic group. In conclusion, this study confirms the neuroprotective activity of T. americana, suggests a possible synergism between non-polar and polar constituents and supports its potential as a useful aid in the clinical management of stroke.

  15. Specific Conditions for Resveratrol Neuroprotection against Ethanol-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gonthier, Brigitte; Allibe, Nathalie; Cottet-Rousselle, Cécile; Lamarche, Frédéric; Nuiry, Laurence; Barret, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Aims. 3,5,4′-Trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, a natural polyphenolic compound present in wine and grapes and better known as resveratrol, has free radical scavenging properties and is a potent protector against oxidative stress induced by alcohol metabolism. Today, the mechanism by which ethanol exerts its toxicity is still not well understood, but it is generally considered that free radical generation plays an important role in the appearance of structural and functional alterations in cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective action of resveratrol against ethanol-induced brain cell injury. Methods. Primary cultures of rat astrocytes were exposed to ethanol, with or without a pretreatment with resveratrol. We examined the dose-dependent effects of this resveratrol pretreatment on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by ethanol. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the MTT reduction test. Genotoxicity was evidenced using single cell gel electrophoresis. In addition, DNA staining with fluorescent dyes allowed visualization of nuclear damage using confocal microscopy. Results. Cell pretreatment with low concentrations of trans-resveratrol (0.1–10 μM) slowed down cell death and DNA damage induced by ethanol exposure, while higher concentrations (50–100 μM) enhanced these same effects. No protection by cis-resveratrol was observed. Conclusion. Protection offered by trans-resveratrol against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity was only effective for low concentrations of this polyphenol. PMID:22778731

  16. Melatonin prevents mitochondrial dysfunction and promotes neuroprotection by inducing autophagy during oxaliplatin-evoked peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Areti, Aparna; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Akuthota, Manasaveena; Malik, Rayaz A; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-04-01

    Oxaliplatin, an organoplatinum compound, is used in the treatment of colorectal cancer, but its clinical use can be limited due to the development of peripheral neuropathy. Whilst mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a major pathomechanism for oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, the prevention of autophagy may also aggravate neuronal cell death. Melatonin, a well-known mitoprotectant and autophagy inducer, was used to examine its neuroprotective role in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN). Melatonin prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm) and promoted neuritogenesis in oxaliplatin-challenged neuro-2a cells. It did not interfere with the cytotoxic activity of oxaliplatin in human colon cancer cell line, HT-29. Melatonin treatment significantly alleviated oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior and neuropathic deficits in rats. It also ameliorated nitro-oxidative stress mediated by oxaliplatin, thus prevented nitrosylation of proteins and loss of antioxidant enzymes, and therefore, it improved mitochondrial electron transport chain function and maintained cellular bioenergetics by improving the ATP levels. The protective effects of melatonin were attributed to preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuronal apoptosis by increasing the autophagy pathway (via LC3A/3B) in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Hence, it preserved the epidermal nerve fiber density in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic rats. Taken together, we provide detailed molecular mechanisms for the neuroprotective effect of melatonin and suggest it has translational potential for oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Roy, Partha Deb; Kannan, Elango; Antony, A. Shanish; Kumar, M. N. Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia aerial parts against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: T. cordifolia ethanol extract (TCEE) was standardized with high performance thin layer chromatography using berberine. Experimental PD was induced by intracerebral injection of 6-OHDA (8 μg). Animals were divided into five groups: sham operated, negative control, positive control (levodopa 6 mg/kg) and two experimental groups (n = 6/group). Experimental groups received 200 and 400 mg/kg of TCEE once daily for 30 days by oral gavage. Biochemical parameters including dopamine level, oxidative stress, complex I activity and brain iron asymmetry ratio and locomotor activity including skeletal muscle co-ordination and degree of catatonia were assessed. Results: TCEE exhibited significant neuroprotection by increasing the dopamine levels (1.96 ± 0.20 and 2.45 ± 0.40 ng/mg of protein) and complex I activity (77.14 ± 0.89 and 78.50 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mg of protein) at 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively when compared with negative control group. Iron asymmetry ratio was also significantly attenuated by TCEE at 200 (1.57 ± 0.18) and 400 mg/kg (1.11 ± 0.15) when compared with negative control group. Neuroprotection by TCEE was further supported by reduced oxidative stress and restored locomotor activity in treatment groups. Conclusion: Results show that TCEE possess significant neuroprotection in 6-OHDA induced PD by protecting dopaminergic neurons and reducing the iron accumulation. PMID:24741189

  18. Neuroprotective evaluation of Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia in the neuronal damage induced by intestinal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia are plants widely distributed in Mexico and sold in markets for their medicinal properties on the central nervous system (CNS) including possible neuroprotection. Pharmacological studies have corroborated CNS activities due to flavonoid constituents, but evidence of their neuroprotector effects are lacking. This study was conducted to test aqueous and organic extracts of these two plants for neuroprotective effects in a novel experimental model of intestinal ischemia in situ. T. americana and A. diversifolia aqueous and organic extracts were administrated to guinea pigs at an oral dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were anesthetized and intestinal ischemia in situ was induced by clamping for 80 min selected branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Ischemic segments placed in an in vitro organ bath were stimulated electrically (0.3 Hz frequency, 3.0 ms duration, 14 V intensity) and chemically (ACh; 1 × 10(-9) to 1×10(-5) M). Neuroprotection was considered present when the depressed contractile response of the ischemic tissue to electrical stimulation was normalized in the treated animals. Results showed that pretreatment with the T. americana hexane and aqueous extracts, but not with those from A. diversifolia, significantly improved responses of the ischemic tissue. These results suggest that T. americana possesses neuroprotective effects against neuronal damage induced by ischemia, and that flavonoids as well as non-polar constituents are involved. Our study supports the use of this plant in folk medicine and suggests its possible effectiveness for stroke prevention.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of (-)-linalool against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyeon; Seol, Geun Hee; Ryu, Sangwoo; Choi, In-Young

    2016-04-01

    (-)-Linalool, a major component of many essential oils, is widely used in cosmetics and flavoring ingredients as well as in traditional medicines. Although various in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that (-)-linalool has anti-convulsant, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, its anti-ischemic/hypoxic effects have yet to be determined. This study assessed the neuroprotective effects of (-)-linalool against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced cortical neuronal injury, an in vitro model of ischemic stroke. (-)-Linalool significantly attenuated OGD/R-evoked cortical neuronal injury/death, although it did not inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity. (-)-Linalool significantly reduced intracellular oxidative stress during OGD/R-induced injury, as well as scavenging peroxyl radicals (Trolox equivalents or TE = 3.8). This anti-oxidant effect was found to correlate with the restoration of OGD/R-induced decreases in the activities of SOD and catalase. In addition, (-)-linalool inhibited microglial migration induced by monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a chemokine released by OGD/R. These findings show that (-)-linalool has neuroprotective effects against OGD/R-induced neuronal injury, which may be due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Detailed examination of the anti-ischemic mechanisms of (-)-linalool may indicate strategies for the development of drugs to treat cerebral ischemic injury.

  20. Neuroprotection by GH against excitotoxic-induced cell death in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Wu, Yilun; Arellanes-Licea, Elvira Del Carmen; Louie, Marcela; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Retinal growth hormone (GH) has been shown to promote cell survival in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during developmental waves of apoptosis during chicken embryonic development. The possibility that it might also against excitotoxicity-induced cell death was therefore examined in the present study, which utilized quail-derived QNR/D cells as an in vitro RGC model. QNR/D cell death was induced by glutamate in the presence of BSO (buthionine sulfoxamide) (an enhancer of oxidative stress), but this was significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the presence of exogenous recombinant chicken GH (rcGH). Similarly, QNR/D cells that had been prior transfected with a GH plasmid to overexpress secreted and non-secreted GH. This treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-labeled cells and blocked their release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In a further experiment with dissected neuroretinal explants from ED (embryonic day) 10 embryos, rcGH treatment of the explants also reduced (P<0.01) the number of glutamate-BSO-induced apoptotic cells and blocked the explant release of LDH. This neuroprotective action was likely mediated by increased STAT5 phosphorylation and increased bcl-2 production, as induced by exogenous rcGH treatment and the media from GH-overexpressing QNR/D cells. As rcGH treatment and GH-overexpression cells also increased the content of IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA this neuroprotective action of GH is likely to be mediated, at least partially, through an IGF-1 mechanism. This possibility is supported by the fact that the siRNA knockdown of GH or IGF-1 significantly reduced QNR/D cell viability, as did the immunoneutralization of IGF-1. GH is therefore neuroprotective against excitotoxicity-induced RGC cell death by anti-apoptotic actions involving IGF-1 stimulation.

  1. Sigma 1 receptor agonists act as neuroprotective drugs through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Vagnerova, Kamila; Hurn, Patricia D; Bhardwaj, Anish; Kirsch, Jeffrey R

    2006-08-01

    Postischemic administration of the sigma-1 agonists reduces ischemic brain injury; however, the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that the sigma-1 agonist (+)isoform of pentazocine (P(+)) reduces damage in part by ameliorating cell death mediated via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and that the (-)isoform (P(-)) lacks this effect. We compared treatment with P(+) with or without the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) and also the effects of P(+) in iNOS deficient (iNOSKO) mice. A possible mechanism of neuroprotection is inhibition of iNOS expression. Male C57/Bl6 mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (90 min) and drugs were administered with reperfusion: 1) P(+) with AG (P+/AG), 2) P(+), 3) P(-), 4) AG, or 5) placebo. iNOSKOs were treated with either P(+) or placebo. Infarction (triphenyltetrazolium chloride histology, 72 h) was reduced by P(+) treatment in striatum by 44% and in neocortex by 23% versus placebo (P < 0.05), a reduction comparable to AG effect. P(-) did not attenuate brain injury. There was no difference in P(+)/AG treatment compared with showed the same level of neuroprotection as P(+) alone. P(+) also did not provide further neuroprotection for iNOSKOs. We conclude that postischemic administration of P(+) reduces infarct volume in mice. Because AG provides no additional benefit to P(+) treatment and iNOSKOs do not benefit from P(+), we speculate that P(+) acts by suppressing cell death resulting from iNOS toxicity.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic injury.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Ji-Hi; Jeong, You-Kyung; Yeo, Sujung; Lee, Je-Hyun; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Lim, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) were investigated on the inflammatory cells and the dopaminergic degeneration in mice. TCA inhibited the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory BV2 microglial cells. To investigate the TCA efficacy on the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic degeneration in mice, an intracerebroventricular injection of 6-OHDA was given to the mice, and TCA (30 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered. At 7 d after the 6-OHDA injection, 6-OHDA led to a severe loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons in the striatum and substantia nigra (SN). On the other hand, TCA dramatically maintained the number of TH-positive dopaminergic neurons in the striatum and SN regions of the 6-OHDA-treated mice, which indicates that TCA is able to inhibit the 6-OHDA-induced reduction of TH expression in the dopaminergic neurons in the striatum and SN regions. TCA also inhibited the induction of iNOS and COX-2 in the 6-OHDA model, similarly as shown in the LPS-induced inflammatory BV2 microglial cells. These results indicate that TCA has a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons and that this effect may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses. These findings suggest that TCA may be a therapeutic candidate for the prevention of inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of lithium after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Namgue; Choi, Yun-Sik; Kim, Seong Yun

    2017-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most common serious neurological condition triggered by abnormal electrical activity, leading to severe and widespread cell loss in the brain. Lithium has been one of the main drugs used for the treatment of bipolar disorder for decades, and its anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties have been described in several neurological disease models. However, the therapeutic mechanisms underlying lithium's actions remain poorly understood. The muscarinic receptor agonist pilocarpine is used to induce status epilepticus, which is followed by hippocampal damage. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lithium post-treatment on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal neuropathological changes following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Status epilepticus was induced by administration of pilocarpine hydrochloride (320 mg/kg, i.p.) in C57BL/6 mice at 8 weeks of age. Lithium (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 15 minutes after the pilocarpine injection. After the lithium injection, status epilepticus onset time and mortality were recorded. Lithium significantly delayed the onset time of status epilepticus and reduced mortality compared to the vehicle-treated group. Moreover, lithium effectively blocked pilocarpine-induced neuronal death in the hippocampus as estimated by cresyl violet and Fluoro-Jade B staining. However, lithium did not reduce glial activation following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. These results suggest that lithium has a neuroprotective effect and would be useful in the treatment of neurological disorders, in particular status epilepticus. PMID:28066149

  4. Broad neuroprotective profile of nicotinamide in different mouse models of MPTP-induced parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D W; Bradbury, K A; Schneider, J S

    2008-08-01

    The factors contributing to substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopamine (DA) neuron death and striatal DA depletion in Parkinson's disease (PD) are still poorly understood. However, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular energy depletion and oxidative stress appear to play important roles in the pathogenesis of PD. In view of this, the current study examined the potential of nicotinamide, a form of the B-complex vitamin niacin, to protect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced SNc cell loss and striatal DA depletion in two mouse MPTP models that respond differently to putative neuroprotective agents. Adult male C57Bl/6 mice received nicotinamide (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg i.p.) prior to either acute (four injections in 1 day at 2-h intervals) or sub-acute (two injections per day at 4-h intervals for 5 days) MPTP administration. Striatal DA levels, changes in numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)- and cresyl violet-stained cells in the SNc at 2 and 6 weeks following the last MPTP exposure were analyzed. Nicotinamide administration resulted in a dose-dependent sparing of striatal DA levels and SNc neurons in acute MPTP-treated animals. Only the highest dose of nicotinamide had similar effects in sub-acute MPTP-treated animals. At 6 weeks after MPTP exposure, there was some spontaneous recovery of striatal DA levels in both models: neuroprotective effects were still apparent in acute but not sub-acute MPTP-treated animals. These results show neuroprotective effects of nicotinamide in different mouse Parkinson models associated with different forms of cell death and suggest that nicotinamide may have broad neuroprotective potential in PD.

  5. Delayed myocardial preconditioning induced by cobalt chloride in the rat: HIF-1α and iNOS involvement.

    PubMed

    Belaidi, Elise; Beguin, Pauline C; Levy, Patrick; Ribuot, Christophe; Godin-Ribuot, Diane

    2012-08-01

    We previously reported that acute exposure to intermittent hypoxia results in delayed cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and that the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, a transcriptional factor stabilized by hypoxia, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) play a key role in this form of preconditioning. As cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) is known to promote HIF-1α stabilization by inhibiting prolyl hydroxylase activity, we hypothesized that CoCl(2) could mimic the cardioprotective effects of hypoxia. Two groups of rats were administered 30 mg/kg twice of CoCl(2) or sterile water. Twenty-four hours later, hearts were perfused in Langendorff mode and subjected to an I/R protocol. Infarct size and functional recovery were studied. The role of iNOS was assessed by measuring myocardial iNOS content and by observing the effects of the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (Ag, 100 μm, prior to ischemia). The role of HIF-1α was investigated by preventing its stabilization using cadmium chloride (CdCl(2), 1 mg/kg), administered 1 h before cobalt treatment. Treatment by CoCl(2) significantly reduced myocardial infarction by 33% and increased coronary flow (CF) at reperfusion by 27% compared with control rats, and this was accompanied by a threefold increase in myocardial iNOS content. CdCl(2) pretreatment and Ag perfusion abolished the beneficial effects on both infarct size and CF. Thus, the hypoxia-sensitive transcription factor HIF-1α and iNOS appear to play a pivotal role in the delayed pharmacological myocardial preconditioning induced by cobalt, thus mimicking the effects of hypoxic preconditioning. These results underscore the importance of prolyl hydroxylases as potential therapeutic targets for cardioprotection.

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Lutein on NMDA-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Injury in Rat Retina.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chanjuan; Wang, Zhen; Zhao, Jiayi; Li, Qin; Huang, Cuiqin; Zhu, Lihong; Lu, Daxiang

    2016-05-01

    Lutein injection is a possible therapeutic approach for retinal diseases, but the molecular mechanism of its neuroprotective effect remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate its protective effects in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced retinal damage in vivo. Retinal damage was induced by intravitreal NMDA injection in rats. Each animal was given five daily intraperitoneal injections of Lutein or vehicle along with intravitreal NMDA injections. Electroretinograms were recorded. The number of viable RGCs was quantified using the retinal whole-mount method by immunofluorescence. Proteins were measured by Western blot assays. Lutein reduced the retinal damage and improved the response to light, as shown by an animal behavior assay (the black-and-white box method) in rats. Furthermore, Lutein treatment prevented the NMDA-induced reduction in phNR wave amplitude. Lutein increased RGC number after NMDA-induced retina damage. Most importantly, Bax, cytochrome c, p-p38 MAPK, and p-c-Jun were all upregulated in rats injected with NMDA, but these expression patterns were reversed by continuous Lutein uptake. Bcl-2, p-GSK-3β, and p-Akt in the Lutein-treated eyes were increased compared with the NMDA group. Lutein has neuroprotective effects against retinal damage, its protective effects may be partly mediated by its anti-excitability neurotoxicity, through MAPKs and PI3K/Akt signaling, suggesting a potential approach for suppressing retinal neural damage.

  7. Kinin-B2 Receptor Exerted Neuroprotection After Diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Rivera, Wilmarie; Pérez, Dinely; Park, Keon-Young; Carrasco, Marimée; Platt, Manu O.; Eterović, Vesna A.; Ferchmin, Pedro A.; Ulrich, Henning; Martins, Antonio H.

    2013-01-01

    The kinin-B2 receptor (B2BKR) activated by its endogenous ligand bradykinin participates in various metabolic processes including control of arterial pressure and inflammation. Recently, functions for this receptor in brain development and protection against glutamate-provoked excitotoxicity have been proposed. Here, we report neuroprotective properties for bradykinin against organophosphate poisoning using acute hippocampal slices as an in vitro model. Following slice perfusion for 10 min with diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) to initiate the noxious stimulus, responses of pyramidal neurons upon an electric impulse were reduced to less than 30 % of control amplitudes. Effects on synaptic-elicited population spikes were reverted when preparations had been exposed to bradykinin 30 min after challenging with DFP. Accordingly, bradykinin-induced population spike recovery was abolished by HOE-140, a B2BKR antagonist. However, the kinin-B1 receptor (B1BKR) agonist Lys-des-Arg9-bradykinin, inducing phosphorylation of MEK/MAPK and cell death, abolished bradykinin-mediated neuroprotection, an effect, which was reverted by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. In agreement with pivotal B1BKR functions in this process, antagonism of endogenous B1BKR activity alone was enough for restoring population spike activity. On the other hand pralidoxime, an oxime, reactivating AChE after organophosphate poisoning, induced population spike recovery after DFP exposure in the presence of bradykinin and Lys-des-Arg9-bradykinin. Lys-des-Arg9-bradykinin did not revert protection exerted by pralidoxime, however when instead bradykinin and Ly-des-Arg9-bradykinin were superfused together, recovery of population spikes diminished. These findings again confirm the neuroprotective feature of bradykinin, which is, diminished by its endogenous metabolites, stimulating the B1BKR, providing a novel understanding of physiological roles of these receptors. PMID:23735753

  8. Neuroprotective effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Hu, Jia; Shen, Jingyu; Gao, Yonglin; Lu, Yan; Wang, Tian

    2013-08-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting predominantly the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic system. Enormous progress has been made in the treatment of PD. Our previous study has shown that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could attenuate the neurotoxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice. In the present work, we examined whether HSYA had the neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra in a rat model of PD. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle. The PD rats were treated with HSYA (2 or 8 mg/kg) via caudal vein injection daily for 4 weeks. Rotational tests showed that HSYA significantly attenuated apomorphine-induced turns in 6-OHDA-induced PD rats. HSYA treatment resulted in a significant protection against the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells. Our data showed that HSYA also increased the levels of dopamine and its metabolites, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in striatum of PD rats. In conclusion, these results supported a role for HSYA in preserving dopamine neuron integrity and motor function in a rodent model of PD, and implied a potential neuroprotective role for HSYA in this disease.

  9. Neuroprotective effect of Feronia limonia on ischemia reperfusion induced brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rakhunde, Purushottam B.; Saher, Sana; Ali, Syed Ayaz

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Brain stroke is a leading cause of death without effective treatment. Feronia limonia have potent antioxidant activity and can be proved as neuroprotective against ischemia-reperfusion induced brain injury. Materials and Methods: We studied the effect of methanolic extract of F. limonia fruit (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) and Vitamin E as reference standard drug on 30 min induced ischemia, followed by reperfusion by testing the neurobehavioral tests such as neurodeficit score, rota rod test, hanging wire test, beam walk test and elevated plus maze. The biochemical parameters, which were measured in animals brain were catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde and nitric oxide in control and treated rats. Results: The methanolic extract of F. limonia fruit (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) treated groups showed a statistically significant improvement in the neurobehavioral parameters such as motor performance (neurological status, significant increase in grasping ability, forelimb strength improvement in balance and co-ordination). The biochemical parameters in the brains of rats showed a significant reduction in the total nitrite (P < 0.01) and lipid peroxidation (P < 0.01), also a significant enhanced activity of enzymatic antioxidants such as catalase (P < 0.01) and SOD (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These observations suggest the neuroprotective and antioxidant activity of F. limonia and Vitamin E on ischemia reperfusion induced brain injury and may require further evaluation. PMID:25538333

  10. Neuroprotective potential of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf methanolic extract against lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Ibrahim, Shaimaa R.; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental toxicants, exposure to which can cause significant neurotoxicity and an associated decline in brain function. This study investigated the possible neuroprotective role of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf methanolic extract (IOLME) against lead-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate, with or without IOLME (intragastric administration for 5 days), and the neuroprotective effect of IOLME was assessed by measuring the lead concentration, redox status (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and glutathione), enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase), PCR assays of apoptosis markers (Bax and Bcl-2) and histopathology of the brain. The increases in the lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and apoptosis, the decreases in the glutathione level and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the altered histology of the brain induced by lead acetate were mitigated in the brain of rats pre-treated with IOLME. These findings indicate that IOLME has beneficial effects and it mitigates lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. PMID:28123424

  11. The neuroprotective effect of lovastatin on MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity is not mediated by PON2.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Vidal, Yoshajandith; Montes, Sergio; Tristan-López, Luis; Anaya-Ramos, Laura; Teiber, John; Ríos, Camilo; Baron-Flores, Verónica; Monroy-Noyola, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of the pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta with subsequent striatal dopamine (DA) deficiency and increased lipid peroxidation. The etiology of the disease is still unclear and it is thought that PD may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. In the search of new pharmacological options, statins have been recognized for their potential application to treat PD, due to their antioxidant effect. The aim of this work is to contribute in the characterization of the neuroprotective effect of lovastatin in a model of PD induced by 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)). Male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were randomly allocated into 4 groups and administered for 7 days with different pharmacological treatments. Lovastatin administration (5 mg/kg) diminished 40% of the apomorphine-induced circling behavior, prevented the striatal DA depletion and lipid peroxides formation by MPP(+) intrastriatal injection, as compared to the group of animals treated only with MPP(+). Lovastatin produced no change in paraoxonase-2 (PON2) activity. It is evident that lovastatin conferred neuroprotection against MPP(+)-induced protection but this effect was not associated with the induction of PON2 in the rat striatum.

  12. Neuroprotective effects of madecassoside in early stage of Parkinson's disease induced by MPTP in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang-Liang; Qu, Rong; Zhang, Jin; Li, Lu-Fan; Ma, Shi-Ping

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of madecassoside, isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Centella asiatica, in the rat model of early phase of parkinsonism. During intragastric administrations of madecassoside for 7 days, the rats were injected with MPTP on the 7th day. And for the following 14 days, madecassoside were also administered. On the 14th day, the behavioral tests were assessed after 1h of administration. And then, the rats were sacrificed, substantia nigra and striatum were dissected. The content of DA, MDA, GSH, and Bcl-2/Bax gene expression levels and BDNF protein level was determined. Treatment with madecassoside was found to improve locomotor dysfunction and to protect dopaminergic neuron by antagonizing MPTP induced neurotoxicity. Madecassoside significantly attenuated the MPTP-induced reduction of dopamine in the striatum. The MDA contents were significantly decreased while the GSH levels, Bcl-2/Bax ratio and protein expression of BDNF were significantly increased in madecassoside treated groups. These results indicated that madecassoside was effective in recovering MPTP-induced early signs of parkinsonism via its neuroprotective effects including reversing the depletion of DA, antioxidant activity, increasing ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, increasing protein expression of BDNF.

  13. Non-Coding RNAs in Stroke and Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Saugstad, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    This review will focus on the current state of knowledge regarding non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) in stroke and neuroprotection. There will be a brief introduction to microRNAs (miRNA), long ncRNAs (lncRNA), and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNA), followed by evidence for the regulation of ncRNAs in ischemia. This review will also discuss the effect of neuroprotection induced by a sublethal duration of ischemia or other stimuli given before a stroke (preconditioning) on miRNA expression and the role of miRNAs in preconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Experimental manipulation of miRNAs and/or their targets to induce pre- or post-stroke protection will also be presented, as well as discussion on miRNA responses to current post-stroke therapies. This review will conclude with a brief discussion of future directions for ncRNAs studies in stroke, such as new approaches to model complex ncRNA datasets, challenges in ncRNA studies, and the impact of extracellular RNAs on human diseases such as stroke. PMID:25821444

  14. Neuroprotective effects of butterbur and rough aster against kainic Acid-induced oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Hee; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2005-01-01

    The separate and combined neuroprotective effects of rough aster (Aster scaber) and butterbur (Petasite japonicus) extracts against oxidative damage in the brain of mice challenged with kainic acid were examined by comparing behavioral changes and biochemical parameters of oxidative stress. Rough aster butanol extract (400 mg/kg) and/or butterbur butanol extract (150 or 400 mg/kg) were administered to male ICR mice, 6-8 weeks old, through a gavage for 4 days consecutively, and on day 4, kainic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. Compared with the vehicle-treated control, no significant changes in body and brain weight were observed in mice administered rough aster or butterbur butanol extract. Administration of kainic acid only, causing a lethality of approximately 54%, resulted in a significant decrease of total glutathione level and increase of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value in brain tissue. The administration of butterbur or rough aster extract (400 mg/kg) decreased the lethality (50%) of kainic acid to 25%, alleviated the behavioral signs of neurotoxicity, restored the cytosolic glutathione level of brain homogenate to approximately 80% (P < .05), and reduced kainic acid-induced increases in TBARS values. In contrast to no significant neuroprotection by butterbur extract at a low dose (150 mg/kg), the combination of rough aster extract and butterbur extract reduced the lethality to 12.5%. Moreover, the combination delayed the onset time of behavioral signs by twofold, and significantly preserved the level of cytosolic glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities. However, the other biochemical parameters were not altered significantly by the combination. Thus, the combination of two vegetable extracts significantly increased the neuroprotective action against kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Based on these findings, the combination of butterbur extract and rough aster extract contains a functional agent or

  15. Preconditioning Human Cardiac Stem Cells with an HO-1 Inducer Exerts Beneficial Effects After Cell Transplantation in the Infarcted Murine Heart.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chuanxi; Guo, Yiru; Teng, Lei; Nong, Yibing; Tan, Min; Book, Michael J; Zhu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Du, Junjie; Wu, Wen-Jian; Xie, Wei; Hong, Kyung U; Li, Qianhong; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    The regenerative potential of c-kit(+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) is severely limited by the poor survival of cells after transplantation in the infarcted heart. We have previously demonstrated that preconditioning human CSCs (hCSCs) with the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), has significant cytoprotective effects in vitro. Here, we examined whether preconditioning hCSCs with CoPP enhances CSC survival and improves cardiac function after transplantation in a model of myocardial infarction induced by a 45-minute coronary occlusion and 35-day reperfusion in immunodeficient mice. At 30 minutes of reperfusion, CoPP-preconditioned hCSCs(GFP+), hCSCs(GFP+), or medium were injected into the border zone. Quantitative analysis with real-time qPCR for the expression of the human-specific gene HLA revealed that the number of survived hCSCs was significantly greater in the preconditioned-hCSC group at 24 hours and 7 and 35 days compared with the hCSC group. Coimmunostaining of tissue sections for both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and human nuclear antigen further confirmed greater hCSC numbers at 35 days in the preconditioned-hCSC group. At 35 days, compared with the hCSC group, the preconditioned-hCSC group exhibited increased positive and negative left ventricular (LV) dP/dt, end-systolic elastance, and anterior wall/apical strain rate (although ejection fraction was similar), reduced LV remodeling, and increased proliferation of transplanted cells and of cells apparently committed to cardiac lineage. In conclusion, CoPP-preconditioning of hCSCs enhances their survival and/or proliferation, promotes greater proliferation of cells expressing cardiac markers, and results in greater improvement in LV remodeling and in indices of cardiac function after infarction.

  16. Estrogen Receptor (ER)-α36 Is Involved in Estrogen- and Tamoxifen-Induced Neuroprotective Effects in Ischemic Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chen; Ji, Xiaofei; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yang; Han, Chao; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Qiqi; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Yejun; Liu, Jinqiu

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotection by estrogen (E2) and tamoxifen is well documented in experimental stroke models; however, the exact mechanism is unclear. A membrane-based estrogen receptor, ER-α36, has been identified. Postmenopausal-levels of E2 act through ER-α36 to induce osteoclast apoptosis due to a prolonged activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling. We hypothesized that ER-α36 may play a role in the neuroprotective activities of estrogen and tamoxifen. Here, we studied ER-α36 expression in the brain, as well as its neuroprotective effects against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in PC12 cells. We found that ER-α36 was expressed in both rat and human brain. In addition, OGD-induced cell death was prevented by l nmol/L 17β-estradiol (E2β). E2β activates the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in PC12 cells under basal and OGD conditions by interacting with ER-α36 and also induces ER-α36 expression. Low-dose of tamoxifen up-regulated ER-α36 expression and enhanced neuronal survival in an ovariectomized ischemic stroke model. Furthermore, low-dose of tamoxifen enhanced neuroprotective effects by modulating activates or suppress ER-α36. Our results thus demonstrated that ER-α36 is involved in neuroprotective activities mediated by both estrogen and tamoxifen. PMID:26484775

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of the Triterpenoid, CDDO Methyl Amide, a Potent Inducer of Nrf2-Mediated Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lichuan; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Thomas, Bobby; Chaturvedi, Rajnish K.; Kiaei, Mahmoud; Wille, Elizabeth J.; Liby, Karen T.; Williams, Charlotte; Royce, Darlene; Risingsong, Renee; Musiek, Eric S.; Morrow, Jason D.; Sporn, Michael; Beal, M. Flint

    2009-01-01

    The NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway regulates phase 2 detoxification genes, including a variety of antioxidative enzymes. We tested neuroprotective effects of the synthetic triterpenoid CDDO-MA, a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE signaling. CDDO-MA treatment of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells resulted in Nrf2 upregulation and translocation from cytosol to nucleus and subsequent activation of ARE pathway genes. CDDO-MA blocked t-butylhydroperoxide-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activation of ARE genes only in wild type, but not Nrf2 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Oral administration of CDDO-MA resulted in significant protection against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration, pathological alpha-synuclein accumulation and oxidative damage in mice. Additionally, CDDO-MA treatment in rats produced significant rescue against striatal lesions caused by the neurotoxin 3-NP, and associated increases in the oxidative damage markers malondialdehyde, F2-Isoprostanes, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, 3-nitrotyrosine, and impaired glutathione homeostasis. Our results indicate that the CDDO-MA renders its neuroprotective effects through its potent activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, and suggest that triterpenoids may be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. PMID:19484125

  18. Low Doses of Camptothecin Induced Hormetic and Neuroprotective Effects in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Shenghui; Bao, Jiaolin; Zhang, Yulin; Huang, Borong; Jia, Xuejing; Chen, Meiwan; Wan, Jian-Bo; Su, Huanxing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Hormetic response is an adaptive mechanism for a cell or organism surviving in an unfavorable environment. It has been an intriguing subject of researches covering a broad range of biological and medical disciplines, in which the underlying significance and molecular mechanisms are under intensive investigation. In the present study, we demonstrated that topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT), a potent anticancer agent, induced an obvious hormetic response in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Camptothecin inhibited PC12 cell growth at relative high doses as generally acknowledged while stimulated the cell growth by as much as 39% at low doses. Moreover, low doses of CPT protected the cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathways were reported playing pivotal roles in protecting cells from oxidative stress. We observed that these 2 pathways were upregulated by low doses of CPT, as evidenced by increased levels of phosphorylated PI3K, phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, Nrf2, and HO-1; and abolishment of the growth-promoting and neuroprotective effects of CPT by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. These results suggest that the hormetic and neuroprotective effects of CPT at low doses on PC12 cells were attributable, at least partially, to upregulated PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. PMID:26674066

  19. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase involved in NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-Ping; Liu, Xin-Feng; Liu, Huai-Jun; Xu, Ge-Lin; Ma, Yu-Ping

    2008-03-28

    Compelling evidence has shown that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is widely expressed in many tissues, including the brain. In the present work, we investigated the temporospatial alterations of ERK1 immunoreactivity in hippocampus and perifocal cortex, and the expression involved in NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect. We demonstrated that ERK1 expression was first increased in hippocampal CA3/DG 1 h after reperfusion, then it was also increased 6 h after reperfusion in other brain regions, with a peak at day 1-3, and then gradually decreased to basal level at day 14. The expression of caspase-3 was strongly increased 1 h after reperfusion, with peak demonstrated at 3d. NGF/VEGF significantly inhibited the expression of ERK1 and caspase-3. These results suggest that ERK1 signaling pathway may be involved in neuronal cell death and NGF/VEGF-induced neuroprotective effect and there appeared an association between ERK and caspase-3. Inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway might therefore provide an efficient way to prevent neuronal cell death after ischemic cerebral injuries.

  20. Resveratrol preconditioning protects against cerebral ischemic injury via Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Srinivasan V.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Saul, Isa; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Nuclear erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an astrocyte-enriched transcription factor that has previously been shown to upregulate cellular antioxidant systems in response to ischemia. While resveratrol preconditioning (RPC) has emerged as a potential neuroprotective therapy, the involvement of Nrf2 in RPC-induced neuroprotection and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production following cerebral ischemia remains unclear. The goal of our study was to study the contribution of Nrf2 to RPC and its effects on mitochondrial function. Methods We used rodent astrocyte cultures and an in vivo stroke model with RPC. An Nrf2 DNA-binding ELISA and protein analysis via Western blotting of downstream Nrf2 targets were performed to determine RPC-induced activation of Nrf2 in rat and mouse astrocytes. Following RPC, mitochondrial function was determined by measuring ROS production and mitochondrial respiration in both wild-type (WT) and Nrf2−/− mice. Infarct volume was measured to determine neuroprotection, while protein levels were measured by immunoblotting. Results We report that Nrf2 is activated by RPC in rodent astrocyte cultures, and that loss of Nrf2 reduced RPC-mediated neuroprotection in a mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia. In addition, we observed that wild-type and Nrf2−/− cortical mitochondria exhibited increased uncoupling and ROS production following RPC treatments, Finally, Nrf2−/− astrocytes exhibited decreased mitochondrial antioxidant expression and were unable to upregulate cellular antioxidants following RPC treatment. Conclusion Nrf2 contributes to RPC-induced neuroprotection through maintaining mitochondrial coupling and antioxidant protein expression. PMID:25908459

  1. Neuroprotective Role of Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress Induced Depression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deep, Satayanarayan; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Khan, Nilofar

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic exposure results in several pathophysiological conditions associated with nervous system, these include acute and chronic mountain sickness, loss of memory, and high altitude cerebral edema. Previous reports have also suggested the role of hypoxia in pathogenesis of depression and related psychological conditions. On the other hand, sub lethal intermittent hypoxic exposure induces protection against future lethal hypoxia and may have beneficial effect. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) induced depression like behaviour in rats. The IHH refers to the periodic exposures to hypoxic conditions interrupted by the normoxic or lesser hypoxic conditions. The current study examines the effect of IHH against UCMS induced depression, using elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test (OFT), force swim test (FST), as behavioural paradigm and related histological and molecular approaches. The data indicated the UCMS induced depression like behaviour as evident from decreased exploration activity in OFT with increased anxiety levels in EPM, and increased immobility time in the FST; whereas on providing the IHH (5000m altitude, 4hrs/day for two weeks) these behavioural changes were ameliorated. The morphological and molecular studies also validated the neuroprotective effect of IHH against UCMS induced neuronal loss and decreased neurogenesis. Here, we also explored the role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in anticipatory action of IHH against detrimental effect of UCMS as upon blocking of BDNF-TrkB signalling the beneficial effect of IHH was nullified. Taken together, the findings of our study demonstrate that the intermittent hypoxia has a therapeutic potential similar to an antidepressant in animal model of depression and could be developed as a preventive therapeutic option against this pathophysiological state. PMID:26901349

  2. Preconditioning mesenchymal stem cells with the mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid enhances therapeutic efficacy in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Linares, Gabriel R; Chiu, Chi-Tso; Scheuing, Lisa; Leng, Yan; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Maric, Dragan; Chuang, De-Maw

    2016-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the huntingtin gene. Although, stem cell-based therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for neurodegenerative diseases, limitations remain, including optimizing delivery to the brain and donor cell loss after transplantation. One strategy to boost cell survival and efficacy is to precondition cells before transplantation. Because the neuroprotective actions of the mood stabilizers lithium and valproic acid (VPA) induce multiple pro-survival signaling pathways, we hypothesized that preconditioning bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with lithium and VPA prior to intranasal delivery to the brain would enhance their therapeutic efficacy, and thereby facilitate functional recovery in N171-82Q HD transgenic mice. MSCs were treated in the presence or absence of combined lithium and VPA, and were then delivered by brain-targeted single intranasal administration to eight-week old HD mice. Histological analysis confirmed the presence of MSCs in the brain. Open-field test revealed that ambulatory distance and mean velocity were significantly improved in HD mice that received preconditioned MSCs, compared to HD vehicle-control and HD mice transplanted with non-preconditioned MSCs. Greater benefits on motor function were observed in HD mice given preconditioned MSCs, while HD mice treated with non-preconditioned MSCs showed no functional benefits. Moreover, preconditioned MSCs reduced striatal neuronal loss and huntingtin aggregates in HD mice. Gene expression profiling of preconditioned MSCs revealed a robust increase in expression of genes involved in trophic effects, antioxidant, anti-apoptosis, cytokine/chemokine receptor, migration, mitochondrial energy metabolism, and stress response signaling pathways. Consistent with this finding, preconditioned MSCs demonstrated increased survival after transplantation into the brain compared to non-preconditioned cells

  3. Ex vivo and in vivo neuroprotection induced by argon when given after an excitotoxic or ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    David, Hélène N; Haelewyn, Benoît; Degoulet, Mickael; Colomb, Denis G; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Abraini, Jacques H

    2012-01-01

    In vitro studies have well established the neuroprotective action of the noble gas argon. However, only limited data from in vivo models are available, and particularly whether postexcitotoxic or postischemic argon can provide neuroprotection in vivo still remains to be demonstrated. Here, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of postexcitotoxic-postischemic argon both ex vivo in acute brain slices subjected to ischemia in the form of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), and in vivo in rats subjected to an intrastriatal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or to the occlusion of middle-cerebral artery (MCAO). We show that postexcitotoxic-postischemic argon reduces OGD-induced cell injury in brain slices, and further reduces NMDA-induced brain damage and MCAO-induced cortical brain damage in rats. Contrasting with its beneficial effect at the cortical level, we show that postischemic argon increases MCAO-induced subcortical brain damage and provides no improvement of neurologic outcome as compared to control animals. These results extend previous data on the neuroprotective action of argon. Particularly, taken together with previous in vivo data that have shown that intraischemic argon has neuroprotective action at both the cortical and subcortical level, our findings on postischemic argon suggest that this noble gas could be administered during but not after ischemia, i.e. before but not after reperfusion has occurred, in order to provide cortical neuroprotection and to avoid increasing subcortical brain damage. Also, the effects of argon are discussed as regards to the oxygen-like chemical, pharmacological, and physical properties of argon.

  4. Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine against hyperoxia-induced injury in the developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Endesfelder, Stefanie; Makki, Hanan; von Haefen, Clarissa; Spies, Claudia D.; Bührer, Christoph; Sifringer, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is a highly selective agonist of α2-receptors with sedative, anxiolytic, and analgesic properties. Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine have been reported in various brain injury models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on hippocampal neurogenesis, specifically the proliferation capacity and maturation of neurons and neuronal plasticity following the induction of hyperoxia in neonatal rats. Six-day old sex-matched Wistar rats were exposed to 80% oxygen or room air for 24 h and treated with 1, 5 or 10 μg/kg of dexmedetomidine or normal saline. A single pretreatment with DEX attenuated the hyperoxia-induced injury in terms of neurogenesis and plasticity. In detail, both the proliferation capacity (PCNA+ cells) as well as the expression of neuronal markers (Nestin+, PSA-NCAM+, NeuN+ cells) and transcription factors (SOX2, Tbr1/2, Prox1) were significantly reduced under hyperoxia compared to control. Furthermore, regulators of neuronal plasticity (Nrp1, Nrg1, Syp, and Sema3a/f) were also drastically decreased. A single administration of dexmedetomidine prior to oxygen exposure resulted in a significant up-regulation of expression-profiles compared to hyperoxia. Our results suggest that dexmedetomidine may have neuroprotective effects in an acute hyperoxic model of the neonatal rat. PMID:28158247

  5. Acute hydrogen sulfide-induced neuropathology and neurological sequelae: challenges for translational neuroprotective research.

    PubMed

    Rumbeiha, Wilson; Whitley, Elizabeth; Anantharam, Poojya; Kim, Dong-Suk; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), the gas with the odor of rotten eggs, was formally discovered in 1777, over 239 years ago. For many years, it was considered an environmental pollutant and a health concern only in occupational settings. Recently, however, it was discovered that H2 S is produced endogenously and plays critical physiological roles as a gasotransmitter. Although at low physiological concentrations it is physiologically beneficial, exposure to high concentrations of H2 S is known to cause brain damage, leading to neurodegeneration and long-term neurological sequelae or death. Neurological sequelae include motor, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, which are incapacitating. Currently, there are concerns about accidental or malicious acute mass civilian exposure to H2 S. There is a major unmet need for an ideal neuroprotective treatment, for use in the field, in the event of mass civilian exposure to high H2 S concentrations. This review focuses on the neuropathology of high acute H2 S exposure, knowledge gaps, and the challenges associated with development of effective neuroprotective therapy to counteract H2 S-induced neurodegeneration.

  6. Acute hydrogen sulfide–induced neuropathology and neurological sequelae: challenges for translational neuroprotective research

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elizabeth; Anantharam, Poojya; Kim, Dong‐Suk; Kanthasamy, Arthi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the gas with the odor of rotten eggs, was formally discovered in 1777, over 239 years ago. For many years, it was considered an environmental pollutant and a health concern only in occupational settings. Recently, however, it was discovered that H2S is produced endogenously and plays critical physiological roles as a gasotransmitter. Although at low physiological concentrations it is physiologically beneficial, exposure to high concentrations of H2S is known to cause brain damage, leading to neurodegeneration and long‐term neurological sequelae or death. Neurological sequelae include motor, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, which are incapacitating. Currently, there are concerns about accidental or malicious acute mass civilian exposure to H2S. There is a major unmet need for an ideal neuroprotective treatment, for use in the field, in the event of mass civilian exposure to high H2S concentrations. This review focuses on the neuropathology of high acute H2S exposure, knowledge gaps, and the challenges associated with development of effective neuroprotective therapy to counteract H2S‐induced neurodegeneration. PMID:27442775

  7. Minoxidil is a potential neuroprotective drug for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Chen, Li-Hsien; Yeh, Yu-Min; Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Yih-Fung; Chang, Lian-Yun; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2017-03-28

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of cancer treatment. No medication has been shown to be effective in the treatment of CIPN. This study aims to integrate the image-based high-content screening, mouse behavior models and mechanistic cell-based assays to discover potential neuroprotective drugs. Among screened compounds, minoxidil showed the most potent neuroprotective effect against paclitaxel, with regard to neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Minoxidil protected mice from thermal insensitivity and alleviated mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-treated mice. The ultrastructure and quantified G-ratio of myelin integrity of sciatic nerve tissues supported the observations in mouse behavioral tests. The mechanistic study on DRG neurons suggested that minoxidil suppressed neuroinflammation and remodeled the dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis provoked by paclitaxel. Importantly, minoxidil showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect with paclitaxel both in tumor xenograft models of cervical and breast cancer. Interestingly, the quantitative assays on hair length and hair growth both exhibited that minoxidil significantly improved the hair quality after chemotherapy. Since minoxidil is a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the safety and biocompatibility are well documented. The immediate next step is to launch an early-stage clinical trial intending to prevent CIPN by minoxidil.

  8. The tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate mimics NGF-induced neuroprotective signaling in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Norbert; Culmsee, Carsten; Klumpp, Susanne; Krieglstein, Josef

    2004-06-01

    Activation of the high affinity neurotrophin receptor tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) by nerve growth factor (NGF) leads to phosphorylation of intracellular tyrosine residues of the receptor with subsequent activation of signaling pathways involved in neuronal survival such as the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3-K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. In the present study, we tested whether inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) by orthovanadate could enhance tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkA thereby stimulating NGF-like survival signaling in embryonic hippocampal neurons. We found that the PTP inhibitor orthovanadate (1 microM) enhanced TrkA phosphorylation and protected neurons against staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in a time-and concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of PTP enhanced TrkA phosphorylation also in the presence of NGF antibodies indicating that NGF binding to TrkA was not required for the effects of orthovanadate. Moreover, orthovanadate enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and the MAPK Erk1/2 suggesting that the signaling pathways involved in the protective effect were similar to those activated by NGF. Accordingly, inhibition of PI3-K by wortmannin and MAPK-kinase (MEK) inhibition by UO126 abolished the neuroprotective effects. In conclusion, the results indicate that orthovanadate mimics the effect of NGF on survival signaling pathways in hippocampal neurons. Thus, PTP inhibition appears to be an appropriate strategy to trigger neuroprotective signaling pathways downstream of neurotrophin receptors.

  9. Minoxidil is a potential neuroprotective drug for paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Chen, Li-Hsien; Yeh, Yu-Min; Wu, Pei-Ying; Chen, Yih-Fung; Chang, Lian-Yun; Chang, Jang-Yang; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common side effect of cancer treatment. No medication has been shown to be effective in the treatment of CIPN. This study aims to integrate the image-based high-content screening, mouse behavior models and mechanistic cell-based assays to discover potential neuroprotective drugs. Among screened compounds, minoxidil showed the most potent neuroprotective effect against paclitaxel, with regard to neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Minoxidil protected mice from thermal insensitivity and alleviated mechanical allodynia in paclitaxel-treated mice. The ultrastructure and quantified G-ratio of myelin integrity of sciatic nerve tissues supported the observations in mouse behavioral tests. The mechanistic study on DRG neurons suggested that minoxidil suppressed neuroinflammation and remodeled the dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis provoked by paclitaxel. Importantly, minoxidil showed a synergistic anti-tumor effect with paclitaxel both in tumor xenograft models of cervical and breast cancer. Interestingly, the quantitative assays on hair length and hair growth both exhibited that minoxidil significantly improved the hair quality after chemotherapy. Since minoxidil is a drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the safety and biocompatibility are well documented. The immediate next step is to launch an early-stage clinical trial intending to prevent CIPN by minoxidil. PMID:28349969

  10. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3–only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI. PMID:25419789

  11. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A

    2015-09-01

    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.

  12. HSP70.1 AND -70.3 ARE REQUIRED FOR LATE-PHASE PROTECTION INDUCED BY ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING OF MOUSE HEARTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heat-Shock Proteins 70.1 and 70.3 Are Required for Late-phase Protection
    Induced by Ischemic Preconditioning of the Mouse Heart
    Craig R. Hampton 1 , Akira Shimamoto 1 , Christine L. Rothnie 1 , Jeaneatte Griscavage-Ennis 1 ,
    Albert Chong 1 , David J. Dix 2 , Edward D. Ve...

  13. Ischemic preconditioning inhibits development of edematous cerulein-induced pancreatitis: Involvement of cyclooxygenases and heat shock protein 70

    PubMed Central

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Dembinski, Artur; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Dembinski, Marcin; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Tomaszewska, Romana; Stachura, Jerzy; Kusnierz-Cabala, Beata; Naskalski, Jerzy W; Konturek, Peter C

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether ischemic preconditioning (IP) affects the development of edematous cerulein-induced pancreatitis and to assess the role of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), COX-2, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) in this process. METHODS: In male Wistar rats, IP was performed by clamping of celiac artery (twice for 5 min at 5-min intervals). Thirty minutes after IP or sham operation, acute pancreatitis was induced by cerulein. Activity of COX-1 or COX-2 was inhibited by resveratrol or rofecoxib, respectively (10 mg/kg). RESULTS: IP significantly reduced pancreatic damage in cerulein-induced pancreatitis as demonstrated by the improvement of pancreas histology, reduction in serum lipase and poly-C ribonuclease activity, and serum concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β. Also, IP attenuated the pancreatitis-evoked fall in pancreatic blood flow and pancreatic DNA synthesis. Serum level of anti-inflammatory IL-10 was not affected by IP. Cerulein-induced pancreatitis and IP increased the content of HSP 70 in the pancreas. Maximal increase in HSP 70 was observed when IP was combined with cerulein-induced pancreatitis. Inhibition of COXs, especially COX-2, reduced the protective effect of IP in edematous pancreatitis. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that IP reduces pancreatic damage in cerulein-induced pancreatitis and this effect, at least in part, depends on the activity of COXs and pancreatic production of HSP 70. PMID:16273606

  14. [Radiation preconditioning of mouse retina results in tolerance to MNU-induced degeneration and stimulates retinal recovery].

    PubMed

    Tronov, V A; Vinogradova, Yu V; Poplinskaya, V A; Nekrasova, E I; Ostrovsky, M A

    2015-01-01

    Emerging body of data indicate protecting effect of low level of stress (preconditioning) on retina. Our previous studies have revealed a non-linear dose-response relationship for cytotoxic effect of both ionizing radiation and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) on mouse retina. Moreover, non-cytotoxic dose of MNU increased tolerance of retina to following challenge dose of MNU. This result displays protection of retina through mechanism of recovery. In the present study we used the mouse model for MNU-induced retinal degeneration to evaluate the adaptive response of the retina to proton irradiation and implication of glial Muller cells in this response. In this paper, we have shown that the recovery of the retina after exposure to genotoxic agents is associated with an increased efficiency of DNA damage repair and lowered death of retinal photoreceptors.

  15. Cardiac-specific overexpression of caveolin-3 induces endogenous cardiac protection by mimicking ischemic preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Yasuo M.; Horikawa, Yousuke T.; Jennings, Michelle M.; Kidd, Michael W.; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Yokoyama, Utako; Head, Brian P.; Hagiwara, Yasuko; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Patel, Piyush M.; Insel, Paul A.; Patel, Hemal H.; Roth, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Caveolae, lipid-rich microdomains of the sarcolemma, localize and enrich cardiac protective signaling molecules. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), the dominant isoform in cardiac myocytes, is a determinant of caveolae formation. We hypothesized that cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of Cav-3 would enhance the formation of caveolae and augment cardiac protection in vivo. Methods and Results Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in vivo increased formation of caveolae. Adenovirus for Cav-3 increased caveolar formation and phosphorylation of survival kinases in cardiac myocytes. A transgenic (TG) mouse with cardiac myocyte-specific overexpression of Cav-3 (Cav-3 OE) showed enhanced formation of caveolae on the sarcolemma. Cav-3 OE mice subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury had a significantly reduced infarct size relative to TGneg mice. Endogenous cardiac protection in Cav-3 OE mice was similar to wild-type mice undergoing IPC; no increased protection was observed in preconditioned Cav-3 OE mice. Cav-3 knockout mice did not show endogenous protection and showed no protection in response to IPC. Cav-3 OE mouse hearts had increased basal Akt and GSK3β phosphorylation comparable to wild-type mice exposed to IPC. Wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, attenuated basal phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β and blocked cardiac protection in Cav-3 OE mice. Cav-3 OE mice had improved functional recovery and reduced apoptosis at 24 h of reperfusion. Conclusion Expression of caveolin-3 is both necessary and sufficient for cardiac protection, a conclusion that unites long-standing ultrastructural and molecular observations in the ischemic heart. The current results indicate that increased expression of caveolins, apparently via actions that depend on PI3K, has the potential to protect hearts exposed to ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:18936328

  16. Neuroprotective effect of osmotin against ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Naseer, M I; Ullah, I; Narasimhan, M L; Lee, H Y; Bressan, R A; Yoon, G H; Yun, D J; Kim, M O

    2014-03-27

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a neurological and developmental disorder caused by exposure of developing brain to ethanol. Administration of osmotin to rat pups reduced ethanol-induced apoptosis in cortical and hippocampal neurons. Osmotin, a plant protein, mitigated the ethanol-induced increases in cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP-1. Osmotin and ethanol reduced ethanol neurotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro by reducing the protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, intracellular [Ca(2+)]cyt, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential collapse, and also upregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein. Osmotin is a homolog of adiponectin, and it controls energy metabolism via phosphorylation. Adiponectin can protect hippocampal neurons against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Abrogation of signaling via receptors AdipoR1 or AdipoR2, by transfection with siRNAs, reduced the ability of osmotin and adiponectin to protect neurons against ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. Metformin, an activator of AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase), increased whereas Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPK pathway, reduced the ability of osmotin and adiponectin to protect against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Osmotin exerted its neuroprotection via Bcl-2 family proteins and activation of AMPK signaling pathway. Modulation of AMPK pathways by osmotin, adiponectin, and metformin hold promise as a preventive therapy for fetal alcohol syndrome.

  17. Preconditioning with low concentration NO attenuates subsequent NO-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells via HO-1-dependent mitochondrial death pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Seahyoung; Lim, Hyun-Joung; Go, Sang-Hee; Eom, Sang-Mi; Park, Hyun-Young . E-mail: hypark65@nih.go.kr

    2006-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways are important in both the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and disease progression. Overproduction of NO has been associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Growing evidences suggest that NO preconditioning has cytoprotective effects against I/R injury. However, the mechanism with which NO mediates these effects remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of how NO preconditioning inhibits subsequent NO-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), specifically focusing on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). According to our data, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased HO-1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. Preconditioning with low concentration SNP (0.3 mM) inhibited subsequent high concentration SNP (1.5 mM)-induced apoptosis, and this effect was reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP. Low concentration SNP-mediated protection involved p38 kinase inactivation and increased Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was concomitantly increased with decreased expressions of Bax, Apaf-1, and activity of caspase-3, which was reversed by SnPP treatment. Our results show that low concentration SNP preconditioning suppresses subsequent high concentration SNP-induced apoptosis by inhibiting p38 kinase and mitochondrial death pathway via HO-1-dependent mechanisms in VSMC.

  18. Prophylactic neuroprotection by blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of light-induced retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, François; Waterhouse, Jenna; Nason, Janette; Kalt, Wilhelmina

    2013-04-01

    The role of anthocyanins is controversial in vision health. This study investigates the impact of a blueberry-enriched diet as neuroprotectant in a rat model of light-induced retinopathy. Thirty-eight albino Wistar rats and 25 pigmented Brown-Norway rats were fed by gavage with long (7 weeks) and short (2 weeks) intervention with fortified blueberry juice (1 ml; 2.8 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents) or with a placebo solution (7 weeks) that contained the abundant nonanthocyanin blueberry phenolic, namely, chlorogenic acid, before being submitted to 2 hours of intense light regimen (1.8×10(4) lux). Retinal health was measured by fitting electroretinogram responses with the Naka-Rushton equation. The light-induced retinal damage was severe in the placebo groups, with the maximum amplitude of the electroretinogram being significantly reduced in both Wistar and Brown-Norway rats. The maximum amplitude of the electroretinogram was significantly protected from the light insult in the Wistar rats supplemented with blueberry juice for 7 or 2 weeks, and there was no significant difference between these two groups. The same dietary intervention in the Brown-Norway groups failed to protect the retina. Histological examination of retinal section confirmed the electroretinography results, showing protection of the outer nuclear layer of the retina in the Wistar rats fed with blueberries, while all placebo-fed rats and blueberry-fed Brown-Norway rats showed evidence of retinal damage concentrated in the superior hemiretina. The neuroprotective potential of anthocyanins in this particular model is discussed in terms of interaction with rhodopsin/phototransduction and in terms of antioxidative capacity.

  19. Neuroprotective effects of three different sizes nanochelating based nano complexes in MPP(+) induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Amirhossein; Fakharzadeh, Saideh; Hafizi, Maryam; Abbasi, Maryam; Kohram, Fatemeh; Sardab, Shima; Tahzibi, Abbas; Kalanaky, Somayeh; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the world's second most common dementia, which the drugs available for its treatment have not had effects beyond slowing the disease process. Recently nanotechnology has induced the chance for designing and manufacturing new medicines for neurodegenerative disease. It is demonstrated that by tuning the size of a nanoparticle, the physiological effect of the nanoparticle can be controlled. Using novel nanochelating technology, three nano complexes: Pas (150 nm), Paf (100 nm) and Pac (40 nm) were designed and in the present study their neuroprotective effects were evaluated in PC12 cells treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridine ion (MPP (+)). PC12 cells were pre-treated with the Pas, Paf or Pac nano complexes, then they were subjected to 10 μM MPP (+). Subsequently, cell viability, intracellular free Calcium and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, mitochondrial membrane potential, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and Caspase 3 expression were evaluated. All three nano complexes, especially Pac, were able to increase cell viability, SOD and CAT activity, decreased Caspase 3 expression and prevented the generation of ROS and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential caused by MPP(+). Pre-treatment with Pac and Paf nano complexes lead to a decrease of intracellular free Calcium, but Pas nano complex could not decrease it. Only Pac nano complex decreased MDA levels and other nano complexes could not change this parameter compared to MPP(+) treated cells. Hence according to the results, all nanochelating based nano complexes induced neuroprotective effects in an experimental model of PD, but the smallest nano complex, Pac, showed the best results.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of bee venom acupuncture therapy against rotenone-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Wagdy K B; Assaf, Naglaa; ElShebiney, Shaimaa A; Salem, Neveen A

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder, is characterized by dopaminergic neurodegeneration, mitochondrial impairment, and oxidative stress. Exposure of animals to rotenone induces a range of responses characteristic of PD, including reactive oxygen species production and dopaminergic cell death. Although l-dopa is the drug of choice for improving core symptoms of PD, it is associated with involuntary movements. The current study was directed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of bee venom acupuncture therapy (BVA) against rotenone-induced oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis in PD mouse model. Forty male Swiss mice were divided into four groups: (1) received saline solution orally and served as normal control, (2) received rotenone (1.5 mg/kg, s.c. every other day for 6 doses), (3) received rotenone concomitantly with l-dopa (25 mg/kg, daily, p.o. for 6 days), and finally (4) received rotenone concomitantly with BVA (0.02 ml once every 3 days for two weeks). Rotenone-treated mice showed impairment in locomotor behavior and a significant reduction in brain dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GSH levels, and paraoxonase activity, whereas a significant increase was observed in brain malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-β levels besides DNA damage, and over-expression of caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 genes. Significant improvement of the aforementioned parameters was demonstrated after BVA compared to l-dopa therapy. In conclusion, bee venom normalized all the neuroinflammatory and apoptotic markers and restored brain neurochemistry after rotenone injury. Therefore, BVA is a promising neuroprotective therapy for PD.

  1. From Chemotherapy-Induced Emesis to Neuroprotection: Therapeutic Opportunities for 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Mehr, Sharam Ejtemaei; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-12-01

    5-HT3 receptor antagonists are extensively used as efficacious agents in counteracting chemotherapy-induced emesis. Recent investigations have shed light on other potential effects (analgesic, anxiolytic, and anti-psychotic). Some studies have reported neuroprotective properties for the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists in vitro and in vivo. When administered to Aβ-challenged rat cortical neurons, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists substantially abated apoptosis, elevation of cytosolic Ca(2), glutamate release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caspase-3 activity. In addition, in vivo studies show that 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess, alongside their anti-emetic effects, notable immunomodulatory properties in CNS. We found that pretreatment with tropisetron significantly improved neurological deficits and diminished leukocyte transmigration into the brain, TNF-α level, and brain infarction in a murine model of embolic stroke. Our recent investigation revealed that tropisetron protects against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in vivo through both 5-HT3 receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. Tropisetron, in vitro, was found to be an efficacious inhibitor of the signaling pathway leading to the activation of pro-inflammatory NF-κB, a transcription factor pivotal to the upregulation of several neuroinflammatory mediators in brain. This mini review summarizes novel evidence concerning effects of 5-HT3 antagonists and their possible mechanisms of action in ameliorating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Further, we discuss some newly synthesized 5-HT3 receptor antagonists with dual properties of 5-HT3 receptor blockade/alpha-7 nicotinic receptor activator and their potential in management of memory impairment. Since 5-HT3 receptor antagonists possess a large therapeutic window, they can constitute a scaffold for design and synthesis of new neuroprotective medications.

  2. Neuregulin-1 is neuroprotective in a rat model of organophosphate-induced delayed neuronal injury

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yonggang; Lein, Pamela J.; Liu, Cuimei; Bruun, Donald A.; Giulivi, Cecilia; Ford, Gregory D.; Tewolde, Teclemichael; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Ford, Byron D.

    2012-07-15

    Current medical countermeasures against organophosphate (OP) nerve agents are effective in reducing mortality, but do not sufficiently protect the CNS from delayed brain damage and persistent neurological symptoms. In this study, we examined the efficacy of neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) in protecting against delayed neuronal cell death following acute intoxication with the OP diisopropylflurophosphate (DFP). Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1 mg/kg BW, i.m.) and atropine methylnitrate (20 mg/kg BW, i.m.) prior to DFP (9 mg/kg BW, i.p.) intoxication to increase survival and reduce peripheral signs of cholinergic toxicity but not prevent DFP-induced seizures or delayed neuronal injury. Pretreatment with NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. However, neuronal injury was significantly reduced in most brain regions by pretreatment with NRG-1 isoforms NRG-EGF (3.2 μg/kg BW, i.a) or NRG-GGF2 (48 μg/kg BW, i.a.) as determined by FluroJade-B labeling in multiple brain regions at 24 h post-DFP injection. NRG-1 also blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress-mediated protein damage in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection similarly provided significant neuroprotection against delayed neuronal injury. These findings identify NRG-1 as a promising adjuvant therapy to current medical countermeasures for enhancing neuroprotection against acute OP intoxication. -- Highlights: ► NRG-1 blocked DFP induced neuronal injury. ► NRG-1 did not protect against seizures in rats exposed to DFP. ► NRG-1 blocked apoptosis and oxidative stress in the brains of DFP-intoxicated rats. ► Administration of NRG-1 at 1 h after DFP injection prevented delayed neuronal injury.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of ebselen against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Unsal, Cuneyt; Oran, Mustafa; Albayrak, Yakup; Aktas, Cevat; Erboga, Mustafa; Topcu, Birol; Uygur, Ramazan; Tulubas, Feti; Yanartas, Omer; Ates, Ozkan; Ozen, Oguz Aslan

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of ebselen against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis in rat brain. A total of 30 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 animals each: control, ICV-STZ, and ICV-STZ treated with ebselen. The ICV-STZ group rats were injected bilaterally with ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg) on days 1 and 3, and ebselen (10 mg/kg/day) was administered for 14 days starting from 1st day of ICV-STZ injection to day 14. Rats were killed at the end of the study and brain tissues were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigation. Our results demonstrated, for the first time, the neuroprotective effect of ebselen on Alzheimer's disease (AD) model in rats. Our present study, in ICV-STZ group, showed significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde levels and significant decrease in enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in the frontal cortex tissue. The histopathological studies in the brain of rats also supported that ebselen markedly reduced the ICV-STZ-induced histopathological changes and well preserved the normal histological architecture of the frontal cortex tissue. The number of apoptotic neurons was increased in frontal cortex tissue after ICV-STZ administration. Treatment of ebselen markedly reduced the number of degenerating apoptotic neurons. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ebselen, as a powerful antioxidant, in preventing the oxidative damage and morphological changes caused by ICV-STZ in rats. Thus, ebselen may have a therapeutic value for the treatment of AD.

  4. Identification of miRNAs Involved in the Protective Effect of Sevoflurane Preconditioning Against Hypoxic Injury in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingying; Li, Yuanhai; Liu, Lei; Wang, Yiqiao; Xia, Yingjing; Zhang, Lingli; Ji, Xuewu

    2015-11-01

    The mechanism of sevoflurane preconditioning-induced neuroprotection is poorly understood. This study was aimed at identifying microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the protective effect of sevoflurane preconditioning against hypoxic injury using the miRCURYTM LNA Array. The screened differentially expressed miRNAs were further validated using qRT-PCR. Finally, after transfection of miRNA (miR-101a or miR-34b) mimics or inhibitor, MTT and flow cytometry assays were used to evaluate cell survival and apoptosis in sevoflurane preconditioning. qRT-PCR confirmed the changes in expression of differentially expressed miRNAs that were screened by the microarray: down-regulation of rno-miR-101a, rno-miR-106b, and rno-miR-294 and up-regulation of rno-miR-883, rno-miR-16, and rno-miR-34b. MiR-101a and miR-34b were the most differentially expressed miRNAs. Sevoflurane preconditioning-inhibited apoptosis and preconditioning-enhanced cell viability of PC12 cells were significantly attenuated by transfection of miR-101a mimetic or miR-34b inhibitors, but were significantly enhanced by transfection of miR-34b mimetic. Therefore, a number of miRNAs, including miR-101a and miR-34b, might play important roles in the neuroprotection induced by sevoflurane preconditioning. Such miRNAs might provide novel targets for preventive and therapeutic strategies against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  5. Neuroprotective Effects of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase on Scopolamine Induced Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jun-Ho; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Song, Joo-Hyun; Ha, Joohun

    2013-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an important regulator of energy metabolism, is activated in response to cellular stress when intracellular levels of AMP increase. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of AMPK against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in vivo and glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. An adenovirus expressing AMPK wild type alpha subunit (WT) or a dominant negative form (DN) was injected into the hippocampus of rats using a stereotaxic apparatus. The AMPK WT-injected rats showed significant reversal of the scopolamine induced cognitive deficit as evaluated by escape latency in the Morris water maze. In addition, they showed enhanced acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-reactive neurons in the hippocampus, implying increased cholinergic activity in response to AMPK. We also studied the cellular mechanism by which AMPK protects against glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. We further demonstrated that AMPK WT-infected cells increased cell viability and reduced Annexin V positive hippocampal neurons. Western blot analysis indicated that AMPK WT-infected cells reduced the expression of Bax and had no effects on Bcl-2, which resulted in a decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These data suggest that AMPK is a useful cognitive impairment treatment target, and that its beneficial effects are mediated via the protective capacity of hippocampal neurons. PMID:23946693

  6. Neuroprotection of resveratrol against neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine in mouse mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dong; Yue, Qingwei; Guo, Weihua; Li, Tao; Zhang, Jing; Li, Guibao; Liu, Zengxun; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is originally extracted from huzhang, a Chinese herbal medicine. Recently, resveratrol has attracted a great of attention due to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties. Although the neuroprotection of resveratrol on neural damages in various models has been well characterized, little is known about the role of resveratrol in methamphetamine (MA) induced neurotoxicity in mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Dopaminergic neurons were isolated from midbrain of mouse embryos at embryonic day 15 and cultured in the presence of MA and resveratrol. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay and the apoptosis was assessed using Hoechst33342/PI double staining. To evaluate the Oxidative damage, ROS assay was performed. Moreover, the changes of time course of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i) were analyzed with Fluo-3/AM tracing. The data showed that MA induced the neurotoxicity of cultured cells in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol significantly increased cellular viability and retarded cell apoptosis. Furthermore, resveratrol also attenuated MA induced ROS production and intracellular free calcium overload. Our results suggest that resveratrol protects dopaminergic neurons from MA-induced neuronal cytotoxicity, which, at least partly, is mediated by inhibition of [Ca(2+) ]i and oxidative stress. © 2015 BioFactors 41(4):252-260, 2015.

  7. Preconditioning with Triiodothyronine Improves the Clinical Signs and Acute Tubular Necrosis Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferreyra, Carla; Vargas, Félix; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Pérez-Abud, Rocío; O'Valle, Francisco; Osuna, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is manifested by acute renal failure (ARF) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of preconditioning with 3, 3, 5 triiodothyronine (T3) to prevent I/R renal injury. Methodology/Principal Findings The rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, placebo-treated (SO-P), sham-operated T3- treated (SO- T3), I/R-injured placebo-treated (IR-P), and I/R-injured T3-treated (IR- T3) groups. At 24 h before ischemia, the animals received a single dose of T3 (100 μg/kg). Renal function and plasma, urinary, and tissue variables were studied at 4, 24, and 48 h of reperfusion, including biochemical, oxidative stress, and inflammation variables, PARP-1 immunohistochemical expression, and ATN morphology. In comparison to the SO groups, the IR-P groups had higher plasma urea and creatinine levels and greater proteinuria (at all reperfusion times) and also showed: increased oxidative stress-related plasma, urinary, and tissue variables; higher plasma levels of IL6 (proinflammatory cytokine); increased glomerular and tubular nuclear PARP-1 expression; and a greater degree of ATN. The IR-T3 group showed a marked reduction in all of these variables, especially at 48 h of reperfusion. No significant differences were observed between SO-P and SO-T3 groups. Conclusions This study demonstrates that preconditioning rats with a single dose of T3 improves the clinical signs and ATN of renal I/R injury. These beneficial effects are accompanied by reductions in oxidative stress, inflammation, and renal PARP-1 expression, indicating that this sequence of factors plays an important role in the ATN induced by I/R injury. PMID:24086411

  8. Neuroprotective effect of Celastrus paniculatus on chronic stress-induced cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bhagya, V.; Christofer, Thomas; Shankaranarayana Rao, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several studies report that chronic stress results in impaired spatial learning and working memory and enhanced anxiety-like behavior. However, not many studies have looked into the possible ways of reversing stress-induced deficits. Celastrus paniculatus (CP), a traditional ayurvedic herbal medicine, was used to treat cognitive deficits in mentally retarded children. CP oil has been reported to have neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. However, the effects of CP oil on chronic stress-induced cognitive deficits are unclear. In the present study, we intended to analyze the neuroprotective effects of CP oil on stress-associated cognitive dysfunctions. Materials and Methods: Chronic stress was induced by subjecting rats to restrainers for 6 h a day for 21 days. CP oil (400, 600 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) after stress protocol once a day over the next 14 days. Groups used in the present study: normal control, stress, stress + vehicle, stress + CP oil at 2 different doses (400 and 600 mg/kg, i.p.). After the drug treatment, open field and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used to analyze anxiety-like behavior, and partially baited radial arm maze (RAM) and T-maze were used to evaluate spatial learning and memory capabilities. Analysis has been done using two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test and one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Stressed rats showed enhanced anxiety-like behavior in EPM (P < 0.001) and impaired performance in RAM (P < 0.001) and T-maze tasks (P < 0.001) compared to normal animals. In contrast, CP oil treatment to these rats improved their performance in both RAM (P < 0.001) and T-maze (P < 0.001). In addition, CP oil significantly reduced stress-induced anxiety behavior (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Chronic treatment with CP oil is to improve cognitive abilities in chronically stressed rats. The current study provides a novel perspective on beneficial effect of herbal

  9. Protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by allopurinol is dependent on aldehyde oxidase-mediated liver preconditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-02-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe and occasionally fatal liver injury. Numerous drugs that attenuate APAP toxicity have been described. However these compounds frequently protect by cytochrome P450 inhibition, thereby preventing the initiating step of toxicity. We have previously shown that pretreatment with allopurinol can effectively protect against APAP toxicity, but the mechanism remains unclear. In the current study, C3HeB/FeJ mice were administered allopurinol 18 h or 1 h prior to an APAP overdose. Administration of allopurinol 18 h prior to APAP overdose resulted in an 88% reduction in liver injury (serum ALT) 6 h after APAP; however, 1 h pretreatment offered no protection. APAP-cysteine adducts and glutathione depletion kinetics were similar with or without allopurinol pretreatment. The phosphorylation and mitochondrial translocation of c-jun-N-terminal-kinase (JNK) have been implicated in the progression of APAP toxicity. In our study we showed equivalent early JNK activation (2 h) however late JNK activation (6 h) was attenuated in allopurinol treated mice, which suggests that later JNK activation is more critical for the toxicity. Additional mice were administered oxypurinol (primary metabolite of allopurinol) 18 h or 1 h pre-APAP, but neither treatment protected. This finding implicated an aldehyde oxidase (AO)-mediated metabolism of allopurinol, so mice were treated with hydralazine to inhibit AO prior to allopurinol/APAP administration, which eliminated the protective effects of allopurinol. We evaluated potential targets of AO-mediated preconditioning and found increased hepatic metallothionein 18 h post-allopurinol. These data show metabolism of allopurinol occurring independent of P450 isoenzymes preconditions the liver and renders the animal less susceptible to an APAP overdose. - Highlights: • 18 h allopurinol pretreatment protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • 1 h allopurinol pretreatment does not protect from APAP-induced

  10. Unraveling the mechanism of neuroprotection of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic dysfunctions in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Pranay; Yadav, Rajesh S.; Chandravanshi, Lalit P.; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Dhuriya, Yogesh K.; Chauhan, Lalit K.S.; Dwivedi, Hari N.; Pant, Aditiya B.; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2014-09-15

    Earlier, we found that arsenic induced cholinergic deficits in rat brain could be protected by curcumin. In continuation to this, the present study is focused to unravel the molecular mechanisms associated with the protective efficacy of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits. Exposure to arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats resulted to decrease the expression of CHRM2 receptor gene associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions as evident by decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, activity of mitochondrial complexes and enhanced apoptosis both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in comparison to controls. The ultrastructural images of arsenic exposed rats, assessed by transmission electron microscope, exhibited loss of myelin sheath and distorted cristae in the mitochondria both in the frontal cortex and hippocampus as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (20 mg/kg body weight, p.o) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o) for 28 days in rats was found to protect arsenic induced changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of mitochondrial complexes both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. Alterations in the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and ultrastructural damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus following arsenic exposure were also protected in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin. The data of the present study reveal that curcumin could protect arsenic induced cholinergic deficits by modulating the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in the brain. More interestingly, arsenic induced functional and ultrastructural changes in the brain mitochondria were also protected by curcumin. - Highlights: • Neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin in arsenic induced cholinergic deficits studied • Curcumin protected arsenic induced enhanced expression of stress markers in rat brain • Arsenic compromised mitochondrial electron transport chain protected

  11. Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Effect of Caffeine on the Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by Rotenone.

    PubMed

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Salem, Ahmed M; El-Shamy, Karima A; Ahmed, Emad K; Fadl, Nevein N; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-09-03

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective and therapeutic effects of caffeine on rotenone-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rats were divided into control, PD model induced by rotenone (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 45 days), protected group injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and rotenone for 45 days (during the development of PD model), and treated group injected with caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) for 45 days after induction of PD model. The data revealed a state of oxidative and nitrosative stress in the midbrain and the striatum of animal model of PD as indicated from the increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels and the decreased reduced glutathione level and activities of glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase. Rotenone induced a decrease in acetylcholinesterase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities and an increase in tumor necrosis factor-α level in the midbrain and the striatum. Protection and treatment with caffeine ameliorated the oxidative stress and the changes in acetylcholinesterase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities induced by rotenone in the midbrain and the striatum. This was associated with improvement in the histopathological changes induced in the two areas of PD model. Caffeine protection and treatment restored the depletion of midbrain and striatal dopamine induced by rotenone and prevented decline in motor activities (assessed by open field test) and muscular strength (assessed by traction and hanging tests) and improved norepinephrine level in the two areas. The present study showed that caffeine offered a significant neuroprotection and treatment against neurochemical, histopathological, and behavioral changes in a rotenone-induced rat model of PD.

  12. Ischemic preconditioning. Experimental facts and clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Post, H; Heusch, G

    2002-12-01

    Brief periods of non-lethal ischemia and reperfusion render the myocardium more resistant to subsequent ischemia. This adaption occurs in a biphasic pattern: the first being active immediately and lasting for 2-3 hrs (early preconditioning), the second starting at 24 hrs until 72 hrs after the initial ischemia (delayed preconditioning) and requiring genomic activation with de novo protein synthesis. Early preconditioning is more potent than delayed preconditioning in reducing infarct size; delayed preconditioning also attenuates myocardial stunning. Early preconditioning depends on the ischemia-induced release of adenosine and opioids and, to a lesser degree, also bradykinin and prostaglandins. These molecules activate G-protein coupled receptors, initiate the activation of KATP channels and generation of oxygen radicals, and stimulate a series of protein kinases with essential roles for protein kinase C, tyrosine kinases and members of the MAP kinase family. Delayed preconditioning is triggered by a similar sequence of events, but in addition essentially depends on eNOS-derived NO. Both early and pharmacological preconditioning can be pharmacologically mimicked by exogenous adenosine, opioids, NO and activators of protein kinase C. Newly synthetized proteins associated with delayed preconditioning comprise iNOS, COX-2, manganese superoxide dismutase and possibly heat shock proteins. The final mechanism of protection by preconditioning is yet unknown; energy metabolism, KATP channels, the sodium-proton exchanger, stabilisation of the cytoskeleton and volume regulation will be discussed. For ethical reasons, evidence for ischemic preconditioning in humans is hard to provide. Clinical findings that parallel experimental ischemic preconditioning are reduced ST-segment elevation and pain during repetitive PTCA or exercise tests, a better prognosis of patients in whom myocardial infarction was preceded by angina, and reduced serum markers of myocardial necrosis after

  13. Neuroprotection of luteolin against methylmercury-induced toxicity in lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Rosemberg, Denis B; Souza, Diogo O; Farombi, Ebenezer O; Aschner, Michael; Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-03-01

    Luteolin (3', 4', 5, 7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a polyphenolic compound found in foods of plant origin and has been reported to possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. However, there is dearth of information on the beneficial effects of luteolin on methylmercury (MeHg), a long-established neurotoxic compound in animals and humans. This study evaluated the effect of luteolin on MeHg-induced behavioral and biochemical deficits, using lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea as an alternative and complementary animal model. The insects were exposed for 35 consecutive days to either MeHg alone (0.05 mg/g feed) or in combination with luteolin at 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/g feed. Locomotor behavior was assessed using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel arena and subsequently, biochemical analyses were carried out using the cockroaches' heads. Luteolin supplementation dose-dependently reversed the MeHg-induced locomotor deficits and enhanced the exploratory profiles of MeHg-exposed cockroaches as confirmed by track and occupancy plot analyses. Luteolin reversed the MeHg-induced acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition, decreased dichlorofluorescein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels, but increased total thiol level and catalase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the treated cockroaches. In conclusion, luteolin prevented oxidative stress indices and neurobehavioral deficits in a Nauphoeta cinerea model of MeHg toxicity.

  14. Neuroprotective activity of Wedelia calendulacea on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Nedendla, Rama Rao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of Wedelia calendulacea against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress in the rats. Materials and Methods: The global cerebral ischemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by occluding the bilateral carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 1 h and 4 h reperfusion. At various times of reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione–s–transferase (GST), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activity and brain water content were measured. Results: The ischemic changes were preceded by increase in concentration of MDA, hydrogen peroxide and followed by decreased GPx, GR, and GST activity. Treatment with W. calendulacea significantly attenuated ischemia–induced oxidative stress. W. calendulacea administration markedly reversed and restored to near normal level in the groups pre-treated with methanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, given orally in single and double dose/day for 10 days) in dose-dependent way. Similarly, W. calendulacea reversed the brain water content in the ischemia reperfusion animals. The neurodegenaration also conformed by the histopathological changes in the cerebral-ischemic animals. Conclusion: The findings from the present investigation reveal that W. calendulacea protects neurons from global cerebral–ischemic injury in rat by attenuating oxidative stress. PMID:22144773

  15. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting at Jing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yue; Miao, Xiao-mei; Yi, Tai-long; Chen, Xu-yi; Sun, Hong-tao; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Zhang, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting at Jing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting at Jing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inflammatory response were lessened. These findings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting at Jing points (20 μL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:27482221

  16. Neuroprotective activities of curcumin and quercetin with potential relevance to mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Mohammad; Parvez, Suhel

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral neurotoxicity is one of the serious dose-limiting side effects of oxaliplatin (Oxa) when used in the treatment of malignant conditions. It is documented that it elicits major side effects specifically neurotoxicity due to oxidative stress forcing the patients to limit its clinical use in long-term treatment. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in Oxa-induced toxicity including neurotoxicity. The mitochondria have recently emerged as targets for anticancer drugs in various kinds of toxicity including neurotoxicity that can lead to neoplastic disease. However, there is paucity of literature involving the role of the mitochondria in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity and its underlying mechanism is still debatable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent damage caused by Oxa on isolated brain mitochondria under in vitro conditions. The study was also designed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of nutraceuticals, curcumin (CMN), and quercetin (QR) on Oxa-induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and respiratory chain complexes in the brain of rats. Oxidative stress biomarkers, levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, and mitochondrial complexes were evaluated against the neurotoxicity induced by Oxa. Pretreatment with CMN and QR significantly replenished the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation levels and protein carbonyl content induced by Oxa. CMN and QR ameliorated altered nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants and complex enzymes of mitochondria. We conclude that CMN and QR, by attenuating oxidative stress as evident by mitochondrial dysfunction, hold promise as agents that can potentially reduce Oxa-induced adverse effects in the brain.

  17. Nootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of phloretin in scopolamine induced amnesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghumatkar, Priya J; Patil, Sachin P; Jain, Pankaj D; Tambe, Rufi M; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-08-01

    Phloretin (PHL), a dihydrochalcone flavonoid usually present in the roots and leaves of apple tree. In vitro study on GT1-7 immortalized hypothalamic neurons exposed to amyloid beta (25-35), demonstrated that PHL significantly influenced membrane fluidity and potential. PHL also significantly decreased excitotoxicity by restoring the calcium homeostasis in the same. Thus, PHL proves to be a promising therapeutic moiety which should be further screened in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nootropic, neuroprotective and neurotrophic roles of PHL in the subacute scopolamine induced amnesia in mice. In this study, mice were pretreated with PHL 2.5mg/kg, 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and Donepezil (DON) 1mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p) for 14days. The last 7days of treatment regimen included daily injection of SCP 1.5mg/kg to induce cognitive deficits. Mice were subjected to behavioral analysis. Biochemical estimation of the brain homogenates for acetylcholinesterase and oxidative stress biomarkers were conducted. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis for the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was carried out particularly in the hippocampus. PHL was found to significantly improve the performance of mice in Morris water maze test (P<0.001) and significantly decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity (P<0.001) at all doses compared to SCP treated mice. Also, PHL significantly elevated the activity of antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione levels (P<0.001) and decreased malonaldehyde levels (P<0.001) in comparison with the SCP group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that PHL treatment dose dependently improved BDNF levels in the hippocampus which were found to be significantly depleted (P<0.001) in the SCP group. Additionally, PHL (10mg/kg) significantly enhanced the spatial memory formation (P<0.05) and neurotrophicity (P<0.001) compared to DON (1mg/kg). The aforementioned research

  18. Multimodal Neuroprotection Induced by PACAP38 in Oxygen–Glucose Deprivation and Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Stroke Models

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Gadi; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Chen, Jieli; Zhang, Chunling; Chopp, Michael; Jiang, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), a potent neuropeptide which crosses the blood–brain barrier, is known to provide neuroprotection in rat stroke models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by mechanism(s) which deserve clarification. We confirmed that following i.v. injection of 30 ng/kg of PACAP38 in rats exposed to 2 h of MCAO focal cerebral ischemia and 48 h reoxygenation, 50 % neuroprotection was measured by reduced caspase-3 activity and volume of cerebral infarction. Similar neuroprotective effects were measured upon PACAP38 treatment of oxygen–glucose deprivation and reoxygenation of brain cortical neurons. The neuroprotection was temporally associated with increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of its receptor—tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (trkB), activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt, and reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation. PACAP38 increased expression of neuronal markers beta-tubulin III, microtubule-associated protein-2, and growth-associated protein-43. PACAP38 induced stimulation of Rac and suppression of Rho GTPase activities. PACAP38 down-regulated the nerve growth factor receptor (p75NTR) and associated Nogo-(Neurite outgrowth-A) receptor. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results propose that PACAP exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia by three mechanisms: a direct one, mediated by PACAP receptors, and two indirect, induced by neurotrophin release, activation of the trkB receptors and attenuation of neuronal growth inhibitory signaling molecules p75NTR and Nogo receptor. PMID:22678884

  19. Multimodal neuroprotection induced by PACAP38 in oxygen-glucose deprivation and middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke models.

    PubMed

    Lazarovici, Philip; Cohen, Gadi; Arien-Zakay, Hadar; Chen, Jieli; Zhang, Chunling; Chopp, Michael; Jiang, Hao

    2012-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), a potent neuropeptide which crosses the blood-brain barrier, is known to provide neuroprotection in rat stroke models of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by mechanism(s) which deserve clarification. We confirmed that following i.v. injection of 30 ng/kg of PACAP38 in rats exposed to 2 h of MCAO focal cerebral ischemia and 48 h reoxygenation, 50 % neuroprotection was measured by reduced caspase-3 activity and volume of cerebral infarction. Similar neuroprotective effects were measured upon PACAP38 treatment of oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation of brain cortical neurons. The neuroprotection was temporally associated with increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylation of its receptor-tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (trkB), activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt, and reduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 phosphorylation. PACAP38 increased expression of neuronal markers beta-tubulin III, microtubule-associated protein-2, and growth-associated protein-43. PACAP38 induced stimulation of Rac and suppression of Rho GTPase activities. PACAP38 downregulated the nerve growth factor receptor (p75(NTR)) and associated Nogo-(Neurite outgrowth-A) receptor. Collectively, these in vitro and in vivo results propose that PACAP exhibits neuroprotective effects in cerebral ischemia by three mechanisms: a direct one, mediated by PACAP receptors, and two indirect, induced by neurotrophin release, activation of the trkB receptors and attenuation of neuronal growth inhibitory signaling molecules p75(NTR) and Nogo receptor.

  20. Neuroprotective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Jia; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Seong Yun

    2016-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from honeybee hives, is a bioactive compound with strong antioxidant activity. This study was designed to test the neuroprotective effect of CAPE in 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP)-induced striatal neurotoxicity, a chemical model of Huntington's disease (HD). Initially, to test CAPE's antioxidant activity, a 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) antioxidant assay was employed, and CAPE showed a strong direct radical-scavenging eff ect. In addition, CAPE provided protection from 3NP-induced neuronal cell death in cultured striatal neurons. Based on these observations, the in vivo therapeutic potential of CAPE in 3NP-induced HD was tested. For this purpose, male C57BL/6 mice were repeatedly given 3NP to induce HD-like pathogenesis, and 30 mg/kg of CAPE or vehicle (5% dimethyl sulfoxide and 95% peanut oil) was administered daily. CAPE did not cause changes in body weight, but it reduced mortality by 29%. In addition, compared to the vehicle-treated group, robustly reduced striatal damage was observed in the CAPE-treated animals, and the 3NP-induced behavioral defi cits on the rotarod test were signifi cantly rescued after the CAPE treatment. Furthermore, immunohistochemical data showed that immunoreactivity to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and CD45, markers for astrocyte and microglia activation, respectively, were strikingly reduced. Combined, these data unequivocally indicate that CAPE has a strong antioxidant eff ect and can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against HD. PMID:27162482

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of Matrine in Mouse Model of Vincristine-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Gong, Shuai-Shuai; Li, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Meng-Ting; Du, Juan; Ma, Peng-Sheng; Yao, Wan-Xia; Zhou, Ru; Niu, Yang; Sun, Tao; Yu, Jian-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    Chemotherapy drugs such as vincristine (VCR) can cause neuropathic pain, and there is still lack of ideal strategy to treat it. The current study was designed to investigate effect of matrine (MT) on VCR-induced neuropathic pain in animal model. VCR (75 μg/kg, i.p. for 10 consecutive days) was administered to induce painful neuropathy model in mice. MT (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg, i.p.) and pregabalin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered for 11 consecutive days. Various tests were performed to assess the degree of pain at different days (1, 6, 11, 16, and 21). Von Frey hair, hot plate, cold-plate and paw pressure tests were conducted to assess the degree of mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia in the hind paw respectively. The electrophysiological and histopathological changes were also analyzed. Furthermore, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC),superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total calcium (TCA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured to investigate possible involvement of MT in inflammation and oxidative stress. Administration of MT attenuated the VCR-induced behavioral alterations as well as electrophysiological and histopathological changes in a dose dependent manner. Further, MT also attenuated the VCR-induced oxidative stress (MDA, T-AOC, GSH-Px, SOD and TCA) and inflammation (MPO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10). Taken together, MT ameliorated VCR-induced painful neuropathy, which might be attributed to neuroprotective effects by subsequent reduction in oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory actions.

  2. In vitro detection of oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced neurodegeneration and pharmacological neuroprotection based on hippocampal stratum pyramidale width.

    PubMed

    Öz, Pınar; Saybaşılı, Hale

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia is one of the most prominent risk factors of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The effects of oxygen and glucose depletion in hippocampal tissue due to ischemia can be mimicked in vitro using the oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) model. In this study, we applied OGD on acute rat hippocampal slices in order to design an elementary yet quantitative histological technique that compares the neuroprotective effects of (l)-carnitine to known neuroprotectors, such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist memantine and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen. The level of neurodegeneration and the efficiency of pharmacological applications were estimated via stratum pyramidale width measurements in CA1 and CA3 regions of Nissl-stained 200-μm thick hippocampal slices. We demonstrated that (l)-carnitine is an effective pharmacological target against the neurodegeneration induced by in vitro ischemia in a narrow range of concentrations. Even though the effect of chemical neuroprotection was significant, full recovery was not achieved in the dose interval of 5-100μM. In addition to chemical applications, hypothermia was used as a physical neuroprotection against ischemia-related neurodegeneration. Our results showed that incubation of slices for 60min at 4°C provided the same level of neuroprotection as the most effective doses of memantine, baclofen, and (l)-carnitine.

  3. Neuroprotection by memantine against neurodegeneration induced by beta-amyloid(1-40).

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, J J; Alvarez, X A; Cacabelos, R; Quack, G

    2002-12-20

    Progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) might be aggravated by beta-amyloid-enhanced excitotoxicity. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist under clinical development for the treatment of AD. Memantine has neuroprotective actions in several in vitro and in vivo models. In the present study, we determined whether memantine protected against beta-amyloid induced neurotoxicity and learning impairment in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats received vehicle or vehicle plus memantine (steady-state plasma concentrations of 2.34+/-0.23 microM, n=10) s.c. by osmotic pump for 9 days. After 2 days of treatment, 2 microl of water containing beta-amyloid 1-40 [Abeta(1-40)] were injected into the hippocampal fissure. On the ninth day of treatment, animals were sacrificed, and morphological and immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the extent of neuronal degeneration and astrocytic and microglial activation in the hippocampus. Psychomotor activity and spatial discrimination were tested on the eighth day of treatment. Abeta(1-40), but not water, injections into hippocampus led to neuronal loss in the CA1 subfield, evidence of widespread apoptosis, and astrocytic and microglial activation and hypertrophy. Memantine treated animals had significant reductions in the amount of neuronal degeneration, pyknotic nuclei, and GFAP immunostaining as compared with vehicle treated animals. These data suggest that memantine, at therapeutically relevant concentrations, can protect against neuronal degeneration induced by beta-amyloid.

  4. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Wahby, Mayssaa M

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140-145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities.

  5. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  6. Neuroprotective effect of cobalt chloride on hypobaric hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Kalpana; Shukla, Dhananjay; Bansal, Anju; Sairam, Mustoori; Banerjee, P K; Ilavazhagan, Govindaswamy

    2008-02-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia, characteristic of high altitude is known to increase the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), and decrease effectiveness of antioxidant enzymes. RONS are involved and may even play a causative role in high altitude related ailments. Brain is highly susceptible to hypoxic stress and is involved in physiological responses that follow. Exposure of rats to hypobaric hypoxia (7619 m) resulted in increased oxidation of lipids and proteins due to increased RONS and decreased reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Further, there was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) levels. Increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was also noticed along with metallothionein (MT) II and III. Administration of cobalt appreciably attenuated the RONS generation, oxidation of lipids and proteins and maintained GSH/GSSH ratio similar to that of control cells via induction of HO-1 and MT offering efficient neuroprotection. It can be concluded that cobalt reduces hypoxia oxidative stress by maintaining higher cellular HO-1 and MT levels via hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) signaling mechanisms. These findings provide a basis for possible use of cobalt for prevention of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of thymoquinone in acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Mehri, Soghra; Shahi, Mehran; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or with thymoquinone (TQ) (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg IP) for 11 days. Two protocols were used in this study, A: in this one TQ and ACR were used simultaneously, B: Administration of TQ was started 1 week before ACR treatment and continued during exposure to ACR. At the end of the treatment, behavioral index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrificed and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in cerebral cortex. Results: Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with TQ significantly decreased abnormalities. Level of MDA was elevated in cerebral cortex after exposure to ACR while TQ treatment significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced lipid peroxidation. Results clearly showed that there is no significant difference between two protocols of administration of TQ. Conclusion: It suggests the neuroprotective effect of TQ in this model in part, may be because of due the antioxidant activity of this natural compound. PMID:25859305

  8. Role of phosphoinositide 3-kinase IA (PI3K-IA) activation in cardioprotection induced by ouabain preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qiming; Madan, Namrata D; Wu, Jian; Kalisz, Jennifer; Doshi, Krunal Y; Haldar, Saptarsi M; Liu, Lijun; Pierre, Sandrine V

    2015-03-01

    Acute myocardial infarction, the clinical manifestation of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Like ischemic preconditioning (IPC) induced by brief episodes of ischemia and reperfusion, ouabain preconditioning (OPC) mediated by Na/K-ATPase signaling protects the heart against IR injury. Class I PI3K activation is required for IPC, but its role in OPC has not been investigated. While PI3K-IB is critical to IPC, studies have suggested that ouabain signaling is PI3K-IA-specific. Hence, a pharmacological approach was used to test the hypothesis that OPC and IPC rely on distinct PI3K-I isoforms. In Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, OPC was initiated by 4 min of ouabain 10 μM and IPC was triggered by 4 cycles of 5 min ischemia and reperfusion prior to 40 min of global ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. Without affecting PI3K-IB, ouabain doubled PI3K-IA activity and Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473). IPC and OPC significantly preserved cardiac contractile function and tissue viability as evidenced by left ventricular developed pressure and end-diastolic pressure recovery, reduced lactate dehydrogenase release, and decreased infarct size. OPC protection was blunted by the PI3K-IA inhibitor PI-103, but not by the PI3K-IB inhibitor AS-604850. In contrast, IPC-mediated protection was not affected by PI-103 but was blocked by AS-604850, suggesting that PI3K-IA activation is required for OPC while PI3K-IB activation is needed for IPC. Mechanistically, PI3K-IA activity is required for ouabain-induced Akt activation but not PKCε translocation. However, in contrast to PKCε translocation which is critical to protection, Akt activity was not required for OPC. Further studies shall reveal the identity of the downstream targets of this new PI3K IA-dependent branch of OPC. These findings may be of clinical relevance in patients at risk for myocardial infarction with underlying diseases and/or medication that could differentially affect the

  9. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning for the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Diabetics Receiving Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Balbir Singh, Gillian; Ann, Soe Hee; Park, Jongha; Chung, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jong Soo; Kim, Eun-Sook; Choi, Jung Il; Lee, Jiho; Kim, Shin-Jae; Shin, Eun-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) induces transient episodes of ischemia by the occlusion of blood flow in non-target tissue, before a subsequent ischemia-reperfusion injury. When RIPC is applied before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the kidneys may be protected against ischemia-reperfusion injury and subsequently contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RIPC for the prevention of CI-AKI in patients with diabetes with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing elective PCI. Methods This randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study enrolled patients with diabetes scheduled for elective PCI with eGFR ≤60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or urinary albumin creatinine ratio of >300 mg/g to receive either RIPC or the sham ischemic preconditioning. Results One hundred and two patients (68.9 ± 8.2 years old, 47.1% men) were included. Baseline eGFR, creatinine and serum NGAL was similar between RIPC and control groups (48.5 ± 12 ml/min vs. 46.6 ± 10 ml/min, p = 0.391; 1.42 ± 0.58 mg/dl vs. 1.41 ± 0.34 mg/dl, p = 0.924; and 136.0 ± 45.0 ng/ml vs. 137.6 ± 43.3 ng/ml, p = 0.961, respectively). CI-AKI occurred in 13.7% (14/102) of the total subjects, with both RIPC and control groups having an equal incidence of 13.7% (7/51). No significant differences were seen in creatinine, NGAL, cardiac enzymes (troponin T, CKMB) and hs-CRP between the groups post-procedure. Conclusions In this study, RIPC applied prior to elective PCI was not effective in preventing CI-AKI in patients with diabetes with pre-existing CKD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02329444 PMID:27723839

  10. Neuroprotective effects of a sesquiterpene lactone and flavanones from Paulownia tomentosa Steud. against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured rat cortical cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Ki; Cho, Sang-Buem; Moon, Hyung-In

    2010-12-01

    The neuroprotective effects of Paulownia tomentosa against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity were studied in primary cultured rat cortical cells. It was found that the aqueous extract of this medicinal plant significantly attenuated glutamate-induced toxicity. In order to clarify the mechanism(s) underlying this neuroprotective effect, the active fractions and components were isolated and identified. Five compounds were isolated as the methanol extracts from air-dried flowers of P. tomentosa. Isoatriplicolide tiglate exhibited significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced toxicity at concentrations ranging from 1 μM to 10 μM, and exhibited cell viability of approximately 43-78%. Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of P. tomentosa might be due to the inhibition of glutamate-induced toxicity by the sesquiterpene lactone derivative it contains.

  11. Moderate increases in intracellular calcium activate neuroprotective signals in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bickler, P E; Fahlman, C S

    2004-01-01

    Although large increases in neuronal intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)) are lethal, moderate increases in [Ca(2+)](i) of 50-200 nM may induce immediate or long-term tolerance of ischemia or other stresses. In neurons in rat hippocampal slice cultures, we determined the relationship between [Ca(2+)](i), cell death, and Ca(2+)-dependent neuroprotective signals before and after a 45 min period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Thirty minutes before OGD, [Ca(2+)](i) was increased in CA1 neurons by 40-200 nM with 1 nM-1 microM of a Ca(2+)-selective ionophore (calcimycin or ionomycin-"Ca(2+) preconditioning"). Ca(2+) preconditioning greatly reduced cell death in CA1, CA3 and dentate during the following 7 days, even though [Ca(2+)](i) was similar (approximately 2 microM) in preconditioned and control neurons 1 h after the OGD. When pre-OGD [Ca(2+)](i) was lowered to 25 nM (10 nM ionophore in Ca(2+)-free medium) or increased to 8 microM (10 microM ionophore), more than 90% of neurons died. Increased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein protein kinase B (Akt) and the MAP kinase ERK (p42/44) were present in preconditioned slices after OGD. Reducing Ca(2+) influx, inhibiting calmodulin, and preventing Akt or MAP kinase p42/44 upregulation prevented Ca(2+) preconditioning, supporting a specific role for Ca(2+) in the neuroprotective process. Further, in continuously oxygenated cultured hippocampal/cortical neurons, preconditioning for 30 min with 10 nM ionomycin reduced cell death following a 4 microM increase in [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by 1 microM ionomycin. Thus, a zone of moderately increased [Ca(2+)](i) before a potentially lethal insult promotes cell survival, uncoupling subsequent large increases in [Ca(2+)](i) from initiating cell death processes.

  12. Chemically Bonding of Amantadine with Gardenamide A Enhances the Neuroprotective Effects against Corticosterone-Induced Insults in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiaqiang; Peng, Lizhi; Zheng, Wenhua; Wang, Rikang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Heru

    2015-09-21

    Two amantadine (ATD)-gardenamide A (GA) ligands have been designed and synthesized. The bonding of ATD with GA through a methylene carbonyl brigde (L1) enhances the neuroprotective effect against corticosterone (CORT)-induced impairments in PC12 cells; while the bonding through a succinyl brigde (L2) does not. L1 reduces the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell apoptosis generated by CORT. It restores CORT-changed cell morphology to a state that is closed to normal PC12 cells. One mechanism of L1 to attenuate CORT-induced cell apoptosis is through the adjustment of both caspase-3 and Bcl-2 proteins. Like GA, both nNOS and eNOS might be involved in the neuroprotective mechanism of L1. All the evidences suggest that L1 may be a potential agent to treat depression.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of swimming training in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine.

    PubMed

    Goes, A T R; Souza, L C; Filho, C B; Del Fabbro, L; De Gomes, M G; Boeira, S P; Jesse, C R

    2014-01-03

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum. Exercise has been shown to be a promising non-pharmacological approach to reduce the risk of neurodegeneration diseases. This study was designed to investigate the potential neuroprotective effect of swimming training (ST) in a mouse model of PD induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in mice. The present study demonstrated that a 4-week ST was effective in attenuating the following impairments resulting from 6-OHDA exposure: (i) depressive-like behavior in the tail suspension test; (ii) increase in the number of falls in the rotarod test; (iii) impairment on long-term memory in the object recognition test; (iv) increase of the reactive species and interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) levels; (v) inhibition of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity; (vi) rise of the glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities and vii) decrease of DA, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels. The mechanisms involved in this study are the modulation of GPx, GR and GST activities as well as IL-1β level in a PD model induced by 6-OHDA, protecting against the decrease of DA, DOPAC and HVA levels in the striatum of mice. These findings reinforce that one of the effects induced by exercise on neurodegenerative disease, such as PD, is due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We suggest that exercise attenuates cognitive and motor declines, depression, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation induced by 6-OHDA supporting the hypothesis that exercise can be used as a non-pharmacological tool to reduce the symptoms of PD.

  14. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene against glutamate-induced damage in the HT22 hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Jung, Won Jung; Kang, Jum Soon; Kim, Cheol-Min; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-02-01

    Since oxidative stress is critically involved in excitotoxic damage, we sought to determine whether the activation of the transcription factors, cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, also known as NFE2L2), by α-iso-cubebene is involved in its protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. Pre-treatment with α-iso-cubebene significantly attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells. α-iso-cubebene also reduced the glutamate-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and calcium influx, thus preventing apoptotic cell death. α-iso-cubebene inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and, consequently, inhibited the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria. Immunoblot anlaysis revealed that the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by glutamate was reduced in the presence of α-iso-cubebene. α-iso-cubebene activated protein kinase A (PKA), CREB and Nrf2, which mediate the expression of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1), involved in neuroprotection. In addition, α-iso-cubebene induced the expression of antioxidant responsive element and CRE transcriptional activity, thus conferring neuroprotection against glutamate-induced oxidative injury. α-iso-cubebene also induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes encoding HO-1 and NQO1. Furthermore, the knockdown of CREB and Nrf2 by small interfering RNA attenuated the neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene. Taken together, our results indicate that α-iso-cubebene protects HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative damage through the activation of Nrf2/HO-1/NQO-1, as well as through the PKA and CREB signaling pathways.

  15. Synthesis of new heterocyclic compounds based on pyrazolopyridine scaffold and evaluation of their neuroprotective potential in MPP(+)-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Jouha, Jabrane; Loubidi, Mohammed; Bouali, Jamila; Hamri, Salha; Hafid, Abderrafia; Suzenet, Franck; Guillaumet, Gérald; Dagcı, Taner; Khouili, Mostafa; Aydın, Fadime; Saso, Luciano; Armagan, Güliz

    2017-03-31

    Neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease affect millions of people in the world. Thus several new approaches to treat brain disorders are under development. The aim of the present study is to synthesize potential neuroprotective heterocyclic compounds based on pyrazolopyridine derivatives and then to evaluate their effects in MPP(+)-induced neurodegeneration in human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y cells). The effects of the compounds on cell viability were measured by MTT assay and the changes in apoptosis-related proteins including bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and caspase-3 were investigated by western blot technique. Based on the cell viability results obtained by MTT assay, the percentage of neuroprotection-induced by compounds against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was between 20% and 30% at 5 μM concentrations of all synthesized compounds. Moreover, the downregulation in pro-apoptotic proteins including bax and caspase-3 were found following the novel synthesized compounds treatments and these effects were observed in a dose-dependent manner. Our results provide an evidence that these heterocyclic compounds based on pyrazolopyridine derivatives may have a role on dopaminergic neuroprotection via antiapoptotic pathways.

  16. The Loss of Myocardial Benefit following Ischemic Preconditioning Is Associated with Dysregulation of Iron Homeostasis in Diet-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Berenshtein, Eduard; Eliashar, Ron; Chevion, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    Whether the diabetic heart benefits from ischemic preconditioning (IPC), similar to the non-diabetic heart, is a subject of controversy. We recently proposed new roles for iron and ferritin in IPC-protection in Type 1-like streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat heart. Here, we investigated iron homeostasis in Cohen diabetic sensitive rat (CDs) that develop hyperglycemia when fed on a high-sucrose/low-copper diet (HSD), but maintain normoglycemia on regular-diet (RD). Control Cohen-resistant rats (CDr) maintain normoglycemia on either diet. The IPC procedure improved the post-ischemic recovery of normoglycemic hearts (CDr-RD, CDr-HSD and CDs-RD). CDs-HSD hearts failed to show IPC-associated protection. The recovery of these CDs-HSD hearts following I/R (without prior IPC) was better than their RD controls. During IPC ferritin levels increased in normoglycemic hearts, and its level was maintained nearly constant during the subsequent prolonged ischemia, but decayed to its baseline level during the reperfusion phase. In CDs-HSD hearts the baseline levels of ferritin and ferritin-saturation with iron were notably higher than in the controls, and remained unchanged during the entire experiment. This unique and abnormal pattern of post-ischemic recovery of CDs-HSD hearts is associated with marked changes in myocardial iron homeostasis, and suggests that iron and iron-proteins play a causative role/s in the etiology of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:27458721

  17. Neuroprotective activity of L-theanine on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Thangarajan, Sumathi; Deivasigamani, Asha; Natarajan, Suganya Sarumani; Krishnan, Prasanna; Mohanan, Sandhya Koombankallil

    2014-09-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the protective effect of L-theanine against 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced Huntington's disease (HD)-like symptoms in rats. The present experimental protocol design includes systemic 3-NP acid (10 mg/kg intraperitonially) treatment for 14 d. L-theanine (100 and 200 mg/kg) was given orally, once a day, 1 h before 3-NP acid treatment for 14 d. Body weight and behavioral parameters (Morris water maze, open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST) and rotarod activity) were assessed on 1st, 5th, 10th and 15th day post-3-NP acid administration. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels and mitochondrial enzyme complex. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) were measured on the 15th day in the striatum. Systemic 3-NP acid treatment significantly reduced body weight, locomotor activity and oxidative defense. The mitochondrial enzyme activity was also significantly impaired in the striatum region in 3-NP acid-treated animals. L-theanine (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt.) treatment significantly attenuated the impairment in behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial enzyme activities as compared to the 3-NP acid-treated group. The results of the present study suggest that pretreatment with L-theanine significantly attenuated 3-NP induced oxidative stress and restored the decreased SOD, GSH, CAT and SDH activity. It also decreased the neuronal damage as evidenced by histopathological analysis of striatum. Based on the above study, it has been proved that L-theanine has neuroprotective activity against 3-NP induced neurotoxicity.

  18. Neuroprotection of donepezil against morphine-induced apoptosis is mediated through Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Alireza; Moradi, Farshid; Izadpanah, Esmael; Mokarizadeh, Aram; Moloudi, Mohammad Raman; Nikzaban, Mehrnoush; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz

    2015-10-05

    Previously, we had shown that donepezil provides anti-apoptotic effects associated with the prevention of morphine tolerance to the analgesic effect. In this regard, the present study aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in this effect considering the possible role of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2,4, and the balance between pre-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic Bcl family proteins. To this end, male Wistar rats received daily morphine in combination with either normal saline or donepezil (0.5, 1, or 1.5 mg/kg, ip). The analgesic effect was assessed by the plantar test apparatus. The latency was recorded when the animal responded to the light stimulus. On the 15th day, when no significant difference was observed between morphine and saline groups in terms of analgesia, the frontal cortex and lumbar spinal cord of the animals were dissected. Then, TLR2 and 4, Bcl2, and Bax mRNA fold changes were calculated using Real-time PCR method. The results indicated no significant analgesic effect in the morphine group compared with the saline treated animals after 15 days of injection, while daily co-administration of donepezil with morphine preserved significant analgesia. Moreover, Quantitative PCR showed that morphine significantly increased TLRs and Bax gene expressions and decreased the anti-apoptotic Bcl2. In contrast, donepezil prevented these morphine induced changes in the mentioned gene expressions. Taken together, the results suggest that the neuroprotective effects of donepezil in attenuating morphine-induced tolerance and apoptosis are mediated by preventing morphine-induced changes in TLR2 and 4 gene expressions.

  19. A Molecular Approach to Epilepsy Management: from Current Therapeutic Methods to Preconditioning Efforts.

    PubMed

    Amini, Elham; Rezaei, Mohsen; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Golpich, Mojtaba; Ghasemi, Rasoul; Mohamed, Zahurin; Raymond, Azman Ali; Dargahi, Leila; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2015-08-01

    Epilepsy is the most common and chronic neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. The key aim in treating patients with epilepsy is the suppression of seizures. An understanding of focal changes that are involved in epileptogenesis may therefore provide novel approaches for optimal treatment of the seizure. Although the actual pathogenesis of epilepsy is still uncertain, recently growing lines of evidence declare that microglia and astrocyte activation, oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondria dysfunction, and damage of blood-brain barrier (BBB) are involved in its pathogenesis. Impaired GABAergic function in the brain is probably the most accepted hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Clinical neuroimaging of patients and experimental modeling have demonstrated that seizures may induce neuronal apoptosis. Apoptosis signaling pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of several types of epilepsy such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The quality of life of patients is seriously affected by treatment-related problems and also by unpredictability of epileptic seizures. Moreover, the available antiepileptic drugs (AED) are not significantly effective to prevent epileptogenesis. Thus, novel therapies that are proficient to control seizure in people who are suffering from epilepsy are needed. The preconditioning method promises to serve as an alternative therapeutic approach because this strategy has demonstrated the capability to curtail epileptogenesis. For this reason, understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying brain tolerance induced by preconditioning is crucial to delineate new neuroprotective ways against seizure damage and epileptogenesis. In this review, we summarize the work to date on the pathogenesis of epilepsy and discuss recent therapeutic strategies in the treatment of epilepsy. We will highlight that novel therapy targeting such as preconditioning process holds great

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and preconditioning for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sheng-li; Feng, Hua; Xi, Guo-hua

    2016-01-01

    To date, the therapeutic methods for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are still limited. The lack of oxygen supply is critical for brain injury following stroke. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), an approach through a process in which patients breathe in 100% pure oxygen at over 101 kPa, has been shown to facilitate oxygen delivery and increase oxygen supply. Hence, HBO possesses the potentials to produce beneficial effects on stroke. Actually, accumulated basic and clinical evidences have demonstrated that HBO therapy and preconditioning could induce neuroprotective functions via different mechanisms. Nevertheless, the lack of clinical translational study limits the application of HBO. More translational studies and clinical trials are needed in the future to develop effective HBO protocols. PMID:28217297

  1. Brain ischemic preconditioning is abolished by antioxidant drugs but does not up-regulate superoxide dismutase and glutathion peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Puisieux, François; Deplanque, Dominique; Bulckaen, Hélène; Maboudou, Patrice; Gelé, Patrick; Lhermitte, Michel; Lebuffe, Gilles; Bordet, Régis

    2004-11-19

    The present work examined the hypothesis that brain ischemic tolerance induced by ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is triggered by an initial oxidative stress and is associated with an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities as one end-effector of the neuroprotection. Wistar rats were preconditioned by a single 3-min occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. After a various duration of reperfusion (30 min, 24, 72 or 168 h), rats were subjected to a 60-min focal ischemia and sacrificed 24 h later. Cerebral infarcts were significantly reduced when performed during the 24- to 72-h time window after IPC. The pretreatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide (1 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min prior to IPC), completely suppressed the neuroprotection. The free radical scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU; 300 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min prior to IPC) and the antioxidant ebselen (10 mg/kg, oral cramming, 2 h before and 12 h after IPC) also abolished the IPC-induced protection of the brain. Nevertheless, IPC did not induce any delayed changes in antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, glutathion peroxidase) activities nor in the neuronal expression of Mn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. These results indicate that an initial oxidative stress could be involved as a trigger of IPC, while antioxidant enzymes do not play a key role as end-effectors in such a neuroprotection.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol in endotoxin-induced uveitis: critical role of p38 MAPK activation

    PubMed Central

    El-Remessy, A.B.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, G.; Matragoon, S.; Khalifa, Y.; Liu, E.K.; Liu, J-Y.; Hanson, E.; Mian, S.; Fatteh, N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Degenerative retinal diseases are characterized by inflammation and microglial activation. The nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), is an anti-inflammatory in models of diabetes and glaucoma. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that retinal inflammation and microglia activation are initiated and sustained by oxidative stress and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, and that CBD reduces inflammation by blocking these processes. Methods Microglial cells were isolated from retinas of newborn rats. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were estimated with ELISA. Nitric oxide (NO) was determined with a NO analyzer. Superoxide anion levels were determined by the chemiluminescence of luminol derivative. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated by measuring the cellular oxidation products of 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Results In retinal microglial cells, treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced immediate NADPH oxidase-generated ROS. This was followed by p38 MAPK activation and resulted in a time-dependent increase in TNF-α production. At a later phase, LPS induced NO, ROS, and p38 MAPK activation that peaked at 2-6 h and was accompanied by morphological change of microglia. Treatment with 1 μM CBD inhibited ROS formation and p38 MAPK activation, NO and TNF-α formation, and maintained cell morphology. In addition, LPS-treated rat retinas showed an accumulation of macrophages and activated microglia, significant levels of ROS and nitrotyrosine, activation of p38 MAPK, and neuronal apoptosis. These effects were blocked by treatment with 5 mg/kg CBD. Conclusions Retinal inflammation and degeneration in uveitis are caused by oxidative stress. CBD exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by a mechanism that involves blocking oxidative stress and activation of p38 MAPK and microglia. PMID:19052649

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice in Rotenone-Induced Parkinson's-Like Disease Rats.

    PubMed

    Chompoopong, Supin; Jarungjitaree, Sunit; Punbanlaem, Tideeporn; Rungruang, Thanaporn; Chongthammakun, Sukumal; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Taechowisan, Thongchai

    2016-09-01

    The effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) on the motor deficits and the dopaminergic (DA) cell death were investigated in Parkinson's-like disease (PD) rats. Reactive oxidative species generated by chronic subcutaneous injection of rotenone (RT) lead to neuronal apoptosis particularly in the nigrostriatal DA system and produce many features of PD, bradykinesis, postural instability and rigidity. In this study, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), previously reported to inhibit RT-induced DA cell death, was used as the positive control. Results show that pretreatment with GBR as well as 4-PBA significantly enhanced the motor activity after RT injection, and GBR affected significantly in open field test, only in the ambulation but not the mobility duration, and ameliorated the time to orient down (t-turn) and total time to descend the pole (t-total) in pole test as compared to RT group, but significantly lowered both t-turn and t-total only in 4-PBA group. The percentage of apoptotic cells in brain measured by flow cytometry and the inflammatory effect measured by ELISA of TNF-α showed significant increase in RT group as compared to the control (CT) group at P < 0.05. Apoptotic cells in RT group (85.98 %) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase versus CT group (17.50 %), and this effect was attenuated in GBR+RT group by decreasing apoptotic cells (79.32 %), whereas, increased viable cells (17.94 %) versus RT group (10.79 %). GBR in GBR + RT group could decrease TNF-α both in the serum and in brain. In summary, GBR showed a neuroprotective effect in RT-induced PD rats, and it may be useful as a value-added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative disease or PD.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ekong, Moses B; Ekpo, Mfon M; Akpanyung, Edet O; Nwaokonko, Dennis U

    2017-04-11

    Aluminium (Al), one of the metals implicated in neurodegeneration easily gain access to the nervous system through its presence in many manufactured foods, medicines and drinking water, and causes neurotoxicity utilizing the reactive oxygen specie pathway. The need to curtail these effects on the nervous system motivated the use of the plant Moringa oleifera (MO). This study thus, investigated the neuroprotective effects of MO leaf extract on aluminium-induced temporal cortical degeneration in rats. 24 male albino Wistar rats were grouped (n = 6) into control (1 ml/kg distilled water), l00 mg/kg aluminium chloride (AlCl3), 300 mg/kg MO, and 100 mg/kg AlCl3 and 300 mg/kg MO groups. The administration lasted for 28 days and the rats were sacrificed on day 29 by perfusion-fixation after blood was obtained for serum Al estimation. The brain tissues were then routinely processed for some histological and immunnolabelling studies. There was no significant difference in serum Al in the test groups. Histological results showed atrophied and karyorrhetic cells with loss of Nissl substance in the temporal cortex of the AlCl3 group, while no adverse effect was observed in the cytoarchitecture of the temporal cortex and Nissl substance of the MO group. However, groups which were administered AlCl3 simultaneously with MO extract showed less degenerative features in the cyto-architecture of the temporal cortex with normal Nissl substance staining. There was increased neuron specific enolase (NSE) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expressions in the AlCl3 group, while the MO group also showed increased NSE but decreased GFAP expression. However, the group which were administered AlCl3 simultaneously with MO extract showed less expression of NSE and GFAP. In conclusion, MO protects against Al-induced neurotoxicity of the temporal cortex of rats.

  5. Hypoxic Preconditioning Enhances the Benefit of Cardiac Progenitor-Cell Therapy for Treatment of Myocardial Infarction by Inducing CXCR4 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yao Liang; Zhu, Wuqiang; Cheng, Min; Chen, Lijuan; Zhang, John; Sun, Tao; Kishore, Raj; Phillips, M. Ian; Losordo, Douglas W.; Qin, Gangjian

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) rapidly depletes the endogenous cardiac progenitor-cell pool, and the inefficient recruitment of exogenously administered progenitor cells limits the effectiveness of cardiac-cell therapy. Recent reports indicate that interactions between the CXC chemokine stromal-cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) critically mediate the ischemia-induced recruitment of bone-marrow—derived circulating stem/progenitor cells, but the expression of CXCR4 in cardiac progenitor cells is very low. Here, we studied the influence of hypoxia on CXCR4 expression in cardiac progenitor cells, on the recruitment of intravenously administered cells to ischemic heart tissue, and on the preservation of heart function in a murine MI model. We found that hypoxic preconditioning increased CXCR4 expression in cardiosphere-derived, Lin−/c-kit+ progenitor (CLK) cells and markedly augmented CLK-cell migration (in vitro) and recruitment (in vivo) to the ischemic myocardium. Four weeks after surgically induced MI, infarct size and heart function were significantly better in mice administered hypoxia-preconditioned CLK cells than in mice treated with cells cultured under normoxic conditions. Furthermore, these effects were largely abolished by the addition of a CXCR4 inhibitor, indicating that the benefits of hypoxic preconditioning are mediated by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis, and that therapies targeting this axis may enhance cardiac-progenitor-cell—based regenerative therapy. PMID:19407239

  6. Exercise preconditioning modulates genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in multiple organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renato Almeida; Minari, André Luis; Chaves, Marcelo Donizetti; dos Santos, Ronaldo Wagner Thomatieli; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise in multiple organs of rats treated with doxorubicin. Male adult Wistar rats were distributed into the following groups: sedentary + NaCl; exercise + NaCl; sedentary + doxorubicin; and exercise + doxorubicin. Animals were sacrificed 2 days following injections. Central fragments from heart, liver, and kidney were collected and minced in 0.9% NaCl being cellular suspensions used for the single-cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that exercise was able to prevent genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in heart cells. By contrast, exercise was not able to prevent genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in liver cells. The same occurred to kidney cells, i.e. no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found when compared with groups not exposed to doxorubicin. Taken together, our results support the idea that exercise could contribute to the protective effect against genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in heart cells.

  7. Cognitive Improvement Induced by Environment Enrichment in Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Rats: a Result of Upregulated Endogenous Neuroprotection?

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Zhang, Junjian; Xiong, Li; Deng, Min; Wang, Jing; Xin, Jiawei; Liu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Environment enrichment (EE) has been demonstrated to improve the cognitive impairment that is induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), but the underlying mechanism has not yet been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the role of endogenous neuroprotection in EE-induced cognitive improvement in rats with CCH. Permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusions (2-vessel occlusions (2VOs)) were performed to induce CCH in male adult Wistar rats. Four weeks after the surgeries, the rats were exposed to enriched environments for 4 weeks (6 h/day). Subsequently, we assessed the effects of EE on cognitive function, brain histone acetylation levels, neuroprotection-related transcription factors (i.e., cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phospho-CREB (p-CREB), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) α, and nuclear regulatory factor 2 (Nrf2)), and oxidative stress and histological changes in the brain. After 2VO, the rats exposed to the EE treatment exhibited increased acetylation of histone 4 and increased p-CREB and Nrf2 protein levels in the brain. HIF-1α levels were increased after 2VO and reduced after EE treatment. The oxidative damage, histopathological changes in the brain, and spatial learning and memory impairments induced by 2VO were subsequently restored after EE treatment. These data indicate that EE promotes the acetylation of histone 4, regulates some neuroprotection-related transcription factors, attenuates oxidative damage, and protects against the histopathological damage to the brain induced by CCH. Together, the effects of EE in CCH rats might contribute to the recovery of spatial learning and memory.

  8. Downregulation of miR-181b in mouse brain following ischemic stroke induces neuroprotection against ischemic injury through targeting heat shock protein A5 and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhifeng; Li, Jiefei; Li, Yun; Yang, Xuan; Feng, Sujuan; Han, Song; Li, Junfa

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of cerebral hypoxic preconditioning (HPC)-induced endogenous neuroprotection may provide potential therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke. By using bioinformatics analysis, we found that miR-181b, one of 19 differentially expressed miRNAs, may target aconitate hydratase (ACO2), heat shock protein A5 (HSPA5), and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCHL1) among 26 changed protein kinase C isoform-specific interacting proteins in HPC mouse brain. In this study, the role of miR-181b in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced N2A cell ischemic injury in vitro and mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cerebral ischemic injury in vivo, and its regulation of ACO2, HSPA5, and UCHL1 were further determined. We found that miR-181b expression levels significantly decreased in mouse brain following MCAO and in OGD-treated N2A cells. Up- and downregulation of miR-181b by transfection of pre- or anti-miR-181b could negatively regulate HSPA5 and UCHL1 (but not ACO2) protein levels as well as N2A cell death and programmed cell death in OGD-treated N2A cells. By using a T7 promoter-driven control dual luciferase assay, we confirmed that miR-181b could bind to the 3'-untranslated rergions of HSPA5 and UCHL1 mRNAs and repress their translations. miR-181b antagomir reduced caspase-3 cleavage and neural cell loss in cerebral ischemic cortex and improved neurological deficit of mice after MCAO. In addition, HSPA5 and UCHL1 short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) blocked anti-miR-181b-mediated neuroprotection against OGD-induced N2A cell injury in vitro. These results suggest that the downregulated miR-181b induces neuroprotection against ischemic injury through negatively regulating HSPA5 and UCHL1 protein levels, providing a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.

  9. Diazoxide preconditioning of endothelial progenitor cells from streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats improves their ability to repair diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad; Mehmood, Azra; Anjum, Muhammad Sohail; Tarrar, Moazzam Nazir; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a strong risk factor for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the type 1 diabetic patients. Stem cells may act as a therapeutic agent for the repair of DCM. However, deteriorated functional abilities and survival of stem cells derived from type 1 diabetic subjects need to be overcome for obtaining potential outcome of the stem cell therapy. Diazoxide (DZ) a highly selective mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel opener has been previously shown to improve the ability of mesenchymal stem cells for the repair of heart failure. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of DZ preconditioning in improving the ability of streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes affected bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (DM-EPCs) for the repair of DCM in the type 1 diabetic rats. DM-EPCs were characterized by immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and reverse transcriptase PCR for endothelial cell-specific markers like vWF, VE cadherin, VEGFR2, PECAM, CD34, and eNOS. In vitro studies included preconditioning of DM-EPCs with 200 μM DZ for 30 min followed by exposure to either 200 μM H2O2 for 2 h (for oxidative stress induction) or 30 mM glucose media (for induction of hyperglycemic stress) for 48 h. Non-preconditioned EPCs with and without exposure to H2O2 and 30 mM high glucose served as controls. These cells were then evaluated for survival (by MTT and XTT cell viability assays), senescence, paracrine potential (by ELISA for VEGF), and alteration in gene expression [VEGF, stromal derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), HGF, bFGF, Bcl2, and Caspase-3]. DZ preconditioned DM-EPCs demonstrated significantly increased survival and VEGF release while reduced cell injury and senescence. Furthermore, DZ preconditioned DM-EPCs exhibited up-regulated expression of prosurvival genes (VEGF, SDF-1α, HGF, bFGF, and Bcl2) on exposure to H2O2, and VEGF and Bcl2 on exposure to hyperglycemia

  10. Plasma from human volunteers subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning protects human endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nina C; Riedemann, Isabelle; Smit, Kirsten F; Zitta, Karina; van de Vondervoort, Djai; Zuurbier, Coert J; Hollmann, Markus W; Preckel, Benedikt; Albrecht, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Short repeated cycles of peripheral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can protect distant organs from subsequent prolonged I/R injury; a phenomenon known as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). A RIPC-mediated release of humoral factors might play a key role in this protection and vascular endothelial cells are potential targets for these secreted factors. In the present study, RIPC-plasma obtained from healthy male volunteers was tested for its ability to protect human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) from hypoxia-induced cell damage. 10 healthy male volunteers were subjected to a RIPC-protocol consisting of 4 × 5 min inflation/deflation of a blood pressure cuff located at the upper arm. Plasma was collected before (T0; control), directly after (T1) and 1 h after (T2) the RIPC procedure. HUVEC were subjected to 24 h hypoxia damage and simultaneously incubated with 5% of the respective RIPC-plasma. Cell damage was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-measurements. Western blot experiments of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1alpha), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) were performed. Furthermore, the concentrations of hVEGF were evaluated in the RIPC-plasma by sandwich ELISA. Hypoxia-induced cell damage was significantly reduced by plasma T1 (p = 0.02 vs T0). The protective effect of plasma T1 was accompanied by an augmentation of the intracellular HIF1alpha (p = 0.01 vs T0) and increased phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 (p = 0.03 vs T0). Phosphorylation of AKT and STAT5 remained unchanged. Analysis of the protective RIPC-plasma T1 showed significantly reduced levels of hVEGF (p = 0.01 vs T0). RIPC plasma protects endothelial cells from hypoxia-induced cell damage and humoral mediators as well as intracellular HIF1alpha may be involved.

  11. Preconditioning for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yokobori, Shoji; Mazzeo, Anna T; Hosein, Khadil; Gajavelli, Shyam; Dietrich, W Dalton; Bullock, M Ross

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment is now focused on the prevention of primary injury and reduction of secondary injury. However, no single effective treatment is available as yet for the mitigation of traumatic brain damage in humans. Both chemical and environmental stresses applied before injury have been shown to induce consequent protection against post-TBI neuronal death. This concept termed "preconditioning" is achieved by exposure to different pre-injury stressors to achieve the induction of "tolerance" to the effect of the TBI. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this "tolerance" phenomenon are not fully understood in TBI, and therefore even less information is available about possible indications in clinical TBI patients. In this review, we will summarize TBI pathophysiology, and discuss existing animal studies demonstrating the efficacy of preconditioning in diffuse and focal type of TBI. We will also review other non-TBI preconditioning studies, including ischemic, environmental, and chemical preconditioning, which maybe relevant to TBI. To date, no clinical studies exist in this field, and we speculate on possible future clinical situations, in which pre-TBI preconditioning could be considered.

  12. Neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of Apigenin and Luteolin in MPTP induced parkinsonism in mice.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sachin P; Jain, Pankaj D; Sancheti, Jayant S; Ghumatkar, Priya J; Tambe, Rufi; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, we aim to investigate the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of naturally occurring polyphenols like apigenin and luteolin and also to explore the underlying mechanisms with respect to Parkinson's disease (PD). MPTP (25 mg/kg) along with Probenecid (250 mg/kg) was administrated for five consecutive days to induce parkinsonism in mice. Apigenin (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), luteolin (10 and 20 mg/kg) and Bromocriptine (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally for 26 days including 5 days of pretreatment. Behavioural analysis and biochemical estimation of oxidative stress biomarkers were conducted. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated in substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain by immunostaining. TNF-α was estimated using ELISA technique. Our results demonstrate that apigenin and luteolin treatment improved the locomotor and muscular activities in MPTP treated mice. TH-positive cells decreased up to 7% in MPTP treated mice compared to normal mice (P < 0.001) and were found to be protected from degeneration in apigenin (69%) and luteolin (63%) treated mice (P < 0.001). Levels of GFAP were found to be decreased in the SN of the brain due to apigenin and luteolin treatment as compared to MPTP mice. BDNF levels were elevated significantly in apigenin and luteolin treatment groups when compared to MPTP treatment mice. In conclusion, apigenin and luteolin protected the dopaminergic neurons probably by reducing oxidative damage, neuroinflammation and microglial activation along with enhanced neurotrophic potential. The above results propose both these flavonoids as promising molecules in the therapeutics of PD.

  13. Neuroprotective Actions of Clinoptilolite and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid Against Lead-induced Toxicity in Mice Mus musculus

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Mahaboob P.; Begum, Shabana; Mir, Bilal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Oxidative stress is considered as a possible molecular mechanism involved in lead (Pb2+) neurotoxicity. Very few studies have been investigated on the occurrence of oxidative stress in developing animals due to Pb2+ exposure. Considering the vulnerability of the developing brain to Pb2+, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of Pb2+ exposure in brain regions especially on antioxidant enzyme activities along with ameliorative effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and clinoptilolite. Methods: Three-week old developing Swiss mice Mus musculus were intraperitoneally administered with Pb2+ acetate in water (w/v) (100 mg/kg body weight/day) for 21 days and control group was given distilled water. Further Pb2+-toxicated mice were made into two subgroups and separately supplemented with EDTA and clinoptilolite (100 mg/kg body weight) for 2 weeks. Results: In Pb2+-exposed mice, in addition to increased lipid peroxidation, the activity levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) found to decrease in all regions of brain indicating, existence of severe oxidative stress due to decreased antioxidant function. Treatment of Pb2+-exposed mice with EDTA and clinoptilolite lowered the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels revealing their antioxidant potential to prevent oxidative stress. Similarly their administration led to recover the level of catalase, SOD, and GPx enzymes affected during Pb2+ toxicity in different regions of brain. Conclusions: The protection of brain tissue against Pb2+-induced toxicity by clinoptilolite and EDTA in the present experiment might be due to their ability to react faster with peroxyl radicals there by reducing the severity of biochemical variable indicative of oxidative damage. Thus, the results of present study indicate the neuroprotective potential of clinoptilolite and EDTA against Pb2+ toxicity. PMID:24403728

  14. Neuroprotective effect of estradiol-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles on glutamate-induced excitotoxic neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Gyu Hyun; Jeong, Ji Heun; Lee, In Ho; Lee, Ye Ji; Lee, Nam Seob; Jeong, Young Gil; Lee, Je Hun; Yu, Kwang Sik; Lee, Shin Hye; Hong, Seul Ki; Kang, Seong Hee; Kang, Bo Sun; Kim, Do Kyung; Han, Seung Yun

    2014-11-01

    Different concentrations of estradiol (E2)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (E2-PLGA-NPs) were synthesized using the emulsion-diffusion method. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the average particle size of E2-PLGA-NPs was 98 ± 1.9 nm when stabilized with polyvinyl alcohol and 103 ± 4.9 nm when stabilized with Tween-80. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy with diamond attenuated total reflectance was used to identify the presence or absence of E2 molecules in PLGA nanocapsules. Cell proliferation was assessed after treating SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with 1 nM-1 μM of E2 and E2-PLGA-NPs. The neuroprotective efficacy against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity was also investigated in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Neuroprotection was greater in E2-PLGA-NP-treated cells than in cells treated with the same concentration of E2. Furthermore, E2- and E2-PLGA-NP-treated cells expressed more p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB than cells treated with glutamate only. Moreover, the expression of p-ERK1/2 was higher than that of p-CREB. In this study, p-ERK1/2 had a greater influence on the neuroprotective effect of E2 and E2-PLGA-NPs than p-CREB.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of Gymnema sylvestre on streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    FATANI, AMAL JAMIL; AL-REJAIE, SALIM SALIH; ABUOHASHISH, HATEM MUSTAFA; AL-ASSAF, ABDULLAH; PARMAR, MIHIR YOGESHKUMAR; OLA, MOHAMMAD SHAMSUL; AHMED, MOHAMMED MAHBOOBUDDIN

    2015-01-01

    The application of traditional medicine for diabetes and associated complications, such as diabetic neuropathy (DN), has received increasing attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of Gymnema sylvestre (Gs) in a rat model of DN. Diabetes was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). Treatment with Gs extract (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) began two weeks following the administration of STZ and was continued for five weeks. Pain threshold behavior tests were performed subsequent to the five-week Gs treatment period. In addition, the serum levels of glucose, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were determined. Furthermore, the sciatic tissue levels of nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reduced glutathione were determined, as well as the activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also assessed in the sciatic tissue. In addition, the sciatic nerve tissue samples were analyzed for histopathological alterations. The diabetic rats exhibited apparent reductions in the paw-withdrawal (31%; P<0.01) and tail-flick latencies (38%; P<0.05). Furthermore, the diabetic rats demonstrated an evident elevation in serum and sciatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Measured oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly altered in the sciatic nerve tissue of the diabetic rats. Treatment with Gs attenuated diabetes-induced modifications with regard to the levels of serum glucose, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines. In the sciatic nerve tissue, the diabetes-induced alterations in IL levels and oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly improved in the Gs-treated rats. Furthermore, the reduction in the sciatic tissue expression levels of IGF

  16. Neuroprotective effects of Gymnema sylvestre on streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Fatani, Amal Jamil; Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Al-Assaf, Abdullah; Parmar, Mihir Yogeshkumar; Ola, Mohammad Shamsul; Ahmed, Mohammed Mahboobuddin

    2015-05-01

    The application of traditional medicine for diabetes and associated complications, such as diabetic neuropathy (DN), has received increasing attention. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential ameliorative effect of Gymnema sylvestre (Gs) in a rat model of DN. Diabetes was induced via a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg). Treatment with Gs extract (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) began two weeks following the administration of STZ and was continued for five weeks. Pain threshold behavior tests were performed subsequent to the five-week Gs treatment period. In addition, the serum levels of glucose, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, were determined. Furthermore, the sciatic tissue levels of nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reduced glutathione were determined, as well as the activity levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also assessed in the sciatic tissue. In addition, the sciatic nerve tissue samples were analyzed for histopathological alterations. The diabetic rats exhibited apparent reductions in the paw-withdrawal (31%; P<0.01) and tail-flick latencies (38%; P<0.05). Furthermore, the diabetic rats demonstrated an evident elevation in serum and sciatic levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Measured oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly altered in the sciatic nerve tissue of the diabetic rats. Treatment with Gs attenuated diabetes-induced modifications with regard to the levels of serum glucose, insulin and proinflammatory cytokines. In the sciatic nerve tissue, the diabetes-induced alterations in IL levels and oxidative stress biomarkers were significantly improved in the Gs-treated rats. Furthermore, the reduction in the sciatic tissue expression levels of IGF

  17. Neuroprotective Effects of Endurance Exercise Against High-Fat Diet-Induced Hippocampal Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kang, E-B; Koo, J-H; Jang, Y-C; Yang, C-H; Lee, Y; Cosio-Lima, L M; Cho, J-Y

    2016-05-01

    Obesity contributes to systemic inflammation, which is associated with the varied pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Growing evidence has demonstrated that endurance exercise (EE) mitigates obesity-induced brain inflammation. However, exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain largely unknown. We investigated how treadmill exercise (TE) reverses obesity-induced brain inflammation, mainly focusing on toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4)-dependent neuroinflammation in the obese rat brain after 20 weeks of a high-fat diet (HFD). TE in HFD-fed rats resulted in a significant lowering in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, the area under the curve for glucose and abdominal visceral fat, and also improved working memory ability in a passive avoidance task relative to sedentary behaviour in HFD-fed rats, with the exception of body weight. More importantly, TE revoked the increase in HFD-induced proinflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) and cyclooxygenase-2, which is in parallel with a reduction in TLR-4 and its downstream proteins, myeloid differentiation 88 and tumour necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6, and phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1, IkBα and nuclear factor-κB. Moreover, TE reduced an indicator of microglia activation, ionised calcium-binding adapter molecule-1, and also decreased glial fibrillary acidic protein, an indicator of gliosis formed by activated astrocytes in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampal dentate gyrus, compared to HFD-fed sedentary rats. Finally, EE up-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, and suppressed the expression of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, in the hippocampus compared to HFD-fed sedentary rats. Taken together, these data suggest that TE may exert neuroprotective effects as a result of mitigating the production of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting the TLR4 signalling pathways. The results of

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Fisetin Against Amyloid-Beta-Induced Cognitive/Synaptic Dysfunction, Neuroinflammation, and Neurodegeneration in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ali, Tahir; Park, Hyun Young; Badshah, Haroon; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating and progressive neurodegenerative disease and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins in the brain. The deposition of Aβ aggregates triggers synaptic dysfunction, hyperphosphorylation of tau, and neurodegeneration, which lead to cognitive disorders. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of fisetin in the Aβ1-42 mouse model of AD. Single intracerebroventricular injections of Aβ1-42 (3 μl/5 min/mouse) markedly induced memory/synaptic deficits, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Intraperitoneal injections of fisetin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks starting 24 h after Aβ1-42 injection significantly decreased the Aβ1-42-induced accumulation of Aβ, BACE-1 expression, and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at serine 413. Fisetin treatment also markedly reversed Aβ1-42-induced synaptic dysfunction by increasing the levels of both presynaptic (SYN and SNAP-25) and postsynaptic proteins (PSD-95, SNAP-23, p-GluR1 (Ser 845), p-CREB (Ser 133) and p-CAMKII (Thr 286) and ultimately improved mouse memory, as observed in the Morris water maze test. Fisetin significantly activated p-PI3K, p-Akt (Ser 473), and p-GSK3β (Ser 9) expression in Aβ1-42-treated mice. Moreover, fisetin prevented neuroinflammation by suppressing various activated neuroinflammatory mediators and gliosis; it also suppressed the apoptotic neurodegeneration triggered by Aβ1-42 injections in the mouse hippocampus. Fluorojade-B and immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 revealed that fisetin prevented neurodegeneration in Aβ1-42-treated mice. Our results suggest that fisetin has a potent neuroprotective effect against Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity. These results demonstrate that polyphenolic flavonoids such as fisetin could be a beneficial, effective and safe neuroprotective agent for preventing neurological disorders such as AD.

  19. Neuroprotection & mechanism of ethanol in stroke and traumatic brain injury therapy: new prospects for an ancient drug.

    PubMed

    Asmaro, Karam; Fu, Paul; Ding, Yuchuan

    2013-01-01

    Effective efforts to screen for agents that protect against the devastating effects of stroke have not produced viable results thus far. As a result this article reviews the possible role of ethanol as a neuroprotective agent in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have associated ethanol consumption with a decreased risk of ischemic stroke, suggesting a neuroprotective mechanism. The translation of this clinical knowledge into basic science research with the goal of new therapy for acute stroke patients remains in its initial stages. In a recent study involving rats, we have shown that ethanol administration, in the correct dose after stroke onset, protects against ischemia-induced brain injury. The purpose of this paper is to discuss ethanol's neuroprotective properties in stroke when consumed as a preconditioning agent, in TBI with a positive blood alcohol content, and finally in stroke treatment, with the goal of using post-ischemia ethanol (PIE) therapy to ameliorate brain damage in the future.

  20. Identification of Sleep-Modulated Pathways Involved in Neuroprotection from Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pace, Marta; Baracchi, Francesca; Gao, Bo; Bassetti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation (SDp) performed before stroke induces an ischemic tolerance state as observed in other forms of preconditioning. As the mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood, we used DNA oligonucleotide microarray analysis to identify the genes and the gene-pathways underlying SDp preconditioning effects. Design: Gene expression was analyzed 3 days after stroke in 4 experimental groups: (i) SDp performed before focal cerebral ischemia (IS) induction; (ii) SDp performed before sham surgery; (iii) IS without SDp; and (iv) sham surgery without SDp. SDp was performed by gentle handling during the last 6 h of the light period, and ischemia was induced immediately after. Settings: Basic sleep research laboratory. Measurements and Results: Stroke induced a massive alteration in gene expression both in sleep deprived and non-sleep deprived animals. However, compared to animals that underwent ischemia alone, SDp induced a general reduction in transcriptional changes with a reduction in the upregulation of genes involved in cell cycle regulation and immune response. Moreover, an upregulation of a new neuroendocrine pathway which included melanin concentrating hormone, glycoprotein hormones-α-polypeptide and hypocretin was observed exclusively in rats sleep deprived before stroke. Conclusion: Our data indicate that sleep deprivation before stroke reprogrammed the signaling response to injury. The inhibition of cell cycle regulation and inflammation are neuroprotective mechanisms reported also for other forms of preconditioning treatment, whereas the implication of the neuroendocrine function is novel and has never been described before. These results therefore provide new insights into neuroprotective mechanisms involved in ischemic tolerance mechanisms. Citation: Pace M, Baracchi F, Gao B, Bassetti C. Identification of sleep-modulated pathways involved in neuroprotection from stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1707–1718. PMID:26085290

  1. SO4(=) uptake and catalase role in preconditioning after H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Rossana; Remigante, Alessia; Di Pietro, Maria Letizia; Giannetto, Antonino; La Spada, Giuseppina; Marino, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Preconditioning (PC) is an adaptive response to a mild and transient oxidative stress, shown for the first time in myocardial cells and not described in erythrocytes so far. The possible adaptation of human erythrocytes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress has been here verified by monitoring one of band 3 protein functions, i.e., Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange, through rate constant for SO4(=) uptake measurement. With this aim, erythrocytes were exposed to a mild and transient oxidative stress (30 min to either 10 or 100 μM H2O2), followed by a stronger oxidant condition (300- or, alternatively, 600-μM H2O2 treatment). SO4(=) uptake was measured by a turbidimetric method, and the possible role of catalase (CAT, significantly contributing to the anti-oxidant system in erythrocytes) in PC response has been verified by measuring the rate of H2O2 degradation. The preventive exposure of erythrocytes to 10 μM H2O2, and then to 300 μM H2O2, significantly ameliorated the rate constant for SO4(=) uptake with respect to 300 μM H2O2 alone, showing thus an adaptive response to oxidative stress. Our results show that (i) SO4(=) uptake measurement is a suitable model to monitor the effects of a mild and transient oxidative stress in human erythrocytes, (ii) band 3 protein anion exchange capability is retained after 10 μM H2O2 treatment, (iii) PC response induced by the 10 μM H2O2 pretreatment is clearly detected, and (iv) PC response, elicited by low-concentrated H2O2, is mediated by CAT enzyme and does not involve band 3 protein tyrosine phosphorylation pathways. Erythrocyte adaptation to a short-term oxidative stress may serve as a basis for future studies about the impact of more prolonged oxidative events, often associated to aging, drug consumption, chronic alcoholism, hyperglycemia, or neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Discovery of a novel neuroprotectant, BHDPC, that protects against MPP+/MPTP-induced neuronal death in multiple experimental models.

    PubMed

    Chong, Cheong-Meng; Ma, Dan; Zhao, Chao; Franklin, Robin J M; Zhou, Zhong-Yan; Ai, Nana; Li, Chuwen; Yu, Huidong; Hou, Tingjun; Sa, Fei; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen

    2015-12-01

    Progressive degeneration and death of neurons are main causes of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Although some current medicines may temporarily improve their symptoms, no treatments can slow or halt the progression of neuronal death. In this study, a pyrimidine derivative, benzyl 7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-4,7-dihydrotetrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-6-carboxylate (BHDPC), was found to attenuate dramatically the MPTP-induced death of dopaminergic neurons and improve behavior movement deficiency in zebrafish, supporting its potential neuroprotective activity in vivo. Further study in rat organotypic cerebellar cultures indicated that BHDPC was able to suppress MPP(+)-induced cell death of brain tissue slices ex vivo. The protective effect of BHDPC against MPP(+) toxicity was also effective in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells through restoring abnormal changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and numerous apoptotic regulators. Western blotting analysis indicated that BHDPC was able to activate PKA/CREB survival signaling and further up-regulate Bcl2 expression. However, BHDPC failed to suppress MPP(+)-induced cytotoxicity and the increase of caspase 3 activity in the presence of the PKA inhibitor H89. Taken together, these results suggest that BHDPC is a potential neuroprotectant with prosurvival effects in multiple models of neurodegenerative disease in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo.

  3. Neuroprotective effect of taurine in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced experimental animal model of Huntington's disease phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tadros, Mariane G; Khalifa, Amani E; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Arafa, Hossam M M

    2005-11-01

    An experimental animal model of Huntington's disease (HD) phenotype was induced using the mycotoxin 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) and was well characterized behaviorally, neurochemically, morphometrically and histologically. Administration of 3-NP caused a reduction in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle response, locomotor hyper- and/or hypoactivity, bilateral striatal lesions, brain oxidative stress, and decreased striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels. Taurine is a semi-essential beta-amino acid that was demonstrated to have both antioxidant and GABA-A agonistic activity. In this study, treatment with taurine (200 mg/kg daily for 3 days) prior to 3-NP administration reversed both reduced PPI response and locomotor hypoactivity caused by 3-NP injection. Taurine pretreatment also caused about 2-fold increase in GABA concentration compared to 3-NP-treated animals. In addition, taurine demonstrated antioxidant activity against oxidative stress induced by 3-NP administration as evidenced by the reduced striatal malondialdehyde (MDA) and elevated striatal glutathione (GSH) levels. Histochemical examination of striatal tissue showed that prior administration of taurine ahead of 3-NP challenge significantly increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity compared to 3-NP-treated animals. Histopathological examination further affirmed the neuroprotective effect of taurine in 3-NP-induced HD in rats. Taken together, one may conclude that taurine has neuroprotective role in the current HD paradigm due, at least partly, to its indirect antioxidant effect and GABA agonistic action.

  4. Neuroprotective effect of D-psicose on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

    PubMed

    Takata, Maki K; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Nakanose, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hatano, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Nagata, Mitsuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2005-11-01

    We evaluated the neuroprotective effects of D-psicose, one of the rare sugars, on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis in catecholaminergic PC12 cells, the in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Apoptotic characteristics of PC12 cells were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. The results showed that D-psicose at a concentration of 50 mM, exerted significant protective effects against the 6-OHDA (200 muM)-induced PC12 cell apoptosis, while other sugars had little or no protective effects. We have observed a significant increase in the level of intracellular glutathione after 24 h in 6-OHDA (200 muM) treated cells, while a decrease in the level was observed at 3 h and 6 h. Also, a synergistic exposure to D-psicose and 6-OHDA for 24 h showed a significant increase in intracellular glutathione level. Therefore, these results suggest that D-psicose may play a potential role as a neuroprotective agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by inducing an up-regulation of intracellular glutathione.

  5. Neuroprotective, Neurotrophic and Anti-oxidative Role of Bacopa monnieri on CUS Induced Model of Depression in Rat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sourav; Mondal, Amal Chandra

    2016-11-01

    Major depression is a life threatening neuropsychiatric disorder that produces mental illness and major cause of morbidity. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neuroprotective, neurotrophic and antioxidant potential of Bacopa monnieri extract (BME) on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced behavioral depression in rats. Behavioral tests were carried out for investigation of antidepressant like effects of BME, and potential mechanism was assessed by determining neurotrophin level and hippocampal neurogenesis. Depressive-like behavior was assessed by shuttle-box escape test, forced swim test and tail suspension test. Effect of BME on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was evaluated by measuring the plasma level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. The expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuronal marker doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were measured and hippocampal neurogenesis was investigated by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN). In addition, effects of BME on oxidative stress markers were also measured in the hippocampus of CUS exposed rats. The results indicated that BME significantly able to attenuate the depressive-like behaviors, normalized the levels of ACTH, corticosterone, and up-regulate the expression of BDNF, DCX and BrdU/NeuN in CUS induced rats compared to BME treated rats. It is also found that BME significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes on CUS induced rats. These findings revealed that BME exerted neuroprotective effects possibly by promoting hippocampal neurogenesis with elevation of BDNF level and antioxidant defense against oxidative stress.

  6. BDNF-TrkB Pathway Mediates Neuroprotection of Hydrogen Sulfide against Formaldehyde-Induced Toxicity to PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Sheng-Lan; Tian, Ying; Wang, Chun-Yan; Wang, Li; Gu, Hong-Feng; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a common environmental contaminant that has toxic effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Our previous data demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third endogenous gaseous mediator, has protective effects against FA-induced neurotoxicity. As is known to all, Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin gene family, mediates its neuroprotective properties via various intracellular signaling pathways triggered by activating the tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB). Intriguingly, our previous data have illustrated the upregulatory role of H2S on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus of rats. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that H2S provides neuroprotection against FA toxicity by regulating BDNF-TrkB pathway. In the present study, we found that NaHS, a donor of H2S, upregulated the level of BDNF protein in PC12 cells, and significantly rescued FA-induced downregulation of BDNF levels. Furthermore, we found that pretreatment of PC12 cells with K252a, an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, markedly reversed the inhibition of NaHS on FA-induced cytotoxicity and ablated the protective effects of NaHS on FA-induced oxidative stress, including the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (4-HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA). We also showed that K252a abolished the inhibition of NaHS on FA-induced apoptosis, as well as the activation of caspase-3 in PC12 cells. In addition, K252a reversed the protection of H2S against FA-induced downregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression and upregulation of Bax protein expression in PC12 cells. These data indicate that the BDNF-TrkB pathway mediates the neuroprotection of H2S against FA-induced cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells. These findings provide a novel mechanism underlying the protection of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:25749582

  7. Thioflavones as novel neuroprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Divyashree; Corona, Giulia; Hogan, Stephanie M; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Greco, Francesca; Osborn, Helen M I

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Identification of small molecules capable of protecting against oxidative stress is therefore of significant importance. In this context, a library of 76 hydroxy flavones, methoxy flavones and their 4-thio analogues has been evaluated for neuroprotection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. This revealed the synthetic 7,8-dihydroxy 4-thioflavones as neuroprotective compounds, with 14d and 18d showing highest neuroprotective effects at lower concentrations (0.3μM). Neuroprotection was found to be mediated via activation of the anti-apoptotic cell survival proteins of the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed the B-ring phenyl group as essential for greater neuroprotection. Replacing the 4-CO moiety with a 4-CS moiety also generally enhanced neuroprotection.

  8. Neuroprotective Properties of Compounds Extracted from Dianthus superbus L. against Glutamate-induced Cell Death in HT22 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo-Ra; Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dianthus superbus L. has been used in Chinese herbal medicine as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent. Objective: In this study, we isolated ten bioactive compounds from D. superbus and evaluated their neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death in the hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. Materials and Methods: New compound, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1) and, nine known compounds, diosmetin-7-O (2’’,6’’-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid (6), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol (8), hydroferulic acid (9), and methyl hydroferulate (10), were isolated by bioactivity-guided separation. Structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, and two-dimensional NMR spectra, while their neuroprotective properties were evaluated by performing the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Results: D. superbus extract had a neuroprotective effect and isolated 10 compounds. Among the compounds, compounds 5 and 6 effectively protected HT22 cells against glutamate toxicity. Conclusion: In conclusion, the extract of D. superbus and compounds isolated from it exhibited neuroprotective properties, suggesting therapeutic potential for applications in neurotoxic diseases. SUMMARY D. superbus extract significantly protected on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cellsNew compound, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1) and, nine known compounds, diosmetin-7-O(2’’,6’’-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid (6), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3

  9. Physics-Based Preconditioning for the Numerical Solution of the All-Speed Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations with Laser-Induced Phase Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Brian; Nourgaliev, Robert; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Anderson, Andy

    2016-11-01

    The numerical simulation of flows associated with metal additive manufacturing processes such as selective laser melting and other laser-induced phase change applications present new challenges. Specifically, these flows require a fully compressible formulation since rapid density variations occur due to laser-induced melting and solidification of metal powder. We investigate the preconditioning for a recently developed all-speed compressible Navier-Stokes solver that addresses such challenges. The equations are discretized with a reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin method and integrated in time with fully implicit discretization schemes. The resulting set of non-linear and linear equations are solved with a robust Newton-Krylov (NK) framework. To enable convergence of the highly ill-conditioned linearized systems, we employ a physics-based operator split preconditioner (PBP), utilizing a robust Schur complement technique. We investigate different options of splitting the physics (field) blocks as well as different block solvers on the reduced preconditioning matrix. We demonstrate that our NK-PBP framework is scalable and converges for high CFL/Fourier numbers on classic problems in fluid dynamics as well as for laser-induced phase change problems.

  10. Neuroprotective Effects of Germinated Brown Rice against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Cell Death in Human SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H2O2-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:22949825

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Inhibiting Fyn S-Nitrosylation on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage to CA1 Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lingyun; Wei, Xuewen; Guo, Peng; Zhang, Guangyi; Qi, Suhua

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate signaling pathways via S-nitrosylation. Fyn can be post-translationally modified in many biological processes. In the present study, using a rat four-vessel-occlusion ischemic model, we aimed to assess whether Fyn could be S-nitrosylated and to evaluate the effects of Fyn S-nitrosylation on brain damage. In vitro, Fyn could be S-nitrosylated by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, an exogenous NO donor), and in vivo, endogenous NO synthesized by NO synthases (NOS) could enhance Fyn S-nitrosylation. Application of GSNO, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, an inhibitor of neuronal NOS) and hydrogen maleate (MK-801, the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist) could decrease the S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation of Fyn induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Cresyl violet staining validated that these compounds exerted neuroprotective effects against the cerebral I/R-induced damage to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Taken together, in this study, we demonstrated that Fyn can be S-nitrosylated both in vitro and in vivo and that inhibiting S-nitrosylation can exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral I/R injury, potentially via NMDAR-mediated mechanisms. These findings may lead to a new field of inquiry to investigate the underlying pathogenesis of stroke and the development of novel treatment strategies. PMID:27420046

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Lycopene Against PTZ-induced Kindling Seizures in Mice: Possible Behavioural, Biochemical and Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Manveen; Kumar, Anil

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the major contributing factors in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders. Recently, antioxidant therapies aimed at reducing oxidative stress gained a considerable attention in epilepsy treatment. Lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has received scientific interest in recent years. So, the present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of lycopene against the pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling epilepsy. Laca mice received lycopene (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and sodium valproate for a period of 29 days and PTZ (40 mg/kg i.p (Intraperitoneal)) injection on alternative days. Various behavioural (kindling score), biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase and nitrite) and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) were assessed in the brain. Results depicted that repeated administration of a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (40 mg/kg) significantly increased kindling score, oxidative damage and impaired mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared with naive animals. Lycopene (5 and 10 mg/kg) and sodium valproate (100 mg/kg) treatment for a duration of 29 days significantly attenuated kindling score, reversed oxidative damage and restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities (I, II and IV) as compared with control. Thus, present study demonstrates the neuroprotective potential of lycopene in PTZ-induced kindling in mice.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of germinated brown rice against hydrogen peroxide induced cell death in human SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norsharina; Ismail, Maznah; Fathy, Siti Farhana; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Foo, Jhi Biau; Iqbal, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The neuroprotective and antioxidative effects of germinated brown rice (GBR), brown rice (BR) and commercially available γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) against cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells have been investigated. Results show that GBR suppressed H(2)O(2)-mediated cytotoxicity and induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, GBR reduced mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and prevented phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in SH-SY5Y cells, key features of apoptosis, and subsequent cell death. GBR exhibited better neuroprotective and antioxidative activities as compared to BR and GABA. These results indicate that GBR possesses high antioxidative activities and suppressed cell death in SH-SY5Y cells by blocking the cell cycle re-entry and apoptotic mechanisms. Therefore, GBR could be developed as a value added functional food to prevent neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of Inhibiting Fyn S-Nitrosylation on Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage to CA1 Hippocampal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lingyun; Wei, Xuewen; Guo, Peng; Zhang, Guangyi; Qi, Suhua

    2016-07-12

    Nitric oxide (NO) can regulate signaling pathways via S-nitrosylation. Fyn can be post-translationally modified in many biological processes. In the present study, using a rat four-vessel-occlusion ischemic model, we aimed to assess whether Fyn could be S-nitrosylated and to evaluate the effects of Fyn S-nitrosylation on brain damage. In vitro, Fyn could be S-nitrosylated by S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO, an exogenous NO donor), and in vivo, endogenous NO synthesized by NO synthases (NOS) could enhance Fyn S-nitrosylation. Application of GSNO, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, an inhibitor of neuronal NOS) and hydrogen maleate (MK-801, the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist) could decrease the S-nitrosylation and phosphorylation of Fyn induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Cresyl violet staining validated that these compounds exerted neuroprotective effects against the cerebral I/R-induced damage to hippocampal CA1 neurons. Taken together, in this study, we demonstrated that Fyn can be S-nitrosylated both in vitro and in vivo and that inhibiting S-nitrosylation can exert neuroprotective effects against cerebral I/R injury, potentially via NMDAR-mediated mechanisms. These findings may lead to a new field of inquiry to investigate the underlying pathogenesis of stroke and the development of novel treatment strategies.

  15. Increases of Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase Expressions by Lacosamide Pretreatment Contributes to Neuroprotection Against Experimentally Induced Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Young; Park, Joon Ha; Chen, Bai Hui; Shin, Bich Na; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Won, Moo-Ho; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Yan, Bing Chun; Hwang, In Koo; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kim, Sung Koo

    2016-09-01

    Lacosamide is a new antiepileptic drug which is widely used to treat partial-onset seizures. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of lacosamide against transient ischemic damage and expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We found that pre-treatment with 25 mg/kg lacosamide protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient global cerebral ischemic insult using hematoxylin-eosin staining and neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Transient ischemia dramatically changed expressions of SOD1, SOD2 and GPX, not CAT, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lacosamide pre-treatment increased expressions of CAT and GPX, not SOD1 and 2, in the CA1 pyramidal neurons compared with controls, and their expressions induced by lacosamide pre-treatment were maintained after transient cerebral ischemia. In brief, pre-treatment with lacosamide protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage induced by transient global cerebral ischemia, and the lacosamide-mediated neuroprotection may be closely related to increases of CAT and GPX expressions by lacosamide pre-treatment.

  16. Profile of minocycline neuroprotection in bilirubin-induced auditory system dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rice, Ann C; Chiou, Victoria L; Zuckoff, Sarah B; Shapiro, Steven M

    2011-01-12

    Excessive hyperbilirubinemia in human neonates can cause permanent dysfunction of the auditory system, as assessed with brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs). Jaundiced Gunn rat pups (jjs) exhibit similar BAEP abnormalities as hyperbilirubinemic neonates. Sulfadimethoxine (sulfa) administration to jjs, which displaces bilirubin from serum albumin into tissues including brain, exacerbates acute toxicity. Minocycline administered prior to sulfa in jjs protects against BAEP abnormalities. This study evaluates the neuroprotective capabilities of minocycline HCl (50 mg/kg) administered 30 or 120 min after sulfa (200 mg/kg) in 16 days old jjs. BAEPs are recorded at 6 or 24 h post-sulfa. Abnormal BAEP waves exhibit increased latency and decreased amplitude. The sulfa/saline treated jjs exhibited a significantly increased interwave interval between waves I and II (I-II IWI) and significantly decreased amplitudes of waves II and III compared to the saline/saline jjs. The minocycline 30 min post-sulfa (sulfa/mino+30) group was not significantly different from the saline/saline control group, indicating neuroprotection. The minocycline 120 min post-sulfa (sulfa/mino+120) group had a significantly decreased amplitude of wave III at both 6 and 24h. These studies indicate that minocycline has a graded neuroprotective effect when administered after acute bilirubin neurotoxicity.

  17. Oral ‘hydrogen water' induces neuroprotective ghrelin secretion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Akio; Yamafuji, Megumi; Tachibana, Tomoko; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Noda, Mami; Nakaya, Haruaki

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of molecular hydrogen (H2) is emerging in a number of human diseases and in their animal models, including in particular Parkinson's disease (PD). H2 supplementation of drinking water has been shown to exert disease-modifying effects in PD patients and neuroprotective effects in experimental PD model mice. However, H2 supplementation does not result in detectable changes in striatal H2 levels, indicating an indirect effect. Here we show that H2 supplementation increases gastric expression of mRNA encoding ghrelin, a growth hormone secretagogue, and ghrelin secretion, which are antagonized by the β1-adrenoceptor blocker, atenolol. Strikingly, the neuroprotective effect of H2 water was abolished by either administration of the ghrelin receptor-antagonist, D-Lys3 GHRP-6, or atenolol. Thus, the neuroprotective effect of H2 in PD is mediated by enhanced production of ghrelin. Our findings point to potential, novel strategies for ameliorating pathophysiology in which a protective effect of H2 supplementation has been demonstrated. PMID:24253616

  18. Cerebrolysin, a mixture of neurotrophic factors induces marked neuroprotection in spinal cord injury following intoxication of engineered nanoparticles from metals.

    PubMed

    Menon, Preeti Kumaran; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Sharma, Aruna; Mössler, Herbert; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2012-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is the world's most disastrous disease for which there is no effective treatment till today. Several studies suggest that nanoparticles could adversely influence the pathology of SCI and thereby alter the efficacy of many neuroprotective agents. Thus, there is an urgent need to find suitable therapeutic agents that could minimize cord pathology following trauma upon nanoparticle intoxication. Our laboratory has been engaged for the last 7 years in finding suitable therapeutic strategies that could equally reduce cord pathology in normal and in nanoparticle-treated animal models of SCI. We observed that engineered nanoparticles from metals e.g., aluminum (Al), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) (50-60 nm) when administered in rats daily for 7 days (50 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in exacerbation of cord pathology after trauma that correlated well with breakdown of the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) to serum proteins. The entry of plasma proteins into the cord leads to edema formation and neuronal damage. Thus, future drugs should be designed in such a way to be effective even when the SCI is influenced by nanoparticles. Previous research suggests that a suitable combination of neurotrophic factors could induce marked neuroprotection in SCI in normal animals. Thus, we examined the effects of a new drug; cerebrolysin that is a mixture of different neurotrophic factors e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and other peptide fragments to treat normal or nanoparticle-treated rats after SCI. Our observations showed that cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, i.v.) before SCI resulted in good neuroprotection in normal animals, whereas nanoparticle-treated rats required a higher dose of the drug (5.0 ml/kg, i.v.) to induce comparable neuroprotection in the cord after SCI. Cerebrolysin also reduced spinal cord water content, leakage of plasma proteins

  19. Nerve growth factor neuroprotection of ethanol-induced neuronal death in rat cerebral cortex is age dependent.

    PubMed

    Mooney, S M; Miller, M W

    2007-10-26

    Organotypic cultures of rat cortex were used to test the hypotheses that nerve growth factor (NGF) is neuroprotective for immature cortical neurons and that ethanol abolishes this neuroprotection in a developmental stage-dependent manner. Samples were obtained on gestational day (G) 16 or postnatal day (P) 3 and cultured with ethanol (0 or 400 mg/dl) and NGF (0 or 30 ng/ml) for 72 h. Dying neurons were identified as exhibiting terminal nick-end labeling, immunoreactivity for activated caspase 3, or condensed nuclear chromatin. Two cortical compartments were examined in fetal tissue: a superficial, cell-sparse marginal zone (MZ) and a cell-dense cortical plate (CP). At P3, the CP was subdivided into a cell-dense upper cortical plate (UCP) and a less densely packed lower cortical plate (LCP). Neuronal death in the MZ was affected by neither NGF nor ethanol at both ages. In the fetal CP, NGF did not affect the incidence of cell death, but ethanol increased it. Treatment with NGF caused an upregulation of the expression of Neg, a gene known to be affected by NGF and ethanol. NGF did not ameliorate the ethanol-induced death. In pups, ethanol increased the amount of death in the LCP. NGF did protect against this death. Neither ethanol nor NGF altered the incidence of cell death in the UCP. The laminar-dependent neuroprotection did not correlate with expression of NGF receptors or Neg. Thus, NGF can be protective against the neurotoxic effect of ethanol in the neonatal brain. This effect is site selective and time dependent and it targets postmigratory, differentiating neurons.

  20. The ameliorating effects of 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice and its neuroprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Weon, Jin Bae; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Ma, Choong Je

    2013-12-15

    We isolated 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone, a neuroprotective compound from Cynenchum paniculatum in our previous study. The present study was conducted to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone that has been previously isolated from Cynenchum paniculatum on hippocampal neuronal cell line, HT22 cells and its possible cognitive-enhancing effect on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in HT22 cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Also, cognitive enhancing effect against scopolamine (1mg/kg, ip) induced learning and memory deficit was measured by Morris water maze test. Oral administered of 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (1, 10, 20, 40 and 50mg/kg) to amnesic mice induced by scopolamine. In Morris water maze test, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone (50mg/kg) improved the impairment of spatial memory induced by scopolamine. 2,3-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone protect HT22 cells on glutamate induced cell-death in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 value: 10.94μM). Furthermore, 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone was found to inhibit [Ca(2+)] accumulation in HT22 cells and had antioxidantive activity. The results showed that 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone exert neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing activities through its antioxidant activity. We suggest that 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone improves cognitive function and may be helpful for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  1. [Molecular-cellular and hormonal mechanisms of induced brain tolerance of extreme factors].

    PubMed

    Samoĭlov, M O; Rybnikova, E A

    2012-01-01

    This review includes results of own studies and literature data on the topical problem of neurobiology and medicine: discovery of the mechanisms of increased brain resistance to extreme exposures. The emphasis is made on the molecular-cellular and hormonal mechanisms of hypoxic preconditioning-induced brain tolerance to injurious hypoxia, psychoemotional and traumatic stress. A role of basic hormonal and intracellular cascade pro-adaptive processes mediating the neuroprotective action of hypoxic preconditioning is reviewed. A dynamics of the mechanisms of development of induced susceptible brain areas (hippocampus, neocortex) tolerance which includes phases of induction, transformation and expression, is presented. New data on preconditioning-induced cross-tolerance providing increased brain resistance not only to hypoxia but also to other stresses are reported. For the first time neuroprotective effects of hypoxic postconditioning are described.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of steroidal alkaloids on glutamate-induced toxicity by preserving mitochondrial membrane potential and reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Marcos; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Teixeira, João P; Andrade, Paula B

    2014-03-01

    Several evidences suggest that enhanced oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of several neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time whether both extracts from tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaves and their isolated steroidal alkaloids (tomatine and tomatidine) afford neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this protection. Steroidal alkaloids from tomato are well known for their cholinesterases' inhibitory capacity and the results showed that both purified extracts and isolated compounds, at non-toxic concentrations for gastric (AGS), intestinal (Caco-2) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells, have the capacity to preserve mitochondria membrane potential and to decrease reactive oxygen species levels of SH-SY5Y glutamate-insulted cells. Moreover, the use of specific antagonists of cholinergic receptors allowed observing that tomatine and tomatidine can interact with nicotinic receptors, specifically with the α7 type. No effect on muscarinic receptors was noticed. In addition to the selective cholinesterases' inhibition revealed by the compounds/extracts, these results provide novel and important insights into their neuroprotective mechanism. This work also demystifies the applicability of these compounds in therapeutics, by demonstrating that their toxicity was overestimated for long time.

  3. Galectin-1 suppresses methamphetamine induced neuroinflammation in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: Neuroprotective role in maintaining blood brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Neil U; Aalinkeel, R; Reynolds, J L; Nair, B B; Sykes, D E; Mammen, M J; Schwartz, S A; Mahajan, S D

    2015-10-22

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse can lead to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity leading to compromised CNS function. The role of Galectins in the angiogenesis process in tumor-associated endothelial cells (EC) is well established; however no data are available on the expression of Galectins in normal human brain microvascular endothelial cells and their potential role in maintaining BBB integrity. We evaluated the basal gene/protein expression levels of Galectin-1, -3 and -9 in normal primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) that constitute the BBB and examined whether Meth altered Galectin expression in these cells, and if Galectin-1 treatment impacted the integrity of an in-vitro BBB. Our results showed that BMVEC expressed significantly higher levels of Galectin-1 as compared to Galectin-3 and -9. Meth treatment increased Galectin-1 expression in BMVEC. Meth induced decrease in TJ proteins ZO-1, Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was reversed by Galectin-1. Our data suggests that Galectin-1 is involved in BBB remodeling and can increase levels of TJ proteins ZO-1 and Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 which helps maintain BBB tightness thus playing a neuroprotective role. Galectin-1 is thus an important regulator of immune balance from neurodegeneration to neuroprotection, which makes it an important therapeutic agent/target in the treatment of drug addiction and other neurological conditions.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Neural Stem Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Bak, Seong Wan; Choi, Hojin; Park, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Kyu-Yong; Lee, Young Joo; Yoon, Moon-Young; Koh, Seong-Ho

    2016-12-01

    Deprivation of oxygen and glucose is the main cause of neuronal cell death during cerebral infarction and can result in severe morbidity and mortality. In general, the neuroprotective therapies that are applied after ischemic stroke have been unsuccessful, despite many investigations. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) plays an important role in mitochondrial metabolism and in modulating the coenzyme A (CoA)/acyl-CoA ratio. We investigated the protective effects of ALCAR against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in neural stem cells (NSCs). We measured cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, and intracellular signaling protein levels after treatment with varying concentrations of ALCAR under OGD for 8 h. ALCAR protected NSCs against OGD by reducing apoptosis and restoring proliferation. Its protective effects are associated with increases in the expression of survival-related proteins, such as phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3b (pGSK3b), B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and Ki-67 in NSCs that were injured by OGD. ALCAR also reduced the expression of death-related proteins, such as Bax, cytosolic cytochrome C, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3. We concluded that ALCAR exhibits neuroprotective effects against OGD-induced damage to NSCs by enhancing the expression of survival signals and decreasing that of death signals.

  5. Comparative Study on the Protective Effects of Salidroside and Hypoxic Preconditioning for Attenuating Anoxia-Induced Apoptosis in Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yao; Lv, Xiumei; Zhang, Jing; Meng, Xianli

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypoxia is an important sign that can result from body injuries or a special condition such as being at a high altitude or deep water diving. In the current studies, hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) plays a key role in reducing hypoxia-induced apoptosis. We aimed to study the pharmacologic preconditioning effects of salidroside versus those of HPC in hypoxia-/anoxia-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells (pheochromocytoma). Material/Methods PC12 cells were treated by different experimental conditions: control condition, hypoxia condition, HPC condition, low-/middle-/high-dose condition of salidroside, cyclosporine A (CsA), and oratractyloside (ATR). The cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), intracellular Ca2+, caspase-3 activity, and expression of Bcl-2 were detected in PC12 cells after the hypoxia treatment. Salidroside, extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Rhodiola rosea L, plays an essential role in reducing hypoxia-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by the mitochondrial pathway. Results Salidroside decreased the apoptosis and increased the viability of hypoxia-induced PC12 cells more effectively than HPC Moreover, salidroside markedly stabilized MMP and intracellular Ca2+, reduced or inhibited LDH and caspase-3 activity, and up-regulated Bcl-2; CsA and ATR showed corresponding function. Conclusions Salidroside administration restrains apoptosis induced by hypoxia in PC12 cells. The protective effects are mediated by preservation of mitochondrial integrity and MMP to inhibit the excessive Ca2+ influx and caspase-3 activity and to promote the Bcl-2 expression, providing a potential clinical and effective therapeutic mechanism to reduce deaths from ischemic or hypoxic injury. PMID:27794583

  6. Neuroprotective effects of Buyang Huanwu decoction on cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal damage

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Qingchun; Liu, Pengfei; Hu, Xitong; Gao, Haijun; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Among the various treatment methods for stroke, increasing attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicines. Buyang Huanwu decoction is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of stroke. This paper summarizes the active components of the Chinese herb, which is composed of Huangqi (Radix Astragali seu Hedysari), Danggui (Radix Angelica sinensis), Chishao (Radix Paeoniae Rubra), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Honghua (Flos Carthami), Taoren (Semen Persicae) and Dilong (Pheretima), and identifies the therapeutic targets and underlying mechanisms that contribute to the neuroprotective properties of Buyang Huanwu decoction. PMID:25368650

  7. Critical role of large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels in leptin-induced neuroprotection of N-methyl-d-aspartate-exposed cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Maria; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Gessner, Guido; Wissuwa, Bianka; Barrese, Vincenzo; Boscia, Francesca; Secondo, Agnese; Miceli, Francesco; Franco, Cristina; Ambrosino, Paolo; Canzoniero, Lorella Maria Teresa; Bauer, Michael; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of the adipokine leptin, and the molecular mechanism involved, have been studied in rat and mice cortical neurons exposed to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, leptin elicited neuroprotective effects against NMDA-induced cell death, which were concentration-dependent (10-100 ng/ml) and largest when the adipokine was preincubated for 2h before the neurotoxic stimulus. In both rat and mouse cortical neurons, leptin-induced neuroprotection was fully antagonized by paxilline (Pax, 0.01-1 μM) and iberiotoxin (Ibtx, 1-100 nM), with EC50s of 38 ± 10 nM and 5 ± 2 nM for Pax and Ibtx, respectively, close to those reported for Pax- and Ibtx-induced Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) channels (Slo1 BK channels) blockade; the BK channel opener NS1619 (1-30 μM) induced a concentration-dependent protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Moreover, cortical neurons from mice lacking one or both alleles coding for Slo1 BK channel pore-forming subunits were insensitive to leptin-induced neuroprotection. Finally, leptin exposure dose-dependently (10-100 ng/ml) increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels in rat cortical neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that Slo1 BK channel activation following increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels is a critical step for leptin-induced neuroprotection in NMDA-exposed cortical neurons in vitro, thus highlighting leptin-based intervention via BK channel activation as a potential strategy to counteract neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. CRITICAL ROLE OF LARGE CONDUCTANCE VOLTAGE- AND CALCIUM-ACTIVATED POTASSIUM CHANNELS IN LEPTIN-INDUCED NEUROPROTECTION OF N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE-EXPOSED CORTICAL NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Maria; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Gessner, Guido; Wissuwa, Bianka; Barrese, Vincenzo; Boscia, Francesca; Secondo, Agnese; Miceli, Francesco; Franco, Cristina; Ambrosino, Paolo; Canzoniero, Lorella MariaTeresa; Bauer, Michael; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H; Taglialatela, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the neuroprotective effects of the adipokine leptin, and the molecular mechanism involved, have been studied in rat and mice cortical neurons exposed to N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) in vitro. In rat cortical neurons, leptin elicited neuroprotective effects against NMDA-induced cell death which were concentration-dependent (10–100 ng/ml) and largest when the adipokine was preincubated for 2 hours before the neurotoxic stimulus. In both rat and mouse cortical neurons, leptin-induced neuroprotection was fully antagonized by Paxilline (Pax, 0.01–1 μM) and Iberiotoxin (Ibtx, 1–100 nM), two blockers of Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ channels (Slo1 BK channels), with EC50s (38±10 nM and 5±2 nM for Pax and Ibtx, respectively) close to those reported for Pax- and Ibtx-induced BK channel blockade; the BK channel opener NS1619 (1–30 μM) induced a concentration-dependent protection against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Moreover, cortical neurons from mice lacking one or both alleles coding for Slo1 BK channel pore-forming subunits were insensitive to leptin-induced neuroprotection. Finally, leptin exposure dose-dependently (10–100 ng/ml) increased intracellular Ca2+ levels in rat cortical neurons. In conclusion, our results suggest that Slo1 BK channel activation following increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels is a critical step for leptin-induced neuroprotection in NMDA-exposed cortical neurons in vitro, thus highlighting leptin-based intervention via BK channel activation as a potential strategy to counteract neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24973659

  9. Hypophosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 is a molecular mechanism underlying ischemic tolerance induced by either hibernation or preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shin-ichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Bernstock, Joshua D; Castri, Paola; Ruetzler, Christl; Miyake, Junko; Lee, Yang-Ja; Hallenbeck, John M

    2015-12-01

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) have an extraordinary capacity to withstand prolonged and profound reductions in blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain without incurring any cellular damage. As such, the hibernation torpor of I. tridecemlineatus provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we report that during hibernation torpor, a marked reduction in the phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) occurs within the brains of I. tridecemlineatus. Of note, rpS6 phosphorylation was shown to increase in the brains of rats that underwent an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. However, such an increase was attenuated after the implementation of an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. In addition, cultured cortical neurons treated with the rpS6 kinase (S6K) inhibitors, D-glucosamine or PF4708671, displayed a decrease in rpS6 phosphorylation and a subsequent increase in tolerance to oxygen/glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of ischemic stroke. Collectively, such evidence suggests that the down-regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning. Further identification and characterization of the mechanisms used by hibernating species to increase ischemic tolerance may eventually clarify how the loss of homeostatic control that occurs during and after cerebral ischemia in the clinic can ultimately be minimized and/or prevented. Mammalian hibernation provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we demonstrate that marked reductions in the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), extracellular signal-regulated kinase family of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p44/42 (p44/42MAPK) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) occur within the brains of both hibernating squirrels and rats, which have undergone an ischemic

  10. Neuroprotective effects of various doses of topiramate against methylphenidate induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rat isolated hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2016-03-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse causes neurodegeneration. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported but its putative mechanism remains unclear. The current study evaluates the role of various doses of TPM on protection of rat hippocampal cells from MPH-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in vivo. Seventy adult male rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 received normal saline (0.7 mL/rat) and group 2 was injected with MPH (10 mg/kg) for 21 days. Groups 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 concurrently were treated by MPH (10 mg/kg) and TPM (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), respectively for 21 days. After drug administration, the open field test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity. Oxidative, antioxidant and inflammatory factors were measured in isolated hippocampus. Also, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level was measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Cresyl violet staining of Dentate Gyrus (DG) and CA1 cell layers of the hippocampus were also performed. MPH significantly disturbs motor activity in OFT and TPM (70 and 100 mg/kg) decreased this disturbance. Also MPH significantly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial reduced state of glutathione (GSH) level, interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and BDNF level in isolated hippocampal cells. Also superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity significantly decreased. Various doses of TPM attenuated these effects and significantly decreased MPH-induced oxidative damage, inflammation and hippocampal cell loss and increased BDNF level. This study suggests that TPM has the potential to be used as a neuroprotective agent against oxidative stress and neuroinflammation induced by frequent use of MPH.

  11. Beneficial effect of zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione on attenuated cardioprotective potential of preconditioning phenomenon in STZ-induced diabetic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Kushal; Reddy, B V Krishna

    2016-05-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is well demonstrated to produce cardioprotection by phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSk-3β) in the normal rat heart, but its effect is attenuated in the diabetic rat heart. This study was designed to investigate the effect of zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione (ZIP) on the attenuated cardioprotective potential of IPC in the diabetic rat heart. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg; i.p). The isolated perfused rat heart was subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was estimated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and cardiac injury was measured by estimating lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in the coronary effluent. Also, GSK-3β was measured and neutrophil accumulation was measured by estimating myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels. IPC significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size, the release of LDH and CK-MB, the GSK-3β levels and the MPO levels in the normal rat heart. Pre- and post-ischemic treatment with zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione (ZIP) in the normal and diabetic rat hearts significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size, the level of CK-MB and LDH in the coronary effluent and GSK-3β and MPO levels. Our results suggest that pharmacological preconditioning with zinc chloride and ZIP significantly restored the attenuated cardioprotective potential of IPC in the diabetic rat heart.

  12. Recurrent Sleep Fragmentation Induces Insulin and Neuroprotective Mechanisms in Middle-Aged Flies

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael J.; Perland, Emelie; Eriksson, Mikaela M.; Carlsson, Josef; Erlandsson, Daniel; Laan, Loora; Mahebali, Tabusi; Potter, Ella; Frediksson, Robert; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of quality sleep increases central nervous system oxidative stress and impairs removal of neurotoxic soluble metabolites from brain parenchyma. During aging poor sleep quality, caused by sleep fragmentation, increases central nervous system cellular stress. Currently, it is not known how organisms offset age-related cytotoxic metabolite increases in order to safeguard neuronal survival. Furthermore, it is not understood how age and sleep fragmentation interact to affect oxidative stress protection pathways. We demonstrate sleep fragmentation increases systems that protect against oxidative damage and neuroprotective endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones, as well as neuronal insulin and dopaminergic expression in middle-aged Drosophila males. Interestingly, even after sleep recovery the expression of these genes was still upregulated in middle-aged flies. Finally, sleep fragmentation generates higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in middle-aged flies and after sleep recovery these levels remain significantly higher than in young flies. The fact that neuroprotective pathways remain upregulated in middle-aged flies beyond sleep fragmentation suggests it might represent a strong stressor for the brain during later life. PMID:27531979

  13. Neuroprotective effect of S-allyl-l-cysteine derivatives against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cytotoxicity is independent of calpain inhibition.

    PubMed

    Imai, Toru; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Saito, Hiroaki; Uchiyama, Taketo; Wada, Taira; Shimba, Shigeki; Ishige, Kumiko; Miyairi, Shinichi; Makishima, Makoto; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2016-03-01

    S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) is known to have neuroprotective properties. We synthesized various SAC derivatives and tested their effects on endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons (HPNs). Among the compounds tested, S-propyl-l-cysteine (SPC) exhibited the strongest neuroprotective activity in HPNs, followed by S-ethyl-l-cysteine (SEC) and S-methyl-l-cysteine (SMC). Unlike SAC and SMC, SPC and SEC did not have inhibitory activity on μ-calpain, suggesting that the mechanism underlying the protective activity of SPC and SEC differs from that of SAC.

  14. Hypophosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein S6 is a Molecular Mechanism Underlying Ischemic Tolerance Induced by either Hibernation or Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Shin-ichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Bernstock, Joshua D.; Castri, Paola; Ruetzler, Christl; Miyake, Junko; Lee, Yang-ja; Hallenbeck, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) have an extraordinary capacity to withstand prolonged and profound reductions of blood flow and oxygen delivery to brain without incurring any cellular damage. As such, the hibernation torpor of I. tridecemlineatus provides a valuable model of tolerance to ischemic stress. Herein, we report that during hibernation torpor, a marked reduction in the phosphorylation of the ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) occurs within the brains of I. tridecemlineatus. Of note, rpS6 phosphorylation was shown to increase in the brains of rats that underwent an occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. However, such an increase was attenuated after the implementation of an ischemic preconditioning paradigm. In addition, cultured cortical neurons treated with the rpS6 kinase (S6K) inhibitors, D-glucosamine or PF4708671, displayed a decrease in rpS6 phosphorylation and a subsequent increase in tolerance to oxygen/glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of ischemic stroke. Collectively, such evidence suggests that the down regulation of rpS6 signal transduction may account for a substantial part of the observed increase in cellular tolerance to brain ischemia that occurs during hibernation torpor and after ischemic preconditioning. Further identification and characterization of the mechanisms used by hibernating species to increase ischemic tolerance may eventually clarify how the loss of homeostatic control that occurs during and after cerebral ischemia in the clinic can ultimately be minimized and/or prevented. PMID:26375300

  15. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylases as targets for neuroprotection by "antioxidant" metal chelators: From ferroptosis to stroke.

    PubMed

    Speer, Rachel E; Karuppagounder, Saravanan S; Basso, Manuela; Sleiman, Sama F; Kumar, Amit; Brand, David; Smirnova, Natalya; Gazaryan, Irina; Khim, Soah J; Ratan, Rajiv R

    2013-09-01

    Neurologic conditions including stroke, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease are leading causes of death and long-term disability in the United States, and efforts to develop novel therapeutics for these conditions have historically had poor success in translating from bench to bedside. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α mediates a broad, evolutionarily conserved, endogenous adaptive program to hypoxia, and manipulation of components of the HIF pathway is neuroprotective in a number of human neurological diseases and experimental models. In this review, we discuss molecular components of one aspect of hypoxic adaptation in detail and provide perspective on which targets within this pathway seem to be ripest for preventing and repairing neurodegeneration. Further, we highlight the role of HIF prolyl hydroxylases as emerging targets for the salutary effects of metal chelators on ferroptosis in vitro as well in animal models of neurological diseases.

  16. Neuroprotective Strategy in Retinal Degeneration: Suppressing ER Stress-Induced Cell Death via Inhibition of the mTOR Signal

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Bin; Sun, Ying-Jian; Liu, Shu-Yan; Che, Lin; Li, Guang-Yu

    2017-01-01

    The retina is a specialized sensory organ, which is essential for light detection and visual formation in the human eye. Inherited retinal degenerations are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases that can eventually cause permanent vision loss. UPR (unfolded protein response) and ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress plays an important role in the pathological mechanism of retinal degenerative diseases. mTOR (the mammalian target of rapamycin) kinase, as a signaling hub, controls many cellular processes, covering protein synthesis, RNA translation, ER stress, and apoptosis. Here, the hypothesis that inhibition of mTOR signaling suppresses ER stress-induced cell death in retinal degenerative disorders is discussed. This review surveys knowledge of the influence of mTOR signaling on ER stress arising from misfolded proteins and genetic mutations in retinal degenerative diseases and highlights potential neuroprotective strategies for treatment and therapeutic implications. PMID:28106827

  17. Hypoxia inducible factor prolyl hydroxylases as targets for neuroprotection by “antioxidant” metal chelators: from ferroptosis to stroke

    PubMed Central

    Speer, Rachel E.; Karuppagounder, Saravanan S.; Basso, Manuela; Sleiman, Sama; Kumar, Amit; Brand, David; Smirnova, Natalya; Gazaryan, Irina; Khim, Soah J.; Ratan, Rajiv R.

    2015-01-01

    Neurologic conditions including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease are leading causes of death and long-term disability in the United States, and efforts to develop novel therapeutics for these conditions have historically had poor success in translating from bench to bedside. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) mediates a broad, evolutionarily conserved, endogenous adaptive program to hypoxia, and manipulation of components of the HIF pathway are neuroprotective in a number of human neurological diseases and experimental models. In this review, we discuss molecular components of one aspect of hypoxic adpatation in detail, and provide perspective on which targets within this pathway appear to be ripest for preventing and repairing neurodegeneration. Further, we highlight the role of HIF prolyl hydroxylases as emerging targets for the salutary effects of metal chelators on ferroptosis in vitro as well in animal models of neurological diseases. PMID:23376032

  18. BDNF mediates the neuroprotective effects of positive AMPA receptor modulators against MPP+-induced toxicity in cultured hippocampal and mesencephalic slices.

    PubMed

    Jourdi, H; Hamo, L; Oka, T; Seegan, A; Baudry, M

    2009-04-01

    Neurotoxicity is involved in various neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), which affects mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN). Positive alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor modulators (PARMs, a.k.a. Ampakines, such as CX614) increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in vivo and in cultured hippocampal slices. BDNF is a survival factor for various neuronal cell types including mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Using cultured mesencephalic and hippocampal slices, we investigated whether preincubation with CX614 could provide neuroprotection against MPP(+) toxicity and whether such neuroprotection was mediated by BDNF. Various treatment protocols were tested to demonstrate CX614-induced neuroprotection against MPP(+). Pretreatment with CX614 significantly reduced MPP(+)-induced toxicity and increased BDNF levels in both hippocampal and mesencephalic cultured slices; CX614 pretreatment for 6 h in hippocampal slices and 24 h in mesencephalic slices was sufficient to produce significant neuroprotection as assessed with lactate dehydrogenase release in slice medium and propidium iodide uptake in slices. Both a BDNF scavenger and an inhibitor of the BDNF receptor TrkB, abrogated CX614-mediated reduction of MPP(+)-induced toxicity. Inhibition of Ca(2+)-activated proteases, calpains, was also protective against MPP(+)-induced toxicity. However, co-application of calpain inhibitor with CX614 abolished CX614-mediated protection, suggesting a dual action of calpains in this model. We conclude that CX614 is neuroprotective against MPP(+)-induced toxicity, an effect mediated by increased BDNF expression and activation of BDNF-dependent signaling pathways. Our results provide support for using PARMs as a new therapy for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD.

  19. Long-term neuroprotection with 2-iminobiotin, an inhibitor of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase, after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    van den Tweel, Evelyn R W; van Bel, Frank; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha M P C D; Haumann, Johan; Nijboer, Cora H A; Heijnen, Cobi J; Groenendaal, Floris

    2005-01-01

    The short- and long-term neuroprotective effects of 2-iminobiotin, a selective inhibitor of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase, were studied in 12-day-old rats following hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced by occlusion of the right carotid artery followed by 90 minutes of hypoxia (FiO2 0.08). Immediately on reoxygenation, 12 and 24 hours later the rats were treated with vehicle or 2-iminobiotin at a dose of 5.5, 10, 30, or 60 mg/kg per day. Histologic analysis of brain damage was performed at 6 weeks after hypoxia-ischemia. To assess early changes of cerebral tissue, levels of HSP70, nitrotyrosine, and cytochrome c were determined 24 hours after reoxygenation. Significant neuroprotection was obtained using a dose of 30 mg/kg per day of 2-iminobiotin. Levels of HSP70 were increased in the ipsilateral hemisphere in both groups (P<0.05), but the increase was significantly (P<0.05) less in the rats receiving the optimal dose of 2-iminobiotin (30 mg/kg per day). Hypoxia-ischemia did not lead to increased levels of nitrotyrosine, nor did 2-iminobiotin influence levels of nitrotyrosine. In contrast, hypoxia-ischemia induced an increase in cytochrome c level that was prevented by 2-iminobiotin. In conclusion, 2-iminobiotin administered after hypoxia-ischemia provides long-term neuroprotection. This neuroprotection is obtained by mechanisms other than a reduction of nitrotyrosine formation in proteins.

  20. 17α-Oestradiol-induced neuroprotection in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pietranera, L; Brocca, M E; Roig, P; Lima, A; Garcia-Segura, L M; De Nicola, A F

    2014-05-01

    17β-oestradiol is a powerful neuroprotective factor for the brain abnormalities of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 17α-Oestradiol, a nonfeminising isomer showing low affinity for oestrogen receptors, is also endowed with neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. We therefore investigated whether treatment with 17α-oestradiol prevented pathological changes of the hippocampus and hypothalamus of SHR. We used 20-week-old male SHR with a blood pressure of approximately 170 mmHg receiving s.c. a single 800 μg pellet of 17α-oestradiol dissolved in cholesterol or vehicle only for 2 weeks Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used as controls. 17α-Oestradiol did not modify blood pressure, serum prolactin, 17β-oestradiol levels or the weight of the testis and pituitary of SHR. In the brain, we analysed steroid effects on hippocampus Ki67+ proliferating cells, doublecortin (DCX) positive neuroblasts, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)+ astrocyte density, aromatase immunostaining and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA. In the hypothalamus, we determined arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA. Treatment of SHR with 17α-oestradiol enhanced the number of Ki67+ in the subgranular zone and DCX+ cells in the inner granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, increased BDNF mRNA in the CA1 region and gyrus dentatus, decreased GFAP+ astrogliosis in the CA1 subfield, and decreased hypothalamic AVP mRNA. Aromatase expression was unmodified. By contrast to SHR, normotensive WKY rats were unresponsive to 17α-oestradiol. These data indicate a role for 17α-oestradiol as a protective factor for the treatment of hypertensive encephalopathy. Furthermore, 17α-oestradiol is weakly oestrogenic in the periphery and can be used in males.

  1. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is a Survival Factor for Retinal Neurons and a Critical Neuroprotectant during the Adaptive Response to Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Kazuaki; Ng, Yin-Shan; Zhong, Lichun; Bradley, John; Schubert, William; Jo, Nobuo; Akita, Jo; Samuelsson, Steven J.; Robinson, Gregory S.; Adamis, Anthony P.; Shima, David T.

    2007-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) has recently been recognized as an important neuroprotectant in the central nervous system. Given its position as an anti-angiogenic target in the treatment of human diseases, understanding the extent of VEGF’s role in neural cell survival is paramount. Here, we used a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury and found that VEGF-A exposure resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in retinal neuron apoptosis. Although mechanistic studies suggested that VEGF-A-induced volumetric blood flow to the retina may be partially responsible for the neuroprotection, ex vivo retinal culture demonstrated a direct neuroprotective effect for VEGF-A. VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) expression was detected in several neuronal cell layers of the retina, and functional analyses showed that VEGFR2 was involved in retinal neuroprotection. VEGF-A was also shown to be involved in the adaptive response to retinal ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning 24 hours before ischemia-reperfusion injury increased VEGF-A levels and substantially decreased the number of apoptotic retinal cells. The protective effect of ischemic preconditioning was reversed after VEGF-A inhibition. Finally, chronic inhibition of VEGF-A function in normal adult animals led to a significant loss of retinal ganglion cells yet had no observable effect on several vascular parameters. These findings have implications for both neural pathologies and ocular vascular diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. PMID:17591953

  2. Neuroprotective biflavonoids of Chamaecyparis obtusa leaves against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in HT22 hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Hwang, Lim; Lee, Mina; Lee, Ki Yong; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Four biflavonoids (1-4), five flavonoids glycosides (5-9), two catechins (10, 11), two lignans (12-13), neolignan glycoside (14) and phenylpropanoid glycoside (15) were isolated from the leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa (Cupressaceae). Neuroprotective effects of the isolated compounds were evaluated employing HT22 mouse hippocampal cells, a model system to study glutamate-induced oxidative stress. The glutamate injured HT22 cells were protected significantly by amentoflavone (3), ginkgetin (4) and (-)-epitaxifolin 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (9). The reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR) in response to high concentration of glutamate were preserved by pre-treatment of 3, 4 or 9, while the activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and catalase (CAT) were little affected. The reduced content of GSH induced by glutamate was also recovered by 3, 4 or 9 in accommodation with the decrease in ROS production. In addition, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 induced by glutamate insult was clearly prevented by 3, while little changed by 4. Taken together, amentoflavone (3), ginkgetin (4) and (-)-epitaxifolin 3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (9) derived from C. obtusa could protect HT22 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative damage through preserving antioxidant enzymes activities and/or inhibiting ERK1/2 activation.

  3. Selective Over Expression Of EAAT2 In Astrocytes Enhances Neuroprotection From Moderate But Not Severe Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Melodie L.; Stone, Ida M.; Goss, Amber; Rau, Thomas; Rova, Cherokee; Poulsen, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts have been made to elevate EAAT2 expression in effort to compensate for loss of function and expression associated with disease or pathology. Increased EAAT2 expression has been noted following treatment with β-lactam antibiotics, and during ischemic preconditioning (IPC). However, both of these conditions induce multiple changes in addition to alterations in EAAT2 expression that could potentially contribute to neuroprotection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to selectively overexpress EAAT2 in astrocytes and characterize the cell type specific contribution of this transporter to neuroprotection. To accomplish this we used a recombinant Adeno-associated virus vector, AAV1-GFAP-EAAT2, designed to selectively drive the overexpression of EAAT2 within astrocytes. Both viral mediated gene delivery and β-lactam antibiotic (penicillin-G) treatment of rat hippocampal slice cultures resulted in a significant increase in both the expression of EAAT2, and dihydrokainate (DHK) sensitive glutamate uptake. Penicillin-G provided significant neuroprotection in rat hippocampal slice cultures under conditions of both moderate and severe oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). In contrast, the overexpression of EAAT2 in astrocytes provided enhanced neuroprotection only following a moderate OGD insult. These results indicate that functional EAAT2 can be selectively overexpressed in astrocytes, leading to enhanced neuroprotection. However, this cell type specific-increase in EAAT2 expression offers only limited protection compared to treatment with penicillin-G. PMID:18620031

  4. Neuroprotective effect of aqueous extract of Selaginella delicatula as evidenced by abrogation of rotenone-induced motor deficits, oxidative dysfunctions, and neurotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Girish; Muralidhara

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms implicated to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Previously, we showed that an aqueous extract of Selaginella delicatula (SDAE) offered robust neuroprotection against rotenone (ROT) in a Drosophila model. In furtherance in the present study, we validated the neuroprotective efficacy of SDAE in a chronic ROT exposure model in mice. Initially, we assessed the propensity of SDAE to modulate the levels of endogenous markers in striatal region of mice. Subsequently, the neuroprotective efficacy of SDAE (100 mg/kg bw, 21 d) to mitigate ROT-induced striatal motor deficits, oxidative stress, and neurotoxicity was examined employing a co-exposure paradigm. We found significant attenuation of ROT-induced motor deficits (stride length and landing foot spread distance) among mice given SDAE supplements. Biochemical analysis revealed that ROT-induced elevation in the levels of oxidative markers in cytosol/mitochondria of striatum were normalized with SDAE supplements. In addition, SDAE also restored the ROT-induced elevation in the levels of oxidized and nitrated proteins. Further, SDAE also restored the activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase indicating its effect on cholinergic function. While ROT exposure caused significant perturbations in the activity levels of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes (complex I/II), membrane potential and activity of ATPases, these functions were restored to normalcy among mice receiving SDAE suggesting its effects on mitochondrial function. Since these data corroborate our previous findings in Drosophila system, we propose that the neuroprotective property of SDAE may be largely attributed to the antioxidant properties and its ability to attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction. However, studies employing dopaminergic cell models would enable us to identify specific molecular mechanism, by which SDAE exerts neuroprotective action.

  5. Revisiting cobalt chloride preconditioning to prevent hypobaric hypoxia-induced damage: identification of global proteomic alteration and key networks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Yasmin; Mishra, Shalini; Arya, Adtiya; Paul, Subhojit; Sharma, Manish; Prasad, Jyotsna; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have supported the hypoxia mimetic roles and cytoprotective properties of cobalt chloride in vitro and in vivo. However, a clear understanding of biological process-based mechanism that integrates the available information remains unknown. This study was aimed to explore the potential mechanism of cobalt chloride deciphering its benefits and well-known physiological challenge caused by hypobaric hypoxia that reportedly affects nearly 24 % of the global population. In order to explore the mechanism of CoCl2, we used global proteomic and systems biology approach in rat model to provide a deeper insight into molecular mechanisms of preconditioning. Furthermore, key conclusions were drawn based on biological network analysis and their enrichment with ontological overlaps. The study was further strengthened by consistent identification of validation of proteins using immunoblotting. CoCl2-pretreated animals exposed to hypoxia showed two significant networks, one lipid metabolism and other cell cycle associated, with a total score of 23 and eight focus molecules. In this study, we delineated two primary routes: one, by direct modulation of reactive oxygen species metabolism and, second, by regulation of lipid metabolism which was not known until now. The previously known benefits of cobalt chloride during physiological challenge by hypobaric hypoxia are convincing and could be explained by some basic set of metabolic and molecular reorganization within the hypoxia model. Interestingly, we also observed some of the completely unknown roles of cobalt chloride such as regulation of lipid that could undulate the translational roles of cobalt chloride supplementation beyond hypoxia preconditioning.

  6. Ischemia induced activation of heat shock protein 27 kinases and casein kinase 2 in the preconditioned rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Kim, S O; Baines, C P; Critz, S D; Pelech, S L; Katz, S; Downey, J M; Cohen, M V

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC), p38 MAP kinase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated kinases 2 and 3 (MAPKAPK2 and MAPKAPK3) have been implicated in ischemic preconditioning (PC) of the heart to reduce damage following a myocardial infarct. This study examined whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70 S6K), casein kinase 2 (CK2), and other hsp27 kinases are also activated by PC, and if they are required for protection in rabbit hearts. CK2 and hsp27 kinase activities declined during global ischemia in control hearts, whereas PC with 5 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion increased their activities during global ischemia. Resource Q chromatography resolved two distinct peaks of hsp27 phosphotransferase activities; the first peak (at 0.36 M NaCl) appeared to correspond to the 55-kDa MAPKAPK2. Erk1 activity was elevated in both control and PC hearts after post-ischemic reperfusion, but no change was observed in p70 S6K activity. Infarct size (measured by triphenyltetrazolium staining) in isolated rabbit hearts subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 2 h reperfusion was 31.0+/-2.6% of the risk zone in controls and was 10.3+/-2.2% in PC hearts (p<0.001). Neither the CK2 inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) nor the Mek1/2 inhibitor PD98059 infused during ischemia blocked protection by PC. The activation of CK2 and Erk1 in ischemic preconditioned hearts appear to be epiphenomena and not required for the reduction of infarction from myocardial ischemia.

  7. Preconditioning induced by gentamicin protects against acute kidney injury: The role of prostaglandins but not nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pessoa, Edson A.; Convento, Marcia B.; Ribas, Otoniel S.; Tristao, Vivian R.; Reis, Luciana Aparecida; Borges, Fernanda T.; Schor, Nestor

    2011-05-15

    Nephrotoxicity is the main side effect of gentamicin (GENTA). Preconditioning (PC) refers to a situation in which an organ subjected to an injury responds less intensely when exposed to another injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PC with GENTA on nephrotoxic acute kidney injury (AKI). GENTA group rats were injected daily with GENTA (40 mg/kg/BW) for 10 days. PC animals were injected with GENTA for 3 days (40 mg/kg/BW/daily) and, after one rest week, were injected daily with GENTA for 10 days. Animals of the L-NAME and DICLO groups were preconditioned for 3 days and then received daily injections of GENTA for 10 days; they were concomitantly treated with L-NAME (10 mg/kg/BW) and diclofenac (DICLO, 5 mg/kg/BW) for 13 days. Blood and urine were collected for measurement of serum creatinine, urea, urine sodium, protein, hydroperoxides, lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide (NO). The animals were killed; kidneys were removed for histology and immunohistochemistry for apoptosis and cell proliferation. GENTA group rats showed an increase in plasma creatinine, urea, urine sodium, hydroperoxides, lipid peroxidation, proteinuria, necrosis and apoptosis, characterizing nephrotoxic AKI. PC animals showed a decrease in these parameters and increased proliferation. The blockade of NO synthesis by L-NAME potentiated the protective effect, suggesting that NO contributed to the injury caused by GENTA. The blockade of prostaglandin synthesis with DICLO increased serum and urinary parameters, blunting the protective effect of PC. Our data suggest that PC could be a useful tool to protect against nephrotoxic AKI.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of stemazole in the MPTP-induced acute model of Parkinson's disease: Involvement of the dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhirui; Xu, Shasha; Du, Na; Liu, Jia; Huang, Yiyun; Han, Mei

    2016-03-11

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a loss of nigrostriata dopaminergic neurons, which has been thought, at least in part, to result from oxidative stress. The present study aims to investigate the neuroprotective effects of stemazole (ST) on the dopamine (DA) system and its possible mechanisms of action in a mouse model of PD. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with MPTP (20mg/kg) four times at 2-h intervals for one day to induce Parkinsonism, and then treated with ST (10, 30 and 50mg/kg) or Madopar (120mg/kg) for 7days. Behavioral analyses were performed with locomotor activity measures and rotarod test. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels were detected by immunohistochemistry method. DA and its metabolites were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical detector. Oxidative stress levels were assessed by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). Our results demonstrated that ST treatment improved locomotor activity and motor coordination in MPTP mice. There was also a significant increase in TH-positive cells (∼24%, P<0.01) and DAT levels (∼26%, P<0.01) in MPTP mice treated with ST (50mg/kg) compared with the vehicle group. Madopar treatment showed weaker effects on TH-positive cells (∼21%, P<0.05) and DAT levels (∼21%, P<0.05). DA and its metabolite levels were significantly increased with ST (50mg/kg) treatment (P<0.01, compared with the vehicle group). In addition, SOD and GSH-PX activities were elevated notably in ST treatment groups compared with the vehicle group. In conclusion, these results suggest that ST has neuroprotective effect on the impaired DA system, potentially through enhancement of the cell's anti-oxidative capacity. Hence it may be used as a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease.

  9. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia via TRPV1 channel agonism provides neuroprotection following ischemic stroke when initiated 90 min after reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Marrelli, Sean P

    2014-01-15

    Traditional methods of therapeutic hypothermia show promise for neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), however, with limitations. We examined effectiveness and specificity of pharmacological hypothermia (PH) by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonism in the treatment of focal cerebral I/R. Core temperature (T(core)) was measured after subcutaneous infusion of TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in conscious C57BL/6 WT and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Acute measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion were measured before and after DHC treatment. Focal cerebral I/R (1 h ischemia + 24 h reperfusion) was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Hypothermia (>8 h) was initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion by DHC infusion (osmotic pump). Neurofunction (behavioral testing) and infarct volume (TTC staining) were measured at 24 h. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) produced a stable drop in T(core) (33°C) in naive and I/R mouse models but not in TRPV1 KO mice. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) had no measurable effect on HR and cerebral perfusion but produced a slight transient drop in MAP (<6 mmHg). In stroke mice, DHC infusion produced hypothermia, decreased infarct volume by 87%, and improved neurofunctional score. The hypothermic and neuroprotective effects of DHC were absent in TRPV1 KO mice or mice maintained normothermic with heat support. PH via TRPV1 agonist appears to be a well-tolerated and effective method for promoting mild hypothermia in the conscious mouse. Furthermore, TRPV1 agonism produces effective hypothermia in I/R mice and significantly improves outcome when initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Coptis chinensis in MPP[Formula: see text] and MPTP-Induced Parkinson's Disease Models.

    PubMed

    Friedemann, Thomas; Ying, Yue; Wang, Weigang; Kramer, Edgar R; Schumacher, Udo; Fei, Jian; Schröder, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Coptis chinensis is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine alone or in combination with other herbs to treat diseases characterized by causing oxidative stress including inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. In particular, there is emerging evidence that Coptis chinensis is effective in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis in vitro and in vivo using MPP[Formula: see text] and MPTP models of Parkinson's disease. MPP[Formula: see text] treated human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used as a cell model of Parkinson's disease. A 24[Formula: see text]h pre-treatment of the cells with the watery extract of Coptis chinensis significantly increased cell viability, as well as the intracellular ATP concentration and attenuated apoptosis compared to the MPP[Formula: see text] control. Further experiments with the main alkaloids of Coptidis chinensis, berberine, coptisine, jaterorrhizine and palmatine revealed that berberine and coptisine were the main active compounds responsible for the observed neuroprotective effect. However, the full extract of Coptis chinensis was more effective than the tested single alkaloids. In the MPTP-induced animal model of Parkinson's disease, Coptis chinensis dose-dependently improved motor functions and increased tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra compared to the MPTP control. Based on the results of this work, Coptis chinensis and its main alkaloids could be considered potential candidates for the development of new treatment options for Parkinson's disease.

  11. The neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of melatonin on hemolytic hyperbilirubinemia-induced oxidative brain damage.

    PubMed

    Pazar, Asilay; Kolgazi, Meltem; Memisoglu, Aslı; Bahadir, Elif; Sirvanci, Serap; Yaman, Akan; Yeğen, Berrak Ç; Ozek, Eren

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin exerts protection in several inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. To investigate the neuroprotective effects of melatonin in an experimental hemolysis-induced hyperbilirubinemia, newborn Sprague-Dawley rats (25-40 g, n = 72) were injected with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ; 75 mg/kg) and the injections were repeated at the 24th hour. Rats were treated with saline or melatonin (10 mg/kg) 30 min before the first and second PHZ injections and 24 h after the 2nd PHZ injections. Control rats (n = 24) were injected with saline, but not PHZ. At sixth hours after the last injections of saline or melatonin, all rats were decapitated. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β, IL-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100B levels in the plasma were measured. Brain tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were measured, and brain tissues were evaluated for apoptosis by TUNEL method. In the saline-treated PHZ group, hemoglobin, hematocrit levels were reduced, and total/direct bilirubin levels were elevated when compared to control group. Increased plasma TNF-α, IL-1β levels, along with decreased BDNF, S100B and IL-10 values were observed in the saline-treated PHZ group, while these changes were all reversed in the melatonin-treated group. Increased MDA levels and MPO activities in the brain tissues of saline-treated hyperbilirubinemic rats, concomitant with depleted brain GSH stores, were also reversed in the melatonin-treated hyperbilirubinemic rats. Increased TUNEL(+) cells in the hippocampus of saline-treated PHZ group were reduced by melatonin treatment. Melatonin exerts neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic effects on the oxidative neuronal damage of the newborn rats with hemolysis and hyperbilirubinemia.

  12. Anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of synergetic combination of phenytoin and gastrodin on the convulsion induced by penicillin in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziqi; Lin, Yanzhu; Zheng, Hongyi; He, Yuzhong; Xu, Haohua; Zhang, Siheng; Weng, Wen; Li, Wei; Zhu, Linyan; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-08-01

    Phenytoin (PHT) is a commonly prescribed first-line antiepileptic drug. However, long-term administration of PHT can cause memory loss and balance disturbance. Gastrodin (GD) is the major bioactive component in Tianma and has sedative, anticonvulsive, memory strengthening, and neuroprotective effects. To combine the two drugs seems attractive; however, little was known about the efficacy of combination therapy. In this study, convulsive attack was successfully induced by penicillin. Isobolographic analysis, memory and balance behavior test, histopathological examination, and Western blot analysis were used to investigate whether the combination therapy of GD and PHT can enhance anticonvulsive effect and reduce the side effects associated with PHT. The GD alone (950.60 mg/kg) and the PHT alone (45.50 mg/kg) could produce an anticonvulsive effect, while comparable effect could be produced by PHT : GD = 1 : 50 (8.59 : 429.27 mg/kg), which reduce the dose of PHT by 81% and GD by 55%. After the chronic anticonvulsive experiments of 16 days, the balance disturbance and short-/long-term memory loss were observed in the PHT group, while the PHT + GD therapy can protect the normal balance and memory function. The neuron morphology of hippocampus was preserved, and the number of surviving neurons after combination therapy was more than the model group. The amount of NF-κB (p65) expression was increased in combination group. All above suggested the potential of the combination of PHT and GD enhances the anticonvulsive effect and the neuroprotective effect and reduces the PHT-associated memory and balance disturbance. The PHT + GD strategy would provide new possibilities as a novel promising methodology to treat epileptic patients.

  13. Nanomolar vitamin E alpha-tocotrienol inhibits glutamate-induced activation of phospholipase A2 and causes neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Savita; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kotha, Sainath R; Roy, Sashwati; Rink, Cameron; Bibus, Douglas; Sen, Chandan K

    2010-03-01

    Our previous works have elucidated that the 12-lipoxygenase pathway is directly implicated in glutamate-induced neural cell death, and that such that toxicity is prevented by nM concentrations of the natural vitamin E alpha-tocotrienol (TCT). In the current study we tested the hypothesis that phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity is sensitive to glutamate and mobilizes arachidonic acid (AA), a substrate for 12-lipoxygenase. Furthermore, we examined whether TCT regulates glutamate-inducible PLA(2) activity in neural cells. Glutamate challenge induced the release of [(3)H]AA from HT4 neural cells. Such response was attenuated by calcium chelators (EGTA and BAPTA), cytosolic PLA(2) (cPLA(2))-specific inhibitor (AACOCF(3)) as well as TCT at 250 nM. Glutamate also caused the elevation of free polyunsaturated fatty acid (AA and docosahexaenoic acid) levels and disappearance of phospholipid-esterified AA in neural cells. Furthermore, glutamate induced a time-dependent translocation and enhanced serine phosphorylation of cPLA(2) in the cells. These effects of glutamate on fatty acid levels and on cPLA(2) were significantly attenuated by nM TCT. The observations that AACOCF(3), transient knock-down of cPLA(2) as well as TCT significantly protected against the glutamate-induced death of neural cells implicate cPLA(2) as a TCT-sensitive mediator of glutamate induced neural cell death. This work presents first evidence recognizing glutamate-induced changes in cPLA(2) as a novel mechanism responsible for neuroprotection observed in response to nanomolar concentrations of TCT.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of endogenous cannabinoids on ischemic brain injury induced by the excess microglia-mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuyun; Liu, Yanwu; Ma, Rui; Li, Jun; Su, Binxiao

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated the role of endogenous cannabinoids system (ECS) on protecting brain injury caused by ischemia (IMI). Papers reported that microglia-mediated inflammation has become one of the most pivotal mechanisms for IMI. This study was aimed to investigate the potential roles of ECS on neuron protection under microglia-mediated inflammation. Inflammatory cytokines level both in vitro (BV-2 cells) and in vivo (brain tissue from constructed IMI model and brain-isolated microglia) was detected. ECS levels were detected, and its effects on inflammations was also analyzed. Influence of microglia-mediated inflammation on neuron injury was analyzed. Moreover, the effects of ECS on protecting neuron injury were also analyzed. Our results showed that the levels of inflammatory cytokines including TNFα and IL-1β were higher while IKBα was lower in IMI model brain tissue, brain-isolated microglia and BV-2 cells compared to the control. Inflammation was activated in microglia, as well as the activation of ECS characterized by the increasing level of AEA and 2-AG. Furthermore, the activated microglia-mediated self-inflammation performed harmful influence on neurons via suppressing cell viability and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, ECS functioned as a protector on neuron injury though promoting cell proliferation and suppressing cell apoptosis which were caused by the activated BV-2 cells (LPS induced for 3 h). Our data suggested that ECS may play certain neuroprotective effects on microglia-mediated inflammations-induced IMI through anti-inflammatory function. PMID:27398146

  15. Preconditioning for traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yokobori, Shoji; Mazzeo, Anna T; Hosein, Khadil; Gajavelli, Shyam; Dietrich, W. Dalton; Bullock, M. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment is now focused on the prevention of primary injury and reduction of secondary injury. However, no single effective treatment is available as yet for the mitigation of traumatic brain damage in humans. Both chemical and environmental stresses applied before injury, have been shown to induce consequent protection against post-TBI neuronal death. This concept termed “preconditioning” is achieved by exposure to different pre-injury stressors, to achieve the induction of “tolerance” to the effect of the TBI. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this “tolerance” phenomenon are not fully understood in TBI, and therefore even less information is available about possible indications in clinical TBI patients. In this review we will summarize TBI pathophysiology, and discuss existing animal studies demonstrating the efficacy of preconditioning in diffuse and focal type of TBI. We will also review other non-TBI preconditionng studies, including ischemic, environmental, and chemical preconditioning, which maybe relevant to TBI. To date, no clinical studies exist in this field, and we speculate on possible futureclinical situation, in which pre-TBI preconditioning could be considered. PMID:24323189

  16. Cobalt chloride induces delayed cardiac preconditioning in mice through selective activation of HIF-1alpha and AP-1 and iNOS signaling.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lei; Taher, Mohiuddin; Yin, Chang; Salloum, Fadi; Kukreja, Rakesh C

    2004-12-01

    Acute systemic hypoxia induces delayed cardioprotection against ischemia (I)-reperfusion (R) injury via inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-dependent mechanism. Because CoCl2 is known to elicit hypoxia-like responses, we hypothesized that this chemical would mimic the delayed preconditioning effect in the heart. Adult male mice were pretreated with CoCl2 or saline. The hearts were isolated 24 h later and subjected to 20 min of global I and 30 min of R in Langendorff mode. Myocardial infarct size (% of risk area; mean +/- SE, n=6-8/group) was reduced in mice pretreated with 30 mg/kg CoCl2 (16.1 +/- 3.1% vs. 27.6 +/- 3.3% with saline control; P <0.05) without compromising postischemic cardiac function. Higher doses of CoCl2 failed to induce similar protection. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay demonstrated significant enhancement in DNA binding activity of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in nuclear extracts from CoCl2-treated hearts. Activation of HIF-1alpha and AP-1 was evident at 30 min and sustained for the next 4 h after CoCl2 injection. In contrast, CoCl2-induced protection was independent of NF-kappaB activation because no DNA binding or p65 translocation was observed in nuclear extracts. Also, CoCl2-induced cardioprotection was preserved in p50 subunit NF-kappaB-knockout (KO) mice (11.1 +/- 3.0% vs. 25.1 +/- 5.0% in saline-treated p50-KO mice; P <0.05). The infarct-limiting effect of CoCl2 was absent in iNOS-KO mice (20.9 +/- 3.0%). We conclude that in vivo administration of CoCl2 preconditions the heart against I/R injury. The delayed protective effect of CoCl2 is achieved through a distinctive signaling mechanism involving HIF-1alpha, AP-1, and iNOS but independent of NF-kappaB activation.

  17. [Biochemical and pharmacological mechanisms of different types of hypoxic preconditioning in cerebral ischemia in mice].

    PubMed

    Kulinskiĭ, V I; Gavrilina, T V; Minakina, L N; Kovtun, V Iu

    2006-01-01

    Different types of hypoxic preconditioning (hypoxic, circulatory, hemic and tissue hypoxia) increase the tolerance to complete global cerebral ischemia at early terms (hours). Biochemico-pharmacological analysis with the use of selective agonists and antagonists showed the importance of adenosine A1-receptors and K+(ATP)-channels in the mechanisms of the neuroprotective effect and natural tolerance. The general scheme of the investigated mechanisms of different types of hypoxic preconditioning has been proposed.

  18. Cognitive deficits and anxiety induced by diisononyl phthalate in mice and the neuroprotective effects of melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ping; Liu, Xudong; Wu, Jiliang; Yan, Biao; Zhang, Yuchao; Lu, Yu; Wu, Yang; Liu, Chao; Guo, Junhui; Nanberg, Eewa; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Yang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a plasticizer that is frequently used as a substitute for other plasticizers whose use is prohibited in certain products. In vivo studies on the neurotoxicity of DINP are however, limited. This work aims to investigate whether DINP causes neurobehavioral changes in mice and to provide useful advice on preventing the occurrence of these adverse effects. Behavioral analysis showed that oral administration of 20 or 200 mg/kg/day DINP led to mouse cognitive deficits and anxiety. Brain histopathological observations, immunohistochemistry assays (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3 [caspase-3], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]), oxidative stress assessments (reactive oxygen species [ROS], glutathione [GSH], superoxide dismutase [SOD] activities, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine [8-OH-dG] and DNA-protein crosslinks [DPC]), and assessment of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-а] and interleukin-1 beta [IL-1β]) of mouse brains showed that there were histopathological alterations in the brain and increased levels of oxidative stress, and inflammation for these same groups. However, some of these effects were blocked by administration of melatonin (50 mg/kg/day). Down-regulation of oxidative stress was proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of melatonin. The data suggests that DINP could cause cognitive deficits and anxiety in mice, and that melatonin could be used to avoid these adverse effects. PMID:26424168

  19. Pre-Conditioning with CDP-Choline Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Death in a Hypoxia/Reperfusion Model

    PubMed Central

    González-Pacheco, Héctor; Méndez-Domínguez, Aurelio; Hernández, Salomón; López-Marure, Rebeca; Vazquez-Mellado, Maria J.; Aguilar, Cecilia; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia

    2014-01-01

    Background. CDP-choline is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, which is an essential component of cellular membranes, and a cell signalling mediator. CDP-choline has been used for the treatment of cerebral ischaemia, showing beneficial effects. However, its potential benefit for the treatment of myocardial ischaemia has not been explored yet. Aim. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate the potential use of CDP-choline as a cardioprotector in an in vitro model of ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Methods. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were isolated and subjected to hypoxia/reperfusion using the coverslip hypoxia model. To evaluate the effect of CDP-choline on oxidative stress-induced reperfusion injury, the cells were incubated with H2O2 during reperfusion. The effect of CDP-choline pre- and postconditioning was evaluated using the cell viability MTT assay, and the proportion of apoptotic and necrotic cells was analyzed using the Annexin V determination by flow cytometry. Results. Pre- and postconditioning with 50 mg/mL of CDP-choline induced a significant reduction of cells undergoing apoptosis after hypoxia/reperfusion. Preconditioning with CDP-choline attenuated postreperfusion cell death induced by oxidative stress. Conclusion. CDP-choline administration reduces cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after hypoxia/reperfusion of cardiac myocytes. Thus, it has a potential as cardioprotector in ischaemia/reperfusion-injured cardiomyocytes. PMID:24578622

  20. Neuroprotective effects of R,R-tetrahydrochrysene against glutamate-induced cell death through anti-excitotoxic and antioxidant actions involving estrogen receptor-dependent and -independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Xia, Y; Xing, J Z; Krukoff, T L

    2009-08-18

    Glutamate-induced neural cell death is mediated by excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Treatment of glutamate toxicity with estrogen and its related compounds for neuroprotection remains controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of selective estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on glutamate toxicity and found that R,R-tetrahydrochrysene (R,R-THC), an antagonist of ERbeta and agonist of ERalpha, has neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced death in primary rat cortical cells and mouse N29/4 hypothalamic cells. The protective effect of R,R-THC was dose-dependent and was maintained even when added several hours after the initial glutamate exposure. R,R-THC blocked glutamate-induced depletion of intracellular glutathione, increased superoxide dismutase activity, and protected cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced death. R,R-THC also prevented glutamate-induced nuclear translocation of apoptotic inducing factor and release of mitochondrial cytochrome c. The protective effect of R,R-THC was blocked by methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP; an ERalpha antagonist) in glutamate-treated cortical cells, and pretreatment with MK-801 (an NMDA receptor antagonist) but not CNQX (an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) increased cell survival. On the other hand, MPP did not block the protective effect of R,R-THC in glutamate-treated N29/4 cells, and neither MK-801 nor CNQX conferred protection. Activation of ERalpha and/or ERbeta with 17beta-estradiol (E2), propyl-pyrazole-triol or diarylpropionitrile did not provide effective neuroprotection, and pretreatment with ICI 182,780 did not inhibit the protective effect of R,R-THC in either type of cell. These results suggest that the use of ER agonists (including E2) has limited beneficial effects when both excitotoxicity and oxidative stress occur. In contrast to agonists of ERs, R,R-THC, which possesses anti-excitotoxic and antioxidant actions via ER-dependent and -independent pathways, provides significant neuroprotection.

  1. Astrocyte-derived growth factors and estrogen neuroprotection: role of transforming growth factor-α in estrogen-induced upregulation of glutamate transporters in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Karki, Pratap; Smith, Keisha; Johnson, James; Lee, Eunsook

    2014-05-25

    Extensive studies from the past decade have completely revolutionized our understanding about the role of astrocytes in the brain from merely supportive cells to an active role in various physiological functions including synaptic transmission via cross-talk with neurons and neuroprotection via releasing neurotrophic factors. Particularly, numerous studies have reported that astrocytes mediate the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) in various clinical and experimental models of neuronal injury. Astrocytes contain two main glutamate transporters, glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), that play a key role in preventing excitotoxic neuronal death, a process associated with most neurodegenerative diseases. E2 has been shown to increase expression of both GLAST and GLT-1 mRNA and protein and glutamate uptake in astrocytes. Growth factors such as transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) appear to mediate E2-induced enhancement of these transporters. These findings suggest that E2 exerts neuroprotection against excitotoxic neuronal injuries, at least in part, by enhancing astrocytic glutamate transporter levels and function. Therefore, the present review will discuss proposed mechanisms involved in astrocyte-mediated E2 neuroprotection, with a focus on glutamate transporters.

  2. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carvacrol on Ethanol-Induced Hippocampal Neurons Impairment via the Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes hippocampal neuronal impairment, which is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. Carvacrol is a major monoterpenic phenol found in essential oils from the family Labiatae and has antioxidative stress and antiapoptosis actions. However, the protective effects of carvacrol in ethanol-induced hippocampal neuronal impairment have not been fully understood. We explored the neuroprotective effects of carvacrol in vivo and in vitro. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 35% ethanol for 4 weeks to establish ethanol model in vivo, and hippocampal neuron injury was simulated by 200 mM ethanol in vitro. Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the cognitive dysfunction. The oxidative stress injury of hippocampal neurons was evaluated by measuring the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Histopathological examinations and western blot were performed to evaluate the apoptosis of neurons. The results showed that carvacrol attenuates the cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of the mice treated with ethanol and decreases hippocampal neurons apoptosis induced by ethanol in vitro. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that carvacrol modulates the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and p-ERK, without influence of p-JNK and p-p38. Our results suggest that carvacrol alleviates ethanol-mediated hippocampal neuronal impairment by antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. PMID:28191274

  3. Evidence of GLP-1-mediated neuroprotection in an animal model of pyridoxine-induced peripheral sensory neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Perry, TracyAnn; Holloway, Harold W.; Weerasuriya, Ananda; Mouton, Peter R.; Duffy, Kara; Mattison, Julie A.; Greig, Nigel H.

    2007-01-01

    Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) intoxicated rodents develop a peripheral neuropathy characterized by sensory nerve conduction deficits associated with disturbances of nerve fiber geometry and axonal atrophy. To investigate the possibility that glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide (GLP-1) receptor agonism may influence axonal structure and function through neuroprotection neurotrophic support, effects of GLP-1 and its long acting analog, Exendin-4 (Ex4) treatment on pyridoxine-induced peripheral neuropathy were examined in rats using behavioral and morphometric techniques. GLP-1 is an endogenous insulinotropic peptide secreted from the gut in response to the presence of food. GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are coupled to the cAMP second messenger pathway, and are expressed widely throughout neural tissues of humans and rodents. Recent studies have established that GLP-1 and Ex4, have multiple synergistic effects on glucose-dependent insulin secretion pathways of pancreatic β-cells and on neural plasticity. Data reported here suggest that clinically relevant doses of GLP-1 and Ex4 may offer some protection against the sensory peripheral neuropathy induced by pyridoxine. Our findings suggest a potential role for these peptides in the treatment of neuropathies, including that associated with type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:17125767

  4. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel C T; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane against electromagnetic pulse-induced brain injury through inhibition of neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bin; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jin; Han, Li-Chun; Li, Li-Ya; Wu, Guang-Li; Hou, Yan-Ning; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Sang, Han-Fei; Xu, Li-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) causes central nervous system damage and neurobehavioral disorders, and sevoflurane protects the brain from ischemic injury. We investigated the effects of sevoflurane on EMP-induced brain injury. Rats were exposed to EMP and immediately treated with sevoflurane. The protective effects of sevoflurane were assessed by Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining and electron microscopy. The neurobehavioral effects were assessed using the open-field test and the Morris water maze. Finally, primary cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to EMP and incubated with different concentration of sevoflurane. The cellular viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed. TUNEL staining was performed, and the expression of apoptotic markers was determined. The cerebral cortexes of EMP-exposed rats presented neuronal abnormalities. Sevoflurane alleviated these effects, as well as the learning and memory deficits caused by EMP exposure. In vitro, cell viability was reduced and LDH release was increased after EMP exposure; treatment with sevoflurane ameliorated these effects. Additionally, sevoflurane increased SOD activity, decreased MDA levels and alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. These findings demonstrate that Sevoflurane conferred neuroprotective effects against EMP radiation-induced brain damage by inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  6. The Neuroprotective Effects of Carvacrol on Ethanol-Induced Hippocampal Neurons Impairment via the Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Luo, Qian; Qiao, Hui; Ding, Hui; Cao, Yonggang; Yu, Juan; Liu, Ruxia; Zhang, Qianlong; Zhu, Hui; Qu, Lihui

    2017-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes hippocampal neuronal impairment, which is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. Carvacrol is a major monoterpenic phenol found in essential oils from the family Labiatae and has antioxidative stress and antiapoptosis actions. However, the protective effects of carvacrol in ethanol-induced hippocampal neuronal impairment have not been fully understood. We explored the neuroprotective effects of carvacrol in vivo and in vitro. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 35% ethanol for 4 weeks to establish ethanol model in vivo, and hippocampal neuron injury was simulated by 200 mM ethanol in vitro. Morris water maze test was performed to evaluate the cognitive dysfunction. The oxidative stress injury of hippocampal neurons was evaluated by measuring the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. Histopathological examinations and western blot were performed to evaluate the apoptosis of neurons. The results showed that carvacrol attenuates the cognitive dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis of the mice treated with ethanol and decreases hippocampal neurons apoptosis induced by ethanol in vitro. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that carvacrol modulates the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and p-ERK, without influence of p-JNK and p-p38. Our results suggest that carvacrol alleviates ethanol-mediated hippocampal neuronal impairment by antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of inhaled lavender oil on scopolamine-induced dementia via anti-oxidative activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hancianu, Monica; Cioanca, Oana; Mihasan, Marius; Hritcu, Lucian

    2013-03-15

    Lavender is used in traditional medicines in Asia, Europe, ancient Greece and Rome, and was mentioned in the Bible and in ancient Jewish texts. Also, lavender is reported to be an effective medical plant in treating inflammation, depression, stress and headache. The present study was undertaken in order to investigate the antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of the lavender essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia ssp. angustifolia Mill. and Lavandula hybrida Rev. using superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) specific activities, total content of reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) level (lipid peroxidation) and DNA fragmentation assays in male Wistar rats subjected to scopolamine-induced dementia rat model. In scopolamine-treated rats, lavender essential oils showed potent antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. Subacute exposures (daily, for 7 continuous days) to lavender oils significantly increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, GPX and CAT), total content of reduced GSH and reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA level) in rat temporal lobe homogenates, suggesting antioxidant potential. Also, DNA cleavage patterns were absent in the lavender groups, suggesting antiapoptotic activity. Taken together, our results suggest that antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities of the lavender essential oils are the major mechanisms for their potent neuroprotective effects against scopolamine-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain.

  8. A comparative study of neuroprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors against scopolamine-induced memory impairments in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jawaid, Talha; Jahan, Shah; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2015-01-01

    The comparative study of neuroprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors against scopolamine-induced neuroinflammation in albino Wistar rats was studied. Male albino rats were administered with scopolamine to induce memory impairment. The standard nootropic agent, piracetam (200 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.]), perindopril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.]), enalapril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.]), and ramipril (0.1 mg/kg b.w., [i.p.]) were administered in different group of animals for 5 days. On 5th day, scopolamine (1 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) was administered after 60 min of the last dose of test drug. Memory function was evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM) test and pole climbing test (PCT). Biochemical estimations like glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain were estimated after completion of behavior study. All three test groups shows improvement in learning and memory in comparison to control group. Perindopril treated group showed a more effective significant decrease in escape latency time and transfer latency time compared to enalapril and ramipril treated group on day 4 in MWM test and PCT, respectively. Perindopril shows a significant reduction in MDA level and acetylcholinesterase activity and a significant rise in GSH level compared to enalapril and ramipril. The finding of this study indicates that Perindopril is more effective in memory retention compared to enalapril and ramipril. PMID:26317078

  9. Neuroprotective effects of α-tocotrienol on kainic acid-induced neurotoxicity in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Jung, Na Young; Lee, Kyung Hee; Won, Ran; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2013-09-05

    Vitamin E, such as alpha-tocopherol (ATPH) and alpha-tocotrienol (ATTN), is a chain-breaking antioxidant that prevents the chain propagation step during lipid peroxidation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ATTN on KA-induced neuronal death using organotypic hippocampal slice culture (OHSC) and compared the neuroprotective effects of ATTN and ATPH. After 15 h KA (5 µM) treatment, delayed neuronal death was detected in the CA3 region and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation were also increased. Both co-treatment and post-treatment of ATPH (100 µM) or ATTN (100 µM) significantly increased the cell survival and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the CA3 region. Increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence and levels of thiobarbiturate reactive substances (TBARS) were decreased by ATPH and ATTN treatment. These data suggest that ATPH and ATTN treatment have protective effects on KA-induced cell death in OHSC. ATTN treatment tended to be more effective than ATPH treatment, even though there was no significant difference between ATPH and ATTN in co-treatment or post-treatment.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca2+ Influx

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca2+ influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca2+ hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27409614

  11. Neuroprotective effects of the allosteric agonist of metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 AMN082 on oxygen-glucose deprivation- and kainate-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Domin, Helena; Jantas, Danuta; Śmiałowska, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Although numerous studies demonstrated a neuroprotective potency of unspecific group III mGluR agonists in in vitro and in vivo models of excitotoxicity, little is known about the protective role of group III mGlu receptor activation against neuronal cell injury evoked by ischemic conditions. The aim of the present study was to assess neuroprotective potential of the allosteric agonist of mGlu7 receptor, N,N'-Bis(diphenylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine dihydrochloride (AMN082) against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)- and kainate (KA)-evoked neuronal cell damage in primary neuronal cultures, with special focus on its efficacy after delayed application. We demonstrated that in cortical neuronal cultures exposed to a 180 min OGD, AMN082 (0.01-1 µM) in a concentration- and time-dependent way attenuated the OGD-induced changes in the LDH release and MTT reduction assays. AMN082 (0.5 and 1 µM) produced also neuroprotective effects against KA-evoked neurotoxicity both in cortical and hippocampal cultures. Of particular importance was the finding that AMN082 attenuated excitotoxic neuronal injury after delayed application (30 min after OGD, or 30 min-1 h after KA). In both models of neurotoxicity, namely OGD- and KA-induced injury, the neuroprotective effects of AMN082 (1 µM) were reversed by the selective mGlu7 antagonist, 6-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-5-methyl-3-(4-pyridinyl)-isoxazolo[4,5-c]pyridin-4(5H)-one hydrochloride (MMPIP, 1 µM), suggesting the mGlu7-dependent mechanism of neuroprotective effects of AMN082. Next, we showed that AMN082 (0.5 and 1 µM) attenuated the OGD-induced increase in the number of necrotic nuclei as well inhibited the OGD-evoked calpain activation, suggesting the participation of these processes in the mechanism of AMN082-mediated protection. Additionally, we showed that protection evoked by AMN082 (1 µM) in KA model was connected with the inhibition of toxin-induced caspase-3 activity, and this effect was abolished by the mGlu7

  12. Neuroprotective effect of paeoniflorin on H2O2-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells by modulation of reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    LI, PENG; LI, ZHAOHUI

    2015-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF) is a product derived from Paeoniae Radix and is commonly prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine. PF has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective, anti-ischemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The neuroprotective properties of PF have been demonstrated in animal models of various neuropathologies. The present study investigated the effects of PF on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, to improve the understanding of the mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective properties. The H2O2-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells resulted in a reduction in the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated X protein ratio and the activation of caspase-3. PF treatment was observed to reverse the apoptotic process and to modulate the expression levels of a number of apoptosis-associated proteins. Furthermore, PF significantly mitigated the H2O2-induced reduction in cell viability, in addition to scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing the release of lactate dehydrogenase from the PC12 cells. In addition, the apoptosis-associated activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was inhibited in the PF-treated cells, and the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin (IL)-1β were reduced. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that PF was able to reduce H2O2-induced toxicity by blocking the activation of the neuroinflammatory factor NF-κB. These results suggest that PF may be a valuable neuroprotective agent for the treatment of neurological disease and injury. PMID:26136891

  13. Preconditioning of Microglia by α-Synuclein Strongly Affects the Response Induced by Toll-like Receptor (TLR) Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rey, Elena; Lachaud, Christian C.; Guilliams, Tim; Fernandez-Montesinos, Rafael; Benitez-Rondan, Alicia; Robledo, Gema; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Delgado, Mario; Dobson, Christopher M.; Pozo, David

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become accepted that α-synuclein (αSyn) has a key role in the microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, which accompanies the development of Parkinson’s disease and other related disorders, such as Dementia with Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Nevertheless, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its pathological actions, especially in the sporadic forms of the diseases, are not completely understood. Intriguingly, several epidemiological and animal model studies have revealed a link between certain microbial infections and the onset or progression of sporadic forms of these neurodegenerative disorders. In this work, we have characterized the effect of toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation on primary murine microglial cultures and analysed the impact of priming cells with extracellular wild-type (Wt) αSyn on the subsequent TLR stimulation of cells with a set of TLR ligands. By assaying key interleukins and chemokines we report that specific stimuli, in particular Pam3Csk4 (Pam3) and single-stranded RNA40 (ssRNA), can differentially affect the TLR2/1- and TLR7-mediated responses of microglia when pre-conditioned with αSyn by augmenting IL-6, MCP-1/CCL2 or IP-10/CXCL10 secretion levels. Furthermore, we report a skewing of αSyn-primed microglia stimulated with ssRNA (TLR7) or Pam3 (TLR2/1) towards intermediate but at the same time differential, M1/M2 phenotypes. Finally, we show that the levels and intracellular location of activated caspase-3 protein change significantly in αSyn-primed microglia after stimulation with these particular TLR agonists. Overall, we report a remarkable impact of non-aggregated αSyn pre-sensitization of microglia on TLR-mediated immunity, a phenomenon that could contribute to triggering the onset of sporadic α-synuclein-related neuropathologies. PMID:24236103

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates neuroprotection against Aβ-induced toxicity through a mechanism independent on adenosine 2A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Jerónimo-Santos, André; Fonseca-Gomes, João; Guimarães, Diogo Andrade; Tanqueiro, Sara Ramalho; Ramalho, Rita Mira; Ribeiro, Joaquim Alexandre; Sebastião, Ana Maria; Diógenes, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes neuronal survival through TrkB-FL activation. The activation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) is essential for most of BDNF-mediated synaptic actions, such as synaptic plasticity, transmission and neurotransmitter release. We now aimed at evaluating the A2AR influence upon BDNF-mediated neuroprotection against Aβ25-35 toxicity in cultured neurons. Results showed that BDNF increases cell survival and reduces the caspase-3 and calpain activation induced by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, in a mechanism probably dependent on PLCγ pathway. This BDNF-mediated neuroprotection is not affected by A2AR activation or inhibition. Moreover neither activation nor inhibition of A2AR, per se, significantly influenced Aβ-induced neuronal death on calpain-mediated cleavage of TrkB induced by Aβ. In conclusion, these results suggest that, in opposition to the fast synaptic actions of BDNF, the neuroprotective actions of this neurotrophin against a strong Aβ insult do not require the activation of A2AR.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of Cucumis melo Var. flexuosus leaf extract on the brains of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Doaa S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system is one of the most vulnerable organs affected by the oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Healthy food provides an important source for antioxidants. Therefore, the protective effect of Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (C. melo var. flexuosus) leaf extract on the brains of diabetic rats was investigated. Adult male albino rats divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into a normal control group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg bw). One of the four diabetic groups was left untreated and was considered as a diabetic control group while the three other groups were treated with C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract at the doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg bw for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration plasma and brains were used for evaluating biochemical changes. The obtained data showed that C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract treatment lowered blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, brain tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin levels, brain malondialdehyde content and caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in plasma dopamine, melatonin, brain vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage associated with diabetes.

  16. Neuroprotective and Antiamnesic Effects of Mitragyna inermis Willd (Rubiaceae) on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bum, Elisabeth Ngo; Taïwé, Germain Sotoing; Ngoupaye, Gwladys Temkou; Sidiki, Neteydji; Moto, Fleur Clarisse Okomolo; Kouemou, Nadège; Njapdounke, Stephanie Jacqueline Kameni; Nkantchoua, Gisele; Omam, Jean Pierre Omam; Mairaira, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To assess memory improvement and neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of Mitragyna inermis (M. inermis) leaf decoction on the central nervous system. Methodology. Leaf decoction of M. inermis was tested on learning and memory in normal and scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice using memory behavioral tests such as the Morris water maze, object recognition task, and elevated plus maze. Oxidative stress enzymes—catalase, superoxide dismutase, and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, a product of lipid peroxidation—were quantified. In each test, mice 18 to 25 g were divided into groups of 5. Results. The extract reversed the effects of scopolamine in mice. The extract significantly increased discrimination index in the object recognition task test and inflexion ratio in the elevated plus maze test. The times spent in target quadrant in MWM increased while the transfer latency decreased in mice treated by M. inermis at the dose of 196.5 mg/kg. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly increased, whereas the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance was significantly decreased after 8 consecutive days of treatment with M. inermis at the dose of 393 mg/kg. Conclusion. These results suggest that M. inermis leaf extract possess potential antiamnesic effects. PMID:28386162

  17. Glutamine Acts as a Neuroprotectant against DNA Damage, Beta-Amyloid and H2O2-Induced Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianmin; Herrup, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the human blood stream and is ‘conditionally essential’ to cells. Its intracellular levels are regulated both by the uptake of extracellular glutamine via specific transport systems and by its intracellular synthesis by glutamine synthetase (GS). Adding to the regulatory complexity, when extracellular glutamine is reduced GS protein levels rise. Unfortunately, this excess GS can be maladaptive. GS overexpression is neurotoxic especially if the cells are in a low-glutamine medium. Similarly, in low glutamine, the levels of multiple stress response proteins are reduced rendering cells hypersensitive to H2O2, zinc salts and DNA damage. These altered responses may have particular relevance to neurodegenerative diseases of aging. GS activity and glutamine levels are lower in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and a fraction of AD hippocampal neurons have dramatically increased GS levels compared with control subjects. We validated the importance of these observations by showing that raising glutamine levels in the medium protects cultured neuronal cells against the amyloid peptide, Aβ. Further, a 10-day course of dietary glutamine supplementation reduced inflammation-induced neuronal cell cycle activation, tau phosphorylation and ATM-activation in two different mouse models of familial AD while raising the levels of two synaptic proteins, VAMP2 and synaptophysin. Together, our observations suggest that healthy neuronal cells require both intracellular and extracellular glutamine, and that the neuroprotective effects of glutamine supplementation may prove beneficial in the treatment of AD. PMID:22413000

  18. Can Medical Herbs Stimulate Regeneration or Neuroprotection and Treat Neuropathic Pain in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sven; Beckmann, Kathrin; Franconi, Giovanna; Greten, Henry Johannes; Rostock, Matthias; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN) has a relevant impact on the quality of life of cancer patients. There are no curative conventional treatments, so further options have to be investigated. We conducted a systematic review in English and Chinese language databases to illuminate the role of medical herbs. 26 relevant studies on 5 single herbs, one extract, one receptor-agonist, and 8 combinations of herbs were identified focusing on the single herbs Acorus calamus rhizoma, Cannabis sativa fructus, Chamomilla matricaria, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia officinalis, Sweet bee venom, Fritillaria cirrhosae bulbus, and the herbal combinations Bu Yang Huan Wu, modified Bu Yang Huan Wu plus Liuwei Di Huang, modified Chai Hu Long Gu Mu Li Wan, Geranii herba plus Aconiti lateralis praeparata radix , Niu Che Sen Qi Wan (Goshajinkigan), Gui Zhi Jia Shu Fu Tang (Keishikajutsubuto), Huang Qi Wu Wu Tang (Ogikeishigomotsuto), and Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang (Shakuyakukanzoto). The knowledge of mechanism of action is still limited, the quality of clinical trials needs further improvement, and studies have not yielded enough evidence to establish a standard practice, but a lot of promising substances have been identified. While CIPN has multiple mechanisms of neuronal degeneration, a combination of herbs or substances might deal with multiple targets for the aim of neuroprotection or neuroregeneration in CIPN. PMID:23983777

  19. Electroacupuncture-induced neuroprotection against focal cerebral ischemia in the rat is mediated by adenosine A1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qin-xue; Geng, Wu-jun; Zhuang, Xiu-xiu; Wang, Hong-fa; Mo, Yun-chang; Xin, He; Chen, Jiang-fan; Wang, Jun-lu

    2017-01-01

    The activation of adenosine A1 receptors is important for protecting against ischemic brain injury and pretreatment with electroacupuncture has been shown to mitigate ischemic brain insult. The aim of this study was to test whether the adenosine A1 receptor mediates electroacupuncture pretreatment-induced neuroprotection against ischemic brain injury. We first performed 30 minutes of electroacupuncture pretreatment at the Baihui acupoint (GV20), delivered with a current of 1 mA, a frequency of 2/15 Hz, and a depth of 1 mm. High-performance liquid chromatography found that adenosine triphosphate and adenosine levels peaked in the cerebral cortex at 15 minutes and 120 minutes after electroacupuncture pretreatment, respectively. We further examined the effect of 15 or 120 minutes electroacupuncture treatment on ischemic brain injury in a rat middle cerebral artery-occlusion model. We found that at 24 hours reperfusion,120 minutes after electroacupuncture pretreatment, but not for 15 minutes, significantly reduced behavioral deficits and infarct volumes. Last, we demonstrated that the protective effect gained by 120 minutes after electroacupuncture treatment before ischemic injury was abolished by pretreatment with the A1-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Our results suggest that pretreatment with electroacupuncture at the Baihui acupoint elicits protection against transient cerebral ischemia via action at adenosine A1 receptors.

  20. Enhanced neuroprotective effects of resveratrol delivered by nanoparticles on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in rat cortical cell culture.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaowei; Xu, Huae; Sun, Bo; Zhu, Zhenshu; Zheng, Donghui; Li, Xiaolin

    2013-05-06

    Resveratrol (RES) has recently been reported as a potential antioxidant in treatment of ischemia/reperfusion injury through attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, application of RES is limited for its insolubility and short half-time. Latest evidence raises the possibility of developing nanoparticle-based delivery systems with improved solubility, stability and cytotoxicity of lipophilic drug. Here, we reported first a simple way to produce RES-loaded nanoparticles (RES-NPs) based on poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) polymer and further evaluated the protective effect of RES-NPs on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat cortical cell culture. The controlled release pattern of RES-loaded nanoparticles was characterized by in vitro release experiments. Cytotoxicity tests proved cytocompatibility of these nanoparticles with neurons. Shown by coumarin-6 loaded nanoparticles, the uptake of nanoparticles by neurons was considered through endocytosis, which could lead to higher uptake efficiency at lower concentration. Thereby, the hypothesis is raised that RES-NPs could demonstrate enhanced neuroprotection compared to an equivalent dose of free RES at lower concentration, especially. It was further supported by enhanced reduction of LDH release, elimination of ROS and MDA, and attenuation of apoptosis signal (ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, activation of caspase-3). RES-NPs could be a potential treatment needing intensive research for ischemia/reperfusion related disorder including stroke.

  1. Ischemia/reperfusion-induced alterations of enzymatic and signaling functions of the rat cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase: protection by ouabain preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Belliard, Aude; Gulati, Gaurav K; Duan, Qiming; Alves, Rosana; Brewer, Shannon; Madan, Namrata; Sottejeau, Yoann; Wang, Xiaoliang; Kalisz, Jennifer; Pierre, Sandrine V

    2016-10-01

    Cardiac glycosides (CG) are traditionally known as positive cardiac inotropes that inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase-dependent ion transport. CG also trigger-specific signaling pathways through the cardiac Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, with beneficial effects in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury (e.g., ouabain preconditioning, known as OPC) and hypertrophy. Our current understanding of hypersensitivity to CG and subsequent toxicity in the ischemic heart is mostly based on specific I/R-induced alterations of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzymatic function and has remained incomplete. The primary goal of this study was to investigate and compare the impact of I/R on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzymatic and signaling functions. Second, we assessed the impact of OPC on both functions. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were exposed to 30 min of ischemia and 30 min of reperfusion. At the inotropic concentration of 50 μmol/L, ouabain increased ERK and Akt phosphorylation in control hearts. In I/R hearts, this concentration did not induced positive inotropy and failed to induce Akt or ERK phosphorylation. The inotropic response to dobutamine as well as insulin signaling persisted, suggesting specific alterations of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Indeed, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase protein expression was intact, but the enzyme activity was decreased by 60% and the enzymatic function of the isoform with high affinity for ouabain was abolished following I/R. Strikingly, OPC prevented all I/R-induced alterations of the receptor. Further studies are needed to reveal the respective roles of I/R-induced modulations of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzymatic and signaling functions in cardiomyocyte death.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebenol on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-09-01

    α-Iso-cubebenol is a natural compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis, and is reported to have beneficial bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal damage has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we investigated the mechanisms of α-iso-cubebenol protection of mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells (HT22 cells) from apoptotic cell death induced by the major excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. Pretreatment with α-iso-cubebenol markedly attenuated glutamate-induced loss of cell viability and release of lactate dehydrogenase), in a dose-dependent manner. α-Iso-cubebenol significantly reduced glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium accumulation. Strikingly, α-iso-cubebenol inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization, which releases apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria. α-Iso-cubebenol also suppressed glutamate-induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases. Furthermore, α-iso-cubebenol induced CREB phosphorylation and Nrf-2 nuclear accumulation and increased the promoter activity of ARE and CREB in HT22 cells. α-Iso-cubebenol also upregulated the expression of phase-II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO1. Subsequent studies revealed that the inhibitory effects of α-iso-cubebenol on glutamate-induced apoptosis were abolished by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CREB and Nrf-2. These findings suggest that α-iso-cubebenol prevents excitotoxin-induced oxidative damage to neurons by inhibiting apoptotic cell death, and might be a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Cyclooxygenase-independent neuroprotective effects of aspirin against dopamine quinone-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Masato; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Kikkawa, Yuri; Kimoto, Naotaka; Takeshima, Mika; Murakami, Shinki; Miyoshi, Ko

    2012-09-01

    Prostaglandin H synthase exerts not only cyclooxygenase activity but also peroxidase activity. The latter activity of the enzyme is thought to couple with oxidation of dopamine to dopamine quinone. Therefore, it has been proposed that cyclooxygenase inhibitors could suppress dopamine quinone formation. In the present study, we examined effects of various cyclooxygenase inhibitors against excess methyl L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced quinoprotein (protein-bound quinone) formation and neurotoxicity using dopaminergic CATH.a cells. The treatment with aspirin inhibited excess methyl L-DOPA-induced quinoprotein formation and cell death. However, acetaminophen did not show protective effects, and indomethacin and meloxicam rather aggravated these methyl L-DOPA-induced changes. Aspirin and indomethacin did not affect the level of glutathione that exerts quenching dopamine quinone in dopaminergic cells. In contrast with inhibiting effects of higher dose in the previous reports, relatively lower dose of aspirin that affected methyl L-DOPA-induced quinoprotein formation and cell death failed to prevent cyclooxygenase-induced dopamine chrome generation in cell-free system. Furthermore, aspirin but not acetaminophen or meloxicam showed direct dopamine quinone-scavenging effects in dopamine-semiquinone generating systems. The present results suggest that cyclooxygenase shows little contribution to dopamine oxidation in dopaminergic cells and that protective effects of aspirin against methyl L-DOPA-induced dopamine quinone neurotoxicity are based on its cyclooxygenase-independent property.

  4. Neuroprotective property of low molecular weight fraction from B. jararaca snake venom in H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal cells.

    PubMed

    Querobino, Samyr Machado; Carrettiero, Daniel Carneiro; Costa, Maricilia Silva; Alberto-Silva, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In central nervous system cells, low molecular weight fractions (LMWF) from snake venoms can inhibit changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, preventing the diffusion of cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, inhibiting the activation of pro-apoptotic factors. Here, we evaluated the neuroprotective activity of LMWF from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) snake venom in H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal cells. SDS-PAGE, FT-IR and MALDI-TOF analysis of LMWF (<14 kDa) confirmed the absence of high-molecular-weight proteins in the fraction. LMWF did not present cytotoxicity in all concentrations and time tested by MTT assay. Neuroprotection was evaluated in cells pretreated with LMWF for 4 h prior to the addition of 50 μM H2O2 for 20 h. We demonstrated that LMWF reduced the argininosuccinate synthase (AsS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) expressions, suggesting that this fraction as an effective neuroprotective compound that could increase the hippocampal cells viability by attenuation of oxidative stress. In addition, LMWF protects against apoptosis induced by H2O2, reducing the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Overall, this study opens new perspectives for the identification of new molecules for the development of drugs applied to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Quantitative proteomics study of the neuroprotective effects of B12 on hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Lijun; Zhou, Juntuo; Chen, Xi; Lou, Yaxin; Liu, Dan; Zou, Xiajuan; Yang, Bin; Yin, Yuxin; Pan, Yan

    2016-03-08

    B12 belongs to the coumarin class of compounds that have been shown to have various physiological and pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant. In the present study, we characterised the neuroprotective effects of B12 against H2O2-induced neuronal cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells. Protein expression profiling in combination with pathway analysis was deployed to investigate the molecular events associated with the neuroprotective effects in human neuronal cells using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. A total of 22 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in H2O2-damaged cells with or without B12 treatment. Bioinformatics analysis using the Cytoscape platform indicated that poly pyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) was highly associated with the protective effect, and western blotting verified that PTBP1 was up-regulated in H2O2 + B12 treatment group, compared with the H2O2 treated group. PTBP RNAi experiments knocked down PTBP expression, which cancelled out the protective effect of B12 on cell viability. Thus, we infer that B12 neuroprotective activity involves up-regulation of PTBP1 and its associated signalling networks following H2O2-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. B12 or related compounds may prove to be useful therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

  6. Neuroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L) Wight and Arn against beta-amyloid(25-35)-induced amnesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, J C Hanish; Alagarsamy, V; Parthiban, P; Selvakumar, P; Reddy, Y Narsimha

    2011-06-01

    The neuroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of roots of Pseudarthria viscida (L) Wight and Arn (EEPV) was investigated against beta-amyloid(25-35)-induced amnesia in mice which is a suitable animal model for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The senile plaques of beta-amyloid (Abeta) are major constituents accumulated during the progression of AD as a potent neurotoxicant. In our investigation, intracerebroventricular injection of Abeta(25-35) in mice induced the neurodegeneration, exhibited the increased time of escape latency in behavioral pattern using water maze and decreased the levels of antioxidants namley superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and vitamin C with elevated level of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE). The neuroprotective potential of EEPV was determined by behavioral pattern using water maze and biochemical parameters such as SOD, CAT and GPx and vitamin C content as well as AChE. Mice were treated with EEPV at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Except control, all animals received a single injection of neurotoxicant Abeta(25-35) on 14th day. In behavioural assessment, treatment with ethanolic extract improved the cognitive function in the water maze and attenuated the elevated levels of AChE with increase in antioxidant enzymes, indicating the neuroprotection with increased levels of vitamin C. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of P. viscida exerts anti-amnesiac effects and enhances cognitive function.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of Salidroside and its analogue tyrosol galactoside against focal cerebral ischemia in vivo and H2O2-induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tian-yao; Feng, Shu-fang; Xing, Jiang-hao; Wu, Yu-mei; Li, Xiao-qiang; Zhang, Nan; Tian, Zhen; Liu, Shui-bing; Zhao, Ming-gao

    2012-05-01

    Salidroside (Sal) is a natural antioxidant extracted from the root of Rhodiola rosea L. that elicits neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. Tyrosol galactoside (Tyr), an analog of Sal, was recently synthesized in our laboratory. The purpose of the current study was to investigate and compare the neuroprotective effects of Sal and Tyr against focal cerebral ischemia in vivo and H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity in vitro. Sal and Tyr significantly prevented a cerebral ischemic injury induced by a 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and a 24 h reperfusion in rats in vivo. Furthermore, the oxidative insult was markedly attenuated by treatments of Sal and Tyr in the cultured rat cortical neurons after a 30 min exposure to 50 μM of H(2)O(2). Western blot analysis revealed that Sal and Tyr decreased the expression of Bax and restored the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. The neuroprotective effects of these two analogues show that Tyr has a better antioxidative action compared with Sal both in vivo and in vitro, and suggest that the antioxidant activity of Sal and Tyr may be partly due to their different substituents in their glycosyl groups. This gives a new insight into the development of therapeutic natural antioxidants against oxidative stress.

  8. Neuroprotective role of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Anisha, M

    2014-03-01

    The present study was designed to examine the protective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera in ameliorating the alterations induced by aluminium (Al) on behavioural and neurochemical indices. Al was given orally (100mg/kg b.wt./day) whereas V. vinifera extract was administered through diet (400mg/kg, p.o.) to rats for a total duration of 45 days. Passive avoidance and open field tests revealed significant alterations in the short-term memory and cognitive behaviour in rats treated with Al. Further, locomotor as well as muscular activities were also found to be significantly affected. Co-administration of V. vinifera extract with Al caused significant improvement in the short-term memory, cognition, anxiety, locomotion and muscular activity. Al exposure led to a significant decrease in the acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, increase in serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT. Anti-oxidant parameters-reduced glutathione, catalase and glutathione reductase levels were also found to be significantly decreased but the levels of lipid peroxidation was significantly increased in brain following Al treatment. V. vinifera extract supplementation to Al treated animals caused a significant improvement in the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase which was altered by Al. Serum glucose, TG, TC, ALP and ALT were brought back to normal levels. Further, V. vinifera extract when given along with Al was also able to regulate the levels of Anti-oxidant parameters in brain and the values were found close to the normal controls. Histopathological studies revealed neurodegeneration and vacuolated cytoplasm after Al treatment. Therefore, the study strengthens the hypothesis that V. vinifera extract can be used as a neuroprotectant during Al induced neurotoxicity.

  9. Egg white hydrolysate promotes neuroprotection for neuropathic disorders induced by chronic exposure to low concentrations of mercury.

    PubMed

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Fernandez, Francisca; Moreno, Silvia; Uranga Ocio, José Antonio; Peçanha, Franck Maciel; Vera, Gema; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Castro, Marta Miguel; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate whether the egg white hydrolysate (EWH) acts on the neuropathic disorders associated with long-term Mercury (Hg) exposure in rats. 8- week-old male Wistar rats were treated for 60 days with: a) Control - saline solution (i.m.); b) Mercury - HgCl2 (1st dose 4.6μg/kg, subsequent doses 0.07μg/kg/day, i.m.); c) Hydrolysate - EWH (1g/kg/day, gavage); d) Mercury and Hydrolysate. Mechanical allodynia was assessed using Von Frey Hairs test; heat hyperalgesia by the plantar test; catalepsy by a modification of the "ring test" and spontaneous locomotor activity by a photocell activity chambers. Analyses were performed at 0, 30 and 60 days of treatment. Brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α determination and skin immunohistochemistry were performed at 60 days. Hg induced a reduction in mechanical sensitivity threshold at 30 and 60 days and in thermal sensitivity threshold at 60 days. At the end of treatment catalepsy was developed, but there was not significant alteration in spontaneous locomotor activity. Hg also increased brain and plasma MDA, plasma NPSH and TNF-α levels and the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. EWH prevented the development of mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and catalepsy induced by Hg and the increase in MDA concentration in brain and plasma and in the number of Merkel cell-neurite complex in the skin. In conclusion, EWH promotes neuroprotection against the toxic effects caused by Hg, demonstrating a beneficial therapeutic potential.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of cutamesine, a ligand of the sigma-1 receptor chaperone, against noise-induced hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Daisuke; Sun, Guang-wei; Cui, Yong; Mita, Shiro; Otsuki, Naoki; Kanzaki, Sho; Nibu, Ken-ichi; Ogawa, Kaoru; Matsunaga, Tatsuo

    2015-05-01

    The sigma-1 receptor, which is expressed throughout the brain, provides physiological benefits that include higher brain function. The sigma-1 receptor functions as a chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and may control cell death and regeneration within the central nervous system. Cutamesine (1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethyl)-4-(3-phenylpropyl) piperazine dihydrochloride) is a ligand selective for this receptor and may mediate neuroprotective effects in the context of neurodegenerative disease. We therefore assessed whether cutamesine protects the inner ear from noise-induced or aging-associated hearing loss. Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting revealed that the sigma-1 receptor is present in adult cochlea. We treated mice with 0, 3, or 30 mg/kg cutamesine from 10 days before noise exposure until the end of the study. All subjects were exposed to a 120-dB, 4-kHz octave-band noise for 2 hr. We assessed auditory thresholds by measuring the auditory-evoked brainstem responses at 4, 8, and 16 kHz, prior to and 1 week, 1 month, or 3 months following noise exposure. For the aging study, measurements were made before treatment was initiated and after 3 or 9 months of cutamesine treatment. Damage to fibrocytes within the cochlear spiral limbus was assessed by quantitative histology. Cutamesine significantly reduced threshold shifts and cell death within the spiral limbus in response to intense noise. These effects were not dose or time dependent. Conversely, cutamesine did not prevent aging-associated hearing loss. These results suggest that cutamesine reduces noise-induced hearing loss and cochlear damage during the acute phase that follows exposure to an intense noise.

  11. BMP4 and CNTF are neuroprotective and suppress damage-induced proliferation of Müller glia in the retina.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Andy J; Schmidt, Michael; Schmidt, Mike; Omar, Ghezal; Reh, Thomas A

    2004-12-01

    In response to acute damage, Müller glia in the chicken retina have been shown to be a source of proliferating progenitor-like cells. The secreted factors and signaling pathways that regulate this process remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to test whether secreted factors, which are known to promote glial differentiation during development, regulate the ability of Müller glia to proliferate and become retinal progenitors in response to acute damage in mature retina. We made intraocular injections of BMP4, BMP7, EGF, NGF, BDNF, or CNTF before or after a single, toxic dose of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and assayed for proliferating progenitor-like cells within the retina. We found that injections of BMP4, BMP7, or CNTF, but not EGF, NGF, or BDNF, before NMDA treatment reduced the number of Müller glia that proliferated and gave rise to progenitor-like cells. CNTF and BMP4, but not NGF or BDNF, greatly reduced the number of cells destroyed by toxin treatment indicating that these factors protect retinal neurons from a severe excitotoxic insult. Injections of CNTF 5 days before NMDA treatment prevented neurotoxin-induced cell death and Müller glial proliferation, while injections of BMP4 had no protective effect. In addition, CNTF injected after NMDA treatment suppressed glial proliferation, while BMP4 did not. We conclude that BMP4 and CNTF, when applied before a toxic insult, act as neuroprotective agents and likely suppress the proliferative response of Müller glia to retinal damage by attenuating the retinal damage; protecting bipolar and amacrine neurons from NMDA-induced cell death. When applied after a toxic insult, CNTF suppressed glial proliferation independent of levels of retinal damage.

  12. Parkinsonian toxin-induced oxidative stress inhibits basal autophagy in astrocytes via NQO2/quinone oxidoreductase 2: Implications for neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Elzbieta; Lascala, Antonella; Carresi, Cristina; Parafati, Maddalena; Aprigliano, Serafina; Russo, Vanessa; Savoia, Claudia; Ziviani, Elena; Musolino, Vincenzo; Morani, Federica; Isidoro, Ciro; Mollace, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) stimulates autophagy in different cellular systems, but it remains controversial if this rule can be generalized. We have analyzed the effect of chronic OS induced by the parkinsonian toxin paraquat (PQ) on autophagy in astrocytoma cells and primary astrocytes, which represent the first cellular target of neurotoxins in the brain. PQ decreased the basal levels of LC3-II and LC3-positive vesicles, and its colocalization with lysosomal markers, both in the absence and presence of chloroquine. This was paralleled by increased number and size of SQSTM1/p62 aggregates. Downregulation of autophagy was also observed in cells chronically exposed to hydrogen peroxide or nonlethal concentrations of PQ, and it was associated with a reduced astrocyte capability to protect dopaminergic cells from OS in co-cultures. Surprisingly, PQ treatment led to inhibition of MTOR, activation of MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK1/ERK2-MAPK3/ERK1 and upregulation of BECN1/Beclin 1 expression, all signals typically correlating with induction of autophagy. Reduction of OS by NMDPEF, a specific NQO2 inhibitor, but not by N-acetylcysteine, abrogated the inhibitory effect of PQ and restored autophagic flux. Activation of NQO2 by PQ or menadione and genetic manipulation of its expression confirmed the role of this enzyme in the inhibitory action of PQ on autophagy. PQ did not induce NFE2L2/NRF2, but when it was co-administered with NMDPEF NFE2L2 activity was enhanced in a SQSTM1-independent fashion. Thus, a prolonged OS in astrocytes inhibits LC3 lipidation and impairs autophagosome formation and autophagic flux, in spite of concomitant activation of several pro-autophagic signals. These findings outline an unanticipated neuroprotective role of astrocyte autophagy and identify in NQO2 a novel pharmacological target for its positive modulation. PMID:26046590

  13. The role of HIF in cobalt-induced ischemic tolerance.

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Novak, A E; Elliott, J P

    2013-11-12

    Understanding the endogenous survival pathways induced by ischemic tolerance may yield targets for neuroprotection from stroke. One well-studied pathway reported to be evoked by preconditioning stimuli is the transcription factor HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor). However, whether HIF induction by ischemic insults is neuroprotective or toxic is still unclear. We examined the ability of three prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors, which induce HIF, to protect hippocampal cultures from oxygen-glucose deprivation. Hippocampal cultures were exposed to ischemic preconditioning or various concentrations of cobalt chloride, deferoxamine (DFO) or dimethyloxylalyglycine (DMOG), prior to lethal oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Cell survival of neurons and astrocytes was determined with dual-label immunocytochemistry. The induction of HIF targets was assessed in mixed as well as astrocyte-enriched cultures. Ischemic preconditioning, as well as low concentrations of cobalt and DFO, enhanced the survival of neurons following OGD. However, DMOG exacerbates OGD-induced neuronal death. At low concentrations, all three prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors increased the survival of astrocytes. Neuroprotective concentrations of cobalt induced the transcription of the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) in astrocyte cultures. In addition, pretreatment with recombinant human erythropoietin (rH-EPO) also protected neurons from OGD. Our data suggest that HIF-induced EPO, released from astrocytes, protects neurons from OGD. However, the three PHD inhibitors each exhibited different neuroprotective profiles at low concentrations, suggesting that not all PHD inhibitors are created equal. The protective effects at low doses is reminiscent of HIF involvement in ischemic tolerance, in which sub-lethal insults induce HIF pathways resulting in neuroprotection, whereas the high-dose toxicity suggests that over-activation of HIF is not always protective. Therefore, the choice of inhibitor and dose may determine

  14. Xenon preconditioning reduces brain damage from neonatal asphyxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daqing; Hossain, Mahmuda; Pettet, Garry K J; Luo, Yan; Lim, Ta; Akimov, Stanislav; Sanders, Robert D; Franks, Nicholas P; Maze, Mervyn

    2006-02-01

    Xenon attenuates on-going neuronal injury in both in vitro and in vivo models of hypoxic-ischaemic injury when administered during and after the insult. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether the neuroprotective efficacy of xenon can be observed when administered before an insult, referred to as 'preconditioning'. In a neuronal-glial cell coculture, preexposure to xenon for 2 h caused a concentration-dependent reduction of lactate dehydrogenase release from cells deprived of oxygen and glucose 24 h later; xenon's preconditioning effect was abolished by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Preconditioning with xenon decreased propidium iodide staining in a hippocampal slice culture model subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. In an in vivo model of neonatal asphyxia involving hypoxic-ischaemic injury to 7-day-old rats, preconditioning with xenon reduced infarction size when assessed 7 days after injury. Furthermore, a sustained improvement in neurologic function was also evident 30 days after injury. Phosphorylated cAMP (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-response element binding protein (pCREB) was increased by xenon exposure. Also, the prosurvival proteins Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were upregulated by xenon treatment. These studies provide evidence for xenon's preconditioning effect, which might be caused by a pCREB-regulated synthesis of proteins that promote survival against neuronal injury.

  15. Pressure-Induced Alterations in PEDF and PEDF-R Expression: Implications for Neuroprotective Signaling in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sean J; Duncan, D’Anne S; Echevarria, Franklin D; McLaughlin, William M; Hatcher, Jeremy B; Sappington, Rebecca M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alterations in neuron-glia signaling are implicated in glaucoma, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF) is a secreted protein with potential neuroprotective qualities in retinal disease, including chronic ocular hypertension. Here we sought to determine whether moderate, short-term elevations in IOP alter PEDF signaling and whether pressure-induced PEDF signaling directly impacts RGC apoptosis. Methods In retina from naïve mice and mice with unilateral, microbead-induced glaucoma, we examined expression and cell type-specific localization of PEDF and its receptor (PEDF-R), using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Using primary cultures of purified RGCs and Müller cells, we examined cell type-specific expression of PEDF in response to 48 hours of elevated hydrostatic pressure, using multiplex ELISA and immunocytochemistry. We also measured pressure-induced apoptosis of RGCs in the presence or absence of atglistatin, a potent and selective inhibitor of PEDF-R, and recombinant PEDF, using TUNEL assays. Results PEDF and PEDF-R are constitutively expressed in naïve retina, primarily in the ganglion cell and nerve fiber layers. Elevated IOP increases PEDF and PEDF-R expression, particularly associated with RGCs and Müller cells. Elevated pressure in vitro increased PEDF secretion by 6-fold in RGCs and trended towards an increase in expression by Müller cells, as compared to ambient pressure. This was accompanied by changes in the subcellular localization of PEDF-R in both cell types. Inhibition of PEDF signaling with atglistatin increased pressure-induced apoptosis in RGCs and treatment with recombinant PEDF inhibited pressure-induced apoptosis, both in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Our findings suggest that moderate, short-term elevations in IOP promote PEDF signaling via up-regulation of both PEDF and PEDF-R. Based on in vivo and in vitro studies, this PEDF

  16. Short-term preconditioning enhances the therapeutic potential of adipose-derived stromal/stem cell-conditioned medium in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Overath, Jürgen M; Gauer, Stefan; Obermüller, Nicholas; Schubert, Ralf; Schäfer, Richard; Geiger, Helmut; Baer, Patrick C

    2016-03-15

    The development of new strategies to preserve renal function after acute kidney injury (AKI) is necessary due to limited clinical intervention options. The organ-protective effects of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) and their conditioned medium (CM) have been investigated demonstrating that both separately promoted tubular recovery and ameliorated the outcome of AKI. Nevertheless, strategies to optimise the regenerative potential of both are highly needed. Here we investigated the effects of CM from adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) preincubated in a hypoxic environment (Hyp). Protective factors were investigated by PCR analysis and a protein array in vitro. The expression of 64 of the 308 proteins assayed was found to be more than two-fold increased after Hyp. CM of Hyp-pretreated ASCs (pCM) was used to enhance regeneration in a mouse model of cisplatin-induced AKI (cisAKI). Renal function was assessed by measurements of markers for AKI and serum cytokine levels. The pCM significantly ameliorated serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin values, and also the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in the serum of mice with AKI. Our work clearly showed that a Hyp preconditioning significantly increases the release of protective factors in ASCs and enhances the therapeutic effects of CM in cisAKI in mice.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of ginger in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Akabawy, Gehan; El-Kholy, Wael

    2014-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus results in neuronal damage caused by increased intracellular glucose leading to oxidative stress. Recent evidence revealed the potential of ginger for reducing diabetes-induced oxidative stress markers. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time, whether the antioxidant properties of ginger has beneficial effects on the structural brain damage associated with diabetes. We investigated the observable neurodegenerative changes in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum after 4, 6, and 8 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats and the effect(s) of ginger (500 mg/kg/day). Sections of frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, and cerebellum were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined using light microscopy. In addition, quantitative immunohistochemical assessments of the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, caspase-3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and Ki67 were performed. Our results revealed a protective role of ginger on the diabetic brain via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. In addition, this study revealed that the beneficial effect of ginger was also mediated by modulating the astroglial response to the injury, reducing AChE expression, and improving neurogenesis. These results represent a new insight into the beneficial effects of ginger on the structural alterations of diabetic brain and suggest that ginger might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diabetic-induced damage in brain.

  18. Neuroprotective effect of didymin on hydrogen peroxide-induced injury in the neuronal membrane system.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sabrina; Piscioneri, Antonella; Salerno, Simona; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Drioli, Enrico; De Bartolo, Loredana

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the flavonoid didymin was administered in vitro in neuronal cells after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury (neurorescue) in order to investigate the effects of this natural molecule on cell damage in a neuronal membrane system. The results showed the effects of didymin in neuronal cells by using a polycaprolactone biodegradable membrane system as an in vitro model. Two major findings are presented in this study: first is the antioxidant property of didymin and, second, for the first time we provide evidence concerning its ability to rescue neuronal cells from oxidative damage. Didymin showed radical scavenging activities and it protected the neuronal cells against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Didymin increased cell viability, decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation, stimulated superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity in neuronal cells which were previously insulted with H2O2. In addition, didymin strikingly inhibited H2O2-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions in terms of reduction of mitochondria membrane potential and the activation of cleaved caspase-3, and also decreased dramatically the H2O2-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Therefore, this molecule is capable of inducing recovery from oxidative damage, and promoting and/or restoring normal cellular conditions. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the protective effects of didymin in H2O2-injured neuronal cells might be related to the activation of antioxidant defense enzymes as well as to the inhibition of apoptotic features, such as p-JNK and caspase-3 activation. These data suggest that didymin may be a potential therapeutic molecule for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress.

  19. Serum from Patients Undergoing Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Protects Cultured Human Intestinal Cells from Hypoxia-Induced Damage: Involvement of Matrixmetalloproteinase-2 and -9

    PubMed Central

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Heinrich, Christin; Renner, Jochen; Cremer, Jochen; Steinfath, Markus; Scholz, Jens; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can be induced by transient occlusion of blood flow to a limb with a blood pressure cuff and exerts multiorgan protection from ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ischemia/reperfusion injury in the intestinal tract leads to intestinal barrier dysfunction and can result in multiple organ failure. Here we used an intestinal cell line (CaCo-2) to evaluate the effects of RIPC-conditioned patient sera on hypoxia-induced cell damage in vitro and to identify serum factors that mediate RIPC effects. Patient sera (n = 10) derived before RIPC (T0), directly after RIPC (T1) and 1 h after RIPC (T2) were added to the culture medium at the onset of hypoxia until 48 h after hypoxia. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays, caspase-3/7 assays, silver staining, gelatin zymography and Western blotting were performed. Hypoxia led to morphological signs of cell damage and increased the release of LDH in cultures containing sera T0 (P < 0.01) and T1 (P < 0.05), but not sera T2, which reduced the hypoxia-mediated LDH release compared with sera T0 (P < 0.05). Gelatin zymography revealed a significant reduction of activities of the matrixmetalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in the protective sera T2 compared with the nonprotective sera T0 (MMP-2: P < 0.01; MMP-9: P < 0.05). Addition of human recombinant MMP-2 and MMP-9 to MMP-deficient culture media increased the sensitivity of CaCo-2 cells to hypoxia-induced cell damage (P < 0.05), but did not result in a reduced phosphorylation of prosurvival kinases p42/44 and protein kinase B (Akt) or increased activity of caspase-3/7. Our results suggest MMP-2 and MMP-9 as currently unknown humoral factors that may be involved in RIPC-mediated cytoprotection in the intestine. PMID:22009279

  20. Exercise-induced neuroprotective effects on neurodegenerative diseases: the key role of trophic factors.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Lattari, Eduardo; Paes, Flávia; Nardi, António E; Machado, Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related neurodegenerative disorders, like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease, are becoming a major issue to public health care. Currently, there is no effective pharmacological treatment to address cognitive impairment in these patients. Here, we aim to explore the role of exercise-induced trophic factor enhancement in the prevention or delay of cognitive decline in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. There is a significant amount of evidence from animal and human studies that links neurodegenerative related cognitive deficits with changes on brain and peripheral trophic factor levels. Several trials with elderly individuals and patients with neurodegenerative diseases report exercise induced cognitive improvements and changes on trophic factor levels including BDNF, IGF-I, among others. Further studies with healthy aging and clinical populations are needed to understand how diverse exercise interventions produce different variations in trophic factor signaling. Genetic profiles and potential confounders regarding trophic factors should also be addressed in future trials.

  1. Neuroprotective effects of sodium hydrosulfide against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Fei; Shi, Jing-Shan; Gong, Qi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known to be caused by the accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). The accumulation of Aβ has been shown to cause learning and memory impairment in rats, and it has been shown that hydrogen sulfide donors, such as sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) can attenuate these effects. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been fully eludicated. This study was designed to investigate whether NaHS attenuates the inflammation and apoptosis induced by Aβ. We demonstrated that NaHS attenuated Aβ25–35-induced neuronal reduction and apoptosis, and inhibited the activation of pro-caspase-3. It also decreased the protein expresion of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) in the hippocampus of the rats. In addition, NaHS upregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α and PPAR-γ, but it did not affect the expression of PPAR-β. Moreover, the Aβ25–35-exposed rats exhibited a decrease in IκB-α degradation and an increase in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 phosphorylation levels, whereas these effects were attenuated by NaHS. Our data suggest that NaHS prevents Aβ-induced neurotoxicity via the upregulation of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ and the inhibition of PDE5. Hence NaHS may prove to be beneficial in the treatment of AD. PMID:27511125

  2. Neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of curcumin in a ketamine-induced model of mania in rats.

    PubMed

    Gazal, Marta; Valente, Matheus R; Acosta, Bruna A; Kaufmann, Fernanda N; Braganhol, Elizandra; Lencina, Claiton L; Stefanello, Francieli M; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Kaster, Manuella P

    2014-02-05

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic and debilitating illness characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes. Our research investigates the protective effects of curcumin, the main curcuminoid of the Indian spice turmeric, in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Our results indicated that ketamine treatment (25 mg/kg, for 8 days) induced hyperlocomotion in the open-field test and oxidative damage in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HP), evaluated by increased lipid peroxidation and decreased total thiol content. Moreover, ketamine treatment reduced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in the HP. Pretreatment of rats with curcumin (20 and 50 mg/kg, for 14 days) or with lithium chloride (45 mg/kg, positive control) prevented behavioral and pro-oxidant effects induced by ketamine. These findings suggest that curcumin might be a good compound for preventive intervention in BD, reducing the episode relapse and the oxidative damage associated with the manic phase of this disorder.

  3. Red Lentil Extract: Neuroprotective Effects on Perphenazine Induced Catatonia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tarahomi, Shahram; Arzi, Ardeshir; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Rashidi-Nooshabadi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is defined by certain symptoms such as muscle rigidity, impaired movement, catatonia, tremor and disorientation of body. Aim The aim was to investigate the effect of red lentil extract on perphenazine-induced Catatonia in model of rat. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on 48 male albino rats (weight 180–200g) of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and were pre-treated with a single dose of red lentil extract (200, 400, 800 and 1000 mg/kg), most effective dose of bromocriptine (30mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg) via intraperitoneal (IP) route. perphenazine (5 mg/kg) was after 30 minutes, administered (IP) to induce catatonia. The scoring method of Morpurgo was used to determine the muscular rigidity of animals. Results The results showed that the 200mg/kg red lentil extract treated group had no significant reduction in catatonic responses after perphenazine administration in comparison with control group while the groups that received 800 and 1000mg/kg of red lentil extract showed significant difference (p<0.05) at all the time points. Conclusion The results revealed that hydroalcoholic extract of red lentil has protective effect on Catatonia induced by perphenazine in rats. So this extract may be probably beneficial for catatonia in Parkinsonism. PMID:27504309

  4. Limb remote-preconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats and contradicts the dogma of therapeutic time windows for preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Ren, C; Gao, X; Steinberg, G K; Zhao, H

    2008-02-19

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is an emerging concept for stroke treatment, but its protection against focal stroke has not been established. We tested whether remote preconditioning, performed in the ipsilateral hind limb, protects against focal stroke and explored its protective parameters. Stroke was generated by a permanent occlusion of the left distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) combined with a 30 min occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA) in male rats. Limb preconditioning was generated by 5 or 15 min occlusion followed with the same period of reperfusion of the left hind femoral artery, and repeated for two or three cycles. Infarct was measured 2 days later. The results showed that rapid preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min performed immediately before stroke reduced infarct size from 47.7+/-7.6% of control ischemia to 9.8+/-8.6%; at two cycles of 15 min, infarct was reduced to 24.7+/-7.3%; at two cycles of 5 min, infarct was not reduced. Delayed preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min conducted 2 days before stroke also reduced infarct to 23.0+/-10.9%, but with two cycles of 15 min it offered no protection. The protective effects at these two therapeutic time windows of remote preconditioning are consistent with those of conventional preconditioning, in which the preconditioning ischemia is induced in the brain itself. Unexpectedly, intermediate preconditioning with three cycles of 15 min performed 12 h before stroke also reduced infarct to 24.7+/-4.7%, which contradicts the current dogma for therapeutic time windows for the conventional preconditioning that has no protection at this time point. In conclusion, remote preconditioning performed in one limb protected against ischemic damage after focal cerebral ischemia.

  5. Elucidation of molecular mechanism involved in neuroprotective effect of Coenzyme Q10 in alcohol-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Kandhare, Amit D; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of Coenzyme Q10 and its combination with vitamin E in alcohol-induced chronic neuropathic pain. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with alcohol (10 g/kg, 35% v/v, b.i.d.) for 10 weeks. Coenzyme Q10 (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg) were coadministered orally for 1 h after ethanol administration for 10 weeks. Various nerve functions, biochemical, and molecular parameters were assessed. Chronic administration of ethanol for 10 weeks resulted significant development of neuropathic pain. Treatment with Coenzyme Q10 (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 10 weeks showed significant and dose dependently increased in level of nociceptive threshold, endogenous antioxidant, and Na,K-ATPase enzyme. Coenzyme Q10 (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly restored the levels of motor nerve conduction velocity and sensory nerve conduction velocity. It also showed significant decrease in levels of endogenous calcium, oxidative-nitrosative stress, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-4 level. Alteration in protein expression of polymerase gamma (pol γ) was significantly restored the Coenzyme Q10 treatment. The important finding of the study is that, Coenzyme Q10 (100 mg/kg) and α-tocopherol (100 mg/kg) combination-treated rats showed more significant prevention of behavioral, biochemical, and molecular neurotoxic effect of alcohol administration than Coenzyme Q10 or α-tocopherol alone treated group. It is evident from the finding of present investigation that plethora of mechanism including inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress, release of pro-inflammatory cytokine, modulation of endogenous biomarker, and protection of pol γ protein expression simultaneously orchestrate to exhibits neuroprotective effect of Coenzyme Q10, vitamin E and their combination.

  6. Albumin induces neuroprotection against ischemic stroke by altering Toll-like receptor 4 and regulatory T cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Yongming; He, Jing; Wei, Siyu; Zhang, Na; Liu, Fengyong; Liu, Xin; Kang, Yi; Yao, Xiaomei

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of albumin therapy on the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4), anti-inflammation cytokines and CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (Treg cells) in the ischemic brain and peripheral immune system after Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO). Adult male Kunming mice were subjected to MCAO, the suture was withdrawn 2 h later followed by an intravenous administration of 25% albumin (1.25 g/kg) or saline (5 ml/kg) through caudal vein. We demonstrated that albumin administration elevated the serum albumin level supranormally at 6 h and 24 h after MCAO in mice. In addition, we showed that both in the ischemic brain and in the spleen, albumin administration significantly depressed the increase of TLR 4 mRNA expression by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR), and significantly increase the anti-inflammatory related interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) mRNA expression by transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after MCAO. In the spleen, compared to sham group, strong TLR 4 immunoreactivity was noted in the saline group; while compared to saline group, albumin administration markedly reduced the immunoreactivity of TLR 4 after MCAO by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, albumin administration significantly increased the percentage of Treg in spleen CD4(+) cells by flow cytometry. In conclusion, the decrease of TLR 4 expression and the increase of Treg cell, IL-10, and TGF-β1 expression may partly contribute to the neuroprotective effect of albumin therapy on MCAO induced immune inflammatory responses.

  7. Neuroprotection effects of retained acupuncture in neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jen-Lin; Chen, Jay S C; Yang, Yi-Fei; Chen, Jyh-Cheng; Lin, Ching-Huang; Chang, Rong-Seng; Tsao, Po-Jui; Chen, Fang-Pey; Chern, Chang-Ming; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chiu, Jen-Hwey

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of retained acupuncture (RA) in neurotoxin-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to induce the PD model. The mice were divided into four groups, namely, (1) normal; (2) MPTP+retained acupuncture (RA); (3) MPTP+electroacupuncture (EA); (4) MPTP+sham acupuncture (SA). After mice being manipulated with/without acupuncture at acupoints (Daling, PC 7), groups 2-4 were injected with MPTP (15 mg/kg/d). The mice were evaluated for behavioral changes, in terms of time of landing, after acupuncture treatment. The animals were sacrificed and their brains assayed for dopamine and its metabolites and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression by using HPLC and immunohistochemistry/Western blotting, respectively. [(123)I] IBZM-SPECT imaging between SA and RA groups were compared. The results showed that the time of landing of the three groups with treatment was significant longer than group 1 (normal) (4.33±0.15 s). Nonetheless, group 2 (RA) (7.13±0.20 s) had a shorter time of landing than group 4 (SA) (7.89±0.46 s). The number of TH (+) neurons and the expression of TH proteins were significantly higher in the RA group than in the SA/EA groups. RA also increased the uptake of [(123)I] IBZM into the triatum compared to the SA group. We conclude that RA possibly attenuates neuronal damage in MPTP-induced PD mice, which suggests RA may be useful as a complementary strategy when treating human PD.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of apigenin against inflammation, neuronal excitability and apoptosis in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Balez, Rachelle; Steiner, Nicole; Engel, Martin; Muñoz, Sonia Sanz; Lum, Jeremy Stephen; Wu, Yizhen; Wang, Dadong; Vallotton, Pascal; Sachdev, Perminder; O’Connor, Michael; Sidhu, Kuldip; Münch, Gerald; Ooi, Lezanne

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, yet current therapeutic treatments are inadequate due to a complex disease pathogenesis. The plant polyphenol apigenin has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in a number of cell and animal models; however a comprehensive assessment has not been performed in a human model of AD. Here we have used a human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) model of familial and sporadic AD, in addition to healthy controls, to assess the neuroprotective activity of apigenin. The iPSC-derived AD neurons demonstrated a hyper-excitable calcium signalling phenotype, elevated levels of nitrite, increased cytotoxicity and apoptosis, reduced neurite length and increased susceptibility to inflammatory stress challenge from activated murine microglia, in comparison to control neurons. We identified that apigenin has potent anti-inflammatory properties with the ability to protect neurites and cell viability by promoting a global down-regulation of cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) release in inflammatory cells. In addition, we show that apigenin is able to protect iPSC-derived AD neurons via multiple means by reducing the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ signals and significantly reducing caspase-3/7 mediated apoptosis. These data demonstrate the broad neuroprotective action of apigenin against AD pathogenesis in a human disease model. PMID:27514990

  9. Gender difference in the neuroprotective effect of rat bone marrow mesenchymal cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Yu, Jian-Xiong

    2016-05-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can reduce retinal ganglion cell death and effectively prevent vision loss. Previously, we found that during differentiation, female rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells acquire a higher neurogenic potential compared with male rhesus monkey bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. This suggests that female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have a stronger neuroprotective effect than male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Here, we first isolated and cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from female and male rats by density gradient centrifugation. Retinal tissue from newborn rats was prepared by enzymatic digestion to obtain primary retinal ganglion cells. Using the transwell system, retinal ganglion cells were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells under hypoxia. Cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay. We found a marked increase in apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells after 24 hours of hypoxia compared with normoxia. Moreover, apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity of retinal ganglion cells significantly decreased with both female and male bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell co-culture under hypoxia compared with culture alone, with more significant effects from female bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Our results indicate that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells exert a neuroprotective effect against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and also that female cells have greater neuroprotective ability compared with male cells.

  10. Cannabinoids prevent the amyloid β-induced activation of astroglial hemichannels: A neuroprotective mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gajardo-Gómez, Rosario; Labra, Valeria C; Maturana, Carola J; Shoji, Kenji F; Santibañez, Cristian A; Sáez, Juan C; Giaume, Christian; Orellana, Juan A

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in Alzheimer's disease are not completely understood and how astrocytes and their gliotransmission contribute to this neurodegenerative disease remains to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have shown that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) induces neuronal death by a mechanism that involves the excitotoxic release of ATP and glutamate associated to astroglial hemichannel opening. We have demonstrated that synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids (CBs) reduce the opening of astrocyte Cx43 hemichannels evoked by activated microglia or inflammatory mediators. Nevertheless, whether CBs could prevent the astroglial hemichannel-dependent death of neurons evoked by Aβ is unknown. Astrocytes as well as acute hippocampal slices were treated with the active fragment of Aβ alone or in combination with the following CBs: WIN, 2-AG, or methanandamide (Meth). Hemichannel activity was monitored by single channel recordings and by time-lapse ethidium uptake while neuronal death was assessed by Fluoro-Jade C staining. We report that CBs fully prevented the hemichannel activity and inflammatory profile evoked by Aβ in astrocytes. Moreover, CBs fully abolished the Aβ-induced release of excitotoxic glutamate and ATP associated to astrocyte Cx43 hemichannel activity, as well as neuronal damage in hippocampal slices exposed to Aβ. Consequently, this work opens novel avenues for alternative treatments that target astrocytes to maintain neuronal function and survival during AD. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2017;65:122-137.

  11. Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Rondón, Netxibeth; Esquiva, Gema; Germain, Francisco; de la Villa, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies the pathophysiology of diseases affecting the retina and optic nerve. Several studies have previously evidenced the anti-apoptotic properties of the bile constituent, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, in diverse models of photoreceptor degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage in the rat retina using a functional and morphological approach. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was administered intraperitoneally before and after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Three days after insult, full-field electroretinograms showed reductions in the amplitudes of the positive and negative-scotopic threshold responses, scotopic a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials. Quantitative morphological evaluation of whole-mount retinas demonstrated a reduction in the density of retinal ganglion cells. Systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated the functional impairment induced by NMDA, which correlated with a higher retinal ganglion cell density. Our findings sustain the efficacy of tauroursodeoxycholic acid administration in vivo, suggesting it would be a good candidate for the pharmacological treatment of degenerative diseases coursing with retinal ganglion cell loss. PMID:26379056

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-Induced Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vicente, Violeta; Lax, Pedro; Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Rondón, Netxibeth; Esquiva, Gema; Germain, Francisco; de la Villa, Pedro; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell degeneration underlies the pathophysiology of diseases affecting the retina and optic nerve. Several studies have previously evidenced the anti-apoptotic properties of the bile constituent, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, in diverse models of photoreceptor degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage in the rat retina using a functional and morphological approach. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid was administered intraperitoneally before and after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Three days after insult, full-field electroretinograms showed reductions in the amplitudes of the positive and negative-scotopic threshold responses, scotopic a- and b-waves and oscillatory potentials. Quantitative morphological evaluation of whole-mount retinas demonstrated a reduction in the density of retinal ganglion cells. Systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid attenuated the functional impairment induced by NMDA, which correlated with a higher retinal ganglion cell density. Our findings sustain the efficacy of tauroursodeoxycholic acid administration in vivo, suggesting it would be a good candidate for the pharmacological treatment of degenerative diseases coursing with retinal ganglion cell loss.

  13. The Neuroprotective Effects of Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Against Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Apoptosis in PC 12 Cells via a Mitochondria-Related Caspase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Du, Jikun; Zou, Liyi; Xia, Haishan; Wu, Tie; Kim, Yongho; Lee, Yongwoo

    2015-08-01

    Decursin, purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, has been proven to exert neuroprotective property. Previous study revealed decursin protected the PC12 cells from Aβ25-35-induced oxidative cytotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate whether decursin could protect PC12 cells from apoptosis caused by Aβ. Our results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with decursin significantly inhibited Aβ25-35-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The mechanism of action is likely to reverse Aβ25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, including the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the inhibition of reactive oxygen species production, and the decrease of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c in PC12 cells. In addition, decursin significantly suppressed the activity of caspase-3 and moderated the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax induced by Aβ25-35. These findings indicate that decursin exerts a neuroprotective effect against Aβ25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, at least in part, via suppressing the mitochondrial pathway of cellular apoptosis.

  14. The neuroprotective action of dexmedetomidine on apoptosis, calcium entry and oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia-induced rats: Contribution of TRPM2 and TRPV1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Akpınar, Hatice; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Övey, İshak Suat; Çiğ, Bilal; Akpınar, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Dexmedetomidine (DEX) may act as an antioxidant through regulation of TRPM2 and TRPV1 channel activations in the neurons by reducing cerebral ischemia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The neuroprotective roles of DEX were tested on cerebral ischemia (ISC) in the cultures of rat primary hippocampal and DRG neurons. Fifty-six rats were divided into five groups. A placebo was given to control, sham control, and ISC groups, respectively. In the third group, ISC was induced. The DEX and ISC+DEX groups received intraperitoneal DEX (40 μg/kg) 3, 24, and 48 hours after ISC induction. DEX effectively reversed capsaicin and cumene hydroperoxide/ADP-ribose-induced TRPV1 and TRPM2 densities and cytosolic calcium ion accumulation in the neurons, respectively. In addition, DEX completely reduced ISC-induced oxidative toxicity and apoptosis through intracellular reactive oxygen species production and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane. The DEX and ISC+DEX treatments also decreased the expression levels of caspase 3, caspase 9, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in the hippocampus and DRG. In conclusion, the current results are the first to demonstrate the molecular level effects of DEX on TRPM2 and TRPV1 activation. Therefore, DEX can have remarkable neuroprotective impairment effects in the hippocampus and DRG of ISC-induced rats. PMID:27872485

  15. Neuroprotective effects of hypothermia on synaptic actin cytoskeletal changes induced by perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Javier; Romero, Juan; Holubiec, Mariana; Barreto, George; González, Janneth; Saint-Martin, Madeleine; Blanco, Eduardo; Carlos Cavicchia, Juan; Castilla, Rocío; Capani, Francisco

    2014-05-14

    Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia damages synaptic proteins, resulting in cytoskeletal alterations, protein aggregation and neuronal death. In the previous works, we have shown neuronal and synaptic changes in rat neostriatum subjected to hypoxia that leads to ubi-protein accumulation. Recently, we also showed that, changes in F-actin organization could be related to early alterations induced by hypoxia in the Central Nervous System. However, little is known about effective treatment to diminish the damage. The main aim of this work is to study the effects of birth hypothermia on the actin cytoskeleton of neostriatal post-synaptic densities (PSD) in 60 days olds rats by immunohistochemistry, photooxidation and western blot. We used 2 different protocols of hypothermia: (a) intrahypoxic hypothermia at 15°C and (b) post-hypoxia hypothermia at 32°C. Consistent with previous data at 30 days, staining with phalloidin-Alexa(488) followed by confocal microscopy analysis showed an increase of F-actin fluorescent staining in the neostriatum of hypoxic animals. Correlative photooxidation electron microscopy confirmed these observations showing an increment in the number of mushroom-shaped F-actin staining spines in neostriatal excitatory synapses in rats subjected to hypoxia. In addition, western blot revealed β-actin increase in PSDs in hypoxic animals. The optic relative density measurement showed a significant difference between controls and hypoxic animals. When hypoxia was induced under hypothermic conditions, the changes observed in actin cytoskeleton were blocked. Post-hypoxic hypothermia showed similar answer but actin cytoskeleton modifications were not totally reverted as we observed at 15°C. These data suggest that the decrease of the body temperature decreases the actin modifications in dendritic spines preventing the neuronal death.

  16. Caffeine neuroprotects against dexamethasone-induced anxiety-like behaviour in the Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Khor, Yee Min; Soga, Tomoko; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2013-01-15

    The early-life stress has critical impact on brain development which can lead to long-term effects on brain functions during adulthood. It has been reported that caffeine possesses a protective effect in neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, this study investigates the potential of caffeine to protect brain functions from adverse effects due to stress exposure during early-life development in the male zebrafish. In the first part of this study, synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX) (2-200 mg/L for 24 h) was used to induce stress effects in the zebrafish larvae from 4 to 5 days post-fertilisation (dpf) and the effect of DEX administration on zebrafish larvae on anxiety-like behaviour during adulthood in novel tank test was investigated. Next, the possible protective effect of caffeine pre-treatment (5-50 mg/L for 24 h from 3 to 4dpf) before DEX administration was studied. DEX-treated adult male zebrafish showed higher anxiety levels in behavioural tests, as seen in longer latency to enter the top part of the tank, lower transition numbers between the top and bottom parts with more time spent at the bottom and lesser time spent at the top and lower distance travelled at top part. The effect of DEX on anxiety-like behaviour was dose-dependent. Importantly, adult male zebrafish pre-treated with caffeine before DEX treatment did not show any anxiety-like behaviour. These results show that exposure to stress during early-life leads to anxiety-like behaviour in the adult male zebrafish but pre-treatment with caffeine protects from stress-induced anxiety.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of matrine on MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease and on Nrf2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Jianhui; Ding, Fuxiang; Xie, Yunliang; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The incidence rate of Parkinson's disease (PD) is ≤2% in Chinese individuals >65 years old, accounting for 40% of the global total of PD patients. The pathogenesis of PD is not yet clear, and oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be the main reason for the onset of PD. Studies have shown that matrine exhibits good antioxidant activity. Thus, the present study aimed to observe the protective effect and mechanism of matrine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic neuron damage. A total of 25 C57BL male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, consisting of the control group (group A), the MPTP group (group B) and three matrine (4, 8 and 16 mg/kg) plus MPTP treatment groups (groups C, D and E, respectively). Results from a pole-climbing test and locomotor activity experiments were recorded. The mice were sacrificed 4 days later and brain dissection was performed. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were assessed. The expression level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral midbrain was studied by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the ventral midbrain was studied by western blot analysis. The experiments were repeated three times. Compared with control mice, the PD mice exhibited the typical behaviors associated with PD; matrine can alleviate this phenomenon, and with increasing matrine concentration, the symptoms were reduced significantly. Compared with the control mice, the PD mice had lower SOD and GSH activity, and matrine partially reversed the change in SOD and GSH activity. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the level of TH in the ventral midbrain decreased significantly in the PD mice, and that the mice administered matrine showed higher expression of TH and levels of TH-positive cells. Western blotting results showed that the expression of Nrf2 in the ventral midbrain decreased

  18. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-04-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: >PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. >PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx and caspase-3 activity. >PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. >PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. >PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  19. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is an endogenous neuroprotectant after traumatic brain injury in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Sinz, E H; Kochanek, P M; Dixon, C E; Clark, R S; Carcillo, J A; Schiding, J K; Chen, M; Wisniewski, S R; Carlos, T M; Williams, D; DeKosky, S T; Watkins, S C; Marion, D W; Billiar, T R

    1999-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS) is an inflammatory product implicated both in secondary damage and in recovery from brain injury. To address the role of iNOS in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), we used 2 paradigms in 2 species. In a model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) with secondary hypoxemia, rats were treated with vehicle or with 1 of 2 iNOS inhibitors (aminoguanidine and L-N-iminoethyl-lysine), administered by Alzet pump for 5 days and 1. 5 days after injury, respectively. In a model of CCI, knockout mice lacking the iNOS gene (iNOS(-/-)) were compared with wild-type (iNOS(+/+)) mice. Functional outcome (motor and cognitive) during the first 20 days after injury, and histopathology at 21 days, were assessed in both studies. Treatment of rats with either of the iNOS inhibitors after TBI significantly exacerbated deficits in cognitive performance, as assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and increased neuron loss in vulnerable regions (CA3 and CA1) of hippocampus. Uninjured iNOS(+/+) and iNOS(-/-) mice performed equally well in both motor and cognitive tasks. However, after TBI, iNOS(-/-) mice showed markedly worse performance in the MWM task than iNOS(+/+) mice. A beneficial role for iNOS in TBI is supported.

  20. p53 signalling mediates acupuncture-induced neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeun; Choi, Hwan; Baek, Soonbong; Jang, Jaehwan; Lee, Ahreum; Jeon, Songhee; Kim, Jongpil; Park, Hi-Joon

    2015-05-08

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with a selective loss of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. Recently, it has been demonstrated that acupuncture treatment has protective effects in PD. However, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying acupuncture's effect on DA neuronal protection are largely unknown. In this study, we report that p53 signalling mediates the protective effects of acupuncture treatment in a mouse model of PD. We found that the acupuncture treatment in the mouse PD model results in significant recovery to the normal in the context of behaviour and molecular signatures. We found that the gene network associated with p53 signalling is closely involved in the protective effects of acupuncture treatment in PD. Consistent with this idea, we demonstrated that specific knockout of the p53 gene in the midbrain DA neurons abrogates the acupuncture induced protective effects in the mouse model of PD. Thus, these data suggest that p53 signalling mediates the protective effects of acupuncture treatment in PD.

  1. L1 CELL ADHESION MOLECULE IS NEUROPROTECTIVE OF ALCOHOL INDUCED CELL DEATH

    PubMed Central

    Gubitosi-Klug, Rose; Larimer, Corena G.; Bearer, Cynthia F.

    2009-01-01

    L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1), a protein critical for appropriate development of the central nervous system, is a target for ethanol teratogenicity. Ethanol inhibits both L1 mediated cell adhesion as well as L1 mediated neurite outgrowth. L1 has been shown to increase cell survival in cerebellar granule cells while ethanol has been shown to increase cell death. We sought to determine if L1 protected cells from ethanol induced cell death. Cerebellar granule cells from postnatal day 6 rat pups were cultured on either poly L-lysine with or without an L1 substratum. Alcohol was added at 2 hours post plating and cell survival was measured at various times. L1 substratum significantly increased cell survival at 72 and 120 hours. Ethanol significantly reduced cell survival at 48 hours, with no effect at 72 or 120 hours, both in the presence and absence of L1. At 48 hours, L1 significantly increased cell survival in the presence of ethanol. We conclude that ethanol interferes with processes other than L1-L1 interactions in causing cell death, and that ethanol effects would be more severe in the absence of L1. PMID:17267039

  2. Neuroprotective Effects of Jitai Tablet, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, on the MPTP-Induced Acute Model of Parkinson's Disease: Involvement of the Dopamine System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Gao, Jinlong; Xu, Shasha; Liu, Ying; Shang, Weihu; Gu, Chenxin; Huang, Yiyun; Han, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Jitai tablet (JTT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. We previously demonstrated that JTT treatment led to increased level of dopamine transporter (DAT) in the striatum, thus indicating that JTT might have therapeutic potential for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by dysregulated dopamine (DA) transmission and decreased striatal DAT expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of JTT on MPTP-induced PD mice. Using locomotor activity test and rotarod test, we evaluated the effects of JTT (0.50, 0.15, or 0.05 g/kg) on MPTP-induced behavioral impairments. Tyrosine hydroxylase TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra and DAT and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels in the striatum were detected by immunohistochemical staining and/or autoradiography. Levels of DA and its metabolites were determined by HPLC. In MPTP-treated mice, behavioral impairments were alleviated by JTT treatment. Moreover, JTT protected against impairment of TH-positive neurons and attenuated the MPTP-induced decreases in DAT and D2R. Finally, high dose of JTT (0.50 g/kg) inhibited the MPTP-induced increase in DA metabolism rate. Taken together, results from our present study provide evidence that JTT offers neuroprotective effects against the neurotoxicity of MPTP and thus might be a potential treatment for PD. PMID:24799940

  3. Neuroprotection from diazinon-induced toxicity in differentiating murine N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Harris, Wayne; Sachana, Magda; Flaskos, John; Hargreaves, Alan J

    2009-11-01

    In previous work, the outgrowth of axon-like processes by differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells was shown to be inhibited by exposure to 10 microM diazinon. In the present work, N2a cells were induced to differentiate for 24 h in the presence and absence of 10 microM diazinon and 20% (v/v) conditioned medium derived from differentiating rat C6 glioma cells. Cells were then stained or lysed for morphological and biochemical analyses, respectively. The data showed that co-treatment with conditioned medium prevented the neurite inhibitory effect of diazinon. Furthermore, a significant recovery was also observed in the reduced levels of neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) observed as a result of diazinon treatment in the absence of conditioned medium, as seen by densitometric analysis of Western blots of cell lysates probed with monoclonal antibodies N52, BRM-22 and GAP-7B10. By contrast, no significant change was noted in the reactivity of cell lysates with antibodies against alpha- and beta-tubulin under any condition tested. After pre-incubation with a polyclonal anti-glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) antibody, conditioned medium derived from rat C6 glioma cells lost its ability to protect N2a cells against the neurite inhibitory effects of diazinon. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that C6 conditioned medium protects N2a cells from the neurite inhibitory effects of diazinon by blocking molecular events leading to axon damage and that GDNF is implicated in these effects.

  4. Perinatal neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Jelin, Angie C.; Thiet, Mari-Paule

    2014-01-01

    Fetal or neonatal brain injury can result in lifelong neurologic disability. The most significant risk factor for perinatal brain injury is prematurity; however, in absolute numbers, full-term infants represent the majority of affected children. Research on strategies to prevent or mitigate the impact of perinatal brain injury (“perinatal neuroprotection”) has established the mitigating roles of magnesium sulfate administration for preterm infants and therapeutic hypothermia for term infants with suspected perinatal brain injury. Banked umbilical cord blood, erythropoietin, and a number of other agents that may improve neuronal repair show promise for improving outcomes following perinatal brain injury in animal models. Other preventative strategies include delayed umbilical cord clamping in preterm infants and progesterone in women with prior preterm birth or short cervix and avoidance of infections. Despite these advances, we have not successfully decreased the rate of preterm birth, nor are we able to predict term infants at risk of hypoxic brain injury in order to intervene prior to the hypoxic event. Further, we lack the ability to modulate the sequelae of neuronal cell insults or the ability to repair brain injury after it has been sustained. As a consequence, despite exciting advances in the field of perinatal neuroprotection, perinatal brain injury still impacts thousands of newborns each year with significant long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:24592318

  5. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongyi; Zhang, Ben; Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun; Han, Qingqi; Zou, Liangjian

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation.

  6. Pharmacological preconditioning with erythropoietin attenuates the organ injury and dysfunction induced in a rat model of hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Nandra, Kiran K; Collino, Massimo; Rogazzo, Mara; Fantozzi, Roberto; Patel, Nimesh S A; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    Pre-treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exert tissue-protective effects against 'ischemia-reperfusion'-type injuries. This protection might be mediated by mobilization of bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are thought to secrete paracrine factors. These effects could be exploited to protect against tissue injury induced in cases where hemorrhage is foreseeable, for example, prior to major surgery. Here, we investigate the effects of EPO pre-treatment on the organ injury and dysfunction induced by hemorrhagic shock (HS). Recombinant human EPO (1000 IU/kg/day i.p.) was administered to rats for 3 days. Rats were subjected to HS on day 4 (pre-treatment protocol). Mean arterial pressure was reduced to 35 ± 5 mmHg for 90 minutes, followed by resuscitation with 20 ml/kg Ringer's lactate for 10 minutes and 50% of the shed blood for 50 minutes. Rats were sacrificed 4 hours after the onset of resuscitation. EPC (CD34(+)/flk-1(+) cell) mobilization was measured following the 3-day pre-treatment with EPO and was significantly increased compared with rats pre-treated with phosphate-buffered saline. EPO pre-treatment significantly attenuated organ injury and dysfunction (renal, hepatic and neuromuscular) caused by HS. In livers from rats subjected to HS, EPO enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt (activation), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β; inhibition) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS; activation). In the liver, HS also caused an increase in nuclear translocation of p65 (activation of NF-κB), which was attenuated by EPO. This data suggests that repetitive dosing with EPO prior to injury might protect against the organ injury and dysfunction induced by HS, by a mechanism that might involve mobilization of CD34(+)/flk-1(+) cells, resulting in the activation of the Akt-eNOS survival pathway and inhibition of activation of GSK-3β and NF-κB.

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra-) Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang-hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-ling; Xing, Xue-feng; Chen, Fei-long; Tan, Xiao-mei; Luo, Jia-bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination. PMID:25691910

  8. Neuroprotective effect of gui zhi (ramulus cinnamomi) on ma huang- (herb ephedra-) induced toxicity in rats treated with a ma huang-gui zhi herb pair.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang-Hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-Ling; Xing, Xue-Feng; Chen, Fei-Long; Tan, Xiao-Mei; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  9. Neuroprotective action of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced damage in mouse hippocampal cells depends on ERα but not ERβ or GPR30 signalling.

    PubMed

    Rzemieniec, J; Litwa, E; Wnuk, A; Lason, W; Gołas, A; Krzeptowski, W; Kajta, M

    2015-02-01

    Raloxifene is the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) currently used in clinical practice to activate estrogen receptors (ERs) in bone tissue and to antagonise ERs in breast and uterine cancers. Little is known, however, about mechanisms of action of raloxifene on hypoxia-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective potential of raloxifene against hypoxia-induced damage of mouse hippocampal cells in primary cultures, with a particular focus on raloxifene interactions with the classical nuclear ERs (ERα, ERβ) and the recently identified membrane ER G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30). In this study, 18 h of hypoxia increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) mRNA expression and induced apoptotic processes, such as loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-3 and fragmentation of cell nuclei based on Hoechst 33342 staining. These effects were accompanied by reduced ATPase and intracellular esterase activities as well as substantial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from cells exposed to hypoxia. Our study demonstrated strong neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic caspase-3-independent actions of raloxifene in hippocampal cells exposed to hypoxia. Raloxifene also inhibited the hypoxia-induced decrease in Erα mRNA expression and attenuated the hypoxia-induced rise in Erβ and Gpr30 mRNA expression levels. Impact of raloxifene on hypoxia-affected Erα mRNA was mirrored by fluctuations in the protein level of the receptor as demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescent labelling. Raloxifene-induced changes in Erβ mRNA expression level were in parallel with ERβ immunofluorescent labeling. However, changes in Gpr30 mRNA level were not reflected by changes in the protein levels measured either by ELISA, Western blot or immunofluorescent staining at 24h post-treatment. Using specific siRNAs, we provided evidence for a key involvement of ERα, but not ERβ or GPR30 in

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning improves postoperative cognitive dysfunction by reducing oxidant stress and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhi-xin; Rao, Jin; Li, Yuan-hai

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a crucial public health issue that has been increasingly studied in efforts to reduce symptoms or prevent its occurrence. However, effective advances remain lacking. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning has proved to protect vital organs, such as the heart, liver, and brain. Recently, it has been introduced and widely studied in the prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, with promising results. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain controversial. This review summarizes and highlights the definition and application of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning, the perniciousness and pathogenetic mechanism underlying postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and the effects that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning has on postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Finally, we conclude that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning is an effective and feasible method to prevent, alleviate, and improve postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and that its mechanism of action is very complex, involving the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant and anti-inflammation defense systems.

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning improves postoperative cognitive dysfunction by reducing oxidant stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Xin; Rao, Jin; Li, Yuan-Hai

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a crucial public health issue that has been increasingly studied in efforts to reduce symptoms or prevent its occurrence. However, effective advances remain lacking. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning has proved to protect vital organs, such as the heart, liver, and brain. Recently, it has been introduced and widely studied in the prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, with promising results. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain controversial. This review summarizes and highlights the definition and application of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning, the perniciousness and pathogenetic mechanism underlying postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and the effects that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning has on postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Finally, we conclude that hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning is an effective and feasible method to prevent, alleviate, and improve postoperative cognitive dysfunction, and that its mechanism of action is very complex, involving the stimulation of endogenous antioxidant and anti-inflammation defense systems.

  12. Rasagiline and selegiline suppress calcium efflux from mitochondria by PK11195-induced opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pore: a novel anti-apoptotic function for neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuqiu; Kazumura, Kimiko; Maruyama, Wakako; Osawa, Toshihiko; Naoi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Rasagiline and selegiline, inhibitors of type B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B), protect neurons from cell death in cellular and animal models. Suppression of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and subsequent activation of apoptosis cascade, and induction of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival genes are proposed to contribute the anti-apoptotic function. Rasagiline suppresses neurotoxin- and oxidative stress-induced membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria, but the mechanism has been not fully clarified. In this paper, regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore by rasagiline and selegiline was examined in apoptosis induced by PK11195, a ligand of the outer membrane translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in SH-SY5Y cells. The pore opening was quantitatively measured using a simultaneous monitoring system for calcium (Ca(2+)) and superoxide (O2(-)) (Ishibashi et al. in Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:571-580, 2006). The association of the pore opening with Ca(2+) efflux and ROS increase was proved by the inhibition of Bcl-2 overexpression and cyclosporine A treatment. Potency to release Ca(2+) was correlated with the cytotoxicity of TSPO antagonists, PK11195, FGIN-1-27 and protoporphyrin IX, whereas a TSPO agonist, 4-chloro-diazepamine, did not significantly increase Ca(2+) or cause cell death. Rasagiline and selegiline inhibited mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore dose dependently. Ca(2+) efflux was confirmed as the initial signal in mitochondrial apoptotic cascade, and the suppression of Ca(2+) efflux may account for the neuroprotective function of rasagiline and selegiline. The quantitative measurement of Ca(2+) efflux can be applied to determine anti-apoptotic activity of neuroprotective compounds. The role of mitochondrial Ca(2+) release in neuronal death and also in neuroprotection by MAO-B inhibitors is discussed.

  13. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tongyi; Zhang, Ben; Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun; Han, Qingqi; Zou, Liangjian

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression

  14. Spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides and hillslope preconditioning in the northwest South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. N.; Hancox, G. T.; Petley, D. N.; Massey, C. I.; Densmore, A. L.; Rosser, N. J.

    2015-10-01

    Current models to explain regional-scale landslide events are not able to account for the possible effects of the legacy of previous earthquakes, which have triggered landslides in the past and are known to drive damage accumulation in brittle hillslope materials. This paper tests the hypothesis that spatial distributions of earthquake-induced landslides are determined by both the conditions at the time of the triggering earthquake (time-independent factors) and the legacy of past events (time-dependent factors). To explore this, we undertake an analysis of failures triggered by the 1929 Buller and 1968 Inangahua earthquakes, in the northwest South Island of New Zealand. The spatial extents of landslides triggered by these events were in part coincident. Spatial distributions of earthquake-triggered landslides are determined by a combination of earthquake and local characteristics, which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. To identify the influence of a legacy from past events, we first use logistic regression to control for the effects of time-independent variables. Through this analysis we find that seismic ground motion, hillslope gradient, lithology, and the effects of topographic amplification caused by ridge- and slope-scale topography exhibit a consistent influence on the spatial distribution of landslides in both earthquakes. We then assess whether variability unexplained by these variables may be attributed to the legacy of past events. Our results suggest that hillslopes in regions that experienced strong ground motions in 1929 were more likely to fail in 1968 than would be expected on the basis of time-independent factors alone. This effect is consistent with our hypothesis that unfailed hillslopes in the 1929 earthquake were weakened by damage accumulated during this earthquake and its associated aftershock sequence, which influenced the behaviour of the landscape in the 1968 earthquake. While our results are tentative, they suggest that the

  15. Neuroprotective effects of the andrographolide analogue AL-1 in the MPP⁺/MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model in vitro and in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zaijun; Lai, Daoxu; Wang, Liang; Yu, Pei; Zhu, Longjun; Guo, Baojian; Xu, Lipeng; Zhou, Libing; Sun, Yewei; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Wang, Yuqiang

    2014-07-01

    The andrographolide-lipoic acid conjugate AL-1 is a newly synthesized molecule by covalently linking andrographolide (Andro) with α-lipoic acid (LA). In the present work, the neuroprotective effect of AL-1 was investigated in vitro and in a mouse model of the Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that AL-1 significantly prevented 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons. In a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, AL-1 rescued 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons, improved the behavioral impairment, and elevated the striatal levels of dopamine and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Furthermore, AL-1 remarkably lowered the nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels while increased the superoxide dismutase level in the substantial nigra of MPTP-treated mice. The immunoblotting data showed that AL-1 significantly ameliorated the decreased expression of TH protein in the substantial nigra and inhibited the up-regulation of phosphorylated NF-κB p65 in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, AL-1 exerted neuroprotective effect in vitro and in animal model of PD through anti-oxidation and inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  16. Neuroprotection of Sevoflurane Against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Brain Injury Through Inhibiting JNK3/Caspase-3 by Enhancing Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiang-Ru; Fu, Yan-Yan; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wu, Jian; Shao, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Xun-Bao; Tang, Man; Shi, Yue; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Yi-Wen; Tang, Hui; Han, Dong; Zhang, Pu; Wang, Shu-Ling; Xu, Zhou; Song, Yuan-Jian

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of sevoflurane against ischemic brain injury and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Transient global brain ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were pretreated with sevoflurane alone or sevoflurane combined with LY294002/wortmannin (selective inhibitor of PI3K) before ischemia. Cresyl violet staining was used to examine the survival of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation were performed to measure the phosphorylation of Akt1, PRAS40, ASK1, and JNK3 and the expression of cleaved-caspase-3. The results demonstrated that a moderate dose of sevoflurane inhalation of 2% for 2 h had significant neuroprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion induced hippocampal neuron death. Sevoflurane significantly increased Akt and PRAS40 phosphorylation and decreased the phosphorylation of ASK1 at 6 h after reperfusion and the phosphorylation of JNK3 at 3 days after reperfusion following 15 min of transient global brain ischemia. Conversely, LY294002 and wortmannin significantly inhibited the effects of sevoflurane. Taken together, the results suggest that sevoflurane could suppress ischemic brain injury by downregulating the activation of the ASK1/JNK3 cascade via increasing the phosphorylation of Akt1 during ischemia/reperfusion.

  17. Decreased glutamate receptor binding and NMDA R1 gene expression in hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats: neuroprotective role of Bacopa monnieri extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Reas; Krishnakumar, Amee; Paulose, C S

    2008-01-01

    The potential for antiepileptic drugs to negatively impact cognitive abilities has generated renewed interest in herbal drugs and formulations in the treatment of epilepsy. Bacopa monnieri is one such widely used revitalizing herb that purportedly strengthens nervous function and also possesses memory-enhancing, antioxidative, antiepileptic, and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective role of B. monnieri extract in alteration of glutamate receptor binding and gene expression of NMDA R1 in hippocampus of temporal lobe epileptic rats. In association with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy, there was significant downregulation of NMDA R1 gene expression and glutamate receptor binding without any change in its affinity. B. monnieri treatment of epileptic rats significantly reversed the expression of NMDA R1 and glutamate receptor binding alterations to near-control levels. Also, in the epileptic rats, we measured a significant increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, which neared the control level after B. monnieri treatment. The therapeutic effect of B. monnieri was also observed in the Morris water maze experiment. These data together indicate the neuroprotective role of B. monnieri extract in glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity during seizures and cognitive damage occurring in association with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy.

  18. Lipoic acid inhibits caspase-dependent and -independent cell death pathways and is neuroprotective against hippocampal damage after pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Pauline Sousa; Feitosa, Chistiane Mendes; Saldanha, Gláucio Barros; Tomé, Adriana da Rocha; Feng, Dejiang; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective efficacy of α-lipoic acid (lipoic acid) against pilocarpine-induced cell death through the caspase-dependent or -independent mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% saline (control group), pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, pilocarpine group) alone, or α-lipoic acid (20 mg/kg) in association with pilocarpine (400 mg/kg) 30 min before administration of α-lipoic acid. After the treatments all groups were observed for 24 h. Cell death was reduced in lipoic acid-treated rats. Cytosolic translocation of cytochrome c and subsequent activation of caspase-3 were reduced by lipoic acid treatment. AIF nuclear translocation and subsequent large-scale DNA fragmentation were also decreased in lipoic acid-treated rats. Our study suggests that lipoic acid inhibits both caspase-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways and may be neuroprotective against hippocampal damage during pilocarpine-induced seizures.

  19. Estrogen replacement therapy-induced neuroprotection against brain ischemia-reperfusion injury involves the activation of astrocytes via estrogen receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yulong; Guo, Hang; Zhang, Lixia; Tao, Liang; Yin, Anqi; Liu, Zhaoyu; Li, Yan; Dong, Hailong; Xiong, Lize; Hou, Wugang

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of ischemic stroke is significantly increased in postmenopausal women. However, the neuroprotective effects of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) against stroke remain controversial, and the role of astrocytes in ERT has rarely been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists on astrocytes activation and neuronal apoptosis in mice under conditions of cell culture oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD-R), and global cerebral ischemia (GCI). We demonstrated that hippocampal astrocytes primarily express ERβ. In astrocytes, 2.5–20 nM 17β-estradiol (E2) or 10 nM DPN (ERβ agonist) not 10 nM PPT (ERα agonist), significantly increased GFAP expression. And 10 nM E2, DPN or E2+MPP (ERα antagonist), but not PPT or E2+PHTPP (ERβ antagonist), significantly reduced neuronal apoptosis following the subjection of astrocyte and neuronal cocultures to OGD-R. We also found that either 50 μg/kg E2 or 8 mg/kg DPN replacement (3 weeks) significantly increased GFAP expression and reduced GCI-induced neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 region of ovariectomized mice. These results indicate that estrogen-induced neuroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury involves activation of astrocytes via ERβ. Thus, the discovery and design of astrocyte-selective ERβ modulators may offer a new strategy for ERT of ischemic stroke. PMID:26891996

  20. Dose-dependent neuroprotective effect of caffeine on a rotenone-induced rat model of parkinsonism: A histological study.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Amira M; Fathalla, Ahmed M; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-06-03

    Several lines of evidence have demonstrated an inverse relationship between caffeine utilization and Parkinson's disease (PD) progression. Caffeine is a methylxanthine known as a non-specific inhibitor of adenosine (A2A and A1) receptors in the cerebrum and demonstrated to be a neuroprotective medication. In this study, the neuroprotective efficacy of two different doses of caffeine ranging above the usual consumption dose and below the toxic dose was investigated using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, with 8 in each group: vehicle control (1ml/kg/48h for 12 days), rotenone (1.5mg/kg/48h, s.c. for 12 days), low-dose Caffeine-treated: (10mg/kg IP. daily for 12 days), high-dose Caffeine-treated (20mg IP daily for 12 days). Twenty-four hours after the last rotenone injection, animals were sacrificed and brains were sectioned and prepared for histopathological staining with hematoxylinand eosin, cresyl violet and Mallory's phosphotungestic acid haematoxylinand for immunohistochemical staining of tyrosine hydroxylase. Our study showed that the treatment with caffeine improved histopathological degeneration in the substantia nigra parts compacta (SNpc) neurons and hindered the reduction in dopamine concentration caused by rotenone. We also found that a higher dose of caffeine was more effective against histopathological degeneration. These results suggest that caffeine has a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect.

  1. Preconditioning with Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction enhances H2O2-induced Nrf2/HO-1 activation in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jingjie; Li, Zuanfang; Lin, Ruhui; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiumao; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2015-09-01

    Spasticity is common in various central neurological conditions, including after a stroke. Such spasticity may cause additional problems, and often becomes a primary concern for afflicted individuals. A number of studies have identified nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) as a key regulator in the adaptive survival response to oxidative stress. Elevated expression of Nrf2, combined with heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) resistance, in the central nervous system is known to elicit key internal and external oxidation protection. Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction (GLGZD) is a popular traditional Chinese formula with a long history of clinical use in China for the treatment of muscular spasticity following a stroke, epilepsy or a spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism underlying the efficacy of the medicine remains unclear. In the present study, the antioxidative effects of GLGZD were evaluated and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated, using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) as an in vitro oxidative stress model of neural cells. Upon application of different concentrations of GLGZD, a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and ATP measurement were conducted to assess the impact on PC12 cell proliferation. In addition, inverted microscopy observations, and the MTT and ATP assessments, revealed that GLGZD attenuated H2O2-induced oxidative damage and signaling repression in PC12 cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1, which are associated with oxidative stress, were analyzed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy observations, as well as the quantitative PCR assay, revealed that GLGZD exerted a neuroprotective function against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells. Therefore, the results demonstrated that GLGZD protected PC12 cells injured by H2O2, which may be

  2. Targeted delivery of erythropoietin by transcranial focused ultrasound for neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuronal injury: a long-term and short-term study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Ming-Tao; Kang, Kai-Hsiang; Liou, Houng-Chi; Lu, Dai-Hua; Fu, Wen-Mei; Lin, Win-Li

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a neuroprotective agent against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury. However, its crossing of blood-brain barrier is limited. Focused ultrasound (FUS) sonication with microbubbles (MBs) can effectively open blood-brain barrier to boost the vascular permeability. In this study, we investigated the effects of MBs/FUS on extending the therapeutic time window of EPO and its neuroprotective effects in both acute and chronic phases. Male Wistar rats were firstly subjected to two common carotid arteries and right middle cerebral artery occlusion (three vessels occlusion, 3VO) for 50 min, and then the rats were treated with hEPO (human recombinant EPO, 5000 IU/kg) with or without MBs/FUS at 5 h after occlusion/reperfusion. Acute phase investigation (I/R, I/R+MBs/FUS, I/R+hEPO, and I/R+hEPO+MBs/FUS) was performed 24 h after I/R; chronic tests including cylinder test and gait analysis were performed one month after I/R. The experimental results showed that MBs/FUS significantly increased the cerebral content of EPO by bettering vascular permeability. In acute phase, both significant improvement of neurological score and reduction of infarct volume were found in the I/R+hEPO+MBs/FUS group, as compared with I/R and I/R+hEPO groups. In chronic phase, long-term behavioral recovery and neuronal loss in brain cortex after I/R injury was significantly improved in the I/R+hEPO+MBs/FUS group. This study indicates that hEPO administration with MBs/FUS sonication even at 5 h after occlusion/reperfusion can produce a significant neuroprotection.

  3. Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Corasaniti, M T; Maiuolo, J; Maida, S; Fratto, V; Navarra, M; Russo, R; Amantea, D; Morrone, L A; Bagetta, G

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: The effects of bergamot essential oil (BEO; Citrus bergamia, Risso) on excitotoxic neuronal damage was investigated in vitro. Experimental approach: The study was performed in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). Cell viability was measured by dye exclusion. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and caspase-3 activity were measured fluorimetrically. Calpain I activity and the activation (phosphorylation) of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) were assayed by Western blotting. Key results: NMDA induced concentration-dependent, receptor-mediated, death of SH-SY5Y cells, ranging from 11 to 25% (0.25–5 mM). Cell death induced by 1 mM NMDA (21%) was preceded by a significant accumulation of intracellular ROS and by a rapid activation of the calcium-activated protease calpain I. In addition, NMDA caused a rapid deactivation of Akt kinase and this preceded the detrimental activation of the downstream kinase, GSK-3β. BEO (0.0005–0.01%) concentration dependently reduced death of SH-SY5Y cells caused by 1 mM NMDA. In addition to preventing ROS accumulation and activation of calpain, BEO (0.01%) counteracted the deactivation of Akt and the consequent activation of GSK-3β, induced by NMDA. Results obtained by using specific fractions of BEO, suggested that monoterpene hydrocarbons were responsible for neuroprotection afforded by BEO against NMDA-induced cell death. Conclusions and Implications: Our data demonstrate that BEO reduces neuronal damage caused in vitro by excitotoxic stimuli and that this neuroprotection was associated with prevention of injury-induced engagement of critical death pathways. PMID:17401440

  4. Neuroprotective effects of the mGlu5R antagonist MPEP towards quinolinic acid-induced striatal toxicity: involvement of pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms and lack of direct NMDA blocking activity.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Pintor, Annita; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Frank, Claudio; Pepponi, Rita; Nazzicone, Valeria; Grieco, Rosa; Pèzzola, Antonella; Reggio, Rosaria; Minghetti, Luisa; De Berardinis, Maria Anna; Martire, Alberto; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Massotti, Marino

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5R) antagonist 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) towards quinolinic acid (QA)-induced striatal excitoxicity. Intrastriatal MPEP (5 nmol/0.5 micro L) significantly attenuated the body weight loss, the electroencephalographic alterations, the impairment in spatial memory and the striatal damage induced by bilateral striatal injection of QA (210 nmol/0.7 micro L). In a second set of experiments, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of MPEP. In microdialysis studies in naive rats MPEP (80-250 micro m through the dialysis probe) significantly reduced the increase in glutamate levels induced by 5 mm QA. In primary cultures of striatal neurons MPEP (50 micro m) reduced the toxicity induced by direct application of glutamate [measured as release of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]). Finally, we found that 50 micro m MPEP was unable to directly block NMDA-induced effects (namely field potential reduction in corticostriatal slices, as well as LDH release and intracellular calcium increase in striatal neurons). We conclude that: (i) MPEP has neuroprotective effects towards QA-induced striatal excitotoxicity; (ii) both pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms are involved; (iii) the neuroprotective effects of MPEP do not appear to involve a direct blockade of NMDA receptors.

  5. Effects of a conventional photocoagulator and a 3-ns pulse laser on preconditioning responses and retinal ganglion cell survival after optic nerve crush.

    PubMed

    Shibeeb, O'Sam; Wood, John P M; Casson, Robert J; Chidlow, Glyn

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that laser photocoagulation treatment of the monkey retina affords protection against experimental glaucoma-induced retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in areas overlying laser spots. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but it is conceivable that the laser acted as a preconditioning stimulus, inducing localised, endogenous production of survival factors. The related purposes of the current study were firstly to examine whether preconditioning pathways are activated by either a conventional photocoagulator (CW) laser or a photoreceptor-sparing, short-pulse duration (2RT) laser in the rat retina, and secondly, to examine whether such preconditioning with either laser improves RGC survival after optic nerve (ON) crush. Pigmented rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: sham, CW, 2RT. For the preconditioning study, laser spots were applied randomly to each retina in the posterior hemisphere of the eye taking care to avoid major blood vessels. Animals were killed at 6 h, 1d, and 7d after laser treatment, then analysed by qPCR, immunohistochemistry or Western immunoblotting. For the neuroprotection study, laser spots were administered to the mid-central retina of the right eye. The left eye served as a control. In two experiments, rats were lasered either 24 h or 7 days before ON crush, then killed a further 7 days later. Wholemount retinas were prepared and double labelling immunofluorescence performed. Nestin labelling allowed visualization of laser spots. Brn3a labelling identified viable RGCs. Photomicrographs of Brn3a labelling were taken in areas overlying nestin-positive laser spots. Quantification of Brn3a RGCs was then performed. Both the CW and 2RT lasers induced local glial cell activation. Moreover, both lasers induced localized upregulations of a number of well-documented (CNTF, FGF-2 Hsp27, pAKT) or putative (cFOS, ATF-3, IL-6) RGC survival factors. However, neither laser caused sustained increases in other

  6. Oxygen sensors and energy sensors act synergistically to achieve a graded alteration in gene expression: consequences for assessing the level of neuroprotection in response to stressors.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Gillian M C; Warburton, Joshua; Girjes, Adeeb

    2004-01-01

    Changes in gene expression are associated with switching to an autoprotected phenotype in response to environmental and physiological stress. Ubiquitous molecular chaperones from the heat shock protein (HSP) superfamily confer neuronal protection that can be blocked by antibodies. Recent research has focused on the interactions between the molecular sensors that affect the increased expression of neuroprotective HSPs above constitutive levels. An examination of the conditions under which the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) was up regulated in a hypoxia and anoxia tolerant tropical species, the epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum), revealed that up-regulation was dependent on exceeding a stimulus threshold for an oxidative stressor. While hypoxic-preconditioning confers neuroprotective changes, there was no increase in the level of Hsp70 indicating that its increased expression was not associated with achieving a neuroprotected state in response to hypoxia in the epaulette shark. Conversely, there was a significant increase in Hsp70 in response to anoxic-preconditioning, highlighting the presence of a stimulus threshold barrier and raising the possibility that, in this species, Hsp70 contributes to the neuroprotective response to extreme crises, such as oxidative stress. Interestingly, there was a synergistic effect of coincident stressors on Hsp70 expression, which was revealed when metabolic stress was superimposed upon oxidative stress. Brain energy charge was significantly lower when adenosine receptor blockade, provided by treatment with aminophylline, was present prior to the final anoxic episode, under these circumstances, the level of Hsp70 induced was significantly higher than in the pair-matched saline treated controls. An understanding of the molecular and metabolic basis for neuroprotective switches, which result in an up-regulation of neuroprotective Hsp70 expression in the brain, is needed so that intervention strategies can be devised

  7. Presenilin mediates neuroprotective functions of ephrinB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and regulates ligand-induced internalization and metabolism of EphB2 and TrkB receptors.

    PubMed

    Barthet, Gael; Dunys, Julie; Shao, Zhiping; Xuan, Zhao; Ren, Yimin; Xu, Jindong; Arbez, Nicolas; Mauger, Gweltas; Bruban, Julien; Georgakopoulos, Anastasios; Shioi, Junichi; Robakis, Nikolaos K

    2013-02-01

    Activation of EphB receptors by ephrinB (efnB) ligands on neuronal cell surface regulates important functions, including neurite outgrowth, axonal guidance, and synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that efnB rescues primary cortical neuronal cultures from necrotic cell death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity and that this function depends on EphB receptors. Importantly, the neuroprotective function of the efnB/EphB system depends on presenilin 1 (PS1), a protein that plays crucial roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurodegeneration. Furthermore, absence of one PS1 allele results in significantly decreased neuroprotection, indicating that both PS1 alleles are necessary for full expression of the neuroprotective activity of the efnB/EphB system. We also show that the ability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to protect neuronal cultures from glutamate-induced cell death depends on PS1. Neuroprotective functions of both efnB and BDNF, however, were independent of γ-secretase activity. Absence of PS1 decreases cell surface expression of neuronal TrkB and EphB2 without affecting total cellular levels of the receptors. Furthermore, PS1-knockout neurons show defective ligand-dependent internalization and decreased ligand-induced degradation of TrkB and Eph receptors. Our data show that PS1 mediates the neuroprotective activities of efnB and BDNF against excitotoxicity and regulates surface expression and ligand-induced metabolism of their cognate receptors. Together, our observations indicate that PS1 promotes neuronal survival by regulating neuroprotective functions of ligand-receptor systems.

  8. Neuroprotection by acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate against NMDA-induced RGC damage in rat—possible involvement of kynurenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Sebastian; Choragiewicz, Tomasz J.; Rejdak, Robert; Fiedorowicz, Michal; Turski, Waldemar A.; Tulidowicz-Bielak, Maria; Zrenner, Eberhart; Schuettauf, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effects of systemically administered lithium acetoacetate (ACA) and sodium β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in a rat model of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). Additionally, the influence of ACA and BHB on kynurenic acid (KYNA) production was assessed in vitro in bovine retinal slices. Methods Female adult Brown–Norway rats in groups of 5–8 animals were used. ACA and BHB were administered intraperitoneally once a day for 21 consecutive days, and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered to control animals. After 2 weeks, the animals received intraocular NMDA (2 μl of a 10 mM solution in PBS) or intraocular PBS as a control. On day 19, retinal ganglion cells were labeled retrogradely with hydroxystilbamidine. Two days later, RGC density (cells per mm2) was assessed on retinal flatmounts. Additionaly, bovine retinal slices were incubated with NMDA and ACA or BHB at concentrations of 1.0 mM and 3.0 mM, and de novo KYNA production was measured using HPLC. Results Intraperitoneal ACA (250 mg/kg) or BHB (291.2 mg/kg) significantly protected RGC against NMDA-induced neurodegeneration. De novo KYNA production in bovine retinal slices was lowered by NMDA. Both ACA and BHB at a concentration of 3.0 mM significantly reduced the effects of NMDA. Conclusions ACA and BHB had a significant dose-dependent neuroprotective effect on RGC in a rat model of NMDA-induced RGC damage. Both ketone bodies also significantly attenuated NMDA-induced reduction of retinal KYNA production in vitro, suggesting that this mechanism may be essential for the neuroprotective effects of ACA and BHB in vivo. Our results imply that ketone bodies may represent an additional treatment option in chronic neurodegenerative disorders of the eye. PMID:20532550

  9. In vivo evidence against clomethiazole being neuroprotective against MDMA ('ecstasy')-induced degeneration of rat brain 5-HT nerve terminals by a free radical scavenging mechanism.

    PubMed

    Colado, M I; O'Shea, E; Esteban, B; Granados, R; Green, A R

    1999-02-01

    Clomethiazole is an effective neuroprotective agent against the degeneration of 5-HT neurones that follows administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). Since there is good evidence that free radical formation resulting from auto-oxidation of MDMA metabolites is responsible for the degeneration we have examined whether clomethiazole is a free radical scavenger. MDMA (15 mg/kg i.p.) increased the formation of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids (2,3-DHBA and 2,5-DHBA) from salicylic acid perfused through a microdialysis tube implanted in the hippocampus, indicating increased free radical formation. Clomethiazole (50 mg/kg i.p.) administered 5 min prior and 55 min post MDMA prevented both the acute MDMA-induced hyperthermia and the rise in 2,3- and 2,5-DHBA. However, when the temperature of the MDMA + clomethiazole treated rats was kept elevated to that of the MDMA treated rats with a homeothermic blanket there was no inhibition of the MDMA-induced increase in 2,3-DHBA or 2,5-DHBA. These data suggest firstly that free radical formation is inhibited when the acute MDMA-induced hyperthermia is prevented. Secondly the data further indicate that clomethiazole has no free radical scavenging activity since the drug produces substantial neuroprotection when MDMA + clomethiazole treated rats are kept hyperthermic. This conclusion was strengthened by our observation that clomethiazole is a weak inhibitor (IC50 > 1 mM) of lipid peroxidation in synaptosomes when it had been induced by addition of FeCl2 + ascorbic acid.

  10. GSK-3 as a Target for Lithium-Induced Neuroprotection Against Excitotoxicity in Neuronal Cultures and Animal Models of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, De-Maw; Wang, Zhifei; Chiu, Chi-Tso

    2011-01-01

    The mood stabilizer lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) directly or indirectly by enhancing serine phosphorylation of both α and β isoforms. Lithium robustly protected primary brain neurons from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity; these actions were mimicked by other GSK-3 inhibitors or silencing/inhibiting GSK-3α and/or β isoforms. Lithium rapidly activated Akt to enhance GSK-3 serine phosphorylation and to block glutamate-induced Akt inactivation. Lithium also up-regulated Bcl-2 and suppressed glutamate-induced p53 and Bax. Induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was required for lithium’s neuroprotection to occur. BDNF promoter IV was activated by GSK-3 inhibition using lithium or other drugs, or through gene silencing/inactivation of either isoform. Further, lithium’s neuroprotective effects were associated with inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx and down-stream signaling. In rodent ischemic models, post-insult treatment with lithium decreased infarct volume, ameliorated neurological deficits, and improved functional recovery. Up-regulation of heat-shock protein 70 and Bcl-2 as well as down-regulation of p53 likely contributed to lithium’s protective effects. Delayed treatment with lithium improved functional MRI responses, which was accompanied by enhanced angiogenesis. Two GSK-3-regulated pro-angiogenic factors, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor were induced by lithium. Finally, lithium promoted migration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by up-regulation of MMP-9 through GSK-3β inhibition. Notably, transplantation of lithium-primed MSCs into ischemic rats enhanced MSC migration to the injured brain regions and improved the neurological performance. Several other GSK-3 inhibitors have also been reported to be beneficial in rodent ischemic models. Together, GSK-3 inhibition is a rational strategy to combat ischemic stroke and other excitotoxicity-related brain

  11. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase after cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation induces a neuroprotective phenotype in activated microglia and improves neuronal survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianming; Fujiyoshi, Tetsuhiro; Kosaka, Yasuharu; Raybuck, Jonathan D; Lattal, K Matthew; Ikeda, Mizuko; Herson, Paco S; Koerner, Ines P

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac arrest (CA) causes hippocampal neuronal death that frequently leads to severe loss of memory function in survivors. No specific treatment is available to reduce neuronal death and improve functional outcome. The brain's inflammatory response to ischemia can exacerbate injury and provides a potential treatment target. We hypothesized that microglia are activated by CA and contribute to neuronal loss. We used a mouse model to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of the proinflammatory microglial enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) after CA alters microglial activation and neuronal death. The sEH inhibitor 4-phenylchalcone oxide (4-PCO) was administered after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The 4-PCO treatment significantly reduced neuronal death and improved memory function after CA/CPR. We found early activation of microglia and increased expression of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in the hippocampus after CA/CPR, which was unchanged after 4-PCO treatment, while expression of antiinflammatory IL-10 increased significantly. We conclude that sEH inhibition after CA/CPR can alter the transcription profile in activated microglia to selectively induce antiinflammatory and neuroprotective IL-10 and reduce subsequent neuronal death. Switching microglial gene expression toward a neuroprotective phenotype is a promising new therapeutic approach for ischemic brain injury.

  12. ITH33/IQM9.21 provides neuroprotection in a novel ALS model based on TDP-43 and Na(+)/Ca(2+) overload induced by VTD.

    PubMed

    Mouhid Al-Achbili, Lamia; Moreno-Ortega, Ana J; Matías-Guiu, Jorge; Cano-Abad, María F; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2016-10-28

    Therapeutic options for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are scarce and controversial. Although the aetiology of neuronal vulnerability is unknown, growing evidence supports a complex network in which multiple toxicity pathways, rather than a single mechanism, are involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. However, most cellular models only explain single pathogenic mechanisms. The present study proposes the two main cytotoxic mechanisms: (1) veratridine (VTD), which induced Na(+) and Ca(2+) overload; and (2) the TARD DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in NSC-34 cell line as an in vitro model of ALS. The study was carried out by MTT as an indirect measurement of cell viability and by flow cytometry to determine cell death stages. The impact of Ca(2+) overload combined with TDP-43 overexpression increased early apoptosis of NSC-34 cells. Furthermore, we found that ITH33/IQM9.21 (ITH33) exerted a neuroprotective effect in this model by reducing activation of the apoptotic pathway. Therefore, treatment with VTD in TDP-43 overexpressing NSC-34 cells is a good in vitro ALS model that makes it possible to test new neuroprotective compounds such as ITH33.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of crude polysaccharide isolated from the fruiting bodies of Morchella importuna against H2O2-induced PC12 cell cytotoxicity by reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chuan; Li, Qiang; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Zuqin; Huang, Wenli

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress played an essential role in neuronal cell injury through several apoptotic mechanisms associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Reducing oxidative stress through antioxidants might be a possible strategy that could retard the disease's progression. In order to investigate the neuroprotective role of MIP (the crude polysaccharide extracted from the fruiting bodies of Morchella importuna), the antioxidative activity of MIP against the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying preventative mechanisms in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were illustrated. It was shown that MIP could considerably enhance the viability of PC12 cells exposure to H2O2 and increased the activities of antioxidant enzyme like CAT, GSH-Px and SOD. It also reduced the content of malondialdehyde MDA and caspase-3 activation. In addition, MIP inhibited cell apoptosis via down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway and the p38-JNK pathway as well as activating of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Accordingly, MIP can be used as a promising neuroprotective compound for nervous diseases treatment.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of asiatic acid on rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in differentiated SH-SYS5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Nataraj, Jagatheesan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed

    2016-02-08

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease, manifested due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which ultimately leads to impaired movement in elderly populations. The pathogenesis of PD is associated with numerous factors including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. There is no effective therapy available to cure or halt the progression of this disease still now. Asiatic acid (AA) is a triterpene extracted from Centella asiatica has been reported as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, that offers neuroprotection against glutamate toxicity. Therefore, in this study, we have investigated the effect of AA in a rotenone (an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I) induced in vitro model of PD. Following the exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to rotenone, there was a marked overproduction of ROS, mitochondrial dysfunction (as indexed by the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential) and apoptosis (Hoechst and dual staining, comet assay; expressions of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic indices). Pre-treatment with AA reversed these changes might be due to its antioxidant, mitoprotective and anti-apoptotic properties. However further extensive studies on in vivo models of PD are warranted to prove AA neuroprotective effect before entering into the clinical trial.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive component from Cannabis sativa, on beta-amyloid-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Iuvone, Teresa; Esposito, Giuseppe; Esposito, Ramona; Santamaria, Rita; Di Rosa, Massimo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2004-04-01

    Abstract Alzheimer's disease is widely held to be associated with oxidative stress due, in part, to the membrane action of beta-amyloid peptide aggregates. Here, we studied the effect of cannabidiol, a major non-psychoactive component of the marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa) on beta-amyloid peptide-induced toxicity in cultured rat pheocromocytoma PC12 cells. Following exposure of cells to beta-amyloid peptide (1 micro g/mL), a marked reduction in cell survival was observed. This effect was associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation, as well as caspase 3 (a key enzyme in the apoptosis cell-signalling cascade) appearance, DNA fragmentation and increased intracellular calcium. Treatment of the cells with cannabidiol (10(-7)-10(-4)m) prior to beta-amyloid peptide exposure significantly elevated cell survival while it decreased ROS production, lipid peroxidation, caspase 3 levels, DNA fragmentation and intracellular calcium. Our results indicate that cannabidiol exerts a combination of neuroprotective, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects against beta-amyloid peptide toxicity, and that inhibition of caspase 3 appearance from its inactive precursor, pro-caspase 3, by cannabidiol is involved in the signalling pathway for this neuroprotection.

  16. PPAR-γ activator induces neuroprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats subjected to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury: in vivo and in vitro inhibition of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Al Rouq, Fawzia; El Eter, Eman

    2014-03-01

    Hypercholesterolemia (HC) and aging combine to increase the incidence of cerebrovascular disease through oxidative stress. Our investigation examined the effects of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia (2% for 8weeks) on the extent of brain injury in response to global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCI/R) and the neuroprotective potentials of rosiglitazone in relation to oxidative stress. HC exacerbated the decline in the brain levels of GSH and the increase in MPO, proinflammatory markers and hippocampal lesions in response to GCI/R. HC rats receiving rosiglitazone, PPAR-γ agonist, demonstrated preservation of cell viability of CA1 hippocampal region and attenuation of brain edema. They also showed elevated levels of GSH and low levels of the other parameters similar to non-HC rats subjected to GCI/R. In vitro, rosiglitazone dose-dependently inhibited ROS generation by neutrophils. The results suggest exacerbation of brain lesions by HC in response to GCI/R. The neuroprotective therapeutic potentials of rosiglitazone are comparable to non-HC animals. Mechanisms of protection are possibly due to anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory effects and scavenging properties of rosiglitazone. These results add to the beneficial therapeutic effects of rosiglitazone and its significance for age-associated diseases including hypercholesterolemia.

  17. The Galvanotactic Migration of Keratinocytes is Enhanced by Hypoxic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaowei; Jiang, Xupin; Ren, Xi; Sun, Huanbo; Zhang, Dongxia; Zhang, Qiong; Zhang, Jiaping; Huang, Yuesheng

    2015-01-01

    The endogenous electric field (EF)-directed migration of keratinocytes (galvanotaxis) into wounds is an essential step in wound re-epithelialization. Hypoxia, which occurs immediately after injury, acts as an early stimulus to initiate the healing process; however, the mechanisms for this effect, remain elusive. We show here that the galvanotactic migration of keratinocytes was enhanced by hypoxia preconditioning as a result of the increased directionality rather than the increased motility of keratinocytes. This enhancement was both oxygen tension- and preconditioning time-dependent, with the maximum effects achieved using 2% O2 preconditioning for 6 hours. Hypoxic preconditioning (2% O2, 6 hours) decreased the threshold voltage of galvanotaxis to < 25 mV/mm, whereas this value was between 25 and 50 mV/mm in the normal culture control. In a scratch-wound monolayer assay in which the applied EF was in the default healing direction, hypoxic preconditioning accelerated healing by 1.38-fold compared with the control conditions. Scavenging of the induced ROS by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) abolished the enhanced galvanotaxis and the accelerated healing by hypoxic preconditioning. Our data demonstrate a novel and unsuspected role of hypoxia in supporting keratinocyte galvanotaxis. Enhancing the galvanotactic response of cells might therefore be a clinically attractive approach to induce improved wound healing. PMID:25988491

  18. Ultrasound Microbubbles Enhance the Neuroprotective Effect of Mouse Nerve Growth Factor on Intraocular Hypertension-Induced Neuroretina Damage in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoli; Ma, Dahui; Zhao, Jun; Xie, Yi; Li, Qiang; Zeng, Aineng; Zeng, Kun; Tian, Ruyin; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound microbubble combined optic protection drugs have obvious protective effect on optic nerve damage. This way of targeting drug delivery is becoming more simple, not through the whole body metabolism, avoiding drug via blood circulation when facing the decomposition and the environment in the interference and destruction process of drugs, to maximize the guarantee to reach target organs of drug concentration and to reache the maximum therapeutic effect. The technique of ultrasound microbubbles is safe, controllable, nonimmunogenic, and repeatable. It provides us with a novel idea in the administration of neuroprotective drugs. PMID:27994883

  19. Physiology and pharmacology of myocardial preconditioning.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Jacob

    2010-03-01

    Perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction are not only major sources of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery but also important causes of prolonged hospital stay and resource utilization. Ischemic and pharmacological preconditioning and postconditioning have been known for more than two decades to provide protection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion and limit myocardial infarct size in many experimental animal models, as well as in clinical studies (1-3). This paper will review the physiology and pharmacology of ischemic and drug-induced preconditioning and postconditioning of the myocardium with special emphasis on the mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics provide myocardial protection. Insights gained from animal and clinical studies will be presented and reviewed and recommendations for the use of perioperative anesthetics and medications will be given.

  20. Neuroprotection by Imipramine against lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in hippocampus-derived neural stem cells mediated by activation of BDNF and the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chi-Hsien; Chiou, Shih-Hwa; Chen, Shih-Jen; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Ku, Hung-Hai; Cheng, Cheng-Kuo; Yen, Chih-Ju; Tsai, Tung-Hu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Kao, Chun-Lan

    2008-02-01

    Depression is accompanied by the activation of the inflammatory-response system, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines may play a role in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders. Imipramine (IM), a tricyclic antidepressant drug, has recently been shown to promote neurogenesis and improve the survival rate of neurons in the hippocampus. However, whether IM elicits a neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory effect, or promotes the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we cultured NSCs derived from the hippocampal tissues of adult rats as an in vitro model to evaluate the NSCs drug-modulation effects of IM. Our results showed that 3 microM IM treatment significantly increased the survival rate of NSCs, and up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Bcl-2 in Day-7 IM-treated NSCs. Similar to BDNF-treated effect, incubation of NSCs with 3 microM IM increased Bcl-2 protein levels and further prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis through the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Inhibition of BDNF expression with small interfering RNA (siRNA), or blocking the MAPK pathway with U0126 further significantly decreased Bcl-2 protein levels and abrogated the neuroprotective effects of IM against LPS-induced apoptosis in NSCs. In addition, the percentages of serotonin and MAP-2-positive neuronal cells in the Day 7 culture of IM-treated NSCs were significantly increased. By using microdialysis with high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, the functional release of serotonin in the process of serotoninergic differentiation of IM-treated NSCs was concomitantly increasing and mediated by the activation of the BDNF/MAPK/ERK pathway/Bcl-2 cascades. In sum, the study results indicate that IM can increase the neuroprotective effects, suppress the LPS-induced inflammatory

  1. Intra-carotid cold magnesium sulfate infusion induces selective cerebral hypothermia and neuroprotection in rats with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wu, Yong-Ming; Ji, Zhong; Ji, Ya-Bin; Wang, Sheng-Nan; Pan, Su-Yue

    2013-04-01

    Local hypothermia induced by intra-arterial infusion of cold saline reduces brain injury in ischemic stroke. Administration of magnesium sulfate through the internal carotid artery is also known to reduce ischemic brain damage. The neuroprotective effects of combination therapy with local endovascular hypothermia and intra-carotid magnesium sulfate infusion has not been evaluated. The aim of the study was to determine whether infusion of intra-carotid cold magnesium offers neuroprotective efficacy superior to cold saline infusion alone. Sixty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion and were randomly divided into six groups: sham-operated group; stroke control group; local cold magnesium infusion group; local cold saline infusion group; local normothermic magnesium infusion group; and local normothermic saline infusion group. Before reperfusion, ischemic rats received local infusion or no treatment. Infarct volume, neurological deficit, and brain water content were evaluated at 48 h after reperfusion. Selective brain hypothermia (33-34 °C) was successfully induced by intra-carotid cold infusion. Local cold saline infusion and local cold magnesium infusion reduced the infarct volumes by 48 % (p < 0.001) and 65 % (p < 0.001), respectively, compared with stroke controls. Brain water content was decreased significantly in animals treated with local cold magnesium infusion. Furthermore, the rats given a local cold magnesium infusion had the best neurological outcome. Local normothermic infusion failed to improve ischemic brain damage. These data suggest that local hypothermia induced by intra-carotid administration of cold magnesium is more effective in reducing acute ischemic damage than infusion of cold saline alone.

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of Thymoquinone, the Nigella Sativa Bioactive Compound, in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Hemi-Parkinsonian Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Reza; Roghani, Mehrdad; Khalili, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder with progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons for which current treatments afford symptomatic relief with no-prevention of disease progression. Due to the neuroprotective property of the Nigella sativa bioactive compound thymoquinone (TQ), this study was undertaken to evaluate whether TQ could improve behavioral and cellular abnormalities and markers of oxidative stress in an experimental model of early PD in rat. Unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats were daily pretreated p.o. with TQ at doses of 5 and/or 10 mg/Kg three times at an interval of 24 h. After 1 week, apomorphine caused contralateral rotations, a reduction in the number of neurons on the left side of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) was observed, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite level in midbrain homogenate increased and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced in the 6-OHDA lesion group. TQ pretreatment significantly improved turning behavior, prevented loss of SNC neurons, and lowered level of MDA. These results suggest that TQ could afford neuroprotection against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity that is partly due to the attenuation of lipid peroxidation and this may provide benefits, along with other therapies, in neurodegenerative disorders including PD. PMID:24734075

  3. C5a receptor (CD88) inhibition improves hypothermia-induced neuroprotection in an in vitro ischemic model.

    PubMed

    Thundyil, John; Pavlovski, Dale; Hsieh, Yu-Hsuan; Gelderblom, Mathias; Magnus, Tim; Fairlie, David P; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2012-03-01

    The concept of 'salvageble penumbra' has prompted both scientists and physicians to explore various neuroprotective approaches that could be beneficial during stroke therapy. Unfortunately, most of them have proved ineffective in targeting multiple cellular death cascades incited within the ischemic penumbra. Hypothermia has been shown to be capable of addressing this problem to some extent. Although many studies have shown that hypothermia targets several cellular processes, its effects on innate immune receptor-mediated apoptotic death still remain unclear. Moreover, whether inhibiting the signaling of innate immune receptors like complement anaphylatoxin C5a receptor (CD88) plays a role in this hypothermic neuroprotection still need to be deciphered. Using various types of ischemic insults in different neuronal cells, we confirm that hypothermia does indeed attenuate apoptotic neuronal cell death in vitro and this effect can be further enhanced by pharmacologically blocking or knocking out CD88. Thus, our study raises a promising therapeutic possibility of adding CD88 antagonists along with hypothermia to improve stroke outcomes.

  4. Histological studies of neuroprotective effects of Curcuma longa Linn. on neuronal loss induced by dexamethasone treatment in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Issuriya, Acharaporn; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn

    2014-10-01

    Long term exposure to dexamethasone (Dx) is associated with brain damage especially in the hippocampus via the oxidative stress pathway. Previously, an ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa Linn. (CL) containing the curcumin constituent has been reported to produce antioxidant effects. However, its neuroprotective property on brain histology has remained unexplored. This study has examined the effects of a CL extract on the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive (GFAP-ir) astrocytes in the hippocampus of Dx treated male rats. It showed that 21 days of Dx treatment (0.5mg/kg, i.p. once daily) significantly reduced the densities of cresyl violet positive neurons in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus, but not in the CA2 area. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) was found to significantly restore neuronal densities in the CA1 and dentate gyrus. In addition, Dx treatment also significantly decreased the densities of the GFAP-ir astrocytes in the sub-areas CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus. However, CL pretreatment (100mg/kg, p.o.) failed to protect the loss of astrocytes in these sub-areas. These findings confirm the neuroprotective effects of the CL extract and indicate that the cause of astrocyte loss might be partially reduced by a non-oxidative mechanism. Moreover, the detection of neuronal and glial densities was suitable method to study brain damage and the effects of treatment.

  5. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed...

  6. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed...

  7. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed...

  8. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed...

  9. 40 CFR 80.52 - Vehicle preconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vehicle preconditioning. 80.52 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.52 Vehicle preconditioning. (a) Initial vehicle preconditioning and preconditioning between tests with different fuels shall be performed...

  10. Development of a neuroprotective peptide that preserves survival pathways by preventing Kidins220/ARMS calpain processing induced by excitotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gamir-Morralla, A; López-Menéndez, C; Ayuso-Dolado, S; Tejeda, G S; Montaner, J; Rosell, A; Iglesias, T; Díaz-Guerra, M

    2015-01-01

    Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), has a central role in the coordination of receptor crosstalk and the integration of signaling pathways essential for neuronal differentiation, survival and function. This protein is a shared downstream effector for neurotrophin- and ephrin-receptors signaling that also interacts with the N-methyl-d-aspartate type of glutamate receptors (NMDARs). Failures in neurotrophic support and glutamate signaling are involved in pathologies related to excitotoxicity and/or neurodegeneration, where different components of these dynamic protein complexes result altered by a combination of mechanisms. In the case of Kidins220/ARMS, overactivation of NMDARs in excitotoxicity and cerebral ischemia triggers its downregulation, which contributes to neuronal death. This key role in neuronal life/death decisions encouraged us to investigate Kidins220/ARMS as a novel therapeutic target for neuroprotection. As the main mechanism of Kidins220/ARMS downregulation in excitotoxicity is proteolysis by calpain, we decided to develop cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) that could result in neuroprotection by interference of this processing. To this aim, we first analyzed in detail Kidins220/ARMS cleavage produced in vitro and in vivo, identifying a major calpain processing site in its C-terminal region (between amino acids 1669 and 1670) within a sequence motif highly conserved in vertebrates. Then, we designed a 25-amino acids CPP (Tat-K) containing a short Kidins220/ARMS sequence enclosing the identified calpain site (amino acids 1668–1681) fused to the HIV-1 Tat protein basic domain, able to confer membrane permeability to attached cargoes. Transduction of cortical neurons with Tat-K reduced Kidins220/ARMS calpain processing in a dose- and time-dependent manner upon excitotoxic damage and allowed preservation of the activity of pERK1/2 and pCREB, signaling molecules central to

  11. NEUROPROTECTIVE PROPERTIES OF MARROW-ISOLATED ADULT MULTILINEAGE INDUCIBLE CELLS IN RAT HIPPOCAMPUS FOLLOWING GLOBAL CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA ARE ENHANCED WHEN COMPLEXED TO BIOMIMETIC MICROCARRIERS

    PubMed Central

    Garbayo, E.; Raval, A.P.; Curtis, K.M.; Della-Morte, D.; Gomez, L.A.; D'Ippolito, G.; Reiner, T.; Perez-Stable, C.; Howard, G.A.; Perez-Pinzon, M.A.; Montero-Menei, C.N.; Schiller, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapies for global cerebral ischemia represent promising approaches for neuronal damage prevention and tissue repair promotion. We examined the potential of Marrow-Isolated Adult Multilineage Inducible (MIAMI) cells, a homogeneous subpopulation of immature human mesenchymal stromal cell, injected into the hippocampus to prevent neuronal damage induced by global ischemia using rat organotypic hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and rats subjected to asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA). We next examined the value of combining fibronectin-coated biomimetic microcarriers (FN-BMMs) with EGF/bFGF pre-treated MIAMI compared to EGF/bFGF pre-treated MIAMI cells alone, for their in vitro and in vivo neuroprotective capacity. Naïve and EGF/bFGF pre-treated MIAMI cells significantly protected the Cornu Ammonis layer 1 (CA1) against ischemic death in hippocampal slices and increased CA1 survival in rats. MIAMI cells therapeutic value was significantly increased when delivering the cells complexed with FN-BMMs, probably by increasing stem cell survival and paracrine secretion of pro-survival and/or anti-inflammatory molecules as concluded from survival, differentiation and gene expression analysis. Four days after OGD and ACA, few transplanted cells administered alone survived in the brain whereas stem cell survival improved when injected complexed with FN-BMMs. Interestingly, a large fraction of the transplanted cells administered alone or in complexes expressed βIII-Tubulin suggesting that partial neuronal transdifferentiation may be a contributing factor to the neuroprotective mechanism of MIAMI cells. PMID:21496021

  12. Neuroprotective effects of phenylethanoid glycosides from Cistanches salsa against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced dopaminergic toxicity in C57 mice.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xingchao; Song, Liangwen; Pu, Xiaoping; Tu, Pengfei

    2004-06-01

    The neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) has been employed to create a Parkinson's disease-like model in both rodents and primates based primarily on its ability to create a striatal dopamine deficit due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra compacta. The present study was carried out to determine the possible effects of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) from Cistanches salsa (C. A. MEY, G. BECK) on attenuating the serious behavioral disorder and increasing dopamine (DA) levels in the striata of MPTP-lesioned C57 mice. MPTP (30 mg/kg i.p. for 4 d) induced serious behavioral disorders and significantly reduced striatal DA levels in C57 mice. In spontaneous motor activity and rotarod tests, obvious behavioral differences were seen between control and model groups. PhGs (10, 50 mg/kg) significantly increased the spontaneous movement number and latent period of mice on the rotating rod (p<0.01). Injections of MPTP 30 mg/kg for 4 d caused a significant reduction in DA, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid, and homovanillic acid in striata analyzed by HPLC-electrochemistry (p<0.01). The neurotoxic effects of MPTP were attenuated by pretreatment with PhGs (10, 50 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent fashion. The apparent neuroprotective effects of PhGs on nigral dopaminergic neurons were also confirmed by the results of immunohistochemical staining. The present in vivo data clearly demonstrate that PhGs can protect dopaminergic neurons against dopamine neurotoxicity induced by MPTP, as suggested by an earlier in vitro study. The neuroprotective effects of PhGs were the first reported for a natural product.

  13. Neuroprotective effects of various doses of topiramate against methylphenidate-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in isolated rat amygdala: the possible role of CREB/BDNF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Falak, Reza; Heidari, Mansour; Sharzad, Mahshid; Kalantari, Elham

    2016-12-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse damages brain cells. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported previously, but its exact mechanism of action still remains unclear. This study investigated the in vivo role of various doses of TPM in the protection of rat amygdala cells against methylphenidate-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Seventy adult male rats were divided into seven groups. Groups 1 and 2 received normal saline (0.7 ml/rat) and MPH (10 mg/kg), respectively, for 21 days. Groups 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 were concurrently treated with MPH (10 mg/kg) and TPM (10, 30, 50, 70, and 100 mg/kg), respectively, for 21 days. elevated plus maze (EPM) was used to assess motor activity disturbances. In addition, oxidative, antioxidantand inflammatory factors and CREB, Ak1, CAMK4, MAPK3, PKA, BDNF, and c FOS gene levels were measured by RT-PCR, and also, CREB and BDNF protein levels were measured by WB in isolated amygdalae. MPH significantly disturbed motor activity and TPM (70 and 100 mg/kg) neutralized its effects. MPH significantly increased lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial GSSG levels and IL-1β and TNF-α level and CAMK4 gene expression in isolated amygdala cells. In contrast, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities and CREB, BDNF Ak1, MAPK3, PKA, BDNF, and c FOS expression significantly decreased. The various doses of TPM attenuated these effects of MPH. It seems that TPM can be used as a neuroprotective agent and is a good candidate against MPH-induced neurodegeneration.

  14. Neuroprotective potential of atorvastatin and simvastatin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced Parkinson-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Sharma, Neha; Gupta, Amit; Kalonia, Harikesh; Mishra, Jitendriya

    2012-08-30

    Neuro-inflammation and oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies demonstrated that neuro-inflammation and associated infiltration of inflammatory cells into central nervous system are inhibited by 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors. Based on these experimental evidences, the present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (atorvastatin and simvastatin) against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced unilateral lesion model of PD. In the present study, the animals were divided into nine groups (n=15 per group). Group I: Naive (without treatment); Group II: Sham (surgery performed, vehicle administered); Group III: Atorvastatin (20mg/kg); Group IV: Simvastatin (30 mg/kg); Group V: Control [Intrastriatal 6-OHDA (20 μg; single unilateral injection)]; Groups VI and VII: 6-OHDA (20 μg)+atorvastatin (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) respectively; Groups VIII and IX: 6-OHDA (20 μg)+simvastatin (15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) respectively. Intrastriatal administration of 6-OHDA (20 μg; 4 μl of 5 μg/μl) significantly caused impairment in body weight, locomotor activity, rota-rod performance, oxidative defense and mitochondrial enzyme complex activity, and increase in the inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-6) as compared to naive animals. Atorvastatin (20mg/kg) and simvastatin (30 mg/kg) drug treatment significantly improved these behavioral and biochemical alterations restored mitochondrial enzyme complex activities and attenuated neuroinflammatory markers in 6-OHDA (20 μg) treated animals as compared to control group. The findings of the present study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of statins in experimental model of 6-OHDA induced Parkinson like symptoms.

  15. Hesperidin potentiates the neuroprotective effects of diazepam and gabapentin against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice: Possible behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Anil; Lalitha, Sree; Mishra, Jitendriya

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder with complex pathophysiology. Several evidences suggest a role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in pathophysiology of epilepsy. Hesperidin (Hesp) acts as a powerful anti-oxidant agent against superoxide, singlet oxygen, and hydroxyl radicals. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate the possible neuroprotective mechanism of Hesp against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in mice. Materials and Methods: Sixty males Laca mice (20-25 g) were randomly divided into 10 treatment groups (n = 6). Seven days pretreatment of Hesp (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was carried out before PTZ (80 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]) challenge, whereas diazepam (DZP) (0.2, 0.5 mg/kg) and gabapentin (Gbp) (10, 20 mg/kg) were administered i.p. 30 min before PTZ administration, that is, on 7th day. Following PTZ challenge, severity of convulsions (onset of jerks, myoclonic seizures, extensor phase and death), brain anti-oxidant enzyme levels and mitochondrial complex enzymes activities were estimated. Results: Single i.p. PTZ (80 mg/kg) challenge demonstrated severe convulsions, oxidative damage (raised lipid peroxidation [LPO], nitrite concentration as well as depleted reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels), and depletion of mitochondrial enzyme Complex (I, II, IV) activities. Hesp (200 mg/kg), DZP (0.5 mg/kg) and Gbp (20 mg/kg) pretreatments attenuated PTZ induced behavioral, biochemical and mitochondrial alterations. However, administration of Hesp (100 mg/kg) in combination with DZP (0.2 mg/kg) or Gbp (10 mg/kg) potentiated their neuroprotective effect, which was significant as compared to their effects in PTZ treated animals. Conclusion: Hesp possesses potent anticonvulsant activity which might be mediated through modulation of gamma-amino butyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor action. PMID:24987179

  16. Possible involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of rutin against immobilization stress induced anxiety like behaviour, oxidative damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Machawal, Lalit; Kumar, Anil

    2014-02-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used to manage stress and related consequences. However, the exact pathological mechanism and cellular cascades involved in the action of these supplements are not properly understood so far. Therefore, the present study has been designed to explore the neuroprotective mechanism of rutin against immobilization stress-induced anxiety-like behavioural and oxidative damage in mice. Laboratory Animal Centre A-strain (laca) mice were used in the present study. Rutin (20, 40, and 80 mg/kg), l-arginine (100 mg/kg), l-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (5 mg/kg) and vitamin-E (50 mg/kg) were administered for 5 days before 6h immobilization stress on 6th day. Various behavioural parameters (mirror chamber test, locomotor activity) followed by biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, reduced glutathione and catalase) in brain and then serum corticosterone level were assessed. 6 h immobilization stress produced anxiety-like behavioural in mirror chamber test, raised corticosterone level and oxidative stress (as evidenced by rise in lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity) significantly as compared to naive group. 5 days pre-treatment with rutin (40 and 80 mg/kg) causes a significant attenuation of locomotor activity, corticosterone level, oxidative stress as compared to control. Further, l-arginine (100 mg/kg) pre-treatment significantly reversed the protective effect of rutin (40 mg/kg) in 6 h immobilized animals. However, l-NAME (5 mg/kg) pre-treatment with rutin (40 mg/kg) potentiated their protective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se. The present study suggests the involvement of nitric oxide mechanism in the neuroprotective effect of rutin against immobilization stress-induced anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative damage in mice.

  17. Erythropoietin and Neonatal Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Sandra E.; Pet, Gillian C.

    2015-01-01

    Certain groups of neonates are at high risk of developing long-term neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) and might be considered candidates for neuroprotective interventions. This chapter will explore some of these high-risk groups, relevant mechanisms of brain injury, and specific mechanisms of cellular injury and death. The potential of erythropoietin (Epo) to act as a neuroprotective agent for neonatal brain injury will be discussed. Clinical trials of Epo neuroprotection in preterm and term infants are updated. PMID:26250911

  18. Neuroprotective effects of adenosine isolated from Cordyceps cicadae against oxidative and ER stress damages induced by glutamate in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Feng, Yan; Olatunji, Oyenike O; Tang, Jian; Ouyang, Zhen; Su, Zhaoliang; Wang, Dujun; Yu, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    Glutamate has been proven to induce oxidative stress through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased calcium overload which results in neuronal injury, development of neurodegenerative diseases and death. Adenosine is one of the bioactive nucleosides found in Cordyceps cicadae and it has displayed several pharmacological activities including neuroprotection. In this study, the protective effects of adenosine from C. cicadae against glutamate-induce oxidative stress in PC12 cells were evaluated. The exposure of PC12 cells to glutamate (5mM) induced the formation of ROS, increased Ca(2+) influx, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and up regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bax. However, pretreatment with adenosine markedly increased cell viability, decreased the elevated levels of ROS and Ca(2+) induced by glutamate. Furthermore adenosine increased the activities of GSH-Px and SOD, as well as retained mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and reduced the expression of ERK, p38, and JNK. Overall, our results suggest that adenosine may be a promising potential therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Steps to translate preconditioning from basic research to the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Bahjat, Frances R; Gesuete, Raffaella; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases often focus on the mitigation of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Many treatments or “preconditioners” are known to provide substantial protection against the I/R injury when administered prior to the event. Brief periods of ischemia itself have been validated as a means to achieve neuroprotection in many experimental disease settings, in multiple organ systems, and in multiple species suggesting a common pathway leading to tolerance. In addition, pharmacological agents that act as potent preconditioners have been described. Experimental induction of neuroprotection using these various preconditioning paradigms has provided a unique window into the brain’s endogenous protective mechanisms. Moreover, preconditioning agents themselves hold significant promise as clinical-stage therapies for prevention of I/R injury. The aim of this article is to explore several key steps involved in the preclinical validation of preconditioning agents prior to the conduct of clinical studies in humans. Drug development is difficult, expensive and relies on multi-factorial analysis of data from diverse disciplines. Importantly, there is no single path for the preclinical development of a novel therapeutic and no proven strategy to ensure success in clinical translation. Rather, the conduct of a diverse array of robust preclinical studies reduces the risk of clinical failure by varying degrees depending upon the relevance of preclinical models and drug pharmacology to humans. A strong sense of urgency and high tolerance of failure are often required to achieve success in the development of novel treatment paradigms for complex human conditions. PMID:23504609

  20. L-PGDS Mediates Vagus Nerve Stimulation-Induced Neuroprotection in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke by Suppressing the Apoptotic Response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Ma, Jingxi; Jin, Xinhao; Jia, Gongwei; Jiang, Ying; Li, Changqing

    2017-02-01

    The role of lipocalin prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-PGDS) in brain ischemia has not been fully clarified to date. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the mechanisms involved need further exploration. This study investigated the role of L-PGDS in cerebral I/R and whether this process was involved in the mechanism of VNS-mediated neuroprotection. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with a lentiviral vector (LV) through intracerebroventricular injection, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and VNS treatment. The expression of L-PGDS in the peri-infarct cortex was examined. The localization of L-PGDS was determined using double immunofluorescence staining. Neurologic scores, infarct volume and neuronal apoptosis were evaluated at 24 h after reperfusion. The expression of apoptosis-related molecules was measured by western blot analysis. The expression of L-PGDS in the peri-infarct cortex increased at 12 h, reached a peak at 24 h after reperfusion, and lasted up to 3 days. VNS treatment further enhanced the expression of L-PGDS following ischemic stroke. L-PGDS was mainly expressed in neurons in the peri-infarct cortex. I/R rats treated with VNS showed better neurological deficit scores, reduced infarct volume, and decreased neuronal apoptosis as indicated by the decreased levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 as well as increased levels of Bcl-2. Strikingly, the beneficial effects of VNS were weakened after L-PGDS down-regulation. In general, our results suggest that L-PGDS is a potential mediator of VNS-induced neuroprotection against I/R injury.

  1. The neuroprotection of cannabidiol against MPP⁺-induced toxicity in PC12 cells involves trkA receptors, upregulation of axonal and synaptic proteins, neuritogenesis, and might be relevant to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Santos, Neife Aparecida Guinaim; Martins, Nádia Maria; Sisti, Flávia Malvestio; Fernandes, Laís Silva; Ferreira, Rafaela Scalco; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Santos, Antônio Cardozo

    2015-12-25

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with potential to treat neurodegenerative diseases. Its neuroprotection has been mainly associated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant events; however, other mechanisms might be involved. We investigated the involvement of neuritogenesis, NGF receptors (trkA), NGF, and neuronal proteins in the mechanism of neuroprotection of CBD against MPP(+) toxicity in PC12 cells. CBD increased cell viability, differentiation, and the expression of axonal (GAP-43) and synaptic (synaptophysin and synapsin I) proteins. Its neuritogenic effect was not dependent or additive to NGF, but it was inhibited by K252a (trkA inhibitor). CBD did not increase the expression of NGF, but protected against its decrease induced by MPP(+), probably by an indirect mechanism. We also evaluated the neuritogenesis in SH-SY5Y cells, which do not express trkA receptors. CBD did not induce neuritogenesis in this cellular model, which supports the involvement of trkA receptors. This is the first study to report the involvement of neuronal proteins and trkA in the neuroprotection of CBD. Our findings suggest that CBD has a neurorestorative potential independent of NGF that might contribute to its neuroprotection against MPP(+), a neurotoxin relevant to Parkinson's disease.

  2. Mitochondria Related Pathway Is Essential for Polysaccharides Purified from Sparassis crispa Mediated Neuro-Protection against Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Differentiated PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shuang; Wang, Di; Zhang, Junrong; Du, Mengyan; Cheng, Yingkun; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Di; Wu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to explore the neuro-protective effects of purified Sparassis crispa polysaccharides against l-glutamic acid (l-Glu)-induced differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cell damages and its underlying mechanisms. The Sparassis crispa water extract was purified by a DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column and a Sepharose G-100 column. A fraction with a molecular weight of 75 kDa and a diameter of 88.9 nm, entitled SCWEA, was obtained. SCWEA was identified with a triple helix with (1→3)-linked Rha in the backbone, and (1→2) linkages and (1→6) linkages in the side bone. Our results indicated that the pre-treatment of DPC12 cells with SCWEA prior to l-Glu exposure effectively reversed the reduction on cell viability (by 3-(4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay) and reduced l-Glu-induced apoptosis (by Hoechst staining). SCWEA decreased the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, blocked Ca2+ influx and prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential in DPC12 cells. Furthermore, SCWEA normalized expression of anti-apoptotic proteins in l-Glu-explored DPC12 cells. These results suggested that SCWEA protects against l-Glu-induced neuronal apoptosis in DPC12 cells and may be a promising candidate for treatment against neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26821016

  3. N-Acetylcysteine in Combination with IGF-1 Enhances Neuroprotection against Proteasome Dysfunction-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pinki; Kuang, Anxiu; Akhtar, Feroz; Scofield, Virginia L.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) dysfunction has been implicated in the development of many neuronal disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies focused on individual neuroprotective agents and their respective abilities to prevent neurotoxicity following a variety of toxic insults. However, the effects of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on proteasome impairment-induced apoptosis have not been well characterized in human neuronal cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether cotreatment of NAC and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) efficiently protected against proteasome inhibitor-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results demonstrate that the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, initiates poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, caspase 3 activation, and nuclear condensation and fragmentation. In addition, MG132 treatment leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy-mediated cell death. All of these events can be attenuated without obvious reduction of MG132 induced protein ubiquitination by first treating the cells with NAC and IGF-1 separately or simultaneously prior to exposure to MG132. Moreover, our data demonstrated that the combination of the two proved to be significantly more effective for neuronal protection. Therefore, we conclude that the simultaneous use of growth/neurotrophic factors and a free radical scavenger may increase overall protection against UPS dysfunction-mediated cytotoxicity and neurodegeneration. PMID:27774335

  4. Hypoxic-Preconditioned Bone Marrow Stem Cell Medium Significantly Improves Outcome After Retinal Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Steven; Dreixler, John C.; Mathew, Biji; Balyasnikova, Irina; Mann, Jacob R.; Boddapati, Venkat; Xue, Lai; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We have previously demonstrated the protective effect of bone marrow stem cell (BMSC)-conditioned medium in retinal ischemic injury. We hypothesized here that hypoxic preconditioning of stem cells significantly enhances the neuroprotective effect of the conditioned medium and thereby augments the protective effect in ischemic retina. Methods Rats were subjected to retinal ischemia by increasing intraocular pressure to 130 to 135 mm Hg for 55 minutes. Hypoxic-preconditioned, hypoxic unconditioned, or normoxic medium was injected into the vitreous 24 hours after ischemia ended. Recovery was assessed 7 days after injections by comparing electroretinography measurements, histologic examination, and apoptosis (TUNEL, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay). To compare proteins secreted into the medium in the groups and the effect of hypoxic exposure, we used rat cytokine arrays. Results Eyes injected with hypoxic BMSC–conditioned medium 24 hours after ischemia demonstrated significantly enhanced return of retinal function, decreased retinal ganglion cell layer loss, and attenuated apoptosis compared to those administered normoxic or hypoxic unconditioned medium. Hypoxic-preconditioned medium had 21 significantly increased protein levels compared to normoxic medium. Conclusions The medium from hypoxic-preconditioned BMSCs robustly restored retinal function and prevented cell loss after ischemia when injected 24 hours after ischemia. The protective effect was even more pronounced than in our previous studies of normoxic conditioned medium. Prosurvival signals triggered by the secretome may play a role in this neuroprotective effect. PMID:27367588

  5. Resveratrol exerts pharmacological preconditioning by activating PGC-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai; Guan, Hua-Shi

    2008-11-01

    Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenol phytoalexin abundantly found in grape skins and in wines, is currently the focus of intense research as a pharmacological preconditioning agent in kidney, heart, and brain from ischemic injury. However, the exact molecular mechanism of RSV preconditioning remains obscure. The data from current studies indicate that pharmacological preconditioning with RSV were attributed to its role as intracellular antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agent, its ability to induce nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression, its ability to induce angiogenesis, and its ability to increases sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) activity. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that owns mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidation, growth factor signaling regulation, and angiogenesis activities. And, almost all the signaling pathways activated by RVS involve in PGC-1alpha activity. Moreover, it has been proofed that RVS could mediate an increase PGC-1alpha activity. These significant conditions support the hypothesis that RSV exerts pharmacological preconditioning by activating PGC-1alpha. Attempts to confirm this hypothesis will provide new directions in the study of pharmaceutical preconditioning and the development of new treatment approaches for reducing the extent of ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  6. Diet-induced obesity has neuroprotective effects in murine gastric enteric nervous system: involvement of leptin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Charlotte; Reichardt, François; Marchix, Justine; Bado, André; Schemann, Michael; des Varannes, Stanislas Bruley; Neunlist, Michel; Moriez, Raphaël

    2012-02-01

    Nutritional factors can induce profound neuroplastic changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS), responsible for changes in gastrointestinal (GI) motility. However, long-term effects of a nutritional imbalance leading to obesity, such as Western diet (WD), upon ENS phenotype and control of GI motility remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of WD-induced obesity (DIO) on ENS phenotype and function as well as factors involved in functional plasticity. Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or WD for 12 weeks. GI motility was assessed in vivo and ex vivo. Myenteric neurons and glia were analysed with immunohistochemical methods using antibodies against Hu, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), Sox-10 and with calcium imaging techniques. Leptin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) were studied using immunohistochemical, biochemical or PCR methods in mice and primary culture of ENS. DIO prevented the age-associated decrease in antral nitrergic neurons observed in ND mice. Nerve stimulation evoked a stronger neuronal Ca(2+) response in WD compared to ND mice. DIO induced an NO-dependent increase in gastric emptying and neuromuscular transmission in the antrum without any change in small intestinal transit. During WD but not ND, a time-dependent increase in leptin and GDNF occurred in the antrum. Finally, we showed that leptin increased GDNF production in the ENS and induced neuroprotective effects mediated in part by GDNF. These results demonstrate that DIO induces neuroplastic changes in the antrum leading to an NO-dependent acceleration of gastric emptying. In addition, DIO induced neuroplasticity in the ENS is likely to involve leptin and GDNF.

  7. Neuroprotection by Methylene Blue in Cerebral Global Ischemic Injury Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption and Brain Pathology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Wiklund, Lars; Sharma, Aruna; Sharma, Hari Shanker

    2016-01-01

    Transient global ischemic cerebral injury is a consequence of cardiac arrest and accounts for approximately 450,000 annual deaths with a mortality of approximately 90%. Serious morbidity follows for many of the survivors and up to 16% of patients achieving restoration of spontaneous circulation develop brain death. Other survivors are left with persistent cognitive impairment such as memory and sensimotor deficits, reducing quality of life and resulting in heavy costs on society. Many studies over the years have been devoted to improving outcome after cardiac arrest and have, to a certain degree succeeded, especially locally in areas where improvement of ambulance organizations have been effective. In spite of this serious problems remain and the chances of cerebral survival need to increase if over-all results, i.e. survival as well as cognitive function, are to improve. Methylene blue, a textile dye synthesized in the late 19th century has also been used in medicine for different purposes. One of its effects is to increase systemic blood pressure, but other effects have been documented, among which are its neuroprotective effects well-noted during the last few years. In this review we have appraised these findings in relation to global ischemic injury.

  8. The neuroprotective effect of two statins: simvastatin and pravastatin on a streptozotocin-induced model of Alzheimer's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Tramontina, Ana Carolina; Wartchow, Krista Minéia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Biasibetti, Regina; Quincozes-Santos, André; Bobermin, Larissa; Tramontina, Francine; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Astrocytes play a fundamental role in glutamate metabolism by regulating the extracellular levels of glutamate and intracellular levels of glutamine. They also participate in antioxidant defenses, due to the synthesis of glutathione, coupled to glutamate metabolism. Although the cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains elusive, some changes in neurochemical parameters, such as glutamate uptake, glutamine synthetase activity and glutathione have been investigated in this disease. A possible neuroprotective effect of two statins, simvastatin and pravastatin (administered p.o.), was evaluated using a model of dementia, based on the intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of streptozotocin (STZ), and astrocyte parameters were determined. We confirmed a cognitive deficit in rats submitted to ICV-STZ, and a prevention of this deficit by statin administration. Moreover, both statins were able to prevent the decrease in glutathione content and glutamine synthetase activity in this model of AD. Interestingly, simvastatin increased per se glutamate uptake activity, while both statins increased glutamine synthetase activity per se. These results support the idea that these drugs could be effective for the prevention of alterations observed in the STZ dementia model and may contribute to reduce the cognitive impairment and brain damage observed in AD patients.

  9. Topiramate Confers Neuroprotection Against Methylphenidate-Induced Neurodegeneration in Dentate Gyrus and CA1 Regions of Hippocampus via CREB/BDNF Pathway in Rats.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Heidari, Mansour; Madjd, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) abuse can cause serious neurological damages. The neuroprotective effects of topiramate (TPM) have been reported already, but its mechanism of action still remains unclear. The current study evaluates in vivo role of CREB/BDNF in TPM protection of the rat hippocampal cells from methylphenidate-induced apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. A total of 60 adult male rats were divided into six groups. Groups 1 and 2 received normal saline (0.7 ml/rat) and MPH (10 mg/kg) respectively for 14 days. Groups 3 and 4 were concurrently treated with MPH (10 mg/kg) and TPM 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively for 14 days. Groups 5 and 6 were treated with 50 and 100 mg/kg TPM only respectively. After drug administration, open field test (OFT) was used to investigate motor activity. The hippocampus was then isolated and the apoptotic, antiapoptotic, oxidative, antioxidant, and inflammatory factors were measured. Expression of the total and phosphorylated CREB and BDNF in gene and protein levels, and gene expression of Ak1, CaMK4, MAPK3, PKA, and c-Fos levels were also measured. MPH significantly decreased motor activity in OFT. TPM (50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased MPH-induced motor activity disturbance. Additionally, MPH significantly increased Bax protein level, CaMK4 gene expression, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, mitochondrial GSH, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels in isolated hippocampal cells. Also CREB, in total and phosphorylated forms, BDNF and Bcl-2 protein levels, Ak1, MAPK3, PKA and c-Fos gene expression, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities decreased significantly by MPH. TPM (50 and 100 mg/kg), both in the presence and absence of MPH, attenuated the effects of MPH. Immunohistochemistry data showed that TPM increased localization of the total and phosphorylated forms of CREB in dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 areas of the hippocampus. It seems that TPM can be used as a neuroprotective agent against

  10. Hypoxic preconditioning enhances neural stem cell transplantation therapy after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Wakai, Takuma; Narasimhan, Purnima; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Wang, Eric; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Chan, Pak H

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that intraparenchymal transplantation of neural stem cells ameliorates neurological deficits in animals with intracerebral hemorrhage. However, hemoglobin in the host brain environment causes massive grafted cell death and reduces the effectiveness of this approach. Several studies have shown that preconditioning induced by sublethal hypoxia can markedly improve the tolerance of treated subjects to more severe insults. Therefore, we investigated whether hypoxic preconditioning enhances neural stem cell resilience to the hemorrhagic stroke environment and improves therapeutic effects in mice. To assess whether hypoxic preconditioning enhances neural stem cell survival when exposed to hemoglobin, neural stem cells were exposed to 5% hypoxia for 24 hours before exposure to hemoglobin. To study the effectiveness of hypoxic preconditioning on grafted-neural stem cell recovery, neural stem cells subjected to hypoxic preconditioning were grafted into the parenchyma 3 days after intracerebral hemorrhage. Hypoxic preconditioning significantly enhanced viability of the neural stem cells exposed to hemoglobin and increased grafted-cell survival in the intracerebral hemorrhage brain. Hypoxic preconditioning also increased neural stem cell secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, transplanted neural stem cells with hypoxic preconditioning exhibited enhanced tissue-protective capability that accelerated behavioral recovery. Our results suggest that hypoxic preconditioning in neural stem cells improves efficacy of stem cell therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage.

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning ameliorates blood-brain barrier damage induced by hypoxia through modulation of tight junction proteins in an in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lei; Guo, Xiuming; Zou, Can; Zhou, Huchuan; Tian, Hong; Zhang, Yubo; Song, Chuan; Liu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Aim To explore the effects of hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning (HBOP) on the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and expression of tight junction proteins under hypoxic conditions in vitro. Methods A BBB in vitro model was constructed using the hCMEC/D3 cell line and used when its trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER) reached 80-120 Ω · cm2 (tested by Millicell-Electrical Resistance System). The cells were randomly divided into the control group cultured under normal conditions, the group cultured under hypoxic conditions (2%O2) for 24 h (hypoxia group), and the group first subjected to HBOP for 2 h and then to hypoxia (HBOP group). Occludin and ZO-1 expression were analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Results Normal hCMEC/D3 was spindle-shaped and tightly integrated. TEER was significantly reduced in the hypoxia (P = 0.001) and HBOP group (P = 0.014) compared to control group, with a greater decrease in the hypoxia group. Occludin membranous expression was significantly decreased in the hypoxia group (P = 0.001) compared to the control group, but there was no change in the HBOP group. ZO-1 membranous expression was significantly decreased (P = 0.002) and cytoplasmic expression was significantly increased (P = 0.001) in the hypoxia group compared to the control group, although overall expression levels did not change. In the HBOP group, there was no significant change in ZO-1 expression compared to the control group. Conclusion Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning protected the integrity of BBB in an in vitro model through modulation of occludin and ZO-1 expression under hypoxic conditions. PMID:26935614

  12. Inhibition of the prostaglandin EP2 receptor is neuroprotective and accelerates functional recovery in a rat model of organophosphorus induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Asheebo; Ganesh, Thota; Lelutiu, Nadia; Gueorguieva, Paoula; Dingledine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of organophosphorus compounds (OP) can induce status epilepticus (SE) in humans and rodents via acute cholinergic toxicity, leading to neurodegeneration and brain inflammation. Currently there is no treatment to combat the neuropathologies associated with OP exposure. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of the EP2 receptor for PGE2 reduces neuronal injury in mice following pilocarpine-induced SE. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of an EP2 inhibitor (TG6-10-1) in a rat model of SE using diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). We tested the hypothesis that EP2 receptor inhibition initiated well after the onset of DFP-induced SE reduces the associated neuropathologies. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with pyridostigmine bromide (0.1 mg/kg, sc) and atropine methylbromide (20 mg/kg, sc) followed by DFP (9.5 mg/kg, ip) to induce SE. DFP administration resulted in prolonged upregulation of COX-2. The rats were administered TG6-10-1 or vehicle (ip) at various time points relative to DFP exposure. Treatment with TG6-10-1 or vehicle did not alter the observed behavioral seizures, however six doses of TG6-10-1 starting 80-150 min after the onset of DFP-induced SE significantly reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, blunted the inflammatory cytokine burst, reduced microglial activation and decreased weight loss in the days after status epilepticus. By contrast, astrogliosis was unaffected by EP2 inhibition 4 d after DFP. Transient treatments with the EP2 antagonist 1 h before DFP, or beginning 4 h after DFP, were ineffective. Delayed mortality, which was low (10%) after DFP, was unaffected by TG6-10-1. Thus, selective inhibition of the EP2 receptor within a time window that coincides with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by DFP is neuroprotective and accelerates functional recovery of rats. PMID:25656476

  13. Neuroprotective effects of docosahexaenoic acid on hippocampal cell death and learning and memory impairments in a valproic acid-induced rat autism model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingquan; Wang, Xuelai; Sun, Hongli; Cao, Yonggang; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Han; Wang, Yanming; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Fengyu; Wu, Lijie

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in rat offspring is capable of inducing experimental autism with neurobehavioral aberrations. This study investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on hippocampal cell death, learning and memory alteration in an experimental rat autism model. We found that DHA supplementation (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day, 21 days) rescued the VPA (600 mg/kg) induced DHA reduction in plasma and hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner, increased the levels of hippocampal p-CaMKII and p-CREB without affecting total protein level, and altered BDNF-AKT-Bcl-2 signaling pathway, as well as inhibited the activity of caspase-3. DHA also influenced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the VPA-treated offspring. Consistent with the previous results, we also observed that 300 mg/kg DHA supplementation markedly increased the cell survival, decreased the cell apoptosis, and increased mature neuronal cell in the hippocampus in VPA-treated offspring. Utilizing the Morris water maze test, we found that DHA prevented cognitive impairment in offspring of VPA-treated rats. The data suggested that DHA may play a neuroprotective role in hippocampal neuronal cell and ameliorates dysfunctions in learning and memory in this rat autism model. Thus, DHA could be used as treatment intervention for mitigating behavioral dysfunctions in autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

  14. Pharmacologic Preconditioning: Translating the Promise

    PubMed Central

    Gidday, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    A transient, ischemia-resistant phenotype known as “ischemic tolerance” can be established in brain in a rapid or delayed fashion by a preceding noninjurious “preconditioning” stimulus. Initial preclinical studies of this phenomenon relied primarily on brief periods of ischemia or hypoxia as preconditioning stimuli, but it was later realized that many other stressors, including pharmacologic ones, are also effective. This review highlights the surprisingly wide variety of drugs now known to promote ischemic tolerance, documented and to some extent mechanistically characterized in preclinical animal models of stroke. Although considerably more experimentation is needed to thoroughly validate the ability of any currently identified preconditioning agent to protect ischemic brain, the fact that some of these drugs are already clinically approved for other indications implies that the growing enthusiasm for translational success in the field of pharmacologic preconditioning may be well justified. PMID:21197121

  15. Neuroprotective effect of nitric oxide donor isosorbide-dinitrate against oxidative stress induced by ethidium bromide in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; Khadrawy, Yasser Ashry; Mohammed, Nadia A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of systemic administration of isosorbide-dinitrate (ISDN) on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in a toxic model of brain demyelination evoked by intracerebral injection (i.c.i) of ethidium bromide (10 µl of 0.1 %). Rats received saline (control) or ISDN at 5 or 10 mg/kg for 10 days prior to injection of ethidium bromide. Rats were euthanized one day later, and then the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde; MDA), nitric oxide (nitrite/nitrate), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, paraoxonase activity as well as monoamine levels (serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline) were assessed in the brain cortex in different treatment groups. The i.c.i of ethidium bromide resulted in increased oxidative stress in the cortex one day after its injection; (i) MDA increased by 36.9 %; (ii) GSH decreased by 20.8 %, while (iii) nitric oxide increased by 60.3 %; (iv) AChE and paraoxonase activities in cortex decreased by 35.9 % and 29.4 %, respectively; (v) serotonin was significantly increased. In ethidium bromide-treated rats, pretreatment with ISDN at 10 mg/kg decreased cortical MDA by 23.9 %. Reduced glutathione was increased by 25.1 % ISDN at 10 mg/kg, while nitric oxide showed a 32.8 and 41.7 % decrease after 5 and 10 mg/kg of ISDN, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity increased by 24.3 % by 10 mg/kg of ISDN. Paraoxonase activity showed further decrease by 72.2 and 83.8 % after treatment with 5 and 10 mg/kg of ISDN, respectively. The administration of ISDN decreased the level of serotonin and noradrenaline compared with the ethidium bromide only treated group. Overall, the present findings suggest neuroprotective effect of ISDN against oxidative stress in this model of chemical demyelination. PMID:27385954

  16. Neuroprotective effects of creatine administration against NMDA and malonate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Malcon, C; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Beal, M F

    2000-03-31

    We examined whether creatine administration could exert neuroprotective effects against excitotoxicity mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainic acid. Oral administration of 1% creatine significantly attenuated striatal excitotoxic lesions produced by NMDA, but had no effect on lesions produced by AMPA or kainic acid. Both creatine and nicotinamide can exert significant protective effects against malonate-induced striatal lesions. We, therefore, examined whether nicotinamide could exert additive neu